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Sample records for stroke-prone shrsp rats

  1. Decreased cerebral metabolism in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) with stroke and its possible improvement by Solcoseryl.

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    Yamasaki, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Senga, Y; Isogai, M; Shimizu, H; Yamori, Y

    1991-01-01

    Local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) was decreased in SHRSP with stroke compared with normotensive Wistar rats. The decrement of LCGU was less in Solcoseryl-treated SHRSP with stroke than that in saline-treated SHRSP with stroke and these brain areas where LCGU was less damaged, in Solcoseryl-treated SHRSP were consistent with the important functioning sites of emotion, motor movement and memory. The result suggests that Solcoseryl may be useful for metabolic improvement of the brain damage after stroke.

  2. The lack of age-pigments and the alterations in intracellular monovalent electrolytes in spontaneously hypertensive, stroke-prone (SHRsp) rats as revealed by electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis

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    Nagy, I.; Nagy, V.; Casoli, T.; Lustyik, G.

    1989-01-01

    Male, spontaneously hypertensive, stroke-prone (SHRsp) rats established by Okamoto et al. were studied. About 80% of the males of this strain have a particularly short life span (33-41 weeks); they display a considerable hypertension (above 220 mmHg) and a tendency for plurifocal brain strokes. Hypertension and strokes can be provoked in an accelerated and synchronized fashion by supplementing 1% NaCl into their drinking water. Symptoms of the appearance of brain strokes can be judged from characteristic signs of motor disorders, and can be established also by pathohistology. Since hypertension and arteriosclerosis are frequently involved in aging, the question we intended to answer was whether these animals may represent a model of the normal aging process or not. Two approaches are described: (1) Accumulation of lipofuscin granules in their brain, liver and myocardium was followed by transmission electron microscopy before and after the appearance of strokes. It has been established that these tissues do not show any typical accumulation of lipofuscin granules, although submicroscopic signs of an enhanced damage of cell organelles (especially of mitochondria in liver and brain cells, but not in myocardium) were encountered. (2) The intracellular monovalent composition in the brain and liver was measured by using bulk-specimen X-ray microanalysis. The intracellular Na-content (mEq/kg water) was significantly higher (170-200%) in both the brain and liver cells, whereas the K-content increased only moderately (118-130%). The results suggest that although the SHRsp rats do not represent a direct model for the normal aging process from the point of view of lipofuscin accumulation, the shifts of the monovalent electrolyte contents in the brain and liver cells observed already in the youngest ages, are similar to those observed in aged normal rats

  3. Effects of aniracetam on impaired sleep patterns in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Kimura, M; Okano, S; Inoué, S

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the pattern of sleep disturbances and the effects on sleep of aniracetam, a cognitive enhancer, in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Compared with normotensive control rats, SHRSP exhibited an impaired sleep pattern characterized by suppressed diurnal rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and excessive nocturnal non-REM sleep. At a dose of 30 mg/kg per day p.o., aniracetam increased REM sleep in the light period after administration for 5 consecutive days. Consequently, suppressed REM sleep in SHRSP was restored by repeated treatment with aniracetam. Aniracetam could be useful in improving REM sleep impairment associated with vascular dementia.

  4. Aniracetam enhances glutamatergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Togashi, Hiroko; Nakamura, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Machiko; Ueno, Ken-ichi; Ohashi, Satoshi; Saito, Hideya; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2002-03-08

    The effects of aniracetam, a cognition enhancer, on extracellular levels of glutamate (Glu), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) were examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral amygdala (AMG) in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) using in vivo microdialysis. Basal release of Glu, was lower in the AMG of SHRSP than in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats, whereas no difference in GABA and NOx was noted. Aniracetam (100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the area under the curve of Glu levels in the PFC, but not in the AMG, of SHRSP. Aniracetam failed to exert any remarkable effects on GABA or NOx levels in either brain region. Our findings suggest that aniracetam enhances cortical glutamatergic release, which may be the mechanism involved in the ameliorating effects of aniracetam on various neuronal dysfunctions.

  5. Interleukin-1β Accelerates the Onset of Stroke in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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    Tsuyoshi Chiba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High blood levels of inflammatory biomarkers and immune cells in stroke lesions have been recognized as results of stroke. However, recent studies have suggested that inflammation occurs prior to stroke onset. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of inflammation in stroke onset among stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP. At 4 weeks of age (before stroke onset, the plasma level of IL-1β was significantly higher in SHRSP (153.0±49.7 pg/ml than in Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY (7.7±3.4 pg/ml, P<0.001 versus SHRSP or spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR (28.0±9.1 pg/ml, P<0.001 versus SHRSP (n=6 per strain. Stimulated IL-1β signal was also observed in cerebrovascular endothelial cells of SHRSP. Gene expressions of IL-1β, IL-1 receptors, caspase-1, and downstream genes (MCP-1 and ICAM-1, which associated with immune cell recruitment, were significantly greater in SHRSP than in WKY or SHR, coincident with greater NFκB protein levels in SHRSP compared to WKY or SHR. In addition, continuous administration of IL-1β (2 μg/day using an osmotic pump slightly increased the incidence of stroke in SHR (P=0.046 and significantly accelerated the onset of stroke in SHRSP (P=0.006 compared to each control (n=10 per group. These results suggest that a stimulated IL-1β signal might be a cause of stroke onset when concomitant with severe hypertension.

  6. Influence of sources of dietary oils on the life span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Ratnayake, W M; Plouffe, L; Hollywood, R; L'Abbé, M R; Hidiroglou, N; Sarwar, G; Mueller, R

    2000-04-01

    In recent studies, the life span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats was altered by a variety of dietary fats. It was relatively shorter in rats fed canola oil as the sole source of fat. The present study was performed to find out whether the fatty acid profile and the high content of sulfur compounds in canola oil could modulate the life span of SHRSP rats. SHRSP rats (47 d old, n = 23/group) were matched by body weight and systolic blood pressure and fed semipurified diets containing 10% canola oil, high-palmitic canola oil, low-sulfur canola oil, soybean oil, high-oleic safflower oil, a fat blend that mimicked the fatty acid composition of canola oil, or a fat blend high in saturated fatty acids. A 1% sodium chloride solution was used as drinking water to induce hypertension. After consuming the diets for 37 d, five rats from each dietary group were killed for collection of blood and tissue samples for biochemical analysis. The 18 remaining animals from each group were used for determining their life span. The mean survival time of SHRSP rats fed canola oil (87.4+/-4.0 d) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those fed low-sulfur canola oil (89.7+/-8.5 d), suggesting that content of sulfur in canola oil has no effect on the life span of SHRSP rats. The SHRSP rats fed the noncanola oil-based diets lived longer (mean survival time difference was 6-13 d, P < 0.05) than those fed canola and low-sulfur canola oils. No marked differences in the survival times were observed among the noncanola oil-based groups. The fatty acid composition of the dietary oils and of red blood cells and liver of SHRSP rats killed after 37 d of treatment showed no relationship with the survival times. These results suggest that the fatty acid profile of vegetable oils plays no important role on the life span of SHRSP rat. However, phytosterols in the dietary oils and in liver and brain were inversely correlated with the mean survival times,indicating that the

  7. SELECTIVE CHLORIDE LOADING IS PRESSOR IN THE STROKE-PRONE SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RAT DESPITE HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE-INDUCED NATRIURESIS

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    Schmidlin, Olga; Tanaka, Masae; Sebastian, Anthony; Morris, R. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP), the pressor effect of selective dietary chloride loading depends on a positive external sodium balance. Methods In 43 male SHRSP fed a Japanese style diet containing a low normal amount of NaCl (0.4%) we compared the effects on telemetrically measured systolic blood pressure (SBP) of hydrochlorothiazide, 25 mg/kg per day, alone (“TZ”, n=11); hydrochlorothiazide combined with either KCl (“KCLTZ”, 2%K, n=10) or KHCO3 (“KBCTZ”, 2%K, n=11) and no hydrochlorothiazide (“CTL”, n=11) over a 10-week period starting at 10 weeks of age. Results With either TZ or KBCTZ, SBP did not increase above baseline values. However, KCLTZ induced a sustained increase in SBP of 17 mmHg (phydrochlorothiazide (CTL), 38 mmHg (phydrochlorothiazide, but did not differ between KCLTZ and KBCTZ. Changes in SBP occurring on the 2nd day after treatment assignment predicted final changes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that in the SHRSP, dietary KCl loading can induce a pressor effect despite concomitant hydrochlorothiazide-induced natriuresis that elicits a negative external sodium balance. The results provide evidence that in the SHRSP the pressor effect of selective chloride loading does not depend on a positive external sodium balance, but rather on a mechanism actuated by chloride per se. PMID:19851120

  8. Effect of tempol and tempol plus catalase on intra-renal haemodynamics in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHSP) and Wistar rats.

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    Ahmeda, Ahmad F; Rae, Mark G; Al Otaibi, Mohammed F; Anweigi, Lamyia M; Johns, Edward J

    2017-05-01

    Vasoconstriction within the renal medulla contributes to the development of hypertension. This study investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating renal medullary and cortical blood perfusion (MBP and CBP respectively) in both stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and Wistar rats. CBP and MBP were measured using a laser-Doppler flow meter before and after intra-renal infusion of tempol, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic or tempol plus catalase, the hydrogen peroxide-degrading enzyme. Tempol infusion significantly elevated blood perfusion within the renal medulla (MBP) in both SHRSP (by 43 ± 7%, P catalase and tempol were co-infused, MBP was again significantly increased in SHRSP (by 57 ± 6%, P < 0.001) and Wistar rats (by 33 ± 6%, P < 0.001), with a significantly greater increase in perfusion being induced in the SHRSP relative to the Wistar rats (P < 0.01). Notably, this increase was significantly greater than in those animals infused with tempol alone (P < 0.01). These results suggest that ROS plays a proportionally greater role in reducing renal vascular compliance, particularly within the renal medulla, in normotensive and hypertensive animals, with effects being greater in the hypertensive animals. This supports the hypothesis that SHRSP renal vasculature might be subjected to elevated level of oxidative stress relative to normotensive animals.

  9. Identification of Stim1 as a candidate gene for exaggerated sympathetic response to stress in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat.

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    Mohammed Zubaerul Ferdaus

    Full Text Available The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP is known to have exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity to various types of stress, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of severe hypertension and stroke observed in this strain. Previously, by using a congenic strain (called SPwch1.72 constructed between SHRSP and the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY, we showed that a 1.8-Mbp fragment on chromosome 1 (Chr1 of SHRSP harbored the responsible gene(s for the exaggerated sympathetic response to stress. To further narrow down the candidate region, in this study, another congenic strain (SPwch1.71 harboring a smaller fragment on Chr1 including two functional candidate genes, Phox2a and Ship2, was generated. Sympathetic response to cold and restraint stress was compared among SHRSP, SPwch1.71, SPwch1.72 and WKY by three different methods (urinary norepinephrine excretion, blood pressure measurement by the telemetry system and the power spectral analysis on heart rate variability. The results indicated that the response in SPwch1.71 did not significantly differ from that in SHRSP, excluding Phox2a and Ship2 from the candidate genes. As the stress response in SPwch1.72 was significantly less than that in SHRSP, it was concluded that the 1.2-Mbp congenic region covered by SPwch1.72 (and not by SPwch1.71 was responsible for the sympathetic stress response. The sequence analysis of 12 potential candidate genes in this region in WKY/Izm and SHRSP/Izm identified a nonsense mutation in the stromal interaction molecule 1 (Stim1 gene of SHRSP/Izm which was shared among 4 substrains of SHRSP. A western blot analysis confirmed a truncated form of STIM1 in SHRSP/Izm. In addition, the analysis revealed that the protein level of STIM1 in the brainstem of SHRSP/Izm was significantly lower when compared with WKY/Izm. Our results suggested that Stim1 is a strong candidate gene responsible for the exaggerated sympathetic response to stress in SHRSP.

  10. Normal values of quantitative T2′ in a spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rat stem at 3 T

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    Jensen-Kondering, U.; Böhm, R.; Höcker, J.; Ruhe, R.; Brdon, J.; Ulmer, S.; Herdegen, T.; Jansen, O.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Regarding therapy and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke the identification of ischemic penumbra is pivotal. A promising candidate is BOLD-imaging using qT2′-maps. For valid interpretation of experimental studies in animals normal values for qT2′ are needed. Normal values in humans at 1.5 T already exist. Normal values for cortical and subcortical structures in a spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rat stem (SHR-SP) at a fieldstrength of 3 T are reported. Materials and methods: 39 (20 males and 19 females) spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone (SHRSP) rats were examined in a 3 T scanner using a dedicated small animal coil. Mean weight was 144.1 ± 8.2 g and mean age was 60.2 ± 2.7 days. For the calculation of qT2′ multiple echo T2w and T2*w images were acquired. ROIs were placed into deep and cortical grey matter in five different brain regions to obtain values for qT2′, qT2 and qT2*. Results: Mean qT2′ for cortical grey matter was 74.76 ± 33.27 ms and 67.73 ± 17.86 ms for deep grey matter. The 99% confidence interval for cortical grey matter was 69.91–79.61 ms. For qT2 it was 79.02 ± 2.9 ms and 70.45 ± 1.89 ms, respectively. For qT2* it was 34.65 ± 5.25 ms and 31.9 ± 2.99 ms. Conclusion: The values for qT2′ presented here can serve as reference values for further studies examining the ischemic penumbra in a rat model.

  11. Effect of chlorella and its fractions on blood pressure, cerebral stroke lesions, and life-span in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Sansawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Endo, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    Effects of Chlorella regularis (dried cell powder)--cultured axenically under heterotrophic conditions, and provided as a dietary supplement--and its fractions on the blood pressure, cerebral stroke lesions, and life-span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP/Izm) were investigated. When SHRSP were fed on diets with supplemented Chlorella to a commercial diet (Funabashi SP), elevation of blood pressure was significantly lower in the Chlorella groups than in the control group. At 21 wk of feeding, serum total cholesterol was significantly lower in the Chlorella groups than in the control group. Histopathological examination revealed cerebral vascular accidents in the brains of the control group, but those of Chlorella groups showed apparently low incidence compared to the control group. The average life-span of the Chlorella groups were significantly longer than that of the control group (p vascular function of rats.

  12. Histomorphometric, biochemical and ultrastructural changes in the aorta of salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a Japanese-style diet.

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    Baccarani Contri, M; Taparelli, F; Miselli, M; Bacchelli, B; Biagini, G

    2003-02-01

    It is demonstrated that dietary habits play a role in cardiovascular diseases. In stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRsp), concomitant salt loading and a Japanese-style diet greatly accelerate hypertension and the appearance of cerebrovascular lesions by directly damaging arterial vessels. A number of studies have characterised medium and small vessel lesions in SHRsp, but little attention has been paid to the changes in the wall structure of large arteries induced by exposure to a salt-enriched diet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a Japanese-style diet and salt loading on the thoracic aorta. Two-month-old SHRsp were kept on a Japanese-style diet with 1% sodium chloride solution replacing tap water. Two months later, they were sacrificed and compared with age-matched or two-month-old control SHRsp kept on a standard diet and tap water in terms of the histomorphometry, ultrastructure and biochemical composition of the thoracic aorta. The vessel was consistently thicker in the four-month-old SHRsp (+20%, p vs two-month-old rats) regardless of diet. The salt-loaded SHRsp showed a significant reduction in elastic fibre density (-20%, p vs two-month-old rats) and an increase in the other matrix components (%), whereas the four-month-old controls showed preserved elastic fibres and a significant increase in the other matrix components (+65%, p vs two-month-old rats). There was a considerable increase in the amounts of 4-OH-proline (+147%), 5-OH-lysine (+174%) and desmosines (+360%) in the four-month-old controls vs their two-month-old counterparts (p two months of treatment.

  13. Novel effects of a single administration of ferulic acid on the regulation of blood pressure and the hepatic lipid metabolic profile in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Ardiansyah; Ohsaki, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Koseki, Takuya; Komai, Michio

    2008-04-23

    We studied the effects of a single oral administration of ferulic acid (FA) on the blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Male 12-week-old SHRSP were administered FA (9.5 mg/kg of body weight) and distilled water as the control (C) (1 mL) via a gastric tube. The hypotensive effect of FA was observed at the lowest value after 2 h administration. A decrease in the angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the plasma corresponded well with the reduction of BP. Plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower after 2 h administration. The mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid and drug metabolism was downregulated in the FA group. These results suggest that oral administration of FA appears beneficial in improving hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

  14. Impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on platelet tissue factor expression in stroke-prone rats.

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    Brambilla, Marta; Gelosa, Paolo; Rossetti, Laura; Castiglioni, Laura; Zara, Chiara; Canzano, Paola; Tremoli, Elena; Sironi, Luigi; Camera, Marina

    2018-03-06

    Hypertension is a well known risk factor for thrombotic events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Platelets express tissue factor (TF), the key activator of blood coagulation and thrombus formation. The number of TF-positive platelets increases in pathological conditions characterized by thrombotic complications but whether this occurs in hypertension is unknown. Here we investigated whether platelet TF expression is increased in a hypertensive status through a mechanism acting on megakaryocytes; the phenomenon could be modulated by antihypertensive drug as captopril; angiotensin (AngII) influences platelet TF expression. Spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone (SHRSP) rats received standard diet (StD) or a Japanese high-salt permissive diet (JpD). After 3 weeks, JpD animals were randomized to receive captopril or vehicle. Normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were used as controls. Cell-associated TF expression and activity were analyzed by flow cytometry and calibrated automated thrombogram, respectively. Hypertensive StD-SHRSP showed an increased number of TF-positive platelets compared with normotensive WKY. After JpD administration, SHRSP developed severe hypertension and renal damage; the number of TF-positive megakaryocytes significantly increased compared with StD-SHRSP resulting in a higher number of TF-positive platelets with a faster kinetic of thrombin generation. These effects were reverted by captopril. Ex-vivo stimulation of platelets, isolated from normotensive WKY and from healthy individuals, with AngII induced a concentration-dependent increase of surface-associated TF expression. The current study shows for the first time that in hypertension the number of TF-positive megakaryocytes increases thus releasing in the circulation more platelets carrying a functionally active TF. AngII stimulates platelets to express TF.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives

  15. Superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol, aggravates renal injury in advanced-stage stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Sugama, Ikuko; Kohagura, Kentaro; Yamazato, Masanobu; Nakamura, Takuto; Shinzato, Tomoko; Ohya, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether antioxidant therapy could relieve hypertension and retard the progression of renal damage in advanced-stage hypertensive rats. Twenty-four-week-old spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats were treated for 8 weeks with the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol, low-dose or high-dose candesartan (an angiotensin receptor blocker), or hydralazine, and blood pressure and renal damage were compared. Elevated blood pressure and renal damage with heterogeneity were present after 8 weeks, with greater glomerulosclerosis in the juxtamedullary glomeruli than in the superficial glomeruli. Although both tempol and candesartan effectively reduced reactive oxygen species production in the kidney, tempol did not decrease blood pressure and exacerbated urine protein and histological damage, such as glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis, particularly in juxtamedullary nephrons (tempol vs. untreated: glomerulosclerosis index, 2.0 vs. 1.5, Ptempol-treated rats, suggesting that changes in glomerular hemodynamics may be responsible for the exacerbation of glomerulosclerosis. Both candesartan- and hydralazine-treated rats had glomeruli that were slightly decreased in size. These results suggest that single-antioxidant therapy starting at an advanced-stage may be ineffective for hypertension and rather exacerbate renal damage in nonsalt loaded SHRSP. Furthermore, lowering blood pressure and inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system could be critical for slowing the progression of hypertensive renal damage at an advanced stage.

  16. Differential modulation of uncoupling protein 2 in kidneys of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats under high-salt/low-potassium diet.

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    Di Castro, Sara; Scarpino, Stefania; Marchitti, Simona; Bianchi, Franca; Stanzione, Rosita; Cotugno, Maria; Sironi, Luigi; Gelosa, Paolo; Duranti, Enrico; Ruco, Luigi; Volpe, Massimo; Rubattu, Speranza

    2013-02-01

    The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRsp) represents an animal model of increased susceptibility to high-salt diet-induced cerebral and renal vascular injuries. High blood pressure and genetic factors are viewed as major contributing factors. In high-salt-loaded SHRsp and stroke-resistant SHR animals, we determined blood pressure levels, degree of kidney lesions, renal uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) gene and protein expression levels along with rattus norvegicus (rno)-microRNA (miR) 24 and 34a gene expression, nuclear factor-κB protein levels, and oxidative stress. In vitro, UCP2 gene silencing was performed in renal mesangial cells. We found more severe degree of renal damage in SHRsp at the end of 4-week high-salt dietary treatment as compared with stroke-resistant SHR, despite comparable blood pressure levels, along with increased rate of inflammation and oxidative stress. Kidney UCP2 gene and protein expression levels were significantly downregulated under high-salt diet in SHRsp, but not in stroke-resistant SHR. Differential UCP2 regulation was paralleled by differential expression of kidney rno-miR 24 and 34a, known to target UCP2 gene, in the 2 strains. UCP2 gene silencing in renal mesangial cells led to increased rate of reactive oxygen species generation, increased inflammation and apoptosis, reduced cell vitality, and increased necrosis. In conclusion, high-salt diet downregulates the antioxidant UCP2-dependent mechanism in kidneys of SHRsp, but not of stroke-resistant SHR. A parallel differential kidney miR regulation under high-salt diet in the 2 strains may contribute to the differential UCP2 modulation. UCP2 is a critical protein to prevent oxidative stress damage in renal mesangial cells in vitro.

  17. Arginine vasopressin regulated ASCT1 expression in astrocytes from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats and congenic SHRpch1_18 rats.

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    Yamagata, K; Yamamoto, M; Kawakami, K; Ohara, H; Nabika, T

    2014-05-16

    In stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP/Izm), ischemia induces swelling of astrocytes, a process that subsequently leads to neuronal death. Following ischemic insult, arginine vasopressin (AVP) can induce edema and l-serine released by astrocytes supports the survival of neuronal cells. The purpose of this study was to examine whether AVP contributed to the regulation of l-serine production following ischemic stroke. Here, we used cultured astrocytes from SHRSP/Izm rats and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY/Izm) to examine whether AVP changed the production of l-serine and/or altered gene expression levels of the neural amino acid transporter (Slc1a4), 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) and serine racemase (SRR). Furthermore, using astrocytes from the congenic rat SHRpch1_18 strain having quantitative trait loci (QTL) of stroke, we examined expression of those genes under conditions of hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R). The expression levels of ASCT1 protein, the genes described above and l-serine levels were determined by Western blotting (WB), RT-PCR, real-time quantitative RT-PCR and HPLC. AVP increased the production of l-serine and the expression of Slc1a4 in WKY/Izm and SHRSP/Izm astrocytes. The production of l-serine and the expression of Slc1a4 were lower in SHRSP/Izm than in WKY/Izm cells. This difference was not seen with Phgdh. In the SHRpch1_18 strain, the expression of Slc1a4 and Phgdh significantly decreased after H/R. AVP-mediated enhanced expression of ASCT1 was blocked by the addition of bumetanide. These results suggest that the AVP-mediated attenuated expression of ASCT1 in astrocytes is associated with reduced l-serine production in SHRSP/Izm astrocytes. We hypothesize that reduction of gene expression by AVP might be related to the induction of stroke in the SHRpch1_18 rat strain. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Involvement of arterial baroreflex and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit pathway in the protection of metformin against stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Guo, Jin-Min; Zhang, Li; Niu, Xue-Cai; Shu, He; Wang, Lei; Su, Ding-Feng; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Ai-Jun; Zhu, De-Qiu; Xu, Jian-Jiang

    2017-03-05

    Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide. There is growing evidence that metformin (Met) has potent neuroprotective effects; however, its mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the role of the arterial baroreflex and cholinergic-α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) anti-inflammory pathway in the beneficial effects of Met against stroke. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were used to observe stroke development indicated by lifespan of SHRSP and the ischemic injury induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Sinoaortic denervation was used to inactivate the arterial baroreflex. MCAO were also performed in α7nAChR knockout (KO) mice. Briefly, Met increased the life span of SHRSP and reduced the infarct area induced by MCAO. Met also improved the function of arterial baroreflex. The beneficial effects of Met on stroke were markedly attenuated by blunting the arterial baroreflex. Met up-regulated the expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and α7nAChR, down-regulated the level of pro-inflammtory cytokines in serum and peri-infarct of ischemic brain. Arterial baroreflex dysfunction decreased the expression of VAchT and α7nAChR, showed upward tendency in the level of pro-inflammtory cytokines. Most importantly, arterial baroreflex dysfunction nearly abolished such effect of Met on cholinergic signaling. In addition, the α7nAChR KO mice also had significantly worse ischemic damage induced by MCAO, and neuroprotection of Met disappeared in α7nAChR KO mice. In conclusion, Met improved the arterial baroreflex function, and then enhancing cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in an α7nAChR-dependent manner, thereby effectively prevent ischemic induced brain injury and delayed stroke onset in SHRSP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Protective effects of D-Limonene against transient cerebral ischemia in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Wang, Xifeng; Li, Gang; Shen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death world-wide and there is currently a lack of effective treatments for acute stroke. D-Limonene is a common natural monocyclic monoterpene possessing various activities. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of D-limonene against ischemia-associated cerebral injury in hypertensive SHRsp rats. Although systolic blood pressure was not altered by ischemia, D-Limonene decreased the systolic blood pressure of SHRsp rats following stroke. Induction of stroke resulted in increased escape latency time, decreased time spent in the target quadrant in the probe trial, decreased capacity to distinguish between familiar objects and novel objects, and increased sensory neglect in the SHRsp rat, however these symptoms were significantly inhibited by D-limonene. D-limonene also decreased the cerebral infarct size in the SHRsp rats following stroke. D-Limonene markedly decreased the mRNA expression of interleukin-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in SHRsp rats following stroke. The mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the brain of SHRsp rats following stroke was significantly increased by D-Limonene. D-Limonene increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, decreased the malondialdehyde level, increased glutathione content and reduced the DHE-staining in SHRsp rats following stroke. Overall, inhibition of cerebral inflammation, vascular remodeling and antioxidant activities of D-Limonene may be involved in the protective effects against ischemia-induced damage in SHRsp rats. The present study identified D-Limonene as a potential therapeutic candidate for treatment of stroke-associated cerebral and vascular damage under conditions of hypertension.

  20. Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowski Paul

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components.

  1. Introgressed chromosome 2 quantitative trait loci restores aldosterone regulation and reduces response to salt in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampson, Amanda K.; Mohammed, Dashti; Beattie, Wendy; Graham, Delyth; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Al-Dujaili, Emad A. S.; Guryev, Victor; Mcbride, Martin W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The genetic contribution to salt-sensitivity in hypertension remains unclear. We have previously identified a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 2 in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSPs) responsible for an increase in SBP in response to a salt challenge. This

  2. Vasodilator effects of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, on retinal arterioles in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Nami; Saito, Maki; Mori, Asami; Sakamoto, Kenji; Kametaka, Sokichi; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Ishii, Kunio

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the vasodilator effect of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, on retinal arterioles in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSPs) and in age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs). Rats (12-14 weeks-old) were anesthetized with thiobutabarbital (120 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Fundus images were captured with a digital camera that was equipped with a special objective lens. The vasodilator responses of retinal arterioles were assessed by measuring changes in the diameters of the vessels. The baseline diameter of the retinal arteriole was significantly smaller in SHRSPs than in WKYs. Fasudil (50-200 microg/kg/min, intravenous) dose-dependently increased the diameter of the retinal arteriole and decreased the systemic blood pressure in both groups. The vasodilator effect of fasudil on the retinal arteriole in SHRSPs was greater than in WKYs. These results suggest that fasudil has beneficial effects on retinal vascular complications associated with chronic hypertension.

  3. Aortic and carotid arterial stiffness and epigenetic regulator gene expression changes precede blood pressure rise in stroke-prone Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Victoria L; Decano, Julius L; Giordano, Nicholas; Moran, Ann Marie; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Multiple clinical studies show that arterial stiffness, measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV), precedes hypertension and is an independent predictor of hypertension end organ diseases including stroke, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Risk factor studies for arterial stiffness implicate age, hypertension and sodium. However, causal mechanisms linking risk factor to arterial stiffness remain to be elucidated. Here, we studied the causal relationship of arterial stiffness and hypertension in the Na-induced, stroke-prone Dahl salt-sensitive (S) hypertensive rat model, and analyzed putative molecular mechanisms. Stroke-prone and non-stroke-prone male and female rats were studied at 3- and 6-weeks of age for arterial stiffness (PWV, strain), blood pressure, vessel wall histology, and gene expression changes. Studies showed that increased left carotid and aortic arterial stiffness preceded hypertension, pulse pressure widening, and structural wall changes at the 6-week time-point. Instead, differential gene induction was detected implicating molecular-functional changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) structural constituents, modifiers, cell adhesion, and matricellular proteins, as well as in endothelial function, apoptosis balance, and epigenetic regulators. Immunostaining testing histone modifiers Ep300, HDAC3, and PRMT5 levels confirmed carotid artery-upregulation in all three layers: endothelial, smooth muscle and adventitial cells. Our study recapitulates observations in humans that given salt-sensitivity, increased Na-intake induced arterial stiffness before hypertension, increased pulse pressure, and structural vessel wall changes. Differential gene expression changes associated with arterial stiffness suggest a molecular mechanism linking sodium to full-vessel wall response affecting gene-networks involved in vascular ECM structure-function, apoptosis balance, and epigenetic regulation.

  4. Aortic and carotid arterial stiffness and epigenetic regulator gene expression changes precede blood pressure rise in stroke-prone Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Herrera

    Full Text Available Multiple clinical studies show that arterial stiffness, measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV, precedes hypertension and is an independent predictor of hypertension end organ diseases including stroke, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Risk factor studies for arterial stiffness implicate age, hypertension and sodium. However, causal mechanisms linking risk factor to arterial stiffness remain to be elucidated. Here, we studied the causal relationship of arterial stiffness and hypertension in the Na-induced, stroke-prone Dahl salt-sensitive (S hypertensive rat model, and analyzed putative molecular mechanisms. Stroke-prone and non-stroke-prone male and female rats were studied at 3- and 6-weeks of age for arterial stiffness (PWV, strain, blood pressure, vessel wall histology, and gene expression changes. Studies showed that increased left carotid and aortic arterial stiffness preceded hypertension, pulse pressure widening, and structural wall changes at the 6-week time-point. Instead, differential gene induction was detected implicating molecular-functional changes in extracellular matrix (ECM structural constituents, modifiers, cell adhesion, and matricellular proteins, as well as in endothelial function, apoptosis balance, and epigenetic regulators. Immunostaining testing histone modifiers Ep300, HDAC3, and PRMT5 levels confirmed carotid artery-upregulation in all three layers: endothelial, smooth muscle and adventitial cells. Our study recapitulates observations in humans that given salt-sensitivity, increased Na-intake induced arterial stiffness before hypertension, increased pulse pressure, and structural vessel wall changes. Differential gene expression changes associated with arterial stiffness suggest a molecular mechanism linking sodium to full-vessel wall response affecting gene-networks involved in vascular ECM structure-function, apoptosis balance, and epigenetic regulation.

  5. The effects of supraphysiological supplementation of b-carotene in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and SHR-sp

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    Stênio Karlos Alvim Fiorelli

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the effect of administration of supraphysiological âcaroteno on biological parameters (ectoscopy and blood pressure, laboratory (malondialdehyde and histological (liver and carotid arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats prone to stroke (SHR-sp.Methods: we used 36 male rats were divided into three groups, each containing 12 rats Wistar, SHR and SHR-sp, subdivided into six control animals and six animals treated with supraphysiological doses of âcaroteno for two periods of ten weeks interspersed with one week interruption. In the experiment were assessed daily physical examination and blood pressure (plethysmography. At sacrifice, blood was collected for measurement of serum malondialdehyde, liver and carotid arteries for histological examination.Results: temporary change in color of the fur, decreased significantly (p<0.0001 blood pressure (20mg supplementation âcaroteno and serum levels of malondialdehyde (p<0.05 and increased amount of elastic fibers in the carotid wall of SHR and SHR-sp.Conclusion: supplementation of supraphysiological âcaroteno caused no toxic effects, showed positive response in the modulation of blood pressure and lower serum malondialdehyde. No significant morphological changes were found in both groups, except an increase in the number of elastic fibers in the muscle layer carotid suggesting elastosis in SHR and SHR-sp.

  6. Guava leaf extracts promote glucose metabolism in SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/Izm rats by improving insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiangyu; Yoshitomi, Hisae; Gao, Ming; Qin, Lingling; Duan, Ying; Sun, Wen; Xu, Tunhai; Xie, Peifeng; Zhou, Jingxin; Huang, Liansha; Liu, Tonghua

    2013-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been associated with insulin-resistance; however, the effective therapies in improving insulin sensitivity are limited. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of Guava Leaf (GL) extracts on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/Izm rats (SHRSP/ZF), a model of spontaneously metabolic syndrome. Male rats at 7 weeks of age were administered with vehicle water or treated by gavage with 2 g/kg GL extracts daily for six weeks, and their body weights, water and food consumption, glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance were measured. Compared with the controls, treatment with GL extracts did not modulate the amounts of water and food consumption, but significantly reduced the body weights at six weeks post treatment. Treatment with GL extracts did not alter the levels of fasting plasma glucose and insulin, but significantly reduced the levels of plasma glucose at 60 and 120 min post glucose challenge, also reduced the values of AUC and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) at 42 days post treatment. Furthermore, treatment with GL extracts promoted IRS-1, AKT, PI3Kp85 expression, then IRS-1, AMKP, and AKT308, but not AKT473, phosphorylation, accompanied by increasing the ratios of membrane to total Glut 4 expression and adiponectin receptor 1 transcription in the skeletal muscles. These data indicated that GL extracts improved glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in the skeletal muscles of rats by modulating the insulin-related signaling.

  7. The effects of poststroke captopril and losartan treatment on cerebral blood flow autoregulation in SHRsp with hemorrhagic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeda, John S; Daneshtalab, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    The ability of captopril and losartan treatment to restore cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation after intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke (HS) was assessed in Kyoto–Wistar stroke-prone hypertensive rats (SHRsp). Laser Doppler techniques assessed CBF autoregulation in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) perfusion domain and a pressure myograph was used to measure pressure-dependent constriction (PDC) in isolated MCAs before and after stroke and after 13, 33, and 63 days of poststroke captopril or losartan treatment. The treatments did not lower blood pressure (BP) and equally suppressed plasma aldosterone after HS. The HS development was associated with the loss of CBF autoregulation, high CBF, increased CBF conductance to elevations in BP, and the loss of PDC in the MCAs. Both treatments restored these functions to prestroke levels within 13 days. The PDC and CBF autoregulation subsequently deteriorated after 63 days of captopril treatment while being maintained at prestroke levels over all durations of losartan treatment. The SHRsp subjected to 35 days of poststroke losartan treatment exhibited less blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption and brain herniation than captopril-treated SHRsp. The superior ability of losartan to restore CBF autoregulation and myogenic function may have contributed to the more effective attenuation of cerebral damage after HS. PMID:20648036

  8. Site-specific activation of dopamine and serotonin transmission by aniracetam in the mesocorticolimbic pathway of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Shirane, M; Koshikawa, N

    2001-04-06

    The effects of aniracetam on extracellular levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites were examined in five brain regions in freely moving stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) using in vivo microdialysis. Basal DA release in SHRSP was uniformly lower in all regions tested than that in age-matched control Wistar Kyoto rats. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid levels were altered in the basolateral amygdala, dorsal hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of SHRSP. While basal 5-HT release decreased in the striatum and increased in the basolateral amygdala, there was no associated change in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels. Systemic administration of aniracetam to SHRSP enhanced both DA and 5-HT release with partly associated change in their metabolite levels in the prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala and dorsal hippocampus, but not in the striatum and nucleus accumbens shell, in a dose-dependent manner (30 and/or 100 mg/kg p.o.). Microinjection (1 and 10 ng) of aniracetam or its metabolites (N-anisoyl-GABA and 2-pyrrolidinone) into the nucleus accumbens shell produced no turning behavior. These findings indicate that SHRSP have a dopaminergic hypofunction throughout the brain and that aniracetam elicits a site-specific activation in mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways in SHRSP, possibly via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the ventral tegmental area and raphe nuclei. The physiological roles in the aniracetam-sensitive brain regions may closely link with their clinical efficacy towards emotional disturbances appearing after cerebral infarction.

  9. Augmented agonist-induced Ca(2+)-sensitization of coronary artery contraction in genetically hypertensive rats. Evidence for altered signal transduction in the coronary smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, S; Kreutz, R; Wilm, C; Ganten, D; Pfitzer, G

    1994-01-01

    The Ca2+ responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle myofilaments is not unique: it is increased during neuro-humoral activation and decreased during beta-adrenergic stimulation. In this study we tested whether an augmented Ca2+ responsiveness of smooth muscle myofilaments may contribute to the increased coronary tone observed in hypertension using beta-escin-permeabilized coronary arteries from 3-mo-old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and their age matched normotensive reference strain (WKY rats). In intact coronary arteries, the response to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) but not to KCl was larger in SHRSP than in WKY rats. In beta-escin permeabilized coronary arteries in which the receptor effector coupling is still intact, 5-HT enhanced force at constant submaximal (Ca2+) (pCa 6.38) to a greater extent in SHRSP. The Ca2+ sensitizing effect of 5-HT was mimicked by GTP gamma S (0.01-10 microM); again this effect was larger in SHRSP. In the absence of 5-HT or GTP gamma S the Ca2+ force relation was similar in both groups. Forskolin induced relaxation at constant submaximal (Ca2+). This desensitizing effect was smaller in SHRSP than in WKY rats. In conclusion, this study shows that intracellular signalling pathways involved in modulating the Ca2+ responsiveness of coronary smooth muscle myofilaments are altered in the genetically hypertensive animals favoring a hypercontractile state in the coronary circulation. PMID:7929815

  10. Bile acid detoxifying enzymes limit susceptibility to liver fibrosis in female SHRSP5/Dmcr rats fed with a high-fat-cholesterol diet.

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    Husna Yetti

    Full Text Available During middle age, women are less susceptible to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH than men. Thus, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these sexual differences using an established rat model of NASH. Mature female and male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats were fed control or high-fat-cholesterol (HFC diets for 2, 8, and 14 weeks. Although HFC-induced hepatic fibrosis was markedly less severe in females than in males, only minor gender differences were observed in expression levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP7A1, CYP8B1 CYP27A1, and CYP7B1, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, and bile salt export pump, which are involved in fibrosis-related bile acid (BA kinetics. However, the BA detoxification-related enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT and sulfotransferase (SULT 2A1, and the nuclear receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR and pregnane X receptor (PXR, were strongly suppressed in HFC-fed males, and were only slightly changed in HFC-diet fed females. Expression levels of the farnesoid X receptor and its small heterodimer partner were similarly regulated in a gender-dependent fashion following HFC feeding. Hence, the pronounced female resistance to HFC-induced liver damage likely reflects sustained expression of the nuclear receptors CAR and PXR and the BA detoxification enzymes UGT and SULT.

  11. Fetal-adult cardiac transcriptome analysis in rats with contrasting left ventricular mass reveals new candidates for cardiac hypertrophy.

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    Katja Grabowski

    Full Text Available Reactivation of fetal gene expression patterns has been implicated in common cardiac diseases in adult life including left ventricular (LV hypertrophy (LVH in arterial hypertension. Thus, increased wall stress and neurohumoral activation are discussed to induce the return to expression of fetal genes after birth in LVH. We therefore aimed to identify novel potential candidates for LVH by analyzing fetal-adult cardiac gene expression in a genetic rat model of hypertension, i.e. the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP. To this end we performed genome-wide transcriptome analysis in SHRSP to identify differences in expression patterns between day 20 of fetal development (E20 and adult animals in week 14 in comparison to a normotensive rat strain with contrasting low LV mass, i.e. Fischer (F344. 15232 probes were detected as expressed in LV tissue obtained from rats at E20 and week 14 (p < 0.05 and subsequently screened for differential expression. We identified 24 genes with SHRSP specific up-regulation and 21 genes with down-regulation as compared to F344. Further bioinformatic analysis presented Efcab6 as a new candidate for LVH that showed only in the hypertensive SHRSP rat differential expression during development (logFC = 2.41, p < 0.001 and was significantly higher expressed in adult SHRSP rats compared with adult F344 (+ 76% and adult normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (+ 82%. Thus, it represents an interesting new target for further functional analyses and the elucidation of mechanisms leading to LVH. Here we report a new approach to identify candidate genes for cardiac hypertrophy by combining the analysis of gene expression differences between strains with a contrasting cardiac phenotype with a comparison of fetal-adult cardiac expression patterns.

  12. Fetal-Adult Cardiac Transcriptome Analysis in Rats with Contrasting Left Ventricular Mass Reveals New Candidates for Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Katja; Riemenschneider, Mona; Schulte, Leonard; Witten, Anika; Schulz, Angela; Stoll, Monika; Kreutz, Reinhold

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of fetal gene expression patterns has been implicated in common cardiac diseases in adult life including left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) in arterial hypertension. Thus, increased wall stress and neurohumoral activation are discussed to induce the return to expression of fetal genes after birth in LVH. We therefore aimed to identify novel potential candidates for LVH by analyzing fetal-adult cardiac gene expression in a genetic rat model of hypertension, i.e. the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP). To this end we performed genome-wide transcriptome analysis in SHRSP to identify differences in expression patterns between day 20 of fetal development (E20) and adult animals in week 14 in comparison to a normotensive rat strain with contrasting low LV mass, i.e. Fischer (F344). 15232 probes were detected as expressed in LV tissue obtained from rats at E20 and week 14 (p < 0.05) and subsequently screened for differential expression. We identified 24 genes with SHRSP specific up-regulation and 21 genes with down-regulation as compared to F344. Further bioinformatic analysis presented Efcab6 as a new candidate for LVH that showed only in the hypertensive SHRSP rat differential expression during development (logFC = 2.41, p < 0.001) and was significantly higher expressed in adult SHRSP rats compared with adult F344 (+ 76%) and adult normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (+ 82%). Thus, it represents an interesting new target for further functional analyses and the elucidation of mechanisms leading to LVH. Here we report a new approach to identify candidate genes for cardiac hypertrophy by combining the analysis of gene expression differences between strains with a contrasting cardiac phenotype with a comparison of fetal-adult cardiac expression patterns. PMID:25646840

  13. Hypertension-Induced Vascular Remodeling Contributes to Reduced Cerebral Perfusion and the Development of Spontaneous Stroke in Aged SHRSP Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    additional. thrombosis (Figure 4, top row, asterisks) and diapedesis of blood. Affected vessels were 100 to 250 J.lm in diameter (average 150 J.lm (40...hypertensive rats. Stroke 29:1671-7; discussion 1677-1678 Blezer EL, Schurink M, Nicolay K, Bar PR, Jansen GH, Koomans HA, Joles JA (1998b) Proteinuria

  14. Similar changes in clinical and pathological parameters in Wistar Kyoto rats after a 13-week dietary intake of canola oil or a fatty acid composition-based interesterified canola oil mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Naoki; Naito, Yukiko; Kasama, Kikuko; Shindo, Tomoko; Yoshida, Hiromichi; Nagata, Tomoko; Okuyama, Harumi

    2009-01-01

    Canola oil (CO) given as a dietary fat deteriorates hypertension-related condition and shortens the life of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Although substances other than fatty acids have been presumed as causatives, CO mimics consisting of oils other than CO also shorten the life. In this study we intended to examine whether or not fatty acid composition unique to CO participates in the adverse effect. CO or an interesterified CO mimic (ICOM) consisting of safflower oil, flaxseed oil and erucic acid was fed as a dietary fat for 13 weeks to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, and clinical and pathological signs were compared. WKY rats were used to avoid the difficulty in evaluating the results in SHRSP due to irregular deterioration in conditions by stroke. Compared to a standard diet, both diets containing CO or ICOM similarly elevated blood pressure, increased plasma lipids, activated hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, decreased platelets, shortened blood coagulation times and induced abnormalities in the kidney. Thus, CO-specific fatty acid composition appeared to affect the pathophysiology of the rat and produce consequent aggravation of pathological status, especially in SHRSP. However, the existence of causative factors other than fatty acids was suggested by increased neutrophil count exclusively induced by CO.

  15. The incidence of vasculitis is increased in female stroke-prone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vascular changes in hypertension share common characteristics with inflammatory wall injury. Since it is known that chronic inflammatory diseases are frequently more prevalent in females, this study tested the hypothesis that vasculitis would be more evident in female stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive ...

  16. Blood pressure reduction combining baroreflex restoration for stroke prevention in hypertension in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wei Song

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure reduction is an important and effective strategy in stroke prevention in hypertensives. Recently, we found that baroreflex restoration was also crucial in stroke prevention. The present work was designed to test the hypothesis that a combination of blood pressure reduction and baroreflex restoration may be a new strategy for stroke prevention. In Experiment 1, the effects of ketanserin (0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg, amlodipine (0.3, 1, 2, 3 mg/kg and their combination (1+0.3, 1+1, 1+2, 1+3 mg/kg on blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP were determined under conscious state. It was found that both amlodipine and ketanserin decreased blood pressure dose-dependently. Ketanserin enfanced BRS from a very small dose but amlodipine enfanced BRS only at largest dose used. At the dose of 1 + 2 mg/kg (ketanserin + amlodipine, the combination possessed the largest synergism on blood pressure reduction. In Experiments 2 and 3, SHR-SP and two-kidney, two-clip (2K2C renovascular hypertensive rats received life-long treatments with ketanserin (1 mg/kg and amlodipine (2 mg/kg or their combination (0.5+1, 1+2, 2+4 mg/kg. The survival time was recorded and the brain lesion was examined. It was found that all kinds of treatments prolonged the survival time of SHR-SP and 2K2C rats. The combination possessed a significantly better effect on stroke prevention than mono-therapies. In conclusion, combination of blood pressure reduction and baroreflex restoration may be a new strategy for the prevention of stroke in hypertension.

  17. Calcium channel blockers, more than diuretics, enhance vascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers in salt-loaded hypertensive rats.

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    Eiichiro Yamamoto

    Full Text Available The combination therapy of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB with a calcium channel blocker (CCB or with a diuretic is favorably recommended for the treatment of hypertension. However, the difference between these two combination therapies is unclear. The present work was undertaken to examine the possible difference between the two combination therapies in vascular protection. Salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP were divided into 6 groups, and they were orally administered (1 vehicle, (2 olmesartan, an ARB, (3 azelnidipine, a CCB, (4 hydrochlorothiazide, a diuretic, (5 olmesartan combined with azelnidipine, or (6 olmesartan combined with hydrochlorothiazide. Olmesartan combined with either azelnidipine or hydrochlorothiazide ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction and remodeling in SHRSP more than did monotherapy with either agent. However, despite a comparable blood pressure lowering effect between the two treatments, azelnidipine enhanced the amelioration of vascular endothelial dysfunction and remodeling by olmesartan to a greater extent than did hydrochlorothiazide in salt-loaded SHRSP. The increased enhancement by azelnidipine of olmesartan-induced vascular protection than by hydrochlorothiazide was associated with a greater amelioration of vascular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase activation, superoxide, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and with a greater activation of the Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS pathway. These results provided the first evidence that a CCB potentiates the vascular protective effects of an ARB in salt-sensitive hypertension, compared with a diuretic, and provided a novel rationale explaining the benefit of the combination therapy with an ARB and a CCB.

