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Sample records for stroke risk prior

  1. Association of Osteopontin, Neopterin, and Myeloperoxidase With Stroke Risk in Patients With Prior Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Peter; Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Established risk factors do not fully identify patients at risk for recurrent stroke. The SPARCL trial (Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels) evaluated the effect of atorvastatin on stroke risk in patients with a recent stroke or transient ischemic...

  2. Stroke risk perception among participants of a stroke awareness campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraywinkel, Klaus; Heidrich, Jan; Heuschmann, Peter U; Wagner, Markus; Berger, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Background Subjective risk factor perception is an important component of the motivation to change unhealthy life styles. While prior studies assessed cardiovascular risk factor knowledge, little is known about determinants of the individual perception of stroke risk. Methods Survey by mailed questionnaire among 1483 participants of a prior public stroke campaign in Germany. Participants had been informed about their individual stroke risk based on the Framingham stroke risk score. Stroke risk factor knowledge, perception of lifetime stroke risk and risk factor status were included in the questionnaire, and the determinants of good risk factor knowledge and high stroke risk perception were identified using logistic regression models. Results Overall stroke risk factor knowledge was good with 67–96% of the participants recognizing established risk factors. The two exceptions were diabetes (recognized by 49%) and myocardial infarction (57%). Knowledge of a specific factor was superior among those affected by it. 13% of all participants considered themselves of having a high stroke risk, 55% indicated a moderate risk. All major risk factors contributed significantly to the perception of being at high stroke risk, but the effects of age, sex and education were non-significant. Poor self-rated health was additionally associated with high individual stroke risk perception. Conclusion Stroke risk factor knowledge was high in this study. The self perception of an increased stroke risk was associated with established risk factors as well as low perception of general health. PMID:17371603

  3. Atrial fibrillation and risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christine Benn; Gerds, Thomas A.; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Although the relation between stroke risk factors and stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has been extensively examined, only few studies have explored the association of AF and the risk of ischaemic stroke/systemic thromboembolism/transient ischaemic attack (stroke.......5-10.6), and 15.4% (14.5-16.4), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke/TE/TIA risk was particularly increased when prior stroke/TE/TIA was present. Atrial fibrillation is associated with an increase in risk of stroke/TE/TIA in the absence of other risk factors but only a moderate increase in risk when other risk...

  4. Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevent Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke About 1.5 million heart attacks and ... can’t change some of your risks for heart disease and stroke, but you can manage many of ...

  5. Stroke - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oxygen. Brain cells can die, causing lasting damage. Risk factors are things that increase your chance of ... a disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do ...

  6. Risk Factors and Stroke Characteristic in Patients with Postoperative Strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Cao, Wenjie; Cheng, Xin; Fang, Kun; Zhang, Xiaolong; Gu, Yuxiang; Leng, Bing; Dong, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis and intra-arterial thrombectomy are now the standard therapies for patients with acute ischemic stroke. In-house strokes have often been overlooked even at stroke centers and there is no consensus on how they should be managed. Perioperative stroke happens rather frequently but treatment protocol is lacking, In China, the issue of in-house strokes has not been explored. The aim of this study is to explore the current management of in-house stroke and identify the common risk factors associated with perioperative strokes. Altogether, 51,841 patients were admitted to a tertiary hospital in Shanghai and the records of those who had a neurological consult for stroke were reviewed. Their demographics, clinical characteristics, in-hospital complications and operations, and management plans were prospectively studied. Routine laboratory test results and risk factors of these patients were analyzed by multiple logistic regression model. From January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015, over 1800 patients had neurological consultations. Among these patients, 37 had an in-house stroke and 20 had more severe stroke during the postoperative period. Compared to in-house stroke patients without a procedure or operation, leukocytosis and elevated fasting glucose levels were more common in perioperative strokes. In multiple logistic regression model, perioperative strokes were more likely related to large vessel occlusion. Patients with perioperative strokes had different risk factors and severity from other in-house strokes. For these patients, obtaining a neurological consultation prior to surgery may be appropriate in order to evaluate the risk of perioperative stroke. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... » [ pdf, 433 kb ] Order Materials » Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms Risk Factors for a Stroke Stroke prevention is still ... it. Treatment can delay complications that increase the risk of stroke. Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Seek help. ...

  8. Knowledge of Stroke Risk Factors among Stroke Survivors in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Vincent-Onabajo; Taritei Moses

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of stroke risk factors is expected to reduce the incidence of stroke?whether first-ever or recurrent. This study examined knowledge of stroke risk factors and its determinants among stroke survivors. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of consenting stroke survivors at two physiotherapy facilities in Nigeria was carried out. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained and knowledge of stroke risk factors (defined as the ability to mention at least one correct risk fac...

  9. Problematising risk in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Mary Y; Kessler, Dorothy; Ceci, Christine; Laliberté-Rudman, Debbie; McGrath, Colleen; Sikora, Lindsey; Gardner, Paula

    2016-11-01

    Following stroke, re-engagement in personally valued activities requires some experience of risk. Risk, therefore, must be seen as having positive as well as negative aspects in rehabilitation. Our aim was to identify the dominant understanding of risk in stroke rehabilitation and the assumptions underpinning these understandings, determine how these understandings affect research and practise, and if necessary, propose alternate ways to conceptualise risk in research and practise. Alvesson and Sandberg's method of problematisation was used. We began with a historical overview of stroke rehabilitation, and proceeded through five steps undertaken in an iterative fashion: literature search and selection; data extraction; syntheses across texts; identification of assumptions informing the literature and; generation of alternatives. Discussion of risk in stroke rehabilitation is largely implicit. However, two prominent conceptualisations of risk underpin both knowledge development and clinical practise: the risk to the individual stroke survivor of remaining dependent in activities of daily living and the risk that the health care system will be overwhelmed by the costs of providing stroke rehabilitation. Conceptualisation of risk in stroke rehabilitation, while implicit, drives both research and practise in ways that reinforce a focus on impairment and a generic, decontextualised approach to rehabilitation. Implications for rehabilitation Much of stroke rehabilitation practise and research seems to centre implicitly on two risks: risk to the patient of remaining dependent in ADL and risk to the health care system of bankruptcy due to the provision of stroke rehabilitation. The implicit focus on ADL dependence limits the ability of clinicians and researchers to address other goals supportive of a good life following stroke. The implicit focus on financial risk to the health care system may limit access to rehabilitation for people who have experienced either milder or

  10. Thrombolysis outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients with prior stroke and diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, N K; Ahmed, N; Davalos, A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM) and prior stroke (PS) were excluded from European approval of alteplase in stroke. We examined the influence of DM and PS on the outcomes of patients who received thrombolytic therapy (T; data from Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis......,986), or concomitant DM and PS (OR 1.23 [0.996-1.52], p = 0.05, n = 1,136), all CMH p treatment (tissue...

  11. Thrombolysis in patients with prior stroke within the last 3 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldner, M R; Mattle, H P; Jung, S; Fischer, U; Gralla, J; Zubler, C; El-Koussy, M; Schroth, G; Arnold, M; Mono, M-L

    2014-12-01

    Patients with prior stroke within 3 months have been mostly excluded from randomized thrombolysis trials mainly because of the fear of an increased rate of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). The aim of this study was to compare baseline characteristics and clinical outcome of thrombolyzed patients who had a previous stroke within the last 3 months with those not fulfilling this criterion (comparison group). In all, 1217 patients were included in our analysis (42.2% women, mean age 68.8 ± 14.4 years). Patients with previous stroke within the last 3 months (17/1.4%) had more often a basilar artery occlusion (41.2% vs. 10.8%) and less frequently a modified Rankin scale (mRS) score 0-1 prior to index stroke (88.2% vs. 97.3%) and a higher mean time lapse from symptom onset to thrombolysis (321 min vs. 262 min) than those in the comparison group. Stroke severity was not different between the two groups. Rates of sICH were 11.8% vs. 6%. None of the sICHs and only one asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in the region of the former infarct. At 3 months, favorable outcome (mRS ≤ 2) in patients with previous stroke within 3 months was 29.4% (vs. 48.9%) and mortality 41.2% (vs. 22.7%). In patients with prior stroke within the last 3 months, none of the sICHs and only one asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in the region of the former infarct. The high mortality was influenced by four patients, who died until discharge due to acute major index stroke. It is reasonable to include these patients in randomized clinical trials and registries to assess further their thrombolysis benefit-risk ratio. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  12. Pre-stroke apathy symptoms are associated with an increased risk of delirium in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimiec, Elzbieta; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Pasinska, Paulina; Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Aleksandra; Szyper, Aleksandra; Pera, Joanna; Slowik, Agnieszka; Dziedzic, Tomasz

    2017-08-09

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms can be interrelated to delirium. We aimed to investigate an association between pre-stroke neuropsychiatric symptoms and the risk of delirium in stroke patients. We included 606 patients (median age: 73, 53% female) with stroke or transient ischemic attack admitted within 48 hours from symptoms onset. We assessed delirium on a daily basis during the first 7 days of hospitalization. To make diagnosis of delirium we used DSM-5 criteria. We used Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess neuropsychiatric symptoms occurring within 4 weeks prior to stroke. We diagnosed delirium in 28.2% of patients. On univariate analysis, higher score of pre-stroke depression (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.04-2.40, P = 0.03), apathy (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.44-3.45, P delirium. On multivariate analysis adjusted for age, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, stroke severity, right hemisphere lesion, pre-stroke cognitive decline, pre-stroke disability and infections, higher apathy score (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.17-3.50, P = 0.01), but no other neuropsychiatric symptoms, remained independent predictor of delirium. We conclude that pre-stroke apathy symptoms are associated with increased risk of delirium in stroke patients.

  13. Stroke Risk Perception in Atrial Fibrillation Patients is not Associated with Clinical Stroke Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournaise, Anders; Skov, Jane; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Leppin, Anja

    2015-11-01

    Clinical risk stratification models, such as the CHA2DS2-VASc, are used to assess stroke risk in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. No study has yet investigated whether and to which extent these patients have a realistic perception of their personal stroke risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the association between AF patients' stroke risk perception and clinical stroke risk. In an observational cross-sectional study design, we surveyed 178 AF patients with a mean age of 70.6 years (SD 8.3) in stable anticoagulant treatment (65% treatment duration >12 months). Clinical stroke risk was scored through the CHA2DS2-VASc, and patients rated their perceived personal stroke risk on a 7-point Likert scale. There was no significant association between clinical stroke risk assessment and patients' stroke risk perception (rho = .025; P = .741). Approximately 60% of the high-risk patients had an unrealistic perception of their own stroke risk, and there was no significant increase in risk perception from those with a lower compared with a higher risk factor load (χ(2) = .010; P = .522). Considering possible negative implications in terms of lack of motivation for lifestyle behavior change and adequate adherence to the treatment and monitoring of vitamin K antagonist, the apparent underestimation of risk by large subgroups warrants attention and needs further investigation with regard to possible behavioral consequences. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Job strain and the risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Nyberg, Solja T; Heikkilä, Katriina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Psychosocial stress at work has been proposed to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, its role as a risk factor for stroke is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted an individual-participant-data meta-analysis of 196 380 males and females from 14 European cohort...... studies to investigate the association between job strain, a measure of work-related stress, and incident stroke. RESULTS: In 1.8 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 9.2 years), 2023 first-time stroke events were recorded. The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for job strain relative to no job....... CONCLUSION: Job strain may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, but further research is needed to determine whether interventions targeting job strain would reduce stroke risk beyond existing preventive strategies....

  15. Stroke Risk Factors among Participants of a World Stroke Day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension is the most common stroke risk factor globally as well as in the Nigerian population, however other modifiable risk factors such as obesity are becoming increasingly prevalent due to unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyle. Materials and Methods: We screened 224 volunteers from Ile‑Ife during the 2011 and ...

  16. Prior antiplatelet drug use and short-term mortality in older patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Giovanni; Galvani, Matteo; Bonetti, Francesco; Prandini, Stefano; Magon, Stefania; Gasperini, Beatrice; Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Cherubini, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Some studies suggest that previous treatment with antiplatelet agents (AA) might reduce ischemic stroke severity and improve outcomes in terms of clinical deficits or mortality. We evaluated the effect of the prior chronic use of AA on short-term (30 days) mortality in a sample of consecutive patients with AIS. Four hundred thirty-nine older patients (>65 years) with "major" AIS (modified Rankin scale ≥ 3) consecutively admitted to the University ward of Internal Medicine or Geriatrics were enrolled. Stroke was classified according to Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP). Data recorded included: (1) clinical features; (2) medical history including home therapies, and vascular risk factors; (3) routine clinical chemistry analyzes (verb)/analyses (noun). Short-term (30 days) mortality was 27.6%. One hundred fifteen subjects (26.2%) were taking AA before admission. Compared with subjects not treated, subjects taking AA were characterized by higher prevalence of recurrent stroke (35% vs. 22%). In this group, a trend toward a higher prevalence of congestive heart failure (CHF), smoking, and altered levels of consciousness (ALC) was noted. Stroke type and short-term mortality (33% vs. 26.2%; odds ratio=OR=1.25; 95% confidence interval=CI=0.75-2.10, age and gender adjusted) were not different between the two groups. Adjustment for glucose, CHF, previous stroke, smoking, and ALC did not change mortality risk (OR=0.83; 95%CI=0.40-1.72). We conclude that in older patients hospitalized for "major" AIS, prior use of AA was not associated with any benefit in terms of short-term mortality both in patients with first, as well as in those with recurrent ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stroke risk factors among participants of a world stroke day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-20

    Apr 20, 2015 ... Materials and Methods: We screened 224 volunteers from Ile‑Ife during the ... Blood pressures (BP) were measured and body mass index (BMI) was ... Conclusion: Stroke risk factors such as hypertension and obesity were common among the .... an accoson mercury sphygmomanometer, with the subjects.

  18. Risk of Carotid Stroke after Chiropractic Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, J. David; Boyle, Eleanor; Côté, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Background Chiropractic manipulation is a popular treatment for neck pain and headache, but may increase the risk of cervical artery dissection and stroke. Patients with carotid artery dissection can present with neck pain and/or headache before experiencing a stroke. These are common symptoms seen...... by both chiropractors and primary care physicians (PCPs). We aimed to assess the risk of carotid artery stroke after chiropractic care by comparing association between chiropractic and PCP visits and subsequent stroke. Methods A population-based, case-crossover study was undertaken in Ontario, Canada. All...... incident cases of carotid artery stroke admitted to hospitals over a 9-year period were identified. Cases served as their own controls. Exposures to chiropractic and PCP services were determined from health billing records. Results We compared 15,523 cases to 62,092 control periods using exposure windows...

  19. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Legge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  20. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  1. OSA – a risk factor for stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan CM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clodagh M RyanCentre for Sleep Health and Research, University of Toronto/Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Obstructive sleep apnea is a sleep breathing disorder characterized by recurrent and intermittent hypoxia with continued respiratory effort against a closed glottis. The result of this is a cascade of acute and chronic systemic pathophysiological responses that cause endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and lead to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. This article focuses on the clinical evidence linking obstructive sleep apnea and stroke and on the specific mechanisms perpetuating stroke risk in this population.Keywords: stroke, obstructive sleep apnea, brain injury, atherosclerosis, continuous positive airway pressure, outcomes

  2. Migraine and risk of hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; González-Pérez, Antonio; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    to select 10,000 controls free from hemorrhagic stroke. Using unconditional logistic regression models, we calculated the risk of hemorrhagic stroke associated with migraine, adjusting for age, sex, calendar year, alcohol, body mass index, hypertension, previous cerebrovascular disease, oral contraceptive......BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between hemorrhagic stroke and migraine using data from The Health Improvement Network database. FINDINGS: We ascertained 1,797 incident cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 1,340 of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Density-based sampling was used...

  3. Relations between Recent Past Leisure Activities with Risks of Dementia and Cognitive Functions after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Adrian; Lau, Alexander Y L; Lo, Eugene; Tang, Michael; Wang, Zhaolu; Liu, Wenyan; Tanner, Nicole; Chau, Natalie; Law, Lorraine; Shi, Lin; Chu, Winnie C W; Yang, Jie; Xiong, Yun-Yun; Lam, Bonnie Y K; Au, Lisa; Chan, Anne Y Y; Soo, Yannie; Leung, Thomas W H; Wong, Lawrence K S; Lam, Linda C W; Mok, Vincent C T

    2016-01-01

    Leisure activity participation has been shown to lower risks of cognitive decline in non-stroke populations. However, effects of leisure activities participation upon cognitive functions and risk of dementia after stroke are unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of recent past leisure activities participation upon cognitive functions and risk of incident dementia after stroke. Hospital-based, retrospective cohort study. 88 of 1,013 patients with stroke or TIA having no prestroke dementia were diagnosed to have incident poststroke dementia (PSD) 3-6 months after stroke. Regular participation (≥3 times per week) in intellectual, recreational, social and physical activities over the year before the index stroke was retrospectively recorded at 3-6 months after stroke. Logistic regression analyses showed that regular participation in intellectual (RR 0.36, 95%CI 0.20-0.63) and stretching & toning physical exercise (0.37, 0.21-0.64) was significantly associated with a reduced risk of PSD after controlling for age, education, prestroke cognitive decline, stroke subtype, prior strokes and chronic brain changes including white matter changes, old infarcts and global atrophy. Results were similar in patients with past strokes in unadjusted models. Participation in increased number of activities in general (r = 0.41, pleisure activities was associated with better poststroke cognitive performance. Findings of this retrospective cohort study call for studies of activity intervention for prevention of cognitive decline in individuals at elevated risk of stroke.

  4. Smoking and the risk of a stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, B.A.; Ambrose, J.

    1982-01-01

    A retrospective study has been undertaken of 236 men and women with a stroke investigated by computed tomography and, where indicated, cerebral angiography. An excess of cigarette smokers has been found where the stroke was the result of ischaemia. Results indicate that continued smoking increases the risk of sustaining cerebral infarction by a factor of 1.9 for men and 2.4 for women. Smoking does not appear to be a risk factor in primary intracerebral haemorrhage, unlike subarachnoid haemorrhage where smokers carry a relative risk approaching four times that of non-smokers. (Author)

  5. Risk of Stroke in Migraineurs Using Triptans. Associations with Age, Sex, Stroke Severity and Subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albieri, Vanna; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2016-01-01

    for a first stroke were identified in the Danish Registries. Information on stroke severity/subtype and cardiovascular risk factors was available for stroke patients. FINDINGS: Of the 49,711 patients hospitalized for a first stroke, 1084 were migraineurs using triptans. Adjusting for age, sex, income......, and educational level, risk for stroke was higher among migraineurs in respect to all strokes (RR 1.07; CI 1.01-1.14) and ischemic strokes (RR 1.07; CI 1.00-1.14). Risk for hemorrhagic stroke was increased but only in women (RR 1.41; CI 1.11-1.79). Risk was for mild strokes (RR 1.31; CI 1.16-1.48) while risk...

  6. Self-Reported Stroke Risk Stratification: Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, George; McClure, Leslie A; Moy, Claudia S; Howard, Virginia J; Judd, Suzanne E; Yuan, Ya; Long, D Leann; Muntner, Paul; Safford, Monika M; Kleindorfer, Dawn O

    2017-07-01

    The standard for stroke risk stratification is the Framingham Stroke Risk Function (FSRF), an equation requiring an examination for blood pressure assessment, venipuncture for glucose assessment, and ECG to determine atrial fibrillation and heart disease. We assess a self-reported stroke risk function (SRSRF) to stratify stroke risk in comparison to the FSRF. Participants from the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) were evaluated at baseline and followed for incident stroke. The FSRF was calculated using directly assessed stroke risk factors. The SRSRF was calculated from 13 self-reported questions to exclude those with prevalent stroke and assess stroke risk. Proportional hazards analysis was used to assess incident stroke risk using the FSRF and SRSRF. Over an average 8.2-year follow-up, 939 of 23 983 participants had a stroke. The FSRF and SRSRF produced highly correlated risk scores ( r Spearman =0.852; 95% confidence interval, 0.849-0.856); however, the SRSRF had higher discrimination of stroke risk than the FSRF (c SRSRF =0.7266; 95% confidence interval, 0.7076-0.7457; c FSRF =0.7075; 95% confidence interval, 0.6877-0.7273; P =0.0038). The 10-year stroke risk in the highest decile of predicted risk was 11.1% for the FSRF and 13.4% for the SRSRF. A simple self-reported questionnaire can be used to identify those at high risk for stroke better than the gold standard FSRF. This instrument can be used clinically to easily identify individuals at high risk for stroke and also scientifically to identify a subpopulation enriched for stroke risk. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardsen, Jesper; Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2012-01-01

    To determine if patients with rheumatoid arthritis have increased risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke.......To determine if patients with rheumatoid arthritis have increased risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke....

  8. Polymorphisms in apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2007-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B levels associate with risk of ischemic stroke. APOB polymorphisms may influence levels of apolipoprotein B and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), but whether they associate with risk of ischemic stroke is unknown.......Apolipoprotein B levels associate with risk of ischemic stroke. APOB polymorphisms may influence levels of apolipoprotein B and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), but whether they associate with risk of ischemic stroke is unknown....

  9. Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Strokes Compared Stroke Severity, Mortality, and Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, T. S.; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2009-01-01

    were diabetes, atrial fibrillation, previous myocardial infarction, previous stroke, and intermittent arterial claudication. Smoking and alcohol consumption favored HS, whereas age, sex, and hypertension did not herald stroke type. Compared with ischemic strokes, HS was associated with an overall...... higher mortality risk (HR, 1.564; 95% CI, 1.441-1.696). The increased risk was, however, time-dependent; initially, risk was 4-fold, after 1 week it was 2.5-fold, and after 3 weeks it was 1.5-fold. After 3 months stroke type did not correlate to mortality. Conclusion-Strokes are generally more severe...... based on 25 123 individuals with a complete data set. Results-Of the patients 3993 (10.1%) had HS. Stroke severity was almost linearly related to the probability of having HS (2% in patients with the mildest stroke and 30% in those with the most severe strokes). Factors favoring ischemic strokes vs HS...

  10. Respiratory risk assessment prior to extrathoracic surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... decrease in postoperative pain might be expected to translate into ... Regional nerve block is associated with lower risk ... As an example, an axillary block with ... higher risk, for whom aggressive perioperative management.

  11. Risk factors for falls of hospitalized stroke patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutuarima, J. A.; van der Meulen, J. H.; de Haan, R. J.; van Straten, A.; Limburg, M.

    1997-01-01

    Patients with stroke are at a high risk for falling. We assessed the fall incidence and risk factors for patients hospitalized as the result of an acute stroke. We studied a cohort of 720 stroke patients from 23 hospitals in The Netherlands. The data were abstracted from the medical and nursing

  12. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, AFib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Aug ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  13. Little change of modifiable risk factors 1 year after stroke: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornnes, Nete; Larsen, Klaus; Boysen, Gudrun

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent stroke accounts for about 25% of admissions for acute stroke. For the prevention of recurrent cerebro and cardiovascular disease, stroke patients are advised to change modifiable stroke risk factors before discharge from stroke units.......Recurrent stroke accounts for about 25% of admissions for acute stroke. For the prevention of recurrent cerebro and cardiovascular disease, stroke patients are advised to change modifiable stroke risk factors before discharge from stroke units....

  14. Hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes compared: stroke severity, mortality, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2009-06-01

    Stroke patients with hemorrhagic (HS) and ischemic strokes were compared with regard to stroke severity, mortality, and cardiovascular risk factors. A registry started in 2001, with the aim of registering all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark, now holds information for 39,484 patients. The patients underwent an evaluation including stroke severity (Scandinavian Stroke Scale), CT, and cardiovascular risk factors. They were followed-up from admission until death or censoring in 2007. Independent predictors of death were identified by means of a survival model based on 25,123 individuals with a complete data set. Of the patients 3993 (10.1%) had HS. Stroke severity was almost linearly related to the probability of having HS (2% in patients with the mildest stroke and 30% in those with the most severe strokes). Factors favoring ischemic strokes vs HS were diabetes, atrial fibrillation, previous myocardial infarction, previous stroke, and intermittent arterial claudication. Smoking and alcohol consumption favored HS, whereas age, sex, and hypertension did not herald stroke type. Compared with ischemic strokes, HS was associated with an overall higher mortality risk (HR, 1.564; 95% CI, 1.441-1.696). The increased risk was, however, time-dependent; initially, risk was 4-fold, after 1 week it was 2.5-fold, and after 3 weeks it was 1.5-fold. After 3 months stroke type did not correlate to mortality. Strokes are generally more severe in patients with HS. Within the first 3 months after stroke, HS is associated with a considerable increase of mortality, which is specifically associated with the hemorrhagic nature of the lesion.

  15. The effects of socioeconomic status on stroke risk and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Iain James; Wang, Yanzhong; Crichton, Siobhan Laura; McKevitt, Christopher John; Rudd, Anthony; Wolfe, Charles David Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The latest evidence on socioeconomic status and stroke shows that stroke not only disproportionately affects low-income and middle-income countries, but also socioeconomically deprived populations within high-income countries. These disparities are reflected not only in risk of stroke but also in short-term and long-term outcomes after stroke. Increased average levels of conventional risk factors (eg, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, excessive alcohol intake, smoking, obesity, and sedentary lif...

  16. [Nonfasting triglycerides and risk of ischemic stroke--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, J.J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    The role of triglycerides in the risk of ischemic stroke remains controversial. We tested the hypothesis that increased levels of nonfasting triglycerides are associated with ischemic stroke in the general population. Men with a nonfasting triglyceride level 5 mmol/l had a multivariable, adjusted...... hazard ratio for ischemic stroke of 2.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.3-4.8) compared with men with a nonfasting triglyceride level triglycerides is associated with risk of ischemic stroke Udgivelsesdato...

  17. The Stroke RiskometerTM App: Validation of a data collection tool and stroke risk predictor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Parmar (Priya); R. Krishnamurthi (Rita); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); A. Hofman (Albert); S.S. Mirza (Saira); Y. Varakin (Yury); M. Kravchenko (Michael); M. Piradov (Michael); A.G. Thrift (Amanda G.); B. Norrving (Bo); W. Wang (Wenzhi); D.K. Mandal (Dipes Kumar); S. Barker-Collo (Suzanne); R. Sahathevan (Ramesh); S.M. Davis (Stephen); G. Saposnik (Gustavo); M. Kivipelto (Miia); S. Sindi (Shireen); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); M. Giroud (Maurice); Y. Béjot (Yannick); M. Brainin (Michael); R. Poulton (Richie); K.M.V. Narayan (K. M. Venkat); M. Correia (Manuel); A. Freire (António); Y. Kokubo (Yoshihiro); D. Wiebers (David); F.K.F. Mensah (Fane ); N.F. Bindhim (Nasser); P.A. Barber (P. Alan); N.G. Pandian (Natesa); G.J. Hankey (Graeme); M.M. Mehndiratta (Man Mohan); S. Azhagammal (Shobhana); N.M. Ibrahim (Norlinah Mohd); M. Abbott (Max); E. Rush (Elaine); P. Hume (Patria); T. Hussein (Tasleem); R. Bhattacharjee (Rohit); M. Purohit (Mitali); V.L. Feigin (V.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The greatest potential to reduce the burden of stroke is by primary prevention of first-ever stroke, which constitutes three quarters of all stroke. In addition to population-wide prevention strategies (the 'mass' approach), the 'high risk' approach aims to identify

  18. Patent foramen ovale closure with GORE HELEX or CARDIOFORM Septal Occluder vs. antiplatelet therapy for reduction of recurrent stroke or new brain infarct in patients with prior cryptogenic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasner, Scott E; Thomassen, Lars; Søndergaard, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Rationale The utility of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure for secondary prevention in patients with prior cryptogenic stroke is uncertain despite multiple randomized trials completed to date. Aims The Gore REDUCE Clinical Study (REDUCE) aims to establish superiority of patent foramen ovale...... with truly cryptogenic strokes. Medical therapy is limited to antiplatelet agents in both arms thereby reducing confounding. The trial should determine whether patent foramen ovale closure with the Gore septal occluders is safe and more effective than medical therapy alone for the prevention of recurrent...... closure in conjunction with antiplatelet therapy over antiplatelet therapy alone in reducing the risk of recurrent clinical ischemic stroke or new silent brain infarct in patients who have had a cryptogenic stroke. Methods and design This controlled, open-label trial randomized 664 subjects...

  19. Factor V leiden and ischemic stroke risk: the Genetics of Early Onset Stroke (GEOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedani, Ali G; Cole, John W; Cheng, Yuching; Sparks, Mary J; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Stine, Oscar C; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2013-05-01

    Factor V Leiden (FVL) has been associated with ischemic stroke in children but not in adults. Although the FVL mutation is associated with increased risk for venous thrombosis, its association with ischemic stroke in young adults remains uncertain. Therefore, we examined the association between FVL and ischemic stroke in participants of the Genetics of Early Onset Stroke (GEOS) study. A population-based case control study identified 354 women and 476 men 15 to 49 years of age with first-ever ischemic stroke and 907 controls. Participant-specific data included vascular risk factors, FVL genotype and, for cases, the ischemic stroke subtype by modified Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke criteria. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the entire population and for subgroups stratified by risk factors and ischemic stroke subtype. The frequency of the FVL mutation was similar between ischemic stroke patients (3.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5%-5.1%) and nonstroke controls (3.8%; 95% CI 2.7%-5.2%). This frequency did not change significantly when cases were restricted to patients with stroke of undetermined etiology (4.1%; 95% CI 2.6%-6.4%). Among young adults, we found no evidence for an association between FVL and either all ischemic stroke or the subgroup with stroke of undetermined etiology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Association between atherogenic dyslipidemia and recurrent stroke risk in patients with different subtypes of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Wang, Ruihao; Song, Bo; Tan, Song; Gao, Yuan; Fang, Hui; Lu, Jie; Xu, Yuming

    2015-07-01

    The association between atherogenic dyslipidemia and stroke recurrence remains unclear, and may be influenced by different subtypes of ischemic stroke. We aimed to investigate whether atherogenic dyslipidemia contributed to stroke recurrence in ischemic stroke patients and in those with certain subtypes of ischemic stroke. We conducted a prospective hospital-based study enrolling patients with acute ischemic stroke. Atherogenic dyslipidemia was defined as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol dyslipidemia and stroke recurrence was analyzed by using multivariable Cox regression model. In the 510 ischemic stroke patients, 64 patients (12·5%) had atherogenic dyslipidemia, and 66 patients (12·9%) experienced stroke recurrence events within 24 months. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that stroke recurrence rate was significantly higher in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia than those without in all the stroke patients (20·3% vs. 11·9%; P = 0·048), and more evident in those of large-artery atherosclerosis subtype (31·0% vs. 14·1%; P = 0·014), but not in the other subtypes. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that atherogenic dyslipidemia was associated with higher stroke recurrence risk among stroke patients of large-artery atherosclerosis subtype (hazard ratio, 2·79; 95% confidence interval, 1·24-6·28), but not significant in all the stroke patients (hazard ratio, 1·69; 95% confidence interval, 0·85-3·37). Atherogenic dyslipidemia is associated with higher risk of stroke recurrence in ischemic stroke patients. Such association might be more pronounced in large-artery atherosclerosis subtype and needs further investigation to establish such relationship. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  1. Time Elapsed After Ischemic Stroke and Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events and Mortality Following Elective Noncardiac Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mads E; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2014-01-01

     = 7137) and without (n = 474,046) prior stroke were 54.4 (95% CI, 49.1-59.9) vs 4.1 (95% CI, 3.9-4.2) per 1000 patients. Compared with patients without stroke, ORs for MACE were 14.23 (95% CI, 11.61-17.45) for stroke less than 3 months prior to surgery, 4.85 (95% CI, 3.32-7.08) for stroke 3 to less than...... dependency of risk may warrant attention in future guidelines....

  2. Aspirin and the risk of cardiovascular events in atherosclerosis patients with and without prior ischemic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavry, Anthony A; Elgendy, Islam Y; Elbez, Yedid; Mahmoud, Ahmed N; Sorbets, Emmanuel; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2017-09-01

    The benefit of aspirin among patients with stable atherosclerosis without a prior ischemic event is not well defined. Aspirin would be of benefit in outpatients with atherosclerosis with prior ischemic events, but not in those without ischemic events. Subjects from the Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health registry were divided according to prior ischemic event (n =21 724) vs stable atherosclerosis, but no prior ischemic event (n = 11 872). Analyses were propensity score matched. Aspirin use was updated at each clinic visit and considered as a time-varying covariate. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. In the group with a prior ischemic event, aspirin use was associated with a marginally lower risk of the primary outcome at a median of 41 months (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-1.01, P = 0.06). In the group without a prior ischemic event, aspirin use was not associated with a lower risk of the primary outcome at a median of 36 months (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.73-1.45, P = 0.86). In this observational analysis of outpatients with stable atherosclerosis, aspirin was marginally beneficial among patients with a prior ischemic event; however, there was no apparent benefit among those with no prior ischemic event. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Risk for malnutrition in patients prior to vascular surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Lies Ter; Banning, Louise B D; Visser, Linda; Roodenburg, Jan L N; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Pol, Robert A; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is an important risk factor for adverse post-operative outcomes. The prevalence of risk for malnutrition is unknown in patients prior to vascular surgery. We aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of risk for malnutrition in this patient group. METHODS: Patients

  4. Stroke Risk and Mortality in Patients With Ventricular Assist Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Neal S; Cool, Joséphine; Karas, Maria G; Boehme, Amelia K; Kamel, Hooman

    2016-11-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have advanced the management of end-stage heart failure. However, these devices are associated with hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications, including stroke. We assessed the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke after VAD placement. Using administrative claims data from acute care hospitals in California, Florida, and New York from 2005 to 2013, we identified patients who underwent VAD placement, defined by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 37.66. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes were identified by previously validated coding algorithms. We used survival statistics to determine the incidence rates and Cox proportional hazard analyses to examine the associations. Among 1813 patients, we identified 201 ischemic strokes and 116 hemorrhagic strokes during 3.4 (±2.0) years of follow-up after implantation of a VAD. The incidence of stroke was 8.7% per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.7-9.7). The annual incidence of ischemic stroke (5.5%; 95% CI, 4.8-6.4) was nearly double that of hemorrhagic stroke (3.1%; 95% CI, 2.6-3.8). Women faced a higher hazard of stroke than men (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.1), particularly hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.4). Stroke was strongly associated with subsequent in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio, 6.1; 95% CI, 4.6-7.9). The incidence of stroke after VAD implantation was 8.7% per year, and incident stroke was strongly associated with subsequent in-hospital mortality. Notably, ischemic stroke occurred at nearly twice the rate of hemorrhagic stroke. Women seemed to face a higher risk for hemorrhagic stroke than men. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Patient knowledge on stroke risk factors, symptoms and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Kashif Waqar; Sundseth, Antje; Thommessen, Bente; Rønning, Ole Morten

    2018-01-01

    Public campaigns focus primarily on stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge, but patients who correctly recognize stroke symptoms do not necessarily know the reason for urgent hospitalization. The aim of this study was to explore knowledge on stroke risk factors, symptoms and treatment options among acute stroke and transient ischemic attack patients. This prospective study included patients admitted to the stroke unit at the Department of Neurology, Akershus University Hospital, Norway. Patients with previous cerebrovascular disease, patients receiving thrombolytic treatment and patients who were not able to answer the questions in the questionnaire were excluded. Patients were asked two closed-ended questions: "Do you believe that stroke is a serious disorder?" and "Do you believe that time is of importance for stroke treatment?". In addition, patients were asked three open-ended questions where they were asked to list as many stroke risk factors, stroke symptoms and stroke treatment options as they could. A total of 173 patients were included, of whom 158 (91.3%) confirmed that they regarded stroke as a serious disorder and 148 patients (85.5%) considered time being of importance. In all, 102 patients (59.0%) could not name any treatment option. Forty-one patients (23.7%) named one or more adequate treatment options, and they were younger ( p options, which may contribute to reduce prehospital delay and onset-to-treatment-time.

  6. Increased risk of stroke in contact dermatitis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Lun; Hsu, Min-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chan, Po-Chi; Chang, Ko-Shih; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Min-Tein; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dermatologic diseases are not traditional risk factors of stroke, but recent studies show atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and bullous skin disease may increase the risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases. No previous studies have focused on the association between contact dermatitis and stroke. We established a cohort comprised of 48,169 contact dermatitis patients newly diagnosed in 2000–2003 and 96,338 randomly selected subjects without the disorder, frequency matched by sex, age, and diagnosis year, as the comparison cohort. None of them had a history of stroke. Stroke incidence was assessed by the end of 2011 for both cohorts. The incidence stroke was 1.1-fold higher in the contact dermatitis cohort than in the comparison cohort (5.93 vs 5.37 per 1000 person-years, P contact dermatitis cohort increased with age, from 1.14 (95% CI, 1.03–1.27) for 65 to 74 years; to 1.27 (95% CI, 1.15–1.42) for 75 years and older. The aHR of stroke were 1.16 (95% CI, 1.07–1.27) and 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00–1.18) for men and women, respectively. This study suggests that patients with contact dermatitis were at a modestly increased risk of stroke, significant for ischemic stroke but not for hemorrhagic stroke. Comorbidity, particularly hypertension, increased the hazard of stroke further. PMID:28272195

  7. Brain Stroke Detection by Microwaves Using Prior Information from Clinical Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Irishina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave tomographic imaging is an inexpensive, noninvasive modality of media dielectric properties reconstruction which can be utilized as a screening method in clinical applications such as breast cancer and brain stroke detection. For breast cancer detection, the iterative algorithm of structural inversion with level sets provides well-defined boundaries and incorporates an intrinsic regularization, which permits to discover small lesions. However, in case of brain lesion, the inverse problem is much more difficult due to the skull, which causes low microwave penetration and highly noisy data. In addition, cerebral liquid has dielectric properties similar to those of blood, which makes the inversion more complicated. Nevertheless, the contrast in the conductivity and permittivity values in this situation is significant due to blood high dielectric values compared to those of surrounding grey and white matter tissues. We show that using brain MRI images as prior information about brain's configuration, along with known brain dielectric properties, and the intrinsic regularization by structural inversion, allows successful and rapid stroke detection even in difficult cases. The method has been applied to 2D slices created from a database of 3D real MRI phantom images to effectively detect lesions larger than 2.5 × 10−2 m diameter.

  8. Perception of stroke in Croatia--knowledge of stroke signs and risk factors amongst neurological outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, V; Mikula, I; Kesić, M J; Bedeković, M R; Morović, S; Lovrencić-Huzjan, A; Demarin, V

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this hospital-based survey was to determine baseline stroke knowledge in Croatian population attending the outpatient services at the Department of Neurology. A multiple choice questionnaire was designed, divided into three sections: (i) demographic data, (ii) knowledge of stroke risk factors and stroke signs and (iii) actions the patients would undertake if confronted with risk of stroke and information resources regarding health. The analysis included 720 respondents (54.9% women). The respondents most frequently indicated stroke symptoms as following: speech disorder 82%, paresthesiae on one side of the body 71%, weakness of arm or leg 55%, unsteady gait 55%, malaise 53%, monocular loss of vision 44%. The risk factors most frequently identified were hypertension 64%, stress 61%, smoking 59%, elevated lipids 53%, obesity 52%, coagulation disorder 47%, alcoholism 45%, low-physical activity 42%, elderly age 39%, cardiac diseases 38%, weather changes 34%, drugs 33% and diabetes 32%. If confronted with stroke signs 37% of respondents would consult the general practitioner and 31% would call 911 or go to a neurologist. Amongst patients with a risk factor, only diabetics were aware that their risk factor might cause stroke (P risk factors for stroke. The results of our study will help to create and plan programmes for improvement of public health in Croatia.

  9. One-year outcome after first-ever stroke according to stroke subtype, severity, risk factors and pre-stroke treatment. A population-based study from Tartu, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibo, R; Kõrv, J; Roose, M

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the outcome at 1 year following a first-ever stroke based on a population-based registry from 2001 to 2003 in Tartu, Estonia. The outcome of first-ever stroke was assessed in 433 patients by stroke risk factors, demographic data and stroke severity at onset using the Barthel Index (BI) score and the modified Rankin Score (mRS) at seventh day, 6 months and 1 year. Female sex, older age, blood glucose value >10 mmol/l on admission and more severe stroke on admission were the best predictors of dependency 1 year following the first-ever stroke. At 1 year, the percentage of functionally dependent patients was 20% and the survival rate was 56%. The use of antihypertensive/antithrombotic medication prior to stroke did not significantly affect the outcome. The survival rate of stroke patients in Tartu is lower compared with other studied populations. The outcome of stroke was mainly determined by the initial severity of stroke and by elevated blood glucose value on admission. Patients with untreated hypertension had more severe stroke and trend for unfavourable outcome compared with those who were on treatment.

  10. Risk of Stroke with Various Types of Menopausal Hormone Therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen; Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Keiding, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Double-blind randomized studies on the effects of oral postmenopausal hormone therapies were stopped mainly because of increased risk of stroke. We aimed to assess the risk of all strokes and various subtypes associated with hormone therapy and explore the influence of reg...

  11. Patent foramen ovale closure with GORE HELEX or CARDIOFORM Septal Occluder vs. antiplatelet therapy for reduction of recurrent stroke or new brain infarct in patients with prior cryptogenic stroke: Design of the randomized Gore REDUCE Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasner, Scott E; Thomassen, Lars; Søndergaard, Lars; Rhodes, John F; Larsen, Coby C; Jacobson, Joth

    2017-12-01

    Rationale The utility of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure for secondary prevention in patients with prior cryptogenic stroke is uncertain despite multiple randomized trials completed to date. Aims The Gore REDUCE Clinical Study (REDUCE) aims to establish superiority of patent foramen ovale closure in conjunction with antiplatelet therapy over antiplatelet therapy alone in reducing the risk of recurrent clinical ischemic stroke or new silent brain infarct in patients who have had a cryptogenic stroke. Methods and design This controlled, open-label trial randomized 664 subjects with cryptogenic stroke at 63 multinational sites in a 2:1 ratio to either antiplatelet therapy plus patent foramen ovale closure (with GORE® HELEX® Septal Occluder or GORE® CARDIOFORM Septal Occluder) or antiplatelet therapy alone. Subjects will be prospectively followed for up to five years. Neuroimaging is required for all subjects at baseline and at two years or study exit. Study outcomes The two co-primary endpoints for the study are freedom from recurrent clinical ischemic stroke through at least 24 months post-randomization and incidence of new brain infarct (defined as clinical ischemic stroke or silent brain infarct) through 24 months. The primary analyses are an unadjusted log-rank test and a binomial test of subject-based proportions, respectively, both on the intent-to-treat population, with adjustment for testing multiplicity. Discussion The REDUCE trial aims to target a patient population with truly cryptogenic strokes. Medical therapy is limited to antiplatelet agents in both arms thereby reducing confounding. The trial should determine whether patent foramen ovale closure with the Gore septal occluders is safe and more effective than medical therapy alone for the prevention of recurrent clinical ischemic stroke or new silent brain infarct; the neuroimaging data will provide an opportunity to further support the proof of concept. The main results are anticipated in 2017

  12. Ischemic stroke risk, smoking, and the genetics of inflammation in a biracial population: the stroke prevention in young women study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorkin John D

    2008-08-01

    that inflammatory gene SNPs are associated with early-onset ischemic stroke among African-American women (IL6 and that cigarette smoking may modulate stroke risk through a gene-environment interaction (IL6 and CD14. Our finding replicates a prior study showing an interaction with smoking and the C allele of CD14 SNP rs2569190.

  13. Revised Framingham Stroke Risk Profile to Reflect Temporal Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufouil, Carole; Beiser, Alexa; McLure, Leslie A; Wolf, Philip A; Tzourio, Christophe; Howard, Virginia J; Westwood, Andrew J; Himali, Jayandra J; Sullivan, Lisa; Aparicio, Hugo J; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Ritchie, Karen; Kase, Carlos S; Pikula, Aleksandra; Romero, Jose R; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Samieri, Cécilia; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Chêne, Genevieve; Howard, George; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-03-21

    Age-adjusted stroke incidence has decreased over the past 50 years, likely as a result of changes in the prevalence and impact of various stroke risk factors. An updated version of the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) might better predict current risks in the FHS (Framingham Heart Study) and other cohorts. We compared the accuracy of the standard (old) and of a revised (new) version of the FSRP in predicting the risk of all-stroke and ischemic stroke and validated this new FSRP in 2 external cohorts, the 3C (3 Cities) and REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) studies. We computed the old FSRP as originally described and a new model that used the most recent epoch-specific risk factor prevalence and hazard ratios for individuals ≥55 years of age and for the subsample ≥65 years of age (to match the age range in REGARDS and 3C studies, respectively) and compared the efficacy of these models in predicting 5- and 10-year stroke risks. The new FSRP was a better predictor of current stroke risks in all 3 samples than the old FSRP (calibration χ 2 of new/old FSRP: in men: 64.0/12.1, 59.4/30.6, and 20.7/12.5; in women: 42.5/4.1, 115.4/90.3, and 9.8/6.5 in FHS, REGARDS, and 3C, respectively). In the REGARDS, the new FSRP was a better predictor among whites compared with blacks. A more contemporaneous, new FSRP better predicts current risks in 3 large community samples and could serve as the basis for examining geographic and racial differences in stroke risk and the incremental diagnostic utility of novel stroke risk factors. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Stroke survivors' endorsement of a "stress belief model" of stroke prevention predicts control of risk factors for recurrent stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Alison; Tuhrim, Stanley; Kronish, Ian M; Horowitz, Carol R

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions that stress causes and stress-reduction controls hypertension have been associated with poorer blood pressure (BP) control in hypertension populations. The current study investigated these "stress-model perceptions" in stroke survivors regarding prevention of recurrent stroke and the influence of these perceptions on patients' stroke risk factor control. Stroke and transient ischemic attack survivors (N=600) participated in an in-person interview in which they were asked about their beliefs regarding control of future stroke; BP and cholesterol were measured directly after the interview. Counter to expectations, patients who endorsed a "stress-model" but not a "medication-model" of stroke prevention were in better control of their stroke risk factors (BP and cholesterol) than those who endorsed a medication-model but not a stress-model of stroke prevention (OR for poor control=.54, Wald statistic=6.07, p=.01). This result was not explained by between group differences in patients' reported medication adherence. The results have implications for theory and practice, regarding the role of stress belief models and acute cardiac events, compared to chronic hypertension.

  15. Survival after stroke. Risk factors and determinants in the Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2010-01-01

    stroke unit and recruited from a well-defined area in Copenhagen, Denmark. This thesis focuses on the survival after stroke in relation to several baseline clinical characteristics and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The thesis comes in three sections with regard to whether factors or clinical...

  16. Obesity increases risk of ischemic stroke in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew B; Cole, John W; McArdle, Patrick F; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Ryan, Kathleen A; Sparks, Mary J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2015-06-01

    Body mass index has been associated with ischemic stroke in older populations, but its association with stroke in younger populations is not known. In light of the current obesity epidemic in the United States, the potential impact of obesity on stroke risk in young adults deserves attention. A population-based case-control study design with 1201 cases and 1154 controls was used to investigate the relationship of obesity and young onset ischemic stroke. Stroke cases were between the ages of 15 and 49 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between body mass index and ischemic stroke with and without adjustment for comorbid conditions associated with stroke. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)) was associated with an increased stroke risk (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-1.94) although this increased risk was highly attenuated and not statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. These results indicate that obesity is a risk factor for young onset ischemic stroke and suggest that this association may be partially mediated through hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other variables associated with these conditions. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. The Stroke Assessment of Fall Risk (SAFR): predictive validity in inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breisinger, Terry P; Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Niyonkuru, Christian; Terhorst, Lauren; Campbell, Grace B

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate relative accuracy of a newly developed Stroke Assessment of Fall Risk (SAFR) for classifying fallers and non-fallers, compared with a health system fall risk screening tool, the Fall Harm Risk Screen. Prospective quality improvement study conducted at an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit at a large urban university hospital. Patients admitted for inpatient stroke rehabilitation (N = 419) with imaging or clinical evidence of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, between 1 August 2009 and 31 July 2010. Not applicable. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve for Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves of both scales' classifications, based on fall risk score completed upon admission to inpatient stroke rehabilitation. A total of 68 (16%) participants fell at least once. The SAFR was significantly more accurate than the Fall Harm Risk Screen (p Fall Harm Risk Screen, area under the curve was 0.56, positive predictive value was 0.19, and negative predictive value was 0.86. Sensitivity and specificity of the SAFR (0.78 and 0.63, respectively) was higher than the Fall Harm Risk Screen (0.57 and 0.48, respectively). An evidence-derived, population-specific fall risk assessment may more accurately predict fallers than a general fall risk screen for stroke rehabilitation patients. While the SAFR improves upon the accuracy of a general assessment tool, additional refinement may be warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Correlation of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with MRI and MRA in the evaluation of sickle cell disease patients with prior stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogutt, M.S.; Goldwag, S.S.; Gupta, K.L.; Kaneko, K.; Humbert, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated a group of patients with sickle cell disease and a clinical history of prior stroke, comparing transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) to both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to determine its efficacy for the detection of flow abnormalities associated with prior cerebral infarction. Using MRI as the standard examination, there was 94 % sensitivity and 30 % specificity, and using MRA as the standard examination, there was 91 % sensitivity and 22 % specificity. We concur with other reports that the transcranial Doppler examination is a highly sensitive study. In our group of sickle cell disease patients with prior stroke, TCD reliably detected flow abnormalities that correlated to areas of prior cerebral infarction. (orig.)

  19. Bilirubin and Stroke Risk Using a Mendelian Randomization Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Ju; Jee, Yon Ho; Jung, Keum Ji; Hong, Seri; Shin, Eun Soon; Jee, Sun Ha

    2017-05-01

    Circulating bilirubin, a natural antioxidant, is associated with decreased risk of stroke. However, the nature of the relationship between the two remains unknown. We used a Mendelian randomization analysis to assess the causal effect of serum bilirubin on stroke risk in Koreans. The 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (bilirubin level in the KCPS-II (Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II) Biobank subcohort consisting of 4793 healthy Korean and 806 stroke cases. Weighted genetic risk score was calculated using 14 SNPs selected from the top SNPs. Both rs6742078 (F statistics=138) and weighted genetic risk score with 14 SNPs (F statistics=187) were strongly associated with bilirubin levels. Simultaneously, serum bilirubin level was associated with decreased risk of stroke in an ordinary least-squares analysis. However, in 2-stage least-squares Mendelian randomization analysis, no causal relationship between serum bilirubin and stroke risk was found. There is no evidence that bilirubin level is causally associated with risk of stroke in Koreans. Therefore, bilirubin level is not a risk determinant of stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Plasma Magnesium and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarolo-Anthony, Sally N.; Jiménez, Monik C.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Spiegelman, Donna; Willett, Walter C.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Lower plasma magnesium levels may be associated with higher blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction, but sparse prospective data are available for stroke. Methods Among 32,826 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study who provided blood samples in 1989–1990, incident ischemic strokes were identified and confirmed by medical records through 2006. We conducted a nested case-control analysis of 459 cases, matched 1:1 to controls on age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, date of blood draw, fasting status, menopausal status and hormone use. We used conditional logistic regression models to estimate the multivariable adjusted association of plasma magnesium and the risk of ischemic stroke and ischemic stroke subtypes. Results Median magnesium levels did not differ between ischemic stroke cases and controls (median=0.86 mmol/l for both; p-value=0.14). Conditional on matching factors, women in the lowest magnesium quintile had a relative risk (RR) of 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86–2.10, p trend=0.13) for total ischemic stroke, compared to women in the highest quintile. Additional adjustment for risk factors and confounders did not substantially alter the risk estimates for total ischemic stroke. Women with magnesium levels magnesium levels ≥0.82 mmol/l. No significant effect modification was observed by age, body mass index, hypertension or diabetes. Conclusions Lower plasma magnesium levels may contribute to higher risk of ischemic stroke among women. PMID:25116874

  1. Prevalence of risk factors for ischaemic stroke and their treatment among a cohort of stroke patients in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    2000-10-01

    The majority of strokes are due to ischaemia. Risk factors include atrial fibrillation, hypertension and smoking. The incidence can be reduced by addressing these risk factors. This study examines the prevalence of risk factors and their treatment in a cohort of patients with ischaemic stroke registered on a Dublin stroke database.

  2. A Revised Framingham Stroke Risk Profile to Reflect Temporal Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufouil, Carole; Beiser, Alexa; McLure, Leslie A.; Wolf, Philip A.; Tzourio, Christophe; Howard, Virginia J; Westwood, Andrew J.; Himali, Jayandra J.; Sullivan, Lisa; Aparicio, Hugo J.; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Ritchie, Karen; Kase, Carlos S.; Pikula, Aleksandra; Romero, Jose R.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Samieri, Cécilia; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Chêne, Genevieve; Howard, George; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-01-01

    Background Age-adjusted stroke incidence has decreased over the past 50 years, likely due to changes in the prevalence and impact of various stroke risk factors. An updated version of the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) might better predict current risks in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) and other cohorts. We compared the accuracy of the standard (Old), and of a revised (New) version of the FSRP in predicting the risk of all-stroke and ischemic stroke, and validated this new FSRP in two external cohorts, the 3 Cities (3C) and REGARDS studies. Methods We computed the old FSRP as originally described, and a new model that used the most recent epoch-specific risk factors' prevalence and hazard-ratios for persons ≥ 55 years and for the subsample ≥ 65 years (to match the age range in REGARDS and 3C studies respectively), and compared the efficacy of these models in predicting 5- and 10-year stroke risks. Results The new FSRP was a better predictor of current stroke risks in all three samples than the old FSRP (Calibration chi-squares of new/old FSRP: in men 64.0/12.1, 59.4/30.6 and 20.7/12.5; in women 42.5/4.1, 115.4/90.3 and 9.8/6.5 in FHS, REGARDS and 3C, respectively). In the REGARDS, the new FSRP was a better predictor among whites compared to blacks. Conclusions A more contemporaneous, new FSRP better predicts current risks in 3 large community samples and could serve as the basis for examining geographic and racial differences in stroke risk and the incremental diagnostic utility of novel stroke risk factors. PMID:28159800

  3. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Stroke Events and Fatal Stroke : An Individual Participant Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaker, Layal; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P. J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Blum, Manuel R.; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dehghan, Abbas; Drechsler, Christiane; Luben, Robert N.; Hofman, Albert; Portegies, Marileen L. P.; Medici, Marco; Iervasi, Giorgio; Stott, David J.; Ford, Ian; Bremner, Alexandra; Wanner, Christoph; Ferrucci, Luigi; Newman, Anne B.; Dullaart, Robin P.; Sgarbi, Jose A.; Ceresini, Graziano; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Westendorp, Rudi G.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Imaizumi, Misa; Franklyn, Jayne A.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Walsh, John P.; Razvi, Salman; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Cappola, Anne R.; Voelzke, Henry; Franco, Oscar H.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Rodondi, Nicolas; Peeters, Robin P.

    Objective: The objective was to determine the risk of stroke associated with subclinical hypothyroidism. Data Sources and Study Selection: Published prospective cohort studies were identified through a systematic search through November 2013 without restrictions in several databases. Unpublished

  4. Knowledge of stroke risk factors amongst black diabetic, hypertensive and stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bogoshi

    2003-01-01

    knowledge of black patients diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes and stroke about the risk factors for stroke.  Four groups made up of 33 subjects (hypertensive, diabetic, stroke and control group were interviewed using open-ended questions and a structured questionnaire. Qualitative coding, frequencies and proportions were used to determine their knowledge.  Groups were compared with respect to percentage knowledge using the chi-square statistic at a 0.05 level of significance.  Stress was mentioned as the most important risk factor in all groups.  Although identification of stroke risk factors was  inadequate, the diabetic group was found to be significantly better in  identifying some of the risk factors (salt - p =0,05; sugar - p = 0,001; fat - p = 0,004; moderate smoking - p = 0,05; weight - p = 0,002

  5. Effectiveness of a Stroke Risk Self-Management Intervention for Adults with Prehypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Young Song, RN, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Our preliminary results indicate that the stroke risk self-management intervention is feasible and associated with improvement in self-management of stroke risk factors for primary stroke prevention among a prehypertensive population.

  6. Relations between Recent Past Leisure Activities with Risks of Dementia and Cognitive Functions after Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Wong

    Full Text Available Leisure activity participation has been shown to lower risks of cognitive decline in non-stroke populations. However, effects of leisure activities participation upon cognitive functions and risk of dementia after stroke are unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of recent past leisure activities participation upon cognitive functions and risk of incident dementia after stroke.Hospital-based, retrospective cohort study. 88 of 1,013 patients with stroke or TIA having no prestroke dementia were diagnosed to have incident poststroke dementia (PSD 3-6 months after stroke. Regular participation (≥3 times per week in intellectual, recreational, social and physical activities over the year before the index stroke was retrospectively recorded at 3-6 months after stroke.Logistic regression analyses showed that regular participation in intellectual (RR 0.36, 95%CI 0.20-0.63 and stretching & toning physical exercise (0.37, 0.21-0.64 was significantly associated with a reduced risk of PSD after controlling for age, education, prestroke cognitive decline, stroke subtype, prior strokes and chronic brain changes including white matter changes, old infarcts and global atrophy. Results were similar in patients with past strokes in unadjusted models. Participation in increased number of activities in general (r = 0.41, p<0.01 and in intellectual (r = 0.40, p<0.01, recreational (r = 0.24, p<0.01, strenuous aerobic (r = 0.23, p<0.01 and mind-body (r = 0.10, p<0.01 activities was associated with higher poststroke Mini-mental State Examination scores in models adjusted for prestroke cognitive decline.Regular participation in intellectual activities and stretching & toning exercise was associated with a significantly reduced short-term risk of PSD in patients with and without recurrent strokes. Participation in greater number of recent past leisure activities was associated with better poststroke cognitive performance. Findings of this

  7. Risk factors for stress in children after parental stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Meijer, A.M.; Visser-Meily, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess risk factors for stress in children 3 years after parental stroke. Participants: Questionnaires were filled in by 44 children aged 7-18 years, parents who suffered a stroke and healthy spouses from 29 families recruited in 9 participating rehabilitation centers across the

  8. Subjective memory complaints and the risk of stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sajjad (Ayesha); S.S. Mirza (Saira); M.L.P. Portegies (Marileen); M.J. Bos (Michiel); A. Hofman (Albert); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.A. Ikram (Arfan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Purpose-Persons with cognitive impairment, as assessed by cognitive tests, are at a higher risk of stroke. Subjective memory complaints might be an earlier marker for stroke, especially in persons with higher education. Their cognitive reserve might mask their cognitive

  9. Neuroserpin polymorphisms and stroke risk in a biracial population: the stroke prevention in young women study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern Barney J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroserpin, primarily localized to CNS neurons, inhibits the adverse effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA on the neurovascular unit and has neuroprotective effects in animal models of ischemic stroke. We sought to evaluate the association of neuroserpin polymorphisms with risk for ischemic stroke among young women. Methods A population-based case-control study of stroke among women aged 15–49 identified 224 cases of first ischemic stroke (47.3% African-American and 211 age-matched control subjects (43.1% African-American. Neuroserpin single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs chosen through HapMap were genotyped in the study population and assessed for association with stroke. Results Of the five SNPs analyzed, the A allele (frequency; Caucasian = 0.56, African-American = 0.42 of SNP rs6797312 located in intron 1 was associated with stroke in an age-adjusted dominant model (AA and AT vs. TT among Caucasians (OR = 2.05, p = 0.023 but not African-Americans (OR = 0.71, p = 0.387. Models adjusting for other risk factors strengthened the association. Race-specific haplotype analyses, inclusive of SNP rs6797312, again demonstrated significant associations with stroke among Caucasians only. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence that neuroserpin is associated with early-onset ischemic stroke among Caucasian women.

  10. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Stroke Events and Fatal Stroke: An Individual Participant Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaker, Layal; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Ikram, M Arfan; Blum, Manuel R; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Bakker, Stephan J L; Dehghan, Abbas; Drechsler, Christiane; Luben, Robert N; Hofman, Albert; Portegies, Marileen L P; Medici, Marco; Iervasi, Giorgio; Stott, David J; Ford, Ian; Bremner, Alexandra; Wanner, Christoph; Ferrucci, Luigi; Newman, Anne B; Dullaart, Robin P; Sgarbi, José A; Ceresini, Graziano; Maciel, Rui M B; Westendorp, Rudi G; Jukema, J Wouter; Imaizumi, Misa; Franklyn, Jayne A; Bauer, Douglas C; Walsh, John P; Razvi, Salman; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Cappola, Anne R; Völzke, Henry; Franco, Oscar H; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Rodondi, Nicolas; Peeters, Robin P

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to determine the risk of stroke associated with subclinical hypothyroidism. Published prospective cohort studies were identified through a systematic search through November 2013 without restrictions in several databases. Unpublished studies were identified through the Thyroid Studies Collaboration. We collected individual participant data on thyroid function and stroke outcome. Euthyroidism was defined as TSH levels of 0.45-4.49 mIU/L, and subclinical hypothyroidism was defined as TSH levels of 4.5-19.9 mIU/L with normal T4 levels. We collected individual participant data on 47 573 adults (3451 subclinical hypothyroidism) from 17 cohorts and followed up from 1972-2014 (489 192 person-years). Age- and sex-adjusted pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for participants with subclinical hypothyroidism compared to euthyroidism were 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-1.21) for stroke events (combined fatal and nonfatal stroke) and 1.07 (95% CI, 0.80-1.42) for fatal stroke. Stratified by age, the HR for stroke events was 3.32 (95% CI, 1.25-8.80) for individuals aged 18-49 years. There was an increased risk of fatal stroke in the age groups 18-49 and 50-64 years, with a HR of 4.22 (95% CI, 1.08-16.55) and 2.86 (95% CI, 1.31-6.26), respectively (p trend 0.04). We found no increased risk for those 65-79 years old (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.86-1.18) or ≥ 80 years old (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.79-2.18). There was a pattern of increased risk of fatal stroke with higher TSH concentrations. Although no overall effect of subclinical hypothyroidism on stroke could be demonstrated, an increased risk in subjects younger than 65 years and those with higher TSH concentrations was observed.