  18. Prevention and intervention studies with telmisartan, ramipril and their combination in different rat stroke models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Thoene-Reineke

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The effects of AT1 receptor blocker, telmisartan, and the ACE inhibitor, ramipril, were tested head-to head and in combination on stroke prevention in hypertensive rats and on potential neuroprotection in acute cerebral ischemia in normotensive rats. METHODS: Prevention study: Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP were subjected to high salt and randomly assigned to 4 groups: (1 untreated (NaCl, n = 24, (2 telmisartan (T; n = 27, (3 ramipril (R; n = 27 and (4 telmisartan + ramipril (T+R; n = 26. Drug doses were selected to keep blood pressure (BP at 150 mmHg in all groups. Neurological signs and stroke incidence at 50% mortality of untreated SHR-SP were investigated. Intervention study: Normotensive Wistar rats were treated s.c. 5 days prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO for 90 min with reperfusion. Groups (n = 10 each: (1 sham, (2 vehicle (V; 0.9% NaCl, (3 T (0.5 mg/kg once daily, (4 R (0.01 mg/kg twice daily, (5 R (0.1 mg/kg twice daily or (6 T (0.5 mg/kg once daily plus R (0.01 mg/kg twice daily. Twenty-four and 48 h after MCAO, neurological outcome (NO was determined. Forty-eight h after MCAO, infarct volume by MRI, neuronal survival, inflammation factors and neurotrophin receptor (TrkB were analysed. RESULTS: Stroke incidence was reduced, survival was prolonged and neurological outcome was improved in all treated SHR-SP with no differences between treated groups. In the acute intervention study, T and T+R, but not R alone, improved NO, reduced infarct volume, inflammation (TNFα, and induced TrkB receptor and neuronal survival in comparison to V. CONCLUSIONS: T, R or T+R had similar beneficial effects on stroke incidence and NO in hypertensive rats, confirming BP reduction as determinant factor in stroke prevention. In contrast, T and T+R provided superior neuroprotection in comparison to R alone in normotensive rats with induced cerebral ischemia.

  19. Ferric Carboxymaltose-Mediated Attenuation of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in an Iron Deficiency Rat Model

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    Jorge Eduardo Toblli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC, a complication of anthracycline-based chemotherapies, is thought to involve iron, concerns exist about using iron for anaemia treatment in anthracycline-receiving cancer patients. This study evaluated how intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM modulates the influence of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA and doxorubicin (3–5 mg per kg body weight [BW] on oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cardiorenal function in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHR-SP rats. FCM was given as repeated small or single total dose (15 mg iron per kg BW, either concurrent with or three days after doxorubicin. IDA (after dietary iron restriction induced cardiac and renal oxidative stress (markers included malondialdehyde, catalase, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, nitrosative stress (inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine, inflammation (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, and functional/morphological abnormalities (left ventricle end-diastolic and end-systolic diameter, fractional shortening, density of cardiomyocytes and capillaries, caveolin-1 expression, creatinine clearance, and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin that were aggravated by doxorubicin. Notably, iron treatment with FCM did not exacerbate but attenuated the cardiorenal effects of IDA and doxorubicin independent of the iron dosing regimen. The results of this model suggest that intravenous FCM can be used concomitantly with an anthracycline-based chemotherapy without increasing signs of AIC.

  20. Cerebrovascular recovery after stroke with individual and combined losartan and captopril treatment of SHRsp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeda, John S; Daneshtalab, Noriko

    2017-09-01

    We assessed whether the superior restoration of cerebrovascular function after hemorrhagic stroke by losartan versus captopril treatment was due to better BP, uremia, uricaemia, or aldosterone control in Kyoto Wistar stroke-prone-hypertensive rats and evaluated whether elevated angiotensin II (A2) levels enhanced the effectiveness of losartan treatment. Constriction was studied in the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) using a pressure myograph. Post-stroke survival increased from 21 to 310 and 189days respectively with losartan and captopril treatment. Neither treatment reduced BP, both reversed uremia and hyperaldosteronism equally after 7days. Plasma uric acid remained low. At stroke, MCA constriction to pressure (PDC), protein kinase C (PKC) activation, depolarization, and sarcoplasmic Ca 2+ were attenuated. Endothelial-dependent-vasodilation by bradykinin and endogenous NO release were lost. Both treatments recovered these functions within 7days. These functions deteriorated after 116days of captopril but not losartan treatment. Inhibiting A2 formation during losartan treatment didn't alter BP or vascular recovery. The superior recovery of PDC by losartan over captopril was not produced by better BP, uremia or aldosterone control or elevated A2. PDC recovery was associated with improved PKC function and enhanced basal NO release. The re-establishment of PDC could reduce cerebrovascular over-perfusion and hematoma expansion after stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aniracetam enhances cortical dopamine and serotonin release via cholinergic and glutamatergic mechanisms in SHRSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, M; Nakamura, K

    2001-10-19

    Aniracetam, a cognition enhancer, has been recently found to preferentially increase extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), basolateral amygdala and dorsal hippocampus of the mesocorticolimbic system in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. In the present study, we aimed to identify actually active substances among aniracetam and its major metabolites and to clarify the mode of action in DA and 5-HT release in the PFC. Local perfusion of mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) completely blocked DA and 5-HT release, respectively, in the PFC elicited by orally administered aniracetam. The effects of aniracetam were mimicked by local perfusion of N-anisoyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid [corrected] (N-anisoyl-GABA), one of the major metabolites of aniracetam, into the VTA and DRN. The cortical DA release induced by N-anisoyl-GABA applied to the VTA was also completely abolished by co-perfusion of mecamylamine. Additionally, when p-anisic acid, another metabolite of aniracetam, and N-anisoyl-GABA were locally perfused into the PFC, they induced DA and 5-HT release in the same region, respectively. These results indicate that aniracetam enhances DA and 5-HT release by mainly mediating the action of N-anisoyl-GABA that targets not only somatodendritic nACh and NMDA receptors but also presynaptic nACh receptors.

  2. Prevention of cerebral stroke by arotinolol in salt-loaded SHRSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagishi, A; Maniwa, T; Noguchi, T; Hara, Y

    1991-01-01

    The preventive effects of long-term treatment with arotinolol on the development of cerebral stroke were examined in SHRSP fed a high salt diet. Arotinolol (4.87 mg/kg per day for 20 weeks) prevented cerebral lesions, reduced signs of stroke and delayed early mortality but did not alter blood pressure from control SHRSP, when the administration of the drug was started before the onset of hypertension. At dosage levels similar to arotinolol, both pindolol and labetalol were less effective in preventing cerebral lesions despite lower blood pressure. Propranolol produced no detectable effect on blood pressure or frequency of cerebral lesions. Furthermore, arotinolol (4.27 mg/kg per day) markedly inhibited the development of stroke without blood pressure reduction, when the administration was started after the onset of severe hypertension. These results suggest that arotinolol is more effective in preventing cerebral stroke than pindolol, labetalol and propranolol, and that factors other than blood pressure reduction may be involved in this preventive effect.

  3. Interplay Between Age, Cerebral Small Vessel Disease, Parenchymal Amyloid-beta, and Tau Pathology: Longitudinal Studies in Hypertensive Stroke-Prone Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiber, S; Drukarch, B.; Garz, C.; Niklass, S.; Stanaszek, L.; Kropf, S.; Bueche, C.; Held, F.; Vielhaber, S.; Attems, J.; Reymann, K.G.; Heinze, H.J.; Carare, R.O.; Wilhelmus, M.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau (ptau) accompany cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) in the aging brain and in Alzheimer's disease. CSVD is characterized by a heterogeneous spectrum of histopathological features possibly initiated by an endothelial dysfunction

  4. Chronic oxidative-nitrosative stress impairs coronary vasodilation in metabolic syndrome model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagota, Satomi; Maruyama, Kana; Tada, Yukari; Fukushima, Kazuhito; Umetani, Keiji; Wakuda, Hirokazu; Shinozuka, Kazumasa

    2013-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of clinical disorders that together increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. SHRSP.Z-Lepr(fa)/IzmDmcr (SHRSP.ZF) rats with MetS show impaired nitric oxide-mediated relaxation in coronary and mesenteric arteries, and angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockers protect against dysfunction and oxidative-nitrosative stress independently of metabolic effects. We hypothesize that superoxide contributes to functional deterioration in SHRSP.ZF rats. To test our hypothesis, we studied effects of treatment with tempol, a membrane-permeable radical scavenger, on impaired vasodilation in SHRSP.ZF rats. Tempol did not alter body weight, high blood pressure, or metabolic abnormalities, but prevented impairment of acetylcholine-induced and nitroprusside-induced vasodilation in the coronary and mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, tempol reduced the levels of serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and 3-nitrotyrosine content in mesenteric arteries. Systemic administration of tempol elevated the expression of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) above basal levels in mesenteric arteries of SHRSP.ZF rats. However, acute treatment with tempol or ebselen, a peroxynitrite scavenger, did not ameliorate impaired relaxation of isolated mesenteric arteries. No nitration of tyrosine residues in sGC was observed; however, sGC mRNA expression levels in the arteries of SHRSP.ZF rats were lower than those in the arteries of Wistar-Kyoto rats. Levels of Thr(496)- and Ser(1177)-phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were lower in arteries of SHRSP.ZF rats, and acetylcholine decreased Thr(496)-phosphorylated eNOS levels. These results indicated that prolonged superoxide production, leading to oxidative-nitrosative stress, was associated with impaired vasodilation in SHRSP.ZF rats with MetS. Down-regulated sGC expression may be linked to dysfunction, while reduced NO bioavailability/eNOS activity and modified s

  5. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Contributes to Hypertensive Target Organ Damage: Lessons from an Animal Model of Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranza Rubattu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying hypertensive target organ damage (TOD are not completely understood. The pathophysiological role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction, in development of TOD is unclear. The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP is a suitable model of human hypertension and of its vascular consequences. Pathogenesis of TOD in SHRSP is multifactorial, being determined by high blood pressure levels, high salt/low potassium diet, and genetic factors. Accumulating evidence points to a key role of mitochondrial dysfunction in increased susceptibility to TOD development of SHRSP. Mitochondrial abnormalities were described in both heart and brain of SHRSP. Pharmacological compounds able to protect mitochondrial function exerted a significant protective effect on TOD development, independently of blood pressure levels. Through our research efforts, we discovered that two genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, one (Ndufc2 involved in OXPHOS complex I assembly and activity and the second one (UCP2 involved in clearance of mitochondrial ROS, are responsible, when dysregulated, for vascular damage in SHRSP. The suitability of SHRSP as a model of human disease represents a promising background for future translation of the experimental findings to human hypertension. Novel therapeutic strategies toward mitochondrial molecular targets may become a valuable tool for prevention and treatment of TOD in human hypertension.

  6. Activation of the reticulothalamic cholinergic pathway by the major metabolites of aniracetam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Shirane, M

    1999-09-10

    The aim of the study was to further investigate the effects of aniracetam, a cognition enhancer, and its metabolites on the brain cholinergic system. We measured choline acetyltransferase activity and acetylcholine release using in vivo brain microdialysis in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). The enzyme activity in the pons-midbrain and hippocampus, and basal acetylcholine release in the nucleus reticularis thalami were lower in SHRSP than in age-matched Wistar Kyoto rats, indicating central cholinergic deficits in SHRSP. Repeated treatment of aniracetam (50 mg/kg p.o. x 11 for 6 days) preferentially increased the enzyme activity in the thalamus, whereas decreased it in the striatum. Among the metabolites of aniracetam, local perfusion of N-anisoyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 0.1 and/or 1 microM) and p-anisic acid (1 microM) into the nucleus reticularis thalami, dorsal hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of SHRSP produced a significant but delayed increase of acetylcholine release. We failed, however, to find any effect of aniracetam itself. A direct injection of N-anisoyl-GABA (1 nmol) into the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus of SHRSP enhanced the release in the nucleus reticularis thalami. Thus, these data prove that aniracetam can facilitate central cholinergic neurotransmission via both metabolites. Based on its pharmacokinetic profile, N-anisoyl-GABA may contribute to the clinical effects of aniracetam, mainly by acting on the reticulothalamic cholinergic pathway.

  7. Voluntary exercise induces neurogenesis in the hypothalamus and ependymal lining of the third ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Atsuko; Nishibori, Masahiro; Hamasaki, Shinichi; Kobori, Takuro; Liu, Keyue; Wake, Hidenori; Mori, Shuji; Yoshino, Tadashi; Takahashi, Hideo

    2016-04-01

    In the adult hypothalamus and ependymal lining of the third ventricle, tanycytes function as multipotential progenitor cells that enable continuous neurogenesis, suggesting that tanycytes may be able to mediate the restoration of homeostatic function after stroke. Voluntary wheel running has been shown to alter neurochemistry and neuronal function and to increase neurogenesis in rodents. In the present study, we found that voluntary exercise improved the survival rate and energy balance of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP/Kpo). We also investigated the effect of exercise on the proliferation and differentiation of hypothalamic cells using immunoreactivity for tanycytes and neural markers. The proliferation of elongated cells, which may be the tanycytes, was enhanced in exercising SHRSP compared to sedentary rats before and after stroke. In addition, the proliferation of cells was correlated with the induction of fibroblast growth factor-2 in the subependymal cells of the third ventricle and in the cerebrospinal fluid. Some of the newborn cells of exercising SHRSP showed differentiation into mature neurons after stroke. Our results suggest that voluntary exercise correlates with hypothalamic neurogenesis, leading to recovery of homeostatic functions in the adult brain after stroke.

  8. Glomerular Damage in Experimental Proliferative Glomerulonephritis Under Glomerular Capillary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Rong Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Immunologically and hemodynamically mediated the destruction of glomerular architecture is thought to be the major causes of end-stage renal failure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of glomerular hypertension on glomerular injury and the progression of glomerular sclerosis after Thy-1 nephritis was induced. Method: Thy-1 nephritis was induced in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat strain (SHR-SP (group SP and in age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY (group WKY rats, following unilateral nephrectomy (UNX, and a vehicle was injected alone in UNX SHR-SP as control (group SC. Result: The degree of glomerular damage in response to a single dose of anti-thy-1 antibody, and its functional consequences (eg. proteinuria, diminished GFR are more pronounced in group SP than normotensive group WKY and hypertensive group SC without mesangial cell injury. While normotensive group WKY rats recovered completely from mesangial cell injury on day 28-42, glomeruli in group SP kept on persistent macrophage infiltration, α-SMA expression on day 42-56. In addition, glomerular capillary repair with the GECs was rarely seen in pronouncedly proliferative and sclerostic areas. The incidence of glomerular sclerosis and the level of proteinuria were markedly increased by day 56 in the group SP. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that glomerular hypertension aggravate glomerular damage and glomerulosclerosis in this model of Thy 1 nephritis.

  9. Antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Ghazi; Nakamura, Masami; Zhao, Qi; Iguchi, Tomomi; Goto, Hirozo; Sankawa, Ushio; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a natural antioxidant carotenoid that occurs in a wide variety of living organisms. We investigated, for the first time, antihypertensive effects of astaxanthin (ASX-O) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Oral administration of ASX-O for 14 d induced a significant reduction in the arterial blood pressure (BP) in SHR but not in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) strain. The long-term administration of ASX-O (50 mg/kg) for 5 weeks in stroke prone SHR (SHR-SP) induced a significant reduction in the BP. It also delayed the incidence of stroke in the SHR-SP. To investigate the action mechanism of ASX-O, the effects on PGF(2alpha)-induced contractions of rat aorta treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) were studied in vitro. ASX-O (1 to 10 microM) induced vasorelaxation mediated by nitric oxide (NO). The results suggest that the antihypertensive effect of ASX-O may be due to a NO-related mechanism. ASX-O also showed significant neuroprotective effects in ischemic mice, presumably due to its antioxidant potential. Pretreatment of the mice with ASX-O significantly shortened the latency of escaping onto the platform in the Morris water maze learning performance test. In conclusion, these results indicate that astaxanthin can exert beneficial effects in protection against hypertension and stroke and in improving memory in vascular dementia.

  10. Characterization of six rat strains (Rattus norvegicus by mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilsdorf A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP was used to examine the extent of mtDNA polymorphism among six strains of rats (Rattus norvegicus - Wistar, Wistar Munich, Brown Norway, Wistar Kyoto, SHR and SHR-SP. A survey of 26 restriction enzymes has revealed a low level of genetic divergence among strains. The sites of cleavage by EcoRI, NcoI and XmnI were shown to be polymorphic. The use of these three enzymes allows the 6 strains to be classified into 4 haplotypes and identifies specific markers for each one. The percentage of sequence divergence among all pairs of haplotypes ranged from 0.035 to 0.33%, which is the result of a severe population constriction undergone by the strains. These haplotypes are easily demonstrable and therefore RFLP analysis can be employed for genetic monitoring of rats within animal facilities or among different laboratories.

  11. Morphologic changes of cerebral veins in hypertensive rats: venous collagenosis is associated with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Mao, Lijuan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Qian; Yang, Zhiyun; Li, Shurong; Li, Ling

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether arterial hypertension could affect the venous system of brain and to find out the consequent pathologic changes of cerebral veins. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: a sham-clipped group and a stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rat group. A 2-kidney 2-clip rat model was used to induce renovascular hypertension in the hypertensive group. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail cuff once each week. Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) was performed at 12, 16, and 20 weeks after surgery. All the rats were sacrificed after the SWI examination at 20 weeks after surgery. The brains were extracted and embedded in paraffin for histologic examination. Masson trichrome staining was performed to identify venous collagenosis. The sham group demonstrated less prominence of cerebral veins compared with hypertensive groups (P veins on SWI as a sign of venous hypertension and the thickened cerebral venous walls (venous collagenosis), which may play a role in cerebral ischemia and/or infarction, are both consequences of long-term hypertension in hypertensive rats. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  13. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis within the ipsilateral thalamus with secondary damage after focal cortical infarction in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Li; Zeng, Jinsheng; Pei, Zhong; Cheung, Raymond T F; Hou, Qinghua; Xing, Shihui; Zhang, Suping

    2009-09-01

    Neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the subventricular zone and peri-infarct region have been confirmed. However, newly formed neuronal cells and blood vessels that appear in the nonischemic ipsilateral ventroposterior nucleus (VPN) of the thalamus with secondary damage after stroke has not been previously studied. Twenty-four stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats were subjected to distal right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham operation. 5'-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label cell proliferation. Rats were killed at 7 or 14 days after the operation. Neuronal nuclei (NeuN), OX-42, BrdU, nestin, laminin(+), BrdU(+)/nestin(+), BrdU(+)/NeuN(+), nestin(+)/GFAP(+)(glial fibrillary acidic protein), and BrdU(+)/laminin(+) immunoreactive cells were detected within the ipsilateral VPN. The primary infarction was confined to the right somatosensory cortex. Within the ipsilateral VPN of the ischemic rats, the number of NeuN(+) neurons decreased, the OX-42(+) microglia cells were activated, and BrdU(+) and nestin(+) cells were detected at day 7 after MCAO and increased in number at day 14. Moreover, BrdU(+)/nestin(+) cells and BrdU(+)/NeuN(+) cells were detected at day 14 after MCAO. In addition, the ischemic rats showed a significant increase in vascular density in the ipsilateral VPN compared with the sham-operated rats. These results suggest that secondary damage with neurogenesis and angiogenesis of the ipsilateral VPN of the thalamus occurs after focal cortical infarction.

  14. Studies on the diagnosis of Tyzzer's disease in laboratory rat colonies with antibodies against Bacillus piliformis (Clostridium piliforme).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A K; Andersen, H V; Svendsen, O

    1994-10-01

    To develop a system to be used for confirming diagnosis of Tyzzer's disease in seropositive rat colonies, 38 Mol:SPRD, BB/Wor/Mol-BB, and Stroke-Prone rats suffering from megaloileitis were examined. All affected rats had been found by a systematic examination of 5-week-old male rats from barrier-protected colonies, sero-positive to Bacillus piliformis, the agent of Tyzzer's disease. The rats were evaluated by serologic testing, histologic examination of the ileum, liver, and heart (hematoxylin and eosin and Warthin-Starry staining), and immunofluorescence staining of tissue smears of the ileum and liver. The presence of B. piliformis was verified in 24 of the rats. All animals that had the agent in the liver or heart also had it in the ileum. The sensitivity of immunofluorescence staining for identification of the agent was higher than that for Warthin-Starry staining. Thirty-seven rats had histologic changes indicative of Tyzzer's disease in the liver, and 23 had histologic changes in the myocardium. All rats had a high titer of antibodies against B. piliformis. Having verified the presence of the agent, germ-free sentinels were placed in one of the colonies. These also became infected, as did germ-free sentinels caged with the infected rats outside the barrier unit. The number of sentinels infected increased with the age of the sentinels at introduction. To prove the absence of Tyzzer's disease in a seropositive colony, it is considered necessary to examine approximately 3,000 5-week-old rats for abdominal distension and demonstrate negative staining of the ileum for B. piliformis.

  15. [Changes in DNA repair enzymes in rat ventroposterior nucleus of the thalamus after cerebral cortex infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mei-Xia; Zeng, Jin-Sheng; Hua, Hai-Ying; Xing, Shi-Hui; Ba, Yun-Peng

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the damage within the ventroposterior nucleus (VPN) of the thalamus after focal cortical infarction and its mechanism, and explore the effect of ebselen on the oxidative damage after cerebral cortex infarction in hypertensive rats. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRSP), and the rats were divided into four groups by table of random number: sham operation group, model group, vehicle group and ebselen group, each group consisted of 8 rats. In animals subjected to sham surgery the middle cerebral artery was exposed only. Ebselen (5 ml/kg) or vehicle (a mixed solvent consisting of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose and 0.02% Tween 20, 5 ml/kg) was given by gastric gavage starting 24 hours after cerebral cortical infarction. Two weeks after the MCAO, the rats were sacrificed, and VPN from each group was sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE), and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) and Escherichia coli MutY DNA glycosylase (MYH) were determined by immunohistochemistry. HE staining showed that ebselen ameliorated the VPN damage induced by ischemia. Immunohistochemical imaging analysis revealed a distinct nuclear staining of APE and nuclear and cytoplasm distribution of MYH in the entire region of the VPN. Compared with sham operation group, the number of APE and MYH positive cells decreased in model group and vehicle group (APE: 57.0±14.7, 49.4±12.5 vs. 101.0±13.6, MYH: 15.0±4.7, 10.4±2.5 vs. 56.0±13.2, all PVPN; ebselen can obviously increase the level of APE and MYH, and ebselen may protect the VPN of the thalamus from damage after focal cortical infarction in rats.

  16. Novel genetic linkage of rat Sp6 mutation to Amelogenesis imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muto Taro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI is an inherited disorder characterized by abnormal formation of tooth enamel. Although several genes responsible for AI have been reported, not all causative genes for human AI have been identified to date. AMI rat has been reported as an autosomal recessive mutant with hypoplastic AI isolated from a colony of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat strain, but the causative gene has not yet been clarified. Through a genetic screen, we identified the causative gene of autosomal recessive AI in AMI and analyzed its role in amelogenesis. Methods cDNA sequencing of possible AI-candidate genes so far identified using total RNA of day 6 AMI rat molars identified a novel responsible mutation in specificity protein 6 (Sp6. Genetic linkage analysis was performed between Sp6 and AI phenotype in AMI. To understand a role of SP6 in AI, we generated the transgenic rats harboring Sp6 transgene in AMI (Ami/Ami + Tg. Histological analyses were performed using the thin sections of control rats, AMI, and Ami/Ami + Tg incisors in maxillae, respectively. Results We found the novel genetic linkage between a 2-bp insertional mutation of Sp6 gene and the AI phenotype in AMI rats. The position of mutation was located in the coding region of Sp6, which caused frameshift mutation and disruption of the third zinc finger domain of SP6 with 11 cryptic amino acid residues and a stop codon. Transfection studies showed that the mutant protein can be translated and localized in the nucleus in the same manner as the wild-type SP6 protein. When we introduced the CMV promoter-driven wild-type Sp6 transgene into AMI rats, the SP6 protein was ectopically expressed in the maturation stage of ameloblasts associated with the extended maturation stage and the shortened reduced stage without any other phenotypical changes. Conclusion We propose the addition of Sp6 mutation as a new molecular diagnostic criterion for the

  17. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    of high blood pressure. The earliest appearance of vasculitis in SHRSP was at ~8 months of age after full establishment of elevated arterial pressure. Systolic blood pressures during the maintained phase were greater than 200mmHg for SHRSP and less than. 130mmHg for WKY rats (ages: 8-18 months). Within SHRSP ...

  18. Protective effects and potential mechanisms of Pien Tze Huang on cerebral chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke

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    Kwong Wing

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke caused by brain ischemia is the third leading cause of adult disability. Active prevention and early treatment of stroke targeting the causes and risk factors may decrease its incidence, mortality and subsequent disability. Pien Tze Huang (PZH, a Chinese medicine formula, was found to have anti-edema, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects that can prevent brain damage. This study aims to investigate the potential mechanisms of the preventive effects of Pien Tze Huang on brain damage caused by chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke in rats. Methods The effects of Pien Tze Huang on brain protein expression in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR and stroke prone SHR (SHRsp were studied with 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometer and on brain cell death with enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA and immunostaining. Results Pien Tze Huang decreased cell death in hippocampus and cerebellum caused by chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke. Immunostaining of caspase-3 results indicated that Pien Tze Huang prevents brain cells from apoptosis caused by ischemia. Brain protein expression results suggested that Pien Tze Huang downregulated QCR2 in the electron transfer chain of mitochondria preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS damage and possibly subsequent cell death (caspase 3 assay as caused by chronic ischemia or hypertensive stroke to hippocampus and cerebellum. Conclusion Pien Tze Huang showed preventive effects on limiting the damage or injury caused by chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke in rats. The effect of Pien Tze Huang was possibly related to prevention of cell death from apoptosis or ROS/oxidative damage in mitochondria.

  19. Toward the in vivo study of captopril-conjugated quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Noriyoshi; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Liang, Yi-qiang; Goto, Tomomasa; Kato, Norihiro; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2005-04-01

    Photo-luminescent semiconductor quantum dots are nanometer-size probes that have the potential to be applied to the fields of the bio-imaging and the study of the cell mobility inside the body. At the same time, on the other hand, quantum dots are expected to carry some kind of molecules to the local organ inside of the animal body, which leads to the expectation that they can be used as a medicine-carrier. For this purpose, we conjugate (2S)-1-[(2s)-2-Methyl-3-sulfanylpropionyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (cap) with the quantum dot. Cap has the effect as an anti-hypertension drug, which inhibits angiotensin 1 converting enzyme. We conjugated the quantum dot with cap by the exchange reaction avoiding the regions which holds medicinal effect. Quantum dot conjugated with cap (QD-cap) were 3-times brighter than thioglycerol-coated quantum dots (QD-OH). The particle size of cap was 1.1nm and that of QD-cap was 12nm. QD-cap was permeated into the HeLa cells, while QD-MUA were taken into the HeLa cells by endocytosis. In addition, no apoptosis was detected against the cells that permeated QD-cap, because there was no damage to DNA. These results indicated that QD-conjugated medicines (QD-medicine) could be safe in the experiment on the level of the cell. More over, when QD-cap was intravenously injected into Stroke-prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP), they reduced blood pressure at systole. Therefore, the anti-hypertension effect of cap remained after conjugated with the quantum dot. These results suggested that QD-medicine were effective on the animal level.

  20. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... nucleus, bizarre segmentation; (I) shows hypersegmentation, bizarre segmentation of neutrophils in the shape of ring nucleus with polychromatophilic RBCs. 1998; Muller and Tobin, 1980). The current study shows that rats administered C. edulis hydro-ethanol extract, orally for 28 days, developed anemia, ...

  1. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  2. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea.......This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  3. Rat Bite Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who ... ingestion of contaminated food or milk products (Haverhill fever). Most cases in the United States are caused ...

  4. Colon of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, C.G.; Rosengren, J.-E.; Fork, F.-T.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy and radiologic appearance of the colon in rats are described on the basis of 300 animals treated with carcinogenic agents and 40 normal rats. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the mucosa varies in the different parts of the colon. Lymphoid plaques are normal structures. The results justify a new anatomic nomenclature. (Auth.)

  5. Longtransplantatie bij de rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marck, Klaas Willem

    1983-01-01

    Op grond van de resultaten van het hierboven beschreven onderzoek en de eraan gewijde beschouwingen zijn de volgende conclasies getrokken: 1. Orthotope linkszijdige longtransplantatie bij de rat is operatietechnisch mogelijk. 2. Longpercusiescintigrafie met radioactief ,,gelabelde" microbolletjes is

  6. Rat-bite fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by either of 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are ...

  7. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour...

  8. in albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-09-23

    Sep 23, 2010 ... cell carcinoma (02) and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. (02) (Figures 1 and 2). Most of the rats had chronic inflammation and precancerous changes in early weeks. Figure 3. Photomicrograph showing normal epidermal and dermal layers (H & E X 100). Hair loss was observed on specific areas on the third.

  9. CAMALDULENSIS IN RATS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. Sub – acute toxicity study of the aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis was carried out on albino rats. Doses of 250mg, 500mg, 750mg and 1000mg per kilogram body weight of the extract were administered orally for 21 days. The activities of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT),. Aspartate ...

  10. Attachment behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigling, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes studies into the rat as an animal model for attachment, along the lines of Bowlby's attachment theory. First, the relation between attachment and human psychopathology is reviewed. The conclusion is that psychopathology is more frequent in insecure attached persons and that

  11. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  12. Tubuloglomerular feedback in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a loss of autoregulation in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl-S) rats rendered hypertensive on a high-salt diet. To determine whether this was due to a decreased activity of either the myogenic or the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) response, we tested the TGF response...... in both Dahl-S and salt-resistant Dahl rats on high- and low-salt diets. TGF was investigated in the closed-loop mode with a videometric technique, in which the response in late proximal flow rate to perturbations in Henle flow rate was measured. All Dahl rats showed a similar compensatory response...... to perturbations around the natural operating point, with a TGF response that was more efficient than in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. No evidence of decreased TGF responsiveness in hypertensive Dahl-S rats was found. The results suggest that the loss of autoregulation in hypertensive Dahl-S rats is due...

  13. Rat Genome and Model Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Mary; Smith, Jennifer R; Bryda, Elizabeth; Kuramoto, Takashi; Saba, Laura; Dwinell, Melinda

    2017-07-01

    Rats remain a major model for studying disease mechanisms and discovery, validation, and testing of new compounds to improve human health. The rat's value continues to grow as indicated by the more than 1.4 million publications (second to human) at PubMed documenting important discoveries using this model. Advanced sequencing technologies, genome modification techniques, and the development of embryonic stem cell protocols ensure the rat remains an important mammalian model for disease studies. The 2004 release of the reference genome has been followed by the production of complete genomes for more than two dozen individual strains utilizing NextGen sequencing technologies; their analyses have identified over 80 million variants. This explosion in genomic data has been accompanied by the ability to selectively edit the rat genome, leading to hundreds of new strains through multiple technologies. A number of resources have been developed to provide investigators with access to precision rat models, comprehensive datasets, and sophisticated software tools necessary for their research. Those profiled here include the Rat Genome Database, PhenoGen, Gene Editing Rat Resource Center, Rat Resource and Research Center, and the National BioResource Project for the Rat in Japan. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Laughing rats are optimistic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Rygula

    Full Text Available Emotions can bias human decisions- for example depressed or anxious people tend to make pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Several studies have reported that affect contingent judgement biases can also be produced in animals. The animals, however, cannot self-report; therefore, the valence of their emotions, to date, could only be assumed. Here we present the results of an experiment where the affect-contingent judgement bias has been produced by objectively measured positive emotions. We trained rats in operant Skinner boxes to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a food reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot shock. After attaining a stable level of discrimination performance, the animals were subjected to either handling or playful, experimenter-administered manual stimulation - tickling. This procedure has been confirmed to induce a positive affective state in rats, and the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (rat laughter emitted by animals in response to tickling have been postulated to index positive emotions akin to human joy. During the tickling and handling sessions, the numbers of emitted high-frequency 50-kHz calls were scored. Immediately after tickling or handling, the animals were tested for their responses to a tone of intermediate frequency, and the pattern of their responses to this ambiguous cue was taken as an indicator of the animals' optimism. Our findings indicate that tickling induced positive emotions which are directly indexed in rats by laughter, can make animals more optimistic. We demonstrate for the first time a link between the directly measured positive affective state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model. We also introduce innovative tandem-approach for studying emotional-cognitive interplay in animals, which may be of great value for understanding the emotional

  15. Do rats have orgasms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Pfaus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method: Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs in other species: 1 physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2 short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3 long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results: Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions: The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research.

  16. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquinetreated rats: effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2 ml/kg of normal ...

  17. Hexachlorophene retinopathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towfighi, J; Gonatas, N K; McCree, L

    1975-03-01

    The primary effect of hexachlorophene on rat retina is disruption of the disc membranes of photoreceptor outer segments and irreversible destruction of their cell bodies. The neurons of the ganglion cell layer of the retina also become affected, probably secondary to optic nerve lesions present in hexachlorophene intoxication. The early and probably reversible changes of the discs are vacuolation and vesiculotubular degeneration. Vacuolation in the discs results from separation of their inner aspects. This lesion is analogous to the separation of myelin lamellae at the intraperiod line, also produced by hexachlorophene.

  18. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour......, and entailing a self-defeating and hence counter-productive pattern, where more publications is always better and where it becomes increasingly difficult for researchers to keep up with the new research in their field. The article identifies the pressure to publish as a problem of collective action. It ends up...

  19. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  20. Oxidative Stress in Aged Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damisela Ramírez Ramírez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: aging is one of the major problems that the world is facing today due to its impact on all areas of society. Objective: to determine the concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products and malondialdehyde as indicators of oxidative damage and to determine the antioxidant defense capacity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and the reduced glutathione concentration in aged rats. Methods: a total of 20 male Wistar rats with a body weight of approximately 200 to 250 grams were selected to form two groups with 10 young adult rats and 10 old rats. 2 ml of blood was drawn from the paranasal sinus. The sample was collected in 5 ml vials and after being homogenized, it was sent to the Biomedical Research Center, where it was used to assess the following oxidative stress variables: degree of oxidative damage and antioxidant defense level. An analysis of variance was performed to study the behavior of the different groups. Differences were considered significant when P value was less than 0.05. Results: no significant changes were found in the concentrations of malondialdehyde and glutathione, as well as in the superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in aged rats compared to young. Concentration of advanced oxidation protein products increased significantly in aged rats. Conclusions: aged rats showed an increase in oxidative damage to proteins. Antioxidant defense capacity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced glutathione concentration showed no changes.

  1. Rat traps: filling the toolbox for manipulating the rat genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, R.; Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    The laboratory rat is rapidly gaining momentum as a mammalian genetic model organism. Although traditional forward genetic approaches are well established, recent technological developments have enabled efficient gene targeting and mutant generation. Here we outline the current status, possibilities

  2. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-20

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-..beta.. endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I/sup 125/ h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Intramitochondrial autonomy in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, M.; Rajwade, M.S.; Satav, J.G.; Katyare, S.S.; Fatterpaker, P.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The biogenesis of mitochondria in rat liver and their protein turnover has been investigated using 1- 14 C leucine. The results indicate that intramitochondrial autonomy exists both with respect to their genesis and turnover. (M.G.B.)

  4. infarction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Yousefi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, finding new therapeutic compounds from natural products for treatment and prevention of a variety of diseases including cardiovascular disorders is getting a great deal of attention. This approach would result in finding new drugs which are more effective and have fewer side effects than the conventional medicines. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare, a popular traditional medicinal herb, on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI in rat model. Methods: Male Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of control, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/12h of the extract given orally concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day for two consecutive days was used to induce MI. Then, histopathological changes and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Results: Isoproterenol injection increased inflammatory response, as shown by a significant increase in peripheral neutrophil count, myocardial myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and serum levels of creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB and TNF-α (pM.vulgare extract serum CK-MB was subsided by 55.4%, 52.2% and 69%, respectively. Also treatment with the extract (40 mg/kg significantly reduced (p<0.001 MPO activity in MI group. The levels of TNF-α was also considerably declined in the serums of MI group (p<0.001. In addition, peripheral neutrophil count, was significantly lowered by all doses of the extract (p<0.001. Interstitial fibrosis significantly was attenuated in treated groups compared with control MI group.Conclusion:The results of study demonstrate that the M. vulgare extract has strong protective effects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction and it seems possible that this protection is due to its anti-inflammatory effects.

  5. The thymus reconstituted nude rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Klausen, B

    1987-01-01

    The monoclonal antibodies OX6, OX19, W3/13, OX7, OX8, and W3/25 were used to gain information about the distribution of different lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral lymphoid organs of neonatally isogeneic and allogeneic thymus reconstituted nude rats. Splenic mitogen responsiveness, xenogeneic...... cell response is far better following isografting. We, therefore, conclude that isogeneic thymus grafting is an easy method of reconstituting the nude rat immunologically....

  6. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  7. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON HEPATOBILIARY TRANSPORT OF CATIONIC DRUGS - A STUDY IN THE ISOLATED-PERFUSED RAT-LIVER, RAT HEPATOCYTES AND RAT MITOCHONDRIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEEN, H; MEIJER, DKF; Merema, M.T.

    The effect of ethanol on the hepatic uptake of various cationic drugs was studied in isolated perfused rat livers, isolated rat hepatocytes and isolated rat liver mitochondria. In isolated rat hepatocytes and in isolated perfused rat livers, the uptake of the model organic cation

  8. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  9. The serotonin transporter knockout rat : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, Jocelien; Cools, Alexander; Ellenbroek, Bart A.; Cuppen, E.; Homberg, Judith; Kalueff, Allan V.; LaPorte, Justin L.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter dicusses the most recent data on the serotonin transporter knock-out rat, a unique rat model that has been generated by target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) driven mutagenesis. The knock-out rat is the result of a premature stopcodon in the serotonin transporter gene, and the

  10. The rat GPRC6A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Burhenne, Nicole; Christiansen, Bolette

    2007-01-01

    GPRC6A is a novel member of family C of G protein-coupled receptors with so far elusive biological function. GPRC6A has been described in human and mouse as a promiscuous l-alpha-amino acid receptor. We now report the cloning, expression analysis and, functional characterization of the rat...... orthologue of GPRC6A. Full-length cloning of rat GPRC6A (rGPRC6A) was accomplished using amplification of cDNA from taste tissue, and the identity of rGPRC6A confirmed at both the genomic and the protein level by similarity studies. Using selective primers, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...... conservation of GPRC6A to the rat and signifies the physiological importance and emerging pharmacological potential of GPRC6A....

  11. Phosphodiesterases in the rat ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Stahlhut, Martin; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-01-01

    that augmented cAMP levels stimulate primordial follicle growth. The present study examined the gene expression, enzyme activity and immunolocalization of the different cAMP hydrolysing PDEs families in the rat ovary. Further, the effect of PDE4 inhibition on primordial follicle activation in cultured neonatal...... rat ovaries was also evaluated. We found varied expression of all eight families in the ovary with Pde7b and Pde8a having the highest expression each accounting for more than 20% of the total PDE mRNA. PDE4 accounted for 15-26% of the total PDE activity. Immunoreactive PDE11A was found in the oocytes...... and PDE2A in the corpora lutea. Incubating neonatal rat ovaries with PDE4 inhibitors did not increase primordial follicle activation or change the expression of the developing follicle markers Gdf9, Amh, Inha, the proliferation marker Mki67 or the primordial follicle marker Tmeff2. In addition, the c...

  12. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. Results: After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. Conclusions: We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. Citation: Oonk M, Krueger JM, Davis CJ. Voluntary sleep loss in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1467–1479. PMID:27166236

  13. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    IL‐1B and MIP‐2  concentrations   reduced  NONE  Brain  conc at 4, 8,  12, or 24h; Dose  response seen;  5000 IV gave  highest  brain  conc  18/Xiong et...by the Operation Brain Trauma Therapy consortium Drugs Secondary Injury Mechanisms Inflammation Axonal Injury Excitotoxicity/ Neurotransmitter ...glutamatergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Neurosci Lett. 2002;320:109–112. 45. Nakamura K

  14. Peculiarities of osteoarthritis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Drahulian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Was received model of osteoarthritis in the rat line Wistar, by a one-time injection of CH3COOI acid into the knee joint. There changes in joint studied histological and clinical methods.On the 7-th day of the experiment was installed resemblance to similar changes in the joints of humans with acquired osteoarthritis

  15. Pagophagia in the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, S C; Weisinger, R S

    1970-09-25

    Pagophagia, or ice-eating, is a common symptom of iron-deficiency anemia in humans. Rats made anemic by withdrawal of blood consume a significantly greater proportion of their daily water in the form of ice than nonanemic controls. Recovery from the anemia eliminates the pagophagia.

  16. on gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Design: Experimental study using a pre-validated model. Subject: Adult Swiss albino rats weighing 140-214g, Generic gentamicin sulphate ... antibiotics to clinical medicine in 1944 (Gilbert, 1991) heralded an era of triumph over gram negative pathogens and, previously disastrous, sepsis. Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity are ...

  17. Tubuloglomerular feedback in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a loss of autoregulation in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl-S) rats rendered hypertensive on a high-salt diet. To determine whether this was due to a decreased activity of either the myogenic or the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) response, we tested the TGF response...

  18. Acute renal failure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederholm, C.; Almen, T.; Bergquist, D.; Golman, K.; Takolander, R.; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1989-01-01

    It was demonstrated in rats that renal injury which follows transient renal hypoxia is potentiated by the contrast media metrizoate, ioxaglate, iopamidol and iohexol. Intravenous injection of 1 g I/kg of all four media alone to 82 rats caused no significant increase in serum urea 1, 3 and 7 days later. The percentage increase of serum urea is given in median values and interquartile range (in parentheses). Bilateral renal arterial occlusion alone for 40 minutes in 42 rats increased serum urea one day later by 40% (20-130). Intravenous injection of the media followed in one hour by bilateral renal arterial occlusion for 40 minutes in 104 rats caused serum urea to increase one day later by 130% (70-350) after metrizoate, by 220% (50-380) after ioxaglate, by 290 % (60-420) after iopamidol and by 160% (50-330) after iohexol. There were no significant differences between the potentiating effects of the various media on ischemic renal failure. (orig.)

  19. LOCOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN UNDERNOURISHED RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRAMSBERGEN, A; WESTERGA, J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of undernutrition on the development of locomotion were studied in fourteen rats. Mothers received about 40% of normal quantities of standard laboratory food from the 5th day of gestation until weaning at the 21st day after birth. Qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of locomotion

  20. Acute renal failure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederholm, C.; Almen, T.; Bergqvist, D.; Golman, K.; Takolander, R.

    1986-01-01

    Acute renal failure is a serious complication oif reconstructive aortoiliac surgery. The question was raised whether its etiology includes interaction between preoperative angiographic contrast medium and intra-operative clamping of the renal arteries. Renal arteries of 180 rats were bilaterally clamped 10 to 120 min and serum urea was determined from 3 h to 7 days later. In 35 rats 40 min clamping alone produced an increase in urea reaching a maximum 1 day later (median increase 70%). In 3 groups of 12 rats intravenous injection of the contrast medium metrizoate alone in doses 1, 2 and 3 g I/kg body-weight produced no significant increase in urea. Intravenous injection of the same doses to 3 groups of 10 rats each followed 1 h later by renal arterial occlusion for 40 min produced median urea increases one day later of 110, 130 and 170%, respectively, in the 3 groups. The increase was higher than that produced by contrast medium alone (p<0.01) or by renal artery clamping alone (p<0.05) indicating a potentiation of transient renal failure by the combination of contrast medium and renal arterial clamping. (orig.)

  1. August rats are more resistant to arrhythmogenic effect of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion than Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, L M; Kirillina, T N; Pshennikova, M G; Arkhipenko, Yu V

    2002-06-01

    As differentiated from Wistar rats, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion produce no ventricular fibrillation in August rats. Pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nw-nitro-L-arginine increased mortality rate in August rats with acute myocardial infarction from 20 to 40%. Under these conditions mortality rate in Wistar rats increased from 50 to 71%. Interstrain differences in the resistance of these animals to the arrhythmogenic effect of ischemia are probably associated with higher activity of the nitric oxide system in August rats compared to Wistar rats.

  2. Diminished hormonal responses to exercise in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Richter, Erik; Holst, J J

    1977-01-01

    Male rats (120 g) either were subjected to a 12-wk physical training program (T rats) or were sedentary controls (C rats). Subsequently the rats were killed at rest or after a 45- or 90-min forced swim. At rest, T rats had higher liver and muscle glycogen concentrations but lower plasma insulin...

  3. Kangaroo rat bone compared to white rat bone after short-term disuse and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Reichman, O. J.

    1996-01-01

    Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) were used to study the effects of confinement on mechanical properties of bone with a long range objective of proposing an alternative to the white rat model for the study of disuse osteoporosis. Kangaroo rats exhibit bipedal locomotion, which subjects their limbs to substantial accelerative forces in addition to the normal stress of weight bearing. We subjected groups of kangaroo rats and white rats (Rattus norvegicus) to one of two confinement treatments or to an exercise regime; animals were exercised at a rate calculated to replicate their (respective) daily exercise patterns. White laboratory rats were used as the comparison because they are currently the accepted model used in the study of disuse osteoporosis. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and the long bones of their hind limbs were tested mechanically and examined for histomorphometric changes. We found that kangaroo rats held in confinement had less ash content in their hind limbs than exercised kangaroo rats. In general, treated kangaroo rats showed morphometric and mechanical bone deterioration compared to controls and exercised kangaroo rats appeared to have slightly “stronger” bones than confined animals. White rats exhibited no significant differences between treatments. These preliminary results suggest that kangaroo rats may be an effective model in the study of disuse osteoporosis.

  4. The thymus reconstituted nude rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Klausen, B

    1987-01-01

    The monoclonal antibodies OX6, OX19, W3/13, OX7, OX8, and W3/25 were used to gain information about the distribution of different lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral lymphoid organs of neonatally isogeneic and allogeneic thymus reconstituted nude rats. Splenic mitogen responsiveness, xenogeneic...... skin rejection, and antibody titers were also measured in the same groups of animals. The experiments showed that both allogeneic and isogeneic thymus grafting cause a significant amplification of cells in the different T lymphocyte subpopulations. The functional tests, however, indicate that the T...... cell response is far better following isografting. We, therefore, conclude that isogeneic thymus grafting is an easy method of reconstituting the nude rat immunologically....