  11. Five-Year Risk of Stroke after TIA or Minor Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Lavallée, Philippa C; Monteiro Tavares, Linsay; Labreuche, Julien; Albers, Gregory W; Abboud, Halim; Anticoli, Sabrina; Audebert, Heinrich; Bornstein, Natan M; Caplan, Louis R; Correia, Manuel; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Ferro, José M; Gongora-Rivera, Fernando; Heide, Wolfgang; Hennerici, Michael G; Kelly, Peter J; Král, Michal; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Molina, Carlos; Park, Jong Moo; Purroy, Francisco; Rothwell, Peter M; Segura, Tomas; Školoudík, David; Steg, P Gabriel; Touboul, Pierre-Jean; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Vicaut, Éric; Wang, Yongjun; Wong, Lawrence K S

    2018-06-07

    Background After a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke, the long-term risk of stroke and other vascular events is not well known. In this follow-up to a report on 1-year outcomes from a registry of TIA clinics in 21 countries that enrolled 4789 patients with a TIA or minor ischemic stroke from 2009 through 2011, we examined the 5-year risk of stroke and vascular events. Methods We evaluated patients who had had a TIA or minor stroke within 7 days before enrollment in the registry. Among 61 sites that participated in the 1-year outcome study, we selected 42 sites that had follow-up data on more than 50% of their enrolled patients at 5 years. The primary outcome was a composite of stroke, acute coronary syndrome, or death from cardiovascular causes (whichever occurred first), with an emphasis on events that occurred in the second through fifth years. In calculating the cumulative incidence of the primary outcome and secondary outcomes (except death from any cause), we treated death as a competing risk. Results A total of 3847 patients were included in the 5-year follow-up study; the median percentage of patients with 5-year follow-up data per center was 92.3% (interquartile range, 83.4 to 97.8). The composite primary outcome occurred in 469 patients (estimated cumulative rate, 12.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.8 to 14.1), with 235 events (50.1%) occurring in the second through fifth years. At 5 years, strokes had occurred in 345 patients (estimated cumulative rate, 9.5%; 95% CI, 8.5 to 10.5), with 149 of these patients (43.2%) having had a stroke during the second through fifth years. Rates of death from any cause, death from cardiovascular causes, intracranial hemorrhage, and major bleeding were 10.6%, 2.7%, 1.1%, and 1.5%, respectively, at 5 years. In multivariable analyses, ipsilateral large-artery atherosclerosis, cardioembolism, and a baseline ABCD 2 score for the risk of stroke (range, 0 to 7, with higher scores indicating greater risk) of 4

  12. The Stroke Assessment of Fall Risk (SAFR): predictive validity in inpatient stroke rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breisinger, Terry P; Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Niyonkuru, Christian; Terhorst, Lauren; Campbell, Grace B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate relative accuracy of a newly developed Stroke Assessment of Fall Risk (SAFR) for classifying fallers and non-fallers, compared with a health system fall risk screening tool, the Fall Harm Risk Screen. Design and setting Prospective quality improvement study conducted at an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit at a large urban university hospital. Participants Patients admitted for inpatient stroke rehabilitation (N = 419) with imaging or clinical evidence of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, between 1 August 2009 and 31 July 2010. Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measure(s) Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve for Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves of both scales’ classifications, based on fall risk score completed upon admission to inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Results A total of 68 (16%) participants fell at least once. The SAFR was significantly more accurate than the Fall Harm Risk Screen (p stroke rehabilitation patients. While the SAFR improves upon the accuracy of a general assessment tool, additional refinement may be warranted. PMID:24849795

  13. Reexpression of Prior Stroke Symptoms in Adults: When is a Mimic a Mimic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, James E; George, Alexander J; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2017-09-01

    A "stroke mimic" refers to any clinical condition that causes neurological symptoms clinically indistinguishable from a cerebral lesion that affects a vascular distribution, but is not caused by ischemia. One subtype of stroke mimic, termed stroke reexpression, is a form of mimicry in which previously recovered or improved stroke symptoms recur in the setting of a neurological disturbance (seizure, hypoperfusion state) or a systemic disturbance (toxic, metabolic, infectious). Many reports of stroke reexpression exist in the literature and are well known to clinicians, but there has been no consensus regarding terminology that has been published to date. The purpose of this review is to summarize several examples of stroke reexpression and propose simple, useful criteria for this clinical condition.

  14. Is migraine a risk factor for pediatric stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Amy A; Fullerton, Heather J; Jacobson, Alice; Sidney, Stephen; Goadsby, Peter J; Kurth, Tobias; Pressman, Alice

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of risk factors for childhood stroke is incomplete. In adults, migraine with aura is associated with a two-fold increase in ischemic stroke risk. In this cohort study we examine the association between migraine and stroke among children in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Children ages 2-17 years who were members of KPNC for ≥6 months between 1997 and 2007 were included. Migraine cohort members had one or more of: an ICD-9 code for migraine, migraine listed as a significant health problem, or a prescription for a migraine-specific medication. The comparison group was children with no evidence of headache. Main outcome measures included stroke incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IR). Among the 1,566,952 children within KPNC during the study period, 88,164 had migraine, and 1,323,142 had no evidence of headache. Eight migraineurs had a stroke (three (38%) hemorrhagic; five (63%) ischemic). Eighty strokes occurred in children without headache (53 (66%) hemorrhagic; 27 (34%) ischemic). The ischemic stroke incidence rate was 0.9/100,000 person-years in migraineurs vs. 0.4/100,000 person-years in those without headache; IR 2.0 (95% CI 0.8-5.2). A post-hoc analysis of adolescents (12-17 years) showed an increased risk of ischemic stroke among those with migraine; IR 3.4 (95% CI 1.2-9.5). The hemorrhagic stroke incidence rate was 0.5/100,000 person-years in migraineurs and 0.9/100,000 person-years in those without headache; IR 0.6 (95% CI 0.2-2.0). There was no statistically significant increase in hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke risk in pediatric migraineurs in this cohort study. A post-hoc analysis found that ischemic stroke risk was significantly elevated in adolescents with migraine. Future studies should focus on identifying risk factors for ischemic stroke among adolescent migraineurs. Based on adult data, we recommend that migraine aura status should be studied as a possible risk factor for ischemic stroke among adolescent

  15. Stroke and TIA survivors’ cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, L. Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains – specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment – for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors’ adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed...

  16. Early Menarche and Ischemic Stroke Risk Among Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Hsieh

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: Our study provides strong evidence that a significant joint protective effect was observed for patients who undergo early menarche, have longer estrogen exposure and no history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus on the risk of ischemic stroke.

  17. Risk factors for medical complications of acute hemorrhagic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangala Mohan Sidhartha

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: Our study has assessed that hypertension followed by diabetes mellitus are the major risk factors for medical complications of hemorrhagic stroke. Female mortality rate was more when compared to males.

  18. Are we overestimating the stroke risk related to contraceptive pills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompel, Anne; Plu-Bureau, Genevieve

    2014-02-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are used by million of women worldwide. Ischemic stroke is one of the major harmful effects of hormonal contraceptives, but remains a very uncommon disease before menopause. The increased risk of stroke under third and fourth-generation contraceptive pills and nonoral contraceptives has been recently highlighted. Given the benefits associated with combined hormonal contraceptives (COCs), it is important to properly evaluate their risks in order to provide a better benefit/risk balance to young women. Scarce studies addressing the rates of stroke in young women suggest that the fraction attributable to the contraceptive pill remains low. In contrast, there is abundant literature on the relative risks of stroke under COCs. The risk of arterial disease seems to be similar among users of second and third-generation pills, drospirenone-containing pills and nonoral hormonal contraceptives. Progestin-only contraceptives do not appear to be associated with an increased risk of stroke. New formulations of hormonal contraceptives are not safer than second-generation COCs. Even if the absolute numbers of strokes attributable to hormonal contraceptives is very low, stringent selection of patients should help to reduce the events still more, and progestin-only contraceptives/nonhormonal methods should be preferred in cases of associated risk factors.

  19. MEAN PLATELET VOLUME AND RISK OF THROMBOTIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasantha Kumar Thankappan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stroke is a major cause of long term morbidity and mortality. Several factors are known to increase the liability to stroke. Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic complications, contributing to thrombus formation. Platelet size (mean platelet volume, MPV is a marker and possible determinant of platelet function, large platelets being potentially more reactive. Hence an attempt has-been made to study the association if any between mean platelet volume and thrombotic stroke. The aim of this study was to determine whether an association exists between Mean Platelet Volume (MPV and thrombotic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study is a case control study and data was collected at Government Medical College Hospital, Kottayam, Kerala a tertiary care referral centre. The study was carried out among fifty patients diagnosed with thrombotic stroke and presenting to the hospital within forty eight hours of onset of symptoms. Fifty age group and sex matched controls were also recruited. Mean platelet volume was obtained using a SYSMEX automated analyser. RESULTS This study has shown a statistically significant relation between mean platelet volume and risk of thrombotic stroke but no statistically significant correlation between clinical severity of stroke and mean platelet volume. CONCLUSION This study has shown an elevation of MPV in acute phase of thrombotic stroke. Platelet mass was found to be more or less a constant. This study did not find a statistically significant correlation between clinical severity of stroke and mean platelet volume.

  20. Prior storm experience moderates water surge perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D Webster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme water speeds and how does their perception affect perceived risk? Prior research has focused on the characteristics of moving water that can reduce human stability or balance. The current research presents the first experiment on people's perceptions of risk and moving water at different speeds and depths. METHODS: Using a randomized within-person 2 (water depth: 0.45, 0.90 m ×3 (water speed: 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 m/s experiment, we immersed 76 people in moving water and asked them to estimate water speed and the risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people increasingly overestimated water speeds as actual water speeds increased or as water depth increased. Water speed perceptions mediated the direct positive relationship between actual water speeds and perceptions of risk; the faster the moving water, the greater the perceived risk. Participants' prior experience with rip currents and tropical cyclones moderated the strength of the actual-perceived water speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced no rip currents or fewer storms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a clearer understanding of water speed and risk perception, which may help communicate the risks associated with anticipated floods and tropical cyclones.

  1. Comparison of the Risk Factor Profile, Stroke Subtypes, and Outcomes Between Stroke Patients Aged 65 Years or Younger and Elderly Stroke Patients: A Hospital-based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Min Chen

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that, apart from risk factors and stroke subtypes, the functional outcomes observed in the two groups differed. Early identification of these differences with good management may help to improve the clinical outcomes in younger stroke patients.

  2. Increase of Meningitis Risk in Stroke Patients in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie-Hong Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposeThe blood–brain barrier (BBB not only provides a physical obstruction but also recruits and activates neutrophils in cases of infection. Hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke reportedly induces the disruption of the BBB. However, few studies have reported a correlation between the incidence of meningitis in patients with a history of stroke. This study tested the hypothesis that patients with a history of stroke may be more vulnerable to meningitis.MethodsStroke and age-matched comparison (n = 29,436 and 87,951, respectively cohorts were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database (2000–2011. Correlations between the two cohorts were evaluated by Cox proportional hazard regression model, Kaplan–Meier curve, and log-rank tests.ResultsThe incidence of meningitis was higher in the stroke cohort compared to that in the comparison cohort [hazard ratio (HR, 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI, 2.23–3.74, p < 0.001]. After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the estimated HR in the stroke cohort was 2.55-fold higher than that in the comparison cohort (CI, 1.94–3.37; p < 0.001. Notably, patients who had experienced hemorrhagic stroke had a higher incidence rate of meningitis than those with a history of ischemic stroke, except for patients older than 75 years (incidence rates in hemorrhagic/ischemic stroke patients, 3.14/1.48 in patients younger than 45 years, 1.52/0.41 in 45- to 64-year group, 1.15/0.90 in 65- to 74-year group, 0.74/0.93 in patients older than 75 years. Moreover, stroke patients who had undergone head surgery had the highest meningitis risk (adjusted HR, 8.66; 95% CI, 5.55–13.5; p < 0.001 followed by stroke patients who had not undergone head surgery (adjusted HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.57–2.82; p < 0.001.ConclusionOur results indicated that stroke patients have higher risks of meningitis. Compromised BBB integrity in stroke patients may lead to increased

  3. Smoking and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markidan, Janina; Cole, John W; Cronin, Carolyn A; Merino, Jose G; Phipps, Michael S; Wozniak, Marcella A; Kittner, Steven J

    2018-05-01

    There is a strong dose-response relationship between smoking and risk of ischemic stroke in young women, but there are few data examining this association in young men. We examined the dose-response relationship between the quantity of cigarettes smoked and the odds of developing an ischemic stroke in men under age 50 years. The Stroke Prevention in Young Men Study is a population-based case-control study of risk factors for ischemic stroke in men ages 15 to 49 years. The χ 2 test was used to test categorical comparisons. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio for ischemic stroke occurrence comparing current and former smokers to never smokers. In the first model, we adjusted solely for age. In the second model, we adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, race, education, hypertension, myocardial infarction, angina, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index. The study population consisted of 615 cases and 530 controls. The odds ratio for the current smoking group compared with never smokers was 1.88. Furthermore, when the current smoking group was stratified by number of cigarettes smoked, there was a dose-response relationship for the odds ratio, ranging from 1.46 for those smoking strong dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked daily and ischemic stroke among young men. Although complete smoking cessation is the goal, even smoking fewer cigarettes may reduce the risk of ischemic stroke in young men. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Changes in the Employment Status and Risk of Stroke and Stroke Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshak, Ehab S; Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ikeda, Ai; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-05-01

    Because of limited evidence, we investigated a long-term impact of changes in employment status on risk of stroke. This was a prospective study of 21 902 Japanese men and 19 826 women aged 40 to 59 years from 9 public health centers across Japan. Participants were followed up from 1990 to 1993 to the end of 2009 to 2014. Cox proportional hazard ratio of stroke (incidence and mortality) and its types (hemorrhagic and ischemic) was calculated according to changes in the employment status within 5 years interval between 1990 to 1993 and 1995 to 1998 (continuously employed, job loss, reemployed, and continuously unemployed). During the follow-up period, 973 incident cases and 275 deaths from stroke in men and 460 cases and 131 deaths in women were documented. Experiencing 1 spell of unemployment was associated with higher risks of morbidity and mortality from total, hemorrhagic, and ischemic stroke in both men and women, even after propensity score matching. Compared with continuously employed subjects, the multivariable hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for total stroke incidence in job lost men was 1.58 (1.18-2.13) and in job lost women was 1.51 (1.08-2.29), and those for total stroke mortality were 2.22 (1.34-3.68) in men and 2.48 (1.26-4.77) in women. The respective hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) in reemployed men was 2.96 (1.89-4.62) for total stroke incidence and 4.21 (1.97-8.97) for mortality, whereas those in reemployed women were 1.30 (0.98-1.69) for incidence and 1.28 (0.76-2.17) for mortality. Job lost men and women and reemployed men had increased risks for both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke incidence and mortality. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Migraine Headache and Ischemic Stroke Risk: An Updated Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, June T.; Kahn, Susan R.; Jones, Miranda R.; Jayakumar, Monisha; Dalal, Deepan; Nazarian, Saman

    2010-01-01

    Background Observational studies, including recent large cohort studies which were unavailable for prior meta-analysis, have suggested an association between migraine headache and ischemic stroke. We performed an updated meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize the strength of association between migraine and ischemic stroke risk. Methods We systematically searched electronic databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, through February 2009 for studies of human subjects in the English language. Study selection using a priori selection criteria, data extraction, and assessment of study quality were conducted independently by reviewer pairs using standardized forms. Results Twenty-one (60%) of 35 studies met the selection criteria, for a total of 622,381 participants (13 case-control, 8 cohort studies) included in the meta-analysis. The pooled adjusted odds ratio of ischemic stroke comparing migraineurs to non-migraineurs using a random effects model was 2.30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.91-2.76). The pooled adjusted effect estimates for studies that reported relative risks and hazard ratios, respectively, were 2.41 (95% CI, 1.81-3.20) and 1.52 (95% CI, 0.99-2.35). The overall pooled effect estimate was 2.04 (95% CI, 1.72-2.43). Results were robust to sensitivity analyses excluding lower quality studies. Conclusions Migraine is associated with increased ischemic stroke risk. These findings underscore the importance of identifying high-risk migraineurs with other modifiable stroke risk factors. Future studies of the effect of migraine treatment and modifiable risk factor reduction on stroke risk in migraineurs are warranted. PMID:20493462

  6. Social network, social support, and risk of incident stroke: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H; Rose, Kathryn M; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2014-10-01

    Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study measured social network and social support in 13 686 men and women (mean, 57 years; 56% women; 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form. During a median follow-up of 18.6 years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.44 [1.02-2.04]) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables, marital status, behavioral risk factors, and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Stroke and TIA survivors’ cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L. Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains – specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment – for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors’ adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed these domains among stroke/TIA survivors (n = 600), and conducted correlation and regression analyses with concurrent and prospective outcomes to determine the relative importance of each cognitive and affective domain for adherence and stroke risk. As hypothesised, patients’ affective treatment responses explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month adherence reports (8 and 5%, respectively, of the variance in adherence, compared to 1–3% explained by other domains). Counter to hypotheses, patients’ cognitive illness beliefs explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month objective categorised stroke risk (3 and 2%, respectively, compared to 0–1% explained by other domains). Results indicate that domain type (i.e. cognitive and affective) and domain referent (illness and treatment) may be differentially important for providers to assess when treating patients for stroke/TIA. More research is required to further distinguish between these domains and their relative importance for stroke prevention. PMID:25220292

  8. Stroke and TIA survivors' cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains - specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment - for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors' adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed these domains among stroke/TIA survivors (n = 600), and conducted correlation and regression analyses with concurrent and prospective outcomes to determine the relative importance of each cognitive and affective domain for adherence and stroke risk. As hypothesised, patients' affective treatment responses explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month adherence reports (8 and 5%, respectively, of the variance in adherence, compared to 1-3% explained by other domains). Counter to hypotheses, patients' cognitive illness beliefs explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month objective categorised stroke risk (3 and 2%, respectively, compared to 0-1% explained by other domains). Results indicate that domain type (i.e. cognitive and affective) and domain referent (illness and treatment) may be differentially important for providers to assess when treating patients for stroke/TIA. More research is required to further distinguish between these domains and their relative importance for stroke prevention.

  9. Risk factors for swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Flávia Ferraz Barros Baroni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Stroke is a frequent cause of dysphagia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in a tertiary care hospital the prevalence of swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients, to analyze factors associated with the dysfunction and to relate swallowing dysfunction to mortality 3 months after the stroke. METHODS: Clinical evaluation of deglutition was performed in 212 consecutive patients with a medical and radiologic diagnosis of stroke. The occurrence of death was determined 3 months after the stroke. RESULTS: It was observed that 63% of the patients had swallowing dysfunction. The variables gender and specific location of the lesion were not associated with the presence or absence of swallowing dysfunction. The patients with swallowing dysfunction had more frequently a previous stroke, had a stroke in the left hemisphere, motor and/or sensitivity alterations, difficulty in oral comprehension, alteration of oral expression, alteration of the level of consciousness, complications such as fever and pneumonia, high indexes on the Rankin scale, and low indexes on the Barthel scale. These patients had a higher mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Swallowing evaluation should be done in all patients with stroke, since swallowing dysfunction is associated with complications and an increased risk of death.

  10. Ischemic Stroke Profile, Risk Factors, and Outcomes in India: The Indo-US Collaborative Stroke Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylaja, P N; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Kaul, Subhash; Srivastava, M V Padma; Khurana, Dheeraj; Schwamm, Lee H; Kesav, Praveen; Arora, Deepti; Pannu, Aman; Thankachan, Tijy K; Singhal, Aneesh B

    2018-01-01

    The Indo-US Collaborative Stroke Project was designed to characterize ischemic stroke across 5 high-volume academic tertiary hospitals in India. From January 2012 to August 2014, research coordinators and physician coinvestigators prospectively collected data on 2066 patients with ischemic stroke admitted <2 weeks after onset. Investigator training and supervision and data monitoring were conducted by the US site (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston). The mean age was 58.3±14.7 years, 67.2% men. The median admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 10 (interquartile range, 5-15) and 24.5% had National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≥16. Hypertension (60.8%), diabetes mellitus (35.7%), and tobacco use (32.2%, including bidi/smokeless tobacco) were common risk factors. Only 4% had atrial fibrillation. All patients underwent computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging; 81% had cerebrovascular imaging. Stroke etiologic subtypes were large artery (29.9%), cardiac (24.9%), small artery (14.2%), other definite (3.4%), and undetermined (27.6%, including 6.7% with incomplete evaluation). Intravenous or intra-arterial thrombolysis was administered in 13%. In-hospital mortality was 7.9%, and 48% achieved modified Rankin Scale score 0 to 2 at 90 days. On multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus predicted poor 3-month outcome and younger age, lower admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and small-artery etiology predicted excellent 3-month outcome. These comprehensive and novel clinical imaging data will prove useful in refining stroke guidelines and advancing stroke care in India. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Morphological risk factors of stroke during thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelis, Drosos; Bischoff, Moritz S; Jobst, Bertram; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Hinz, Ulf; Geisbüsch, Philipp; Böckler, Dittmar

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to identify independent factors correlating to an increased risk of perioperative stroke during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). A prospective maintained TEVAR database, medical records, and imaging studies of 300 patients (205 men; median age of all, 66 years, range 21-89), who underwent TEVAR between March 1997 and February 2011, were reviewed. Preoperative CT data sets were reviewed by two experienced radiologists with focus on the atheroma burden in the aortic arch (grade I, normal, to grade V, ulcerated or pedunculated atheroma). Aortic arch geometry (arch types I-III) was documented. Further parameters included in the univariate analysis were age, gender, urgency of repair, duration of procedure, adenosine-induced cardiac arrest or rapid pacing, proximal landing zone, left subclavian artery (LSA) coverage, and number of stent grafts. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the independent correlations of potential risk factors. Atherosclerotic aneurysm was the most common pathology (44%). One hundred and fifty-four of our patients (51%) were treated under urgent or emergent conditions. Seventeen percent of all patients had significant arch atheroma (grade IV or V), and 43% had a steep type III aortic arch. The perioperative stroke was 4% (12 patients; median age, 73 years, range 31-78). Two strokes were lethal (0.7%). All strokes were classified as embolic based on imaging characteristics. In eight patients, strokes were located in the left cerebral hemisphere (seven of them in the anterior and one in the posterior circulation). Four stroke patients (one in the left posterior circulation) underwent LSA coverage without revascularization. Three stroke patients had severe arch atheroma grade V. Five patients suffering stroke were recognized to have a type III aortic arch. Strokes were equally distributed between zones 0-2 vs. 3-4 (n = 6 each, 5 vs. 3.3%). The highest incidence was found in zone 1 (11

  12. Remote pre-procedural ischemic stroke as the greatest risk in carotid‑stenting‑associated stroke and death: a single center's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašiová, Mária; Špak, Ľubomír; Farkašová, Ľudmila; Pataky, Štefan; Koščo, Martin; Hudák, Marek; Moščovič, Matej; Leško, Norbert

    2017-08-01

    The goal of carotid artery stenting (CAS) is to decrease the stroke risk in patients with carotid stenosis. This procedure carries an immediate risk of stroke and death and many patients do not benefit from it, especially asymptomatic patients. It is crucial to accurately select the patients who would benefit from carotid procedure, and to rule out those for whom the procedure might be hazardous. Remote ischemic stroke is a known risk factor for stroke recurrence during surgery. The aim of our study was to determine the periprocedural complication risk (within 30 days after CAS) associated with carotid stenting (stroke, death) in patients with and without remote pre-procedural ischemic stroke, to analyze periprocedural risk in other specific patient subgroups treated with CAS, and to determine the impact of observed variables on all-cause mortality during long-term follow-up. We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from all patients treated with protected CAS between June 20, 2008 and December 31, 2015. Patient age, gender, type of carotid stenosis (symptomatic versus asymptomatic), side of stenosis (right or left carotid artery), type of cerebral protection (proximal versus distal), presence of comorbidities (remote ischemic pre-procedural ischemic stroke, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, peripheral artery disease), previous ipsilateral carotid endarterectomy (CEA), contralateral carotid occlusion (CCO) and previous contralateral CAS/CEA were analyzed to identify higher CAS risk and to determine the impact of these variables on all-cause mortality during follow-up. Survival data were obtained from the Health Care Surveillance Authority registry. Mean follow-up was 1054 days (interquartile range 547.3; 1454.8). Remote pre-procedural ischemic stroke was defined as any-territory ischemic stroke >6 months prior to CAS. Primary periprocedural endpoint incidence (stroke/death) in 502 patients was 3.8% (N.=19) of all patients, 5

  13. Smoking and the risk of a stroke. [Computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, B A [Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK). Dept. of Surgical Neurology; Ambrose, J [Atkinson Morley' s Hospital, London (UK). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    1982-01-01

    A retrospective study has been undertaken of 236 men and women with a stroke investigated by computed tomography and, where indicated, cerebral angiography. An excess of cigarette smokers has been found where the stroke was the result of ischaemia. Results indicate that continued smoking increases the risk of sustaining cerebral infarction by a factor of 1.9 for men and 2.4 for women. Smoking does not appear to be a risk factor in primary intracerebral haemorrhage, unlike subarachnoid haemorrhage where smokers carry a relative risk approaching four times that of non-smokers.

  14. Premature menopause or early menopause and risk of ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Walter A.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Miller, Virginia M.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Brown, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The general consensus has been that estrogen is invariably a risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS). We reviewed new observational studies that challenge this simple conclusion. Methods This was a review of observational studies of the association of premature or early menopause with stroke or IS published in English from 2006 through 2010. Results Three cohort studies showed an increased risk of all stroke in women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy compared with women who conserved their ovaries before age 50 years. The increased risk of stroke was reduced by hormonal therapy (HT) in one of the studies, suggesting that estrogen deprivation is involved in the association. Four additional observational studies showed an association of all stroke or IS with the early onset of menopause or with a shorter lifespan of ovarian activity. In three of the seven studies, the association was restricted to IS. Age at menopause was more important than type of menopause (natural vs induced). Conclusions The findings from seven recent observational studies challenge the consensus that estrogen is invariably a risk factor for IS and can be reconciled by a unifying timing hypothesis. We hypothesize that estrogen is protective for IS before age 50 years and may become a risk factor for IS after age 50 years or, possibly, after age 60 years. These findings are relevant to women who experienced premature or early menopause, or to women considering prophylactic bilateral oophorectomy before the onset of natural menopause. PMID:21993082

  15. Vascular Plaque Determination for Stroke Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    accident, carotid endarterectomy, ultrasound, spectral analysis, tissue characterization, machine learning , noninvasive, carotid plaque 16. SECURITY...stroke, cerebrovascular accident, carotid endarterectomy, ultrasound, spectral analysis, tissue characterization, machine learning , noninvasive...Introduction 4 2. Keywords 4 3. Accomplishments 4 4. Impact 9 5. Changes/Problems 10 6. Products 11 7. Participants & Other Collaborating

  16. Perception of Recurrent Stroke Risk among Black, White and Hispanic Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Survivors: The SWIFT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Carman, Heather; Moran, Megan; Doyle, Margaret; Paik, Myunghee C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Risk modification through behavior change is critical for primary and secondary stroke prevention. Theories of health behavior identify perceived risk as an important component to facilitate behavior change; however, little is known about perceived risk of vascular events among stroke survivors. Methods The SWIFT (Stroke Warning Information and Faster Treatment) study includes a prospective population-based ethnically diverse cohort of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack survivors. We investigate the baseline relationship between demographics, health beliefs, and knowledge on risk perception. Regression models examined predictors of inaccurate perception. Results Only 20% accurately estimated risk, 10% of the participants underestimated risk, and 70% of the 817 study participants significantly overestimated their risk for a recurrent stroke. The mean perceived likelihood of recurrent ischemic stroke in the next 10 years was 51 ± 7%. We found no significant differences by race-ethnicity with regard to accurate estimation of risk. Inaccurate estimation of risk was associated with attitudes and beliefs [worry (p risk factors. Conclusion This paper provides a unique perspective on how factors such as belief systems influence risk perception in a diverse population at high stroke risk. There is a need for future research on how risk perception can inform primary and secondary stroke prevention. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:21894045

  17. Apolipoprotein E genotype, cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Tauseef A; Shah, Tina; Prieto, David

    2013-01-01

    At the APOE gene, encoding apolipoprotein E, genotypes of the ε2/ε3/ε4 alleles associated with higher LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are also associated with higher coronary risk. However, the association of APOE genotype with other cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of ischaemic stroke is less c...

  18. Recurrent Stroke: The Value of the CHA2DS2VASc Score and the Essen Stroke Risk Score in a Nationwide Stroke Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Søren Due; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Lip, Gregory Y H; Bach, Flemming W; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard

    2015-09-01

    The CHA2DS2VASc score and the Essen Stroke Risk Score are respectively used for risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation and in patients with cerebrovascular incidents. We aimed to test the ability of the 2 scores to predict stroke recurrence, death, and cardiovascular events (stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, or arterial thromboembolism) in a nationwide Danish cohort study, among patients with incident ischemic stroke and no atrial fibrillation. We conducted a registry-based study in patients with incident ischemic stroke and no atrial fibrillation. Patients were stratified according to the CHA2DS2VASc score and the Essen Stroke Risk Score and were followed up until stroke recurrence or death. We estimated stratified incidence rates and hazard ratios and calculated the cumulative risks. 42 182 patients with incident ischemic stroke with median age 70.1 years were included. The overall 1-year incidence rates of recurrent stroke, death, and cardiovascular events were 3.6%, 10.5%, and 6.7%, respectively. The incidence rates, the hazard ratios, and the cumulative risk of all outcomes increased with increasing risk scores. C-statistics for both risk scores were around 0.55 for 1-year stroke recurrence and cardiovascular events and correspondingly for death around 0.67 for both scores. In this cohort of non-atrial fibrillation patients with incident ischemic stroke, increasing CHA2DS2VASc score and Essen Stroke Risk Score was associated with increasing risk of recurrent stroke, death, and cardiovascular events. Their discriminatory performance was modest and further refinements are required for clinical application. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Poor stroke risk perception despite moderate public stroke awareness: insight from a cross-sectional national survey in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, George; Melikoki, Vasiliki; Perifanos, George; Perlepe, Kalliopi; Gioulekas, Fotios; Karagiannaki, Anastasia; Tsantzali, Ioanna; Lazarou, Chrysanthi; Beradze, Nikolaos; Poulianiti, Evdoxia; Poulikakou, Matina; Palantzas, Theofanis; Kaditi, Stavrina; Perlepe, Fay; Sidiropoulos, George; Papageorgiou, Kyriaki; Papavasileiou, Vasileios; Vemmos, Konstantinos; Makaritsis, Konstantinos; Dalekos, George N

    2015-04-01

    Although stroke is the fourth cause of death in Western societies, public stroke awareness remains suboptimal. The aim of this study was to estimate stroke risk perception and stroke awareness in Greece through a cross-sectional telephone survey. A trained interview team conducted this cross-sectional telephone survey between February and April 2014 using an online structured questionnaire. Participants were selected using random digit dialing of landline and mobile telephone numbers with quota sampling weighted for geographical region based on the most recent General Population Census (2011). Between February and April 2014, 723 individuals (418 women [58%], 47.4 ± 17.8 years) agreed to respond. Among all respondents, 642 (88.8%) were able to provide at least 1 stroke risk factor; 673 respondents (93.08%) were able to provide correctly at least 1 stroke symptom or sign. When asked what would they do in case of acute onset of stroke symptoms, 497 (68.7%) responded that they would either call the ambulance or visit the closest emergency department. Only 35.3%, 18.9%, 17.2%, 20.7%, and 15.0% of respondents with atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and current smoking, respectively, considered themselves as being in high risk for stroke. Stroke risk perception in Greece is low despite moderate public stroke awareness. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge of Stroke Risk Factors and Warning Signs in Patients with Recurrent Stroke or Recurrent Transient Ischaemic Attack in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jittima Saengsuwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a global burden. It is not known whether patients who are most at risk of stroke (recurrent stroke or recurrent transient ischaemic attack have enough knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in this high-risk population. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of patients with recurrent stroke or recurrent TIA admitted to Srinagarind Hospital and Khon Kaen Hospital, Thailand. A total of 140 patients were included in the study (age 65.6±11.3 years [mean ± SD], 62 females. Using an open-ended questionnaire, nearly one-third of patients (31.4% could not name any risk factors for stroke. The most commonly recognized risk factors were hypertension (35%, dyslipidemia (28.6%, and diabetes (22.9%. Regarding stroke warning signs, the most commonly recognized warning signs were sudden unilateral weakness (61.4%, sudden trouble with speaking (25.7%, and sudden trouble with walking, loss of balance, or dizziness (21.4%. Nineteen patients (13.6% could not identify any warning signs. The results showed that knowledge of stroke obtained from open-ended questionnaires is still unsatisfactory. The healthcare provider should provide structured interventions to increase knowledge and awareness of stroke in these patients.

  1. Systemic risk score evaluation in ischemic stroke patients (SCALA): a prospective cross sectional study in 85 German stroke units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimar, Christian; Goertler, Michael; Röther, Joachim; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Darius, Harald; Nabavi, Darius Günther; Kim, In-Ha; Theobald, Karlheinz; Diener, Han-Christoph

    2007-11-01

    Stratification of patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke (IS) by risk of recurrent stroke can contribute to optimized secondary prevention. We therefore aimed to assess cardiovascular risk factor profiles of consecutive patients hospitalized with TIA/IS to stratify the risk of recurrent stroke according to the Essen Stroke Risk Score (ESRS) and of future cardiovascular events according to the ankle brachial index (ABI) as a marker of generalized atherosclerosis In this cross-sectional observational study, 85 neurological stroke units throughout Germany documented cardiovascular risk factor profiles of 10 consecutive TIA/IS patients on standardized questionnaires. Screening for PAD was done with Doppler ultrasonography to calculate the ABI. A total of 852 patients (57% men) with a mean age of 67+/-12.4 years were included of whom 82.9 % had IS. The median National Institutes of Health stroke sum score was 4 (TIA: 1). Arterial hypertension was reported in 71%, diabetes mellitus in 26%, clinical PAD in 10%, and an ABI or = 3 was observed in 58%, which in two previous retrospective analyses corresponded to a recurrent stroke risk of > or = 4%/year. The correlation between the ESRS and the ABI was low (r = 0.21). A high proportion of patients had asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease and a considerable risk of recurrent stroke according to the ABI and ESRS category. The prognostic accuracy as well as the potential benefit of various risk stratification scores in secondary stroke prevention require validation in a larger prospective study.

  2. ABO Blood Type and Stroke Risk: The REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakai, Neil A.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Alexander, Kristine; McClure, Leslie A.; Kissela, Brett M.; Howard, George; Cushman, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background ABO blood type is an inherited trait associated with coagulation factor levels and vascular outcomes. Objectives To assess the association of blood type with stroke and whether blood type contributes to racial disparities in stroke in the United States. Patients and Methods The REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study recruited 30,239 participants between 2003-07. Using a case-cohort design, blood type was genotyped in 646 participants with stroke and a 1,104 participant cohort random sample. Cox models adjusting for Framingham stroke risk factors assessed the association of blood type with stroke. Results Over 5.8 years of follow-up, blood types A or B versus type O were not associated with stroke. Blood type AB versus O was associated with an increased risk of stroke (adjusted HR 1.83; 95% CI 1.01, 3.30). The association of blood type AB versus O was greater in those without diabetes (adjusted HR 3.33; 95% CI 1.61, 6.88) than those with diabetes (adjusted HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.17, 1.44) (p-interaction = 0.02). Factor VIII levels accounted for 60% (95% CI 11%, 98%) of the association of AB blood type and stroke risk. Conclusion Blood type AB is associated with an increased risk of stroke that is not attenuated by conventional stroke risk factors and factor VIII levels were associated with 60% of the association. While blood type AB is rare in the U.S. population, it is a significant stroke risk factor and may play an important role in stroke risk in these individuals. PMID:24444093

  3. Dietary patterns are associated with incident stroke and contribute to excess risk of stroke in Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Suzanne E; Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Newby, PK; Howard, George; Howard, Virginia J; Locher, Julie L; Kissela, Brett M; Shikany, James M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Black Americans and residents of the Southeastern United States, are at increased risk of stroke. Diet is one of many potential factors proposed that might explain these racial and regional disparities. Methods Between 2003–2007, the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study enrolled 30,239 black and white Americans aged 45 years or older. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis and foods from food frequency data. Incident strokes were adjudicated using medical records by a team of physicians. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk of stroke. Results Over 5.7 years, 490 incident strokes were observed. In a multivariable-adjusted analysis, greater adherence to the Plant-based pattern was associated with lower stroke risk (HR=0.71; 95% CI=0.56–0.91; ptrend=0.005). This association was attenuated after addition of income, education, total energy intake, smoking, and sedentary behavior. Participants with a higher adherence to the Southern pattern experienced a 39% increased risk of stroke (HR=1.39; 95% CI=1.05, 1.84), with a significant (p = 0.009) trend across quartiles. Including Southern pattern in the model mediated the black-white risk of stroke by 63%. Conclusions These data suggest that adherence to a Southern style diet may increase the risk of stroke while adherence to a more plant-based diet may reduce stroke risk. Given the consistency of finding a dietary impact on stroke risk across studies, discussing nutrition patterns during risk screening may be an important step in reducing stroke. PMID:24159061

  4. The Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Janne Kærgård; Kraglund, Kristian Lundsgaard; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2018-01-01

    may influence platelet activity, as they result in different levels of transporters and thereby different levels of serotonin in platelets. SERT gene polymorphisms have thus been associated with the risk of myocardial infarction. A similar association may exist between SERT gene polymorphisms...... and stroke. However, to our knowledge, this potential association has not previously been studied. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between polymorphisms in the SERT gene and the risk of ischemic stroke/transitory ischemic attack (TIA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case...

  5. Analysis on risk factors for post-stroke emotional incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-chun ZHANG

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the occurrence rate and related risk factors for post-stroke emotional incontinence (PSEI. Methods The clinical data [sex, age, body mass index (BMI, education, marital status, medical history (hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, hyperlipemia, smoking and drinking and family history of stroke] of 162 stroke patients were recorded. Serum homocysteine (Hcy level was examined. Head CT and/or MRI were used to indicate stroke subtype, site of lesion and number of lesion. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-Ⅴ Chinese version and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 Items (HAMD-17 were used to evaluate the degree of depression. House diagnostic standard was used to diagnose PSEI. Univariate and multivariate backward Logistic regression analysis was used to screen related risk factor for PSEI. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to discuss the correlation between PSEI and post-stroke depression (PSD. Results Among 162 stroke patients, 12 cases were diagnosed as PSEI (7.41% . The ratio of age < 60 years in PSEI group was significantly higher than non-PSEI group (P = 0.045. The ratio of smoking in PSEI group was significantly lower than non-PSEI group (P = 0.036. Univariate and multivariate backward Logistic regression analysis showed age < 60 years was independent risk factor for PSEI (OR = 4.000, 95%CI: 1.149-13.924; P = 0.029. Ten cases were combined with PSD in 12 PSEI patients, and the co-morbidity rate of PSEI and PSD was83.33%. Spearman rank correlation analysis showed PSEI was positively related to PSD (rs = 0.305, P = 0.000. Conclusions PSEI is common affective disorder in stroke patients, which easily happens in patients under 60 years of age. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.12.010

  6. Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Su, Yu-Chieh; Ho, Hsu-Chueh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chou, Pesus; Huang, Yung-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation/chemoradiotherapy-induced carotid stenosis and cerebrovascular events in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can cause severe disability and even death. This study aimed to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in this patient population over more than 10 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: The study cohorts consisted of all patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of NPC (n = 1094), whereas patients hospitalized for an appendectomy during 1997 and 1998 (n = 4376) acted as the control group and surrogate for the general population. Cox proportional hazard model was performed as a means of comparing the stroke-free survival rate between the two cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. Results: Of the 292 patients with ischemic strokes, 62 (5.7%) were from the NPC cohort and 230 (5.3%) were from the control group. NPC patients ages 35–54 had a 1.66 times (95% CI, 1.16–2.86; p = 0.009) higher risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, geographic region, urbanization level of residence, and socioeconomic status. There was no statistical difference in ischemic stroke risk between the NPC patients and appendectomy patients ages 55–64 years (hazard ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56–1.33; p = 0.524) after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions: Young NPC patients carry a higher risk for ischemic stroke than the general population. Besides regular examinations of carotid duplex, different irradiation strategies or using new technique of radiotherapy, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy, should be considered in young NPC patients.

  7. Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors and survival in patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Karin M; Farahmand, Bahman; Åsberg, Signild; Edvardsson, Nils; Terént, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Differences in risk factor profiles between patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke may have an impact on subsequent mortality. To explore cardiovascular disease risk factors, including the CHADS(2) score, with survival after ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Between 2001 and 2005, 87 111 (83%) ischemic stroke, 12 497 (12%) hemorrhagic stroke, and 5435 (5%) patients with unspecified stroke were identified in the Swedish Stroke Register. Data on gender, age, and cardiovascular disease risk factors were linked to the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Cause of Death Registers. Adjusted odds and hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Hemorrhagic stroke patients were younger than ischemic stroke patients. All cardiovascular disease risk factors studied, alone or combined in the CHADS(2) score, were associated with higher odds ratios for ischemic stroke vs. hemorrhagic stroke. Higher CHADS(2) scores and all studied risk factors except hypertension were associated with higher odds ratio for death by ischemic stroke than hemorrhagic stroke. Ischemic stroke was associated with lower early mortality (within 30 days) vs. hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio = 0·28, confidence interval 0·27 to 0·29). Patients with hemorrhagic stroke had a higher risk of dying within the first 30 days after stroke, but the risk of death was similar in the two groups after one-month. Hypertension was the only cardiovascular disease risk factor associated with an increased mortality rate for hemorrhagic stroke as compared to ischemic stroke. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.

  8. Stroke awareness in the general population: knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in older adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Anne

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and functional impairment. While older people are particularly vulnerable to stroke, research suggests that they have the poorest awareness of stroke warning signs and risk factors. This study examined knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Randomly selected community-dwelling older people (aged 65+) in Ireland (n = 2,033; 68% response rate). Participants completed home interviews. Questions assessed knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors, and personal risk factors for stroke. RESULTS: Of the overall sample, 6% had previously experienced a stroke or transient ischaemic attack. When asked to identify stroke risk factors from a provided list, less than half of the overall sample identified established risk factors (e.g., smoking, hypercholesterolaemia), hypertension being the only exception (identified by 74%). Similarly, less than half identified established warning signs (e.g., weakness, headache), with slurred speech (54%) as the exception. Overall, there were considerable gaps in awareness with poorest levels evident in those with primary level education only and in those living in Northern Ireland (compared with Republic of Ireland). CONCLUSION: Knowledge deficits in this study suggest that most of the common early symptoms or signs of stroke were recognized as such by less than half of the older adults surveyed. As such, many older adults may not recognise early symptoms of stroke in themselves or others. Thus, they may lose vital time in presenting for medical attention. Lack of public awareness about stroke warning signs and risk factors must be addressed as one important contribution to reducing mortality and morbidity from stroke.

  9. Perceived psychological pressure at work, social class, and risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, Poul; Andersen, Lars; Holtermann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Investigate if the association between perceived psychological work pressure and risk of stroke is modified by socioeconomic status.......Investigate if the association between perceived psychological work pressure and risk of stroke is modified by socioeconomic status....

  10. [Drinking/smoking habits and knowledge regarding heavy drinking/ smoking as a risk factor of stroke among Japanese general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Akiko; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Okamura, Tomonori; Nakayama, Hirohumi; Morinaga, Miho; Toyota, Akihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Hata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2010-10-01

    We examined the knowledge regarding heavy drinking and smoking as risk factors of stroke according to drinking/smoking habits among randomly selected Japanese general population. The Japan Stroke Association and co-researchers have performed a large-scale educational intervention to improve knowledge concerning stroke from 2006 to 2008. Prior to above-mentioned intervention, we conducted mail-surveillance on knowledge about stroke in 11,306 randomly selected residents aged 40 to 74. We assessed the relationship between drinking/smoking habits and knowledge regarding heavy drinking and smoking as risk factors by using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, area, employment, living situation, history of stroke and other stroke related diseases, history of liver disease, family history of stroke and drinking (non-drinker / ex-drinker / occasional drinker / habitual drinker) / smoking habits (non-smoker / ex-smoker / current smoker). Total 5,540 subjects (49.0%) participated in this study. Ex-smokers and current smokers had better knowledge regarding smoking as a risk factor of stroke than non-smokers (odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals: 1.89, 1.55-2.31, 1.76, 1.45-2.12, respectively). There was no difference between habitual drinkers and non-drinkers in their knowledge, whereas current smokers had greater knowledge regarding smoking than nonsmokers. Accordingly, it is suggested that it will be necessary for habitual drinkers to be enlightened regarding heavy drinking as a risk factor of stroke and for current smokers to be provided with information regarding not only these risks but also the specific strategies for invoking behavioral changes.

  11. Sleep Duration and the Risk of Mortality From Stroke in Japan: The Takayama Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Toshiaki; Wada, Keiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Tsuji, Michiko; Tamura, Takashi; Konishi, Kie; Nagata, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the associations between sleep duration and stroke subtypes. We examined whether sleep duration is associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. Subjects included 12 875 men and 15 021 women aged 35 years or older in 1992, who were followed until 2008. The outcome variable was stroke death (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and total stroke). During follow-up, 611 stroke deaths (354 from ischemic stroke, 217 from hemorrhagic stroke, and 40 from undetermined stroke) were identified. Compared with 7 h of sleep, ≥9 h of sleep was significantly associated with an increased risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality after controlling for covariates. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.16-1.97) and 1.65 (95% CI, 1.16-2.35) for total stroke mortality and ischemic stroke mortality, respectively. Short sleep duration (≤6 h of sleep) was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-1.01), although this association was of borderline significance (P = 0.06). The trends for total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality were also significant (P hemorrhagic stroke mortality for ≤6 h of sleep as compared with 7 h of sleep (HR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.98; P for trend = 0.08). The risk reduction was pronounced for men (HR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16-0.64). Data suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with increased mortality from total and ischemic stroke. Short sleep duration may be associated with a decreased risk of mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men.

  12. Measures of abdominal adiposity and the risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodenant, Marie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Wagner, Aline

    2011-01-01

    Excess fat accumulates in the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue compartments. We tested the hypothesis that indicators of visceral adiposity, namely, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), are better predictors of stroke risk than body mass in...

  13. Stroke risk and NSAIDs: A systematic review of observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Varas-Lorenzo (Cristina); N. Riera-Guardia (Nuria); B. Calingaert (Brian); J. Castellsague (Jordi); A. Pariente (Antoine); L. Scotti (Lorenza); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); S. Perez-Gutthann (Susana)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAims: To perform a quantitative systematic review of observational studies on the risk of stroke associated with the use of individual NSAIDs. Methods and results: Searches were conducted using the Medline database within PubMed (1990-2008). Observational cohort or case-control studies

  14. Is the Population Detected by Screening in China Truly at High Risk of Stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Juan; Liang, Xuan; Li, Xin; Lu, Wenli

    2018-04-09

    The Chinese Stroke Screening and Prevention Project (CSSPP) considers patients with 3 or more risk factors to be at high risk of stroke, and does not quantitatively assess the risk for stroke. However, to detect high-risk groups more efficiently, a health risk appraisal (HRA) model should be used to assess individual risk of stroke. The odds ratios for the 8 risk factors for stroke were pooled and the data were used to develop an HRA model to predict individuals' risks of developing stroke in the next 5 years. The Chinese screening project and HRA screening strategies were then compared. We assessed 4196 Chinese individuals who received checkups in 2015. The average 5-year risk of stroke was 5.81‰, with men being at higher risk of stroke than women over that period. The average 5-year risk of stroke also increased with the number of risk factors. 932 individuals (22.2%) were identified as being at high risk of stroke according to CSSPP, whereas 318 individuals with fewer than 3 risk factors were considered being at low risk despite having a 5-year risk of stroke greater than 4.0% by our assessment. Notably, among patients with hypertension and diabetes who were classified as being at low risk of stroke by the CSSPP, the HRA recognized 15.9% and 14.3% as being at high risk of stroke, respectively. All 8 major risk factors affect stroke risk differently, and the efficiency of clustering these risk factors might be improved by considering the relative risk of each factor with an HRA model. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Stroke types, risk factors, quality of care and outcomes at a Referral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of stroke is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa due to increases in size of aging population and stroke risk factors.We assessed risk factors, quality of care and outcomes of stroke to identify modifiable risk factors and areas of care that need improvement for better outcomes. Objectives: To ...

  16. [Application of Competing Risks Model in Predicting Smoking Relapse Following Ischemic Stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li-Sha; Li, Ji-Jie; Du, Xu-Dong; Yan, Pei-Jing; Zhu, Cai-Rong

    2017-07-01

    To determine factors associated with smoking relapse in men who survived from their first stroke. Data were collected through face to face interviews with stroke patients in the hospital, and then repeated every three months via telephone over the period from 2010 to 2014. Kaplan-Meier method and competing risk model were adopted to estimate and predict smoking relapse rates. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated a higher relapse rate than the competing risk model. The four-year relapse rate was 43.1% after adjustment of competing risk. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoking outside of home and workplace (such as bars and restaurants) ( P =0.01), single ( P <0.01), and prior history of smoking at least 20 cigarettes per day ( P =0.02) were significant predictors of smoking relapse. When competing risks exist, competing risks model should be used in data analyses. Smoking interventions should give priorities to those without a spouse and those with a heavy smoking history. Smoking ban in public settings can reduce smoking relapse in stroke patients.

  17. Analysis of risk factors and risk assessment for ischemic stroke recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-ying LONG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To screen the risk factors for recurrence of ischemic stroke and to assess the risk of recurrence. Methods Essen Stroke Risk Score (ESRS was used to evaluate the risk of recurrence in 176 patients with ischemic stroke (96 cases of first onset and 80 cases of recurrence. Univariate and multivariate stepwise Logistic regression analysis was used to screen risk factors for recurrence of ischemic stroke.  Results There were significant differences between first onset group and recurrence group on age, the proportion of > 75 years old, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, peripheral angiopathy, transient ischemic attack (TIA or ischemic stroke, drinking and ESRS score (P < 0.05, for all. First onset group included one case of ESRS 0 (1.04%, 8 cases of 1 (8.33%, 39 cases of 2 (40.63%, 44 cases of 3 (45.83%, 4 cases of 4 (4.17%. Recurrence group included 2 cases of ESRS 3 (2.50%, 20 cases of 4 (25% , 37 cases of 5 (46.25% , 18 cases of 6 (22.50% , 3 cases of 7 (3.75% . There was significant difference between 2 groups (Z = -11.376, P = 0.000. Logistic regression analysis showed ESRS > 3 score was independent risk factor for recurrence of ischemic stroke (OR = 31.324, 95%CI: 3.934-249.430; P = 0.001.  Conclusions ESRS > 3 score is the independent risk factor for recurrence of ischemic stroke. It is important to strengthen risk assessment of recurrence of ischemic stroke. To screen and control risk factors is the key to secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.07.011

  18. Risk score to predict gastrointestinal bleeding after acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ruijun; Shen, Haipeng; Pan, Yuesong; Wang, Penglian; Liu, Gaifen; Wang, Yilong; Li, Hao; Singhal, Aneesh B; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-07-25

    Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a common and often serious complication after stroke. Although several risk factors for post-stroke GIB have been identified, no reliable or validated scoring system is currently available to predict GIB after acute stroke in routine clinical practice or clinical trials. In the present study, we aimed to develop and validate a risk model (acute ischemic stroke associated gastrointestinal bleeding score, the AIS-GIB score) to predict in-hospital GIB after acute ischemic stroke. The AIS-GIB score was developed from data in the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR). Eligible patients in the CNSR were randomly divided into derivation (60%) and internal validation (40%) cohorts. External validation was performed using data from the prospective Chinese Intracranial Atherosclerosis Study (CICAS). Independent predictors of in-hospital GIB were obtained using multivariable logistic regression in the derivation cohort, and β-coefficients were used to generate point scoring system for the AIS-GIB. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test were used to assess model discrimination and calibration, respectively. A total of 8,820, 5,882, and 2,938 patients were enrolled in the derivation, internal validation and external validation cohorts. The overall in-hospital GIB after AIS was 2.6%, 2.3%, and 1.5% in the derivation, internal, and external validation cohort, respectively. An 18-point AIS-GIB score was developed from the set of independent predictors of GIB including age, gender, history of hypertension, hepatic cirrhosis, peptic ulcer or previous GIB, pre-stroke dependence, admission National Institutes of Health stroke scale score, Glasgow Coma Scale score and stroke subtype (Oxfordshire). The AIS-GIB score showed good discrimination in the derivation (0.79; 95% CI, 0.764-0.825), internal (0.78; 95% CI, 0.74-0.82) and external (0.76; 95% CI, 0.71-0.82) validation cohorts

  19. Migraine and risk of perioperative ischemic stroke and hospital readmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm, Fanny P; Houle, Timothy T; Grabitz, Stephanie D

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether patients with migraine are at increased risk of perioperative ischemic stroke and whether this may lead to an increased hospital readmission rate. DESIGN: Prospective hospital registry study. SETTING: Massachusetts General Hospital and two satellite campuses between...... was hospital readmission within 30 days of surgery. Exploratory outcomes included post-discharge stroke and strata of neuroanatomical stroke location. RESULTS: 10 179 (8.2%) patients had any migraine diagnosis, of whom 1278 (12.6%) had migraine with aura and 8901 (87.4%) had migraine without aura. 771 (0.......9 (2.9 to 5.0) for migraine without aura, and 6.3 (3.2 to 9.5) for migraine with aura. : Patients with migraine had a higher rate of readmission to hospital within 30 days of discharge (adjusted odds ratio 1.31, 1.22 to 1.41). CONCLUSIONS: Surgical patients with a history of migraine are at increased...

  20. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  1. Hematologic risk factors for stroke in Saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mustafa S.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmad A.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective was to explore the hematologic risk factors for stroke in cohort of Saudi children. We evaluated children at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included neuroimaging, transcranial Dopppler (TCD) for cases of sickle cell diseases (SCD), and Duplex scan. Hemostatic assays included coagulation screening tests, tests of thrombin generation and fibrinolysis, coagulation inhibitors, and activated protein C resistance. During the study period, 104 Saudi children (aged one month to 12 years) with stroke were seen. The mean age of the cohort was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). A major risk factor was identified in 93 of 104 cases of stroke (89.4%). Hematologic disorders were the most common (46.2%), followed by prothrombic disorders (31.7%); microcystic hypochromic anemia (26%); sickle cell disease (SCD), or SCB-thalassemia, (11.5%), and factor IX deficiency (2.9%). Raised anticardiolipin antibodies (13/49, 26.5%) was the most frequent abnormality. Deficiencies of the natural anticoagulants (protein S, protein C and antithrombin III) were as follows: protein S (15/70, 21.4%); protein C (15/70,21.4%) and combined deficiency of 2 or more inhibitors (9/70, 12.9%). Activated protein C resistance has not been detected. Contrary to the findings of previous studies from Saudi Arabia, SCD is a common risk factor and is severe, as it resulted in multiple strokes. Moyamoya syndrome was diagnosed in 2 patients with SCD, one of whom had revascularization surgery (encephaldoduroarteriosynangiosis). Assessment of children with SCD at a risk of stroke was helped by the introduction of TCD followed by neuroimaging, using MRI and magnetic resonanceangiography

  2. Resistant hypertension, patient characteristics, and risk of stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Ying Hung

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prognosis of resistant hypertension (RH in Asian population. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of RH in Taiwanese patients with hypertension, and to ascertain whether patient characteristics influence the association of RH with adverse outcomes.Patients aged ≥45 years with hypertension were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Medical records of 111,986 patients were reviewed in this study, and 16,402 (14.6% patients were recognized as having RH (continuously concomitant use of ≥3 anti-hypertensive medications, including a diuretic, for ≥2 years. Risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, a composite of all-cause mortality, acute coronary syndrome, and stroke [included both fatal and nonfatal events] in patients with RH and non-RH was analyzed. A total of 11,856 patients experienced MACE in the follow-up period (average 7.1±3.0 years. There was a higher proportion of females in the RH group, they were older than the non-RH (63.1 vs. 60.5 years patients, and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular co-morbidities. Overall, patients with RH had higher risks of MACE (adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 1.09-1.26; p<0.001. Significantly elevated risks of stroke (10,211 events; adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 1.08-1.27; p<0.001, especially ischemic stroke (6,235 events; adjusted HR 1.34; 95%CI 1.20-1.48; p<0.001, but not all-cause mortality (4,594 events; adjusted HR 1.06; 95%CI 0.95-1.19; p = 0.312 or acute coronary syndrome (2,145 events; adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 0.99-1.39; p = 0.070 were noted in patients with RH compared to those with non-RH. Subgroup analysis showed that RH increased the risks of stroke in female and elderly patients. However, no significant influence was noted in young or male patients.Patients with RH were associated with higher risks of MACE and stroke, especially ischemic stroke. The risks were greater in female and elderly patients than in male or young

  3. Resistant Hypertension, Patient Characteristics, and Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chen-Ying; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Hsieh, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Jin-Long; Loh, El-Wui; Lin, Ching-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the prognosis of resistant hypertension (RH) in Asian population. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of RH in Taiwanese patients with hypertension, and to ascertain whether patient characteristics influence the association of RH with adverse outcomes. Methods and Results Patients aged ≥45 years with hypertension were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Medical records of 111,986 patients were reviewed in this study, and 16,402 (14.6%) patients were recognized as having RH (continuously concomitant use of ≥3 anti-hypertensive medications, including a diuretic, for ≥2 years). Risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, a composite of all-cause mortality, acute coronary syndrome, and stroke [included both fatal and nonfatal events]) in patients with RH and non-RH was analyzed. A total of 11,856 patients experienced MACE in the follow-up period (average 7.1±3.0 years). There was a higher proportion of females in the RH group, they were older than the non-RH (63.1 vs. 60.5 years) patients, and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular co-morbidities. Overall, patients with RH had higher risks of MACE (adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 1.09–1.26; p<0.001). Significantly elevated risks of stroke (10,211 events; adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 1.08–1.27; p<0.001), especially ischemic stroke (6,235 events; adjusted HR 1.34; 95%CI 1.20–1.48; p<0.001), but not all-cause mortality (4,594 events; adjusted HR 1.06; 95%CI 0.95–1.19; p = 0.312) or acute coronary syndrome (2,145 events; adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 0.99–1.39; p = 0.070) were noted in patients with RH compared to those with non-RH. Subgroup analysis showed that RH increased the risks of stroke in female and elderly patients. However, no significant influence was noted in young or male patients. Conclusions Patients with RH were associated with higher risks of MACE and stroke, especially ischemic stroke. The risks were greater in female and

  4. Migraine and risk of stroke: a national population-based twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Maria; Sieurin, Johanna; Sjölander, Arvid; Waldenlind, Elisabet; Sjöstrand, Christina; Wirdefeldt, Karin

    2017-10-01

    Numerous studies have indicated an increased risk for stroke in patients with migraine, especially migraine with aura; however, many studies used self-reported migraine and only a few controlled for familial factors. We aimed to investigate migraine as a risk factor for stroke in a Swedish population-based twin cohort, and whether familial factors contribute to an increased risk. The study population included twins without prior cerebrovascular disease who answered a headache questionnaire during 1998 and 2002 for twins born 1935-58 and during 2005-06 for twins born between 1959 and 1985. Migraine with and without aura and probable migraine was defined by an algorithm mapping on to clinical diagnostic criteria according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Stroke diagnoses were obtained from the national patient and cause of death registers. Twins were followed longitudinally, by linkage of national registers, from date of interview until date of first stroke, death, or end of study on 31 Dec 2014. In total, 8635 twins had any migraineous headache, whereof 3553 had migraine with aura and 5082 had non-aura migraineous headache (including migraine without aura and probable migraine), and 44 769 twins had no migraine. During a mean follow-up time of 11.9 years we observed 1297 incident cases of stroke. The Cox proportional hazards model with attained age as underlying time scale was used to estimate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for stroke including ischaemic and haemorrhagic subtypes related to migraine with aura, non-aura migraineous headache, and any migraineous headache. Analyses were adjusted for gender and cardiovascular risk factors. Where appropriate; within-pair analyses were performed to control for confounding by familial factors. The age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratio for stroke related to migraine with aura was 1.27 (95% confidence interval 1.00-1.62), P = 0.05, and 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.91-1.26), P = 0

  5. Ischemic stroke risk, smoking, and the genetics of inflammation in a biracial population: the stroke prevention in young women study

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, John W; Brown, David W; Giles, Wayne H; Stine, Oscar C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Sorkin, John D; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Sparks, Mary J; Dobbins, Mark T; Shoffner, Latasha T; Zappala, Nancy K; Reinhart, Laurie J; Kittner, Steven J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for vascular disease, the genetic mechanisms that link cigarette smoking to an increased incidence of stroke are not well understood. Genetic variations within the genes of the inflammatory pathways are thought to partially mediate this risk. Here we evaluate the association of several inflammatory gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with ischemic stroke risk among young women, further stratified by curre...