  5. Renal function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P K; Christiansen, J S; Steven, K

    1981-01-01

    Renal function was examined with micropuncture methods in the insulin-treated streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Kidney glomerular filtration rate was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.21 ml/min) than in the control group (0.84 ml/min) Nephron glomerular filtration rate increased in proportion...... to the rise in kidney glomerular filtration rate (diabetic rats: 37.0 nl/min; control rats: 27.9 nl/min). Likewise renal plasma flow was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (4.1 ml/min) than in the control group (3.0 ml/min). Glomerular capillary pressure was identical in both groups (56.0 and 56.0 mm......-1mmHg-1). Kidney weight was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.15 g; control rats: 0.96 g) while body weight was similar in both groups (diabetic rats: 232 g; control rats: 238 g). Calculations indicate that the increases in transglomerular hydraulic pressure, renal plasma flow...

  6. Renal alterations in prediabetic rats with periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Carla Cruvinel Pontes; Holmstrup, Palle; Buschard, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periodontitis was shown to have an impact on glucose levels in prediabetic and diabetic rats. The Zucker fatty rat (ZFR) is a well-characterized model of prediabetes presenting with impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and moderate hypertension. The aim of the p......BACKGROUND: Periodontitis was shown to have an impact on glucose levels in prediabetic and diabetic rats. The Zucker fatty rat (ZFR) is a well-characterized model of prediabetes presenting with impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and moderate hypertension. The aim...

  7. Characterization of rat lung ICAM-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Schimmer, B; Schimmer, R C; Schmal, H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: We expressed soluble rat ICAM-1, generated a polyclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibody, and studied ICAM-1 upregulation in lung inflammatory conditions. Bacterial and baculovirus expression systems were employed. MATERIAL: 250 g adult, male Long Evans rats were used. For in vitro...... studies, rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells (RPAEC), rat alveolar macrophages and aortic rings were stimulated (as described below) and evaluated for ICAM-1 expression. TREATMENT: RPAEC and macrophages were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant murine tumour necrosis factor alpha...

  8. X-ray lethality in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cember, H.; Thorson, T.M. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Rats were made diabetic with streptozotocin and were irradiated with X-rays at various exposure levels in order to determine the LD-50/30 day dose. Non-diabetic control rats were exposed in a similar manner. The LD-50 exposures for the diabetic rats and the control rats were 436 R, and 617 R respectively. In view of the high prevalence of diabetes among the adult population, this finding may have important implications for diabetic workers who may be exposed accidentally to high levels of ionizing radiation

  9. Hyperparathyroidism is augmented by ovariectomy in Nagase analbuminemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, M; Morii, H; Katsumata, T; Goto, H; Ishimura, E; Kawagishi, T; Kamao, M; Okano, T; Nishizawa, Y

    2000-06-01

    The role of albumin in bone metabolism was studied in Nagase analbuminemic (NA) rats. Serum calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations did not differ between female NA and control Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at the time of ovariectomy (ovx), although serum ionized Ca was significantly lower in NA rats than in SD rats. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and osteocalcin (OC) concentrations and urinary Ca excretion were significantly greater in NA rats than in SD rats, suggesting hyperparathyroidism and the resultant enhanced bone turnover in NA rats. Paradoxically, ovx increased serum PTH and OC in NA rats but not in SD rats. Ovx-induced exacerbation of hyperparathyroidism was confirmed by significantly greater conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D in ovx NA rats even after normalization to vitamin D-binding protein. Bone mineral density (BMD) in proximal tibia increased similarly in a time-dependent manner in sham-operated NA and SD rats. However, ovx ablated the time-dependent increase of BMD in SD rats and significantly decreased BMD in NA rats by 2 wk after ovx, resulting in a significantly lower BMD in ovx NA rats than in ovx SD rats. In summary, NA rats, which are analbuminemic with compensatory increases in lipid and protein synthesis, developed hyperparathyroidism, possibly due to an increase in serum Pi and a reduction of ionized Ca, and ovx induced a greater BMD reduction in NA rats than in SD rats, probably by exacerbating hyperparathyroidism.

  10. Stevia preferences in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Martínez, Paula; Argüelles Luis, Juan; Perillán Méndez, Carmen

    2016-11-01

    The Stevia rebaudiana plant is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural-food market. S. rebaudiana is the source of a number of sweet diterpenoid glycosides, but the major sweet constituents are rebaudioside A and stevioside. These two constituents have similar pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles in rats and humans, and thus, studies carried out with either steviol glycoside are relevant to both. Other studies illustrate the diversity of voluntary sweet intake in mammals. This study was done using a series of two-bottle tests that compared a wide range of sweetener concentrations versus saccharin concentrations and versus water. Wistar rats displayed preferences for stevia extract and pure rebaudioside A solutions over water at a range of concentrations (0.001% to 0.3%), and their intake peak occurred at 0.1% concentration. They also preferred solutions prepared with a commercial rebaudioside A plus erythritol mixture to water, and their peak was at 2% concentration. The present study provides new information about the responses of Wistar rats to stevia compounds and commercial stevia products such as Truvia. These results could help with the appropriate dosage selection for focused behavioral and physiological studies on stevia.

  11. Pathophysiology of the Belgrade Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania eVeuthey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Belgrade rat is an animal model of Divalent Metal Transporter-1 (DMT1 deficiency. This strain originates from an X-irradiation experiment first reported in 1966. Since then, the Belgrade rat’s pathophysiology has helped to reveal the importance of iron balance and the role of DMT1. This review discusses our current understanding of iron transport homeostasis and summarizes molecular details of DMT1 function. We describe how studies of the Belgrade rat have revealed key roles for DMT1 in iron distribution to red blood cells as well as duodenal iron absorption. The Belgrade rat’s pathology has extended our knowledge of hepatic iron handling, pulmonary and olfactory iron transport as well as brain iron uptake and renal iron handling. For example, relationships between iron and manganese metabolism have been discerned since both are essential metals transported by DMT1. Pathophysiologic features of the Belgrade rat provide us with a unique and interesting animal model to understand iron homeostasis.

  12. Disappearance of 125I-labelled rat growth hormone in nephrectomized and sham operated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.L.C.; Stacy, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    125 I-labelled rat growth hormone (GH) was injected i.v. into rats immediately after nephrectomy or a sham operation. Serial blood samples were then taken for 2 hr from an indwelling arterial cannula. The rates of removal of trichloracetic acid precipitable radioactivity and immunoreactive 125 I-GH were both significantly decreased in the nephrectomized rats. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of plasma samples taken at 5 min and 120 min confirmed the observation that GH was removed from the circulation more slowly in the anephric rat. It is concluded that in the rat the kidney contributes significantly to the clearance of GH from the blood. (orig.) [de

  13. Modulation of rat behaviour by using a rat-like robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Qing; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Shinichi; Takanishi, Atsuo; Okabayashi, Satoshi; Iida, Naritoshi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the response of a rat to a rat-like robot capable of generating different types of behaviour (stressful, friendly, neutral). Experiments are conducted in an open-field where a rat-like robot called WR-4 is put together with live rats. The activity level of each rat subject is evaluated by scoring its locomotor activity and frequencies of performing rearing (rising up on its hind limbs) and body grooming (body cuddling and head curling) actions, whereas the degree of preference of that is indicated by the robot–rat distance and the frequency of contacting WR-4. The moving speed and behaviour of WR-4 are controlled in real-time based on the feedback from rat motion. The activity level and degree of preference of rats for each experimental condition are analysed and compared to understand the influence of robot behaviour. The results of this study show that the activity level and degree of preference of the rat decrease when exposed to a stressful robot, and increase when the robot exhibit friendly behaviour, suggesting that a rat-like robot can modulate rat behaviour in a controllable, predictable way. (paper)

  14. Morphological and neurohistological changes in adolescent rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy was confirmed and the pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups based on the 3 trimesters (A, B, C), with each group having a control and a treated subgroup. The Control Groups (A1, B1, ... offspring of tobacco smokers. Keywords: Cortex, Histology, Prenatal nicotine, Adolescent rats, Neurological abnormalities ...

  15. Costimulation and autoimmune diabetes in BB rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaudette-Zlatanova, BC; Whalen, B; Zipris, D; Yagita, H; Rozing, J; Groen, H; Benjamin, CD; Hunig, T; Drexhage, HA; Ansari, MJ; Leif, J; Mordes, JP; Greiner, DL; Sayegh, MH; Rossini, AA

    Costimulatory signals regulate T-cell activation. To investigate the role of costimulation in autoimmunity and transplantation, we studied the BB rat model of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-prone BB (BBDP) rats spontaneously develop disease when 55-120 days of age. We observed that two anti-CD28

  16. stem bark in male Wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the acute and sub-acute toxicity effects of aqueous stem bark extract in male. Wistar rats. Methods: For the acute toxicity study, a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight of the extract was orally administered to the animals by oral gavage and the rats thereafter were observed for mortality and toxicity ...

  17. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups

  18. Grooming behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de

    1987-01-01

    In an open field spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibited lower scores for grooming when compared to their normotensive controls, the Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After i.c.v. injection of 1 μg ACTH1–24 cumulative 50-min grooming scores were lower in SHR. Analysis of subscores indicated that the

  19. Bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance in ageing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, C.F.; Leeuw-Israel, F.R. de; Arp-Neefjes, J.M.

    1968-01-01

    Liver function in ageing rats was studied, using the bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance test. The test was done on ultramicro scale. This made it possible to repeat the test several times in the same animal and to start a longitudinal study. In 3-month-old rats the BSP retentions, measured 15, 30 and 45

  20. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...

  1. Metabolism of methylphenidate in dog and rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egger, H.; Bartlett, F.; Dreyfuss, R.; Karliner, J.

    1981-01-01

    The urinary metabolites of methylphenidate in the dog and rat were investigated. After oral administration of 14C-labeled methylphenidate, approximately 86% and 63% of the dose was recovered in the urine of the dog and rat, respectively. Less than 1% of the dose was excreted as unchanged drug. Metabolism involved oxidation, hydrolysis, and conjugation processes. The primary hydrolytic product was alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid (24%, dog; 35-40%, rat). The primary metabolites of oxidation were methyl 6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (3%, dog; 1.5%, rat) and the glucuronide of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-piperidineacetic acid (10%, rat). The former also underwent extensive biotransformation, including: 1) hydrolysis to the lactam acid (27%, dog; 7-10%, rat) and subsequent carboxylic acid O-glucuronidation (15%, dog); or 2) hydroxylation at the 5-position (1%, dog; 2%, rat) and subsequent hydrolysis (4%, dog; 15-17%, rat); or 3) 5-O-glucuronidation (12%, dog). Additional minor metabolites from methyl-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate were the phenolic O-glucuronide of methyl alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the 4-O-glucuronide of methyl 4-hydroxy-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the taurine amide conjugate of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetic acid (1%, dog). Additional products from methylphenidate conjugation included methyl 1-carbamoyl-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog or rat) and its carboxylic acid hydrolysis product (1%, rat). The chirality of the major metabolites isolated from dog urine showed that metabolism was partially stereoselective in all investigated cases, except in the formation of alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid

  2. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the Norway rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Song

    Full Text Available Central Eastern Asia, foremost the area bordering northern China and Mongolia, has been thought to be the geographic region where Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus have originated. However recent fossil analyses pointed to their origin in southern China. Moreover, whereas analyses of fossils dated the species' origin as ∼ 1.2-1.6 million years ago (Mya, molecular analyses yielded ∼ 0.5-2.9 Mya. Here, to study the geographic origin of the Norway rat and its spread across the globe we analyzed new and all published mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-b (cyt-b; N = 156 and D-loop (N = 212 sequences representing wild rats from four continents and select inbred strains. Our results are consistent with an origin of the Norway rat in southern China ∼ 1.3 Mya, subsequent prehistoric differentiation and spread in China and Asia from an initially weakly structured ancestral population, followed by further spread and differentiation across the globe during historic times. The recent spreading occurred mostly from derived European populations rather than from archaic Asian populations. We trace laboratory strains to wild lineages from Europe and North America and these represent a subset of the diversity of the rat; leaving Asian lineages largely untapped as a resource for biomedical models. By studying rats from Europe we made the observation that mtDNA diversity cannot be interpreted without consideration of pest control and, possibly, the evolution of rodenticide resistance. However, demographic models explored by forward-time simulations cannot fully explain the low mtDNA diversity of European rats and lack of haplotype sharing with their source from Asia. Comprehensive nuclear marker analyses of a larger sample of Norway rats representing the world are needed to better resolve the evolutionary history of wild rats and of laboratory rats, as well as to better understand the evolution of anticoagulant resistance.

  3. blood pressure reducing effect of bitter kola in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEAN'S OFFICE

    ABSTRACT: In this study the effect of Garcinia kola (GK) on blood pressure was investigated. Albino wistar rats were divided into three groups. Groups A rats had normal rat chow and water ad-libitum while groups B and C rats had Garcinia kola diet of 10% w/w and 15% w/w respectively, their blood pressures were ...

  4. Anxiolytic Treatment Impairs Helping Behavior in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami Bartal, Inbal; Shan, Haozhe; Molasky, Nora M R; Murray, Teresa M; Williams, Jasper Z; Decety, Jean; Mason, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research with humans, the biological mechanisms that motivate an individual to help others remain poorly understood. In order to investigate the roots of pro-sociality in mammals, we established the helping behavior test, a paradigm in which rats are faced with a conspecific trapped in a restrainer that can only be opened from the outside. Over the course of repeated test sessions, rats exposed to a trapped cagemate learn to open the door to the restrainer, thereby helping the trapped rat to escape (Ben-Ami Bartal et al., 2011). The discovery of this natural behavior provides a unique opportunity to probe the motivation of rodent helping behavior, leading to a deeper understanding of biological influences on human pro-sociality. To determine if an affective response motivates door-opening, rats receiving midazolam, a benzodiazepine anxiolytic, were tested in the helping behavior test. Midazolam-treated rats showed less helping behavior than saline-treated rats or rats receiving no injection. Yet, midazolam-treated rats opened a restrainer containing chocolate, highlighting the socially specific effects of the anxiolytic. To determine if midazolam interferes with helping through a sympatholytic effect, the peripherally restricted beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist nadolol was administered; nadolol did not interfere with helping. The corticosterone response of rats exposed to a trapped cagemate was measured and compared to the rats' subsequent helping behavior. Rats with the greatest corticosterone responses showed the least helping behavior and those with the smallest responses showed the most consistent helping at the shortest latency. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the interaction between stress and pro-social behavior. Finally, we observed that door-opening appeared to be reinforcing. A novel analytical tool was designed to interrogate the pattern of door-opening for signs that a rat's behavior on one session

  5. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model

    OpenAIRE

    Acer, Semra; Pekel, Gökhan; Küçükatay, Vural; Karabulut, Aysun; Yağcı, Ramazan; Çetin, Ebru Nevin; Akyer, Şahika Pınar; Şahin, Barbaros

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Methods: Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1). From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2), 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Gro...

  6. Electroencephalographic changes in albino rats subjected to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, J.; Assouline, G.; Fondarai, J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty one albino Wistar rats were subjected to stress for 7 hours. There was a significant difference in the slopes of regression lines for 7 nonulcerous rats and those for 14 ulcerous rats. Nonulcerous rats subjected to stress showed greater EEG curve synchronization than did ulcerous rats. If curve synchronization can be equated to a relaxed state, it may therefore be possible to explain the protective action of hypnotics, tranquilizers and analgesics on ulcers.

  7. Epidermal growth factor reactivity in rat milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Tollund, L

    1990-01-01

    The concentration of EGF immunoreactivity in rat whey increases from 0.3 pmol/ml at lactation day 1 to 2.0 pmol/ml at lactation day 19. The concentration of EGF is not influenced when the rats undergo sialoadenectomy prior to mating. On S-200 gel chromatography, almost all EGF-reactivity in rat...... whey elutes as a broad peak corresponding to a Stokes radius of 4.0 nm (an approximate molecular weight of 80 kDa). Almost no 6 kDa EGF is present. Judged by gel filtration of whey pre-incubated with 125I-EGF (6 kDa), no binding protein for EGF is present in rat whey. When rat milk is incubated...... in rat whey behaves as a peptide with a Stokes radius of 2.7 nm, corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 35 kDa at gel filtration. Comparative binding studies between EGF purified from the submandibular glands and the EGF purified from rat whey confirm differences in the binding...

  8. Total parenteral nutrition in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norcross, E.D.; Stein, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    Parenteral Nutrition with hypertonic glucose is frequently given to diabetic patients. Large amounts of insulin can be required. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a totally parenterally nourished diabetic rat model. 200 g Female Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Rats were then allowed to recover for at least 1 week before undergoing surgical insertion of a central venous catheter for parenteral feeding. TPN was begun 3 days after surgery. Prior to this they were allowed unlimited access to food and water. Control (non-streptozotocin treated) rats were run at the same time. Protein turnover was investigated by using 15 N glycine. Preliminary results: diabetic rats given mostly fat as a calorie source survived well in the absence of exogenous insulin whereas those that were given glucose only as their non-protein calorie source showed poor survival even with exogenous insulin. N balance and protein turnover in the lipid treated diabetic rats were comparable to the non-diabetic control rats

  9. Toxicity of aluminum given to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Y.; Gotoh, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Daimon, T.

    2001-01-01

    Aluminum nitrilotriacetate (A1-NTA) is given intraperitoneally five times to rats groups at the rate of 5 mgAl/kg/week. A rats group to which only chelating agent, nitriloacetate (NTA) is given, and a reference rats group are kept over five weeks, also. Element concentrations of Al, Ca, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, and Na localized on the internal organs of the rats groups, such as brain, bone, kidney, and liver, are measured by neutron activation analysis and proton-induced x-ray emission analysis (PIXE). A part of kidney and thighbone of the rats are observed and analyzed by a scanning electron microscopy for investigation of super-fine structure of the tissue. Increases of body weight of each the rats groups are measured at every week and compared with that of the reference group. The body weight of the rats group, to which only the Al-NTA is given, reduces significantly by comparison with the reference group and the group to which only the NTA is given. The kidneys of the Al-NTA group are hypertrophied and develop symptoms of nephritis. It is clear that the Al-NTA is dangerous to kidney, although only the NTA is not dangerous. Bone formation lesions are observed at the thighbone of the Al-NTA group. The paper discusses on the toxicity of the AL-NTA in detail. (M. Suetake)

  10. Autoprotection in acetaminophen intoxication in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff, K; Laursen, H; Bangert, K

    2001-01-01

    Autoprotection by acetaminophen, i.e. increased resistance to toxic effects caused by pretreatment, is a well-known phenomenon. The purpose of the present work was to identify mechanisms for increased acetaminophen tolerance induced by pretreatment of rats. One group of female Wistar rats...... (pretreated rats) received acetaminophen orally in increasing doses (1 to 4.3 g/kg) twice a week for 3 weeks, one group (naïve rats) received the vehicle. At time zero pretreated rats received a toxic dose of 7.5 g/kg (100% lethal in naïve rats), and naïve rats received a toxic dose of 4.3 g/kg. Blood...... and liver tissue were collected before and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hr after the toxic dose and were analysed for hepatic glutathione and cysteine contents, hepatic glutathione-S-transferase and blood alanine aminotransferase activity, as well as acetaminophen concentration in plasma. Steady-state mRNA levels...

  11. Fetal rat pancreas transplantation in BB rats: immunohistochemical and functional evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Starklint, Henrik; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas

    1993-01-01

    Spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor rats received either a syngeneic fetal pancreas transplant or adult islets. In the former, 4-8 fetal pancreases were transplanted, and in the latter, 3-5000 islets. Transplantation was performed by transferring a blood clot containing the pancreases or islets...... to the renal subcapsular space. Insulin therapy was undertaken postoperatively, except in one experiment with adult islets. Of the fetal pancreas transplanted BB rats, 52% became normoglycaemic, and 21% remained so throughout an observation period of 10 months. Nephrectomy caused a prompt return of diabetes....... The histological appearance of the grafts transplanted to the diabetic animals closely resembled that of grafts transplanted to normal rats in a parallel series. For comparison a group of BB rats received a syngeneic transplant of isolated adult islets from WF rats or BBW rats. Following adult islet...

  12. Antidepressant effect of taurine in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caletti, Greice; Olguins, Danielly B; Pedrollo, Elis F; Barros, Helena M T; Gomez, Rosane

    2012-10-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that diabetic individuals present more depressive behaviors than non-diabetic individuals. Taurine, one of the most abundant free amino acids in the central nervous system, modulates a variety of biological functions and acts as an agonist at GABAA receptors. Our objective was to assess the antidepressant effect of taurine in diabetic rats. Additionally, we studied the effect of taurine on weight gain, water and food intake, and blood glucose levels in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (CTR) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ) groups and were administered daily 0, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg of taurine (n = 10 per subgroup) intraperitoneally. After 28 days of treatment, the animals were exposed to the forced swimming test, and their behaviors were recorded. Weight gain, water and food intake, and blood glucose levels were measured weekly. Our results showed that STZ rats had a higher immobility duration than CTR rats, and taurine decreased this depressive-like behavior in STZ rats at doses of 25 and 100 mg/kg. Both of these doses of taurine also decreased water intake and improved weight gain in STZ rats. All doses of taurine decreased the water intake in CTR rats. Taurine, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, decreased food intake and blood glucose levels in STZ rats. Because taurine is a GABA agonist and both amino acids are lower in the plasma of diabetic and depressive individuals, we hypothesize that taurine may represent a new adjuvant drug for the treatment of depression in diabetic individuals.

  13. Abdominal respiratory motor pattern in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Makito

    2010-01-01

    In this brief review, I focused on the abdominal expiratory motor pattern in the rat. In the vagotomized adult rat, hypercapnic acidosis evoked two patterns of the abdominal expiratory activity; one with low amplitude expiratory discharge (E-all activity) that persisted throughout the expiratory phase, and another with late expiratory and high amplitude bursts (E2 activity) superimposed on the E-all activity. The E-all activity appeared from milder acidosis than the E2 activity. In the anesthetized, vagotomized or vagus-intact neonatal rats, abdominal muscles often showed not only E2 activity but also a smaller additional burst occurred just after the termination of diaphragmatic inspiratory activity (E1 activity). Since this E1 activity is rarely observed in the adult rat, the abdominal respiratory motor pattern likely changes during postnatal development. Under light anesthesia, vagal afferent feedback shortened the respiratory cycle period due to shortening of the expiratory duration. Further decrement in depth of anesthesia changed the biphasic E2+E1 abdominal motor activity pattern to E-all activity pattern in the vagus-intact neonatal rat. Since this E-all activity was typically observed with short cycle period in the vagus-intact neonatal rat, relation with the E-all activity in the vagotomized adult rat remained unknown. The vagal feedback should have roles not only in setting the cycle period short but also shaping the expiratory motor pattern in the neonatal rat. Although abdominal muscles in the in vitro preparation from neonatal rat also showed biphasic E2+E1 activity, E2 activity was shorter and/or smaller than the E1 activity.

  14. Electrocardiography in rats: a comparison to human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopelski, P; Ufnal, M

    2016-11-23

    Electrocardiography (ECG) in rats is a widely applied experimental method in basic cardiovascular research. The technique of ECG recordings is simple; however, the interpretation of electrocardiographic parameters is challenging. This is because the analysis may be biased by experimental settings, such as the type of anesthesia, the strain or age of animals. Here, we aimed to review electrocardiographic parameters in rats, their normal range, as well as the effect of experimental settings on the parameters variation. Furthermore, differences and similarities between rat and human ECG are discussed in the context of translational cardiovascular research.

  15. Cerebrovascular gene expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Anne-Sofie; Frederiksen, Simona Denise; Edvinsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    in the middle cerebral arteries from hypertensive compared to normotensive rats. The gene expression of 72 genes was decreased and the gene expression of 97 genes was increased. The following genes with a fold difference ≥1.40 were verified by quantitative PCR; Postn, Olr1, Fas, Vldlr, Mmp2, Timp1, Serpine1......, Mmp11, Cd34, Ptgs1 and Ptgs2. The gene expression of Postn, Olr1, Fas, Vldlr, Mmp2, Timp1 and Serpine1 and the protein expression of LOX1 (also known as OLR1) were significantly increased in the middle cerebral arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to Wistar-Kyoto rats. In conclusion...

  16. Noise Induces Oxidative Stress in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Demirel, Reha; Mollaoğlu, Hakan; Yeşilyurt, Hasan; Üçok, Kağan; Ayçiçek, Abdullah; Akkaya, Muzaffer; Genç, Abdurrahman; Uygur, Ramazan; Doğan, Mevlüt

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Noise is described as disturbing and unwanted sound. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of noise on oxidative stress parameters in rat.Methods: Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. Noise group (n=10) was exposed to noise for 20 days / 4 hour 100 dB. Control group (n=10) that was not exposed to any noise and was kept from any stress source, was hold in the same conditions. Baseline and after 20th day of the experiment, blood samples of rats were collected...

  17. Increased myocardial vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion injury in the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Søren; Faricelli, Barbara; Salomonsson, Max

    2016-01-01

    with or without exendin-4 (Exe-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist. Infarct size relative to area-at-risk was determined. Separately, mitochondria were isolated after global ischemia. Activities of complexes III and IV and amounts of selected complex subunits and cytochromes a, b, c, and c1 were.......  Conclusion: Hearts from hypertensive (SHR-SP) rats with left ventricle hypertrophy appeared more vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion injury, as supported by a more profound infarct development and an earlier loss of postconditioning by Exe-4. Mitochondrial complexes III and IV were identified among possible...... loci of this increased, hypertrophy-associated vulnerability....

  18. Establishment of a novel dwarf rat strain: cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANAKA, Masami; WATANABE, Minoru; YOKOMI, Izuru; MATSUMOTO, Naoki; SUDO, Katsuko; SATOH, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Tsuneo; SEKI, Azusa; AMANO, Hitoshi; OHURA, Kiyoshi; RYU, Kakei; SHIBATA, Shunichi; NAGAYAMA, Motohiko; TANUMA, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Rats with dwarfism accompanied by skeletal abnormalities, such as shortness of the limbs, tail, and body (dwarf rats), emerged in a Jcl-derived Sprague-Dawley rat colony maintained at the Institute for Animal Experimentation, St. Marianna University Graduate School of Medicine. Since the dwarfism was assumed to be due to a genetic mutation based on its frequency, we bred the dwarf rats and investigated their characteristics in order to identify the causative factors of their phenotypes and whether they could be used as a human disease model. One male and female that produced dwarf progeny were selected, and reproduction was initiated by mating the pair. The incidence of dwarfism was 25.8% among the resultant litter, and dwarfism occurred in both genders, suggesting that it was inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. At 12 weeks of age, the body weights of the male and female dwarf rats were 40% and 57% of those of the normal rats, respectively. In soft X-ray radiographic and histological examinations, shortening and hypoplasia of the long bones, such as the tibia and femur, were observed, which were suggestive of endochondral ossification abnormalities. An immunohistochemical examination detected an aggrecan synthesis disorder, which might have led to delayed calcification and increased growth plate thickening in the dwarf rats. We hypothesized that the principal characteristics of the dwarf rats were systemically induced by insufficient cartilage calcification in their long bones; thus, we named them cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats. PMID:25736479

  19. Establishment of a novel dwarf rat strain: cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masami; Watanabe, Minoru; Yokomi, Izuru; Matsumoto, Naoki; Sudo, Katsuko; Satoh, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Tsuneo; Seki, Azusa; Amano, Hitoshi; Ohura, Kiyoshi; Ryu, Kakei; Shibata, Shunichi; Nagayama, Motohiko; Tanuma, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Rats with dwarfism accompanied by skeletal abnormalities, such as shortness of the limbs, tail, and body (dwarf rats), emerged in a Jcl-derived Sprague-Dawley rat colony maintained at the Institute for Animal Experimentation, St. Marianna University Graduate School of Medicine. Since the dwarfism was assumed to be due to a genetic mutation based on its frequency, we bred the dwarf rats and investigated their characteristics in order to identify the causative factors of their phenotypes and whether they could be used as a human disease model. One male and female that produced dwarf progeny were selected, and reproduction was initiated by mating the pair. The incidence of dwarfism was 25.8% among the resultant litter, and dwarfism occurred in both genders, suggesting that it was inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. At 12 weeks of age, the body weights of the male and female dwarf rats were 40% and 57% of those of the normal rats, respectively. In soft X-ray radiographic and histological examinations, shortening and hypoplasia of the long bones, such as the tibia and femur, were observed, which were suggestive of endochondral ossification abnormalities. An immunohistochemical examination detected an aggrecan synthesis disorder, which might have led to delayed calcification and increased growth plate thickening in the dwarf rats. We hypothesized that the principal characteristics of the dwarf rats were systemically induced by insufficient cartilage calcification in their long bones; thus, we named them cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats.

  20. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...... became severely septicemic and died within a week of inoculation, irrespective of presence or absence of thymus. In the second experiment the animals were inoculated with 10(6) bacteria, and both euthymic and thymus-grafted animals responded with high titres of anti bacterial antibodies while these were...... very low in the athymic nude animals. Polyclonal antibody production was only observed in the euthymic animals and only regarding IgG. Athymic rats were not able to clear the infection, while the thymus-grafted animals reacted like euthymic rats: Very few animals housed the bacteria four weeks after...

  1. Epidermal growth factor in the rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; Jørgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1998-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate....

  2. Reactive Protein Synthesis in Pregnant Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    /kg) groups. At terminal gestation day (GD) ranging from 0-20, the rats were sacrificed, and blood samples and amniotic fluids were collected. Thyroid hormone, C-reactive protein (CRP) and leptin assay was carried using the blood samples.

  3. Tissue disposition of bifenthrin in the rat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Tissue disposition of bifenthrin in the rat and oral and intravenous administration. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Hughes , M., D. Ross...

  4. Rat sperm motility analysis: methodologic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of these studies was to optimize conditions for computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) of rat epididymal spermatozoa. Methodologic issues addressed include sample collection technique, sampling region within the epididymis, type of diluent medium used, and sample c...

  5. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Saba

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  6. Cadmium induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, S B; Das, N; Rama, R; Peshin, S S; Khattar, S; Gulati, K; Seth, S D

    1997-02-01

    Onset of hypertension and nephropathy after 1,2, and 4 weeks of exposure to cadmium chloride (1 mg/kg, ip) was studied in rats by measuring changes in blood pressure and renal function (urinary output, electrolytes, serum creatinine, inulin clearance and Na+K+ ATPase). Significant decrease in body weight and rise in blood pressure were observed as early as one week of exposure while microalbuminuria was detected in 50% of the animals after 2 weeks. Na+K+ ATPase, a renal tubular enzyme, was depressed after 1 week with maximum lowering occurring after 4 weeks. There were no detectable changes in fluid intake, urine output, electrolytes, inulin clearance and serum creatinine even after 4 weeks. It is concluded that hypertension and tubular lesion set in earlier than glomerulopathy as indicated by microalbuminuria and the latter could be the consequence of rise in blood pressure.

  7. How rats combine temporal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhardi, Paulo; Keen, Richard; MacInnis, Mika L M; Church, Russell M

    2005-05-31

    The procedures for classical and operant conditioning, and for many timing procedures, involve the delivery of reinforcers that may be related to the time of previous reinforcers and responses, and to the time of onsets and terminations of stimuli. The behavior resulting from such procedures can be described as bouts of responding that occur in some pattern at some rate. A packet theory of timing and conditioning is described that accounts for such behavior under a wide range of procedures. Applications include the food searching by rats in Skinner boxes under conditions of fixed and random reinforcement, brief and sustained stimuli, and several response-food contingencies. The approach is used to describe how multiple cues from reinforcers and stimuli combine to determine the rate and pattern of response bouts.

  8. Tritium metabolism in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a series of studies designed to evaluate the relative radiotoxicity of various tritiated compounds, metabolism of tritium in rat tissues was studied after administration of tritiated water, leucine, thymidine, and glucose. The distribution and retention of tritium varied widely, depending on the chemical compound administered. Tritium introduced as tritiated water behaved essentially as body water and became uniformly distributed among the tissues. However, tritium administered as organic compounds resulted in relatively high incorporation into tissue constituents other than water, and its distribution differed among the various tissues. Moreover, the excretion rate of tritium from tissues was slower for tritiated organic compounds than for tritiated water. Administrationof tritiated organic compounds results in higher radiation doses to the tissues than does administration of tritiated water. Among the tritiated compounds examined, for equal radioactivity administered, leucine gave the highest radiation dose, followed in turn by thymidine, glucose, and water. (author)

  9. Rat growth during chronic centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, G. C.; Oyama, J.

    1978-01-01

    Female weanling rats were chronically centrifuged at 4.15 G with controls at terrestrial gravity. Samples were sacrificed for body composition studies at 0, 28, 63, 105 and 308 days of centrifugation. The centrifuged group approached a significantly lower mature body mass than the controls (251 and 318g) but the rate of approach was the same in both groups. Retirement to 1G on the 60th day resulted in complete recovery. Among individual components muscle, bone, skin, CNS, heart, kidneys, body water and body fat were changed in the centrifuged group. However, an analysis of the growth of individual components relative to growth of the total fat-free compartment revealed that only skin (which increased in mass) was responding to centrifugation per se.

  10. Properties of Flicker ERGs in Rat Models with Retinal Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Guo, Qun; Li, Li; Zhang, Zuoming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the characteristics of rod and cone functions in rat models for congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) and retinal cone dysfunction (RCD). Methods. Rod and cone function were isolated by recording the rod-/cone-driven flicker and blue light flicker electroretinograms (ERGs). Results. During dark adaptation, the amplitudes of flicker ERGs in CSNB rats were lower than those in control rats; the responses of RCD rats were similar to control rats. During light adaptation, the amplitudes of flicker ERGs in CSNB rats were reduced; whereas the responses of RCD rats were not detected. Blue flicker ERGs were not observed in CSNB rats at lower frequencies. The cone driven critical flicker frequencies (CFFs) in control rats were 62 Hz. The rod driven CFF of RCD rats was 20 Hz; whereas the rod-/cone-driven CFF of CSNB rats both were about 25 Hz. Conclusions. The function of the rod system was damaged completely, the cones were the source of vision in CSNB rats. Rod system function is excellent in RCD rat. The rods of albinism rats are sensitive to frequencies less than 20 Hz; whereas the cones are sensitive to frequencies up to 62 Hz.

  11. Anxiolytic Treatment Impairs Helping Behavior in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami Bartal, Inbal; Shan, Haozhe; Molasky, Nora M. R.; Murray, Teresa M.; Williams, Jasper Z.; Decety, Jean; Mason, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research with humans, the biological mechanisms that motivate an individual to help others remain poorly understood. In order to investigate the roots of pro-sociality in mammals, we established the helping behavior test, a paradigm in which rats are faced with a conspecific trapped in a restrainer that can only be opened from the outside. Over the course of repeated test sessions, rats exposed to a trapped cagemate learn to open the door to the restrainer, thereby helping the trapped rat to escape (Ben-Ami Bartal et al., 2011). The discovery of this natural behavior provides a unique opportunity to probe the motivation of rodent helping behavior, leading to a deeper understanding of biological influences on human pro-sociality. To determine if an affective response motivates door-opening, rats receiving midazolam, a benzodiazepine anxiolytic, were tested in the helping behavior test. Midazolam-treated rats showed less helping behavior than saline-treated rats or rats receiving no injection. Yet, midazolam-treated rats opened a restrainer containing chocolate, highlighting the socially specific effects of the anxiolytic. To determine if midazolam interferes with helping through a sympatholytic effect, the peripherally restricted beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist nadolol was administered; nadolol did not interfere with helping. The corticosterone response of rats exposed to a trapped cagemate was measured and compared to the rats’ subsequent helping behavior. Rats with the greatest corticosterone responses showed the least helping behavior and those with the smallest responses showed the most consistent helping at the shortest latency. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the interaction between stress and pro-social behavior. Finally, we observed that door-opening appeared to be reinforcing. A novel analytical tool was designed to interrogate the pattern of door-opening for signs that a rat’s behavior on one

  12. Finding prefrontal cortex in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Christiana M

    2016-08-15

    The prefrontal cortex of the rat. I. Cortical projection of the mediodorsal nucleus. II. Efferent connections The cortical projection field of the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) was identified in the rat using the Fink-Heimer silver technique for tracing degenerating fibers. Small stereotaxic lesions confined to MD were followed by terminal degeneration in the dorsal bank of the rhinal sulcus (sulcal cortex) and the medial wall of the hemisphere anterior and dorsal to the genu of the corpus callosum (medial cortex). No degenerating fibers were traced to the convexity of the hemisphere. The cortical formation receiving a projection from MD is of a relatively undifferentiated type which had been previously classified as juxtallocortex. A study of the efferent fiber connections of the rat׳s MD-projection cortex demonstrated some similarities to those of monkey prefrontal cortex. A substantial projection to the pretectal area and deep layers of the superior colliculus originates in medial cortex, a connection previously reported for caudal prefrontal (area 8) cortex in the monkey. Sulcal cortex projects to basal olfactory structures and lateral hypothalamus, as does orbital frontal cortex in the monkey. The rat׳s MD-projection cortex differs from that in the monkey in that it lacks a granular layer and appears to have no prominent direct associations with temporal and juxtahippocampal areas. Furthermore, retrograde degeneration does not appear in the rat thalamus after damage to MD-projection areas, suggesting that the striatum or thalamus receives a proportionally larger share of the MD-projection in this animal than it does in the monkey. Comparative behavioral investigations are in progress to investigate functional differences between granular prefrontal cortex in the primate and the relatively primitive MD-projection cortex in the rat. © 1969. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:50th Anniversary Issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  13. Neuropharmacological effects of deltamethrin in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Manna, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Mandal, T. K.; Dey, S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of deltamethrin on some of the neuropharmacological paradigms in a rat brain such as the motor co-ordination test using a rotarod, the pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion as well as the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) level. Albino Wistar rats were used as the experimental animals. Different neuropharmacological paradigms such as the motor co-ordination by the rotarod, pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time and the P...

  14. Age dependence of rat liver function measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Poulsen, H E; Hansen, B A

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the galactose elimination capacity, the capacity of urea-N synthesis and antipyrine clearance were studied in male Wistar rats at the age of 8, 20 and 44 weeks. Further, liver tissue concentrations of microsomal cytochrome P-450, microsomal protein and glutathione were measured. All...... weight in the age range studied. Glutathione showed an increase of 35% from 8 to 44 weeks of age expressed per g liver. Careful age matching of control animals is important for experimental rat studies....

  15. Epidermal growth factor in the rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; Jørgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1998-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate.......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate....

  16. Oxidative stress in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Canal, J R; Pérez, C

    1999-01-01

    Parameters related to oxidative stress were studied in a group of 10 Wistar diabetic rats and 10 control rats. The levels of total erythrocyte catalase activity in the diabetic animals were significantly (pE far greater (pvitaminA/TG, vitaminA/PUFA, vitaminA/C 18:2) were higher in the control group. Our work corroborates the findings that fatty acid metabolism presents alterations in the diabetes syndrome and that the antioxidant status is affected.

  17. From engineering to editing the rat genome

    OpenAIRE

    Meek, Stephen; Mashimo, Tomoji; Burdon, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Since its domestication over 100 years ago, the laboratory rat has been the preferred experimental animal in many areas of biomedical research (Lindsey and Baker The laboratory rat. Academic, New York, pp?1?52, 2006). Its physiology, size, genetics, reproductive cycle, cognitive and behavioural characteristics have made it a particularly useful animal model for studying many human disorders and diseases. Indeed, through selective breeding programmes numerous strains have been derived that are...

  18. Hypophysectomyinduced regression of female rat lacrimal glands. Partial restoration/maintenance by dihydrotestosterone and prolactin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Kirsten Birgitte; Azzarolo, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Ophthalmology, hypophysectomi, rats regression, lacrimal galnds, restoration, dihydrotestosterone, prolactin......Ophthalmology, hypophysectomi, rats regression, lacrimal galnds, restoration, dihydrotestosterone, prolactin...

  19. Genetically determined differences in the resistance to myocardial infarction in Wistar and August rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, L M; Saltykova, V A; Pshennikova, M G

    2001-06-01

    In intact August rats, the cardiac contractile function at rest was by 76% higher than in Wistar rats, while their hearts, both intact and after acute myocardial infarction, were more resistant to isometric load than the hearts of Wistar rats. Postinfarction mortality in August rats was 18% vs. 70% in Wistar rats. Adrenoreactivity of the myocardium in August rats was decreased compared to that in Wistar rats. These peculiarities can determine high resistance of August rats to myocardial infarction.

  20. Factors influencing zinc bioavailability in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalko, J.R.; Johnson, P.E.; Swan, P.B.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of Zn fed, its source, and the Zn status of experimental animals may affect Zn bioavailability. To test this, rats were fed doses of Zn from ZnCl 2 or from various foods labeled extrinsically. Three weeks before and after the test meal, rats were fed an AIN diet modified in Zn content. Absorption was calculated by monitoring whole body retention and extrapolating to zero time. In rats fed 12 ppm Zn and test doses of 6 to 275 μg, absorption decreased from 80 to 50%, and the amount absorbed increased quadratically (r 2 = 0.998), but turnover was unaffected. Rats fed 38 or 77 ppm Zn absorbed less of test doses of 290, 613, or 1700 μg Zn than did those fed 12 ppm, and their Zn turnover rate was higher. In two 2 x 7 factorial experiments, rats fed 12 or 38 ppm Zn were given 16 or 98 μg Zn from 7 Zn sources. Bioavailability from some foods was higher than from ZnCl 2 except in rats eating only 12 ppm Zn and receiving the small dose. There were greater differences in bioavailability among foods when tested at the higher Zn status or dose. This may explain inconsistencies seen in comparing Zn bioavailability by traditional growth assay with that seen in 65 Zn tracer studies. The authors conclude that Zn status of the experimental animal, as well as the amount of Zn and its source, will affect Zn bioavailability

  1. Diuron-induced rat bladder epithelial cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, Mitscheli S; Arnold, Lora L; Pennington, Karen L; Muirhead, David; Dodmane, Puttappa R; Anwar, Muhammad M; Battalora, Michael; De Camargo, João Lauro V; Cohen, Samuel M

    2012-12-01

    Diuron, a substituted urea herbicide, is carcinogenic to the rat urinary bladder at high dietary levels (2500 ppm). To further elucidate the mode of action, this study aimed to determine the time course and sequence of bladder cytotoxic and proliferative changes induced by diuron treatment of male Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into two groups (control and 2500 ppm diuron) and treated for 28 days. Ten rats from each group were terminated on each of study days 1, 3, 7, or 28. Scanning electron micro scopy (SEM) showed urothelial cell swelling beginning on day 1, and by day 28, showed extensive necrosis, exfoliation and piling up of cells suggestive of hyperplasia. No difference in the bromo deoxyuridine labeling index was detected. In a second experiment, rats were randomized into control and diuron-treated groups and treated for 7 days or 8 weeks. After 7 days, transmission electron microscopy showed cell degenerative changes and distention of the cytoplasm, organelles, and nuclei characteristic of cytolysis. This resulted in protrusion of the superficial cells into the lumen, corresponding to the cell swelling observed previously by SEM. After 8 weeks, bladders in the diuron-treated group showed an increased incidence of simple hyperplasia by light microscopy (6/10, p diuron exposure in rats.

  2. Hematological Characteristics of the BB Wistar Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J R; Yates, A J; Shah, N T; Neff, J C; Covey, D W; Thibert, P

    1983-01-01

    Complete blood counts, differential white blood cell and platelet counts were performed on male and female BB Wistar diabetic rats (BBWd), their nondiabetic siblings (BBWnd) and outbred Wistar rats of the line from which the BB Wistar rats were derived. Most of the observed changes were strain-related (those present in both BBWd and BBWnd but not in control rats) rather than diabetes-related (those in BBWd but neither BBWnd nor control rats) and therefore probably due to the inbreeding process. The BBW strain had significantly lower numbers of white cells and platelets, as well as markedly changed differential white cell counts. Differential counts showed a pattern of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, monocytosis and eosinophilia. It is possible that these white blood cell changes contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection reported for the BBW strain. No significant difference in serum immunoglobulin concentrations was found in any of these three groups of rats. There- fore, hypogammaglobutinemia cannot account for the increased susceptibility to infections, but it is not possible to rule out an abnormality in the distribution of immunoglobulin fractions as an etiological factor.

  3. Radiation nephropathy in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences

  4. Thermoregulation in hypergravity-acclimated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Conrad B.; Patterson, Susan L.; Horowitz, John M.; Oyama, Jiro

    1989-01-01

    The effect of acclimation to hypergravity on thermoregulatory responses of rats was determined by comparing data on core temperature, T(c), tail temperature, and O2 consumption in rats raised at 1 G (C) and at 2.1 G. It was found that, when C rats were exposed to an ambient temperature of 9 C concurrently with exposure to 2.1 G, the T(c) fell by about 6 C, while in rats acclimated to 2.1 G, the T(c) fell only by 1 C. Results of O2 consumption measurements showed that C rats exposed simultaneously to cold and hypergravity were not activating their thermogenic mechanism sufficiently to prevent a fall in T(c). In other experiments, rats acclimated to either 1 or 2.1 G were found to lack the ability to maintain their T(c) when exposed to a 5.8-G field or when cold-stressed at 1 G for extended times.

  5. Elimination of mercury from amalgam in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, N. [Dept. of Dental Pathology, School of Dentistry, Zagreb (Croatia); Prpic-Mehicic, G.; Prester, Lj.; Blanusa, M. [Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Krnic, Z.; Erceg, D. [Pliva Pharmaceutical Co., Biomedicine Research Inst. ' ' Pliva' ' , Zagreb (Croatia)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the urinary mercury excretion in rats exposed to amalgam over a two months period. Animals were either exposed to mercury from 4 dental amalgams or fed the diet containing powdered amalgams. The results showed significantly higher mercury amount in urine of both exposed groups than in control. Even two months after the amalgam had been placed in rats teeth, the amount of mercury in the urine remained 4-5 times higher than in control, and 4 times higher than in rats exposed to diet containing powdered amalgam. The elevated urinary Hg amount was accompanied by an increased level of total protein in urine. In the same exposure period the excretion of total protein in urine of rats with amalgam fillings was 2 times higher than in control and 1.5 times higher than in rats exposed to amalgam through diet. Concentrations of mercury in the sera of all groups were below the detection limit of the method. The results show that amount of mercury and protein in the urine of rats were related to the mercury release from dental amalgam. (orig.)