  6. Primary prevention of stroke by a healthy lifestyle in a high-risk group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Åkesson, Agneta; Wolk, Alicja

    2015-06-02

    To examine the impact of a healthy lifestyle on stroke risk in men at higher risk of stroke because of other cardiovascular diseases or conditions. Our study population comprised 11,450 men in the Cohort of Swedish Men who had a history of hypertension, high cholesterol levels, diabetes, heart failure, or atrial fibrillation. Participants had completed a questionnaire about diet and lifestyle and were free from stroke and ischemic heart disease at baseline (January 1, 1998). We defined a healthy lifestyle as a low-risk diet (≥5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables and 0 to ≤30 g/d). Ascertainment of stroke cases was accomplished through linkage with the National Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. During a mean follow-up of 9.8 years, we ascertained 1,062 incident stroke cases. The risk of total stroke and stroke types decreased with increasing number of healthy lifestyle factors. The multivariable relative risk of total stroke for men who achieved all 5 healthy lifestyle factors compared with men who achieved 0 or 1 factor was 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.14-0.55). The corresponding relative risks (95% confidence interval) were 0.31 (0.15-0.66) for ischemic stroke and 0.32 (0.04-2.51) for hemorrhagic stroke. A healthy lifestyle is associated with a substantially reduced risk of stroke in men at higher risk of stroke. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Female- and Male-Specific Risk Factors for Stroke : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorthuis, Michiel H F; Algra, Annemijn M; Algra, Ale; Kappelle, L Jaap; Klijn, Catharina J M

    2017-01-01

    Importance: The incidence of stroke is higher in men than in women. The influence of sex-specific risk factors on stroke incidence and mortality is largely unknown. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of female- and male-specific risk factors for stroke. Data Sources: PubMed,

  8. Female- and Male-Specific Risk Factors for Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorthuis, M.H.; Algra, A.M.; Kappelle, L.J.; Klijn, C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Importance: The incidence of stroke is higher in men than in women. The influence of sex-specific risk factors on stroke incidence and mortality is largely unknown. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of female- and male-specific risk factors for stroke. Data Sources: PubMed,

  9. Unrealistic pessimism about risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimakopoulou, Koula G.; Skinner, T. Chas; Spimpolo, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    and rated their mood about these risks using a self-report measure. Using an objective risk calculator, they were then told their actual risk of CHD and stroke and their mood was re-assessed. Results: Patients' estimates of their risk of CHD/stroke were grossly inflated. A negative relationship between...... disease risk and mood was also seen where higher risk of actual and perceived CHD/stroke was related to worse mood. A positive relationship between mood and extent of perceptual error was further observed; the more inaccurate patients' perceptions of CHD/stroke risk were, the better their mood. Mood......Objective: We examined the accuracy of type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients' risk estimates of developing coronary heart disease (CHD)/having a stroke as a consequence of diabetes and their mood about these risks. Methods: Patients reported their perceived risks of developing CHD/having a stroke...

  10. 'Hip-hop' stroke: a stroke educational program for elementary school children living in a high-risk community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; Noble, James M

    2008-10-01

    Public stroke recognition is poor and poses a barrier to acute stroke treatment. We describe a stroke literacy program that teaches elementary school children in high-risk communities to recognize stroke and form an urgent action plan; we then present results of an intervention study using the program. "Hip-Hop" Stroke uses culturally and age-appropriate music and dance to enhance an interactive didactic curriculum including the FAST mnemonic (Facial droop, Arm weakness, Speech disturbance, Time to call 911). The program occurred in central Harlem, New York City, a community with high stroke risk. During the 2006 to 2007 school year, 582 fourth, fifth, and sixth graders (9 to 11 years of age) participated in 1-hour sessions over 3 consecutive days. Stroke knowledge was tested before and after the program with a 94% group participant retention. Students learned and retained knowledge well for stroke localization (20% correct before intervention, 93% correct immediately afterward, and 86% correct after 3-month delay; Phip-hop music may improve retention of stroke knowledge among the youth.

  11. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Stroke Events and Fatal Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaker, Layal; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the risk of stroke associated with subclinical hypothyroidism. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: Published prospective cohort studies were identified through a systematic search through November 2013 without restrictions in several databases. Unpublished...... studies were identified through the Thyroid Studies Collaboration. We collected individual participant data on thyroid function and stroke outcome. Euthyroidism was defined as TSH levels of 0.45-4.49 mIU/L, and subclinical hypothyroidism was defined as TSH levels of 4.5-19.9 mIU/L with normal T4 levels....... DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We collected individual participant data on 47 573 adults (3451 subclinical hypothyroidism) from 17 cohorts and followed up from 1972-2014 (489 192 person-years). Age- and sex-adjusted pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for participants with subclinical hypothyroidism compared...

  12. Cocaine Use and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Ching; Ryan, Kathleen A; Qadwai, Saad A; Shah, Jay; Sparks, Mary J; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Phipps, Michael S; Cronin, Carolyn A; Magder, Laurence S; Cole, John W; Kittner, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Although case reports have long identified a temporal association between cocaine use and ischemic stroke (IS), few epidemiological studies have examined the association of cocaine use with IS in young adults, by timing, route, and frequency of use. A population-based case-control study design with 1090 cases and 1154 controls was used to investigate the relationship of cocaine use and young-onset IS. Stroke cases were between the ages of 15 and 49 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between cocaine use and IS with and without adjustment for potential confounders. Ever use of cocaine was not associated with stroke with 28% of cases and 26% of controls reporting ever use. In contrast, acute cocaine use in the previous 24 hours was strongly associated with increased risk of stroke (age-sex-race adjusted odds ratio, 6.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-18.6). Among acute users, the smoking route had an adjusted odds ratio of 7.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-35.0), whereas the inhalation route had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.5 (95% confidence interval, 0.7-16.9). After additional adjustment for current alcohol, smoking use, and hypertension, the odds ratio for acute cocaine use by any route was 5.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-19.7). Of the 26 patients with cocaine use within 24 hours of their stroke, 14 reported use within 6 hours of their event. Our data are consistent with a causal association between acute cocaine use and risk of early-onset IS. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor Preventing falls Stroke - discharge Swallowing problems Images Brain Carotid stenosis, x-ray of the left artery Carotid stenosis, x-ray of the right artery Stroke Brainstem function Cerebellum - function Circle of Willis Left cerebral hemisphere - ...

  14. Coffee, tea, and cocoa and risk of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence from experimental studies in animals and humans along with findings from prospective studies indicates beneficial effects of green and black tea as well as chocolate on cardiovascular health, and that tea and chocolate consumption may reduce the risk of stroke. The strongest evidence exists for beneficial effects of tea and cocoa on endothelial function, total and LDL cholesterol (tea only), and insulin sensitivity (cocoa only). The majority of prospective studies have reported a weak inverse association between moderate consumption of coffee and risk of stroke. However, there are yet no clear biological mechanisms whereby coffee might provide cardiovascular health benefits. Awaiting the results from further long-term RCTs and prospective studies, moderate consumption of filtered coffee, tea, and dark chocolate seems prudent.

  15. Cause-Specific Mortality after Stroke: Relation to Age, Sex, Stroke Severity, and Risk Factors in a 10-Year Follow-Up Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, UB; Olsen, TS; Andersen, KK

    2013-01-01

    We investigated cause-specific mortality in relation to age, sex, stroke severity, and cardiovascular risk factor profile in the Copenhagen Stroke Study cohort with 10 years of follow-up. In a Copenhagen community, all patients admitted to the hospital with stroke during 1992-1993 (n = 988) were.......2% for nonvascular disease. Death after stroke was associated with older age, male sex, greater stroke severity, and diabetes regardless of the cause of death. Previous stroke and hemorrhagic stroke were associated with death by stroke, ischemic heart disease was associated with death by heart/arterial disease...... registered on admission. Evaluation included stroke severity, computed tomography scan, and a cardiovascular risk profile. Cause of death within 10 years according to death certificate information was classified as stroke, heart/arterial disease, or nonvascular disease. Competing-risks analyses were...

  16. Identification of Barriers to Stroke Awareness and Risk Factor Management Unique to Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Barriers to risk factor control may differ by race/ethnicity. The goal of this study was to identify barriers to stroke awareness and risk factor management unique to Hispanics as compared to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs. We performed a prospective study of stroke patients from an academic Stroke Center in Arizona and surveyed members of the general community. Questionnaires included: the Duke Social Support Index (DSSI, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC Scale, a stroke barriers questionnaire, and a Stroke Awareness Test. Of 145 stroke patients surveyed (72 Hispanic; 73 NHW, Hispanics scored lower on the Stroke Awareness Test compared to NHWs (72.5% vs. 79.1%, p = 0.029. Hispanic stroke patients also reported greater barriers related to medical knowledge, medication adherence, and healthcare access (p < 0.05 for all. Hispanics scored higher on the “powerful others” sub-scale (11.3 vs. 10, p < 0.05 of the MHLC. Of 177 members of the general public surveyed, Hispanics had lower stroke awareness compared to NHWs and tended to have lower awareness than Hispanic stroke patients. These results suggest that Hispanic stroke patients perceive less control over their health, experience more healthcare barriers, and demonstrate lower rates of stroke literacy. Interventions for stroke prevention and education in Hispanics should address these racial/ethnic differences in stroke awareness and barriers to risk factor control.

  17. Sodium Valproate, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Is Associated With Reduced Stroke Risk After Previous Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Rebecca L.; Crichton, Siobhan; Wolfe, Charles D.A.; Yi, Qilong; Li, Linxin; Hankey, Graeme J.; Rothwell, Peter M.

    2018-01-01

    Background and Purpose— A variant in the histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) gene is associated with large artery stroke. Therefore, inhibiting HDAC9 might offer a novel secondary preventative treatment for ischemic stroke. The antiepileptic drug sodium valproate (SVA) is a nonspecific inhibitor of HDAC9. We tested whether SVA therapy given after ischemic stroke was associated with reduced recurrent stroke rate. Methods— Data were pooled from 3 prospective studies recruiting patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack and long-term follow-up: the South London Stroke Register, The Vitamins to Prevent Stroke Study, and the Oxford Vascular Study. Patients receiving SVA were compared with patients who received antiepileptic drugs other than SVA using survival analysis and Cox Regression. Results— A total of 11 949 patients with confirmed ischemic event were included. Recurrent stroke rate was lower in patient taking SVA (17 of 168) than other antiepileptic drugs (105 of 530; log-rank survival analysis P=0.002). On Cox regression, controlling for potential cofounders, SVA remained associated with reduced stroke (hazard ratio=0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.3–0.7; P=0.002). A similar result was obtained when patients taking SVA were compared with all cases not taking SVA (Cox regression, hazard ratio=0.47; 95% confidence interval: 0.29–0.77; P=0.003). Conclusions— These results suggest that exposure to SVA, an inhibitor of HDAC, may be associated with a lower recurrent stroke risk although we cannot exclude residual confounding in this study design. This supports the hypothesis that HDAC9 is important in the ischemic stroke pathogenesis and that its inhibition, by SVA or a more specific HDAC9 inhibitor, is worthy of evaluation as a treatment to prevent recurrent ischemic stroke. PMID:29247141

  18. Risk of ischemic stroke after atrial fibrillation diagnosis: A national sample cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Kyoung Son

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke and associated with a 5-fold higher risk of stroke. In this retrospective cohort study, the incidence of and risk factors for ischemic stroke in patients with AF were identified. All patients (≥30 years old without previous stroke who were diagnosed with AF in 2007-2013 were selected from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. To identify factors that influenced ischemic stroke risk, Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted. During a mean follow-up duration of 3.2 years, 1022 (9.6% patients were diagnosed with ischemic stroke. The overall incidence rate of ischemic stroke was 30.8/1000 person-years. Of all the ischemic stroke that occurred during the follow-up period, 61.0% occurred within 1-year after AF diagnosis. Of the patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score of ≥2, only 13.6% were receiving warfarin therapy within 30 days after AF diagnosis. Relative to no antithrombotic therapy, warfarin treatment for >90 days before the index event (ischemic stroke in stroke patients and death/study end in non-stroke patients associated with decreased ischemic stroke risk (Hazard Ratio = 0.41, 95%confidence intervals = 0.32-0.53. Heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus associated with greater ischemic stroke risk. AF patients in Korea had a higher ischemic stroke incidence rate than patients in other countries and ischemic stroke commonly occurred at early phase after AF diagnosis. Long-term (>90 days continuous warfarin treatment may be beneficial for AF patients. However, warfarin treatment rates were very low. To prevent stroke, programs that actively detect AF and provide anticoagulation therapy are needed.

  19. Risk Factors and Etiology of Young Ischemic Stroke Patients in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siim Schneider

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Reports on young patients with ischemic stroke from Eastern Europe have been scarce. This study aimed to assess risk factors and etiology of first-ever and recurrent stroke among young Estonian patients. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of consecutive ischemic stroke patients aged 18–54 years who were treated in our two hospitals from 2003 to 2012. Results. We identified 741 patients with first-ever stroke and 96 patients with recurrent stroke. Among first-time patients, men predominated in all age groups. The prevalence of well-documented risk factors in first-time stroke patients was 83% and in the recurrent group 91%. The most frequent risk factors were hypertension (53%, dyslipidemia (46%, and smoking (35%. Recurrent stroke patients had fewer less well-documented risk factors compared to first-time stroke patients (19.8 versus 30.0%, P=0.036. Atrial fibrillation was the most common cause of cardioembolic strokes (48% and large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA was the cause in 8% among those aged <35 years. Compared to first-time strokes, recurrent ones were more frequently caused by LAA (14.3 versus 24.0%, P=0.01 and less often by other definite etiology (8.5 versus 1.0%, P=0.01. Conclusions. The prevalence of vascular risk factors among Estonian young stroke patients is high. Premature atherosclerosis is a cause in a substantial part of very young stroke patients.

  20. Multivitamin use and risk of stroke mortality: the Japan collaborative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jia-Yi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2015-05-01

    An effect of multivitamin supplement on stroke risk is uncertain. We aimed to examine the association between multivitamin use and risk of death from stroke and its subtypes. A total of 72 180 Japanese men and women free from cardiovascular diseases and cancers at baseline in 1988 to 1990 were followed up until December 31, 2009. Lifestyles including multivitamin use were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of total stroke and its subtypes in relation to multivitamin use. During a median follow-up of 19.1 years, we identified 2087 deaths from stroke, including 1148 ischemic strokes and 877 hemorrhagic strokes. After adjustment for potential confounders, multivitamin use was associated with lower but borderline significant risk of death from total stroke (HR, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.01), primarily ischemic stroke (HR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-1.01), but not hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.18). In a subgroup analysis, there was a significant association between multivitamin use and lower risk of mortality from total stroke among people with fruit and vegetable intake stroke. Multivitamin use, particularly frequent use, was associated with reduced risk of total and ischemic stroke mortality among Japanese people with lower intake of fruits and vegetables. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. In-treatment stroke volume predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnebakken, Mai T; Gerdts, Eva; Boman, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    , the prespecified primary study endpoint, was assessed in Cox regression analysis using data from baseline and annual follow-up visits in 855 patients during 4.8 years of randomized losartan-based or atenolol-based treatment in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) echocardiography...... with higher risk of cardiovascular events {hazard ratio 1.69 per 1 SD (6 ml/m2.04) lower stroke volume [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35–2.11], P secondary model also independent of stress-corrected midwall shortening......, hence, adds information on cardiovascular risk in treated hypertensive patients beyond assessment of left ventricular structure alone....

  2. The risk of ischaemic stroke in primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radin, M; Schreiber, K; Cecchi, I

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The most common neurological manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is ischaemic stroke. Identifying patients with APS at high risk for developing any thrombotic event remains a major challenge. In this study, the aim was to identify predictive factors of ischaemic...... thrombosis and were receiving vitamin K antagonist (VKA), with international normalized ratio target 2-3; one patient had a history of a previous arterial event receiving treatment with VKA target international normalized ratio 2-3 plus low dose aspirin; and one patient had a history of previous pregnancy...... morbidity receiving only low dose aspirin. Time in the therapeutic range for patients receiving VKA was 77.7% (SD 6.6%). Hypercholesterolaemia was significantly higher in patients with confirmed stroke compared to those without (P

  3. Perinatal stroke in Saudi children: clinical features and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Anal Y.; Al-Nasser, Mohammad N.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2006-01-01

    To describe the clinical features and presentations of perinatal stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the risk factors. Patients with perinatal stroke were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Neuroimaging for suspected cases of stroke consisted of cranial CT, MRI, or both. During the study period, 23 (22%) of 104 children (aged one months to 12 years) were diagnosed to have had perinatal stroke. The male: female ratio was 1.6:1. Ten (67%) of the 15 children who had unilateral ischemic involvement had their lesion in the left hemisphere. The presentation of the ischemic result was within 24-72 hours of life in 13 (57%) patients, and in 6 children (26%), motor impairment was recognized at or after the age of 4 months. Nine children (39%) had seizures at presentation. Pregnancy, labor, and delivery risk factors were ascertained in 18 (78%) cases. The most common of these included emergency cesarean section in 5 cases, and instrumental delivery in other 5. Screening for prothrombotic risk factors detected abnormalities in 6 (26%) patients on at least one test carried out between 2 months and 9 years of age. Four children (17%) had low protein C, which was associated low protein S and raised anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) in one patient, and low antithrombin III in another. Low proteins S was detected in a 42-month-old boy. The abnormality in the sixth child was confined to raised ACA. The present study highlights the non-specific features by which stroke presents during the neonatal period. The data are in keeping with the potential role for inherited and acquired thrombophilia as being the underlying cause. However, the high prevalence of

  4. Is NAA reduction in normal contralateral cerebral tissue in stroke patients dependent on underlying risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, P M; Ben Salem, D; Giroud, M; Brunotte, F

    2006-05-01

    This retrospective study investigated the dependence of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) ratios on risk factors for cerebral vasculopathy such as sex, age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, carotid stenosis, and dyslipidaemia, which may have affected brain vessels and induced metabolic brain abnormalities prior to stroke. We hypothesise that in stroke patients metabolic alterations in the apparently normal contralateral brain are dependent on the presence or not of such risk factors. Fifty nine patients (31 male, 28 female: 58.8+/-16.1 years old) with cortical middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction were included. Long echo time chemical shift imaging spectroscopy was carried out on a Siemens 1.5 T Magnetom Vision scanner using a multi-voxel PRESS technique. Metabolite ratios (NAA/choline, NAA/creatine, lactate/choline, etc) were studied using uni- and multivariate analyses with respect to common risk factors. The influence of age, stroke lesion size, and time since stroke was studied using a linear regression approach. Age, sex, and hypertension all appeared to individually influence metabolite ratios, although only hypertension was significant after multivariate analysis. In both basal ganglia and periventricular white matter regions in apparently normal contralateral brain, the NAA/choline ratio was significantly lower in hypertensive (1.37+/-0.16 and 1.50+/-0.19, respectively) than in normotensive patients (1.72+/-0.19 and 1.85+/-0.15, respectively). Regarding MCA infarction, contralateral tissue remote from the lesion behaves abnormally in the presence of hypertension, the NAA ratios in hypertensive patients being significantly lower. These data suggest that hypertension may compromise the use of contralateral tissue data as a reference for comparison with ischaemic tissue.

  5. Stroke subtypes, risk factors and mortality rate in northwest of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhoudi, Mehdi; Mehrvar, Kaveh; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Stroke is the second most common cause of death and first cause of disability in adults in the world. About 80% of all stroke deaths occur in developing countries. So far, the data on stroke epidemiology have been limited in Iran. Therefore, this study was focused on stroke demographic...... data, risk factors, types and mortality. Methods: A retrospective study was done in two university tertiary referral hospitals in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, from March 2008 to April 2013. Patients diagnosed with stroke were enrolled in the study. Demographic data, stroke subtypes, duration...

  6. Targeting Pioglitazone Hydrochloride Therapy After Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack According to Pretreatment Risk for Stroke or Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Walter N; Viscoli, Catherine M; Dearborn, Jennifer L; Kent, David M; Conwit, Robin; Fayad, Pierre; Furie, Karen L; Gorman, Mark; Guarino, Peter D; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Stuart, Amber; Young, Lawrence H

    2017-11-01

    There is growing recognition that patients may respond differently to therapy and that the average treatment effect from a clinical trial may not apply equally to all candidates for a therapy. To determine whether, among patients with an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and insulin resistance, those at higher risk for future stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) derive more benefit from the insulin-sensitizing drug pioglitazone hydrochloride compared with patients at lower risk. A secondary analysis was conducted of the Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke trial, a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone for secondary prevention. Patients were enrolled from 179 research sites in 7 countries from February 7, 2005, to January 15, 2013, and were followed up for a mean of 4.1 years through the study's end on July 28, 2015. Eligible participants had a qualifying ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack within 180 days of entry and insulin resistance without type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Pioglitazone or matching placebo. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was created using baseline features to stratify patients above or below the median risk for stroke or MI within 5 years. Within each stratum, the efficacy of pioglitazone for preventing stroke or MI was calculated. Safety outcomes were death, heart failure, weight gain, and bone fracture. Among 3876 participants (1338 women and 2538 men; mean [SD] age, 63 [11] years), the 5-year risk for stroke or MI was 6.0% in the pioglitazone group among patients at lower baseline risk compared with 7.9% in the placebo group (absolute risk difference, -1.9% [95% CI, -4.4% to 0.6%]). Among patients at higher risk, the risk was 14.7% in the pioglitazone group vs 19.6% for placebo (absolute risk difference, -4.9% [95% CI, -8.6% to 1.2%]). Hazard ratios were similar for patients below or above the median risk (0.77 vs 0.75; P = .92). Pioglitazone increased weight less among patients at

  7. Lower Your Stroke Risk (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Stroke is among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. In the U.S., strokes are more common among women. In this podcast, Dr. Erika Odom discusses ways to decrease your chances of having a stroke.

  8. Risk factors, mortality, and timing of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke with left ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontera, Jennifer A; Starling, Randall; Cho, Sung-Min; Nowacki, Amy S; Uchino, Ken; Hussain, M Shazam; Mountis, Maria; Moazami, Nader

    2017-06-01

    Stroke is a major cause of mortality after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) placement. Prospectively collected data of patients with HeartMate II (n = 332) and HeartWare (n = 70) LVADs from October 21, 2004, to May 19, 2015, were reviewed. Predictors of early (during index hospitalization) and late (post-discharge) ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and association of stroke subtypes with mortality were assessed. Of 402 patients, 83 strokes occurred in 69 patients (17%; 0.14 events per patient-year [EPPY]): early ischemic stroke in 18/402 (4%; 0.03 EPPY), early hemorrhagic stroke in 11/402 (3%; 0.02 EPPY), late ischemic stroke in 25/402 (6%; 0.04 EPPY) and late hemorrhagic stroke in 29/402 (7%; 0.05 EPPY). Risk of stroke and death among patients with stroke was bimodal with highest risks immediately post-implant and increasing again 9-12 months later. Risk of death declined over time in patients without stroke. Modifiable stroke risk factors varied according to timing and stroke type, including tobacco use, bacteremia, pump thrombosis, pump infection, and hypertension (all p hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-17.8, p = 0.04), late ischemic stroke (aOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1-9.0, p = 0.03), and late hemorrhagic stroke (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 1.5-9.2, p = 0.005) predicted death, whereas early ischemic stroke did not. Stroke is a leading cause and predictor of death in patients with LVADs. Risk of stroke and death among patients with stroke is bimodal, with highest risk at time of implant and increasing risk again after 9-12 months. Management of modifiable risk factors may reduce stroke and mortality rates. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood microRNAs in Low or No Risk Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Rong Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a multi-factorial disease where some patients present themselves with little or no risk factors. Blood microRNA expression profiles are becoming useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. We therefore investigated the blood microRNA profiles in young stroke patients who presented with minimal or absence of risk factors for stroke such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Blood microRNA profiles from these patients varied with stroke subtypes as well as different functional outcomes (based on modified Rankin Score. These microRNAs have been shown to target genes that are involved in stroke pathogenesis. The findings from our study suggest that molecular mechanisms in stroke pathogenesis involving low or no risk ischemic stroke patients could differ substantially from those with pre-existing risk factors.

  10. Long-Term Risk of Dementia among Survivors of Ischemic or Hemorrhagic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corraini, Priscila; Henderson, Victor; Ording, Anne Gulbech

    2017-01-01

     303 survivors of unspecified stroke types. Patients were aged ≥18 years and survived for at least 3 months after diagnosis. We formed a comparison cohort from the general population (1 075 588 patients without stroke, matched to stroke patients by age and sex). We computed absolute risks and hazard...

  11. Epidemiology of stroke in the elderly in the Nordic countries. Incidence, survival, prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgeir Engstad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review what is known at present with respect to incidence, survival, risk factors and prevalence among the elderly stroke patients in the Nordic countries.Method: This article is based mainly on literature identified through search engines (Mc Master Plus, Cochrane Library, Medline and PubMed, restricted to first-ever stroke in Nordic population-based studies and having applied to the standard WHO definition, a prospective study design and no upper age limit.Results: Data from the Nordic countries show an incidence rate of 1250 to 1796/100 000 in the age group 75-84, and 1628 to 2234 in those above 85 years. The incidence rates are higher among men, but women are expected to contribute more to incident cases due to their higher life expectancy. If the age-specific incidence of stroke remains stable, the proportion of stroke patients aged 80 years and older may reach 50% in a few decades. The elderly stroke patients have a higher 30-days case fatality, and a higher risk of dependency. Better treatment of stroke patients has improved the survival over the last two decades. The prevalence is expected to increase due to the decrease in lethality, a slower fall in incidence and a higher proportion of elderly. Cardiovascular risk factors increase with age. Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke mortality in the elderly. Cardioembolic stroke due to atrial fibrillation is the most common stroke subtype in the elderly. Lifestyle risk factors are less prevalent in the older stroke patients.Conclusion: The growing proportion of elderly stroke patients is a major challenge for future stroke care. The elderly stroke patients have a different risk factor profile compared to younger stroke patients. Treatment should focus on regaining independency. The age-specific epidemiology of stroke needs to be studied further in large studies in order to plan for future health care.

  12. Risk and mortality of traumatic brain injury in stroke patients: two nationwide cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Meng, Nai-Hsin; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Chou, Wan-Hsin; Chen, Ta-Liang; Liao, Chien-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Patients with stroke had higher incidence of falls and hip fractures. However, the risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-TBI mortality in patients with stroke was not well defined. Our study is to investigate the risk of TBI and post-TBI mortality in patients with stroke. Using reimbursement claims from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 7622 patients with stroke and 30 488 participants without stroke aged 20 years and older as reference group. Data were collected on newly developed TBI after stroke with 5 to 8 years' follow-up during 2000 to 2008. Another nested cohort study including 7034 hospitalized patients with TBI was also conducted to analyze the contribution of stroke to post-TBI in-hospital mortality. Compared with the nonstroke cohort, the adjusted hazard ratio of TBI risk among patients with stroke was 2.80 (95% confidence interval = 2.58-3.04) during the follow-up period. Patients with stroke had higher mortality after TBI than those without stroke (10.2% vs 3.2%, P stroke (RR = 1.60), hemorrhagic stroke (RR = 1.68), high medical expenditure for stroke (RR = 1.80), epilepsy (RR = 1.79), neurosurgery (RR = 1.94), and hip fracture (RR = 2.11) were all associated with significantly higher post-TBI mortality among patients with stroke. Patients with stroke have an increased risk of TBI and in-hospital mortality after TBI. Various characteristics of stroke severity were all associated with higher post-TBI mortality. Special attention is needed to prevent TBI among these populations.

  13. Acute-Phase Blood Pressure Levels Correlate With a High Risk of Recurrent Strokes in Young-Onset Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanoja, Satu; Putaala, Jukka; Gordin, Daniel; Tulkki, Lauri; Aarnio, Karoliina; Pirinen, Jani; Surakka, Ida; Sinisalo, Juha; Lehto, Mika; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2016-06-01

    High blood pressure (BP) in acute stroke has been associated with a poor outcome; however, this has not been evaluated in young adults. The relationship between BP and long-term outcome was assessed in 1004 consecutive young, first-ever ischemic stroke patients aged 15 to 49 years enrolled in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry. BP parameters included systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure at admission and 24 hours. The primary outcome measure was recurrent stroke in the long-term follow-up. Adjusted for demographics and preexisting comorbidities, Cox regression models were used to assess independent BP parameters associated with outcome. Of our patients (63% male), 393 patients (39%) had prestroke hypertension and 358 (36%) used antihypertensive treatment. The median follow-up period was 8.9 years (interquartile range 5.7-13.2). Patients with a recurrent stroke (n=142, 14%) had significantly higher admission SBP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure (Pstroke. Patients with SBP ≥160 mm Hg compared with those with SBP strokes (hazard ratio 3.3 [95% confidence interval, 2.05-4.55]; Pstroke, while the 24-hour BP levels were not. In young ischemic stroke patients, high acute phase BP levels are independently associated with a high risk of recurrent strokes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Sleep Duration and the Risk of Mortality From Stroke in Japan: The Takayama Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Kawachi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have assessed the associations between sleep duration and stroke subtypes. We examined whether sleep duration is associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. Methods: Subjects included 12 875 men and 15 021 women aged 35 years or older in 1992, who were followed until 2008. The outcome variable was stroke death (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and total stroke. Results: During follow-up, 611 stroke deaths (354 from ischemic stroke, 217 from hemorrhagic stroke, and 40 from undetermined stroke were identified. Compared with 7 h of sleep, ≥9 h of sleep was significantly associated with an increased risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality after controlling for covariates. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.16–1.97 and 1.65 (95% CI, 1.16–2.35 for total stroke mortality and ischemic stroke mortality, respectively. Short sleep duration (≤6 h of sleep was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59–1.01, although this association was of borderline significance (P = 0.06. The trends for total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality were also significant (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively. There was a significant risk reduction of hemorrhagic stroke mortality for ≤6 h of sleep as compared with 7 h of sleep (HR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42–0.98; P for trend = 0.08. The risk reduction was pronounced for men (HR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16–0.64. Conclusions: Data suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with increased mortality from total and ischemic stroke. Short sleep duration may be associated with a decreased risk of mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men.

  15. Quantifying links between stroke and risk factors: a study on individual health risk appraisal of stroke in a community of Chongqing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yazhou; Zhang, Ling; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yamin; Yi, Dong

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the risk factors of stroke in a community in Chongqing by setting quantitative criteria for determining the risk factors of stroke. Thus, high-risk individuals can be identified and laid a foundation for predicting individual risk of stroke. 1,034 cases with 1:2 matched controls (2,068) were chosen from five communities in Chongqing including Shapingba, Xiaolongkan, Tianxingqiao, Yubei Road and Ciqikou. Participants were interviewed with a uniform questionnaire. The risk factors of stroke and the odds ratios of risk factors were analyzed with a logistic regression model, and risk exposure factors of different levels were converted into risk scores using statistical models. For men, ten risk factors including hypertension (5.728), family history of stroke (4.599), and coronary heart disease (5.404), among others, were entered into the main effect model. For women, 11 risk factors included hypertension (5.270), family history of stroke (4.866), hyperlipidemia (4.346), among others. The related risk scores were added to obtain a combined risk score to predict the individual's risk of stoke in the future. An individual health risk appraisal model of stroke, which was applicable to individuals of different gender, age, health behavior, disease and family history, was established. In conclusion, personal diseases including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc., were very important to the prevalence of stoke. The prevalence of stroke can be effectively reduced by changing unhealthy lifestyles and curing the positive individual disease. The study lays a foundation for health education to persuade people to change their unhealthy lifestyles or behaviors, and could be used in community health services.

  16. Effects of aspirin on risk and severity of early recurrent stroke after transient ischaemic attack and ischaemic stroke : time-course analysis of randomised trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothwell, Peter M; Algra, Ale; Chen, Zhengming; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Norrving, Bo; Mehta, Ziyah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aspirin is recommended for secondary prevention after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ischaemic stroke on the basis of trials showing a 13% reduction in long-term risk of recurrent stroke. However, the risk of major stroke is very high for only the first few days after TIA and minor

  17. Perinatal stroke and the risk of developing childhood epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Meredith R.; Garg, Bhuwan P.; Carvalho, Karen S.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Williams, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of epilepsy after 6 months-of-age in children with perinatal stroke and examine whether perinatal data predict epilepsy onset and resolution. Study design A retrospective review of 64 children with perinatal stroke. In children with at least 6 months of follow-up data, Kaplan-Meier curves, univariate log-rank tests, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine predictors of time to development of seizures, and time to resolution of seizures in children with epilepsy. The association of risk factors with the presence of epilepsy at any time after 6 months-of-age was examined using Fisher’s exact test. Results Forty-one of the 61 children with at least 6 months of follow-up data (67%) had epilepsy between 6 months-of-age and last follow-up, but in 13 of 41 seizures eventually resolved and anticonvulsants were discontinued. Infarct on prenatal ultrasound (p=0.0065) and family history of epilepsy (p=0.0093) were significantly associated with time to development of seizures after 6 months-of-age in the univariate analysis. No assessed variables were associated with time to resolution of epilepsy or with the presence of epilepsy after 6 months-of-age. Conclusions Childhood epilepsy is frequent after perinatal stroke. Evidence of infarction on prenatal ultrasound and a family history of epilepsy predict earlier onset of active seizures. PMID:17889079

  18. Population-based study of ischemic stroke risk after trauma in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christine K; Hills, Nancy K; Vinson, David R; Numis, Adam L; Dicker, Rochelle A; Sidney, Stephen; Fullerton, Heather J

    2017-12-05

    To quantify the incidence, timing, and risk of ischemic stroke after trauma in a population-based young cohort. We electronically identified trauma patients (trauma and 3 controls per case. A physician panel reviewed medical records, confirmed cases, and adjudicated whether the stroke was related to trauma. We calculated the 4-week stroke incidence and estimated stroke odds ratios (OR) by injury location using logistic regression. From 1,308,009 trauma encounters, we confirmed 52 trauma-related ischemic strokes. The 4-week stroke incidence was 4.0 per 100,000 encounters (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0-5.2). Trauma was multisystem in 26 (50%). In 19 (37%), the stroke occurred on the day of trauma, and all occurred within 15 days. In 7/28 cases with cerebrovascular angiography at the time of trauma, no abnormalities were detected. In unadjusted analyses, head, neck, chest, back, and abdominal injuries increased stroke risk. Only head (OR 4.1, CI 1.1-14.9) and neck (OR 5.6, CI 1.03-30.9) injuries remained associated with stroke after adjusting for demographics and trauma severity markers (multisystem trauma, motor vehicle collision, arrival by ambulance, intubation). Stroke risk is elevated for 2 weeks after trauma. Onset is frequently delayed, providing an opportunity for stroke prevention during this period. However, in one-quarter of stroke cases with cerebrovascular angiography at the time of trauma, no vascular abnormality was detected. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Risk factors, aetiology and outcome of ischaemic stroke in young adults: the Swiss Young Stroke Study (SYSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeggel Simonetti, Barbara; Mono, Marie-Luise; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Michel, Patrik; Odier, Celine; Sztajzel, Roman; Lyrer, Philippe; Engelter, Stefan T; Bonati, Leo; Gensicke, Henrik; Traenka, Christopher; Tettenborn, Barbara; Weder, Bruno; Fischer, Urs; Galimanis, Aekaterini; Jung, Simon; Luedi, Rudolf; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Weck, Anja; Cereda, Carlo W; Baumgartner, Ralf; Bassetti, Claudio L; Mattle, Heinrich P; Nedeltchev, Krassen; Arnold, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    Ischaemic stroke (IS) in young adults has been increasingly recognized as a serious health condition. Stroke aetiology is different in young adults than in the older population. This study aimed to investigate aetiology and risk factors, and to search for predictors of outcome and recurrence in young IS patients. We conducted a prospective multicentre study of consecutive IS patients aged 16-55 years. Baseline demographic data, risk factors, stroke aetiology including systematic genetic screening for Fabry disease and severity were assessed and related to functional neurological outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS), case fatality, employment status, place of residence, and recurrent cerebrovascular events at 3 months. In 624 IS patients (60% men), median age was 46 (IQR 39-51) years and median NIHSS on admission 3 (IQR 1-8). Modifiable vascular risk factors were found in 73%. Stroke aetiology was mostly cardioembolism (32%) and of other defined origin (24%), including cervicocerebral artery dissection (17%). Fabry disease was diagnosed in 2 patients (0.3%). Aetiology remained unknown in 20%. Outcome at 3 months was favourable (mRS 0-1) in 61% and fatal in 2.9%. Stroke severity (p young adults with IS had modifiable vascular risk factors, emphasizing the importance of prevention strategies. Outcome was unfavourable in more than a third of patients and was associated with initial stroke severity and diabetes mellitus. Previous cerebrovascular events predicted recurrent ones.

  20. Contemporary approach to stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: Risks, benefits, and new options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Jonathan; Malm, Brian J

    2018-04-04

    Atrial fibrillation is a common diagnosis affecting nearly 3 million adults in the United States. Morbidity and mortality in these patients is driven largely by the associated increased risk of thromboembolic complications, especially stroke. Atrial fibrillation is a stronger risk factor than hypertension, coronary disease, or heart failure and is associated with an approximately five-fold increased risk. Mitigating stroke risk can be challenging and requires accurate assessment of stroke risk factors and careful selection of appropriate therapy. Anticoagulation, including the more recently introduced direct oral anticoagulants, is the standard of care for most patients. In addition, emerging non-pharmacologic mechanical interventions are playing an expanding role in reducing stroke risk in select patients. In this review we highlight the current approach to stroke risk stratification in atrial fibrillation and discuss in detail the mechanism, risks, and benefits of current and evolving therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factors in various subtypes of ischemic stroke according to toast criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquil, N.; Begum, I.; Ahmed, A.; Vohra, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    To identify the frequency of risk factors in various subtypes of acute ischemic stroke according to TOAST criteria. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi, from January to December 2007. Methodology: Patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled. Studied variables included demographic profile, history of risk factors, physical and neurological examination, and investigations relevant with the objectives of the study. Findings were described as frequency percentages. Proportions of risk factors against subtypes was compared using chi-square test with significance at p < 0.05. Results: Out of the 100 patients with acute ischemic stroke, mean age at presentation was 63.5 years. Risk factor distribution was hypertension in 85%, Diabetes mellitus in 49%, ischemic heart disease in 30%, dyslipedemia in 22%, smoking in 9%, atrial fibrillation in 5%, and previous history of stroke in 29%. The various subtypes of acute ischemic stroke were lacunar infarct in 43%, large artery atherosclerosis in 31%, cardioembolic type in 8%, stroke of other determined etiology in 1% and stroke of undetermined etiology in 18%. Hypertension and Diabetes were the most important risk factors in both large and small artery atherosclerosis. In patients with cardio-embolic stroke significant association was found with ischemic heart disease (p=0.01). Conclusion: Importance and relevance of risk factors evaluated for subtypes rather than ischemic stroke as a whole should be reflected in preventive efforts against the burden of ischemic stroke. (author)

  2. Strokes attributable to underuse of warfarin and antiplatelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Rasmussen, Berit Hammershaimb; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2007-01-01

    atrial fibrillation, prior myocardial infarction, angina, or prior stroke transient ischemic attack (TIA). Sufficient information on cardiovascular risk factors before stroke was available in 404 patients. A total of 54 patients had atrial fibrillation known before the stroke. Of these, 16 had...... fibrillation could have been prevented if warfarin or antiplatelets had been given before stroke. A total of 147 patients had known stroke/TIA and/or myocardial infarction/angina before stroke (41 patients had not received antiplatelets on admission). If antiplatelet therapy had been given before stroke, 10...

  3. Microalbuminuria could improve risk stratification in patients with TIA and minor stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyas, Salim; Shore, Angela C; Kingwell, Hayley; Keenan, Samantha; Boxall, Leigh; Stewart, Jane; James, Martin A; Strain, William David

    2016-09-01

    Transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and minor strokes are important risk factors for recurrent strokes. Current stroke risk prediction scores such as ABCD2, although widely used, lack optimal sensitivity and specificity. Elevated urinary albumin excretion predicts cardiovascular disease, stroke, and mortality. We explored the role of microalbuminuria (using albumin creatinine ratio (ACR)) in predicting recurrence risk in patients with TIA and minor stroke. Urinary ACR was measured on a spot sample in 150 patients attending a daily stroke clinic with TIA or minor stroke. Patients were followed up at day 7, 30, and 90 to determine recurrent stroke, cardiovascular events, or death. Eligible patients had a carotid ultrasound Doppler investigation. High-risk patients were defined as those who had an event within 90 days or had >50% internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. Fourteen (9.8%) recurrent events were reported by day 90 including two deaths. Fifteen patients had severe ICA stenosis. In total, 26 patients were identified as high risk. These patients had a higher frequency of previous stroke or hypercholesterolemia compared to low-risk patients (P = 0.04). ACR was higher in high-risk patients (3.4 [95% CI 2.2-5.2] vs. 1.7 [1.5-2.1] mg/mmol, P = 0.004), independent of age, sex, blood pressure, diabetes, and previous stroke. An ACR greater than 1.5 mg/mmol predicted high-risk patients (Cox proportional hazard ratio 3.5 (95% CI 1.3-9.5, P = 0.01). After TIA or minor stroke, a higher ACR predicted recurrent events and significant ICA stenosis. Incorporation of urinary ACR from a spot sample in the acute setting could improve risk stratification in patients with TIA and minor stroke.

  4. Excessive Premature Atrial Complexes and the Risk of Recurrent Stroke or Death in an Ischemic Stroke Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Kristina H; Tveskov, Claus; Möller, Sören; Auscher, Soren; Osmanagic, Armin; Egstrup, Kenneth

    2017-06-01

    Our aim was to investigate the association of premature atrial complexes and the risk of recurrent stroke or death in patients with ischemic stroke in sinus rhythm. In a prospective cohort study, we used 24-hour Holter recordings to evaluate premature atrial complexes in patients consecutively admitted with ischemic strokes. Excessive premature atrial complexes were defined as >14 premature atrial complexes per hour and 3 or more runs of premature atrial complexes per 24 hours. During follow-up, 48-hour Holter recordings were performed after 6 and 12 months. Among patients in sinus rhythm, the association of excessive premature atrial complexes and the primary end point of recurrent stroke or death were estimated in both crude and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. We further evaluated excessive premature atrial complexes contra atrial fibrillation in relation to the primary end point. Of the 256 patients included, 89 had atrial fibrillation. Of the patients in sinus rhythm (n = 167), 31 had excessive premature atrial complexes. During a median follow-up of 32 months, 50 patients (30% of patients in sinus rhythm) had recurrent strokes (n = 20) or died (n = 30). In both crude and adjusted models, excessive premature atrial complexes were associated with the primary end point, but not with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation. Compared with patients in atrial fibrillation, those with excessive premature atrial complexes had similarly high risks of the primary end point. In patients with ischemic stroke and sinus rhythm, excessive premature atrial complexes were associated with a higher risk of recurrent stroke or death. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and 5-year Mortality in the Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2005-01-01

    population. METHODS: We studied 905 ischemic stroke patients from the community-based Copenhagen Stroke Study. Patients had a CT scan and stroke severity was measured by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale on admission. A comprehensive evaluation was performed by a standardized medical examination...... and questionnaire for cardiovascular risk factors, age, and sex. Follow-up was performed 5 years after stroke, and data on mortality were obtained for all, except 6, who had left the country. Five-year mortality was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier procedure and the influence of multiple predictors was analyzed...... by Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusted for age, gender, stroke severity, and risk factor profile. RESULTS: In Kaplan-Meier analyses atrial fibrillation (AF), ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and previous stroke were associated with increased mortality, while smoking and alcohol intake were...

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors and 5-year mortality in the Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2005-01-01

    population. METHODS: We studied 905 ischemic stroke patients from the community-based Copenhagen Stroke Study. Patients had a CT scan and stroke severity was measured by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale on admission. A comprehensive evaluation was performed by a standardized medical examination...... and questionnaire for cardiovascular risk factors, age, and sex. Follow-up was performed 5 years after stroke, and data on mortality were obtained for all, except 6, who had left the country. Five-year mortality was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier procedure and the influence of multiple predictors was analyzed...... by Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusted for age, gender, stroke severity, and risk factor profile. RESULTS: In Kaplan-Meier analyses atrial fibrillation (AF), ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and previous stroke were associated with increased mortality, while smoking and alcohol intake were...

  7. Risk of stroke among patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Pan, Tai-Long; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Lee, Ying-Chiao; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2015-04-01

    Previous evidence has shown positive associations between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus, which are all risk factors for stroke, but the role of PTSD in the subsequent development of stroke is still unknown. To investigate the temporal association between PTSD and the development of stroke. Identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 5217 individuals aged ≥18 years, with PTSD but with no history of stroke, and 20 868 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled between 2002 and 2009, and followed up until the end of 2011 to identify the development of stroke. Individuals with PTSD had an increased risk of developing any stroke (hazard ratio (HR) 3.37, 95% CI 2.44-4.67) and ischaemic stroke (HR = 3.47, 95% CI 2.23-5.39) after adjusting for demographic data and medical comorbidities. Sensitivity tests showed consistent findings (any stroke HR = 3.02, 95% CI 2.13-4.28; ischaemic stroke HR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.79-4.66) after excluding the first year of observation. Individuals with PTSD have an increased risk of developing any stroke and ischaemic stroke. Further studies are required to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  8. Risk factor and etiology analysis of ischemic stroke in young adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Rosaria; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Della Marca, Giacomo; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Morosetti, Roberta; Frisullo, Giovanni; Rossi, Elena; De Stefano, Valerio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    Approximately 10%-14% of ischemic strokes occur in young adults. To investigate risk factors and etiologies of strokes of young adults admitted to the "stroke unit" of Policlinico "Gemelli" of Rome from December 2005 to January 2013. In all, 150 consecutive patients younger than 50 years diagnosed with ischemic stroke were enrolled. Clinical evaluation consisted of a complete neurologic examination and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Diagnostic workup consisted of anamnesis, extensive laboratory, radiologic, and cardiologic examination. Stroke etiologies were classified according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment. Patients' mean age was 41 ± 8.0 years. The most common risk factors were dyslipidemia (52.7%), smoking (47.3%), hypertension (39.3%), and patent foramen ovale (PFO, 32.8%). Large-artery atherosclerosis was diagnosed as the cause of stroke in 17 patients (11.3%). Cardioembolism was presumed in 36 patients (24%), most of them presented a PFO at transesophageal echocardiography. Small-vessel occlusion was diagnosed in 12 patients (8%); all of them were hypertensive and most of them presented additional risk factors. Forty-one patients (27.3%) presented a stroke of other determined etiology and 44 (29.3%) presented a stroke of undetermined etiology. The 3-year survival was 96.8% and recurrent strokes occurred in only 3 cases. Traditional vascular risk factors are also very common in young adults with ischemic stroke, but such factors increase the susceptibility to stroke dependent to other causes as atherosclerosis and small-artery occlusion represent less than 20% of cases. Prognosis quoadvitam is good, being characterized by low mortality and recurrence rate. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults of Northern China: Characteristics and Risk Factors for Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Yang, Li; Yang, Rui; Xu, Wei; Chen, Fu-Ping; Li, Nan; Zhang, Jin-Biao

    2017-01-01

    Young adults accounted for 10-14% of ischemic stroke patients. The risk factors may differ in this population from elder patients. In addition, the factors associated with stroke recurrence in this population have not been well investigated. The study aimed to investigate the characteristics and risk factors associated with recurrence of ischemic stroke in young adults. Clinical data of 1,395 patients of age 18-45 years who were treated between 2008 and 2014 in 3 centers located in northern China was reviewed. The first onset of stroke was taken as the initial events and recurrent stroke as the end point events. The end point events, age, gender, duration after first onset of stroke, history of disease, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission, Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classifications of the cause of stroke and adherence to medication were recorded. These factors were analyzed and compared between recurrence and non-recurrence group. Information about recurrent stroke was collected through clinical (readmission to hospital with ischemic stroke) or telephone follow-up survey. Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors of recurrence. The most common causes of stroke were large vessel atherosclerosis and small vessel occlusion, followed by cardioembolism. NIHSS score at admission (OR 1.088; 95% CI 1.028-1.152; p = 0.004) were associated with recurrence. Vascular disease, especially premature atherosclerosis, is the major risk factor for ischemic stroke in the young adult population of northern China. Timely screening of the cause of stroke with severe NIHSS score needs further attention. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of non-fatal stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A T; Lidegaard, O; Kreiner, S

    1997-01-01

    haemorrhage, 846 thromboembolic infarction, 321 transient ischaemic attack) and 3171 controls. FINDINGS: After adjustment for confounding variables and correction for the trend in sales of HRT preparations, no significant associations were detected between current use of unopposed oestrogen replacement...... influence on the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage (1.22 [0.79-1.89]), intracerebral haemorrhage (1.17 [0.64-2.13]), or thromboembolic infarction (1.17 [0.92-1.47]). A significantly increased incidence of transient ischaemic attacks among former users of HRT and among current users of unopposed oestrogen may...... to some extent be explained by selection--HRT users being more aware of symptoms than non-users. INTERPRETATION: Unopposed oestrogen and combined oestrogen-progestagen replacement therapy have no influence on the risk of non-fatal thromboembolic or haemorrhagic stroke in women aged 45-64 years....

  11. Risk Profile of Symptomatic Lacunar Stroke Versus Nonlobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotti, Andrea; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Zini, Andrea; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Caso, Valeria; Dell'Acqua, Maria Luisa; Simone, Anna Maria; Lanari, Alessia; Costa, Paolo; Poli, Loris; De Giuli, Valeria; Gamba, Massimo; Ciccone, Alfonso; Ritelli, Marco; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Iacoviello, Licia; Colombi, Marina; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Grassi, Mario; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Padovani, Alessandro; Pezzini, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Although lacunar stroke (LS) and deep intracerebral hemorrhage (dICH) represent acute manifestations of the same pathological process involving cerebral small vessels (small vessel disease), it remains unclear what factors predispose to one phenotype rather than the other at individual level. Consecutive patients with either acute symptomatic LS or dICH were prospectively enrolled as part of a multicenter Italian study. We compared the risk factor profile of the 2 subgroups using multivariable logistic regression. During a time course of 9.5 years, 1931 subjects (1434 LS and 497 dICH; mean age, 71.3±13.3 years; males, 55.5%) qualified for the analysis. Current smoking was associated with LS (odds ratio [OR], 2.17; Prisk factor profile of dICH differs from that associated with LS. This might be used for disease risk stratification at individual level. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Risk factors for islet loss during culture prior to transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin, Tatsuya; Senior, Peter; O'Gorman, Doug; Richer, Brad; Salam, Abdul; Shapiro, Andrew Mark James

    2008-11-01

    Culturing islets can add great flexibility to a clinical islet transplant program. However, a reduction in the islet mass has been frequently observed during culture and its degree varies. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with a significant islet loss during culture. One-hundred and four islet preparations cultured in an attempt to use for transplantation constituted this study. After culture for 20 h (median), islet yield significantly decreased from 363 309 +/- 12 647 to 313 035 +/- 10 862 islet equivalent yield (IE) (mean +/- SE), accompanied by a reduction in packed tissue volume from 3.9 +/- 0.1 to 3.0 +/- 0.1 ml and islet index (IE/islet particle count) from 1.20 +/- 0.04 to 1.05 +/- 0.04. Culture did not markedly alter islet purity or percent of trapped islet. Morphology score and viability were significantly improved after culture. Of 104 islet preparations, 37 suffered a substantial islet loss (> 20%) over culture. Factors significantly associated with risk of islet loss identified by univariate analysis were longer cold ischemia time, two-layer method (TLM) preservation, lower islet purity, and higher islet index. Multivariate analysis revealed that independent predictors of islet loss were higher islet index and the use of TLM. This study provides novel information on the link between donor- isolation factors and islet loss during culture.

  13. Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for post-stroke delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tae Sung; Lee, Jin Soo; Yoon, Jung Han; Moon, So Young; Joo, In Soo; Huh, Kyoon; Hong, Ji Man

    2017-03-23

    Post-stroke delirium is a common problem in the care of stroke patients, and is associated with longer hospitalization, high short-term mortality, and an increased need for long-term care. Although post-stroke delirium occurs in approximately 10 ~ 30% of patients, little is known about the risk factors for post-stroke delirium in patients who experience acute stroke. A total of 576 consecutive patients who experienced ischemic stroke (mean age, 65.2 years; range, 23-93 years) were screened for delirium over a 2-year period in an acute stroke care unit of a tertiary referral hospital. We screened for delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method. Once delirium was suspected, we evaluated the symptoms using the Korean Version of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98. Neurological deficits were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at admission and discharge, and functional ability was assessed using the Barthel Index and modified Rankin Scale at discharge and 3 months after discharge. Thirty-eight (6.7%) patients with stroke developed delirium during admission to the acute stroke care unit. Patients with delirium were significantly older (70.6 vs. 64.9 years of age, P = .001) and smoked cigarettes more frequently (40% vs. 24%, P = .033) than patients without delirium. In terms of clinical features, the delirium group experienced a significantly higher rate of major hemispheric stroke (55% vs. 26%, P delirium were older age, history of cigarette smoking, and major hemispheric stroke. Abrupt cessation of cigarette smoking may be a risk factor for post-stroke delirium in ischemic stroke patients. The development of delirium after stroke is associated with worse outcome and longer hospitalization.

  14. Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium Intakes and Risk of Stroke in Male Smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, S.C.; Virtanen, M.J.; Mars, M.; Mannisto, S.; Pietinen, P.; Albanes, D.; Virtamo, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background A high intake of magnesium, calcium, and potassium and a low intake of sodium have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of stroke. However, prospective data relating intake of these minerals to risk of stroke are inconsistent. Methods We examined the relationship of dietary magnesium,

  15. The profile of risk factors and in-patient outcomes of stroke in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We therefore conducted this study to evaluate the frequencies of the traditional risk factors and outcomes of stroke at the main tertiary referral centre in the middle belt of Ghana in a prospective observational study. Methods and results: Patients with a clinical diagnosis of stroke were consecutively recruited and vascular risk ...

  16. Stroke risk estimation across nine European countries in the MORGAM project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2010-01-01

    Previous tools for stroke risk assessment have either been developed for specific populations or lack data on non-fatal events or uniform data collection. The purpose of this study was to develop a stepwise model for the estimation of 10 year risk of stroke in nine different countries across Europe....

  17. Controlling principles for prior probability assignments in nuclear risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, I.; Unwin, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    As performed conventionally, nuclear probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) may be criticized as utilizing inscrutable and unjustifiably ''precise'' quantitative informed judgment or extrapolation from that judgment. To meet this criticism, controlling principles that govern the formulation of probability densities are proposed, given only the informed input that would be required for a simple bounding analysis. These principles are founded upon information theoretic ideas of maximum uncertainty and cover both cases in which there exists a stochastic model of the phenomenon of interest and cases in which these is no such model. In part, the principles are conventional, and such an approach is justified by appealing to certain analogies in accounting practice and judicial decision making. Examples are given. Appropriate employment of these principles is expected to facilitate substantial progress toward PRA scrutability and transparency

  18. Risk factors for acute stroke among South Asians compared to other racial/ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tefera Gezmu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. METHODS: Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. RESULTS: South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. DISCUSSION: Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.

  19. Risk factors for acute stroke among South Asians compared to other racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Gizzi, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease) among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.

  20. Risk factors in various subtypes of ischemic stroke according to TOAST criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquil, Nadia; Begum, Imtiaz; Ahmed, Arshia; Vohra, Ejaz Ahmed; Soomro, Bashir Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    To identify the frequency of risk factors in various subtypes of acute ischemic stroke according to TOAST criteria. Cross-sectional, observational study. Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi, from January to December 2007. Patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled. Studied variables included demographic profile, history of risk factors, physical and neurological examination, and investigations relevant with the objectives of the study. Findings were described as frequency percentages. Proportions of risk factors against subtypes was compared using chi-square test with significance at p dyslipedemia in 22%, smoking in 9%, atrial fibrillation in 5%, and previous history of stroke in 29%. The various subtypes of acute ischemic stroke were lacunar infarct in 43%, large artery atherosclerosis in 31%, cardioembolic type in 8%, stroke of other determined etiology in 1% and stroke of undetermined etiology in 18%. Hypertension and Diabetes were the most important risk factors in both large and small artery atherosclerosis. In patients with cardio-embolic stroke significant association was found with ischemic heart disease (p=0.01). Importance and relevance of risk factors evaluated for subtypes rather than ischemic stroke as a whole should be reflected in preventive efforts against the burden of ischemic stroke.

  1. Ischemic stroke risk factors during Greek economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Fiolaki, Aidonio; Markou, Sofia; Markoula, Sofia; Kosmidou, Maria; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Giannopoulos, Sotirios

    2016-02-01

    The impact of Greece's economic crisis on healthcare is of great concern. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of economic crisis on the prevention of cerebral ischemic events. Retrospective analysis of patients with ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) admitted to a tertiary neurological department in northwestern Greece during the period 2008-2014. Using 2011 as the transitional year IS/TIA patients were dichotomized according to their admission date in two subgroups: the "before economic crisis" subgroup and the "after economic crisis" subgroup. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictor variables of statin/antihypertensive pretreatment. Patients admitted after the economic crisis outbreak (mean age: 57.6 ± 13.5 years) were found to have lower waist periphery measurements (p = 0.001), lower incidence of diabetes (p = 0.028), hyperlipidemia (p = 0.002) and metabolic syndrome(p crisis (mean age: 59.6 ± 11.1 years). However, between the two subgroups were no significant differences in the rates of untreated patients with hyperlipidemia (p = 0.189) and/or hypertension (p = 0.313). Even though statin pretreatment prior to stroke onset was found to be reduced during economic crisis compared to the period before the crisis, (OR = 0.58, 95%CI: 0.34-0.95, p = 0.032), this association did not retain statistical significance in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR = 1.69, 95%CI = 0.83-3.42, p = 0.143). Our study supports that at present financial crisis has not significantly affected the prevention of cerebrovascular events in the citizens of a provincial city area. Data from other regions and time-periods are needed for the final verdict. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Patent foramen ovale and the risk of ischemic stroke in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, Marco R; Sacco, Ralph L; Sciacca, Robert R; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi

    2007-02-20

    We sought to assess the risk of ischemic stroke from a patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the multiethnic prospective cohort of northern Manhattan. Patent foramen ovale has been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, mainly in case-control studies. The actual PFO-related stroke risk in the general population is unclear. The presence of PFO was assessed at baseline by using transthoracic 2-dimensional echocardiography with contrast injection in 1,100 stroke-free subjects older than 39 years of age (mean age 68.7 +/- 10.0 years) from the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS). The presence of atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) also was recorded. Subjects were followed annually for outcomes. We assessed PFO/ASA-related stroke risk after adjusting for established stroke risk factors. We detected PFO in 164 subjects (14.9%); ASA was present in 27 subjects (2.5%) and associated with PFO in 19 subjects. During a mean follow-up of 79.7 +/- 28.0 months, an ischemic stroke occurred in 68 subjects (6.2%). After adjustment for demographics and risk factors, PFO was not found to be significantly associated with stroke (hazard ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87 to 3.09). The same trend was observed in all age, gender, and race-ethnic subgroups. The coexistence of PFO and ASA did not increase the stroke risk (adjusted hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 0.17 to 9.24). Isolated ASA was associated with elevated stroke incidence (2 of 8, or 25%; adjusted hazard ratio 3.66, 95% CI 0.88 to 15.30). Patent foramen ovale, alone or together with ASA, was not associated with an increased stroke risk in this multiethnic cohort. The independent role of ASA needs further assessment in appositely designed and powered studies.