  6. Radio protective effects of selenium on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, A.; Alya, G

    2005-11-01

    Potential radio-protective effects of different selenium supplement concentrations of 4, 8, 15 and 30 ppm were evaluated in rats. Four groups of rats were administered different concentrations of selenium in drinking water for 30 days before irradiation starting from the ablactation which considered as day 0. The results showed that the sodium selenite of 4 ppm and 8 ppm enhance the 30-day survival of irradiated rats at 7 Gy ( sup 6 sup 0 Co source, whole body irradiation dose rate of 1 Gy x min sup - sup 1) compared to the control group. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 69%+-6 (mean+-S.E.) and 77%+-6 in 4 and 8 ppm groups, respectively, versus 42%+-9 for control group (P<0.001). It was also indicated that sodium selenite with concentrations of 15 and 30 ppm had no significant reduction in mortality. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 50%+-12 (P=0.39) and 49%+-14 (P=0.04), respectively. The toxic effects of selenium were observed at 15 ppm and 30 ppm, survivals after 30 days of selenium intake were 76% and 46%, respectively. It was concluded that 4 and 8 ppm sodium selenite have a radio-protective effect. 15 and 30 ppm sodium selenite had no radio-protective effects in rats, this may be due to a synergism of toxicity and radiation effects. (author)

  7. Reproductive toxicity of Samanea tubulosa on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rafaella Luz de Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Samanea tubulosa is a plant used for medicinal and feeding purposes. However, ingestion of S. tubulosa pods has been associated with bovine abortion. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of diet containing 5% of S. tubulosa pod meal on male and female Wistar rats. Diet was administered to male rats (n = 10 for 60 days before mating. Female rats (n = 10 received the treatment for 30 days, during cohabitation and from gestational day (GD 0 to GD20. Treated animals were mated with untreated rats. In male rats, plant consumption caused decreased food consumption and 20% fertility index reduction. Litters from treated males presented lower body weight and crown–rump length. Female rats treated with the plant increased water and food intake and body weight. Decreases in fertility, fecundity and gestation indices and increase of placenta weight and mean number of corpora lutea were found. Thus, owing to the possible general and reproductive toxic effects, long-term consumption of S. tubulosa is not recommended for phytotherapic or food purposes.

  8. Comparative phenotypic and cytochemical characteristics of lymphocytes of Wistar rats and rats with genetic predisposition to catalepsy after retabolil administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleeva, N G; Shurlygina, A V; Trufakin, V A

    2013-11-01

    We studied the possibility of using anabolic steroid retabolil injections for complex correction of behavioral and immune parameters in rats with genetic predisposition to catalepsy. Subpopulation composition of lymphoid organ and blood cells was compared in rats with genetic predisposition to catalepsy and Wistar rats after retabolil administration. In rats predisposed to catalepsy, retabolil reduced the total content of thymus cells and increased absolute count of CD8 (+) thymocytes. In Wistar rats, retabolil increased the total cell count and the content of CD4 (+) thymocytes, but reduced the number of CD8 (+) cells. Therefore, changes in the subpopulation composition of thymus cells after retabolil administration were opposite in rats with genetic predisposition to catalepsy and Wistar rats. Retabolil injections reduced the severity of catalepsy response in rats with genetic predisposition. However, the time of freezing in Wistar rats significantly increased under these conditions.

  9. [Preventive effects of pueraria on presbycusis in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wangyan; Yao, Qi; Liu, Weihong; Zhang, Bibo; Wang, Ying; Liu, Bo

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the preventive effects of Pueraria on presbycusis in rats. Thirty-two 24-26 month old Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, and were treated with different dosages of Pueraria (1, 2, 4, 0 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) separately for 4 weeks. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to detect the change of hearing threshold of rats. Hemorheological items of rats were checked in each group. Compared with control group, the hearing threshold and hemorheological items of rats was significantly improved after treated with Pueraria (Ppresbycusis of rats.

  10. Genetic influence on brain catecholamines: high brain norepinephrine in salt-sensitive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, J; Friedman, R; Tassinari, L

    1980-01-01

    Rats genetically sensitive to salt-induced hypertension evinced higher levels of plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine than rats genetically resistant to hypertension. The hypertension-sensitive rats showed higher hypothalamic norepinephrine and lower epinephrine than resistant rats. In response to a high salt diet, brain stem norepinephrine increased in sensitive rats while resistant rats exhibited a decrease on the same diet.

  11. Genetic influence on brain catecholamines: high brain noradrenaline in salt-sensitive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, J.; Friedman, R.; Tassinari, L.

    1980-01-01

    Rats genetically sensitive to salt-induced hypertension showed higher levels of plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline than rats genetically resistant to hypertension. The hypertension-sensitive rats had higher hypothalamic noradrenaline and lower adrenaline than resistant rats. In response to a high salt diet brain-stem noradrenaline increased in sensitive rats and resistant rats exhibited a decrease on the same diet.

  12. Increased radiosensitivity of cerebral capillaries in neonatal Gunn rats as compared to Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landolt, R.; Arn, D.

    1979-01-01

    The extent of petechial haemorrhages of the cerebral cortex examined between 14 hours and 4 days after X-irradiation to the head was compared in Sprague-Dawley and homozygous Gunn rats with congenital hyperbilirubinaemia. Animals 1 to 2 days old received single doses of either 250, 500 or 750 rad. By means of a special scoring scale the degree of the damage to the micro vasculature was semi-quantitatively estimated. In both strains a significant difference in effect was obtained between 250 and 500 rad, but not between 500 and 750 rad. The shape of the dose-effect curve in Gunn rats was similar to that of Sprague-Dawley rats, but displaced upwards. In Gunn rats the effect of 250 rad was greater that that of 750 rad in Sprague-Dawley rats. Possible radiosensitizing mechanisms are discussed with reference to the literature and these results. (author)

  13. Population Structure of Rat-Derived Pneumocystis carinii in Danish Wild Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Robert J.; Settnes, Osvald P.; Lodal, Jens

    2000-01-01

    . carinii DNA was detected in 47 of 51 wild rats and in 10 of 12 nonimmunosuppressed laboratory rats. Evidence for three novel formae speciales of rat-derived P. carinii was found, and these were provisionally named Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. rattus-secundi, Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. rattus...... samples. We report a lack of variation in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions that is consistent with an evolutionary bottleneck in the P. carinii f. sp. carinii population. This study shows that human- and rat-derived P. carinii organisms are very different, not population. This study shows that human- and rat-derived...... organisms are very different, not only in genetic composition but also in population structure and natural history....

  14. Social structure predicts genital morphology in African mole-rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne L Seney

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure.We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate.The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

  15. Social structure predicts genital morphology in African mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Marianne L; Kelly, Diane A; Goldman, Bruce D; Sumbera, Radim; Forger, Nancy G

    2009-10-15

    African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure. We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate. The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

  16. Policosanol prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, M; Más, R; Mendoza, S; Gámez, R; Mendoza, N; González, J

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass, abnormal bone architecture and increased fracture risk. Ovariectomy impairs bone mass and metabolism in rats and ovariectomized rats are considered as a suitable model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mevalonate is required for producing lipoids that are important in osteoclast activity and thus drugs affecting mevalonate production can prevent bone loss in rodents. Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug isolated from sugar cane wax that inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis through an indirect regulation of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether policosanol could prevent bone loss in the bones of ovariectomized rats by comparing its effects with those induced by estradiol. Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly distributed in four groups: a sham-operated group treated with Tween/H2O vehicle and three groups of ovariectomized rats treated with 17beta-estradiol (30 microg/kg/day) or policosanol (50 and 200 mg/kg/day), respectively, for 3 months. At treatment completion the rats were sacrificed, their bones removed and variables of bone resorption and formation were investigated by histomorphometry. Ovariectomy increased trabecular separation but diminished the number and thickness of trabecules. Estradiol and policosanol prevented these effects compared with ovariectomized controls. Both treatments also prevented an increase in the number of osteoclasts and their surface area induced by ovariectomy. Estradiol, but not policosanol, significantly prevented an increase of osteoblast surface area compared with ovariectomized controls. In conclusion, policosanol prevented bone loss and decreased bone resorption in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that it should be potentially useful in preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  17. Thyroid hormone action on rat calvarial sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, S; Nakamura, T; Hirano, A; Fujii, T; Yamashita, S

    1994-01-01

    To clarify the effect of thyroid hormone on the calvarial sutures, the morphology, histology, and bone mineral density were analyzed in thyroid hormone-injected rats. A total of 80 female Wistar rats at the age of 10 days were divided into 2 groups; the triiodothyronine (T3)-treated rats (n = 40, T3 100 micrograms/kg body weight/day) were maintained under the same conditions as controls (n = 40, saline-vehicle only), and both were sacrificed at 50, 80, and 200 experimental days, respectively. T3-treated animals showed smaller values of lambda-asterion and pterion-bregma distances at the various periods of examination, resulting in smaller sizes in right-left direction of the skull. The sagittal suture distance in the skull specimens observed by Goldner's staining (fibrous tissue content) appeared smaller and the osseous margin widths greatly increased in the T3-treated rats. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that the tetracycline-calcein double labelings were not interrupted from the periosteal to the endosteal areas in any specimens indicating the scantiness of osteoclastic activity in the suture areas. Mineral apposition rates at the osseous edges of the suture were significantly increased in the T3-treated rats (p < 0.01 at the age of 90 days). The distance between the second labels and the distance between the first labels were significantly larger in the T3-treated rats. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement showed that the T3 administration decreased only the calvarial BMD at the age of 210 days (p < 0.01), but did not decrease lumbar or femur BMD. This experiment demonstrated clear evidence of excess thyroid hormone action on the early narrowing of the sagittal suture in infantile hyperthyroid rats, probably due to the enhanced osteogenic activity caused by the hormone.

  18. Absorption of plutonium in the iron-deficient rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Iron deficiency did not enhance absorption of plutonium following intragastric gavage of rats. Absorption of plutonium citrate in both control and iron-deficient rats was about 0.03% of the administered dose

  19. Comparative efficacy of Berenil and Samorin in albino rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Berenil-therapeutic) and isometamidium chloride (Samorin-prophylactic) was compared in albino rats experimentally infected with current field isolate of Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Federe strain). The study consisted of forty albino rats, divided ...

  20. In vitro biotransformation of flavonoids by rat liver microsomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. E.; Breinholt, V.; Justesen, U.

    1998-01-01

    1. Sixteen naturally occurring flavonoids were investigated as substrates for cytochrome P450 in uninduced and Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver microsomes. Naringenin, hesperetin, chrysin, apigenin, tangeretin, kaempferol, galangin and tamarixetin were all metabolized extensively by induced rat liver...

  1. Mechanisms underlying epithelium-dependent relaxation in rat bronchioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroigaard, Christel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Simonsen, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms underlying epithelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EpDHF)-type relaxation in rat bronchioles. Immunohistochemistry was performed, and rat bronchioles and pulmonary arteries were mounted in microvascular myographs for functional studies. An opener of small...

  2. Water metabolism and modification of tritium excretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimasa, Y.; Akita, Y.

    1982-01-01

    1. The intake and excretion of tritium were studied in rats exposed to tritiated water vapor. The metabolism of tritium was also investigated in rats given single administrations of tritiated water and in rats given daily administrations (per os or i.p.). The results were essentially in accord with those reported previously. 2. Amounts of drinking water consumed and urine excreted by rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin were 1.5 to 2 times higher than in rats drinking tap water. The tritium activity in various tissues of rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin decreased to about half of that of rats drinking tap water. A similar tendency was observed also in rats drinking beer. The diuretic agent sodium acetazolamide also enhanced the urinary excretion of tritium. (author)

  3. [Pinealectomy and early castration in the female Wistar rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama-Scemama, A

    1976-05-17

    Pinealectomy does not significantly modify the level of pituitary and plasma gonadotropins in intact and in castrated female Rats from brith to 75 days of age. Only the weight of the thyroid gland is higher in pinealectomized rats.

  4. Patterns of blood pressure variability in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; He, J; Wagner, A J

    1995-01-01

    We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...... the day; less pronounced in 2K,1C; and not detectable in SHR. There are regular patterns of blood pressure fluctuations and specific modifications to the patterns by different forms of hypertension.......We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR...

  5. The effect of Mansoniaaltisma on haematological parameters of rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test rats were treated orally by intubations with 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g of Mansonia extract per kilogram body weight of rat respectively (the doses were administered in 2.5 ml. of deionized water). Control rats were administered the same volume of deionized water (2.5 ml.). Rats administered the highest dose of the extract ...

  6. WTC rat has unique characteristics such as resistant to streptozotocin

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaki, Yoshiaki; Ito, Koichi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Because we found that WTC rats might be resistant to streptozotocin (STZ), we have elucidated the mechanisms of resistant to the diabetogenic effects of STZ in the WTC rats. Dose response to STZ was evaluated with glucose levels. No significant changes in glucose level to STZ administration were observed in WTC rats. Insulin secretion by suppling glucose was preserved in WTC rats even after STZ administration. Although there was no significant difference in gene expression of both GLUT2 and K...

  7. Biological effects of 137Cs, incorporated into organism of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, A.S.; Strekalov, S.A.; Sokolov, A.V.; Aver'yanova, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    Results of investigating mutagenous and hemotoxic effects of 137 Cs on blood lymphocytes of rats are presented. 137 Cs was orally administrated into organism of rats as 270 kBq/g chloride solution. 137 Cs mutagenous effect was studied on metaphase plates of rat blood lymphocytes in course of rats lifetime experiment. It is stated that 137 Cs inducing severe disturbances of genetic material in a great quantity of blood lymphocytes, causes their total killing

  8. Tumorigenicity of sodium ascorbate in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Anderson, T A; de Oliveira, L M; Arnold, L L

    1998-06-15

    Sodium ascorbate, like other sodium salts such as saccharin, glutamate, and bicarbonate, produces urinary alterations when fed at high doses to rats, which results in mild superficial urothelial cytotoxicity and regeneration but not tumors in a standard 2-year bioassay. Sodium saccharin was shown to produce a low incidence of bladder tumors in rats if administered in a two-generation bioassay. In the present study, we evaluated sodium ascorbate in a two-generation bioassay that involved feeding to the male and female parental F344 rats for 4 weeks before mating, feeding the dams during gestation and lactation, and then feeding the weaned (at 28 days of age) male F1 generation rats for the remainder of their lifetime (up to 128 weeks of the experiment). Dietary levels of 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0% sodium ascorbate were tested. At 5.0 and 7.0% sodium ascorbate, there was an increase in urinary bladder urothelial papillary and nodular hyperplasia and the induction of a few papillomas and carcinomas. There was a dose-responsive increase in renal pelvic calcification and hyperplasia and inhibition of the aging nephropathy of rats even at the level of 1% sodium ascorbate. Because the short-term urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate in rats are inhibited by treatments producing urinary acidification to pH sodium ascorbate to evaluate the long-term effects. The combination of 7.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.78% NH4Cl in the diet was toxic, and the group was terminated early during the course of the experiment. The group fed 5.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.04% NH4Cl showed complete inhibition of the urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate and significant inhibition of its renal effects. We also demonstrated the presence of a calcium phosphate-containing urinary precipitate in rats fed sodium ascorbate at all doses, in a dose-responsive manner. The formation of the precipitate was inhibited by coadministration with NH4Cl. The proliferative effects of sodium ascorbate on the male rat

  9. Nigella Sativa reverses osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Ansam Aly

    2014-01-14

    Osteoporosis poses a significant public health issue. It is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength that predisposes to increased risk of fracture. There is a direct relationship between the lack of estrogen after menopause and the development of osteoporosis. About 33% of women over 50 will experience bone fractures as a result of osteoporosis. Nigella Sativa (NS) has been shown to have beneficial effects on bone and joint diseases. The present study was conducted to elucidate the protective effect of Nigella Sativa on osteoporosis produced by ovariectomy in rats. Female Wistar rats aged 12-14 months were divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized supplemented with nigella sativa (OVX-NS) orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. After 12 weeks, plasma levels of calcium (Ca(+2)), phosphorous (Pi), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amino terminal collagen type 1 telopeptide, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrates, nitric oxide surrogate, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. Histological examination of the liver and the tibia was conducted. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. OVX rats showed significant decrease in plasma Ca(+2), accompanied by a significant increase in plasma ALP, amino terminal collagen type 1 telopeptide, MDA, nitrates, TNF-α and IL-6. These changes were reversed by NS supplementation in OVX-NS group to be near SHAM levels. Histological examination of the tibias revealed discontinuous eroded bone trabeculae with widened bone marrow spaces in OVX rats accompanied by a significant decrease in both cortical and trabecular bone thickness compared to Sham rats. These parameters were markedly reversed in OVX-NS rats. Histological examination of the liver showed mononuclear cellular infiltration and congestion of blood vessels at the portal area in OVX rats which were not found in OVX-NS rats. Nigella

  10. From engineering to editing the rat genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Stephen; Mashimo, Tomoji; Burdon, Tom

    2017-08-01

    Since its domestication over 100 years ago, the laboratory rat has been the preferred experimental animal in many areas of biomedical research (Lindsey and Baker The laboratory rat. Academic, New York, pp 1-52, 2006). Its physiology, size, genetics, reproductive cycle, cognitive and behavioural characteristics have made it a particularly useful animal model for studying many human disorders and diseases. Indeed, through selective breeding programmes numerous strains have been derived that are now the mainstay of research on hypertension, obesity and neurobiology (Okamoto and Aoki Jpn Circ J 27:282-293, 1963; Zucker and Zucker J Hered 52(6):275-278, 1961). Despite this wealth of genetic and phenotypic diversity, the ability to manipulate and interrogate the genetic basis of existing phenotypes in rat strains and the methodology to generate new rat models has lagged significantly behind the advances made with its close cousin, the laboratory mouse. However, recent technical developments in stem cell biology and genetic engineering have again brought the rat to the forefront of biomedical studies and enabled researchers to exploit the increasingly accessible wealth of genome sequence information. In this review, we will describe how a breakthrough in understanding the molecular basis of self-renewal of the pluripotent founder cells of the mammalian embryo, embryonic stem (ES) cells, enabled the derivation of rat ES cells and their application in transgenesis. We will also describe the remarkable progress that has been made in the development of gene editing enzymes that enable the generation of transgenic rats directly through targeted genetic modifications in the genomes of zygotes. The simplicity, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the CRISPR/Cas gene editing system, in particular, mean that the ability to engineer the rat genome is no longer a limiting factor. The selection of suitable targets and gene modifications will now become a priority: a challenge where

  11. Working Memory Systems in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratch, Alexander; Kann, Spencer; Cain, Joshua A; Wu, Jie-En; Rivera-Reyes, Nilda; Dalecki, Stefan; Arman, Diana; Dunn, Austin; Cooper, Shiloh; Corbin, Hannah E; Doyle, Amanda R; Pizzo, Matthew J; Smith, Alexandra E; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-02-08

    A fundamental feature of memory in humans is the ability to simultaneously work with multiple types of information using independent memory systems. Working memory is conceptualized as two independent memory systems under executive control [1, 2]. Although there is a long history of using the term "working memory" to describe short-term memory in animals, it is not known whether multiple, independent memory systems exist in nonhumans. Here, we used two established short-term memory approaches to test the hypothesis that spatial and olfactory memory operate as independent working memory resources in the rat. In the olfactory memory task, rats chose a novel odor from a gradually incrementing set of old odors [3]. In the spatial memory task, rats searched for a depleting food source at multiple locations [4]. We presented rats with information to hold in memory in one domain (e.g., olfactory) while adding a memory load in the other domain (e.g., spatial). Control conditions equated the retention interval delay without adding a second memory load. In a further experiment, we used proactive interference [5-7] in the spatial domain to compromise spatial memory and evaluated the impact of adding an olfactory memory load. Olfactory and spatial memory are resistant to interference from the addition of a memory load in the other domain. Our data suggest that olfactory and spatial memory draw on independent working memory systems in the rat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiopulmonary Changes with Moderate Decompression in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R.; Little, T.; Doursout, M.-F.; Butler, B. D.; Chelly, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were compressed to 616 kPa for 120 min then decompressed at 38 kPa/min to assess the cardiovascular and pulmonary responses to moderate decompression stress. In one series of experiments the rats were chronically instrumented with Doppler ultrasonic probes for simultaneous measurement of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, left and right ventricular wall thickening fraction, and venous bubble detection. Data were collected at base-line, throughout the compression/decompression protocol, and for 120 min post decompression. In a second series of experiments the pulmonary responses to the decompression protocol were evaluated in non-instrumented rats. Analyses included blood gases, pleural and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and hemoglobin concentration, pulmonary edema, BAL and lung tissue phospholipids, lung compliance, and cell counts. Venous bubbles were directly observed in 90% of the rats where immediate post-decompression autopsy was performed and in 37% using implanted Doppler monitors. Cardiac output, stroke volume, and right ventricular wall thickening fractions were significantly decreased post decompression, whereas systemic vascular resistance was increased suggesting a decrease in venous return. BAL Hb and total protein levels were increased 0 and 60 min post decompression, pleural and plasma levels were unchanged. BAL white blood cells and neutrophil percentages were increased 0 and 60 min post decompression and pulmonary edema was detected. Venous bubbles produced with moderate decompression profiles give detectable cardiovascular and pulmonary responses in the rat.

  13. Opiates and cerebral functional activity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trusk, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral activity was measured using the free-fatty acid (1-/sup 14/C) octanoate as a fast functional tracer in conscious, unrestrained rats 5 minutes after intravenous injection of heroin, cocaine or saline vehicle. Regional changes of octanoate labeling density in the autoradiograms relative to saline-injected animals were used to determine the functional activity effects of each drug. Heroin and cocaine each produced a distinctive pattern of activity increases and suppression throughout the rat brain. Similar regional changes induced by both drugs were found in limbic brain regions implicated in drug reinforcement. Labeled octanoate autoradiography was used to measure the cerebral functional response to a tone that had previously been paired to heroin injections. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administration animal, and two animals receiving yoked infusion of heroin or saline. A tone was paired with each infusion during training. Behavioral experiments in similarly trained rats demonstrated that these training conditions impart secondary reinforcing properties to the tone in animals previously self-administering heroin, while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion rats. Cerebral functional activity was measured during presentation of the tone without drug infusion. Octanoate labeling density changed in fifteen brain areas in response to the tone previously paired to heroin without response contingency. Labeling density was significantly modified in sixteen regions as a result of previously pairing the tone to response-contingent heroin infusions.

  14. Hematological changes in opium addicted diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Sirati-Sabet, Majid; Asiabanha, Majid; Shahrokhi, Nader; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Chronic opioid treatment in animal models has shown to alter hematological parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of opium on the number of peripheral blood cells and red blood cells (RBCs) indices in diabetic rats. Peripheral blood samples were collected from diabetic, opium-addicted, diabetic opium-addicted and normal male and female rats and hematological parameters were measured. The mean number of white blood cells (WBCs) was significantly higher in diabetic opium-addict females compared to diabetic non-addict female group. In both male and female, the mean number of neutrophils was significantly higher and the mean number of lymphocytes was lower in diabetic opium-addicted rats than those observed in diabetic non-addicted group. In diabetic opium-addicted male group the mean counts of RBC significantly increased as compared with diabetic male group. However, in diabetic addicted female, the mean number of RBCs was significantly lower than diabetic non-addicted female group. In both males and females, the mean number of platelets was significantly lower in diabetic addict rats compared to diabetic non-addict group. Generally, the results indicated that opium addiction has different effects on male and female rats according to the number of WBC, RBC and RBC indices. It could also be concluded that in the opium-addicts the risk of infection is enhanced due to the weakness of immune system as a result of the imbalance effect of opium on the immune cells.

  15. Gastric secretion elicited by conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, José Liberato Ferreira; Cury, Francico de Assis; Borin, Aldenis Albanese; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda Sales Caboclo; de Freitas, Pedro José; Andersson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether interdigestive gastric acid secretion can be controlled by a possible memory-related cortical mechanism. To evaluate gastric secretion in rats, we used a methodology that allows gastric juice collection in rats in their habitual conditions (without any restraining) by pairing sound as the conditioning stimulus (CS) and food as the unconditioning stimulus (US). The levels of gastric acid secretion under basal conditions and under sound stimulation were recorded and the circulating gastrin levels determined. When the gastric juice was collected in the course of the conditioning procedure, the results showed that under noise stimulation a significant increase in gastric acid secretion occurred after 10 days of conditioning (p<0.01). The significance was definitively demonstrated after 13 days of conditioning (p<0.001). Basal secretions of the conditioned rats reached a significant level after 16 days of conditioning. The levels of noise-stimulated gastric acid secretion were the highest so far described in physiological experiments carried out in rats and there were no significant increases in the circulating gastrin levels. The results point to the important role played by cortical structures in the control of interdigestive gastric acid secretion in rats. If this mechanism is also present in humans, it may be involved in diseases caused by inappropriate gastric acid secretion during the interprandial periods.

  16. A rat model for hepatitis E virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Debing

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is one of the prime causes of acute viral hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis E is increasingly recognized as an important problem in the transplant setting. Nevertheless, the fundamental understanding of the biology of HEV replication is limited and there are few therapeutic options. The development of such therapies is partially hindered by the lack of a robust and convenient animal model. We propose the infection of athymic nude rats with the rat HEV strain LA-B350 as such a model. A cDNA clone, pLA-B350, was constructed and the infectivity of its capped RNA transcripts was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a subgenomic replicon, pLA-B350/luc, was constructed and validated for in vitro antiviral studies. Interestingly, rat HEV proved to be less sensitive to the antiviral activity of α-interferon, ribavirin and mycophenolic acid than genotype 3 HEV (a strain that infects humans. As a proof-of-concept, part of the C-terminal polymerase sequence of pLA-B350/luc was swapped with its genotype 3 HEV counterpart: the resulting chimeric replicon replicated with comparable efficiency as the wild-type construct, confirming that LA-B350 strain is amenable to humanization (replacement of certain sequences or motifs by their counterparts from human HEV strains. Finally, ribavirin effectively inhibited LA-B350 replication in athymic nude rats, confirming the suitability of the rat model for antiviral studies.

  17. Renal alterations in prediabetic rats with periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Carla Cruvinel Pontes; Holmstrup, Palle; Buschard, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periodontitis was shown to have an impact on glucose levels in prediabetic and diabetic rats. The Zucker fatty rat (ZFR) is a well-characterized model of prediabetes presenting with impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and moderate hypertension. The aim of the p......BACKGROUND: Periodontitis was shown to have an impact on glucose levels in prediabetic and diabetic rats. The Zucker fatty rat (ZFR) is a well-characterized model of prediabetes presenting with impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and moderate hypertension. The aim...... of the present study was to investigate whether periodontitis influences kidney changes in ZFRs. METHODS: Male adult ZFRs (N = 19) and their lean littermates (N = 18) were studied. Periodontitis was induced with ligatures in half of the ZFRs and lean rats, whereas the other half served as controls. After 4 weeks...... IValpha1, fibronectin, and nephrin. Urinary albumin excretion and creatinine clearance were also evaluated. RESULTS: In prediabetic ZFRs, periodontitis was associated with kidney hypertrophy (P = 0.03) and a tendency for increased glomerular volume (P = 0.06). In lean littermates, elevated fibronectin m...

  18. Somatostatin ontogenesis in the gastrointestinal and pancreatic tract: study in normal rats and during a induced diabetes in neonates rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The ontogenic studies of somatostatin of pancreas, ileum and duodenum of Wistar rats and the rats with induced diabetes were done. The radioimmunologic method to dose the somatostatin was used. (L.M.J.)

  19. Origins of albino and hooded rats: implications from molecular genetic analysis across modern laboratory rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Takashi; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Ochiai, Masako; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Voigt, Birger; Serikawa, Tadao

    2012-01-01

    Albino and hooded (or piebald) rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H) locus has been mapped to the ∼460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h) mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV) element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR) was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (h(i)) phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats.

  20. Fetal rat pancreas transplantation in BB rats: immunohistochemical and functional evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yderstraede, K B; Starklint, H; Steinbruchel, D; Jørgensen, T W; Gotfredsen, C F

    1993-01-01

    Spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor rats received either a syngeneic fetal pancreas transplant or adult islets. In the former, 4-8 fetal pancreases were transplanted, and in the latter, 3-5000 islets. Transplantation was performed by transferring a blood clot containing the pancreases or islets to the renal subcapsular space. Insulin therapy was undertaken postoperatively, except in one experiment with adult islets. Of the fetal pancreas transplanted BB rats, 52% became normoglycaemic, and 21% remained so throughout an observation period of 10 months. Nephrectomy caused a prompt return of diabetes. The histological appearance of the grafts transplanted to the diabetic animals closely resembled that of grafts transplanted to normal rats in a parallel series. For comparison a group of BB rats received a syngeneic transplant of isolated adult islets from WF rats or BBW rats. Following adult islet transplantation, 5 out of 6 animals became hyperglycaemic after a median of 20.5 days when no insulin was given post-transplantation. Four out of 5 animals became hyperglycaemic after a median of 23 days when supportive insulin therapy was administered after the transplantation. The results indicate that recurrent diabetes is not inevitable following syngeneic fetal pancreas transplantation to spontaneously diabetic BB rats. Recurrent diabetes was only occasionally associated with mononuclear cell infiltration. Transplanted tissue was well-preserved and vascularized; mega-islets were a constant finding.

  1. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Okamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA rat derived from Long-Evans (LE strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of β-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Effect of Yushen zhuyun decoction on rats with diminished ovarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Yushen zhuyun decoction (YSZYF) on rats with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). Methods: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the major phytochemical constituents of YSZYF. Rats with DOR (DOR rats) were prepared by administration of ...

  3. Effect of thiabendazole on some rat hepatic xenobiotic metabolising enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, R.J.; Scott, M.P.; Walters, D.G.; Stierum, R.H.; Groten, J.P.; Meredith, C.; Lake, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of thiabendazole (TB) on some rat hepatic xenobiotic metabolising enzymes has been investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed control diet or diets containing 102-5188 ppm TB for 28 days. As a positive control for induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism, rats were also fed diets

  4. Haematological and Serum Biochemical Variables in rats Treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematology and serum biochemical effects of oral administration of the ethanolic extract of the root of Moringa oleifera at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg were investigated in 30 mated female Wistar rats. The rats were assigned into five groups of six rats each. Group A was given 50mg/kg of the extract; group B, 100mg/kg; ...

  5. Rat1p maintains RNA polymerase II CTD phosphorylation balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Schmid, Manfred; Malagon, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In S. cerevisiae, the 5'-3' exonuclease Rat1p partakes in transcription termination. Although Rat1p-mediated RNA degradation has been suggested to play a role for this activity, the exact mechanisms by which Rat1p helps release RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) from the DNA template are poorly understoo...

  6. Rat-to-human transmission of Cowpox infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, Tom F W; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Niesters, Hubert G M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2002-01-01

    We isolated Cowpox virus (CPXV) from the ulcerative eyelid lesions of a 14-year-old girl, who had cared for a clinically ill wild rat that later died. CPXV isolated from the rat (Rattus norvegicus) showed complete homology with the girl's virus. Our case is the first proven rat-to-human transmission

  7. Bile secretion in albino rat following chronic honey intake | Alagwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of honey intake on bile secretion, bile electrolytes, bilirubin and cholesterol levels including plasma cholesterol in albino rats. 20 male albino rats (200-210g) were used in the study. The rats were assigned randomly into 2 groups (control and honey-fed groups), each group ...

  8. Haematological Indices, Blood glucose levels and lipid profile of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was done as a part of safety assessment to determine the effects of Tartrazine E102 on some haematological indices, glucose levels and blood lipid profile in rats. An animal model was used as a basis for interpreting the situation in humans. Consequently, 40 albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each.

  9. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with neohesperidin dihydrochalcone in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Kuilman-Wahls, M.E.M.; Bär, A.

    2004-01-01

    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI)WU BR rats. NHDC was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 1.25, 2.5 or 5 to groups of 28 mated female rats from day 0 to 21 of gestation. At Cesarean section 25, 22, 23, and 23 rats were found to

  10. Activation of peripheral leukocytes in rat pregnancy and experimental preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Linton, EA; Sargent, IL; Redman, CWG

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to search for activation markers of peripheral leukocytes in experimental preeclampsia in the rat. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental preeclampsia was induced in 14-day-pregnant rats by infusion of endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg body weight). For comparison, rats with normal

  11. Diet induced gene expression in rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caimari, A.; Oliver, P.; Rodenburg, W.; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, A.

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression of rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells was analyzed by microarray analysis in normoweight and in diet-induced obese rats (cafeteria rats). The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in energy homeostasis that are altered in the obese state.

  12. EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT BRAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined whether there is a differential distribution of PFOS within the brain, and compares adult rats with neonatal rats at an age when formation of the blood-brain barrier is not yet complete (postnatal day 7). Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (60-70 day old, 4/...

  13. Honey increases sperm count in male albino rats by enhancing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of different doses of honey (H) and testosterone (T) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rats. Thirty-five male albino rats were randomly divided in a blinded fashion into 7 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 (control) was given 0.2 ml of distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were ...

  14. EEG differences between the opioid and adrenergic psyhoneuroendocrine rat types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristea, A; Moldovan, M; Munteanu, A M

    2000-01-01

    (BEA) of the "O" and "A" rat types during restrained wakefulness and anesthesia with Ether and chloral hydrate (CHL). The differentiation of the psyhoneuroendocrine rat types was made using the level of painful sensitivity. 13 hypersensitive "A" and 14 hyposensitive "O" rats were selected from a 91...

  15. Using giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant African pouched rats previously have detected tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples in which the presence of TB was not initially detected by smear microscopy. Operant conditioning principles were used to train these rats to indicate TB-positive samples. In 2010, rats trained in this way evaluated 26,665 ...

  16. Parathyroid hormone dependent T cell proliferation in uremic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewin, E; Ladefoged, Jens; Brandi, L

    1993-01-01

    was normalized. Rat PTH 1-84 stimulated in vitro the PHA-induced proliferation of T cells in a dose dependent manner. This effect was significant in CRF rat lymphocytes, but not in lymphocytes obtained from normal rats. Based upon the present results it is suggested that the secondary hyperparathyroidism...

  17. ( Cola Nitida Rubra ) on Reproductive Hormones in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our previous study suggests that aqueous extract of kola nut had effect on reproductive hormones in male rats. This study evaluates the effects of kola nut extract on plasma level of testosterone and luteinizing hormones in male rats. 30 adult male rats were used. These were divided into three groups: group A served as ...

  18. histological changes in the lungs of adult wistar rats following

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen adult male Wistar rats of 9 weeks old weighing between 130-160 g were used for the study. They were obtained from the animal house of the Department of Anatomy, University of. Ilorin, Nigeria. The rats were kept in well- ventilated conditions in the animal house of the. Department of Anatomy and given normal rat.

  19. Regulation of Taurine transporter activity in cultured rat retinal ganglion cells and rat retinal Muller Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, Laila A.; Smith, Sylvia B.; El-sherbeny, Amira A.

    2006-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. The amino acid taurine is believed to play an antioxidant protective role in diabetic retinopathy through the scavenging of the reactive species. It is not well established whether taurine uptake is altered in retina cells during diabetic conditions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the changes in taurine transport in cultures of rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under conditions associated with diabetes. Taurine was abundantly taken up by retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under normal glycemic condition. Taurine was actively transported to rat Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in a Na and Cl dependant manner. Taurine uptake further significantly elevated in both type of cells after the incubation with high glucose concentration. This effect could be attributed to the increase in osmolarity. Because Nitric Oxide (NO) is a molecule implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, we also determined the activity of taurine transporter in cultured rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in the presence of the NO donors, SIN-1 and SNAP. Taurine uptake was elevated above control value after 24-h incubation with low concentration of NO donors. We finally investigated the ability of neurotoxic glutamate to change taurine transporter activity in both types of cells. Uptake of taurine was significantly increased in rat retinal ganglion cells when only incubated with high concentration of glutamate. Our data provide evidence that taurine transporter is present in cultured rat retinal ganglion and Muller cells and is regulated by hyperosmolarity. The data are relevant to disease such as diabetes and neuronal degeneration where retinal cell volume may dramatically change. (author)

  20. Immature rats show ovulatory defects similar to those in adult rats lacking prostaglandin and progesterone actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Criado Jose E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gonadotropin-primed immature rats (GPIR constitute a widely used model for the study of ovulation. Although the equivalence between the ovulatory process in immature and adult rats is generally assumed, the morphological and functional characteristics of ovulation in immature rats have been scarcely considered. We describe herein the morphological aspects of the ovulatory process in GPIR and their response to classical ovulation inhibitors, such as the inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG synthesis indomethacin (INDO and a progesterone (P receptor (PR antagonist (RU486. Immature Wistar rats were primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG at 21, 23 or 25 days of age, injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later, and sacrificed 16 h after hCG treatment, to assess follicle rupture and ovulation. Surprisingly, GPIR showed age-related ovulatory defects close similar to those in adult rats lacking P and PG actions. Rats primed with eCG at 21 or 23 days of age showed abnormally ruptured corpora lutea in which the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC was trapped or had been released to the ovarian interstitum, invading the ovarian stroma and blood and lymphatic vessels. Supplementation of immature rats with exogenous P and/or PG of the E series did not significantly inhibit abnormal follicle rupture. Otherwise, ovulatory defects were practically absent in rats primed with eCG at 25 days of age. GPIR treated with INDO showed the same ovulatory alterations than vehicle-treated ones, although affecting to a higher proportion of follicles. Blocking P actions with RU486 increased the number of COC trapped inside corpora lutea and decreased ovulation. The presence of ovulatory defects in GPIR, suggests that the capacity of the immature ovary to undergo the coordinate changes leading to effective ovulation is not fully established in Wistar rats primed with eCG before 25 days of age.

  1. Tryptophan depletion affects compulsive behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merchán, A; Navarro, S V; Klein, A B

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE: Compulsive behaviour, present in different psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia and drug abuse, is associated with altered levels of monoamines, particularly serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and its receptor system. OBJECTIVES: The present study...... evaluated, as well as the 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptor binding, in different brain regions. METHODS: Wistar rats were selected as high (HD) or low (LD) drinkers according to their SIP behaviour, while Lister hooded rats did not show SIP acquisition. Both strains were fed for 14 days with either a TRP...... in the striatum was significantly reduced in the TRP-depleted HD Wistar rats. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that alterations of the serotonergic system could be involved in compulsive behaviour in vulnerable populations....

  2. Strychnine induces embryotoxicity in rat neurulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alcocer, Guadalupe; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo; Miledi, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Administering strychnine, a potent antagonist of glycine receptors, to pregnant rats caused marked toxic effects on the ensuing embryos. The embryotoxic effects of strychnine were compared with those induced by retinal palmitate during rat neurulation; and it was found that strychnine was stronger than retinal palmitate in a number of abnormalities such as anencephaly, general aplasy and abnormal cerebral vesicles. Although the glycine receptor beta1 subunit mRNA was found to be expressed in the embryos when strychnine was administered to the mother rats, its presence may not fully account for the toxic effects and it may be that strychnine is targeting also other molecules, such as the nicotinic receptor that has been found early in development.

  3. Renal alterations in prediabetic rats with periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Carla Cruvinel Pontes; Holmstrup, Palle; Buschard, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periodontitis was shown to have an impact on glucose levels in prediabetic and diabetic rats. The Zucker fatty rat (ZFR) is a well-characterized model of prediabetes presenting with impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and moderate hypertension. The aim...... of the present study was to investigate whether periodontitis influences kidney changes in ZFRs. METHODS: Male adult ZFRs (N = 19) and their lean littermates (N = 18) were studied. Periodontitis was induced with ligatures in half of the ZFRs and lean rats, whereas the other half served as controls. After 4 weeks...... IValpha1, fibronectin, and nephrin. Urinary albumin excretion and creatinine clearance were also evaluated. RESULTS: In prediabetic ZFRs, periodontitis was associated with kidney hypertrophy (P = 0.03) and a tendency for increased glomerular volume (P = 0.06). In lean littermates, elevated fibronectin m...

  4. Iron appetite and latent learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, S C; Vasselli, J R; Milam, K M

    1977-11-01

    Two experiments are reported which show that rats are capable of forming an association between the presence of iron in a solution when it is not specifically needed and a subsequent state of iron deficiency. Specifically, rats were trained to lever press for water while thirsty. One group received ferrous ions in addition to the water. When these rats were subsequently rendered iron deficient, they lever pressed more under extinction conditions as a graded function of lower hemoglobin levels. Controls that either did not receive ferrous ions during training or received solutions other than ferrous solutions during training did not respond this way under extinction conditions. This is therefore a type of latent learning previously demonstrated only for sodium appetite.

  5. Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from different environments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van Knapen, Frans; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and Rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We

  6. Periovulatory leukocyte infiltration in the rat ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Oliver R; Kim, HeyYoung; El-Amouri, Ismail; Lin, Po-Ching Patrick; Cho, Jongki; Bani-Ahmad, Mohammad; Ko, Chemyong

    2010-09-01

    Ovulation is preceded by intraovarian inflammatory reactions that occur in response to the preovulatory gonadotropin surge. As a main inflammatory event, leukocytes infiltrate the ovary and release proteolytic enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix weakening the follicular wall, a required step for follicle rupture. This study aimed to quantitatively measure the infiltrating leukocytes, determine their cell types, and localize infiltration sites in the periovulatory rat ovary. Cycling adult and gonadotropin-stimulated immature rats were used as animal models. Ovaries were collected at five different stages of estrous cycle in the adult rats (diestrus, 1700 h; proestrus, 1500 h; proestrus, 2400 h; estrus, 0600 h; and metestrus, 1700 h) and at five different time points after superovulation induction in the immature rats (pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin, 0 h; pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin, 48 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 6 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 12 h; and human chorionic gonadotropin, 24 h). The ovaries were either dissociated into a single cell suspension for flow cytometric analysis or fixed for immunohistochemical localization of the leukocytes. Similar numbers of leukocytes were seen throughout the estrous cycle (approximately 500,000/ovary), except proestrus 2400 when 2-fold higher numbers of leukocytes were found (approximately 1.1 million/ovary). A similar trend of periovulatory rise of leukocyte numbers was seen in the superovulation-induced immature rat model, recapitulating a dramatic increase in leukocyte numbers upon gonadotropin stimulation. Both macrophage/granulocytes and lymphocytes were among the infiltrating leukocytes and were localized in the theca and interstitial tissues, where platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 may play roles in the transmigration of leukocytes, because their expressions correlates spatiotemporally with the infiltrating leukocytes. In addition, a

  7. Neutron irradiation of rat embryos in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In the rat radiation is most effective in producing congenital anomalies during the organ-forming period (days 9 to 13), which is approximately equivalent to the 14th to 50th days of human pregnancy. We have exposed female Sprague--Dawley rats on the 18th day of pregnancy to single whole-body doses of fission neutrons (20 to 150 rads). After 20 rads there was a small decrease in body weight which lasted from birth to weaning. During this period 9% of the irradiated rats died compared with 4% of the controls. After 50 rads, 65/275 (23.6%) of the rats died between birth and weaning, and the body-weight loss of the survivors was increased. After 100 rads, 62/133 (47%) died at birth or day 1 and 103/133 (77.4%) died before weaning. A large and significant decrease in body weight persisted in the survivors. After 150 rads of fission neutrons, all 95 rats died within 48 hr of birth. From cross-fostering experiments, we believe this is a direct effect of radiation on the embryos and not an indirect action through the mother or her milk. The LD 50 for the period from birth to weaning is approximately 75 rads of fission neutrons. Studies of organ weight were conducted daily for the first week after birth in an attempt to find the cause of radiation mortality. Body weight of the irradiated animals averaged only about one-half that of the controls. The liver, kidney, brain, and testes of the neutron-irradiated rats weighed significantly less than those of the controls. The weights of the spleen, lungs, duodenum, and stomach were decreased but not significantly. The bone marrow appeared depleted in the irradiated long bones, but the spleen maintained active hematopoiesis 1 to 2 months after neutron exposure

  8. [Vitamins in rat experimental diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of full semisynthetic diets used in different laboratories has shown that its vitamin content covers physiological requirements of rats in these micronutrients. The significant fluctuations in group B vitamin concentrations may take place when one uses brewer's yeast as a source of these vitamins. A preliminary assessment of vitamin content in brewer's yeasts is required in this case. An essential contribution of basic components in diet vitamin content must be taken in consideration when one creates a vitamin-deficient diet. Casein contains substantial amounts of group B vitamins and vitamin D. Therefore decontamination of casein from water and / or fat-soluble vitamins or the use of commercial purified casein is required. Vegetable oils are usually used as a fatty component of a diet and they simultaneously serve as an additional source of vitamin E. A choice of naturally containing vitamin E oil as a fat component of a diet is crucial for the creating an alimentary deficiency of vitamin E. The content of fat-soluble vitamins in the diet of control group (group of comparison) and vitamin level in the diet of experimental group of animals must be equivalent in investigations with modified (quality and quantitative) fat diet component. Caloric restriction by simple reducing of food without increasing the amount of vitamins to an adequate level is incorrect. With these considerations in mind proper attention to the equivalence of vitamin content in the diet of animals in experimental and control groups should be paid during experiments scheduling. Otherwise, the studies carried out under deficient or excessive intake of vitamins can lead to incorrect interpretation of the results and difficulties in their comparison with the data obtained under different conditions.

  9. Immunity to Fasciola hepatica in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, J.; Dargie, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were carried out which demonstrated an acquired immunity to Fasciola hapatica in the rat. It was shown that this immunity could be transferred to recipients using either lymphoid cells or serum from infected donor rats. The extent of the protection obtained by cells appeared to be related to the quantity and persistence of the antigenic stimulus in the donor. Likewise, the degree of immunity conferred by immune serum was dependent upon the volume transferred. The significance of these results in relation to the mechanism of immunity to fascioliasis is discussed

  10. Nerve excitability in the rat forelimb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Ria; Moldovan, Mihai; Rosberg, Mette Romer

    2017-01-01

    a novel setup to explore the ulnar nerve excitability in rodents. We provide normative ulnar data in 11 adult female Long Evans rats under anaesthesia by comparison with tibial and caudal nerves. Additionally, these measures were repeated weekly on 3 occasions to determine the repeatability of these tests....... Results Nerve excitability assessment of ulnar nerve proved to be a longitudinally repeatable measure of axonal function mature in rats, as were measures in tibial and caudal nerves. Comparison with existing method: Ulnar nerve motor excitability measures were different from the caudal and tibial...

  11. Determinants of acetylcholine levels in aged rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.O.

    1986-01-01

    This paper assesses the ACh content and release in aged rats. Levels of ACh were found to decrease in older animals. Possible reasons for this decline are also examined. Radiolabeled incubation medium was substitued for bath saline. The incubation medium consisted of the bath saline containing a known amount of unlabeled choline, tritium-methyl choline chloride, U- C 14 sucrose, and physostigmine. To determine thekinetics, choline uptake was measured after a 4-min incubation. Unlabled choline chloride and tritium-choline were added to the saline. the results of the study demonstrate an age-related decline in the amount of transmetter, ACh, in nerve terminals at the rat neuromuscular junction

  12. [Electromagnetic Shielding Alters Behaviour of Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temuryants, N A; Kostyuk, A S; Tumanyants, K N

    2015-01-01

    It has been found that long-term electromagnetic shielding (19 hours per day for 10 days) leads to an increase in the duration of passive swimming time in male rats, decrease the duration of active swimming in the "forced swim" test as well as decrease of libido. On the other hand animals kept under the "open field" conditions do not show significant deviations from their normal behavior. Therefore, one could conclude that moderate electromagnetic shielding causes a depression-like state in rats.