  3. Prevalence, Incidence, Prognosis, Early Stroke Risk, and Stroke-Related Prognostic Factors of Definite or Probable Transient Ischemic Attacks in China, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiological characteristics of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs in China are unclear. In 2013, we conducted a nationally representative, door-to-door epidemiological survey on TIA in China using a complex, multistage, probability sampling design. Results showed that the weighted prevalence of TIA in China was 103.3 [95% confidence interval (CI: 83.9–127.2] per 100,000 in the population, 92.4 (75.0–113.8 per 100,000 among men, and 114.7 (87.2–151.0 per 100,000 among women. The weighted incidence of TIA was 23.9 (17.8–32.0 per 100,000 in the population, 21.3 (14.3–31.5 per 100,000 among men, and 26.6 (17.0–41.7 per 100,000 among women. No difference in average prognosis was found between TIA and stroke in the population. Weighted risk of stroke among TIA patients was 9.7% (6.5–14.3%, 11.1% (7.5–16.1%, and 12.3% (8.4–17.7% at 2, 30, and 90 days, respectively. The risk of stroke was higher among male patients with a history of TIA than among female patients with a history of TIA (OR: 2.469; 95% CI: 1.172–5.201; P = 0.018, and higher among TIA patients with hypertension than among TIA patients without hypertension (OR: 2.671; 1.547–4.613; P < 0.001. It can be concluded that there are an estimated 1.35 million TIA patients nationwide, with 0.31 million new cases of TIA annually in China. TIA patients were not better managed prior to a stroke event. Early risk of stroke among TIA patients is high. Sex and hypertension may be stroke-associated prognostic factors among TIA patients. TIA clinics and surveillance should be integrated into the national health-care system.

  4. Protamine reduces bleeding complications associated with carotid endarterectomy without increasing the risk of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, David H; Nolan, Brian W; Schanzer, Andres; Goodney, Philip P; Cambria, Robert A; Likosky, Donald S; Walsh, Daniel B; Cronenwett, Jack L

    2010-03-01

    Controversy persists regarding the use of protamine during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) based on prior conflicting reports documenting both reduced bleeding as well as increased stroke risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of protamine reversal of heparin anticoagulation on the outcome of CEA in a contemporary multistate registry. We reviewed a prospective regional registry of 4587 CEAs in 4311 patients performed by 66 surgeons from 11 centers in Northern New England from 2003-2008. Protamine use varied by surgeon (38% routine use, 44% rare use, 18% selective use). Endpoints were postoperative bleeding requiring reoperation as well as potential thrombotic complications, including stroke, death, and myocardial infarction (MI). Predictors of endpoints were determined by multivariate logistic regression after associated variables were identified by univariate analysis. Of the 4587 CEAs performed, 46% utilized protamine, while 54% did not. Fourteen patients (0.64%) in the protamine-treated group required reoperation for bleeding compared with 42 patients (1.66%) in the untreated cohort (P = .001). Protamine use did not affect the rate of MI (1.1% vs 0.91%, P = .51), stroke (0.78% vs 1.15%, P = .2), or death (0.23% vs 0.32%, P = .57) between treated and untreated patients, respectively. By multivariate analysis, protamine (odds ratio [OR] 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.63; P = .001) and patch angioplasty (OR 0.46, 95% CI, 0.26-0.81; P = .007) were independently associated with diminished reoperation for bleeding. A single center was associated with a significantly higher rate of reoperation for bleeding (OR 6.47, 95% CI, 3.02-13.9; P < .001). Independent of protamine use, consequences of reoperation for bleeding were significant, with a four-fold increase in MI, a seven-fold increase in stroke, and a 30-fold increase in death. Protamine reduced serious bleeding requiring reoperation during CEA without increasing the risk of MI, stroke

  5. Lower Your Stroke Risk (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-05

    Stroke is among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. In the U.S., strokes are more common among women. In this podcast, Dr. Erika Odom discusses ways to decrease your chances of having a stroke.  Created: 11/5/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/5/2015.

  6. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Diet and Risk of Stroke: A Danish Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Overvad, Kim; Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dahm, Christina Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Specific dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean diet, have been associated with stroke prevention. Our aim was to investigate whether adherence to a healthy Nordic diet, including fish, apples and pears, cabbages, root vegetables, rye bread, and oatmeal, was associated with risk of stroke. Incident cases of stroke among 55 338 men and women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort were identified from the Danish National Patient Register and verified by review of records. Cases of ischemic stroke were further subclassified based on etiology according to the TOAST classification system (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment). Information on diet was collected at baseline (1993-1997) using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratios of total stroke and subtypes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. During a median follow-up of 13.5 years, 2283 cases of incident stroke were verified, including 1879 ischemic strokes. Adherence to a healthy Nordic diet, as reflected by a higher Healthy Nordic Food Index score, was associated with a lower risk of stroke. The hazards ratio comparing an index score of 4 to 6 (high adherence) with an index score of 0 to 1 (low adherence) was 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.76-0.98) for total stroke. Inverse associations were observed for ischemic stroke, including large-artery atherosclerosis. No trend was observed for hemorrhagic stroke; however, a statistically insignificant trend was observed for intracerebral hemorrhage. Our findings suggest that a healthy Nordic diet may be recommended for the prevention of stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Changes in risk factor profile after ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornnes, Nete

    up 1 year after stroke. We constructed a baseline risk factor profile (RFP) of 6 variables: smoking, excessive drinking, physical inactivity, untreated hypertension, no cholesterol-lowering, and no antithrombotic treatment/warfarin at discharge from hospital. Each item was rated 0 or 1 giving...... a maximum score of 6 points. Mean baseline RFP-score was 1.6 Results. After 1 year we found a reduction in current smoking (p=0.008) and in excessive drinking (p=0.0001). There was no change in physical activity and in untreated hypertension. There was an increase in the proportion of patients on lipid......-lowering (p=0.011) and antithrombotic (p=0.0003) treatment yielding a reduction in RFP to 1.4 (phypertensive, and most patients with untreated hypertension and hypercholesterolemia remained untreated. By 1-year follow up 30 patients (9.4%) had had a non...

  8. Increased risk of ischemic stroke in cervical cancer patients: a nationwide population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Su, Yu-Chieh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Huang, Yung-Sung; Tung, Chien-Hsueh; Lee, Ching-Chih; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lin, Hon-Yi; Hsu, Feng-Chun; Tsai, Chih-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Increased risk of ischemic stroke has been validated for several cancers, but limited study evaluated this risk in cervical cancer patients. Our study aimed to evaluate the risk of ischemic stroke in cervical cancer patients. The study analyzed data from the 2003 to 2008 National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) provided by the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan. Totally, 893 cervical cancer patients after radiotherapy and 1786 appendectomy patients were eligible. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the risk of ischemic stroke. The 5-year cumulative risk of ischemic stroke was significantly higher for the cervical cancer group than for the control group (7.8% vs 5.1%; p <0.005). The risk of stroke was higher in younger (age <51 years) than in older (age ≥51 years) cervical cancer patients (HR = 2.73, p = 0.04; HR = 1.37, p = 0.07) and in patients with more than two comorbid risk factors (5 years cumulative stroke rate of two comorbidities: 15% compared to no comorbidities: 4%). These study demonstrated cervical cancer patients had a higher risk of ischemic stroke than the general population, especially in younger patients. Strategies to reduce this risk should be assessed

  9. Risk Factors of Nicardipine-Related Phlebitis in Acute Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Kei; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Koudai; Kadoguchi, Naoto; Yamamoto, Souichi; Morimoto, Masanori

    2016-10-01

    Intravenous nicardipine is generally used to treat hypertension in acute stroke patients but is associated with frequent phlebitis. We aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors of phlebitis in such patients. The incidence and risk factors of phlebitis were investigated in 358 acute stroke patients from July 2014 to June 2015. In total, 138 patients received intravenous nicardipine. Of 45 (12.6%) phlebitis patients in 358 acute stroke patients, 42 (93.3%) were administered nicardipine, which was significantly associated with phlebitis occurrence (P phlebitis of acute stroke patients in univariate analysis were intracerebral hemorrhage (P phlebitis is frequently observed in acute stroke patients and is significantly associated with administration of a maximum concentration of nicardipine greater than 130 µg/mL. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    with a first stroke within 72 h of hospital presentation in whom CT or MRI is performed. Proxy respondents are used for cases unable to communicate. Etiological and topographical stroke subtype is documented for all cases. Controls are hospital- and community-based, matched for gender, ethnicity and age (+/-5...... years). A questionnaire (cases and controls) is used to acquire information on known and proposed risk factors for stroke. Cardiovascular (e.g. blood pressure) and anthropometric (e.g. waist-to-hip ratio) measurements are obtained at the time of interview. Nonfasting blood samples and random urine......-income countries is inadequate, where a very large burden of stroke occurs. Accordingly, a similar epidemiological study is required for stroke, to inform effective population-based strategies to reduce the risk of stroke. Methods: INTERSTROKE is an international, multicenter case-control study. Cases are patients...

  11. Dietary and circulating lycopene and stroke risk: a meta-analysis of prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Xinli; XU, Jiuhong

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies support a protective role of lycopene against stroke occurrence or mortality, but the results have been conflicting. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between dietary or circulating lycopene and stroke risk (including stroke occurrence or mortality). Relevant papers were collected by screening the PubMed database through October 2013. Only prospective studies providing relative risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals for the association between lycopene and stroke were included. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled estimate. Subgroup analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of various factors on the final results. The pooled analysis of seven prospective studies, with 116,127 participants and 1,989 cases, demonstrated that lycopene decreased stroke risk by 19.3% (RR = 0.807, 95% CI = 0.680–0.957) after adjusting for confounding factors. No heterogeneity was observed (p = 0.234, I2 = 25.5%). Circulating lycopene, not dietary lycopene, was associated with a statistically significant decrease in stroke risk (RR = 0.693, 95% CI = 0.503–0.954). Lycopene could protect European, or males against stroke risk. Duration of follow-up had no effect on the final results. There was no evidence of publication bias. Lycopene, especially circulating lycopene, is negatively associated with stroke risk. PMID:24848940

  12. The role of genetics in stroke risk factors; the discussion of two rare genetic syndroms associated with stroke and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Kılıç Çoban

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is defined as a focal or at times global neurological impairment of sudden onset, that lasts more than 24 hours or that leads to death. The nonmodifiable risk factors for stroke include age, race, gender and acquired risk factors include smoking, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Previous studies have shown that these mentioned risk factors might be responsible for approximately 50% of patients presenting stroke. However for the remaining half of the stroke patients no risk factors could be detected and genetics might be responsible for this group. In this manuscript we would like to present 2 cases who were being followed-up with the rare genetic syndromes as Marfan syndrome and Robinow syndrome respectively. These patients presented to our clinic with stroke and no identifiable risk factors other than these genetic syndromes could be detected. By this case-series we would like to further discuss the relationship between genetic syndromes and stroke.

  13. Association of Neovascular Glaucoma with Risk of Stroke: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wen Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neovascular glaucoma (NVG, caused by ocular ischemia, is a serious ocular disease complicated by intractably increased intraocular pressure. Cerebrovascular accidents are classified into ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Based on the similar pathogenic mechanisms of NVG and ischemic stroke, we investigated the relationship between NVG and stroke by using a nationally representative sample. This study included 416 NVG patients and 4160 controls. Medical comorbidities were also evaluated. The cumulative incidence of ischemic stroke was 15.6% higher in the NVG cohort than in the control cohort (p<0.001; the incidence density rates of stroke were 3.80 and 1.19 per 10,000 person-years in the NVG and control cohorts, respectively. According to the multivariable Cox regression results, the estimated adjusted hazard ratio (aHR of stroke was 2.07 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.41–3.02 for the NVG cohort. Furthermore, the NVG cohort was 2.24-fold more likely to develop ischemic stroke (95% CI = 1.51–3.32. The risk of ischemic stroke was higher in patients with hypertension (aHR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.55–2.82 and in patients with diabetic retinopathy (aHR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.05–2.72. Notably, patients with NVG have a higher risk of ischemic stroke, but not hemorrhagic stroke.

  14. Whole Grain Consumption and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: Results From 2 Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Juan; Liu, Gang; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Sun, Qi

    2017-12-01

    Higher intake of whole grains may exert cardiometabolic benefits, although findings on stroke risk are inconclusive. The potentially differential effects of individual whole grain foods on ischemic stroke have not been examined. We analyzed whole grain consumption in relation to ischemic stroke among 71 750 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 42 823 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study who were free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer at baseline (1984 and 1986, respectively) through 2010 using a Cox proportional hazards model. Validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires were used to assess consumption of whole grain intake, including whole grain cold breakfast cereal, dark bread, oatmeal, brown rice, popcorn, bran, and germ. Self-reported incident cases of ischemic stroke were confirmed through medical record review. During 2 820 128 person-years of follow-up in the 2 cohorts, 2458 cases of ischemic stroke were identified and confirmed. Intake of total whole grains was not associated with risk of ischemic stroke after adjustment for covariates: the pooled hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing extreme intake levels was 1.04 (0.91-1.19). However, intake of whole grain cold breakfast cereal and total bran was inversely associated with ischemic stroke after multivariate adjustment: the pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.88 (0.80-0.96; P trend =0.008) and 0.89 (0.79-1.00; P trend =0.004), respectively. Other whole grain foods were not associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke. Although overall consumption of whole grains was not associated with lower risk of ischemic stroke, greater consumption of whole grain cold breakfast cereal and bran was significantly associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke. More studies are needed to replicate these associations between individual whole grain foods and risk of ischemic stroke among other populations. © 2017 American Heart

  15. Stroke after coronary artery bypass grafting. Is there place for a stroke-risk stratification model?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noyez, L.; Swieten, H.A. van

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Preoperative carotid screening is common in the prevention of perioperative stroke. The authors describe our experience with selective screening of patients with a recent (<1 year) neurological event. Because many variables are related with the development of perioperative stroke we

  16. Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke: The Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Hamidreza; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Shoamanesh, Ashkan; Pikula, Aleksandra; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Romero, Jose R; Kase, Carlos S; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-07-01

    Low insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis and atrial fibrillation in cross-sectional studies. Yet, prospective data linking IGF-1 levels to the development of ischemic stroke remain inconclusive. We examined prospectively the association between serum IGF-1 levels and incident ischemic stroke. We measured serum IGF-1 levels in 757 elderly individuals (mean age 79±5, 62% women), free of prevalent stroke, from the Framingham original cohort participants at the 22nd examination cycle (1990-1994) and were followed up for the development of ischemic stroke. Cox models were used to relate IGF-1 levels to the risk for incident ischemic stroke, adjusted for potential confounders. During a mean follow-up of 10.2 years, 99 individuals developed ischemic stroke. After adjustment for age, sex, and potential confounders, higher IGF-1 levels were associated with a lower risk of incident ischemic stroke, with subjects in the lowest quintile of IGF-1 levels having a 2.3-fold higher risk of incident ischemic stroke (95% confidence interval, 1.09-5.06; P =0.03) as compared with those in the top quintile. We observed an effect modification by diabetes mellitus and waist-hip ratio for the association between IGF-1 and ischemic stroke ( P <0.1). In subgroup analyses, the effects were restricted to subjects with diabetics and those in top waist-hip ratio quartile, in whom each standard deviation increase in IGF-1 was associated with a 61% (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.78; P =0.007) and 41% (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.95; P =0.031) lower risk of incident ischemic stroke, respectively. IGF-1 levels were inversely associated with ischemic stroke, especially among persons with insulin resistance. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Multivitamin use and risk of stroke incidence and mortality amongst women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebamowo, S N; Feskanich, D; Stampfer, M; Rexrode, K; Willett, W C

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have examined the association between multivitamin use and the risk of stroke incidence and mortality, and the results remain inconclusive as to whether multivitamins are beneficial. The associations between multivitamin use and the risk of incident stroke and stroke mortality were prospectively examined in 86 142 women in the Nurses' Health Study, aged 34-59 years and free of diagnosed cardiovascular disease at baseline. Multivitamin use and covariates were updated every 2 years and strokes were documented by review of medical records. Hazard ratios of total, ischaemic and hemorrhagic strokes were calculated across categories of multivitamin use (non-user, past, current user) and duration (years), using Cox proportional hazards models. During 32 years of follow-up from 1980 to 2012, 3615 incident strokes were documented, including 758 deaths from stroke. In multivariate analyses, women who were current multivitamin users did not have a lower risk of incident total stroke compared to non-users [relative risk (RR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.11], even those with longer durations of 15 or more years of use (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.97-1.20) or those with a lower quality diet (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.80-1.15). There was also no indication of benefit from multivitamin use for incident ischaemic or hemorrhagic strokes or for total stroke mortality. Long-term multivitamin use was not associated with reduced risk of stroke incidence or mortality amongst women in the study population, even amongst those with a lower diet quality. An effect in a less well-nourished population cannot be ruled out. © 2017 EAN.

  18. Recurrent transient ischaemic attack and early risk of stroke: data from the PROMAPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purroy, Francisco; Jiménez Caballero, Pedro Enrique; Gorospe, Arantza; Torres, María José; Alvarez-Sabin, José; Santamarina, Estevo; Martínez-Sánchez, Patricia; Cánovas, David; Freijo, María José; Egido, Jose Antonio; Ramírez-Moreno, Jose M; Alonso-Arias, Arantza; Rodríguez-Campello, Ana; Casado, Ignacio; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Fuentes, Blanca; Silva, Yolanda; Quesada, Helena; Cardona, Pere; Morales, Ana; de la Ossa, Natalia Pérez; García-Pastor, Antonio; Arenillas, Juan F; Segura, Tomas; Jiménez, Carmen; Masjuán, Jaime

    2013-06-01

    Many guidelines recommend urgent intervention for patients with two or more transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) within 7 days (multiple TIAs) to reduce the early risk of stroke. To determine whether all patients with multiple TIAs have the same high early risk of stroke. Between April 2008 and December 2009, we included 1255 consecutive patients with a TIA from 30 Spanish stroke centres (PROMAPA study). We prospectively recorded clinical characteristics. We also determined the short-term risk of stroke (at 7 and 90 days). Aetiology was categorised using the TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification. Clinical variables and extracranial vascular imaging were available and assessed in 1137/1255 (90.6%) patients. 7-Day and 90-day stroke risk were 2.6% and 3.8%, respectively. Large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was confirmed in 190 (16.7%) patients. Multiple TIAs were seen in 274 (24.1%) patients. Duration <1 h (OR=2.97, 95% CI 2.20 to 4.01, p<0.001), LAA (OR=1.92, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.72, p<0.001) and motor weakness (OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.81, p=0.031) were independent predictors of multiple TIAs. The subsequent risk of stroke in these patients at 7 and 90 days was significantly higher than the risk after a single TIA (5.9% vs 1.5%, p<0.001 and 6.8% vs 3.0%, respectively). In the logistic regression model, among patients with multiple TIAs, no variables remained as independent predictors of stroke recurrence. According to our results, multiple TIAs within 7 days are associated with a greater subsequent risk of stroke than after a single TIA. Nevertheless, we found no independent predictor of stroke recurrence among these patients.

  19. Stroke Risk among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Zhejiang: A Population-Based Prospective Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to explore the incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM based on the long-term surveillance data in Zhejiang, China, during 2007 to 2013. Materials and Methods. During January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013, a total of 327,268 T2DM and 307,984 stroke patients were registered on Diabetes and Stroke Surveillance System, respectively. Stroke subtypes were classified according to standard definitions of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and ischemic stroke. The incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes was calculated by standardized incidence ratio (SIRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs compared with general population. Results. The incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes among patients with T2DM was significantly higher than in general population. Stroke risk was found significantly increased with an SIR of 3.87 (95% CI 3.76–3.99 and 3.38 (95% CI 3.27–3.48 in females and males, respectively. The excess risk of stroke was mainly attributable to the significantly higher risk of cerebral infarctions with the risk for T2DM being four times that for general population. Conclusions. The relationship between stroke and T2DM was strong, especially in female. The incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes among patients with T2DM was up to 3-fold higher than in general population in Zhejiang province, especially the subtype of cerebral infarctions.

  20. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sabine, E-mail: muellers@neuropeds.ucsf.edu [Department of Neurology, Pediatrics and Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Fullerton, Heather J. [Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Goldsby, Robert E. [Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Packer, Roger J. [Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Sklar, Charles A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bowers, Daniel C. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas (United States); Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively.

  1. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Sabine; Fullerton, Heather J.; Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy; Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Goldsby, Robert E.; Packer, Roger J.; Sklar, Charles A.; Bowers, Daniel C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively

  2. How does number of risk factors affect prognosis in young patients with ischemic stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putaala, Jukka; Haapaniemi, Elena; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2012-02-01

    We aimed to explore clinical features of young patients with ischemic stroke with no traditional vascular risk factors and to assess the impact of risk factor counts on outcomes. We included 990 patients aged 15 to 49 years with first-ever ischemic stroke followed for a mean of 9.0 ± 3.8 years (survivors). Risk factors were categorized as well-documented and less well-documented. Outcome measures were unfavorable functional outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale 2-6); recurrent ischemic stroke; myocardial infarction or other arterial noncerebrovascular event; and death from any cause. Compared with those with at least 1 well-documented risk factor, the 127 (12.8%) patients without risk factors were younger (median age, 37 versus 44 years; Pischemic strokes (4.7% versus 13.6%; log rank P=0.014), noncerebrovascular arterial events (0% versus 6.1%; P=0.008), and lower long-term mortality (3.4% versus 14.3%; P=0.003) than did those with at least 1 risk factor. Adjusted for demographics and stroke etiology, the number of well-documented risk factors was associated with higher risk for noncerebrovascular events. Increasing count of less well-documented risk factors was, in turn, independently associated with higher long-term mortality. In young adults with first-ever ischemic stroke, risk factor counts added independent prognostic information regarding noncerebrovascular events and mortality.

  3. Increased risk of treatment with antidepressants in stroke compared with other chronic illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Henrik; Harhoff, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of depression and anxiety is higher in patients with stroke than in the general population but it is unclear whether patients with stroke are at an increased risk of being treated for depression and anxiety compared with patients with other chronic illness. The objective...... of the present study was to investigate whether the rate of treatment with antidepressants is increased in patients with stroke compared with patients with other chronic illness and compared with the general population. By linkage of nationwide case registers, all patients who received a main diagnosis of stroke...

  4. Impact of age on the importance of systolic and diastolic blood pressures for stroke risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K K; Borglykke, Anders Rething; Andreasen, Anne H

    2012-01-01

    , and Monograph (MORGAM) Project with baseline between 1982 and 1997, 68 551 subjects aged 19 to 78 years, without cardiovascular disease and not receiving antihypertensive treatment, were included. During a mean of 13.2 years of follow-up, stroke incidence was 2.8%. Stroke risk was analyzed using hazard ratios...

  5. estimated glomerular filtration rate and risk of survival in acute stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... Design: A prospective observational cross-sectional study. Setting: Medical ... stroke sub-type, blood sugar, serum creatinine, serum urea and ... history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, history of alcohol ... Declining renal function takes its toll on homeostasis .... risk of stroke: meta-analysis. BMJ 2010 ...

  6. Long-term risk of recurrent vascular events after young stroke: The FUTURE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Long-term data on recurrent vascular events after young stroke are limited. Our objective was to examine the long-term risk of recurrent vascular events after young stroke. METHODS: We prospectively included 724 consecutive patients with a first-ever transient ischemic attack (TIA),

  7. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Giordano, Christine; Gizzi, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014). All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL) than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke risk factors examined in this study predicts the increase in the incidence of the disease, lack of knowledge/awareness and lack of affordable treatments for stroke risk factors among women and immigrants/non-US-born subpopulations may explain the observed associations.

  8. Risk awareness and knowledge of patients with stroke: results of a questionnaire survey 3 months after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croquelois, A; Bogousslavsky, J

    2006-01-01

    Background Secondary prevention of stroke has been shown to dramatically reduce recurrence and has been described as suboptimal. Objective To analyse patients' awareness and knowledge about cerebrovascular risk factors (CVRF) and their influence on CVRF control. Methods Patients (n = 164) who were attending a stroke outpatient clinic for the first time after hospital discharge (3 months) for a first stroke were asked to answer a short questionnaire including questions on awareness and knowledge of CVRF, visits to a CVRF specialist, number of visits to a general practitioner, adherence to drug treatments, cigarette smoking and cessation. Results CVRF were spontaneously mentioned as relevant for their stroke by only13% of patients. A specialist was visited by only one‐third of the patients and a general practitioner was not visited at all by 27% of the patients since their stroke. Awareness was inversely correlated with older age and good recovery. More than half of the patients had high blood pressure (≥140 mmHg for systolic and ≥90 mmHg for diastolic values) at the time of follow‐up. These high values were correlated with poor awareness. Appropriate secondary stroke prevention measures were not received by one‐fourth of the patients; this was also correlated with poor awareness. Conclusions CVRF control is not optimal and is at least partially related to patients' awareness and knowledge and suboptimal medical follow‐up. Older patients and patients with excellent recovery are at particular risk for poor awareness and CVRF control. PMID:16549417

  9. Discontinuation of antiplatelet treatment and risk of recurrent stroke and all-cause death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Kamilla; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    use and followed them up for stroke recurrence, or all-cause death. Person-time was classified by antiplatelet drug use into current use, recent use (≤150 days after last use), and non-use (>150 days after last use). Lipid-lowering drug (LLD) use was classified by the same rules. We used Cox......BACKGROUND: We wished to examine the impact of antiplatelet drug discontinuation on recurrent stroke and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We identified a cohort of incident ischaemic stroke patients in a Danish stroke registry, 2007-2011. Using population-based registries we assessed subjects' drug...... proportional hazard models to calculate the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of recurrent stroke or death associated with discontinuation of antiplatelet or LLD drugs. RESULTS: Among 4,670 stroke patients followed up for up a median of 1.5 years, 237...

  10. Combined effects of socioeconomic position, smoking, and hypertension on risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Helene; Osler, Merete; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Combined effects of socioeconomic position and well-established risk factors on stroke incidence have not been formally investigated. METHODS: In a pooled cohort study of 68 643 men and women aged 30 to 70 years in Denmark, we examined the combined effect and interaction...... between socioeconomic position (ie, education), smoking, and hypertension on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence by the use of the additive hazards model. RESULTS: During 14 years of follow-up, 3613 ischemic strokes and 776 hemorrhagic strokes were observed. Current smoking and hypertension were...... more prevalent among those with low education. Low versus high education was associated with greater ischemic, but not hemorrhagic, stroke incidence. The combined effect of low education and current smoking was more than expected by the sum of their separate effects on ischemic stroke incidence...

  11. A Feature Analysis of Risk Factors for Stroke in the Middle-Aged Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Haewon Byeon; Hyeung Woo Koh

    2015-01-01

    In order to maintain health during middle age and achieve successful aging, it is important to elucidate and prevent risk factors of middle-age stroke. This study investigated high risk groups of stroke in middle age population of Korea and provides basic material for establishment of stroke prevention policy by analyzing sudden perception of speech/language problems and clusters of multiple risk factors. This study analyzed 2,751 persons (1,191 males and 1,560 females) aged 40–59 who partici...

  12. GRECOS Project (Genotyping Recurrence Risk of Stroke): The Use of Genetics to Predict the Vascular Recurrence After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cadenas, Israel; Mendióroz, Maite; Giralt, Dolors; Nafria, Cristina; Garcia, Elena; Carrera, Caty; Gallego-Fabrega, Cristina; Domingues-Montanari, Sophie; Delgado, Pilar; Ribó, Marc; Castellanos, Mar; Martínez, Sergi; Freijo, Marimar; Jiménez-Conde, Jordi; Rubiera, Marta; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Molina, Carlos A; Font, Maria Angels; Grau Olivares, Marta; Palomeras, Ernest; Perez de la Ossa, Natalia; Martinez-Zabaleta, Maite; Masjuan, Jaime; Moniche, Francisco; Canovas, David; Piñana, Carlos; Purroy, Francisco; Cocho, Dolores; Navas, Inma; Tejero, Carlos; Aymerich, Nuria; Cullell, Natalia; Muiño, Elena; Serena, Joaquín; Rubio, Francisco; Davalos, Antoni; Roquer, Jaume; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Martí-Fábregas, Joan; Keene, Keith; Chen, Wei-Min; Worrall, Bradford; Sale, Michele; Arboix, Adrià; Krupinski, Jerzy; Montaner, Joan

    2017-05-01

    Vascular recurrence occurs in 11% of patients during the first year after ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack. Clinical scores do not predict the whole vascular recurrence risk; therefore, we aimed to find genetic variants associated with recurrence that might improve the clinical predictive models in IS. We analyzed 256 polymorphisms from 115 candidate genes in 3 patient cohorts comprising 4482 IS or transient ischemic attack patients. The discovery cohort was prospectively recruited and included 1494 patients, 6.2% of them developed a new IS during the first year of follow-up. Replication analysis was performed in 2988 patients using SNPlex or HumanOmni1-Quad technology. We generated a predictive model using Cox regression (GRECOS score [Genotyping Reurrence Risk of Stroke]) and generated risk groups using a classification tree method. The analyses revealed that rs1800801 in the MGP gene (hazard ratio, 1.33; P =9×10 - 03 ), a gene related to artery calcification, was associated with new IS during the first year of follow-up. This polymorphism was replicated in a Spanish cohort (n=1.305); however, it was not significantly associated in a North American cohort (n=1.683). The GRECOS score predicted new IS ( P =3.2×10 - 09 ) and could classify patients, from low risk of stroke recurrence (1.9%) to high risk (12.6%). Moreover, the addition of genetic risk factors to the GRECOS score improves the prediction compared with previous Stroke Prognosis Instrument-II score ( P =0.03). The use of genetics could be useful to estimate vascular recurrence risk after IS. Genetic variability in the MGP gene was associated with vascular recurrence in the Spanish population. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Stroke Mortality, Clinical Presentation and Day of Arrival: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C. O'Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies report that acute stroke patients who present to the hospital on weekends have higher rates of 28-day mortality than similar patients who arrive during the week. However, how this association is related to clinical presentation and stroke type has not been systematically investigated. Methods and Results. We examined the association between day of arrival and 28-day mortality in 929 validated stroke events in the ARIC cohort from 1987–2004. Weekend arrival was defined as any arrival time from midnight Friday until midnight Sunday. Mortality was defined as all-cause fatal events from the day of arrival through the 28th day of followup. The presence or absence of thirteen stroke signs and symptoms were obtained through medical record review for each event. Binomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR; 95% CI for the association between weekend arrival and 28-day mortality for all stroke events and for stroke subtypes. The overall risk of 28-day mortality was 9.6% for weekday strokes and 10.1% for weekend strokes. In models controlling for patient demographics, clinical risk factors, and event year, weekend arrival was not associated with 28-day mortality (0.87; 0.51, 1.50. When stratified by stroke type, weekend arrival was not associated with increased odds of mortality for ischemic (1.17, 0.62, 2.23 or hemorrhagic (0.37; 0.11, 1.26 stroke patients. Conclusions. Presence or absence of thirteen signs and symptoms was similar for weekday patients and weekend patients when stratified by stroke type. Weekend arrival was not associated with 28-day all-cause mortality or differences in symptom presentation for strokes in this cohort.