  13. Absorption of pentacaine from ulcerous rat stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomcikova, O.; Babulova, A.; Durisova, M.; Trnovec, T.; Benes, L.

    1985-01-01

    Pentacaine is a local anaesthetic which exhibited positive effects on healing of model ulcers in the rat stomach. The in situ disappearance of pentacaine from the ulcerous and intact rat stomach was studied. Gastric ulcers were produced by oral administration of phenylbutazone (200 mg/kg) 3.5 h before absorption experiment. Pentacaine exhibited a biexponential decrease from the lumen of the stomach, the rate of which was essentially the same in both groups. The total amount of pentacaine absorbed was small because of extremly low absorption rate. (author)

  14. Neurotoxicity of topically applied hexachlorophene in the young rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, R M; Leech, R W; Alvord, E C

    1975-05-01

    Young rats 6 to 22 days of age are extremely susceptible to the neurotoxic effects of hexachlorophene given as a daily bath of undiluted antiseptic detergent containing 3% hexachlorophene (pHiso-Hex). At this age, most rats are clinically and histologically damaged by as few as two daily baths. Younger rats are relatively resistant, probably because they have less myelin to be affected; older rats cannot be poisoned by this route, probably because the more mature liver excretes the drug more effectively. Age-dose-response curves in rats are similar to those in humans. This experimental model is potentially useful in defining other characteristics of this drug.

  15. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Rat fetuin: distribution of protein and mRNA in embryonic and neonatal rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, O B; Jahnen-Dechent, W; Nielsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    functions of fetuin, we have studied its synthesis and distribution during the prenatal development of the rat with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. We have isolated fetuin from rat serum and produced an antibody against this protein. In situ hybridization was performed using a 375...... protein, in the sense that the highest concentrations are found in serum and body fluids of embryos and fetuses. In order to elucidate possible biological functions of fetuin, we have studied its synthesis and distribution during the prenatal development of the rat with immunohistochemistry and in situ...... hybridization. We have isolated fetuin from rat serum and produced an antibody against this protein. In situ hybridization was performed using a 375-nucleotides-long digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe. Fetuin was unevenly distributed in all organ systems during development, with the most pronounced expression at E16...

  17. Defective renal calcium reabsorption in genetic hypercalciuric rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruoka, S; Bushinsky, D A; Schwartz, G J

    1997-05-01

    Idiopathic hypercalciuria is a frequent cause of calcium (Ca) containing kidney stones. We have previously shown that there is increased intestinal Ca absorption in selectively inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone forming (GHS) rats; however, excess Ca excretion persists when the rats are fed a low Ca diet indicating a defect in renal Ca reabsorption and/or increased bone resorption. To determine if GHS rats have a defect in renal Ca reabsorption we performed 14C-inulin clearance studies on parathyroidectomized female GHS and control (Ctl) rats. After three baseline collections, chlorothiazide (CTZ) or furosemide (FUR) was infused and three more collections were obtained. Both GFR and filtered load of Ca did not differ among the groups; however, fractional and absolute excretion (UcaV) of Ca was three times higher in GHS rats. The increased Ca excretion was not diminished by a low Ca diet. Urine flow rate nearly tripled in all rats after either FUR or CTZ. After CTZ, UcaV was decreased to a greater extent in GHS compared to Ctl rats. After FUR, UcaV was increased to a greater extent in Ctl rats compared to GHS rats. These data indicate that GHS rats have a defect in renal Ca reabsorption, in addition to increased intestinal Ca absorption. The effect of CTZ was greater, and that of FUR was smaller, in GHS compared with Ctl rats, suggesting that the defect in renal Ca handling might be at the level of the thick ascending limb.

  18. Rats demonstrate helping behavior toward a soaked conspecific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuya; Tan, Ling; Tate, Kazushi; Okada, Maya

    2015-09-01

    Helping behavior is a prosocial behavior whereby an individual helps another irrespective of disadvantages to him or herself. In the present study, we examined whether rats would help distressed, conspecific rats that had been soaked with water. In Experiment 1, rats quickly learned to liberate a soaked cagemate from the water area by opening the door to allow the trapped rat into a safe area. Additional tests showed that the presentation of a distressed cagemate was necessary to induce rapid door-opening behavior. In addition, it was shown that rats dislike soaking and that rats that had previously experienced a soaking were quicker to learn how to help a cagemate than those that had never been soaked. In Experiment 2, the results indicated that rats did not open the door to a cagemate that was not distressed. In Experiment 3, we tested behavior when rats were forced to choose between opening the door to help a distressed cagemate and opening a different door to obtain a food reward. Irrespective of how they learned to open the door, in most test trials, rats chose to help the cagemate before obtaining a food reward, suggesting that the relative value of helping others is greater than the value of a food reward. These results suggest that rats can behave prosocially and that helper rats may be motivated by empathy-like feelings toward their distressed cagemate.

  19. WTC rat has unique characteristics such as resistant to streptozotocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaki, Yoshiaki; Ito, Koichi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi

    2016-12-01

    Because we found that WTC rats might be resistant to streptozotocin (STZ), we have elucidated the mechanisms of resistant to the diabetogenic effects of STZ in the WTC rats. Dose response to STZ was evaluated with glucose levels. No significant changes in glucose level to STZ administration were observed in WTC rats. Insulin secretion by suppling glucose was preserved in WTC rats even after STZ administration. Although there was no significant difference in gene expression of both GLUT2 and Kir6.2, which were involved in STZ resistance, between WTC rats and Wistar rats, the expression of metallothionein 2a in pancreas and liver to STZ administration of WTC rats was significantly higher than that of Wistar rats. Moreover, alloxan did not induce diabetes in WTC rats as same as STZ. These results suggest that WTC rats might have powerful antioxidant property to protect β cells in pancreas. Because the STZ-resistant property is very close characteristics to human beings, WTC rats will become a useful animal model in diabetic researches.

  20. Guanethidine-induced sympathectomy in the nude rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Juul, P; Christensen, H B

    1989-01-01

    Guanethidine sulphate 40 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally daily for 14 days to normal Lewis rats and athymic nude rats of a Lewis background (rnu/rnu). Histological examination of the superior cervical ganglia demonstrated a pronounced chromatolysis of the neurones and a loss of the major...... part of the nerve cells accompanied by an increased number of small mononuclear inflammatory cells. The extent of chromatolysis and nerve cell death induced by guanethidine did not differ between normal and nude rats, whereas the increase of the number of mononuclear cells was lower in the nude rats...... than in the normal rats (163 and 268 per cent respectively of the saline treated controls, P less than 0.01). Since guanethidine induced nerve cell death in the T-cell deficient nude rat to the same extent as in normal rats, it is concluded, that the effect is caused by either a thymus...

  1. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on the hemorheology of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiwei; Tian, Tian; Xiao, Bo; Li, Wen

    2017-01-01

    The current work examines the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the hemorheology to provide an experimental basis for radiation protection. Electromagnetic radiation was generated by a Helmholtz coil constructed from copper wire. There were six rats altogether: three rats in the experimental group, and three rats in the control group. The rats in the experimental group were continuously exposed to radiation for 10 hours every day, and rats in the control group remained in a normal environment. After 30 days, the characteristics of hemorheology of the two groups were compared. The average plasma viscosity, whole blood high shear velocity, and whole blood low shear viscosity were lower in rats in the experimental group than in rats in the control group, while the whole blood shear viscosity was higher in the experimental group than in the control group. Results suggest that long term exposure to electromagnetic radiation does have certain impacts on the cardiovascular system, deeming it necessary to take preventative measures.

  2. Ontogenetic aspects of thallium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenroth, D; Tiller, S; Gambaryan, S; Winnefeld, K; Fleck, C; Bräunlich, H

    1996-01-01

    The effect of Tl2SO4 (Tl, 20 mg kg-1 body wt.) on renal function was investigated in 10- and 20-day-old rats. Nephrotoxic effects were evaluated by the determination of glomerular filtration rate, urinary volume, electrolyte and protein excretion, as well as by morphological investigations. In contrast to adult rats there were no morphological destructions in 10- and 20-day-old rats. Changes in renal function seemed to be less expressed in 10- and 20-day-old than in adult rats. The smaller nephrotoxicity in 10-day-old rats may be caused by lower Tl concentration in renal tissue, whereas in 20-day-old rats decreased nephrotoxicity cannot be explained in this way. The activity of Na+/K(+)-ATPase in rat renal tissues was found to be involved in the mechanisms of Tl enrichment in renal tissue, being an indirect determinant of Tl nephrotoxicity.

  3. Core temperature of tailless rats exposed to centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, C. B.; Oyama, J.

    1984-01-01

    The role of the tail in the altered thermoregulation of rats during acute exposure to hypergravity was investigated, using groups of rats of two ages: 55 days (young) and 138 days (old). Rectal and foot temperature changes were measured in intact and tailless rats subjected to 1 h centrifugation of 2.8 G, with preceding (1 h) and following (1-3 h) 1 G periods. At 22 C, the loss of body heat from the tail per se does not measurably contribute to the hypothermia induced by hypergravity. However, the heat loss from the feet was greater in the tailless rats than in the intact rats from the young group of animals, although there was no significant difference between the tailless and intact rats in the old animal group. It is concluded that the inhibition of heat production is a significant factor in the hypothermia of centrifuged tailless rats, as it has been previously shown to be in the intact animals.

  4. Palmitoylated PrRP analog decreases body weight in DIO rats but not in ZDF rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubová, Martina; Zemenová, Jana; Mikulášková, Barbora; Panajotová, V.; Stöhr, J.; Haluzík, M.; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 229, č. 2 (2016), s. 85-96 ISSN 0022-0795 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * diet-induced obesity * ZDF rats * food intake * rat Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  5. Palmitoylated PrRP analog decreases body weight in DIO rats but not in ZDF rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubová, M.; Zemenová, J.; Mikulášková, Barbora; Panajotová, V.; Stöhr, J.; Haluzík, M.; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Železná, B.; Maletínská, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 229, č. 2 (2016), s. 85-96 ISSN 0022-0795 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * diet-induced obesity * ZDF rats * food intake rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  6. Efficacy and Safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-San Retention Enema in Normal Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunyoung Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish a protocol of retention-enema experiments and evaluate the antihypertensive effect and the safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema. Normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were divided into treatment and control groups, respectively. We applied the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san extract by decoction and 0.9% NaCl in each group, estimated the blood pressure and body weight, and performed HPLC analysis. ALT, AST, BUN, and creatinine were examined. The systolic blood pressure within each group in normal rats differed significantly in time effect, and so did the diastolic blood pressure in the treatment group of normal rats. The systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure showed significant differences in group effect in the treatment group of the SHRs. The time effect of the body weight in both groups of normal rats differed significantly, so did group × time and time effects in both groups of SHRs. AST, ALT, BUN, and creatinine showed no significant difference between groups. We concluded that the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema has a hypotensive effect in normal rats within the regular range of blood pressure, but an antihypertensive effect in SHRs. Also, the intervention is safe and does not affect the liver and kidney functions in normal rats.

  7. Prior access to a sweet is more protective against cocaine self-administration in female rats than male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Angie M.; Grigson, Patricia S.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that female rats are more sensitive than male rats to the reinforcing effects of cocaine (Lynch, 2008 for review). We hypothesized that greater preference for cocaine would support greater avoidance of a cocaine-paired taste cue in female vs. male rats. Moreover, at least in male rats, greater avoidance of the taste cue is associated with greater cocaine self-administration (Grigson & Twining, 2002). Thus, we anticipated that female rats would not only demonstrate greater avoidance of the drug-paired taste cue, but greater drug-taking as well. We tested these hypotheses by examining avoidance of a saccharin cue in male and female rats following several pairings with self-administered saline or cocaine (0.16, 0.33, or 0.66 mg/infusion). Contrary to expectations, the results showed that female rats exhibited less avoidance of the cocaine-associated saccharin cue than male rats and self-administered less, rather than more, cocaine, Thus, while female rats reportedly take more drug than male rats when the drug is presented in the absence of an alternative reward, they take less drug than male rats when the opportunity to self-administer cocaine is preceded by access to a palatable sweet. Females, then, may not simply be more sensitive to the rewarding properties of drug, but also to the reinforcing properties of natural rewards and this increase in sensitivity to sweets may serve to protect against drug-taking behavior. PMID:23474135

  8. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone ... chloroquine are probably mediated via the generation of free radicals. ... Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Groups.

  9. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-09-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents.

  10. Monoclonal antibodies against rat leukocyte surface antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, T. K.; Puklavec, M. J.; Barclay, A. N.; Dijkstra, C. D.

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have proven to be powerful tools for studying the properties of leukocyte surface antigens and the cells that express them. In the past decades many monoclonal antibodies (mAb) for identifying the different rat leukocyte surface antigens have been described. A list of mAb is

  11. Transgenic Rat Models for Breast Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    mutations in the rat genome is suggested on the heels of the recent abilities to clone animals from somatic cells, as was the case for sheep named...34 Dolly " (32). In this approach one would generate the desired mutations by gene targeting in somatic cells that can be grown in culture. One cell clones

  12. induced cerebral injury in a rat model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SDS-PAGE was used for the separation of proteins, after which samples were transferred to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes. Monoclonal rabbit antibodies against rat LC3 were used to label the tissue proteins, and thereafter, samples were rinsed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution with the detergent ...

  13. Swelling of rat hepatocytes stimulates glycogen synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baquet, A.; Hue, L.; Meijer, A. J.; van Woerkom, G. M.; Plomp, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    In hepatocytes from fasted rats, several amino acids are known to stimulate glycogen synthesis via activation of glycogen synthase. The hypothesis that an increase in cell volume resulting from amino acid uptake may be involved in the stimulation of glycogen synthesis is supported by the following

  14. Toxicological investigation of diethylphthalate in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen EHJM; van den Ham WA; de Fluiter P; van Leeuwen FXR

    1993-01-01

    In a study in which male rats have been exposed to 0, 200, 600, 2000, 6000 and 20000 mg diethylphthalate (DEP)/kg diet for 2 weeks, body weight and liver weight and a number of enzyme parameters which are related with peroxisome proliferation (palmitoyl coenzyme-A oxidase (PCO), enoyl coenzyme-A

  15. Toxicological investigation of dibutylphthalate in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen EHJM; van den Ham WA; de Fluiter P; van Leeuwen FXR

    1993-01-01

    In a study in which male rats have been exposed to 0, 20, 60, 200, 600 and 2000 mg dibutylphthalate (DBP)/kg diet for 2 weeks, body weight and liver weight and a number of enzyme parameters which are related with peroxisome proliferation (palmitoyl coenzyme-A oxidase (PCO, enoyl coenzyme-A hydratase

  16. Lipogenesis in maintenance cultures of rat hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, Math J.H.; Gibson, David M.

    1975-01-01

    Induction of the several enzymes in the liver cytosol catalyzing de novo synthesis of fatty acids from glucose has been demonstrated in intact animals. When carbohydrate is provided to previously starved rats the metabolism of liver switches from a gluconeogenic-ketogenic economy to a

  17. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Hansen, A. M.; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...

  18. Gastrointestinal absorption of Np in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, R.; Volf, V.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of Np mass and the acidity of the administered Np solutions as well as the age, sex and nutritional status of the animals injected or gavaged with 239Np or 237Np were determined. The latter factor proved to be dominant for absorption of Np from the gut. Thus in fasting weanling and young adult male rats, the absorption of 239Np was sixfold higher (0.18% and 0.12%, respectively) than in fed ones (0.03% and 0.02%, respectively). Absorption by fasted adult females was 0.05% of the administered 239Np, about half of that of adult males. Raising the Np-mass gavaged to fasted female rats to 1 and 10 mg 237Np/kg resulted in an absorption of 0.23% and 0.26%, respectively. Thus, an increased absorption of Np in adult rats seems to be expected only if a large mass is ingested. No dependence of the absorption of Np on nitric acid concentration was found. The data obtained after oral administration of 238Pu and 239Np to adult rats suggest that the f1 factor recommended by the ICRP for fractional absorption of soluble Np compounds from the gut should be decreased, whereas the f1 factor for soluble Pu compounds should be raised

  19. A microculture technique for rat lymphocyte transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, V J; Allardyce, R A

    1979-01-01

    We report the development of an economical microculture technique suitable for measuring rat lymphocyte response to mitogens and in mixed lymphocyte reactions. The effects of varying culture conditions, i.e. source of serum, addition and concentration of 2-mercaptoethanol, mitogen concentrations, culture incubation times, absorption of serum, lymphocyte numbers and microtitre plate well shape are described.

  20. Aniracetam reverses memory impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J R; Moreau, J L; Jenck, F

    1995-02-01

    The pyrrolidinone derivative aniracetam given orally immediately after acquisition of an inhibitory avoidance response reproducibly ameliorated scopolamine-induced amnesia in female rats in an extensive series of test sessions conducted over a 1-year period. In a dose-response experiment it was demonstrated that 50 mg kg-1 was the lowest oral dose of aniracetam to significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia. Combined results from these numerous test sessions demonstrated that 50 mg kg-1 aniracetam administered to scopolamine-treated rats resulted in 53% of the animals exhibiting correct passive avoidance responding in the retention evaluation versus 9% of the scopolamine-treated rats given vehicle (in comparison, 64% of the rats injected with vehicle rather than scopolamine in this experimental situation exhibited correct responding in the retention test). There was minimal variation in this pattern of results over the successive 1-month blocks constituting the complete experimental period. Thus, the nootropic compound aniracetam replicably exhibited memory enhancing effects in this animal model of reduced cholinergic function.

  1. Rat Lungworm Expands into North America

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-21

    Emily York, integrated pest management specialist at the Sam Noble Museum of Natural History, discusses the rat lungworm expansion in North America.  Created: 1/21/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/21/2016.

  2. Renin release from isolated rat glomeruli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Baumbach, Lars Anders

    1981-01-01

    1. The effects of calcium deprivation and D600 on the rate of renin release and seasonal variations in the response were studied on juxtaglomerular cells from a preparation of isolated rat glomeruli superfused in vitro. 2. Reduction of superfusate calcium concentration caused an increase in renin...

  3. Circadian clock components in the rat neocortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2013-01-01

    in the rat neocortex. Among these, Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1, Bmal1, Nr1d1 and Dbp were found to exhibit daily rhythms. The amplitude of circadian oscillation in neocortical clock gene expression was damped and the peak delayed as compared with the SCN. Lesions of the SCN revealed that rhythmic clock gene...

  4. Epidermal growth factor in the rat lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1991-01-01

    of the rat from a couple of days prior to birth and throughout life. Further, we report EGF immunoreactivity to be present in cells in the bronchi and the bronchioles from day 20-21 of gestation and throughout life. G-200 gelchromatography of lung extracts indicates that the EGF-reactive material is a high...

  5. New isoforms of rat Aquaporin-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Svein Erik; Sorbo, Jan Gunnar; Søgaard, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a brain aquaporin implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous clinical conditions including brain edema. Here we show that rat AQP4 has six cDNA isoforms, formed by alternative splicing. These are named AQP4a-f, where AQP4a and AQP4c correspond to the two classical M1 and M...

  6. Neuroglobin in the rat brain: localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Allen, Gregg C; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2008-01-01

    in the rat brain using immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This revealed the interesting finding that Ngb expression is restricted to a few neurone populations, many of which are involved in the sleep-wake cycle, circadian regulation or food regulation...

  7. Kinetics of glucose transport in rat muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik; Vinten, Jørgen

    1987-01-01

    The effects of insulin and prior muscle contractions, respectively, on 3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MG) transport in skeletal muscle were studied in the perfused rat hindquarter. Initial rates of entry of 3-O-MG in red gastrocnemius, soleus, and white gastrocnemius muscles as a function of perfusate 3-O...

  8. DNA isolation from rat tail or ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This protocol describes a rapid procedure for isolating DNA from rat tail or ear punches. The simplest version of the protocol can be scaled for use in 96-well (deep-well) plates. The quality of the DNA is sufficient for any polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping approach.

  9. The rat incisor in toxicologic pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, M.H.M.; Kooij, A.J. van de; Slootweg, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Microscopic examination of the incisors of rats and mice may reveal toxicologically significant changes. First, the incisor morphology reflects the nutritional status of the animal: fluctuations of mineral metabolism and vitamin availability are disclosed by the rodent incisors, because the incisors

  10. Immunotoxicity of clonazepam in adult albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabei, Hanan Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Clonazepam as an addictive drug is studied to elucidate its destructive effects on rats' immune system. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic changes induced by sub-chronic administration of clonazepam for three weeks followed by a withdrawal period in adult male albino rats. Seventy-two Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three equal groups. The first group was used as control; the second and third groups were treated with clonazepam. Six rats from each group were sacrificed weekly. Data showed that clonazepam induced a significant suppression in the level of IFN-gamma cortisol production, total splenocytes count and lymphocytes transformation induced by PHA mitogen along the experimental period especially in the third group. However, subchronic doses of clonazepam increased the production of IL-10 in both treated groups. Moreover, significant DNA damage in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of both treated groups was observed along the duration of the study. In conclusion, the immune system responses can be adversely affected to a greater extent by sub-chronic administration of clonazepam and should be prescribed cautiously as patients may turn addict to it.

  11. Prenatal Caffeine Exposure Impairs Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yadegari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, concerns have been raised about human reproductive disorders. Caffeine consumption is increasing by the world’s population and there is a relationship between caffeine intake and adverse reproductive outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on implantation sites, number of live births, birth weight, crown-rump length (CRL and abnormality in pregnant rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 female albino rats (170-190 g were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups (n=10/each group. In both experimental groups, animals received caffeine intraperitoneally (IP: 150 mg/kg/day on days 1-5 of pregnancy. In experimental group 1, treated animals were euthanized on day 7of pregnancy and the number of implantation sites was counted. In experimental group 2, treated animals maintained pregnant and after delivery, the number of live births, birth weight, CRL and abnormality of neonates were investigated. In control group, animals received IP injections of distilled water. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: Results showed that administration of caffeine significantly decreased the number of implantation sites, number of live births and CRL as compared with control group (P<0.05. There were no significant differences regarding birth weight and abnormality of neonate rats between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that caffeine caused anti-fertility effect and significantly decreased CRL in neonate rats.

  12. Oxytocin biotransformation in the rat limbic brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burbach, J.P.H.; Schotman, P.; Kloet, E.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Two peptide fragments of oxytocin were isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography from digests of oxytocin obtained after exposure to a SPM preparation of the rat limbic brain. The structures of these peptides, being Gln-Asn-Cys(O)x-Pro-Leu-GlyNH2 and Gln-Asn-Cys(-S-S-Cys)-Pro-Leu-GlyNH2, were

  13. Sequential causal learning in humans and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, H.; Rojas, R.R.; Beckers, T.; Yuille, A.; Love, B.C.; McRae, K.; Sloutsky, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent experiments (Beckers, De Houwer, Pineño, & Miller, 2005;Beckers, Miller, De Houwer, & Urushihara, 2006) have shown that pretraining with unrelated cues can dramatically influence the performance of humans in a causal learning paradigm and rats in a standard Pavlovian conditioning paradigm.

  14. In Utero Hepatocellular Transplantation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Muñoz-Sáez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work represents a step forward in the experimental design of an in utero hepatocellular transplantation model in rats. We focused on the enrichment optimization of isolated fetal hepatocytes suspension, arranging the surgery methodology of in utero transplantation, monitoring the biodistribution of the transplanted hepatocytes, and assessing the success of the transplants. Rat fetuses have been transplanted at the 17th embryonic day (ED17 with fetal hepatocytes isolated from rats at the end of pregnancy (ED21. We assessed possible differences between lymphocyte population, CD4 positive, CD8 positive, double-positive T-cells, and anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukins 4 and 10 (IL4 and IL10 as well. Cellular viability reached the rates of 90–95%. Transplanted groups had a limited success. Transplanted hepatocytes were not able to pass through the hematoplacental barrier. The hepatocytes injected were primarily located in the liver. There was an upward trend in the whole amount of T CD4 and T CD8 cells. There was an increased IL4 in the transplanted groups observed in the pregnant rats. The possibility to induce tolerance in fetuses with a hepatocyte transplant in utero could be a key point to avoid the immunosuppression treatments which must be undergone by transplanted patients.

  15. Rat pro-opiomelanocortin contains sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshina, H.; Hortin, G.; Boime, I.

    1982-07-02

    Intermediate lobes isolated from rat pituitary glands incorporated (/sup 35/S)sulfate into pro-opiomelanocortin and other adrenocorticotropic hormone-containing peptides. Incubation of intermediate lobes in medium containing the arginine analog canavanine inhibited the cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin into smaller products. Pro-opiomelanocortin that accumulated in the presence of canavanine was also sulfated.

  16. Taurine content of tissues of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhalaya, M.Ya.; Bogatyrev, G.P.; Kudryashov, Yu.B.; Yartsev, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    The taurine content of tissues (liver, stomach, small intestine and spleen) of rats irradiated with doses of 700 and 450 rads has been studied. Phase changes have been found in the taurine content of radiosensitive tissues in the course of radiation injury development

  17. Behavioral effects of etiracetam in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, O.L.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of etiracetam, a structural analogue or piracetam, were investigated in rats on Y-maze discrimination acquisition, on open field behavior, on one-trial passive avoidance learning and on shuttlebox acquisition and extinction. The results indicate that this drug significantly enhances

  18. Following Exhaustive Exercise in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza Badalzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Long-term treatment of rats with cinnamon and regular training improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile.

  19. Disposition of hexobarbital enantiomers in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaff, M; Vermeulen, N P; Joeres, R P; Breimer, D D

    1983-01-01

    The enantiomers of hexobarbital (HB), designated as (+)-HB and (-)-HB, were administered orally to separate groups of rats. Blood concentration-time curves of the parent compounds and the metabolites 3'-hydroxyhexobarbital (OH-HB) and 3'-ketohexobarbital (K-HB) were determined, as well as the

  20. Haematobiochemical Changes In Albino Rats Infected With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some haematological and biochemical implications of Trypanosoma brucei infection was studied using Wistar albino rats. The haematological parameters studied are the white blood cell (WBC) count, which was used as an index of the presence and level of infection, and packed cell volume (PCV) which was used as an ...

  1. Motor development after vestibular deprivation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geisler, HC; Gramsbergen, A

    This review summarizes the postural development in the rat and the influences of vestibular deprivation from the 5th postnatal day on this development. Vestibular deprivation leads to a delay in motor development. Most probably this delay is caused by a delay in the development of postural control,

  2. The adverse reaction of chitooligosaccharides in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... (New Zealand), Fermentation Cordyceps Powder was purchased from Institute of Fungus Resources, Guizhou University. (Guiyang, China). Silica gel plate was provided by Branch of Qing- dao Haiyang Chemical Co. (Qingdao, China). Experimental animals. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g) ...

  3. Pulmonary cryptococcosis induces chitinase in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casadevall Arturo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated that chronic pulmonary infection with Cryptococcus neoformans results in enhanced allergic inflammation and airway hyperreactivity in a rat model. Because the cell wall of C. neoformans consists of chitin, and since acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase has recently been implicated as a novel mediator of asthma, we sought to determine whether such infection induces chitinase activity and expression of AMCase in the rat. Methods We utilized a previously-established model of chronic C. neoformans pulmonary infection in the rat to analyze the activity, expression and localization of AMCase. Results Our studies indicate that intratracheal inoculation of C. neoformans induces chitinase activity within the lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of infected rats. Chitinase activity is also elicited by pulmonary infection with other fungi (e.g. C. albicans, but not by the inoculation of dead organisms. Enhanced chitinase activity reflects increased AMCase expression by airway epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. Systemic cryptococcosis is not associated with increased pulmonary chitinase activity or AMCase expression. Conclusion Our findings indicate a possible link between respiratory fungal infections, including C. neoformans, and asthma through the induction of AMCase.

  4. Extracellular ATP induces albuminuria in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M.M.; van der Schaaf, G.; Borghuis, T.; Jongman, R.M.; van Pampus, Maria; de Vos, P.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, W.W.

    BACKGROUND: As circulating plasma ATP concentrations are increased in pre-eclampsia, we tested whether increased plasma ATP is able to induce albuminuria during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant (day 14) and non-pregnant rats were infused with ATP (3000 microg/kg bw) via a permanent jugular vein cannula.

  5. in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    extract of its leaves [7,8]. Despite the fact that ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaf is used in the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria [6], there is dearth of information on its efficacy. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the anti- diabetic effect of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  6. Whey protein concentrate and dexamethasone protected rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rat brains were fixed in 10% formalin, processed with routine paraffin wax techniques and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. Histomorphometric studies showed that radiation significantly (p< 0.05) reduced the thickness of both the molecular and granular layers of the cerebellum when compared with the control group.

  7. Immunomagnetic isolation of fetal rat gonocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Ham, R.; van Pelt, A. M.; de Miguel, M. P.; van Kooten, P. J.; Walther, N.; van Dissel-Emiliani, F. M.

    1997-01-01

    PROBLEM: An efficient method to obtain highly enriched populations of viable gonocytes from rat embryos at Day 18 and Day 20 postcoitum (pc) is described. METHOD: Single-cell suspensions with high cell yield were obtained by a collagenase/ trypsin digestion of the decapsulated testis. The gonocytes

  8. Baroreflex Function in Rats after Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasser, Eileen M.

    1997-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of humans to decreased gravitational forces during spaceflight results in a number of adverse cardiovascular consequences, often referred to as cardiovascular deconditioning. Prominent among these negative cardiovascular effects are orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity. Rat hindlimb unweighting is an animal model which simulates weightlessness, and results in similar cardiovascular consequences. Cardiovascular reflexes, including arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes, are required for normal adjustment to both orthostatic challenges and exercise. Therefore, the orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity associated with exposure to microgravity may be due to cardiovascular reflex dysfunction. The proposed studies will test the general hypothesis that hindlimb unweighting in rats results in impaired autonomic reflex control of the sympathetic nervous system. Specifically, we hypothesize that the ability to reflexly increase sympathetic nerve activity in response to decreases in arterial pressure or blood volume will be blunted due to hindlimb unweighting. There are 3 specific aims: (1) To evaluate arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of renal and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity in conscious rats subjected to 14 days of hindlimb unweighting; (2) To examine the interaction between arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity in conscious hindlimb unweighted rats; (3) to evaluate changes in afferent and/or central nervous system mechanisms in baroreflex regulation of the sympathetic nervous system. These experiments will provide information related to potential mechanisms for orthostatic and exercise intolerance due to microgravity.

  9. seed on haematological parameters of albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ejere

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... animals for oral administration. Procurement and management of experimental animals. Forty-eight (48) adult male albino rats weighing between 150 to 250 g were obtained from the Genetics and Animal breeding Laboratory of the Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology,. University of Nigeria ...

  10. Effect of orlistat on fat absorption in rats: A comparison of normal rats and rats with diverted bile and pancreatic juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Mu, Huiling

    2003-01-01

    this with the transport in normal rats and rats with fat malabsorption. Rats were subjected to cannulation of the main mesenteric lymph duct, and a feeding catheter was inserted into the stomach. In addition, malabsorbing rats were cannulated in the common bile and pancreatic duct. Emulsified safflower, fish...... and furthermore that the source of fat had no influence on the inhibitory effect of orlistat. Orlistat did not interfere with the absorption of the hydrolysis products, since high absorption of sn-2 MAG and FFA (oleic acid) mixed with orlistat was observed. The baseline lymphatic transport in the orlistat group...

  11. Evaluation of Jet Fuel and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-13

    rats served as subjects in the first study and eighty albino Fischer 344 rats were used in the second study. Half the animals were males and the...other strains of rats, such as the albino Fischer 344 rat, the pigmented Long-Evans rat is generally more resistant to ototoxicity. Therefore, higher

  12. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effect of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: Forty-eight rats were assigned randomly to groups of OVX rats receiving soy isoflavones (20, 30, or 40 mg/kg of body weight daily), untreated OVX rats, or untreated intact rats. After 8 weeks, bone ...

  13. Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus from different environments in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits Franssen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rattus norvegicus (brown rat and Rattus rattus (black rat are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We aimed to study the intestinal and intramuscular helminths in wild rats from three different environments to assess the relevance of rats as carrier of zoonotic parasites for public health. Materials and methods: Wild brown rats (117 individuals and black rats (44 individuals were captured at farms, in suburban and in rural environments in the Netherlands. Intestinal helminths were isolated and identified morphologically. Artificial digestion was used to isolate muscle larvae. Results and discussion: Morphological analysis of rat intestinal contents yielded six nematode species (Syphacia muris, Heterakis spumosa, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Trichuris muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, and Strongyloides sp., three cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. nana and Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis fraterna, and four trematode species (Plagiorchis muris, Plagiorchis proximus, Echinostoma chloropodis, and Notocotylus imbricatus.Black rats at farms displayed the lowest intestinal helminth species variation (six species and carried overall on average 0.93 species simultaneously. In comparison, brown rats at farms carried seven helminth species and 1.91 species simultaneously. Brown rats from suburban environments displayed the highest species variation (11 species at 1.82 simultaneous helminth species. Absence of trematodes from rats at farms may suggest limited exchange of rats between farms and surrounding wet rural environments. We report four species of veterinary (Syphacia muris or zoonotic relevance (Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana and Plagiorchis muris. We did not find Trichinella muscle larvae, consistent with long-term prevalence in Dutch wild rats.

  14. Cerebral microbleeds in a neonatal rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Carusillo Theriault

    Full Text Available In adult humans, cerebral microbleeds play important roles in neurodegenerative diseases but in neonates, the consequences of cerebral microbleeds are unknown. In rats, a single pro-angiogenic stimulus in utero predisposes to cerebral microbleeds after birth at term, a time when late oligodendrocyte progenitors (pre-oligodendrocytes dominate in the rat brain. We hypothesized that two independent pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero would be associated with a high likelihood of perinatal microbleeds that would be severely damaging to white matter.Pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to intrauterine ischemia (IUI and low-dose maternal lipopolysaccharide (mLPS at embryonic day (E 19. Pups were born vaginally or abdominally at E21-22. Brains were evaluated for angiogenic markers, microhemorrhages, myelination and axonal development. Neurological function was assessed out to 6 weeks.mRNA (Vegf, Cd31, Mmp2, Mmp9, Timp1, Timp2 and protein (CD31, MMP2, MMP9 for angiogenic markers, in situ proteolytic activity, and collagen IV immunoreactivity were altered, consistent with an angiogenic response. Vaginally delivered pups exposed to prenatal IUI+mLPS had spontaneous cerebral microbleeds, abnormal neurological function, and dysmorphic, hypomyelinated white matter and axonopathy. Pups exposed to the same pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero but delivered abdominally had minimal cerebral microbleeds, preserved myelination and axonal development, and neurological function similar to naïve controls.In rats, pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero can predispose to vascular fragility and lead to cerebral microbleeds. The study of microbleeds in the neonatal rat brain at full gestation may give insights into the consequences of microbleeds in human preterm infants during critical periods of white matter development.

  15. Hypercholesterolemia downregulates autophagy in the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giricz, Zoltán; Koncsos, Gábor; Rajtík, Tomáš; Varga, Zoltán V; Baranyai, Tamás; Csonka, Csaba; Szobi, Adrián; Adameová, Adriana; Gottlieb, Roberta A; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2017-03-23

    We have previously shown that efficiency of ischemic conditioning is diminished in hypercholesterolemia and that autophagy is necessary for cardioprotection. However, it is unknown whether isolated hypercholesterolemia disturbs autophagy or the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether isolated hypercholesterolemia modulates cardiac autophagy-related pathways or programmed cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necroptosis in rat heart. Male Wistar rats were fed either normal chow (NORM; n = 9) or with 2% cholesterol and 0.25% cholic acid-enriched diet (CHOL; n = 9) for 12 weeks. CHOL rats exhibited a 41% increase in plasma total cholesterol level over that of NORM rats (4.09 mmol/L vs. 2.89 mmol/L) at the end of diet period. Animals were sacrificed, hearts were excised and briefly washed out. Left ventricles were snap-frozen for determination of markers of autophagy, mTOR pathway, apoptosis, and necroptosis by Western blot. Isolated hypercholesterolemia was associated with a significant reduction in expression of cardiac autophagy markers such as LC3-II, Beclin-1, Rubicon and RAB7 as compared to controls. Phosphorylation of ribosomal S6, a surrogate marker for mTOR activity, was increased in CHOL samples. Cleaved caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, increased in CHOL hearts, while no difference in the expression of necroptotic marker RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL was detected between treatments. This is the first comprehensive analysis of autophagy and programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and necroptosis in hearts of hypercholesterolemic rats. Our data show that isolated hypercholesterolemia suppresses basal cardiac autophagy and that the decrease in autophagy may be a result of an activated mTOR pathway. Reduced autophagy was accompanied by increased apoptosis, while cardiac necroptosis was not modulated by isolated hypercholesterolemia. Decreased basal autophagy and elevated apoptosis may be responsible for the

  16. Protein synthesis in the growing rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, J.; Chrin, L.

    1986-01-01

    Developmental control of protein synthesis in the postnatal growth of the lung has not been systematically studied. In male Fischer 344 rats, lung growth continues linearly as a function of body weight (from 75 to 450 g body weight). To study total protein synthesis in lungs of growing rats, we used the technique of constant intravenous infusion of tritiated leucine, an essential amino acid. Lungs of sacrificed animals were used to determine the leucine incorporation rate into newly synthesized protein. The specific radioactivity of the leucine associated with tRNA extracted from the same lungs served as an absolute index of the precursor leucine pool used for lung protein synthesis. On the basis of these measurements, we were able to calculate the fractional synthesis rate (the proportion of total protein destroyed and replaced each day) of pulmonary proteins for each rat. Under the conditions of isotope infusion, leucyl-tRNA very rapidly equilibrates with free leucine of the plasma and of the extracellular space of the lung. Infusions lasting 30 minutes or less yielded linear rates of protein synthesis without evidence of contamination of lung proteins by newly labeled intravascular albumin. The fractional synthesis rate is considerably higher in juvenile animals (55% per day) than in adult rats (20% per day). After approximately 12 weeks of age, the fractional synthesis rate remains extremely constant in spite of continued slow growth of the lung. It is apparent from these data that in both young and adult rats the bulk of total protein synthesis is devoted to rapidly turning over proteins and that less than 4 percent of newly made protein is committed to tissue growth

  17. Features of electroretinogram on rat under different color stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Lin Cao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To research the feature of normal SD rat and retinal cone dysfunction(RCDrat electroretinogram(ERGunder different color stimulation and to explore its possible diagnostic value. METHODS: Six male SD rats and six RCD rats were used, all of which were mature rats. They were stimulated by red, white, blue and green light and the ERG was recorded. The wavelength of red, green and blue light were 625nm, 525nm and 470nm respectively and the white light was mixed by three color light.RESULTS: The response of ERG in normal SD rat under green and blue light stimulation were stronger than under red and white stimulation. The dark-adapted ERG of RCD rat responsed to color stimulation was similar to the ERG of normal SD rat, but the amplitude under each color stimulation was lower than that of normal SD rat. Light-adapted ERG response was hardly detected waveform.CONCLUSION: Rat is sensitive to blue and green light, which can be used as a suggested light stimulation in the ERG recording. The ERG of RCD rat is not specific for color stimulation, and at present we could not use color ERG as a diagnostic indicator.

  18. Methionine metabolism after portacaval shunt in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, L.E.; Steele, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of portacaval shunt (PCS) on methionine metabolism in the rat was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to PCS and maintained on an 18% casein diet. Growth curves of operated rats were similar to controls. PCS rats excreted more urinary 35 SO 4 and less [ 35 S]taurine than controls after intraperitoneal injection of 0.3 mmol/100 g [ 35 S]methionine or [ 35 S]cysteine. Total urinary taurine excretion was similar in PCS and control rats after a methionine or cysteine load; however, under basal conditions PCS rats had higher urinary taurine levels than controls, indicating that PCS may cause the taurine pool to be expanded. Hepatic methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, and cysteine pools were significantly decreased in PCS rats, while S-adenosylhomocysteine levels were unchanged. Relative rates of transsulfuration in PCS and control rats were studied by following the decrease in the 3 H-to- 35 S ratio in liver protein after injection of [methyl-3H]methionine and [ 35 S]methionine, and no difference in flux of 35 S from [ 35 S]methionine to [ 35 S]cysteine was found. Similarly, total hepatic activities of methionine adenosyltransferase, cystathionine synthase, and cystathionine gamma-lyase were unchanged in PCS rats. These results indicate that altered methionine metabolism in PCS rats is not explained by changes in conversion of methionine to cysteine via the transsulfuration pathway

  19. Influence of age and magnesium on calcium metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, S.T.; Link, J.E.; Dowdy, R.P.; Zinn, K.R.; Ellersieck, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of dietary magnesium concentration on calcium metabolism in rats of differing ages. Young (3 wk) and old (18 mo) Fischer 344 rats were fed the AIN-76A diet modified to contain either low (218 mg/kg) or adequate (419 mg/kg) Mg for 4 wk. Some rats subsequently underwent a metabolic balance study (12 d duration). Other rats were gavaged with approximately 220 KBq (6 microCi) of 47 Ca; daily fecal and urine collections were made and periodic whole body radioactivity determined. Femurs were removed and analyzed. Calcium retention and balance were not affected by Mg in young rats. In old rats low Mg intake increased apparent Ca balance. Young rats retained about 3.25 times more of the original dose of 47 Ca than did old rats. Young rats retained more 47 Ca in the femur than did old rats; Mg intake had little effect. Aging accelerated Ca turnover rate, and whole body retention data suggest that adequate Mg does not significantly reduce Ca turnover

  20. Functional adaptation in female rats: the role of estrogen signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah J Sample

    Full Text Available Sex steroids have direct effects on the skeleton. Estrogen acts on the skeleton via the classical genomic estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα and ERβ, a membrane ER, and the non-genomic G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER. GPER is distributed throughout the nervous system, but little is known about its effects on bone. In male rats, adaptation to loading is neuronally regulated, but this has not been studied in females.We used the rat ulna end-loading model to induce an adaptive modeling response in ovariectomized (OVX female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were treated with a placebo, estrogen (17β-estradiol, or G-1, a GPER-specific agonist. Fourteen days after OVX, rats underwent unilateral cyclic loading of the right ulna; half of the rats in each group had brachial plexus anesthesia (BPA of the loaded limb before loading. Ten days after loading, serum estrogen concentrations, dorsal root ganglion (DRG gene expression of ERα, ERβ, GPER, CGRPα, TRPV1, TRPV4 and TRPA1, and load-induced skeletal responses were quantified. We hypothesized that estrogen and G-1 treatment would influence skeletal responses to cyclic loading through a neuronal mechanism. We found that estrogen suppresses periosteal bone formation in female rats. This physiological effect is not GPER-mediated. We also found that absolute mechanosensitivity in female rats was decreased, when compared with male rats. Blocking of adaptive bone formation by BPA in Placebo OVX females was reduced.Estrogen acts to decrease periosteal bone formation in female rats in vivo. This effect is not GPER-mediated. Gender differences in absolute bone mechanosensitivity exist in young Sprague-Dawley rats with reduced mechanosensitivity in females, although underlying bone formation rate associated with growth likely influences this observation. In contrast to female and male rats, central neuronal signals had a diminished effect on adaptive bone formation in estrogen-deficient female rats.

  1. Pars distalis vasculature: Discovery Shuttle STS-29 rats compared to ground-based antiorthostatic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, A; Pattison, T; Schechter, J

    1991-11-01

    The anterior pituitary glands of male, adult Long Evans rats carried 5 days in the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-29) have been compared with two groups of ground-based controls. All of the animals were part of a study (SE82-08) into the effects of gravity versus a microgravity environment on fracture healing. All had sustained a right, mid-shaft fibular osteotomy. The duration of the study was 10 days, and animals in all groups were weight bearing for the 5 days prior to shuttle lift off. The three experimental groups consisted of four rats each: flight (F) and two ground-based control groups, weight bearing (WB) and suspended (S). The suspension group was in a Holton/Sweeney head-down suspension apparatus (antiorthostatic) for the final 5 days of the study. The anterior pituitary glands of F and WB rats were essentially identical. The vasculature and parenchymal cells appeared unaffected in both instances. However, the anterior pituitary glands of S rats were dramatically altered. The vasculature was widely expanded with proteinaceous deposition covering the lumenal endothelial surfaces, and entrapping numerous platelets and aggregates of red blood cells. Parenchymal cells were highly vacuolated, occasionally with membranous vacuoles, but most often revealing large, clear cytoplasmic zones unlined by any membranes. Whereas profiles of exocytosis were numerous in F rats, and present in WB rats, they were essentially absent in S rats. These results indicate that weightlessness over a 5-day flight period does not influence the structural integrity of the anterior pituitary gland and may in fact promote secretory granule release. However, the head-down tilt model, frequently used to study fracture repair under conditions that mimic weightlessness, has a profound impact on the vasculature of the anterior pituitary gland which then affects the structural and functional characteristics of the parenchymal cells.

  2. PPARγ agonists diminish serum VEGF elevation in diet-induced insulin resistant SD rats and ZDF rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Baichun; Lin Peiyuan; Carrick, Kevin M.; McNulty, Judi A.; Clifton, Lisa G.; Winegar, Deborah A.; Strum, Jay C.; Stimpson, Stephen A.; Pahel, Greg L.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists on serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in diet-induced insulin resistant SD rats and ZDF rats. SD rats fed a high fat/sucrose diet showed increases in serum insulin and VEGF (both p < 0.01). Treatment with a PPARγ agonist GI262570 normalized the diet-elevated insulin and VEGF (both p < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between serum insulin and VEGF (p < 0.05) in SD rats. ZDF rats had higher serum glucose, insulin, and VEGF than Zucker lean rats (all p < 0.01). Treatment of ZDF rats with PPARγ agonist pioglitazone decreased serum glucose and VEGF (both p < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between glucose and VEGF in ZDF rats (p < 0.05). In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, GI262570 did not affect insulin-stimulated VEGF secretion. These studies demonstrated that hyperinsulinemia in SD rats and hyperglycemia in ZDF rats were associated with increased serum VEGF; PPARγ agonists normalized serum insulin, glucose, and VEGF, but did not affect VEGF secretion in vitro

  3. A set of highly informative rat simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP markers and genetically defined rat strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamasaki Ken-ichi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Bio Resource Project for the Rat in Japan (NBRP-Rat is focusing on collecting, preserving and distributing various rat strains, including spontaneous mutant, transgenic, congenic, and recombinant inbred (RI strains. To evaluate their value as models of human diseases, we are characterizing them using 109 phenotypic parameters, such as clinical measurements, internal anatomy, metabolic parameters, and behavioral tests, as part of the Rat Phenome Project. Here, we report on a set of 357 simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP markers and 122 rat strains, which were genotyped by the marker set. Results The SSLP markers were selected according to their distribution patterns throughout the whole rat genome with an average spacing of 7.59 Mb. The average number of informative markers between all possible pairs of strains was 259 (72.5% of 357 markers, showing their high degree of polymorphism. From the genetic profile of these rat inbred strains, we constructed a rat family tree to clarify their genetic background. Conclusion These highly informative SSLP markers as well as genetically and phenotypically defined rat strains are useful for designing experiments for quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis and to choose strategies for developing new genetic resources. The data and resources are freely available at the NBRP-Rat web site 1.

  4. Trophic garnishes: cat-rat interactions in an urban environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E Glass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Community interactions can produce complex dynamics with counterintuitive responses. Synanthropic community members are of increasing practical interest for their effects on biodiversity and public health. Most studies incorporating introduced species have been performed on islands where they may pose a risk to the native fauna. Few have examined their interactions in urban environments where they represent the majority of species. We characterized house cat (Felis catus predation on wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus, and its population effects in an urban area as a model system. Three aspects of predation likely to influence population dynamics were examined; the stratum of the prey population killed by predators, the intensity of the predation, and the size of the predator population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Predation pressure was estimated from the sizes of the rat and cat populations, and the characteristics of rats killed in 20 alleys. Short and long term responses of rat population to perturbations were examined by removal trapping. Perturbations removed an average of 56% of the rats/alley but had no negative long-term impact on the size of the rat population (49.6+/-12.5 rats/alley and 123.8+/-42.2 rats/alley over two years. The sizes of the cat population during two years (3.5 animals/alley and 2.7 animals/alley also were unaffected by rat population perturbations. Predation by cats occurred in 9/20 alleys. Predated rats were predominantly juveniles and significantly smaller (144.6 g+/-17.8 g than the trapped rats (385.0 g+/-135.6 g. Cats rarely preyed on the larger, older portion of the rat population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rat population appears resilient to perturbation from even substantial population reduction using targeted removal. In this area there is a relatively low population density of cats and they only occasionally prey on the rat population. This occasional predation primarily removes the

  5. The petit rat (pet/pet), a new semilethal mutant dwarf rat with thymic and testicular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Junko; Suzuki, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hiroetsu

    2008-12-01

    The petit rat (pet/pet) is a recently discovered semilethal mutant dwarf. The neonatal pet/pet rats had a low body weight and small thymus and testis. During the first 3 d after birth, 50% of the male and 80% of the female pet/pet pups were lost or found dead. Surviving pet/pet rats showed marked retardation of postnatal growth, and their body weights were 41% (female rats) and 32% (male rats) of those of normal rats at the adult stage. The pet/pet rats exhibited proportional dwarfism, and their longitudinal bones were shorter than those of controls without skeletal malformations. Most organs of male pet/pet rats, especially the thymus, testis, adipose tissue surrounding the kidney, and accessory sex organs, weighed markedly less at 140 d of age than did those of their normal counterparts. The thymus of pet/pet rats was small with abnormal thymic follicles. Testes from pet/pet rats exhibited 2 patterns of abnormal histology. Spermatogenesis was present in testes that were only slightly anomalous, but the seminiferous tubules were reduced in diameter. In severely affected testes, most of the seminiferous tubules showed degeneration, and interstitial tissue was increased. Plasma growth hormone concentrations did not differ between pet/pet and normal male rats. The dwarf phenotype of pet/pet rats was inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. These results indicate that the pet/pet rat has a semilethal growth-hormone-independent dwarf phenotype that is accompanied by thymic and testicular anomalies and low birth weight.

  6. Very high alpha-tocopherol diet diminishes oxidative stress and hypercoagulation in hypertensive rats but not in normotensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenoux, Jean-Marie R; Noirot, Beatrice; Prost, Emmanuelle D; Madani, Sihem; Blond, Jean Paul; Belleville, Jacques L; Prost, Josiane L

    2002-10-01

    Oxidative stress is closely related to cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Increasing dietary antioxidants, such as alpha-tocopherol, may prevent these diseases. However, in some pathologies, such as hypertension, oxidative stress is enhanced, thus alpha-tocopherol requirements may be raised. In eleven-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats, we investigated the effects of a four-week very high alpha-tocopherol dietary enrichment (1,200 mg/kg diet, VH) on blood pressure, resistance to free radical aggression, and VLDL+LDL resistance to lipid peroxidation. Platelet aggregation and plasma lipid profile were also investigated. With either diet, hypertensive rats were more protected against oxidative stress than normotensive rats. Their capacity to withstand free radical aggression was better, and their VLDL+LDL particles were less sensitive to lipid peroxidation. In either group, the VH diet did not modify blood pressure values when resistance to free radical aggression was increased, but not the resistance of VLDL+LDL to lipid peroxidation. With the control diet, platelet aggregation was faster and higher in hypertensive rats vs. normotensive rats. It was decreased with the VH diet in hypertensive rats but increased in normotensive rats, when compared to their respective controls. Whatever the diet, plasma triacylglycerol, phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations were lower in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. Only cholesterol concentrations were diminished with the VH diet in hypertensive rats, but not in normotensive rats. These results indicate that very high alpha-tocopherol dietary amounts decrease cardiovascular risk in hypertensive rats with high oxidative stress, but have less effect on normotensive rats.

  7. Gene-manipulated embryonic stem cells for rat transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Masaki; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2011-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from blastocysts and are capable of differentiating into whole tissues and organs. Transplantation of ESCs into recipient blastocysts leads to the generation of germline-competent chimeras in mice. Transgenic, knockin, and knockout gene manipulations are available in mouse ESCs, enabling the production of genetically modified animals. Rats have important advantages over mice as an experimental system for physiological and pharmacological investigations. However, in contrast to mouse ESCs, rat ESCs were not established until 2008 because of the difficulty of maintaining pluripotency. Although the use of signaling inhibitors has allowed the generation of rat ESCs, the production of genetically modified rats has been difficult due to problems in rat ESCs after gene introduction. In this review, we will focus on some well-documented examples of gene manipulation in rat ESCs.

  8. Dynamic autoregulation and renal injury in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Andersen, C B; Leyssac, P P

    1997-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rat develops hypertension and renal injuries when challenged with a high salt diet and has been considered to be a model of chronic renal failure. Renal injuries appear very early in life compared with the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). During the course...... was preserved during a low salt diet and in rats exposed to a late-onset hypertension of short duration, only partly preserved if the late-onset hypertension was of a longer duration, and abolished in early-onset hypertension. All Dahl S rats on a high salt diet showed severe morphological changes in the kidney....... In conclusion, autoregulatory capacity in the kidney of Dahl S rats is gradually impaired when rats are rendered hypertensive with a high salt diet. Renal morphological injuries develop before loss of dynamic autoregulation. Impaired autoregulation appears to be the result, not the cause, of the process...

  9. Study on teratogenicity of Nikean in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoqiu; Zhou Zewei; Shen Xiu; Wu Hongying; Wang Dezhi; Wang Qin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the teratogenicity of Nikean in Wistar rats. Methods: Pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups, three Nikean dosage groups (300, 200, 100 mg/kg) and one negative control group. Nikean or normal saline was given via caudal vein injection for 10 days from the 10 th day of gestation. Pregnant rats were killed at the 20th day of gestation, and parers and their fetuses were examined. Results: Compared to the control group, there was no difference in weight of pregnant rats in three Nikean dosage groups. No abnormality was observed in skeleton and internal organs of fetuses in three Nikean dosage groups. There were significant differences between three Nikean dosage groups and control group in fetal weight, trunk length and tail length in female and male rats. Conclusion: Nikean at the dose of 300, 200, 100 mg/kg showed a certain fetotoxicity but had no apparent teratogenesis in rats. (authors)

  10. Taurine in the osmoregulation of the Brattleboro rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, M.J.; Tuomisto, L.; Solatunturi, E.; Eriksson, L.; Paasonen, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The function of taurine in mammalian osmoregulation was studied in the Brattleboro rat with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (DI). DI rats are chronically dehydrated because of their inability to synthesize vasopressin. One day of water deprivation did not affect the water balance in rats with normal vasopressin synthesis, whereas DI rats were markedly dehydrated and lost considerably body weight. Taurine content and 3 H-taurine accumulation by platelets were significantly higher in DI rats, with a further increase after one day of water deprivation. In DI rats, water deprivation also evoked a clear taurine increase in skeletal muscle and in the brain. These findings indicate that taurine has an osmoregulatory function in mammals

  11. Discriminative and reinforcing stimulus properties of music for rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Y; Yanagi, J; Watanabe, S

    2009-02-01

    We trained rats to discriminate music by Bach from that by Stravinsky using operant conditioning. The rats successfully learned the discrimination and transferred their discrimination to novel music by the same artists. Then, we trained rats on concurrent-chain schedule in which the terminal links were associated with different music, Bach or Stravinsky. The rats did not show strong preference for either style of music, although one subject showed a preference for Bach and another subject preferred Stravinsky. Finally, we examined the validity of the concurrent-chain procedure as a method of preference measurement with conspecific vocalization evoked by an aversive experience. Most of the rats preferred white noise to the conspecific vocalization. Therefore, music has a discriminative stimulus property but not a clear reinforcing property for rats.

  12. Beta Adrenergic Regulation of Intrapulmonary Arteriovenous Anastomoses in Intact Rat and Isolated Rat Lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Bates

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA allow large diameter particles of venous origin to bypass the pulmonary capillary bed and embolize the systemic arterial circulation. IPAVA have been routinely observed in healthy humans with exercise, hypoxia, and catecholamine infusion, but the mechanism by which they are recruited is not well-defined. We hypothesized that beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation recruits IPAVA and that receptor blockade would limit hypoxia-induced IPAVA recruitment. To test our hypothesis, we evaluated the transpulmonary passage of microspheres in intact rats and isolated rats lung infused with the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol. We also evaluated IPAVA recruitment in intact rats with hypoxia and the beta-adrenergic receptor blocker propranolol. We found that IPAVA are recruited in the intact rat by isoproterenol and their recruitment by hypoxia can be minimized by propranolol, suggesting a role for the adrenergic system in the recruitment of IPAVA by hypoxia. IPAVA recruitment is completely abolished by ventilation with 100% oxygen. Isoproterenol also recruits IPAVA in isolated rat lungs. The fact that isoproterenol can recruit IPAVA in isolated lungs, without increased pulmonary flow, suggests that elevated cardiac output is not required for IPAVA recruitment.

  13. Some toxicological studies of Momordica charantia L. on albino rats in normal and alloxan diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Sattar El Batran, Seham; El-Gengaihi, Souad E; El Shabrawy, Osama A

    2006-11-24

    Momordica charantia L. (MC) (Cucurbitaceae) commonly known as balsam pear, bitter gourd or karela, used in several purposes in traditional medicine is an important medicinal plant. Two sets of experiments were carried out, the first experiment indicated that the LD(50) for MC juice and alcoholic extracts were 91.9 and 362.34 mg/100g b.wt., respectively, of subcutaneously "s.c." injected mice. The toxic signs were recorded within the first 24 h post-injection. The second experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of MC juice and alcoholic extracts on blood glucose and other biochemical parameters in normal and diabetic rats. Both extracts induced a significant decrease in serum glucose levels in normal and diabetic rats. The two extracts did not show any significant effect in urea, creatinine, ALT, AST and AP in normal rat, while in diabetic rats the two extracts caused a significant decrease in serum urea, creatinine, ALT, AST, AP, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Also, these results suggested that MC extracts possesses anti-diabetic, hepato-renal protective and hypolipidemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thus, MC is alternative therapy that has primarily been used for lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  14. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  15. Generation and Characterization of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoji Mashimo; Akiko Takizawa; Junya Kobayashi; Yayoi Kunihiro; Kazuto Yoshimi; Saeko Ishida; Koji Tanabe; Ami Yanagi; Asato Tachibana; Jun Hirose; Jun-ichiro Yomoda; Shiho Morimoto; Takashi Kuramoto; Birger Voigt; Takeshi Watanabe

    2012-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, the most widely used animal model of DNA-PKcs (Prkdc) deficiency, have contributed enormously to our understanding of immunodeficiency, lymphocyte development, and DNA-repair mechanisms, and they are ideal hosts for allogeneic and xenogeneic tissue transplantation. Here, we use zinc-finger nucleases to generate rats that lack either the Prkdc gene (SCID) or the Prkdc and Il2rg genes (referred to as F344-scid gamma [FSG] rats). SCID rats show sever...

  16. The mechanism of hypercalciuria in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprakash, G H; Krothapalli, R K; Rouse, D; Babino, H; Suki, W N

    1988-04-01

    Metabolic studies were performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic (D) rats and normal control (C) rats to assess the role of hyperphagia in the hypercalciuria of diabetes. Urinary calcium excretion (UCaV) was significantly higher in D v C rats fed ad libitum. When D rats were pair-fed (calorie and mineral restriction) with C rats, UCaV declined but remained significantly higher than in C rats. When D rats were allowed their usual increased calorie intake but restricted to C rat mineral consumption, UCaV remained elevated. These findings suggested a tubular reabsorptive defect. In vivo microinjection studies were then performed to identify the site(s) of the tubular reabsorptive defect. Using 1.0 mmol/L Ca in the injectate, 45Ca recovery in the urine (CaR%) was significantly higher in D rats after intratubular injections into early and late proximal tubules and late distal but not early distal tubules. An additional load-dependent defect was revealed in the terminal nephron when the Ca concentration of the injectate was increased to 1.8 mmol/L. After early distal injection, CaR% was significantly increased in D v C rats. Infusion of PTH into thyroparathyroidectomized C and D rats enhanced Ca absorption to a similar degree but did not correct the reabsorptive defect in D rats. These results argue against a lack of end-organ responsiveness to PTH in diabetes or a low serum PTH level as the cause of the hypercalciuria. We conclude that hyperphagia contributes to the hypercalciuria of diabetes in the absence of increased Ca intake. Also, two tubular reabsorptive defects exist: one in the loop of Henle; the other, load-dependent in the terminal nephron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Striatal grafts in a rat model of Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzman, R; Meyer, M; Lövblad, K O

    1999-01-01

    Survival and integration into the host brain of grafted tissue are crucial factors in neurotransplantation approaches. The present study explored the feasibility of using a clinical MR scanner to study striatal graft development in a rat model of Huntington's disease. Rat fetal lateral ganglionic...... eminences grown as free-floating roller-tube cultures can be successfully grafted in a rat Huntington model and that a clinical MR scanner offers a useful noninvasive tool for studying striatal graft development....

  18. Tobacco Induced Priapism in Wister Rat: A Case Report | Ugbor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an eight-week study on the effect of potash-tobacco dust ingestion on rats, a persistent penile erection for days was observed amongst some of the rats under study. This study involved a total of 42 Wister rats of weights ranging between 150-300g and grouped into four groups (A, B, C and D). Group A served as control, ...

  19. Effect of high dietary calcium on weight management in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out a suitable dietary regime to maintain a lower prevalence of overweight or obesity by adjusting the diet components. Therefore, male Swiss albino rats were selected according to their ages and divided into two main groups, i.e., premature and mature groups. Each rat group was divided into 4 subgroups and each subgroup was fed on a diet of varied composition. Serum levels of lipids, calcium, phosphorous and testosterone were determined in addition to body weight measurement. The results indicate non-significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in premature rats fed on high-calcium diets while significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in mature rats fed on the same diet composition. The levels of serum HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and testosterone were significantly decreased in premature rats fed high- calcium diets. In premature rats, only rat subgroup fed on high calcium from milk, showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Calcium and phosphorus levels exhibited non- significant change between premature rats. In mature rats, LDL-C data demonstrate nonsignificant changes while cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in rats fed high -calcium diet compared to control. HDL-C level revealed a significant decrease in sera of mature rats fed on high calcium from milk. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in mature rats fed low- fat diets or low fat diets supplemented with high- calcium level. In general, one would suggest to consume low fat diet (4%) supplemented with high calcium from dry skimmed milk fortified with hydroxyapatite as suitable dietary program to avoid overweight or obesity.

  20. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, F.J.; Garte, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    An extensive experiment involving approximately 400 rats exposed to the neon ion beam at the Bevalac in Berkeley, CA and to electrons is nearing completion. Progress is described in three areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) carcinogenesis and DNA strand breaks in rat skin following exposure by the neon ions or electrons; (2) oncogene activation in radiation-induced rat skin cancers; (3) DNA strand breaks in the epidermis as a function of radiation penetration. 59 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Mutagenicity of comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) in rat liver

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, N; Guo, L; Fu, P P; Heflich, R H; Chen, T

    2005-01-01

    Comfrey is a rat liver toxin and carcinogen that has been used as a vegetable and herbal remedy by humans. In order to evaluate the mechanisms underlying its carcinogenicity, we examined the mutagenicity of comfrey in the transgenic Big Blue rat model. Our results indicate that comfrey is mutagenic in rat liver and the types of mutations induced by comfrey suggest that its tumorigenicity results from the genotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant.

  2. Mutagenicity of comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, N; Guo, L; Fu, P P; Heflich, R H; Chen, T

    2005-03-14

    Comfrey is a rat liver toxin and carcinogen that has been used as a vegetable and herbal remedy by humans. In order to evaluate the mechanisms underlying its carcinogenicity, we examined the mutagenicity of comfrey in the transgenic Big Blue rat model. Our results indicate that comfrey is mutagenic in rat liver and the types of mutations induced by comfrey suggest that its tumorigenicity results from the genotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant.

  3. Adrenergic blockade in diabetic and uninephrectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Jørgensen, P E

    1999-01-01

    The present study reports on the effects of adrenergic blocking agents on the renal growth and on the renal content and urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic or uninephrectomized rats. Diabetic and uninephrectomized rats were allocated to groups...... an increase of 33% in kidney weight when compared to controls. The adrenergic antagonist treated diabetic groups had a significantly lower increase of 15%. Postnephrectomized renal growth was not affected by adrenergic antagonists. The total renal content of EGF was comparable in the saline-treated diabetic...... was not affected by adrenergic blocking agents. These results provide evidence for fundamental differences between diabetes-related renal growth and that observed in compensation to nephrectomy and suggest a connection between adrenergic activity, renal growth, and EGF in diabetes....

  4. Hexachlorophene metabolism in rats: the hepatic route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, J; McMullen, J P

    1976-03-01

    The terminal elimination rate of radioactivity from the bile of bile-duct cannulated rats, that had received hexachlorophene-14C via the hepatic portal vein, had an apparent first-order half-life of about 10 hr. Tissue distribution studies in these rats indicated that 35-47% of the carbon-14 of the dose was eliminated through the bile within 24 hr. Significant amounts of radioactivity were also found in the liver and carcass at that time; the brain was the only tissue that did not consistently have much higher concentrations of carbon-14 than the blood. The rate limiting step in the disposition of hexachlorophene may be excretion into the bile. A bile-feeding technique demonstrated enterohepatic circulation.

  5. Testosterone and muscle hypertrophy in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, F. E.; Max, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of chronic treatment with testosterone propionate (TP) on compensatory muscle hypertropy in female rats are examined. The 48 female rats were placed in one of four test groups: (1) no overload (synergist removal), no TP, (2) overload, no TP, (3) no overload + TP, and (4) overload + TP. The technique used to administer the TP is described. The preparation of the plantaris muscle, the analysis of pyruvate oxidation and the determination of malate and lactate dehydrogenases and the noncollogen protein are explained. The results which reveal the effect of overload and TP on body weight, noncollogen protein concentration, lactate and malate dehydrogenase activities, and pyruvate oxidation are presented and discussed. It is concluded that in terms of body weight, protein content, pyruvate, glycolysis, and oxidative metabolisms chronic TP treatments do not change compensatory muscle hypertropy.

  6. Aniracetam improves radial maze performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J R; Cumin, R; Aschwanden, W; Moreau, J L; Jenck, F; Haefely, W E

    1992-01-01

    The memory enhancing effect of the pyrrolidinone derivative aniracetam was investigated in rats trained in a delayed-response task in an 8-arm radial maze. Oral administration of aniracetam (100, 200, 400, or 800 mg kg-1) 16 h and again 1 h prior to a first trial of exposure to a given configuration of 4 baited arms resulted in a significant improvement in performance during a second trial in the maze given 3 h later in which there was access to all 8 arms but only the other 4 arms were baited. The pattern of baited arms was varied daily. The performance enhancement was greatest for the highest doses. These results extend the demonstration of the cognition enhancing effects of aniracetam to a spatial memory task in rats.

  7. Proteome analysis of the hypercholestrolemic rat, RICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.Y.; Park, K.-S.; Paik, Y.-K.; Seong, J.-K.

    2001-01-01

    In an attempt to develop novel markers for hypercholesterolemia, hepatic tissues and serum prepared from hypeicholesterolemic rat (i e RICO) were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF). Results were compared to those of paired inbreed rat (WKY). Comparative analysis of the respective spot patterns in 2DE revealed that the numbers of differential expression proteins were identified in serum and liver tissues of RICO. Some of the representative proteins annotated in 2DE were apolipoprotein family and numerous lipid metabolism related proteins. Especially, we found that protein disulfide isomerase subunits (ER-60) in 2DE have differential post-translational modification pattern by MALDI-ToF analysis. Our results suggest that the proteomic analysis of these proteins might be a novel approach to identify the molecular events in detail during lipid disorder such atherosclerosis

  8. Pulpal reactions in rat incisors to Caridex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedenberg, C; Bornstein, R

    1990-12-01

    This study examined the in vivo effects of Caridex, a chemomechanical caries removal system, on rat pulpal tissue. Rat incisors were opened and the pulps exposed to Caridex or physiological saline and sealed with calcium hydroxide. After various time periods, teeth were extracted and examined by light microscopy. Histological evaluation revealed an almost identical response in both test and control teeth which consisted of a transient inflammatory reaction and a limited necrosis in adjacent pulp tissue. Within seven days, formation of hard tissue matrix was seen below the necrotic area and on pulpal walls. It was suggested that the high pH of Caridex may have contributed to the necrotizing effect of calcium hydroxide in adjacent pulp tissue and the formation of hard tissue matrix. Additionally, the solution is most probably bactericidal. The results suggest that the system can be used as a caries removal agent on humans without unfavourable side effects on the dental pulp.

  9. Biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Sano, Naoyo; Takikawa, Hajime

    2003-08-01

    Glucuronide and glutathione conjugates have been reported to be substrates of multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2), whereas sulfates of nonbile acid organic anions have never been reported as substrates of Mrp2. To further examine the substrate specificity of Mrp2, we examined the effects of bile acid sulfates on the biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate in rats. The biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate was markedly delayed in Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats, an Mrp2-deficient strain, and was markedly inhibited by taurolithocholate-3-sulfate. The biliary excretion of leukotriene C(4) metabolites and sulfobromophthalein was inhibited by phenolphthalein sulfate infusion to some extent. These findings suggest that phenolphthalein sulfate is a unique sulfated nonbile acid organic anion which is a substrate of Mrp2. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Radiation-induced mesotheliomas in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Haley, P.J.; Hubbs, A.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Mesotheliomas have been reported in rats that inhaled plutonium, but these tumors have not been extensively studied. To investigate a possible role for inhaled radionuclides in the induction of mesotheliomas, four life-span studies conducted at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute are reviewed. A total of 3076 F344 rats were exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , mixed uranium-plutonium oxide, or 144 CeO 2 . Results showed that a low incidence of pleural mesotheliomas was induced by either alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides deposited and retained in the lung. Chronic alpha irradiation was more effective per unit dose in producing mesotheliomas than chronic beta irradiation of the lung by a factor of 15. 7 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  11. Tonic immobility and factors influencing its duration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K

    1991-01-01

    The author developed a method for inducing tonic immobility (paroxysmal inhibition) in rats and mice. By means of a plexiglass plate and plexiglass box the rat is immobilised, rotated at 180 degrees and subjected to constant pressure corresponding to the weight of the plexiglass plate. This way it is possible to prolong substantially tonic immobility in rats without using foregoing time consuming and interfering, so called sensitizing procedures. The duration of TI can be influenced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacological interventions. A longer duration of TI appeared to be typical for rats tending to react in other situations with anxiety, motor inhibition and submission.

  12. Spreading depression analysis of contact behaviour of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K

    1977-08-01

    Social contact behaviour induced by spreading cortical depression was studied in rats. The controls looked for and remained in contact, whereas between the rats with spreading cortical depression and their other partners there was no contact. This phenomenon is due mainly to the absence of an active urge for contact. The contact behaviour of rats is evidently controlled by the cerebral cortex or by subcortical areas of the brain which are inhibited after the elicitation of spreading depression. The experiments show that the contact behaviour of rats has at least two components - an active urge for contact and passive tolerance of contact.

  13. Experimental vaccination of rats with Dermatophilus congolensis zoospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D

    1988-05-01

    The number of zoospores recoverable from the skin of rats five days after challenge with Dermatophilus congolensis, was reduced if the rats had been injected intradermally with zoospores of this bacterium two weeks previously. The difference between zoospore recovery in vaccinated and control rats was increased when the challenge was applied to scarified skin. Assays involving a 24-hour delay between scarification and challenge gave the greatest difference in zoospore recovery. In rats which had been vaccinated 12 weeks before challenge protection was reduced.

  14. Dimerization effect of sucrose octasulfate on rat FGF1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kiselyov, Vladislav; Kochoyan, Artur

    2008-01-01

    signalling pathways. The structure of rat FGF1 crystallized in the presence of SOS has been determined at 2.2 A resolution. SOS-mediated dimerization of FGF1 was observed, which was further supported by gel-filtration experiments. The major contributors to the sulfate-binding sites in rat FGF1 are Lys113......, Lys118, Arg122 and Lys128. An arginine at position 116 is a consensus residue in mammalian FGF molecules; however, it is a serine in rat FGF1. This difference may be important for SOS-mediated FGF1 dimerization in rat....

  15. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Ruben; Gould, Michael N; Cuppen, Edwin; Smits, Bart M G

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach for generating genetically modified rats has been the target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis-based technology. Here, we describe the detailed protocols for ENU mutagenesis and mutant retrieval in the rat model organism.

  16. Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice provides information based on scientific literature about physiological parameters. Modelers...

  17. Anabolic-androgenic steroid increases running endurance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zyl, C G; Noakes, T D; Lambert, M I

    1995-10-01

    The study was designed to determine whether treatment with an anabolic-androgenic steroid enhances running performance in rats by increasing their freely chosen training distance. Forty male Long-Evans rats were randomly divided into either a sedentary control group or an exercising group caged in specially designed running wheels in which the rats were able to run spontaneously. After 4 wk, both groups were further subdivided into two groups receiving either 0.5-mg Durabolin (nandrolone phenylpropionate) (im) or 0.5-mg saline, every second day. After 8 wk, running distance was similar in both exercising groups. Rats receiving the anabolic-androgenic steroid ran 41% longer during the test of submaximal running endurance compared to the trained rats receiving saline (P sedentary rats receiving the anabolic-androgenic steroid. After 4 wk of training, the maximal sprinting speed increased by 29% in trained rats. There was no further increase in maximal sprinting speed after an additional 4 wk of training and treatment with either anabolic-androgenic steroid or saline treatment. Therefore, rats that train spontaneously while being treated with an anabolic-androgenic steroid had increased submaximal running endurance compared with trained rats treated with saline, despite the similar voluntary training distance and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity between the two groups. The mechanism by which treatment with an anabolic-androgenic steroid, combined with training, enhances submaximal running performance could not be identified and needs to be addressed in future studies.

  18. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  19. Calcium balance in mature male rats with unloaded hindlimbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidi, Meena; Evans, Juliann; Wolinsky, Ira; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium balances, regulated by the calcium endocrine system, are negative during spaceflight but have not been reported in flight simulation models using fully mature small animals. METHODS: We conducted two calcium (Ca) balance studies in 6-mo-old male rats exposed to a model that unloads the hindlimbs (HU) for 4 wk. Control (C) and HU rats were fed diets with 0.5% Ca in the first and 0.1% Ca in the second study. Housing in metabolic cages enabled daily food and water intake measurements as well as collections of urine and fecal specimens. At necropsy, blood was obtained for measures of Ca-regulating hormones. RESULTS: Both C and HU rats adjusted to housing and diets with decreases in body weight and negative Ca balances during the first week of each experiment. Thereafter, averages of Ca balances were more negative in the unloaded rats than controls: -8.1 vs. -1.6 mg x d(-1) in rats fed 0.5% (p Parathyroid hormone (PTH) was suppressed and 1,25-D increased in HU rats fed 0.5% Ca. C rats fed 0.1% Ca had increased PTH and 1,25-D was the same as in the HU group. CONCLUSION: After adaptation, Ca balances were more negative in mature male rats with unloaded hindlimbs than controls, an effect from increased secretion and loss of endogenous fecal Ca associated with increased 1,25-D in Ca-replete and Ca-restricted rats.

  20. Occurrence of riboflavinyl glucoside in rat urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Hiroshi; Ohishi, Nobuko; Yagi, Kunio

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the metabolism of riboflavin, [2- 14 C]-riboflavin was administered orally to a rat. The urine pooled for 24 h after administration was fractionated by paper and silica gel thin layer chromatographies using various solvent systems. Among the radioactive metabolites, riboflavinyl glucoside was found along with 7-carboxy lumichrome and 8-carboxy lumichrome. The radioactivity of riboflavinyl glucoside comprised about 6 % of the total radioactivity excreted in the urine during 24 h. (author)

  1. Neurosteroids exhibit anticonvulsant action in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. S8 (2005), s. 115-116 ISSN 0013-9580. [Joint Annual Meeting of the American Epilepsy Society and American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. 02.12.2005-06.12.2005, Washington, DC] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5011007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neurosteroids * anticonvulsants * immature rats Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  2. Aggregation of rat neutrophils by nucleotide triphosphates.

    OpenAIRE

    Ford-Hutchinson, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    1 Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) at concentrations of 3 x 10(-7)M and greater cause a rapid partially reversible aggregation of rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes. 2 Other nucleotide phosphates are much less active at producing aggregation responses; the agonist potencies being UTP greater than ATP greater than guanosine 5'-triphosphate, cytidine 5'-triphosphate, thymidine 5'-triphosphate; ATP greater than adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) greater than adenosine ...

  3. Facial Indicators of Positive Emotions in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Kathryn; Lampe, Jessica Frances; Hintze, Sara; Würbel, Hanno; Melotti, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, research in animal welfare science has mainly focused on negative experiences like pain and suffering, often neglecting the importance of assessing and promoting positive experiences. In rodents, specific facial expressions have been found to occur in situations thought to induce negatively valenced emotional states (e.g., pain, aggression and fear), but none have yet been identified for positive states. Thus, this study aimed to investigate if facial expressions indicative of positive emotional state are exhibited in rats. Adolescent male Lister Hooded rats (Rattus norvegicus, N = 15) were individually subjected to a Positive and a mildly aversive Contrast Treatment over two consecutive days in order to induce contrasting emotional states and to detect differences in facial expression. The Positive Treatment consisted of playful manual tickling administered by the experimenter, while the Contrast Treatment consisted of exposure to a novel test room with intermittent bursts of white noise. The number of positive ultrasonic vocalisations was greater in the Positive Treatment compared to the Contrast Treatment, indicating the experience of differentially valenced states in the two treatments. The main findings were that Ear Colour became significantly pinker and Ear Angle was wider (ears more relaxed) in the Positive Treatment compared to the Contrast Treatment. All other quantitative and qualitative measures of facial expression, which included Eyeball height to width Ratio, Eyebrow height to width Ratio, Eyebrow Angle, visibility of the Nictitating Membrane, and the established Rat Grimace Scale, did not show differences between treatments. This study contributes to the exploration of positive emotional states, and thus good welfare, in rats as it identified the first facial indicators of positive emotions following a positive heterospecific play treatment. Furthermore, it provides improvements to the photography technique and image analysis for the

  4. Proteomic profiling of the rat hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedroso Amanda P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypothalamus plays a pivotal role in numerous mechanisms highly relevant to the maintenance of body homeostasis, such as the control of food intake and energy expenditure. Impairment of these mechanisms has been associated with the metabolic disturbances involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Since rodent species constitute important models for metabolism studies and the rat hypothalamus is poorly characterized by proteomic strategies, we performed experiments aimed at constructing a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE profile of rat hypothalamus proteins. Results As a first step, we established the best conditions for tissue collection and protein extraction, quantification and separation. The extraction buffer composition selected for proteome characterization of rat hypothalamus was urea 7 M, thiourea 2 M, CHAPS 4%, Triton X-100 0.5%, followed by a precipitation step with chloroform/methanol. Two-dimensional (2-D gels of hypothalamic extracts from four-month-old rats were analyzed; the protein spots were digested and identified by using tandem mass spectrometry and database query using the protein search engine MASCOT. Eighty-six hypothalamic proteins were identified, the majority of which were classified as participating in metabolic processes, consistent with the finding of a large number of proteins with catalytic activity. Genes encoding proteins identified in this study have been related to obesity development. Conclusion The present results indicate that the 2-DE technique will be useful for nutritional studies focusing on hypothalamic proteins. The data presented herein will serve as a reference database for studies testing the effects of dietary manipulations on hypothalamic proteome. We trust that these experiments will lead to important knowledge on protein targets of nutritional variables potentially able to affect the complex central nervous system control of energy homeostasis.

  5. Thyroid Dysplasia in Wistar Hannover GALAS Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Klaus; Ernst, Rainer; Fankhauser, Heinz; Hardisty, Jerry F.; Heider, Wolfram; Stevens, Karla

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid dysplasia was recognized in WistarHan GALAS rats and confirmed as a heritable congenital disorder. The gene or genes involved were not identified, but homozygous animals with thyroid dysplasia also exhibited stunted growth, had reduced pituitary gland growth hormone (GH) and were hypothyroid. Heterozygous animals exhibited thyroid dysplasia with normal thyroid hormonal homeostasis and no difference in the incidence of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions in oncogenicity studies.

  6. Radial oxygen gradients over rat cortex arterioles

    OpenAIRE

    Galler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We present the results of the visualisation of radial oxygen gradients in rats’ cortices and their use in neurocritical management. Methods: PO2 maps of the cortex of 10 wistar rats were obtained with a camera (SensiMOD, PCO, Kehlheim, Germany). Those pictures were analyzed and edited by a custom-made software. We chose a vessel for examination. A matrix, designed to evaluate the cortical O2 partial pressure, was placed vertically to the artery and afterwards multiple regio...

  7. Spectral analysis of blood flow in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnautovic, M.; Jerkic, M.; Gal, V.

    1997-01-01

    Blood flow was continuously monitored in carotid, femoral and renal arteries in rats with acute renal failure and in the animals of control group. The spectral analysis of data were done using fast Fourier transform. Two characteristic peaks were obtained. The dominant component has frequency corresponding to heart rate, (4-7)Hz, while the frequency of the other peak is about 1 Hz. A physiological interpretation of the data is presented. (author)

  8. [Cycloferon in treating duodenal ulcers in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bul'on, V V; Khnychenko, L K; Sapronov, N S; Kuznetsova, N N; Anikin, V B; arinenko, R Iu; Kovalenko, A L; Alekseeva, L E

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of using cycloferon (interferon inductor) for a complex treatment (in combination with the main drug solcoseryl possessing pronounced therapeutic properties) of duodenum ulcers was experimentally studied in male rats. The experiments showed a considerable difference in the interferon status of animals with model duodenum ulcers treated with cycloferon, solcoseryl, their combination, and placebo (control). The healing effect of solcoseryl administered in combination with cycloferon exceeded that of each component administered separately.

  9. Uroguanylin induces electroencephalographic spikes in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, MDA.; Nascimento, NRF.; Fonteles, MC.; Vale, OC.

    2013-01-01

    Uroguanylin (UGN) is an endogenous peptide that acts on membrane-bound guanylate cyclase receptors of intestinal and renal cells increasing cGMP production and regulating electrolyte and water epithelial transport. Recent research works demonstrate the expression of this peptide and its receptor in the central nervous system. The current work was undertaken in order to evaluate modifications of electroencephalographic spectra (EEG) in anesthetized Wistar rats, submitted to intracisternal infu...

  10. Chemical Renal Denervation in the Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consigny, Paul M.; Davalian, Dariush; Donn, Rosy; Hu, Jie; Rieser, Matthew; Stolarik, DeAnne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Methods: Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose–response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10 −5  M through 10 −2  M paclitaxel. Conclusion: We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel

  11. Enantioselective disposition of clenbuterol in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hirosawa, Iori; Ishikawa, Mai; Ogino, Mio; Ito, Hiroshi; Hirao, Takuya; Yamada, Harumi; Asahi, Mariko; Kotaki, Hajime; Sai, Yoshimichi; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Clenbuterol is a long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist and bronchodilator that is used for the treatment of asthma, but the desired activities reside almost exclusively in the (-)-R-enantiomer. This study examined enantioselectivity in the disposition of clenbuterol following administration of clenbuterol racemate to rats. Concentrations of clenbuterol enantiomers in plasma, urine and bile were determined by LC-MS/MS assay with a Chirobiotic T column. This method was confirmed to show high sens...

  12. Rabbiteye blueberry prevents osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wu, Shou-Mian; Xu, Zhi-Yuan; Ou-Yang, Sheng

    2014-08-08

    It has been forecasted that the rabbiteye blueberry could inhibit osteoporosis. However, the inhibition and prevention of osteoporosis via rabbiteye blueberry are still elusive. This study was aim to evaluate the anti-osteoporosis effects of rabbiteye blueberry in ovariectomized rats. Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups of ten rats each as follows: sham-operated group (SG), ovariectomized model control group (OMG), and ovariectomized rabbiteye blueberry treatment group (OBG). The blood mineral levels, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) level were determined. The expression analyses of type I collagen, integrin-β1, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were performed. Besides, the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone histomorphometry (BH) were measured. The ALP activity in SG and OBG was significantly lower than that in OMG. For the OPG level, the significant increase of OPG level in OBG was indicated compared with the other groups. The mRNA expression levels of type I collagen, integrin-β1, and FAK in OMG were significantly lower than those in other groups. The BMD in OMG were all significantly lower than those in SG and OBG. For BH, blueberry significantly improved the trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, mean trabecular bone number, and bone formation rate, and decreased the trabecular separation, the percent of bone resorption perimeter, and mean osteoclast number in OBG compared with OMG. The rabbiteye blueberries had an effective inhibition in bone resorption, bone loss, and reduction of bone strength of ovariectomized rats and could improve the BMD, osteogenic activity, and trabecular bone structure.

  13. Oral gavage in rats: animal welfare evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Patricia V; Vaughn, Elizabeth; Sunohara-Neilson, Janet; Ovari, Jelena; Leri, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The effect of chronic daily orogastric gavage with water (5 mL/kg) on behavior and physiology was evaluated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment groups included: unmanipulated control, restraint control, dry gavage, and gavage, with all rats singly housed (n = 9 or 10 per group). In addition, a group of pair-housed rats (n = 18) was included to determine whether social housing affected response to gavage. Weekly body weights and food consumption were recorded as well as use of a nylon chew toy for enrichment. Feces were collected biweekly at the end of the light and dark phases for fecal corticoid metabolite determinations. After 28 d of treatment, animals underwent conditioned place preference testing to evaluate sensitivity to motivational properties of the anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide (5.6 mg/kg SC). Brain and paired adrenal gland weights were collected at necropsy. Week 2 total fecal corticosterone levels were elevated in all groups and attributed to a fire alarm accidentally tripped during building renovations. No differences occurred in body weight or food consumption between any groups. All groups used a nylon chew toy given for enrichment and demonstrated mild preference for the drug-associated chamber. Fecal weights and corticoid metabolite levels were similar between all groups at week 4 and showed normal diurnal variation. No biologically significant variations were noted in brain or paired adrenal gland to body weight ratios. We conclude that orogastric gavage of aqueous solutions at 5 mL/kg does not negatively affect the welfare of laboratory rats acclimated to handling.

  14. Developmental neurotoxicity of propylthiouracil in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Christiansen, Sofie

    2007-01-01

    . The overall aim was to provide detailed knowledge on the relationship between effects on thyroid hormone levels and long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity effects. Groups of 16–18 pregnant rats (HanTac:WH) were dosed with PTU (0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 mg/(kg day)) from gestation day 7 to postnatal day (PND) 16...... behaviour and hearing function. This supports that exposure to TDC's in general may cause long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity....

  15. Chemical Renal Denervation in the Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consigny, Paul M., E-mail: paul.consigny@av.abbott.com; Davalian, Dariush, E-mail: dariush.davalian@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, Innovation Incubator (United States); Donn, Rosy, E-mail: rosy.donn@av.abbott.com; Hu, Jie, E-mail: jie.hu@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, Bioanalytical and Material Characterization (United States); Rieser, Matthew, E-mail: matthew.j.rieser@abbvie.com; Stolarik, DeAnne, E-mail: deanne.f.stolarik@abbvie.com [Abbvie, Analytical Pharmacology (United States)

    2013-12-03

    Introduction: The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Methods: Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose–response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10{sup −5} M through 10{sup −2} M paclitaxel. Conclusion: We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel.

  16. Antipsychotic Drugs on Maternal Behavior in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Rat maternal behavior is a complex social behavior. Many clinically used antipsychotic drugs, including the typical drug haloperidol and atypical drugs clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole and amisulpride, all disrupt active maternal responses (e.g. pup retrieval, pup licking and nest building) to various extents. In this review, I present a summary of recent studies on the behavioral effects and neurobiological mechanisms of antipsychotic action on maternal behavior i...

  17. Vitamin K requirement in Danish anticoagulant-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D.; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Nielsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement......Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement...

  18. A rat model of reproducible cerebral infarction using thrombotic blood clot emboli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, K.; Sereghy, T.; Boysen, G.

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, experimental thromboembolism, stroke, blood flow, in vitro thrombotic clotting, cerebral infarction, rat......Neuropathology, experimental thromboembolism, stroke, blood flow, in vitro thrombotic clotting, cerebral infarction, rat...

  19. Antihypertensive action of non-natriuretic doses of furosemide in Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Ketil; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Spannow, Jesper

    1997-01-01

    Farmakologi, blood pressure, Dahl rats, furosemide, sodium balance, total body sodium, non-natriuretic......Farmakologi, blood pressure, Dahl rats, furosemide, sodium balance, total body sodium, non-natriuretic...

  20. Adaptation of the cardiovascular system to postinfarction cardiosclerosis in rats with congenital adrenoreactivity of the myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usacheva, M A; Popkova, E V; Smirnova, E A; Saltykova, V A; Belkina, L M

    2007-12-01

    Three months after myocardial infarction the severity of heart failure and size of postinfarction scars in August rats with inherently reduced adrenoreactivity of the myocardium were similar to those in Wistar rats. The mortality rate in August rats was 2.5-fold lower than in Wistar rats. During the postinfarction period, myocardial adrenoreactivity in August rats remained lower, while the efficiency of cardiac function was 62% higher than in Wistar rats. The incidence of epinephrine-induced arrhythmias in August rats was much lower than in Wistar rats.

  1. Long-term BPA infusions. Evaluation in the rat brain tumor and rat spinal cord models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Joel, D.D.; Morris, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the BPA-based dose escalation clinical trial, the observations of tumor recurrence in areas of extremely high calculated tumor doses suggest that the BPA distribution is non-uniform. Longer (6-hour) i.v. infusions of BPA are evaluated in the rat brain tumor and spinal cord models to address the questions of whether long-term infusions are more effective against the tumor and whether long-term infusions are detrimental in the central nervous system. In the rat spinal cord, the 50% effective doses (ED 50 ) for myeloparesis were not significantly different after a single i.p. injection of BPA-fructose or a 6 hour i.v. infusion. In the rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor model, BNCT following 2-hr or 6-hr infusions of BPA-F produced similar levels of long term survival. (author)

  2. Growth hormone aggregates in the rat adenohypophysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, M.; Hymer, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    Although it has been known for some time that GH aggregates are contained within the rat anterior pituitary gland, the role that they might play in pituitary function is unknown. The present study examines this issue using the technique of Western blotting, which permitted visualization of 11 GH variants with apparent mol wt ranging from 14-88K. Electroelution of the higher mol wt variants from gels followed by their chemical reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. With the blot procedure we found 1) that GH aggregates greater than 44K were associated with a 40,000 x g sedimentable fraction; 2) that GH aggregates were not present in glands from thyroidectomized rats, but were in glands from the thyroidectomized rats injected with T4; 3) that GH aggregates were uniquely associated with a heavily granulated somatotroph subpopulation isolated by density gradient centrifugation; and 4) that high mol wt GH forms were released from the dense somatotrophs in culture, since treatment of the culture medium with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. Taken together, the results show that high mol wt GH aggregates are contained in secretory granules of certain somatotrophs and are also released in aggregate form from these cells in vitro.

  3. Trace element distribution in the rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Pounds, J.G.; Reuhl, K.R.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1989-10-01

    Spatial distributions and concentrations of trace elements (TE) in the brain are important because TE perform catalytic structural functions in enzymes which regulate brain function and development. We have investigated the distributions of TE in rat cerebellum. Structures were sectioned and analyzed by the Synchrotron Radiation Induced X-ray Emission (SRIXE) method using the NSLS X-26 white-light microprobe facility. Advantages important for TE analysis of biological specimens with x-ray microscopy include short time of measurement, high brightness and flux, good spatial resolution, multielemental detection, good sensitivity, and non-destructive irradiation. Trace elements were measured in thin rat brain sections of 20-micrometers thickness. The analyses were performed on sample volumes as small as 0.2 nl with Minimum Detectable Limits (MDL) of 50 ppb wet weight for Fe, 100 ppb wet weight for Cu, and Zn, and 1 ppM wet weight for Pb. The distribution of TE in the molecular cell layer, granule cell layer and fiber tract of rat cerebella was investigated. Both point analyses and two-dimensional semi-quantitative mapping of the TE distribution in a section were used

  4. Effects of optimism on motivation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal eRygula

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In humans, optimism is a cognitive construct related to motivation; optimists exert effort, whereas pessimists disengage from effort. In this study, using a recently developed ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI paradigm we took the unique opportunity to investigate whether ‘optimism’ as a trait is correlated with motivation in rodents. In a series of ACI tests (cognitive bias screening, CBS, we identified rats displaying ‘pessimistic’ and ‘optimistic’ traits. Subsequently, we investigated the trait differences in the motivation of these rats to gain reward and to avoid punishment using a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement paradigm. Although ‘optimistic’ and ‘pessimistic’ animals did not differ in their motivation to avoid punishment, the ‘optimistic’ rats were significantly more motivated to gain reward than their ‘pessimistic’ conspecifics. For the first time, we showed an association between cognitive judgment bias and motivation in an animal model. Because both investigated processes are closely related to mental health and wellbeing, our results may be valuable for preclinical modeling of many psychiatric disorders.