  14. Substitution of Linoleic Acid for Other Macronutrients and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venø, Stine K; Schmidt, Erik B; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Bach, Flemming W; Overvad, Kim

    2017-12-01

    Ischemic stroke is a major health problem worldwide, but the influence of dietary factors on stroke risk is not well known. This study aimed to investigate the risk of ischemic stroke and its subtypes with a higher intake from linoleic acid and a concomitant lower intake from saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, or glycemic carbohydrates. In the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer, and Health Study of 57 053 participants aged 50 to 64 years at baseline, information on diet was collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Information on ischemic stroke was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register, and cases were all validated and subclassified according to the TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification. Substitution of linoleic acid for saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, or glycemic carbohydrates was investigated in relation to the risk of ischemic stroke and subtypes. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the associations with ischemic stroke adjusting for appropriate confounders. During 13.5 years of follow-up 1879 participants developed ischemic stroke. A slightly lower risk of ischemic stroke was found with a 5% higher intake of linoleic acid and a concomitant lower intake of saturated fatty acid (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.16), monounsaturated fatty acid (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-1.02), and glycemic carbohydrates (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.09), although not statistically significant. Similar patterns of association were found for large-artery atherosclerosis and small-vessel occlusions. This study suggests that replacing saturated fatty acid, glycemic carbohydrate, or monounsaturated fatty acid with linoleic acid may be associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Sleep duration and risk of stroke mortality among Chinese adults: Singapore Chinese health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, An; De Silva, Deidre Anne; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-06-01

    Prospective relation between sleep duration and stroke risk is less studied, particularly in Asians. We examined the association between sleep duration and stroke mortality among Chinese adults. The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort of 63 257 Chinese adults aged 45 to 74 years enrolled during 1993 through 1998. Sleep duration at baseline was assessed via in-person interview, and death information during follow-up was ascertained via record linkage with the death registry up to December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios with adjustment for other comorbidities and lifestyle risk factors of stroke mortality. During 926 752 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1381 stroke deaths (322 from hemorrhagic and 1059 from ischemic or nonspecified strokes). Compared with individuals with 7 hours per day of sleep, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of total stroke mortality was 1.25 (1.05-1.50) for ≤5 hours per day (short duration), 1.01 (0.87-1.18) for 6 hours per day, 1.09 (0.95-1.26) for 8 hours per day, and 1.54 (1.28-1.85) for ≥9 hours per day (long duration). The increased risk of stroke death with short (1.54; 1.16-2.03) and long durations of sleep (1.95; 1.48-2.57) was seen among subjects with a history of hypertension, but not in those without hypertension. These findings were limited to risk of death from ischemic or nonspecified stroke, but not observed for hemorrhagic stroke. Both short and long sleep durations are associated with increased risk of stroke mortality in a Chinese population, particularly among those with a history of hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Sleep duration and risk of stroke mortality among Chinese adults: the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, An; De Silva, Deidre Anne; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prospective relation between sleep duration and stroke risk is less studied, particularly in Asians. We examined the association between sleep duration and stroke mortality among Chinese adults. Methods The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort of 63,257 Chinese adults aged 45-74 years enrolled during 1993 through 1998. Sleep duration at baseline was assessed via in-person interview, and death information during follow-up was ascertained via record linkage with the death registry up to December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with adjustment for other comorbidities and lifestyle risk factors of stroke mortality. Results During 926,752 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1,381 stroke deaths (322 from hemorrhagic and 1,059 from ischemic or non-specified strokes). Compared to individuals with 7 hours/day of sleep, the multivariate-adjusted HR (95% confidence interval) of total stroke mortality was 1.25 (1.05-1.50) for ≤5 hours/day (short duration), 1.01 (0.87-1.18) for 6 hours/day, 1.09 (0.95-1.26) for 8 hours/day, and 1.54 (1.28-1.85) for ≥9 hours/day (long duration). The increased risk of stroke death with short (1.54; 1.16-2.03) and long duration of sleep (1.95; 1.48-2.57) was seen among subjects with a history of hypertension, but not in those without hypertension. These findings were limited to risk of death from ischemic or non-specified stroke, but not observed for hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusions Both short and long sleep durations are associated with increased risk of stroke mortality in a Chinese population, particularly among those with a history of hypertension. PMID:24743442

  17. Risks of newly onset hemorrhagic stroke in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan-Ju Annabelle; Cheng, Ching-Lan; Lee, Cheng-Han; Kao Yang, Yea-Huei; Lin, Swu-Jane; Hsieh, Cheng-Yang

    2017-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease causing blindness in the elderly. It shares many common possible pathogenic mechanisms with cardiovascular diseases. Many studies have discussed the association between AMD and stroke, but the results were inconsistent. Our aim was to determine the associations between neovascular AMD and the risk of stroke in the Taiwanese population. This is a retrospective cohort study. We used claims data from National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients aged more than 45 years without stroke, myocardial infarction, or any AMD were selected from 2001 to 2008 and followed until 2010. The index date was defined as the date of nAMD diagnosis (ICD-9 code, 362.52). The comparison group was patients without an nAMD diagnosis with age- and sex-matched to nAMD subjects at a ratio of up to 10 to 1. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used. The incidence of stroke events (ICD-9 codes, 430-434) and their subtypes (hemorrhagic and ischemic) were primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included acute myocardial infarction (AMI), composite AMI/stroke, and all-cause mortality. Patients with nAMD had a higher risk of developing stroke, with an adjusted HR of 1.30 (95% CI, 1.01-1.68). A higher risk for hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 1.70, 95% CI, 1.03-2.83) was also found. No significant differences were observed in ischemic stroke, the composite of AMI/stroke, and all-cause mortality. Patients with nAMD had a significantly higher risk of developing stroke, which was driven mainly by the increased risk of developing the hemorrhagic subtype. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Sex of prior children and risk of stillbirth in subsequent pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Nygaard, Ulrikka

    2010-01-01

    (singleton) between 1980 and 1998 (n = 499,731) using the Danish Birth Registry. These women had subsequent singleton births through 2004 (n = 558,314). We assessed the risk of stillbirth conditional on sex of prior children. RESULTS: The risk of stillbirth was increased by 12% after deliver of boys compared...

  19. A risk score for in-hospital death in patients admitted with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric E; Shobha, Nandavar; Dai, David; Olson, DaiWai M; Reeves, Mathew J; Saver, Jeffrey L; Hernandez, Adrian F; Peterson, Eric D; Fonarow, Gregg C; Schwamm, Lee H

    2013-01-28

    We aimed to derive and validate a single risk score for predicting death from ischemic stroke (IS), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Data from 333 865 stroke patients (IS, 82.4%; ICH, 11.2%; SAH, 2.6%; uncertain type, 3.8%) in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke database were used. In-hospital mortality varied greatly according to stroke type (IS, 5.5%; ICH, 27.2%; SAH, 25.1%; unknown type, 6.0%; Pmortality and to assign point scores for a prediction model in the overall population and in the subset with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) recorded (37.1%). The c statistic, a measure of how well the models discriminate the risk of death, was 0.78 in the overall validation sample and 0.86 in the model including NIHSS. The model with NIHSS performed nearly as well in each stroke type as in the overall model including all types (c statistics for IS alone, 0.85; for ICH alone, 0.83; for SAH alone, 0.83; uncertain type alone, 0.86). The calibration of the model was excellent, as demonstrated by plots of observed versus predicted mortality. A single prediction score for all stroke types can be used to predict risk of in-hospital death following stroke admission. Incorporation of NIHSS information substantially improves this predictive accuracy.

  20. Lipoprotein(a) concentration and the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and nonvascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collaboration, Emerging Risk Factors; Erqou, Sebhat; Kaptoge, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    were recorded, including 9336 CHD outcomes, 1903 ischemic strokes, 338 hemorrhagic strokes, 751 unclassified strokes, 1091 other vascular deaths, 8114 nonvascular deaths, and 242 deaths of unknown cause. Within-study regression analyses were adjusted for within-person variation and combined using meta.......02-1.18) for ischemic stroke, 1.01 (95% CI, 0.98-1.05) for the aggregate of nonvascular mortality, 1.00 (95% CI, 0.97-1.04) for cancer deaths, and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.95-1.06) for nonvascular deaths other than cancer. CONCLUSION: Under a wide range of circumstances, there are continuous, independent, and modest......CONTEXT: Circulating concentration of lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), a large glycoprotein attached to a low-density lipoprotein-like particle, may be associated with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of Lp(a) concentration with risk of major vascular...

  1. PATIENT DEMOGRAPHIC, RISK FACTORS AND SEASONAL VARIATION IN ONSET OF STROKE

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    M. K. M. Kathyayani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Existence of particular chronobiological pattern in onset of acute cerebrovascular diseases characterised by circannual rhythms has been detected. India is a subtropical country with clear seasonal variations in weather conditions. Stroke causes death and disability worldwide. Seasons may influence stroke occurrence. The mechanisms underlying these seasonal variations of stroke are not fully understood, but a possible reason may include seasonal variation of biological factors such as arterial blood pressure, serum lipid levels and other blood components. Better understanding and controlling of risk factors associated with onset of stroke will improve the disease prevention. The objective of the present study is to examine the role of possible precipitating or triggering factors. This study reviews records of patients with stroke attending the Department of Medicine, KGH, Visakhapatnam. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients with diagnosis of stroke attending the Department of Medicine, KGH, Visakhapatnam, were selected. Computed tomographic types of stroke, both ischaemic and haemorrhagic and risk factors associated were considered with tropical seasonal variation. RESULTS A total of 150 stroke patients were included in the study of which 93 (62% were males, 57 (38% were females and 46% in 50-65 years age group, 4% in 20-35 years, 28% in 35-50 years, 22% in 65-80 years and above age groups. Of the total, 93.33% presented with 1st attack and only 6.66% presented with recurrent stroke. The prevalence of types of stroke was: ischaemic stroke 54.66%, haemorrhagic stroke 45.33%. The prevalence of risk factors associated with stroke was - male gender 62%, smoking 56.66%, hypertension 56%, age >50 years 46%, alcohol consumption 43%, hyperlipidaemia 16.66%, consumption of alcohol and smoking together 13.33%, valvular heart diseases 6.66%. A high seasonal prevalence was observed in winter season (50.66%. CONCLUSION This study revealed that male

  2. Hemoglobin Concentration and Risk of Incident Stroke in Community-Living Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Bhupesh; Judd, Suzanne E; Warnock, David G; McClellan, William M; Booth, John N; Muntner, Paul; Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2016-08-01

    In previous observational studies, hemoglobin concentrations have been associated with an increased risk of stroke. However, these studies were limited by a relatively low number of stroke events, making it difficult to determine whether the association of hemoglobin and stroke differed by demographic or clinical factors. Using Cox proportional hazards analysis and Kaplan-Meier plots, we examined the association of baseline hemoglobin concentrations with incident stroke in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a cohort of black and white adults aged ≥45 years. A total of 518 participants developed stroke over a mean 7±2 years of follow-up. There was a statistically significant interaction between hemoglobin and sex (P=0.05) on the risk of incident stroke. In Cox regression models adjusted for demographic and clinical variables, there was no association of baseline hemoglobin concentration with incident stroke in men, whereas in women, the lowest (14.0 g/dL) quartiles of hemoglobin were associated with higher risk of stroke when compared with the second quartile (12.4-13.2 g/dL; quartile 1: hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.31; quartile 2: referent; quartile 3: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.38; quartile 4: hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.35). Similar results were observed in models stratified by hemoglobin and sex and when hemoglobin was modeled as a continuous variable using restricted quadratic spline regression. Lower and higher hemoglobin concentrations were associated with a higher risk of incident stroke in women. No such associations were found in men. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Association of RTEL1 gene polymorphisms with stroke risk in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Zeng, Chaosheng; Su, Qingjie; Zhou, Jingxia; Li, Pengxiang; Dai, Mingming; Wang, Desheng; Long, Faqing

    2017-12-29

    We investigated the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 ( RTEL1 ) gene and stroke in the Chinese population. A total of 400 stroke patients and 395 healthy participants were included in this study. Five SNPs in RTEL1 were genotyped and the association with stroke risk was analyzed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify SNPs that correlated with stroke. Rs2297441 was associated with an increased risk of stroke in an allele model (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.01-1.52, p = 0.043). Rs6089953 was associated with an increased risk of stroke under the genotype model ([OR] = 1.862, [CI] = 1.123-3.085, p = 0.016). Rs2297441 was associated with an increased risk of stroke in an additive model (OR = 1.234, 95% CI = 1.005, p = 0.045, Rs6089953, Rs6010620 and Rs6010621 were associated with an increased risk of stroke in the recessive model (Rs6089953:OR = 1.825, 95% CI = 1.121-2.969, p =0.01546; Rs6010620: OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.008-2.669, p =0.04656;Rs6010621:OR = 1.661, 95% CI = 1.014-2.722, p =0.04389). Our findings reveal a possible association between SNPs in the RTEL1 gene and stroke risk in Chinese population.

  4. Women and stroke patients are more at risk for fall- related injury among older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyowati Tuminah Darjoko

    2016-05-01

    Women and stroke sufferers were at higher risk of fall-related injury among older persons. Prevention of fall-related injury should be done by older persons through periodic control of their health condition.

  5. Impact of depression on risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Khalid, Usman; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with depression, myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Patients with depression have increased cardiovascular risk. However, the link between psoriasis, depression and cardiovascular disease is unclear. This link was investigated in a nationwide Danish cohort of patients.......43–2.66), and cardiovascular death (IRR 2.24, 95% CI 1.53–3.26) were increased significantly during acute depression, and risk of stroke (IRR 1.51, 95% CI 1.19–1.90) was increased significantly in chronic depression. During remission from depression, only the risk of stroke was increased. In conclusion, in patients...... with psoriasis, depression is associated with increased risk of MI, stroke and cardiovascular death, especially during acute depression....

  6. The effect of medical treatments on stroke risk in asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alice; Shipley, Martin; Markus, Hugh

    2013-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests current best medical treatment may be sufficient to prevent stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. If this is the case, then it is important to determine risk reduction provided by treatments. Using Asymptomatic Carotid Emboli Study (ACES) prospective data, the effect of current treatment and risk factors on future stroke and transient ischemic attack risk were determined. Four-hundred seventy-seven patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis were followed-up every 6 months for 2 years. Changes in risk factors and stroke prevention therapies were reviewed at each visit. Using time-dependent Cox regression, the relationship between current treatment over time was determined and presented as hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for risk of stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cardiovascular death end points. On multivariate analysis, antiplatelets (P=0.001) and lower mean blood pressure (P=0.002) were independent predictors of reduced risk of ipsilateral stroke and transient ischemic attack. Antiplatelets (Pstroke or cardiovascular death. Antiplatelet therapy and blood pressure control are the most important factors in reducing short-term stroke and cardiovascular risk in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. More prospective data are required for medical treatments in asymptomatic carotid stenosis in particular for current statin usage.

  7. ABCD3-I score and the risk of early or 3-month stroke recurrence in tissue- and time-based definitions of TIA and minor stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Lukas; Ferrari, Julia; Krebs, Stefan; Boehme, Christian; Toell, Thomas; Matosevic, Benjamin; Tinchon, Alexander; Brainin, Michael; Gattringer, Thomas; Sommer, Peter; Thun, Peter; Willeit, Johann; Lang, Wilfried; Kiechl, Stefan; Knoflach, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Changing definition of TIA from time to a tissue basis questions the validity of the well-established ABCD3-I risk score for recurrent ischemic cerebrovascular events. We analyzed patients with ischemic stroke with mild neurological symptoms arriving TIA or minor stroke, in the prospective multi-center Austrian Stroke Unit Registry. Patients were retrospectively categorized according to a time-based (symptom duration below/above 24 h) and tissue-based (without/with corresponding brain lesion on CT or MRI) definition of TIA or minor stroke. Outcome parameters were early stroke during stroke unit stay and 3-month ischemic stroke. Of the 5237 TIA and minor stroke patients with prospectively documented ABCD3-I score, 2755 (52.6%) had a TIA by the time-based and 2183 (41.7%) by the tissue-based definition. Of the 2457 (46.9%) patients with complete 3-month followup, corresponding numbers were 1195 (48.3%) for the time- and 971 (39.5%) for the tissue-based definition of TIA. Early and 3-month ischemic stroke occurred in 1.1 and 2.5% of time-based TIA, 3.8 and 5.9% of time-based minor stroke, 1.2 and 2.3% of tissue-based TIA as well as in 3.1 and 5.5% of tissue-based minor stroke patients. Irrespective of the definition of TIA and minor stroke, the risk of early and 3-month ischemic stroke steadily increased with increasing ABCD3-I score points. The ABCD3-I score performs equally in TIA patients in tissue- as well as time-based definition and the same is true for minor stroke patients.

  8. In-hospital risk prediction for post-stroke depression: development and validation of the Post-stroke Depression Prediction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B; Lindeman, Eline; Ettema, Roelof G A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2013-09-01

    The timely detection of post-stroke depression is complicated by a decreasing length of hospital stay. Therefore, the Post-stroke Depression Prediction Scale was developed and validated. The Post-stroke Depression Prediction Scale is a clinical prediction model for the early identification of stroke patients at increased risk for post-stroke depression. The study included 410 consecutive stroke patients who were able to communicate adequately. Predictors were collected within the first week after stroke. Between 6 to 8 weeks after stroke, major depressive disorder was diagnosed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted. A bootstrap-backward selection process resulted in a reduced model. Performance of the model was expressed by discrimination, calibration, and accuracy. The model included a medical history of depression or other psychiatric disorders, hypertension, angina pectoris, and the Barthel Index item dressing. The model had acceptable discrimination, based on an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.78 (0.72-0.85), and calibration (P value of the U-statistic, 0.96). Transforming the model to an easy-to-use risk-assessment table, the lowest risk category (sum score, depression, which increased to 82% in the highest category (sum score, >21). The clinical prediction model enables clinicians to estimate the degree of the depression risk for an individual patient within the first week after stroke.

  9. Etiologic Subtypes, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Acute Ischemic Stroke in Young Patients

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    İnci Şule Özer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stroke in people aged less than 45 years is less frequent than in older patients, but has major impacts on both the individual and society. The aim of this study was to determine the etiologic subtypes of acute ischemic stroke in the young. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the hospital records of 619 patients who were admitted with acute ischemic stroke between January 2011 and November 2014. Acute ischemic stroke in the young was defined as patients aged 45 years and under. Demographic data, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores at admission and detailed investigations aimed at determining etiologic cause were recorded. Etiologic stroke subtypes were determined using the automated Causative Classification System. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS scores were recorded in the follow-up. Results: There were 32 (5.2% young patients with acute ischemic stroke. The rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and coronary artery disease were significantly lower in young patients compared with patients aged more than 45 years (p<0.05. The mean NIHSS score at admission and hospital mortality was significantly lower in patients aged 45 years and under compared with those older than 45 years (p=0.006, p=0.043. Cardioaortic embolism was the most common etiologic stroke subtype in both groups. Other causes were significantly more frequent in the young acute ischemic stroke group compared with the older patients. The median follow-up mRS was significantly lower in patients aged 45 years and under compared with those older than 45 years (p<0.001. Conclusion: Young patients with ischemic stroke have different risk factors, stroke etiology, stroke severity and prognosis compared with patients older than 45 years with the same condition

  10. Ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack in young adults: risk factors, diagnostic yield, neuroimaging, and thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ruijun; Schwamm, Lee H; Pervez, Muhammad A; Singhal, Aneesh B

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10% to 14% of ischemic strokes occur in young adults. To investigate the yield of diagnostic tests, neuroimaging findings, and treatment of ischemic strokes in young adults. We retrospectively reviewed data from our Get with the Guidelines-Stroke database from 2005 through 2010. University hospital tertiary stroke center. A total of 215 consecutive inpatients aged 18 to 45 years with ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack. The mean (SD) age was 37.5 (7) years; 51% were male. There were high incidence rates of hypertension (20%), diabetes mellitus (11%), dyslipidemia (38%), and smoking (34%). Relevant abnormalities were shown on cerebral angiography in 136 of 203 patients, on cardiac ultrasonography in 100 of 195, on Holter monitoring in 2 of 192; and on hypercoagulable panel in 30 of 189 patients. Multiple infarcts were observed in 31% and were more prevalent in individuals younger than age 35 years. Relevant arterial lesions were frequently detected in the middle cerebral artery (23%), internal carotid artery (13%), and vertebrobasilar arteries (13%). Cardioembolic stroke occurred in 47% (including 17% with isolated patent foramen ovale), and 11% had undetermined stroke etiology. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 3 (interquartile range, 0-9) and 81% had good outcome at hospital discharge. Of the 29 patients receiving thrombolysis (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 14; interquartile range, 9-17), 55% had good outcome at hospital discharge and none developed symptomatic brain hemorrhage. This study shows the contemporary profile of ischemic stroke in young adults admitted to a tertiary stroke center. Stroke etiology can be determined in nearly 90% of patients with modern diagnostic tests. The causes are heterogeneous; however, young adults have a high rate of traditional vascular risk factors. Thrombolysis appears safe and short-term outcomes are favorable.

  11. Nurses Knowledge Regarding Risk Factors And Management Of Stroke At Rajshahi Medical College Hospital Bangladesh

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    Nahid Uz Zaman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out with a view to assess the nurses knowledge regarding the risk factors and management of stroke following a cross type descriptive study. Nurses having academic qualification were S.S.C 32 and H.S.C 68. Nurses having professional qualification were Diploma in Nursing amp Midwifery 50 because this degree was compulsory and basic for all. During the data collection there were also 42 B.Sc. in Nursing and 8 MPHM.Sc. among those respondents. Length of Service of the respondents nurses were 6 1 to 10 years followed by 24 58 amp 12 were in the 11 to 20 years 21 to 30 years and 31 to 40 years. The Nurses were given correct answer about 74 knowledge regarding stroke 50 types of stroke 82 controllable risk factor of stroke 76 uncontrollable risk factor of stroke 85 positioning needed for patients and 86 management of stroke. Considering the above discussion it was obviously clear that the Senior Staff Nurses SSN were much conscious regarding the risk factors and management of stroke working at Rajshahi Medical College Hospital RMCH.

  12. Identifying eustachian tube dysfunction prior to hyperbaric oxygen therapy: Who is at risk for intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jason E; Pfeiffer, Michael; Patel, Niki; Sataloff, Robert T; McKinnon, Brian J

    Determine whether specific risk factors, symptoms and clinical examination findings are associated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) intolerance and subsequent tympanotomy tube placement. A retrospective case series with chart review was conducted from 2007 to 2016 of patients undergoing HBOT clearance at a tertiary care university hospital in an urban city. Eighty-one (n=81) patient charts were reviewed for risk factors, symptoms and clinical examination findings related to HBOT eustachian tube dysfunction and middle ear barotrauma. Relative risk was calculated for each variable to determine risk for HBOT intolerance and need for tympanotomy tube placement. Risk factor, symptom, physical examination and HBOT complication-susceptibility scores were calculated for each patient. Mean risk factor, clinical and HBOT complication-susceptibility scores were significantly higher in patients who did not tolerate HBOT compared to patients who tolerated HBOT. Patients reporting a history of otitis media, tinnitus, and prior ear surgery were at a higher risk for HBOT intolerance. Patients reporting a history of pressure intolerance and prior ear surgery were more likely to undergo tympanotomy tube placement. Patients noted to have otologic findings prior to HBOT were at a higher risk for both HBOT intolerance and tympanotomy tube placement. A thorough otolaryngological evaluation can potentially predict and identify patients at risk for HBOT intolerance and tympanotomy tube placement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Awareness of Stroke Risk after TIA in Swiss General Practitioners and Hospital Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Sven; Baumann, Philippe; Barth, Jürgen; Mattle, Heinrich P; Arnold, Marcel; Bassetti, Claudio L; Meli, Damian N; Fischer, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Transient ischemic attacks (TIA) are stroke warning signs and emergency situations, and, if immediately investigated, doctors can intervene to prevent strokes. Nevertheless, many patients delay going to the doctor, and doctors might delay urgently needed investigations and preventative treatments. We set out to determine how much general practitioners (GPs) and hospital physicians (HPs) knew about stroke risk after TIA, and to measure their referral rates. We used a structured questionnaire to ask GPs and HPs in the catchment area of the University Hospital of Bern to estimate a patient's risk of stroke after TIA. We also assessed their referral behavior. We then statistically analysed their reasons for deciding not to immediately refer patients. Of the 1545 physicians, 40% (614) returned the survey. Of these, 75% (457) overestimated stroke risk within 24 hours, and 40% (245) overestimated risk within 3 months after TIA. Only 9% (53) underestimated stroke risk within 24 hours and 26% (158) underestimated risk within 3 months; 78% (473) of physicians overestimated the amount that carotid endarterectomy reduces stroke risk; 93% (543) would rigorously investigate the cause of a TIA, but only 38% (229) would refer TIA patients for urgent investigations "very often". Physicians most commonly gave these reasons for not making emergency referrals: patient's advanced age; patient's preference; patient was multimorbid; and, patient needed long-term care. Although physicians overestimate stroke risk after TIA, their rate of emergency referral is modest, mainly because they tend not to refer multimorbid and elderly patients at the appropriate rate. Since old and frail patients benefit from urgent investigations and treatment after TIA as much as younger patients, future educational campaigns should focus on the importance of emergency evaluations for all TIA patients.

  14. Awareness of Stroke Risk after TIA in Swiss General Practitioners and Hospital Physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Streit

    Full Text Available Transient ischemic attacks (TIA are stroke warning signs and emergency situations, and, if immediately investigated, doctors can intervene to prevent strokes. Nevertheless, many patients delay going to the doctor, and doctors might delay urgently needed investigations and preventative treatments. We set out to determine how much general practitioners (GPs and hospital physicians (HPs knew about stroke risk after TIA, and to measure their referral rates.We used a structured questionnaire to ask GPs and HPs in the catchment area of the University Hospital of Bern to estimate a patient's risk of stroke after TIA. We also assessed their referral behavior. We then statistically analysed their reasons for deciding not to immediately refer patients.Of the 1545 physicians, 40% (614 returned the survey. Of these, 75% (457 overestimated stroke risk within 24 hours, and 40% (245 overestimated risk within 3 months after TIA. Only 9% (53 underestimated stroke risk within 24 hours and 26% (158 underestimated risk within 3 months; 78% (473 of physicians overestimated the amount that carotid endarterectomy reduces stroke risk; 93% (543 would rigorously investigate the cause of a TIA, but only 38% (229 would refer TIA patients for urgent investigations "very often". Physicians most commonly gave these reasons for not making emergency referrals: patient's advanced age; patient's preference; patient was multimorbid; and, patient needed long-term care.Although physicians overestimate stroke risk after TIA, their rate of emergency referral is modest, mainly because they tend not to refer multimorbid and elderly patients at the appropriate rate. Since old and frail patients benefit from urgent investigations and treatment after TIA as much as younger patients, future educational campaigns should focus on the importance of emergency evaluations for all TIA patients.

  15. Effects of epilepsy and selected antiepileptic drugs on risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death in patients with or without previous stroke: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell; Erdal, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy have increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death associated with epilepsy and examined if this risk was modified by treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs).......Patients with epilepsy have increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death associated with epilepsy and examined if this risk was modified by treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)....

  16. Effect of Prior Atorvastatin Treatment on the Frequency of Hospital Acquired Pneumonia and Evolution of Biomarkers in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Multicenter Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuetian Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate whether prior treatment of atorvastatin reduces the frequency of hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP. Methods. Totally, 492 patients with acute ischemic stroke and Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8 were enrolled in this study. Subjects were assigned to prior atorvastatin treatment group (n=268, PG and no prior treatment group (n=224, NG. All the patients were given 20 mg atorvastatin every night during their hospital stay. HAP frequency and 28-day mortality were measured. Levels of inflammatory biomarkers [white blood cell (WBC, procalcitonin (PCT, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6] were tested. Results. There was no significant difference in the incidence of HAP between PG and NG (25.74% versus. 24.55%, p>0.05 and 28-day mortality (50.72% versus 58.18%, p>0.05. However, prior statin treatment did modify the mortality of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP (36.54% versus 58.14%, p=0.041 and proved to be a protective factor (HR, 0.564; 95% CI, 0.310~0.825, p=0.038. Concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in PG VAP cases were lower than those in NG VAP cases (p<0.01. Conclusions. Prior atorvastatin treatment in patients with ischemic stroke was associated with a lower concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α and improved the outcome of VAP. This clinical study has been registered with ChiCTR-ROC-17010633 in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry.

  17. Organisational change, job strain and increased risk of stroke? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Jennie; Ekberg, Kerstin; Nordlund, Anders; Eklund, Jörgen

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to explore whether organisational change and work-related stress, as measured by the Job Content Questionnaire, were associated with first-ever stroke among working people aged 30-65. In a case-control study a total of 65 consecutive cases, aged 30-65 years of age, with first-ever stroke were recruited from four hospitals in Sweden during 2000-2002. During the same period, 103 random population controls in the same age interval were recruited. Data on job-related stress and traditional medical risk factors were collected by a questionnaire. In the multivariate analyses, organisational change (OR 3.38) increased the likelihood of stroke, while experiencing an active job (OR 0.37) decreased the likelihood of stroke. Regarding risk factors outside work, age (OR 1.11), low physical activity (OR 5.21), low education (OR 2.48) and family history of stroke (OR 2.59) were associated with increased likelihood of stroke. This study suggests an association between organisational change, work-related stress and stroke. The likelihood of stroke was lower for people in active job situations.

  18. Stroke After Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer: What Is the Risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Erin [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Hanna, Timothy P. [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Oncology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Zaza, Khaled [Department of Oncology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Peng, Yingwei [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Hall, Stephen F., E-mail: sfh@queensu.ca [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Otolaryngology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted to determine the risk of ischemic stroke with respect to time, associated with curative radiation therapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: On the basis of data from the Ontario Cancer Registry and regional cancer treatment centers, 14,069 patients were identified with diagnoses of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, larynx, and pharynx who were treated for cure between 1990 and 2010. Hazards of stroke and time to stroke were examined, accounting for the competing risk of death. Stroke risk factors identified through diagnostic and procedural administrative codes were adjusted for in the comparison between treatment regimens, which included surgery alone versus radiation therapy alone and surgery alone versus any exposure to radiation therapy. Results: Overall, 6% of patients experienced an ischemic stroke after treatment, with 5% experiencing a stroke after surgery, 8% after radiation therapy alone, and 6% after any exposure to radiation therapy. The cause-specific hazard ratios of ischemic stroke after radiation therapy alone and after any exposure to radiation therapy compared with surgery were 1.70 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41-2.05) and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.23-1.73), respectively, after adjustment for stroke risk factors, patient factors, and disease-related factors. Conclusions: Radiation therapy was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke compared with surgery alone: for both radiation therapy alone and after all treatment modalities that included any radiation treatment were combined. Because of a shift toward a younger HNSCC patient population, our results speak to the need for adequate follow-up and survivorship care among patients who have been treated with radiation therapy. Advances in treatment that minimize chronic morbidity also require further evaluation.