  5. Antihypertensive effect of taurine in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianmin; Xu, Xingli; Yang, Jiancheng; Wu, Gaofeng; Sun, Changmian; Lv, Qiufeng

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of taurine on hypertension, a rat model of hypertension was produced by administering N-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) to reduce the levels of the vasodilator, nitric oxide. At the same time that L-NAME was administered, taurine treated animals received either 1% or 2% taurine in the drinking water. As a control, 1% taurine was added to the water without L-NAME administration in order to investigate the effects of taurine on blood pressure of normal rats. The results showed that taurine increased serum levels of nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase, inhibited the elevation of blood pressure, interfered with the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and minimized the elevation in serum cytokine, endothelin, neuropeptide Y and thromboxane B2. It also reduced oxygen derived free radical generation, upregulated the antioxidant defenses and inhibited the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. These data indicate that taurine benefits hypertensive rats, with 2% taurine mediating greater improvement than 1% taurine.

  6. Taurine depletion alters vascular reactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Worku; Mozaffari, Mahmood S

    2003-09-01

    We recently showed that chronic taurine supplementation is associated with attenuation of contractile responses of rat aorta to norepinephrine and potassium chloride. However, the potential involvement of endogenous taurine in modulation of vascular reactivity is not known. Therefore, we examined the effect of beta-alanine-induced taurine depletion on the in vitro reactivity of rat aorta to selected vasoactive agents. The data indicate that both norepinephrine- and potassium-chloride-induced maximum contractile responses of endothelium-denuded aortae were enhanced in taurine-depleted rats compared with control animals. However, taurine depletion did not affect tissue sensitivity to either norepinephrine or potassium chloride. By contrast, sensitivity of the endothelium-denuded aortae to sodium nitroprusside was attenuated by taurine depletion. Similarly, taurine deficiency reduced the relaxant responses of endothelium-intact aortic rings elicited by submaximal concentrations of acetylcholine, and this effect was associated with decreased nitric oxide production. Taken together, the data suggest that taurine depletion augments contractility but attenuates relaxation of vascular smooth muscle in a nonspecific manner. Impairment of endothelium-dependent responses, which is at least in part associated with reduced nitric oxide generation, may contribute to the attenuation of the vasorelaxant responses. These vascular alterations could be of potential consequence in pathological conditions associated with taurine deficiency.

  7. Can curcumin modulate allergic rhinitis in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, M; Muluk, N Bayar; Yigitaslan, S; Cengiz, B P; Shojaolsadati, P; Karimkhani, H; Ada, S; Berkoz, M; Cingi, C

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of curcumin on experimental allergic rhinitis in rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group; a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced and no treatment given; a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced followed by treatment with azelastine hydrochloride on days 21-28; and a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced followed by treatment with curcumin on days 21-28. Allergy symptoms and histopathological features of the nasal mucosa were examined. The sneezing and nasal congestion scores were higher in the azelastine and curcumin treatment groups than in the control group. Histopathological examination showed focal goblet cell metaplasia on the epithelial surface in the azelastine group. In the curcumin group, there was a decrease in goblet cell metaplasia in the epithelium, decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and vascular proliferation in the lamina propria. Curcumin is an effective treatment for experimentally induced allergic rhinitis in rats.

  8. Rat Model of Parkes Weber Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Bojakowski

    Full Text Available The Parkes Weber syndrome is a congenital vascular malformation, characterized by varicose veins, arterio-venous fistulas and overgrown limbs. No broadly accepted animal model of Parkes Weber syndrome has been described. We created side-to-side arterio-venous fistula between common femoral vessels with proximal non-absorbable ligature on common femoral vein limiting the enlargement of the vein diameter in Wistar rats. Contralateral limb was sham operated. Invasive blood pressure measurements in both iliac and inferior cava veins were performed in rats 30 days after fistula creation. Tight circumference and femoral bone length were measured. Histopathology and morphology of soleus muscle, extensor digitorum longus muscle, and the common femoral vessel were analyzed. 30 days following arterio-venous fistula creation, a statistically significant elevation of blood pressure in common iliac vein and limb overgrowth was observed. Limb enlargement was caused by muscle overgrowth, varicose veins formation and bone elongation. Arterio-venous fistula with proximal outflow limitation led to significant increase of femoral vein circumference and venous wall thickness. Our study indicates that the described rat model mimics major clinical features characteristic for the human Parkes Weber syndrome: presence of arterio-venous fistula, venous hypertension and dilatation, varicose veins formation, and the limb hypertrophy. We reveal that limb overgrowth is caused by bone elongation, muscle hypertrophy, and venous dilatation. The newly established model will permit detailed studies on the mechanisms underlying the disease and on the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies for the Parkes Weber syndrome treatment.

  9. Aluminum neurotoxicity in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, S.; Ohashi, H.; Nagai, H.; Kakimi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we administered aluminum to healthy rats and examined the aluminum uptake in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the rat brain and in isolated brain cell nuclei by PIXE analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the brain after 15 months of oral aluminum administration. Moreover, Al was detected in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei from the patients with Alzheimer's disease. Silver impregnation studies revealed that spines attached to the dendritic processes of cortical nerve cells decreased remarkably after aluminum administration. Electron microscopy revealed characteristic inclusion bodies in the hippocampal nerve cells 75 days after the injection. These morphological changes in the rat brain after the aluminum administration were similar to those reportedly observed in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Our results indicate that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminum in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  10. Developmental toxicity of Citrus aurantium in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Deborah K; Juliar, Beth E; White, Gene E; Pellicore, Linda S

    2011-06-01

    Ephedra was commonly used in herbal products marketed for weight loss until safety concerns forced its removal from products. Even before the ban, manufacturers had begun to replace ephedra with other compounds, including Citrus aurantium, or bitter orange. The major component in the bitter orange extract is synephrine which is chemically similar to ephedrine. The purpose of this study was to determine if relatively pure synephrine or synephrine present as a constituent of a bitter orange extract produced developmental toxicity in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage with one of several different doses of synephrine from one of two different extracts. Caffeine was added to some doses. Animals were sacrificed on GD 21, and fetuses were examined for the presence of various developmental toxic endpoints. At doses up to 100 mg synephrine/kg body weight, there were no adverse effects on embryolethality, fetal weight, or incidences of gross, visceral, or skeletal abnormalities. There was a decrease in maternal weight at 50 mg synephrine/kg body weight when given as the 6% synephrine extract with 25 mg caffeine/kg body weight; there was also a decrease in maternal weight in the caffeine only group. This decrease in body weight may have been due to decreased food consumption which was also observed in these two groups. Overall, doses of up to 100 mg synephrine/kg body weight did not produce developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Subacute toxicity assessment of annatto in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, A R P L; Moreira, E L T; Batista, M S; Miranda, M S; Gomes, I C S

    2004-04-01

    Increased human use of annatto (Bixa orellana L), a red yellow food colorant, demands generation of toxicity data. The toxic effects of annatto powder (bixin 27%) have been assessed following administration of a subacute regimen (4 weeks, 20 doses) in Wistar male and female rats. A full study with three dose levels was considered unnecessary since no sign of toxicity had been noted in a preliminary experiment with 1000 mg/kg body weight/day as was recommended by the OECD guideline. In this study, annatto administered by gavage at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg/day decreased male body weight gain, but had no effect on either food intake or food conversion efficiency. Haematological and plasma biochemical examination as well necropsy performed at the end of administration (29th day) and observation (43rd day) periods revealed no alterations related with annatto administration. Kidney apoptosis occurred in 20% treated female rats in restricted areas without proliferation or tubular segments modification. The precise nature of apoptosis was not investigated in the present study. These findings suggest that annatto was no toxic to the rat.

  12. Solcoseryl stimulates behavioural activity of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braszko, J J; Winnicka, M M; Wiśniewski, K

    1996-01-01

    The influence of Solcoseryl (S), a protein-free extract of calves' blood given intraperitoneally (i.p.) on the behavioural measures of activity of the central nervous system of male Wistar rats was examined. The drug (1.0 ml/kg i.p.) given 60 min before testing the animals in electromagnetic motimeter significantly enhanced overall and vertical motility of rats. S at the doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ml/kg did not significantly influence the activity of rats in "open field". 1.0 ml/kg of S given 15, 45 and 60 min before thiopental (30 mg/kg i.p.) did not change the onset and time of sleep following the latter drug, except for the significant shortening of the time of sleep of animals injected with S 15 min before thiopental. S at the dose of 1.0 ml/kg did not change stereotypies produced by apomorphine (2.0 mg/kg i.p.) and amphetamine (6.5 mg/kg i.p.) but decreased intensity of haloperidol (1.0 mg/kg i.p.) catalepsy.

  13. Energy balance of pregnant diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ruth; Griggio, Mauro A; Luz, Jacqueline

    2002-05-01

    Pregnancy and diabetes lead to metabolic alterations in the energy balance that may not be completely independent. The objective of the present study was to look at the alterations induced by type 1 diabetes mellitus on the energy balance of pregnant rats and the offspring. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection 15 d before the starting of pregnancy. The rats had their energy balance variables followed for 21 d. Protein, fat and energy content of dams was determined from samples of the carcasses. Pregnancy led to increased energy intake, energy gain and energy expenditure as well as higher gross food efficiency than non-pregnant counterparts. Diabetes increased metabolizable energy intake but not the energy gain of the animals: they had very high energy expenditure, so that diabetes blocked the improvement in gross food efficiency shown during pregnancy. Offspring from diabetic dams were born with lower body weight. Pregnant animals did not present the usual energy storage as seen by lower energy gain of diabetic dams as well as by the lower fat content in the carcasses of pregnant diabetic rats. It is concluded that diabetes impairs the energy variables usually enhanced by pregnancy alone.

  14. Lapachol induces clastogenic effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistro, Edson Luis; Fernandes, Diego Mota; Pereira, Fernanda Maria; Andrade, Sergio Faloni

    2010-06-01

    Lapachol is a naturally occurring naphthoquinone derivative found in the heartwood of several plants, particularly those of the genus Tabebuia (Bignoneaceae). Despite its use as a therapeutic product with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipsoriatic, trypanocidal effects, among others, its in vivo mutagenic potential has still not been investigated. This paper reports the effects after a single oral administration of lapachol in the in vivo micronucleus (MN) and chromosome aberration (CA) assays. Both assays were performed using bone marrow cells from male Wistar rats. The animals were treated by oral gavage with hydroalcoholic solutions of lapachol at the doses of 122, 244 and 365 mg/kg, chosen on the basis of the LD(50) in male rats. The results show that the higher administered lapachol dose induced a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) and CAs in rat bone marrow cells, indicating that lapachol shows clastogenic effects under the experimental conditions used. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  15. Pulmonary toxicity of thioureas in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.M.; Powell, G.M.; Curtis, C.G.; Upshall, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Administration of α-naphthylthiourea (ANTU) to rats causes damage to pulmonary endothelial cells and possibly mesothelial lining cells that together may account for the massive pleural effusion characteristic of thiourea toxicity. Using 35 S-thiourea as a model compound, the extent of binding of 35 S to lung proteins correlated well with the extent of edema, suggesting that the extent of binding of thiourea metabolites is a measure of lung toxicity. ANTU and phenylthiourea (PTU) compete for 35 S binding to lung slices, suggesting that these toxins may act in a similar way. Binding of 35 S in lung slices from resistant rats is much less than in controls, and resistance cannot be explained by differences in either whole body metabolism or redistribution of thiourea in vivo. Lung glutathione levels (in vitro and in vivo) in normal and resistant rats following thiourea administration were essentially the same. However, at doses of thiourea that cause pleural effusion, there was an increase in total lung glutathione

  16. Obesity-resistant S5B rats showed great cocaine conditioned place preference than the obesity-prone OM rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K..; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Michaelides, M.; Anderson, B.J.; Primeaux, S.D.; Bray, G.A.; Wang, G.-J.; Robinson, J.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) and the DA D2 receptor (D2R) are involved in the rewarding and conditioned responses to food and drug rewards. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are genetically prone and S5B/P rats are genetically resistant to obesity when fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the differential sensitivity of these two rat strains to natural rewards may also be reflected in sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Therefore, we tested whether OM and S5B/P rats showed a differential preference to cocaine using conditioned place preference (CPP). To also evaluate whether there is specific involvement of the D2R in this differential conditioning sensitivity, we then tested whether the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differentially affect the effects of cocaine in the two strains. OM and S5B/P rats were conditioned with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) in one chamber and saline in another for 8 days. Rats were then tested for cocaine preference. The effects of BC (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) on cocaine preference were then assessed in subsequent test sessions. OM rats did not show a significant preference for the cocaine-paired chamber on test day. Only the S5B/P rats showed cocaine CPP. Later treatment with only the highest dose of BC resulted in reduced cocaine CPP in S5B/P rats when treated with 5 mg/kg cocaine and in OM rats treated with 10 mg/kg cocaine. Our results indicated that obesity-resistant S5B rats showed greater cocaine CPP than the obesity-prone OM rats. These findings do not support a theory of common vulnerability for reinforcer preferences (food and cocaine). However, they show that BC reduced cocaine conditioning effects supporting at least a partial regulatory role of D2R in conditioned responses to drugs.

  17. Applications of Rat Grimace Scale Method in Postoperative Pain Management in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Iulia DREANCA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, 3R (replacement, reduction, refinement concept lies in the core of laboratory animals science, one of the most important refinement strategies being the pain control. Rat Grimace Scale (RGS is an actual and effective method used to assess pain in laboratory animals. Aims: The purpose of this study was to find the most effective post surgery analgesic protocol, by grading the changes in the animal’s facial expression. Materials and methods: In the present study we used 5 Wistar rats, as a pain model, ovariectomy was performed on 4 of the rats. Tramadol was administrated subcutaneously as it follows: 1 rat in pre-surgery dose of 25 mg/kg, 2 rats in post-surgery a dose of 25 mg/kg and respectively 50 mg/kg. The evaluation of pain was done across at the time 0, 2, 4 and 6 hours post-surgery using the scores of 0, 1 and 2, 0 representing the absence of pain, 1 a moderate level of pain and 2 a high level of pain. Results: The results of the study revealed that the spayed rat without Tramadol presented the highest level of pain (1.25 - 1.75. The pre-surgery analgesia enhanced the narcosis effect, but analgesia had a short term effect, with a moderate to high level of pain (1 - 1.5. To the animal treated with a dose of 25 mg/kg post-surgery, a moderate pain level was observed (0.5 - 1.25 and to the animal with the highest dose an optimal analgesia was determined (0.25. Conclusion: The expected analgesic effect was put forward by the 50 mg/kg dose of Tramadol and the RGS method was found to be suitable for the assessment of animal suffering in surgical experimental procedures.

  18. Genetic profiling of two phenotypically distinct outbred rats derived from a colony of the Zucker fatty rats maintained at Tokyo Medical University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Satoshi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Yokoi, Norihide

    2017-05-03

    The Zucker fatty (ZF) rat is an outbred rat and a well-known model of obesity without diabetes, harboring a missense mutation (fatty, abbreviated as fa) in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr). Slc:Zucker (Slc:ZF) outbred rats exhibit obesity while Hos:ZFDM-Lepr fa (Hos:ZFDM) outbred rats exhibit obesity and type 2 diabetes. Both outbred rats have been derived from an outbred ZF rat colony maintained at Tokyo Medical University. So far, genetic profiles of these outbred rats remain unknown. Here, we applied a simple genotyping method using Ampdirect reagents and FTA cards (Amp-FTA) in combination with simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLP) markers to determine genetic profiles of Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM rats. Among 27 SSLP marker loci, 24 loci (89%) were fixed for specific allele at each locus in Slc:ZF rats and 26 loci (96%) were fixed in Hos:ZFDM rats, respectively. This indicates the low genetic heterogeneity in both colonies of outbred rats. Nine loci (33%) showed different alleles between the two outbred rats, suggesting considerably different genetic profiles between the two outbred rats in spite of the same origin. Additional analysis using 72 SSLP markers further supported these results and clarified the profiles in detail. This study revealed that genetic profiles of the Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM outbred rats are different for about 30% of the SSLP marker loci, which is the underlying basis for the phenotypic difference between the two outbred rats.

  19. SWIMMING ENHANCES BONE MASS ACQUISITION IN GROWING FEMALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne McVeigh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing bones are most responsive to mechanical loading. We investigated bone mass acquisition patterns following a swimming or running exercise intervention of equal duration, in growing rats. We compared changes in bone mineral properties in female Sprague Dawley rats that were divided into three groups: sedentary controls (n = 10, runners (n = 8 and swimmers (n = 11. Runners and swimmers underwent a six week intervention, exercising five days per week, 30min per day. Running rats ran on an inclined treadmill at 0.33 m.s-1, while swimming rats swam in 25oC water. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans measuring bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD and bone area at the femur, lumbar spine and whole body were recorded for all rats before and after the six week intervention. Bone and serum calcium and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations were measured at the end of the 6 weeks. Swimming rats had greater BMC and bone area changes at the femur and lumbar spine (p < 0.05 than the running rats and a greater whole body BMC and bone area to that of control rats (p < 0.05. There were no differences in bone gain between running and sedentary control rats. There was no significant difference in serum or bone calcium or PTH concentrations between the groups of rats. A swimming intervention is able to produce greater beneficial effects on the rat skeleton than no exercise at all, suggesting that the strains associated with swimming may engender a unique mechanical load on the bone

  20. Structure of the vitreoretinal border region in spontaneously diabetic BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, S

    1993-01-01

    The morphology of the vitreoretinal border region, also termed the inner limiting membrane, was examined in spontaneously diabetic rats (BB rats), in non-diabetes-prone rats (WB rats) and in Buffalo rats (BUF rats) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM......). This was performed in order to visualize a possible increase in thickness of the lamina densa or in the whole vitreoretinal border region complex with duration of diabetes. The median thickness of the lamina densa in the three groups varied between 34 and 68 nm. In BB rats the thickness decreased with age...... and duration of diabetes. In WB rats the lamina densa thickened up to the 9th month and then decreased to the level of the young rats. In BUF rats the lamina densa decreased in thickness with age. The median thickness of the whole vitreoretinal border region varied between: BB rats: 84 and 126 nm (SEM) and 68...

  1. Mortality associated with using medetomidine and ketamine for general anesthesia in pregnant and nonpregnant Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Lauren M; Ross, Simone M; Jones, Megan L; Musk, Gabrielle C

    2014-06-01

    Medetomidine and ketamine are injectable drugs that can be used in combination to induce general anesthesia in rats. After noticing a high incidence of morbidity and mortality in pregnant Wistar rats given medetomidine and ketamine for anesthesia, the authors further investigated the effects of this combination of anesthetic drugs in both pregnant and nonpregnant Wistar rats. The time to recumbency and the duration of general anesthesia were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Pregnancy status did not affect the rats' pulse rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, oxygen saturation or perfusion index during 2 h of anesthesia. Pregnant rats had significantly lower blood glucose concentrations than nonpregnant rats at all time points, though blood glucose concentrations increased in both groups. The mortality rate was ∼15% both for nonpregnant rats and for pregnant rats. Researchers using medetomidine and ketamine to anesthetize Wistar rats should carefully monitor the rats in order to minimize mortality.

  2. Prior access to a sweet is more protective against cocaine self-administration in female rats than in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Angie M; Grigson, Patricia S

    2013-03-15

    It is well established that female rats are more sensitive than male rats to the reinforcing effects of cocaine (Lynch, 2008 [42] for review). We hypothesized that greater preference for cocaine would support greater avoidance of a cocaine-paired taste cue in female vs. male rats. Moreover, at least in male rats, greater avoidance of the taste cue is associated with greater cocaine self-administration (Grigson and Twining, 2002 [3]). Thus, we anticipated that female rats would not only demonstrate greater avoidance of the drug-paired taste cue, but greater drug-taking as well. We tested these hypotheses by examining avoidance of a saccharin cue in male and female rats following several pairings with self-administered saline or cocaine (0.16, 0.33, or 0.66 mg/infusion). Contrary to expectations, the results showed that female rats exhibited less avoidance of the cocaine-associated saccharin cue than male rats and self-administered less, rather than more, cocaine, Thus, while female rats reportedly take more drug than male rats when the drug is presented in the absence of an alternative reward, they take less drug than male rats when the opportunity to self-administer cocaine is preceded by access to a palatable sweet. Females, then, may not simply be more sensitive to the rewarding properties of drug, but also to the reinforcing properties of natural rewards and this increase in sensitivity to sweets may serve to protect against drug-taking behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of acute hydrocephalus does not change brain tissue mechanical properties in adult rats, but in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Alice C; Jugé, Lauriane; Bilston, Lynne E; Cheng, Shaokoon

    2017-01-01

    Regional changes in brain stiffness were previously demonstrated in an experimental obstructive hydrocephalus juvenile rat model. The open cranial sutures in the juvenile rats have influenced brain compression and mechanical properties during hydrocephalus development and the extent by which closed cranial sutures in adult hydrocephalic rat models affect brain stiffness in-vivo remains unclear. The aims of this study were to determine changes in brain tissue mechanical properties and brain structure size during hydrocephalus development in adult rat with fixed cranial volume and how these changes were related to brain tissue deformation. Hydrocephalus was induced in 9 female ten weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting 60 μL of a kaolin suspension (25%) into the cisterna magna under anaesthesia. 6 sham-injected age-matched female SD rats were used as controls. MR imaging (9.4T, Bruker) was performed 1 day before and then at 3 days post injection. T2-weighted anatomical MR images were collected to quantify ventricle and brain tissue cross-sectional areas. MR elastography (800 Hz) was used to measure the brain stiffness (G*, shear modulus). Brain tissue in the adult hydrocephalic rats was more compressed than the juvenile hydrocephalic rats because the skulls of the adult hydrocephalic rats were unable to expand like the juvenile rats. In the adult hydrocephalic rats, the cortical gray matter thickness and the caudate-putamen cross-sectional area decreased (Spearman, P hydrocephalus is complex and is not solely dependent on brain tissue deformation. Further studies on the interactions between brain tissue stiffness, deformation, tissue oedema and neural damage are necessary before MRE can be used as a tool to track changes in brain biomechanics in hydrocephalus.

  4. Isoproterenol effects evaluated in heart slices of human and rat in comparison to rat heart in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Julia E.; Heale, Jason; Bieraugel, Mike; Ramos, Meg; Fisher, Robyn L.; Vickers, Alison E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury was evaluated by gene and protein pathway changes in human heart slices, and compared to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. Isoproterenol (10 and 100 μM) altered human and rat heart slice markers of oxidative stress (ATP and GSH) at 24 h. In this in vivo rat study (0.5 mg/kg), serum troponin concentrations increased with lesion severity, minimal to mild necrosis at 24 and 48 h. In the rat and the human heart, isoproterenol altered pathways for apoptosis/necrosis, stress/energy, inflammation, and remodeling/fibrosis. The rat and human heart slices were in an apoptotic phase, while the in vivo rat heart exhibited necrosis histologically and further progression of tissue remodeling. In human heart slices genes for several heat shock 70 kD members were altered, indicative of stress to mitigate apoptosis. The stress response included alterations in energy utilization, fatty acid processing, and the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, a marker of increased oxidative stress in both species. Inflammation markers linked with remodeling included IL-1α, Il-1β, IL-6 and TNFα in both species. Tissue remodeling changes in both species included increases in the TIMP proteins, inhibitors of matrix degradation, the gene/protein of IL-4 linked with cardiac fibrosis, and the gene Ccl7 a chemokine that induces collagen synthesis, and Reg3b a growth factor for cardiac repair. This study demonstrates that the initial human heart slice response to isoproterenol cardiac injury results in apoptosis, stress/energy status, inflammation and tissue remodeling at concentrations similar to that in rat heart slices. - Highlights: • Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury evaluated in heart slices. • Isoproterenol altered apoptosis, energy, inflammation and remodeling pathways. • Human model verified by comparison to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. • Human and rat respond to isoproterenol

  5. Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Magnolol and Piperine in Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the pharmacokinetic mechanism of interaction between magnolol and piperine when co-administered to rats. Methods: The rats were divided into five groups as follows: magnolol group (625 mg/kg); low dose of piperine group (20 mg/kg); high dose of piperine group (40 mg/kg); low dose of piperine ...

  6. Induction of mammary gland tumor in female Sprague- Dawley rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... breast cancer in female Sprague Dawley rats. Life Sci. 78: 2820-2825. Perumal SS, Shanthi P, Sachdanadam P (2005a). Augmented efficacy of tamoxifen in rat breast tumorigenesis when gavaged along with riboflavin, niacin, and CoQ10: Effect on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in mitochondria. Chem.

  7. Factors modulating social influence on spatial choice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbing, Teagan A; Saxon, Marie; Sayde, Justin M; Brown, Michael F

    2015-07-01

    Three experiments examined the conditions under which the spatial choices of rats searching for food are influenced by the choices made by other rats. Model rats learned a consistent set of baited locations in a 5 × 5 matrix of locations, some of which contained food. In Experiment 1, subject rats could determine the baited locations after choosing 1 location because all of the baited locations were on the same side of the matrix during each trial (the baited side varied over trials). Under these conditions, the social cues provided by the model rats had little or no effect on the choices made by the subject rats. The lack of social influence on choices occurred despite a simultaneous social influence on rats' location in the testing arena (Experiment 2). When the outcome of the subject rats' own choices provided no information about the positions of other baited locations, on the other hand, social cues strongly controlled spatial choices (Experiment 3). These results indicate that social information about the location of food influences spatial choices only when those cues provide valid information that is not redundant with the information provided by other cues. This suggests that social information is learned about, processed, and controls behavior via the same mechanisms as other kinds of stimuli. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Influence of Chloramphenicol and Amoxicillin on Rat Liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effect of chloramphenicol and amoxicillin on liver microsomal enzymes Ca2+-ATPase and Glucose-6-Phosphatase (G-6-P) and lipid peroxidation in rats. Male Wistar strain rats weighing 120 – 195 g were divided into four groups. Group one, the control group, received physiological saline, group ...

  9. Delay Discounting of Qualitatively Different Reinforcers in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Amanda L.; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Humans discount larger delayed rewards less steeply than smaller rewards, whereas no such magnitude effect has been observed in rats (and pigeons). It remains possible that rats' discounting is sensitive to differences in the quality of the delayed reinforcer even though it is not sensitive to amount. To evaluate this possibility, Experiment 1…

  10. Induction of mammary gland tumor in female Sprague- Dawley rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Evaluation of blood enzymes showed significantly higher (P < 0.005) serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in tumor-bearing than in normal rats. This LA7 cell-induced rat mammary gland tumor model may be useful for studies in breast cancer drug or nutraceutical research.

  11. Ceftriaxone attenuates hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal brain injury is the leading cause of subsequent neurological disability in both term and preterm baby. Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major factors involved in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Glutamate transporter GLT1, expressed mainly in mature astrocytes, is the major glutamate transporter in the brain. HIE induced excessive glutamate release which is not reuptaked by immature astrocytes may induce neuronal damage. Compounds, such as ceftriaxone, that enhance the expression of GLT1 may exert neuroprotective effect in HIE. Methods We used a neonatal rat model of HIE by unilateral ligation of carotid artery and subsequent exposure to 8% oxygen for 2 hrs on postnatal day 7 (P7 rats. Neonatal rats were administered three dosages of an antibiotic, ceftriaxone, 48 hrs prior to experimental HIE. Neurobehavioral tests of treated rats were assessed. Brain sections from P14 rats were examined with Nissl and immunohistochemical stain, and TUNEL assay. GLT1 protein expression was evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results Pre-treatment with 200 mg/kg ceftriaxone significantly reduced the brain injury scores and apoptotic cells in the hippocampus, restored myelination in the external capsule of P14 rats, and improved the hypoxia-ischemia induced learning and memory deficit of P23-24 rats. GLT1 expression was observed in the cortical neurons of ceftriaxone treated rats. Conclusion These results suggest that pre-treatment of infants at risk for HIE with ceftriaxone may reduce subsequent brain injury.

  12. histological alterations of the pancreas of wistar rats following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bmjwa

    This study was to find the probable effect of Nicotiana tabacum (snuff) on the histological features of the pancreas of adult wistar rats. Nicotiana tabacum is a product of smokeless tobacco which contains many toxins and high levels of nicotine. Twenty male wistar rats weighing 200-210g were used for this study. The control ...

  13. Histological Studies Of The Pancreas Of Wistar Rats Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to find the probable effect of Nicotiana tabacum (snuff) on the histological features of the pancreas of adult wistar rats. Nicotiana tabacum is a product of smokeless tobacco which contains many toxins and high levels of nicotine. Twenty male wistar rats weighing 200-210g were used for this study. The control ...

  14. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partially purified amylase was extracted from the culture medium of Rhizopus sp. grown in potato dextrose broth for 48 h at room temperature by precipitation with 96.9% ethanol. The enzyme was used to hydrolyze sorghum starch. The hydrolyzed product was afterwards formulated into rat feed, which was fed to albino rats ...

  15. The performance of weaned albino rats (Wister strain) fed Baobab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two diets prepared from A. digitata leaf were fed parallel into albino rats with diets containing roasted full fat soyabean as control. The result reveals that A. digitata leaves can be included in the diet of albino rats at up to 20% level without depression in performance of feed intake, body weight gain and feed to gain ration ...

  16. Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary supplementation with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. ... Furthermore, high dietary supplementation of vitamin E showed no deleterious effects on rats and no pathological changes in the liver, kidney and heart tissues were observed in the ...

  17. Gravimetric and Histologic Changes in Rat Testes Following Oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extremely high dose (g/kg) of Congo red has been reportedly used in assessing the testicular effects of this dye in mice and rats based on prenatal exposure. In our experience, low doses (mg/kg) have produced hepatotoxic effects in chickens and serum enzyme inhibition in rats following oral and intraperitoneal ...

  18. Heterogeneity in arterial remodeling among sublines of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Erik N. T. P.; Groma, Gergely; Spijkers, Léon J. A.; de Vos, Judith; van Weert, Angela; van Veen, Henk; Everts, Vincent; Arribas, Silvia M.; VanBavel, Ed

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have been used frequently as a model for human essential hypertension. However, both the SHR and its normotensive control, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY), consist of genetically different sublines. We tested the hypothesis that the pathophysiology of vascular

  19. Improvement of glucose tolerance in rats fed with diets containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of 5% and 10% dietary incorporation of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) on oral glucose tolerance was studied in normoglycemic male albino rats. The feeding of the vegetable incorporated diets (5% VA and 10%VA) resulted in marked improvement in oral glucose tolerance in rats. After one week of diet ...

  20. Evaluation of selected parameters of rat liver and kidney function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of administration of yohimbine, an aphrodisiac on some functional parameters of rat liver and kidney were investigated. White male albino rats weighing between 200-250g were grouped into two such that one group was orally administered with 14mg/kg body weight on daily basis for 15days while the control ...

  1. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites of domestic rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of domestic rats was conducted to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites in Maiduguri municipal between February and June 2015. Rats were randomly collected from residential sites within Maiduguri metropolis by trapping using mechanical and glue board traps. Trapped ...

  2. Day-to-day reliability of gait characteristics in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter Christian; Nielsen, Louise R; Madsen, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    day-to-day reliability of the gait pattern parameters observed in rats during treadmill walking. The results of the present study may serve as a reference material that can help future intervention studies on rat gait characteristics both with respect to the selection of outcome measures...

  3. Anti-androgenic activity of Xylopic acid in orchidectomerized rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To characterize anti-androgenic properties of xylopic acid (XA) and to elucidate the possible mech-anism of the antifertility activity of XA, XA was administered to orchidectomized rats following the Hershberger assay protocol. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were orchidectomized or sham oper-ated at 42 days of age.

  4. Repeated administration of adenosine increases its cardiovascular effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrio, H; García-Márquez, F; Magos, G A

    1987-01-20

    Hypotensive and negative chronotropic responses to adenosine in anesthetized rats increased after previous administration of the nucleoside. Bradycardia after adenosine in the isolated perfused rat heart was also potentiated after repeated administration at short intervals. This self-potentiation could be due to extracellular accumulation of adenosine and persistent stimulation of receptors caused by saturation or inhibition of cellular uptake of adenosine.

  5. Impact of organic hydroperoxides on rat testicular tissue and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of hydroperoxides on testicular tissue and epididymal sperm were investigated. Male Wistar rats aged 10 - 12 weeks were randomly placed in groups and received standard rat chow and water ad libitum. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with saline (0.5 ml), t-butyl hydroperoxide (5, 10, 20 and 40 ìM; 0.5 ...

  6. Effect of Erythropoietin on Microvascular Anastomosis in Rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the re-endothelialization potential of erythropoietin (EPO) following microvascular anastomosis in rat femoral artery. Methods: Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 300 g and 320 g were allocated randomly into two groups (control and EPO, n = 48). Left femoral artery ...

  7. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the rat nephron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Grann, Birgitte; Kristoffersen, Inger B.

    2014-01-01

    This study gives a three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis of rat nephrons and their connections to collecting ducts. Approximately 4,500 2.5-μm-thick serial sections from the renal surface to the papillary tip were obtained from each of 3 kidneys of Wistar rats. Digital images were recorded...

  8. Long-term organ culture of adult rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamsuddin, A.K.M.; Barrett, L.A.; Autrup, Herman

    1978-01-01

    Colon explants from adult rats were maintained in culture for over 3 months in our laboratories with good epithelial preservation and cellular differentiation. The light and transmission electron microscopic features of rat colon mucosa during the culture period are described. In all the explants...

  9. Preparation of rat serum suitable for mammalian whole embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masanori; Makino, Sayaka; Kikkawa, Takako; Osumi, Noriko

    2014-08-03

    Mammalian whole embryo culture (WEC) is a widely used technique for examining pharmacological toxicity in developing mouse and rat embryos and for investigating the mechanisms of developmental processes. Immediately centrifuged (IC) rat serum is commonly used for WEC and is essential for the growth and development of cultured mouse and rat embryos ex vivo. For the culture of midgestation embryos (i.e., E8.0-12.5 for the mouse, and E10.0-14.5 for the rat), 100% rat serum is the best media for supporting the growth of the embryo ex vivo. To prepare rat serum suitable for WEC, the collected blood should be centrifuged immediately to separate the blood cells from the plasma fraction. After centrifugation, the fibrin clot forms in the upper layer; this clot should be squeezed gently using a pair of sterile forceps and subsequently centrifuged to completely separate the blood cells from the serum. In this video article, we demonstrate our standard protocol for the preparation of optimal IC rat serum, including blood collection from the abdominal aorta of male rats and extraction of the serum by centrifugation.

  10. CARBONYL SULFIDE INHALATION PRODUCES BRAIN LESIONS IN F344 RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an intermediate in the production of pesticides and herbicides, and is a metabolite of the neurotoxicant carbon disulfide. The potential neurotoxicity of inhaled COS was investigated in F344 rats. Male rats were exposed to 0, 75, 150, 300, or 600 ppm COS...

  11. Experimental hypothyroidism increases plasminogen activator inhibitor activity in rat plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padró, T.; Hoogen, C.M. van den; Emeis, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hypothyroidism would affect the components of the rat plasma fibrinolytic system. Hypothyroidism was induced by feeding rats a thiouracil-containing diet for 2 weeks. During this period, half of the animals received subcutaneous injections of

  12. Reproductive effects of Ficus asperifolia (Moraceae) in female rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... immature rats were sensitive to the treatment with Ficus asperifolia than the ovariectomized ones. Our results give added scientific support to the popular use of Ficus asperifolia in the treatment of some cases of women's sterility/infertility related problems. Keywords: Ficus asperifolia , implantation, fertility, uterotrophic, rat

  13. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, R.; Gould, M.; Cuppen, E.; Smits, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach

  14. A Novel Method for Evaluating Postoperative Adhesions in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Geoffrey M; Chapelle, Susan L.; Boyle, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    of postoperative adhesion assessment and report its reliability and measurement error. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A model of cecal abrasion with partial sidewall attachment was performed on female rats. After 1, 2, 4, or 7 days of recovery, the rats were euthanized and their abdominopelvic cavities were systematically...

  15. Biochemical response of normal albino rats to the addition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the biochemical effect of Hibiscus cannabinus and Murraya koenigii extracts on normal albino rats using standard methods. Analyses carried out indicated that the aqueous leaf extract of H. cannabinus and M. koenigii exhibited significant hypolipideamic activity in normal rats.

  16. Healing effect of Shaoshang Yuhe yihao on burns in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    burns model in rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats, weighing 200 - 220 g, were subjected to deep second-degree skin burns ... tissue expressions of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) were determined along with skin histopathology. The burned tissues ... toxicity and are less costly than synthetic drugs. Many plants and ...

  17. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with erythritol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits- Prooije, A.E. van; Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Bär, A.

    1996-01-01

    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of erythritol, a low-calorie polyol sugar substitute, was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI) WU BR rats. Erythritol was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% to groups of 32 female rats from Day 0 to 21 of gestation. The treatment was generally well tolerated

  18. Lactogenic Activity of Rats Stimulated by Gunnera Perpensa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gunnera perpensa L. (Gunneraceae) is a medicinal plant used by Zulu traditional healers to stimulate milk production. The effect of an aqueous extract of the rhizome of the plant on milk production in rats was investigated. Female lactating rats that received oral doses of the extract of G.perpensa significantly (p<0.05) ...

  19. Biochemical effects on the liver and kidney of rats administered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous extract of ximenia Americana stem bark on liver and kidney of albino rats was investigated. Different doses of the crude extract were administered to rats for 30 consecutive days. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of treated animals significantly ...

  20. ( Nigella sativa ) oil on Trypanosoma brucei -infected rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of black seed oil (Nigella sativa oil) on parasitaemia, some serum and liver enzymes as well as some haematological parameters in Trypanosoma brucei-infected rats were investigated. The results show there was low parasitaemia and extension of life span of rats from 12 days of the infected untreated (control) ...

  1. Attenuation of sepsis-induced rat liver injury by epigallocatechin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green tea contains four major polyphenols, of which EGCG is the most active antioxidant component [10]. In the present study, the protective role of EGCG against oxidative stress and liver injury in rats subjected to CLP-induced sepsis was investigated. EXPERIMENTAL. Animals and reagents. Adult male Wistar rats (mean ...

  2. Prevalence of zoonotic helminths in local house rats ( Rattus rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence o zoonoic helminths in house rats (Rattus rattus) constitute serious public healthrisks as these rats commonly cohabit with humans, and are known to be natural reservoirs of somehelminth inections of public health importance. This study surveyed the prevalence of the three major zoonotic helminths ...

  3. Central insulin and macronutrient intake in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavez, M; Riedy, CA; VanDijk, G; Woods, SC; Riedy, Christine A.; Woods, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    When rats are maintained on a standard laboratory diet, the infusion of low doses of insulin into the cerebroventricular system causes a reduction of food intake and body weight. It was recently reported that, if rats are maintained on a high-fat diet (56% calories as fat), they are insensitive to

  4. Taurine as anticataractogenic agent in galactose-feeding rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of taurine on the onset and maturation of galactose induced cataract. Fort y Male Sprague – Dawley rats (21 days old) were divided into 4 groups containing ten rats each. Group 1 received control diet, group 2 received 30% galactose in the diet, group 3 received the ...

  5. Gamma radiation effects in the brain of rats: antioxidant and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiotherapy side effects have been attributed to free radical reactions. This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of V. amygdalina (MEVA) against gamma irradiation-induced oxidative stress in rats' brain. Seventy male rats weighing 130-160 g were randomized into seven groups, with each ...

  6. fetal contamination with cadmilim following chronic exposure of rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnant albino rats (n = 5) were exposed to cadmium in the form of cadmium acetate (0.14 gm/l) in both drinking .... spleen and pancreas following a single oral ... Public Health. Service, US. Department of" Health'and'. Human Services, Atlanta, G.A.. Ahokas, RA, and Dilts, PM (1979) Cadmium uptake by the rat embryo as ...

  7. Amelioration of Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the possible protective role of curcumin and α-tocopherol against cisplatininduced nephrotoxicity in rat. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Groups 1 and 2 were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with normal saline and cisplatin (20 mg/kg), respectively. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were ...

  8. Surgical sterilization of the African giant pouched rats | Werema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to all principles of surgery. This study has demonstrated the three surgical procedures for African Giant pouched rats as being useful to veterinarians in public/private practice and/or in biomedical research facilities. Keywords: Surgical sterilization, ovariectomy, ovariohysterectomy, orchidectomy, African giant pouched rats ...

  9. Piracetam and vinpocetine ameliorate rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitone, Sawsan A.; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M.; Elshazly, Shimaa M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of the nootropic drugs, piracetam (PIR) and vinpocetine (VIN), in rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats. Materials and Methods: Sixty male rats were divided into 6 groups of 10 rats each. The groups were administered vehicle, control (rotenone, 1.5 mg/kg/48 h/6 doses, s.c.), PIR (100 and 200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and VIN (3 and 6 mg/kg/day, p.o.). The motor performance of the rats was evaluated by the open field and pole test. Striatal dopamine level, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assayed. Histopathological study of the substantia nigra was also done. Results: Results showed that rotenone-treated rats exhibited bradykinesia and motor impairment in the open-field test. In addition, GSH level was decreased whereas MDA and TNF-α increased in striata of rotenone-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated rats. Marked degeneration of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) neurons and depletion of striatal dopamine was also observed in the rotenone-treated rats. Treatment with PIR or VIN significantly reversed the locomotor deficits and increased striatal dopamine level. Treatment with VIN significantly (P nootropic agents may be considered as possible candidates in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:23248410

  10. Fractal dimension and neurotoxicity in rats intoxicated by aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Martać Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    We used animal model of neurotoxicity in rats, which provided the possibility of studying biological pathophysiological phenomena in vivo and afterwards in vitro conditions. The analysis of electrocortical brain activity using mathematical methods can describe the changes induced by aluminum intoxication in rat as an animal model. In physiological and pathophysiological conditions, on experimental models, mechanisms related to changes in behavior, plasticit...

  11. Differentiation ability of rat postnatal dental pulp cells in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.W.; Jansen, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current rapid progression in stem cell research has enhanced our knowledge of dental tissue regeneration. In this study, rat dental pulp cells were isolated and their differentiation ability was evaluated. First, dental pulp cells were obtained from maxillary incisors of male Wistar rats.

  12. Management of experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usefulness of diet containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds, in managing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats was studied. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups. BPH was induced by sub-cutaneous injection of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol valerate (ratio, 10:1) every other day for ...

  13. Testosterone supplementation restores vasopressin innervation in the senescent rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, E.; Fliers, E.; Swaab, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    The vasopressin (AVP) innervation in the male rat brain is decreased in senescence. This decrease is particularly pronounced in brain regions where AVP fiber density is dependent on plasma levels of sex steroids. Since plasma testosterone levels decrease progressively with age in the rat, the

  14. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites of domestic rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-02-10

    Feb 10, 2016 ... *Correspondence: Tel.: +2348069594033, E-mail: bpaulgadzama@yahoo.com. Abstract. A survey of domestic rats was conducted to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites in Maiduguri municipal between February and June 2015. Rats were randomly collected.

  15. tration of quinine on the morphology of rat testis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the seminiferous tubules of Sprague-Dawley rats, though ... of QU on the malc reproductive system and the few available ones lack ... 8 rats each. Each experimental animal (Groups 1-7) had intra- muscular QU ( IOmg/kg body weight per day, 5 times a week), with the exception of group 1 animals which had it for only 7.

  16. Liver retinol and carotenoid concentration of rats experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the liver retinol and carotenoid concentration of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei. Results of the liver retinol determination showed that T. brucei infection led to a progressively significant (P < 0.01) depletion of liver retinol concentration (body vitamin A status) of infected rats from ...

  17. monoterpenes reduced adducts formation in rats exosed to aflatoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TonukariJ

    effects against experimentally induced mammary tumors in rat cancer models. Mills et al. (1995) also reported that perillyl alcohol significantly inhibited the growth of diethylnitrosamine-induced liver tumors in rats by increasing the frequency of apoptosis. Although the mechanism of action of the monoterpenes is still not yet.

  18. Attenuation of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats received a single dose injection of 10 mg/kg cisplatin. Other groups of rats received zerumbone (100 and 200 mg/kg), corn oil or the vehicle, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) intraperitoneally for 4 days prior to cisplatin-injections. All animals were decapitated 16 h after cisplatin injection. Trunk blood was collected and ...

  19. Hyperinsulinemic rats are normotensive but sensitized to angiotensin II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Maria E; Andersson, Irene J; Alexanderson, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    rats received insulin (2 IU/day, INS, n=12) or insulin combined with losartan (30 mg/kg/day, INS-LOS, n=10), the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, for six weeks. Losartan-treated (LOS, n=10) and untreated rats served as controls (C, n=11). We used telemetry to measure BP and heart rate (HR...

  20. Sleep restriction acutely impairs glucose tolerance in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jha, Pawan K; Foppen, Ewout; Kalsbeek, A.; Challet, Etienne

    Chronic sleep curtailment in humans has been related to impairment of glucose metabolism. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute sleep deprivation on glucose tolerance in rats. A group of rats was challenged by 4-h

  1. Effect of Erythropoietin on Microvascular Anastomosis in Rat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the re-endothelialization potential of erythropoietin (EPO) following microvascular anastomosis in rat femoral artery. Methods: Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 300 g and 320 g were allocated randomly into two groups (control and EPO, n = 48). Left femoral artery ...

  2. [Effects of atorvastatin calcium on osteopontin in renovascular hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Zhou, Jian-zhong; Chen, Yong-hong

    2010-04-18

    To investigate the effects of atorvastatin calcium on development of vascular remodeling and osteopontin (OPN) in renovascular hypertensive rats. The 2-kidney, 1-clip hypertensive rats were prepared with SD rats. Twenty-one rats were randomly selected seven rats as the control group (n=7), the remaining rats were randomly divided into hypertension group (n=7) and the statins group (n=7) after the establishment of model. Statins group was treated with atorvastatin calcium 30 mg/kg/d four weeks after model construction and then given through lavage for 8 consecutive weeks. All rats were evaluated for caudal systolic blood pressure (SBP) and blood lipid, microscopic changes in vascular structure and ratio of intima media thickness to lumen diameter (MT/LD) of thoracic aorta. Expressions of OPN were assessed with immunohistochemical staining, and expressions of OPN mRNA with fluorescence quantitative PCR. Compared with control group, hypertension group showed significant increase in SBP, MT/LD, and the expression of OPN and OPN mRNA, and significant decrease in HDL level. As compared with hypertension group, MT/LD and the expression of OPN and OPN mRNA of statins group were significantly decreased, while its HDL level significantly increased. Hypertension can lead to high expression of artery OPN, atorvastatin calcium was shown to improve the development of vascular remodeling in rats, possibly associated with decreased expression of OPN.

  3. Heart dysfunction and fibrosis in rat treated with myocardial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because cardiovascular disease remains a serious problem in modern human society, the aim of this study was to establish the rat model animal and to compare the heart dysfunction and fibrosis with SD and LE rats when treated with myocardial ischemia and reperfusion operation. A 20-minute thoracotomy was performed ...

  4. Aqueous Root Extract in Loperamide- Induced Constipated Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of aqueous root extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioidies Planch. (Sapindaceae) against loperamide-induced constipation in Wistar rats. Methods: Constipation was induced by oral administration of loperamide (3 mg/kg body weight). The constipated rats were orally treated daily either with 50 ...

  5. Serum-thyroxine levels in microwave-exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.T.; Lebda, N.; Michaelson, S.M.; Pettit, S.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the response of the thyroid gland in animals exposed to microwave irradiation is controversial. Animal experimentation has contributed to the controversy because both increased and decreased thyroid functions have been reported. The thyroxine concentration in rats as representative of thyroid function in animals exposed to 2.45-GHz, 120-Hz amplitude-modulated microwaves has been studied. These studies covered a long time span; rats from two commercial sources (BS and CR) were used and subjected to different numbers of exposures, and therefore these data were evaluated for their stability. Two factors could influence in the result significantly, i.e., source of animal and number of sham exposures. Rats used in the 2-hr exposures were from two different commercial sources; rats from CR had a higher (but normal) thyroxine concentration than did rats from BS. Therefore the data of these animals were separated by commercial source for reevaluation. Instead of increased thyroxine concentration in rats exposed at 25, 30, and 40 mW/cm 2 , changes were not noted in any microwave-exposed rats. The influence of sham exposure revealed that appropriate concurrent control and specification of animal source are needed in longitudinal studies. Furthermore, statistical procedures used can greatly influence the conclusions. Thus the specificity of changes in thyroxine concentration in rats exposed to microwaves because of its sporadic occurrence and because of inconsistencies among experiments was doubted

  6. Different distribution of adriamycin in normal and leukaemic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    1981-01-01

    Adriamycin (ADR) accumulates in well-perfused organs in the rat. This effect is especially evident for long periods in marrow and spleen of healthy animals. In rats bearing the Brown Norway Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (BNML) the in vitro distribution is significantly different. Maximum ADR levels in

  7. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effect of dental materials on gluconeogenesis in rat kidney tubules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichl, F.X.; Durner, J.; Mückter, H.; Elsenhans, B.; Forth, W.; Kunzelmann, K.H.; Hickel, R.; Spahl, W.; Hume, W.R.; Moes, G.W.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of dental composite components triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) as well as mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) on gluconeogenesis was investigated in isolated rat kidney tubules. From starved rats kidney tubules were

  9. Aversion substance(s) of the rat coagulating glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawienowski, Anthony M.; Berry, Iver J.; Kennelly, James J.

    1982-01-01

    The aversive substance(s) present in adult male urine were not found in castrate rat urine. Removal of the coagulating glands also resulted in a loss of the aversion compounds. The aversion substances were restored to the urine after androgen treatment of the castrate rats.

  10. Antioxidative effect of epichlorohydrin on rat cauda epididymal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of epichlorohydrin (ECH) on the antioxidant system of rat cauda epididymal sperm. Fresh epididymides of adult male rats were obtained from JIPMER, (Pondicherry) were collected by chopping the epididymis in modified Ringer's phosphate solution (RPS medium). After several ...

  11. Anti-osteoporotic effect of Gengnian Jianshen decoction in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    17. Wronski TJ, Dann LM, Scott KS. Endocrine and pharmacological suppressors of bone turnover protect against osteopenia in ovariectomized rats. Endoc 2009;. 125: 810-816. 18. Turner RT, Vandersteenhoven JJ, Bell NH. The effects of ovariectomy and 17 beta-estradiol on cortical bone histomorphometry in growing rats ...

  12. River Rats: A History of the Red River Valley Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    morning golf. There was a business meeting for the Rats and a fashion show and luncheon for the ladies at the Desert Inn Hotel Showroom . As evening...pulled to ring the long silent Freedom Bell. Virtually every Rat in the room was pulling the cord. The bell provided a less than resonant "thunk". For

  13. Performance of rats orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and simultaneously infected with Escherichia coli, while the control was challenged with E. coli alone. The treatment was repeated the second day and post ingestion period of 18 days follow. It was observed that rats ...

  14. New acylated bradykinin analogues: effect on rat blood pressure and rat uterus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dawidowska, O.; Prahl, A.; Wierzba, T.; Nowakowski, L.; Kowalczyk, W.; Slaninová, Jiřina; Lammek, B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2005), s. 436-439 ISSN 1075-2617 Grant - others:SCSR(PL) 0160/T09/2004/26; SCSR(PL) DS8000-5-0023-4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : bradykinin * B2 antagonists * rat blood pressure assay Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.803, year: 2005

  15. Ultrastructural localization of silver in rat testis and organ distribution of radioactive silver in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, E; Rungby, J; Baatrup, E

    1992-01-01

    The deposition of silver after a single intravenous injection (2 micrograms Ag g-1 body weight) was studied in the testes of Wistar rats 24 h and 1 and 2 weeks after dosing with radiolabelled 110AgNo3 (2 micrograms Ag and 1.2 kBq g-1 body weight). Also, the temporal accumulation of silver during...

  16. Impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Al-Naemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulative reports documented that oxidative stress is implicated in many human and animal diseases. However, the reports concerning the effect of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome are limited and scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome and to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on oxidative stress parameters in blood and placental tissue samples in experimental pregnant animals model exposed to oxidative stress. Wister Albino rats were used in this work to investigate the effects of oxidative stress exposure (addition of H2O2 to the drinking water on pregnancy outcome. Rats were divided into 5 groups, as follows: Group I (included 7 normal pregnant rats which served as control group. Group II (exposed to 1 % H2O2 included 7 pregnant rats, the rats were allowed to become pregnant and received (1% H2O2 in drinking water from day 7th till the day 19th of pregnancy. Group III (exposed to 3% H2O2 included 8 pregnant rats. Same as group 2, but the rats were exposed to a higher concentration of H2O2 (3% in drinking water. Group IV (included 8 pregnant rats. Pregnant rats received vitamins C and E without induction of oxidative stress. Group V (included 8 pregnant rats.induction of oxidative stress by 1% H2O2 with vitamins supplementation in the pregnant rats. Serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC, serum and placental tissue oxidative stress biomarker; 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-Isoprostane were measured using specific ELISA kits. Also placental tissues of pregnant rats were isolated and put directly in 10% formalin prepared for histopathological examination. Results revealed a significant decrease in the median values of the body weight and total serum antioxidants capacity (TAC in groups II and III of rats compared with the control group. A significant higher median value of TAC obtained in the groups IV and V when compared with the control group. Significant higher

  17. Spontaneously hypertensive rats have more orexin neurons in their medial hypothalamus than normotensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Liam; Dampney, Bruno W; Carrive, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? Blockade of orexin receptors reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, suggesting that upregulation of orexin signalling underlies the hypertensive phenotype of the SHR. However, it is not known what causes this upregulation. What is the main finding and its importance? Using orexin immunolabelling, we show that SHRs have 20% more orexin neurons than normotensive WKY and Wistar rats in the medial hypothalamus, which is a good match to their blood pressure phenotype. In contrast, there is no such match for the orexin neurons of the lateral hypothalamus. Essential hypertension may be linked to an increase in orexin neurons in the medial hypothalamus. The neuropeptide orexin contributes to the regulation of blood pressure as part of its role in the control of arousal during wakefulness and motivated behaviour (including responses to psychological stress). Recent work shows that pharmacological blockade of orexin receptors reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. It is not clear why orexin signalling is upregulated in the SHR, but one possibility is that these animals have more orexin neurons than their normotensive WKY and Wistar relatives. To test this possibility, SHRs, WKY and Wistar male rats (6-16 weeks old) were killed, perfused and their brains sectioned and immunolabelled for orexin A. Labelled neurons were plotted and counted in the six best labelled hemisections (120 μm apart) of each brain. There were significantly more orexin neurons (+20%) in the medial hypothalamus (medial to fornix) of SHRs compared with WKY and Wistar rats (126 ± 4 versus 106 ± 5 and 104 ± 5 per hemisection, respectively, P hypothalamus did not match the blood pressure phenotypes (69 ± 2 versus 50 ± 3 and 76 ± 4, respectively). The results support the idea that orexin signalling is upregulated

  18. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  19. Ovariectomized rats as a model of postmenopausal osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh-Andersen, Pernille; Tankó, László B; Andersen, Thomas L

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to assess the effect of ovariectomy on cartilage turnover and degradation, to evaluate whether ovariectomized (OVX) rats could form an experimental model of postmenopausal osteoarthritis. The effect of ovariectomy on cartilage was studied using two cohorts of female Sprague-Dawley rats...... for collagen type II degradation products (CTX-II), and bone resorption was quantified in serum using an assay for bone collagen type I fragments (CTX-I). Surface erosion in the cartilage of the knee was more severe in OVX rats than in sham-operated animals, particularly in the 7-month-old cohort (P = 0...... inhibited the ovariectomy-induced acceleration of cartilage and bone turnover and significantly suppressed cartilage degradation and erosion seen in vehicle-treated OVX rats. The study indicates that estrogen deficiency accelerates cartilage turnover and increases cartilage surface erosion. OVX rats provide...

  20. The formation of rats' choroidal neovascularization induced by acrolein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Feng Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the formation of rats' choroidal neovascularization(CNVinduced by acrolein. METHODS:Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Acrolein 200μL(2.5 mg/kg/dwas poured into the rats' stomach for 4wk as acrolein 4wk and for 8wk as acrolein 8wk group. The same volume of fresh water was also done to the rats as the control group. Remove all eye balls and embed into paraffin with HE staining.RESLUTS:The RPE-Bruch membrane was intact with no obvious abnormality in the control group and acrolein 4wk group. Lost in the continuity of RPE and the movement of choroidal neovascularization were found in the acrolein 8wk. CONCLUSION:The long time use of acrolein can induce the formation of choroial neovascularization in rats.

  1. Soybean diet breast tumor incidence in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troll, W.; Wiesner, R.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between feeding a diet rich in protease inhibitors and the reduction of mammary cancer induced by x-irradiation in Sprague-Dawley rats was examined. Of a total of 145 irradiated animals, 44% of the 45 rats fed a raw soybean diet containing a high concentration of protease inhibitor developed mammary tumors as compared to 74% of 50 rats fed a casein diet containing no protease inhibitor. Animals fed Purina rat chow which contained low levels of protease inhibitor exhibited a 70% mammary tumor incidence. No spontaneous neoplasms were found in any of the non-irradiated animals on the raw soybean diet whereas about 10% of the animals on the protease-free diet developed tumors. Thus, soybeans which are rich in protease inhibitors reduced the induction of mammary cancer in x-irradiated rats. This suggested that diets rich in protease inhibitors may contribute to reducing cancer incidence in man. (author)

  2. Bioavailability of lead in rats fed human diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostial, K.; Kello, D.

    1979-01-01

    The bioavailability of lead was studied in rats fed various baby foods (Babymix-turkey, Babymix-vegetables, Frutolino-fruit, Frutamix-bananas, Babyron-S-26, Truefood), cow's milk, bread, liver and standard rat diet. Lead absorption was determined by measuring the whole body retention of 203 Pb 6 days after a single oral application. Highest absorption values ranging from 17 to 20% were obtained in animals fed cow's milk and fruit foods. Rats on other human diets absorbed between 3 and 8% of the radioactive lead dose. Only in animals on rat diet lead absorption was below 1%. It is concluded that rats fed human diets show absorption values similar to those in humans. This might indicate that the bioavailability of lead is primarily dependent on dietary habits. This experimental model, if confirmed by further work, might be useful for obtaining preliminary data on the bioavailability of metals from various foods

  3. Intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhart, J.

    1981-01-01

    Absorption of Ca and Mg was studied in isolated and perfused jejunum segments of rats using radioactive 45 Ca and 28 Mg. At ion concentrations of 1.5 and 10 mmol in the bath solution, the influence of uraemia, 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 and the complementary ion was investigated. Absorption of Ca ++ was found to be slightly reduced by uraemia and renormalized by 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 substitution. Transport of Ca ++ was significantly increased in the presence of Mg ++ , both in healthy rats and in animals with chronic uraemia. Mg ++ absorption, in contrast, was significantly reduced in rats with uraemia, and 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 substitution was found to reduce it even further. In the presence of Ca ++ , transport of Mg ++ was lowered both in healthy rats and in rats with chronic uraemia. (MG) [de

  4. Olive Oil effectively mitigates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Hanan A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis, a reduction in bone mineral density, represents the most common metabolic bone disease. Postmenopausal women are particularly susceptible to osteoporosis when their production of estrogen declines. For these women, fracture is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of olive oil supplementation against osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Methods We studied adult female Wistar rats aged 12-14 months, divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM, ovariectomized (OVX, and ovariectomized rats supplemented with extravirgin olive oil (Olive-OVX orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, malondialdehyde (MDA, and nitrates were assayed. Specimens from both the tibia and the liver were processed for light microscopic examination. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. Results The OVX-rats showed a significant decrease in plasma calcium levels, and a significant increase in plasma ALP, MDA, and nitrates levels. These changes were attenuated by olive oil supplementation in the Olive-OVX rats. Light microscopic examination of the tibia of the OVX rats revealed a significant decrease in the cortical bone thickness (CBT and the trabecular bone thickness (TBT. In addition, there was a significant increase in the osteoclast number denoting bone resorption. In the Olive-OVX rats these parameters were markedly improved as compared to the OVX group. Examination of the liver specimens revealed mononuclear cellular infiltration in the portal areas in the OVX-rats which was not detected in the Olive-OVX rats. Conclusions Olive oil effectively mitigated ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats, and is a promising candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  5. Impaired myogenic tone in mesenteric arteries from overweight rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweazea Karen L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats fed high fat (HFD or high sucrose (HSD diets develop increased adiposity as well as impaired vasodilatory responsiveness stemming from oxidative stress. Moreover, HFD rats become hypertensive compared to either control (Chow or HSD fed rats, suggesting elevated vascular tone. We hypothesized that rats with increased adiposity and oxidative stress demonstrate augmented pressure-induced vasoconstriction (i.e. myogenic tone that could account for the hypertensive state. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Chow, HFD or HSD for 6 weeks. The effects of oxidative stress and endogenous nitric oxide on myogenic responses were examined in small mesenteric arteries by exposing the arteries to incremental intraluminal pressure steps in the presence of antioxidants or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, LNNA (100 μM. Results Contrary to the hypothesis, rats fed either HSD or HFD had significantly impaired myogenic responses despite similar vascular morphology and passive diameter responses to increasing pressures. Vascular smooth muscle (VSM calcium levels were normal in HFD arteries suggesting that diminished calcium sensitivity was responsible for the impaired myogenic response. In contrast, VSM calcium levels were reduced in HSD arteries but were increased with pre-exposure of arteries to the antioxidants tiron (10 mM and catalase (1200 U/mL, also resulting in enhanced myogenic tone. These findings show that oxidative stress impairs myogenic tone in arteries from HSD rats by decreasing VSM calcium. Similarly, VSM calcium responses were increased in arteries from HFD rats following treatment with tiron and catalase, but this did not result in improved myogenic tone. Nitric oxide is involved in the impaired myogenic response in HFD, but not HSD, rats since inhibition with LNNA resulted in maximal myogenic responses at lower intraluminal pressures and VSM calcium levels, further implicating reduced calcium sensitivity in

  6. Locomotor damage in rats after x-irradiation in Utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullenix, P.; Norton, S.; Culver, B.

    1975-01-01

    Alterations in gait were found in rats after whole-body irradiation with 125 R on day 14, 15, and 16 of gestation. No effects on locomotion were detected after irradiation on day 17 with 125 R or after irradiation on day 14 with 50 R. A technique was set up for quantitative evaluation of locomotion based on a modification of other methods. Walking patterns of irradiated rats were recorded, when they were adults, by requiring them to walk up a 10 0 incline through a corridor after their feet had been dipped in ink. Rats irradiated on gestational day 14 had an in-phase, hopping gait with the sine of the angle between the hind feet and the direction of progression over 0.9. Rats irradiated on gestational days 15 and 16 had an alternating, waddling gait with wider stance and broader angle than control rats. Histologic examination of serial sections of the brains of these rats showed that the 14-day rats lacked all telencephalic commissures except for a few fibers which crossed in some rats. There was a progressive improvement in the condition of the anterior and ventral hippocampal commissures up to day 17, but the corpus callosum and doral hippocampal commissure were lacking or markedly reduced in all day 17 rats. No animals showed damage to the mesencephalic posterior commissure. Since rats which used the in-phase mode of locomotion were never observed to use alternating gait, the possible causal relationship of the commissural damage to the altered locomotor patterns was considered. In view of the restricted period of damage found for the anterior and ventral hippocampal commissures and the restriction of altered locomotion to damage in the same period, primary involvement of the corpus callosum and dorsal hippocampal commissure could be excluded, but a possible role for the other telencephalic commissures remained

  7. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  8. A rat model of early stage osteonecrosis induced by glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerachian Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucocorticoid (GC-induced osteonecrosis (ON is an important complication of medical therapy. The exact pathomechanisms of ON has not been clearly elucidated. There is a need for a reproducible animal model that better approximates the clinical scenario. Methods To determine the genetic susceptibility of rats to develop GC-induced femoral head ON, we evaluated 5 different inbred strains of rats (Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat, Wistar Kyoto, Wistar Furth, SASCO Fisher and Lewis. Prednisone pellets (dosage of 1.82-2.56 mg/kg/day were implanted subcutaneously for 90. After 90 days, the femurs were resected and examined histologically and radiographically. Pathological and histological examination was performed. Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E staining was used to delineate the femoral head osteonecrosis lesions as well as abnormalities of articular cartilage and growth plate. Results The greatest differences in H & E staining were seen in the Wistar Kyoto and Wistar Furth groups. In these groups 4 out of 5 and 3 out of 5, respectively, steroid-induced rats revealed growth plate disruption with acellular areas. The TUNEL apoptosis staining assay for apoptosis revealed that 4 out of 5 of Wistar Kyoto rats, 5 out of 5 of Wistar Furth, 2 out of 4 of surviving Lewis and 2 out of 2 of the surviving spontaneous hypertensive rats had apoptotic osteocytes in trabeculae, whereas none of the Fisher rats showed apoptotic osteocytes. Conclusions We postulate that Wistar Kyoto, Wistar Furth and spontaneous hypertensive rats may be strains of rats more susceptible to develop ON of the femoral head while Fisher rats were the most resistant.

  9. Rats and mice immunised with chimeric human/mouse proteinase 3 produce autoantibodies to mouse Pr3 and rat granulocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geld, Ymke M.; Hellmark, Thomas; Selga, Daina; Heeringa, Peter; Huitema, Minke G.; Limburg, Pieter C.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we employed chimeric human/ mouse Proteinase 3 ( PR3) proteins as tools to induce an autoantibody response to PR3 in rats and mice. Method: Rats and mice were immunised with recombinant human PR3 ( HPR3), recombinant murine PR3 ( mPR3), single chimeric human/ mouse PR3 ( HHm,

  10. TGF-mediated oscillations in the proximal intratubular pressure: differences between spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1986-01-01

    fluid (ATF). When furosemide was added to the ATF in a concentration of 0.1 mM, the oscillations were abolished in both strains of rats. It is concluded that, in both strains of rats the oscillatory phenomena depend upon TGF activity. It is suggested that the irregular pattern of the oscillations...

  11. Rats with Chronic, Stable Pulmonary Hypertension Tolerate Low Dose Sevoflurane Inhalation as Well as Normal Rats Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaoqing; Wang, Lu; Qin, Gang; Luo, Hui; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Fan; Ye, Zhi; Zhang, Junjie; Wang, E

    2016-01-01

    The effects of low concentration of sevoflurane on right ventricular (RV) function and intracellular calcium in the setting of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have not been investigated clearly. We aim to study these effects and associated signaling pathways in rats with PAH. Hemodynamics were assessed with or without sevoflurane inhalation in established PAH rats. We analysis the classic RV function parameters and RV-PA coupling efficiency using steady-state PV loop recordings. The protein levels of SERCA2, PLB and p-PLB expression was analyzed by western blot to assess their relevance in PAH. Rats with PAH presented with RV hypertrophy and increased pulmonary arterial pressure. The values of Ea, R/L ratio, ESP, SW, PRSW, +dP/dtmax and the slope of the dP/dtmax-EDV relationship increased significantly in PAH rats (Ppulmonary blood pressure, HR, RV contractility, and increased the R/L ratio in both groups. Sevoflurane reduced the expression of SERCA2 and increased the expression of PLB in both groups. Interestingly, sevoflurane only reduced the p-PLB/PLB ratio in PAH rats, not in normal rats. Rats with chronic, stable pulmonary hypertension tolerate low concentrations of sevoflurane inhalation as well as normal rats do. It may be related to the modulation of the SERCA2-PLB signaling pathway.

  12. Rats with Chronic, Stable Pulmonary Hypertension Tolerate Low Dose Sevoflurane Inhalation as Well as Normal Rats Do.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Yin

    Full Text Available The effects of low concentration of sevoflurane on right ventricular (RV function and intracellular calcium in the setting of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH have not been investigated clearly. We aim to study these effects and associated signaling pathways in rats with PAH.Hemodynamics were assessed with or without sevoflurane inhalation in established PAH rats. We analysis the classic RV function parameters and RV-PA coupling efficiency using steady-state PV loop recordings. The protein levels of SERCA2, PLB and p-PLB expression was analyzed by western blot to assess their relevance in PAH.Rats with PAH presented with RV hypertrophy and increased pulmonary arterial pressure. The values of Ea, R/L ratio, ESP, SW, PRSW, +dP/dtmax and the slope of the dP/dtmax-EDV relationship increased significantly in PAH rats (P<0.05. Sevoflurane induced a concentration-dependent decrease of systemic and pulmonary blood pressure, HR, RV contractility, and increased the R/L ratio in both groups. Sevoflurane reduced the expression of SERCA2 and increased the expression of PLB in both groups. Interestingly, sevoflurane only reduced the p-PLB/PLB ratio in PAH rats, not in normal rats.Rats with chronic, stable pulmonary hypertension tolerate low concentrations of sevoflurane inhalation as well as normal rats do. It may be related to the modulation of the SERCA2-PLB signaling pathway.

  13. Retroendocytosis of insulin in rat adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, J.R.; Olefsky, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of ligands internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis follow a short circuit pathway that does not lead to degradation but results in rapid exocytosis of intact ligand, a process termed retroendocytosis. We studied the time course of [ 125 I]iodoinsulin processing and retroendocytosis after internalization in isolated rat adipocytes. After steady state binding and internalization, surface receptor-bound insulin was removed by exposing cells to a low pH at low temperatures. The cells containing internalized [ 125 I]iodoinsulin were reincubated in fresh medium; subsequently, the radioactivity remaining within the cells and released into the medium were analyzed at various times by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation, Sephadex G-50 gel filtration, and reverse phase HPLC. Cell-associated radioactivity progressively decreased after reincubation in 37 C buffer, with 50% released in 9 min and 85% by 45 min. In the media, TCA-precipitable material appeared quickly, with a t1/2 of 2 min, and plateaued by 10 min. TCA-soluble material was released continually throughout the 45-min period. The release of both TCA-precipitable and TCA-soluble material was temperature and energy dependent. Sephadex G-50 chromatography demonstrated the loss of insulin from the intracellular pool and its appearance in the medium with a time course similar to that of TCA-precipitable material. Reverse phase HPLC demonstrated that the intracellular and medium radioactivity eluting in peak II (insulin peak) on Sephadex G-50 was composed of both intact insulin and intermediates. After the internalization of insulin, rat adipocytes release not only small mol wt degradation products of insulin, but also insulin intermediates and intact insulin. The rate of retroendocytosis reported here is almost identical to the rate of insulin receptor recycling in rat adipocytes

  14. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrian, Mariano E. [Cinvestav-IPN, Seccion de Toxicologia, Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Manuel [Cinvestav-IPN, Departamento de Biologia Celular (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16{alpha}-OHT but higher 6{beta}-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7{alpha}-OHT and AD but higher 6{beta}-OHT and 6{alpha}-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6{beta}-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6{alpha}-/15{alpha}-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16{alpha}-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats. (orig.)

  15. Fate of inhaled azodicarbonamide in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Ayres, P.H.; Bechtold, W.E.; Dutcher, J.S.; Cheng, Y.S.; Bond, J.A.; Medinsky, M.A.; Henderson, R.F.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    Azodicarbonamide (ADA) is widely used as a blowing agent in the manufacture of expanded foam plastics, as an aging and bleaching agent in flour, and as a bread dough conditioner. Human exposures have been reported during manufacture as well as during use. Groups of male F344/N rats were administered ADA by gavage, by intratracheal instillation, and by inhalation exposure to determine the disposition and modes of excretion of ADA and its metabolites. At 72 hr following gavage, 30% of the administered ADA was absorbed whereas following intratracheal instillation, absorption was 90%. Comparison between groups of rats exposed by inhalation to ADA to achieve body burdens of 24 or 1230 micrograms showed no significant differences in modes or rates of excretion of [ 14 C]ADA equivalents. ADA was readily converted to biurea under physiological conditions and biurea was the only 14 C-labeled compound present in excreta. [ 14 C]ADA equivalents were present in all examined tissues immediately after inhalation exposure, and clearance half-times on the order of 1 day were evident for all tissues investigated. Storage depots for [ 14 C]ADA equivalents were not observed. The rate of buildup of [ 14 C]ADA equivalents in blood was linearly related to the lung content as measured from rats withdrawn at selected times during a 6-hr inhalation exposure at an aerosol concentration of 25 micrograms ADA/liter. In a study extending 102 days after exposure, retention of [ 14 C]ADA equivalents in tissues was described by a two-component negative exponential function. The results from this study indicate that upon inhalation, ADA is rapidly converted to biurea and that biurea is then eliminated rapidly from all tissues with the majority of the elimination via the urine

  16. Disposition of oxymetholone in F344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.M.; Matthews, H.B.

    1991-01-01

    The use of oxymetholone (OXM), a synthetic anabolic steroid structurally related to testosterone, has reportedly resulted in incidences of hepatic toxicity, including tumor formation. In order to characterize further the biological fate of this suspected carcinogen, the present study has investigated the disposition of OXM in F344 rats. Concentrations of OXM-derived radioactivity peaked in blood within 4 hr following oral administration of 5 mg 14 C OXM/kg to male rats, indicating rapid absorption from the GI tract. Liver contained 2-4 times the concentration of OXM-derived radioactivity in blood 4-8 hr after gavage. Within 24 hr, 15 ± 1% of total dose was excreted in urine and 61 ± 6% was excreted in feces. By 72 hr, 17 ± 1% and 80% ± 1% of the total dose had been excreted in urine and feces, respectively. Increasing the dose to 50 mg/kg did not alter the rate or route of 14 C excretion. Fecal elimination of 14 C appeared to be the result of biliary excretion of 14 C appeared to be the result of biliary excretion of OXM-derived radioactivity since approximately 35% of an iv dose of 5 mg/kg was excreted in bile over 7 hr. IV administration resulted in a 6-8 fold increase in blood concentrations of OXM-derived radioactivity 24 hr post-dosing, versus rats gavaged with a similar dose. The major portion of 14 C present in blood appeared to be bound to constituents of plasma. Consecutive daily doses of 50 mg/kg administered by gavage resulted in a 5 fold increase in blood concentrations of OXM equivalents/ml within 7 days, with no increase thereafter. Data developed in this study indicate that upon absorption of OXM from the gut, OXM-derived radioactivity, with an estimated biological half-life of 12-24 hr., sequesters in blood and is eliminated primarily in feces

  17. Regorafenib suppresses sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Masayuki; Hatano, Etsuro; Nakamura, Kojiro; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Kasai, Yosuke; Nishio, Takahiro; Seo, Satoru; Taura, Kojiro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), a form of drug-induced liver injury related to oxaliplatin treatment, is associated with postoperative morbidity after hepatectomy. This study aimed to examine the impact of regorafenib, the first small-molecule kinase inhibitor to show efficacy against metastatic colorectal cancer, on a rat model of SOS. Rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced SOS were divided into two groups according to treatment with either regorafenib (6 mg/kg) or vehicle alone, which were administered at 12 and 36 h, respectively, before MCT administration. Histopathologic examination and serum biochemistry tests were performed 48 h after MCT administration. Sinusoidal endothelial cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. To examine whether regorafenib preserved remnant liver function, a 30% hepatectomy was performed in each group. The rats in the vehicle group displayed typical SOS features, whereas these features were suppressed in the regorafenib group. The total SOS scores were significantly lower in the regorafenib group than in the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy showed that regorafenib had a protective effect on sinusoidal endothelial cells. The postoperative survival rate after 7 d was significantly better in the regorafenib group than that in the vehicle group (26.7% versus 6.7%, P Regorafenib reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, which induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and decreased the activity of MMP-9, one of the crucial mediators of SOS development. Regorafenib suppressed MCT-induced SOS, concomitant with attenuating extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and MMP-9 activation, suggesting that regorafenib may be a favorable agent for use in combination with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Natriuretic effect of rilmenidine in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, R L; van der Mark, J; Cechetto, D F

    1994-12-22

    Rilmenidine binds to alpha 2-adrenoceptors and imidazoline receptors in the central nervous system and the kidney. To test the hypothesis that rilmenidine would increase sodium excretion, renal function was studied in rats with innervated and denervated kidneys to distinguish between indirect (via renal sympathetic nerves) and direct effects of rilmenidine on the kidney. Standard clearance techniques were used in Wistar rats anesthetized with thiobutabarbital to measure renal function during 80 minutes of infusion of 0.9% NaCl or rilmenidine (20 or 50 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 intravenously). Snares on abdominal arteries were used to offset hypotension induced by rilmenidine. Heart rate decreased by 80-120 beats/min with either dose of rilmenidine. At 20 micrograms.kg-1.min-1, rilmenidine increased total and fractional excretion of sodium and clearance of osmoles while decreasing free water clearance from innervated kidneys. There were no changes in these variables in chronically denervated kidneys. Direct recording of renal sympathetic nerve activity showed a progressive, marked decrease in nerve activity during the low-dose infusion of rilmenidine. At 50 micrograms.kg-1.min-1, rilmenidine produced a differential effect on the clearance of osmoles by innervated and denervated kidneys but both kidneys had an increase in free water clearance. The data indicate that rilmenidine increases sodium excretion indirectly in anesthetized rats by decreasing renal sympathetic nerve activity. At doses and infusion periods used in these studies, there was no evidence for a direct effect of rilmenidine on sodium excretion. The increase in free water clearance seen with the high dose of rilmenidine suggests that the inhibitory effect of alpha 2-adrenoceptor activation on vasopressin is involved at this dose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Oral lead exposure induces dysbacteriosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, Rustam; Digel, Ilya; Artmann, Aysegül Temiz; Porst, Dariusz; Linder, Peter; Kayser, Peter; Artmann, Gerhard; Savitskaya, Irina; Zhubanova, Azhar

    2009-01-01

    Lead's (Pb(II)) possible role in intestinal pathologies of microbial etiology remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of lead on the gut microbial community and its interactions with rat intestinal epithelium. The lead-induced changes in different intestinal microbial groups (lactose-positive lac(+) and -negative lac(-) E.coli strains, lactobacilli and yeasts) were followed separately by the colony-forming unit (CFU) method. Samples were taken from outbred white rats subjected to different exposure schedules. Additionally, the impact of different lead doses on microbial adhesion to cultured intestinal cells (IEC-6) was investigated. Finally, the lead accumulation and distribution were measured by means of atomic absorption spectrometry. For the first time it was shown that oral lead exposure causes drastic changes in the gut microbial community. Proportional to the lead dose received, the relative number of lactose-negative E.coli cells increased dramatically (up to 1,000-fold) in comparison to the other microbial groups during 2 wk of exposure. Considering the number of microbes in the intestine, such a shift in intestinal microflora (dysbacteriosis) is very significant. Adhesion studies showed certain stimulating effects of lead on E. coli attachment to rat intestinal epithelium as compared to Lactobacillus attachment. The mechanisms providing the apparent competitive success of the lac(-) group are unclear but could be related to changes in surface interactions between microbial and host cells. This study may provide important clues for understanding the pathological effects of metal dietary toxins in human beings.

  20. Enantioselective disposition of clenbuterol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Iori; Ishikawa, Mai; Ogino, Mio; Ito, Hiroshi; Hirao, Takuya; Yamada, Harumi; Asahi, Mariko; Kotaki, Hajime; Sai, Yoshimichi; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2014-05-01

    Clenbuterol is a long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist and bronchodilator that is used for the treatment of asthma, but the desired activities reside almost exclusively in the (-)-R-enantiomer. This study examined enantioselectivity in the disposition of clenbuterol following administration of clenbuterol racemate to rats. Concentrations of clenbuterol enantiomers in plasma, urine and bile were determined by LC-MS/MS assay with a Chirobiotic T column. This method was confirmed to show high sensitivity, specificity and precision, and clenbuterol enantiomers in 0.1 ml volumes of plasma were precisely quantified at concentrations as low as 0.25 ng/ml. The pharmacokinetic profiles of clenbuterol enantiomers following intravenous and intraduodenal administration of clenbuterol racemate (2 mg/kg) in rats were significantly different. The distribution volume of (-)-R-clenbuterol (9.17 l/kg) was significantly higher than that of (+)-S-clenbuterol (4.14 l/kg). The total body clearance of (-)-R-clenbuterol (13.5 ml/min/kg) was significantly higher than that of the (+)-S-enantiomer (11.5 ml/min/kg). An in situ absorption study in jejunal loops showed no difference in the residual amount between the (-)-R- and (+)-S-enantiomers. Urinary clearance was the same for the two enantiomers, but biliary excretion of (-)-R-clenbuterol was higher than that of the (+)-S-enantiomer. The fractions of free (non-protein-bound) (-)-R- and (+)-S-clenbuterol in rat plasma were 48.8% and 33.1%, respectively. These results indicated that there are differences in the distribution and excretion of the clenbuterol enantiomers, and these may be predominantly due to enantioselective protein binding. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Evelyn; Jeon, Bo Ra; Jeong, Da-Hye; Lee, Kija; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Sung, Chang-Keun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Rhee, Man-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary as "Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung." Ginseng has diverse pharmacologic and therapeutic properties. Black ginseng (BG, Ginseng Radix nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. Studies of BG have shown that prolonged heat treatment enhances the antioxidant activity with increased radical scavenging activity. Several recent studies have showed the effects of BG on increased lipid profiles in mice. In this study report the effects of water and ethanol extracts of BG on hypercholesterolemia in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been reported. Experiments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the water and ethanol extracts of BG (200 mg/kg). Their blood cholesterol levels, serum white blood cell levels, and cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined. Liver and adipose tissues were histologically analyzed. We found that BG extracts efficiently reduced the total serum cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels with increased food efficiency ratio and increased number of neutrophil cells. It also attenuated the key genes responsible for lipogenesis, that is, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) acetyltransferase 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, at the mRNA level inside liver cells. Furthermore, the BG extract also reduced the accumulation of fat in adipose tissues, and inhibited the neutral fat content in liver cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O. Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  2. Blood profile and organ2.O-somatic indices of albino rats exposed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects Used Engine Oil (UEO) otherwise known as mineral-based crankcase oil on blood profile and organo-somatic indices of albino rats were studied. Twenty four male albino rats divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 rats each were used. Rats in three groups (A, B and C) received graded dose levels of UEO ...

  3. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) ...

  4. Disposition of 14C-erythritol in germfree and conventional rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Bie, B. de; Bar, A.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolism and disposition of U-14C-erythritol was examined in four groups of three male and three female, nonfasted rats each. The rats of groups A and D were germfree; the rats of groups B and C were kept under conventional conditions. The rats of group B received an erythritol-supplemented

  5. Effects of zinc on male sex hormones and semen quality in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the effects of zinc on male sex hormones and semen quality in male albino wistar rats. Forty rats weighing between 150- 210g, grouped into 5 of 8 rats each, were used for the research that lasted for six weeks. Group I, the control group, received normal rat chow and water ad libitum. The four test ...

  6. Operative procedures in warm humidified air: Can it reduce adhesion formation? A randomized experimental rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arild de Vries

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Rats in the study group had higher total adhesion, extent, severity and tenacity scores postoperatively compared to rats in the control group. A possible reason could be the observed higher bacterial load amongst the rats of the study group compared to the rats of the control group.

  7. Heart resistance to oxidative stress in rats of different genetic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, L M; Lakomkin, V L; Zhukova, A G; Kirillina, T N; Saltykova, V A; Sazontova, T G; Kapel'ko, V I

    2004-09-01

    In August rats reperfusion after regional myocardial ischemia in situ or intracoronary administration of hydrogen peroxide less significantly suppressed contractile activity of the heart compared to Wistar rats. Activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the myocardium during reperfusion remained unchanged in August rats. In Wistar rats a profound inhibition of cardiac function was accompanied by a decrease in enzyme activity.

  8. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research January 2018; 17 (1): 91-96 .... B. M. D. (g/cm. 2. ) group. **. *. Figure 3: Soy isoflavone supplementation suppresses the reduction of BMD (g/cm2) in OVX rats. 1, intact rats; 2, untreated OVX rats; 3–5, OVX rats treated .... Estrogen deficiency associated bone loss in the maxilla: ...

  9. Conditions and limits of serum LH radioimmunoassay in normal, hypophysectomised or castred rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M.; Boucher, D.; Thieblot, L.

    1976-01-01

    Serum LH was measured by radioimmunoassay (NIAMD Kits) free and linked hormones were separated by double antibodies method. Influence of concentration on antibody-hormone complex is studied. Hypophysectomised rats serum does not modify results. The standard (rat LH-RPl) has the same action as serum LH. Rat serum LH contents are measured in normal or castred rats [fr

  10. Acetaminophen Modulation of Hydrocodone Reward in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarian, Arbi; Are, Deepthi; Tenayuca, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Abuse of prescription opioid analgesics in non-medical context has been on the rise over the past decade. The most commonly abused analgesic in this drug class consists of a combined formulation of hydrocodone and acetaminophen. The present study was aimed to determine the rewarding effects of hydrocodone, acetaminophen, and their combination using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Using a 6-day CPP paradigm, rats were paired with hydrocodone (0.5, 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg) or acetamin...

  11. DNA turnover in rat cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-Capano, C; D'Onofrio, G; Giuditta, A

    1982-01-01

    After the intracranial injection of [methyl-3H]thymidine the specific activity of rat cortical DNA increases rapidly, reaching a maximum at about 5 h. More than half of the radioactive DNA disappears from the tissue in the following few hours. During the same period of time the concentration of radioactive DNA in liver remains essentially constant. Minor variations occur in both organs after 41 h. An apparent rapid turnover of DNA is also present in a fraction of purified neuronal perikarya prepared from the cerebral cortex.

  12. Age dependence of rat liver function measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Poulsen, H E; Hansen, B A

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the galactose elimination capacity, the capacity of urea-N synthesis and antipyrine clearance were studied in male Wistar rats at the age of 8, 20 and 44 weeks. Further, liver tissue concentrations of microsomal cytochrome P-450, microsomal protein and glutathione were measured. All...... liver function measurements increased from the age of 8 to 44 weeks when expressed in absolute values. In relation to body weight, these function measurements were unchanged or reduced from week 8 to week 20. At week 44, galactose elimination capacity and capacity of urea-N synthesis related to body...

  13. Muscle fragments on a scaffold in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Gräs, Søren; Christensen, Lise

    2015-01-01

    labeled with PKH26-fluorescence dye. After 8 weeks labeled cells were identified in tissue samples and histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of connective tissue organization and desmin reactivity of muscle cells were performed. Fresh tissue samples were subjected to uniaxial biomechanical......-PLGA scaffolds seeded with autologous MFF affected some histological and biomechanical properties of native tissue repair in an abdominal wall defect model in rats. The method thus appears to be a simple tissue engineering concept with potential relevance for native tissue repair of POP....

  14. Subacute toxicity assessment of annatto in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Ana Rita Pedreira Lapa; Moreira, E. L. T.; Batista, Márcio Santos; Miranda, M. S.; Gomes, I. C. S.

    2004-01-01

    Texto completo:acesso restrito. p. 625-629 Increased human use of annatto (Bixa orellana L), a red yellow food colorant, demands generation of toxicity data. The toxic effects of annatto powder (bixin 27%) have been assessed following administration of a subacute regimen (4 weeks, 20 doses) in Wistar male and female rats. A full study with three dose levels was considered unnecessary since no sign of toxicity had been noted in a preliminary experiment with 1000 mg/kg body weight/day as ...

  15. Action of ascorbic acid on the healing of malnourished rats'skin wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Nai, Gisele Alborghetti; Manzoli, Louise Maria Freitas; SILVA, Tayane Carvalho Isidoro da; Mamede, Larissa de Queiroz; Disconzi, Mary Ellen de Oliveira Martins; Giuffrida, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the action of ascorbic acid on the healing of malnourished rats' cutaneous wounds compared with normal weight rats. Methods: We used 92 adult, male Wistar rats divided into four groups: 24 normal weight rats given only water and chow; 24 normal weight rats given vitamin C by gavage (340 mg/kg 12/12 hours); 22 malnourished rats given only water and chow; and 22 malnourished rats given vitamin C by gavage (340 mg/kg 12/12 hours). Malnutrition was induced by feeding the...

  16. Impact of streptozotocin on altering normal glucose homeostasis during insulin testing in diabetic rats compared to normoglycemic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinna, Nidal A; Badwan, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is currently the most used diabetogenic agent in testing insulin and new antidiabetic drugs in animals. Due to the toxic and disruptive nature of STZ on organs, apart from pancreas, involved in preserving the body’s normal glucose homeostasis, this study aims to reassess the action of STZ in inducing different glucose response states in diabetic rats while testing insulin. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats induced with STZ were classified according to their initial blood glucose levels into stages. The effect of randomizing rats in such a manner was investigated for the severity of interrupting normal liver, pancreas, and kidney functions. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of subcutaneously injected insulin in diabetic and nondiabetic rats were compared. Interruption of glucose homeostasis by STZ was challenged by single and repeated administrations of injected insulin and oral glucose to diabetic rats. In diabetic rats with high glucose (451–750 mg/dL), noticeable changes were seen in the liver and kidney functions compared to rats with lower basal glucose levels. Increased serum levels of recombinant human insulin were clearly indicated by a significant increase in the calculated maximum serum concentration and area under the concentration–time curve. Reversion of serum glucose levels to normal levels pre- and postinsulin and oral glucose administrations to STZ diabetic rats were found to be variable. In conclusion, diabetic animals were more responsive to insulin than nondiabetic animals. STZ was capable of inducing different levels of normal glucose homeostasis disruption in rats. Both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of insulin were altered when different initial blood glucose levels of STZ diabetic rats were selected for testing. Such findings emphasize the importance of selecting predefined and unified glucose levels when using STZ as a diabetogenic agent in experimental protocols evaluating new antidiabetic agents

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF RATS IN ACCELERATED AGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Maksimova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the analysis of structural changes with age in the hippocampus of senescenceaccelerated OXYS rats when signs of accelerated brain aging are missing (age 14 days, developments (age 5 months, and active progresses (age 15 months. The study was performed on 15 OXYS rats and 15 Wistar rats (as a control. After dislocation, brains were dissected, fixed with 10% formalin, embedded in paraffin, and serially cut in coronal sections (5μm thickness. These sections were stained with Cresyl violet and examined with a photomicroscope (Carl Zeiss Axiostar plus, Germany. The total number of hippocampal pyramidal cells in the CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus regions were estimated in 14-dayold, 5and 15-month-old OXYS and Wistar rats (n = 5 on the 5 slices of each brain sections. The number of neurons with chromatolysis, hyperchromatic with darkly stained cytoplasm and shrunken neurons were calculated as degenerative neurons. The pictures obtained with the program Carl Zeiss Axio Vision 8.0 with increasing 10  100, determined the average area bodies and nuclei of neurons (mkm2. The significant structural changes of neurons in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus in OXYS rats at 5 month of age are revealed by light microscopy. This results indicates the early develop neurodegeneration in OXYS rats. The most pronounced morphological changes occur in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of OXYS rats and irreversible. The degenerative changes of neurons in the hippocampus increases by the age of 15 months. Morphometric analysis of the average area of bodies and the nuclei of hippocampal neurons in CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus regions of OXYS and Wistar rats at 14 days of age showed no significant interline differences. At 5 months of age in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of OXYS rats was determined a significantly lower average body size and nuclei of pyramidal neurons compared with Wistar rats. With age, these

  18. Palaeo-poo: date from rat scats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, S.; Department of Geography.

    1997-01-01

    AMS dating has allowed a detailed study of the stratigraphy of stick-nest rat (Leporillus spp.) middens. The results of multiple dates on apparently the same layers of the middens show that the taphonomy of the midden is complex. Nevertheless, the information recovered from this source is an exciting addition to understanding arid ecosystems. Information about the local and regional vegetation, possible CO 2 -induced changes in stomata, distribution of mammals and their predator-prey relations has been recovered from the middens. Palaeoecological information coming from the arid zone has been limited but this source provides a breakthrough in providing direct and detailed ecological information. This helps contextualise the late Holocene increase in arid zone archaeological site visibility. It emphasises the pattern of arid zone mammal losses. It provides important corroborating evidence to other palaeoecological records. It is emphasised that the deposits containing pollen and macrofossils are datable using radiocarbon but there are some serious problems in providing ecological information from stick-nest rat middens

  19. Dynamic high resolution imaging of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, R.S.; Lewellen, T.K.; Bice, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    A positron emission tomography with the sensitivity and resolution to do dynamic imaging of rats would be an invaluable tool for biological researchers. In this paper, the authors determine the biological criteria for dynamic positron emission imaging of rats. To be useful, 3 mm isotropic resolution and 2-3 second time binning were necessary characteristics for such a dedicated tomograph. A single plane in which two objects of interest could be imaged simultaneously was considered acceptable. Multi-layered detector designs were evaluated as a possible solution to the dynamic imaging and high resolution imaging requirements. The University of Washington photon history generator was used to generate data to investigate a tomograph's sensitivity to true, scattered and random coincidences for varying detector ring diameters. Intrinsic spatial uniformity advantages of multi-layered detector designs over conventional detector designs were investigated using a Monte Carlo program. As a result, a modular three layered detector prototype is being developed. A module will consist of a layer of five 3.5 mm wide crystals and two layers of six 2.5 mm wide crystals. The authors believe adequate sampling can be achieved with a stationary detector system using these modules. Economical crystal decoding strategies have been investigated and simulations have been run to investigate optimum light channeling methods for block decoding strategies. An analog block decoding method has been proposed and will be experimentally evaluated to determine whether it can provide the desired performance

  20. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using 14 C autoradiography to measure the uptake of 14 C 2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 14 C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-μm resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The 14 C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of 14 C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10 9 Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab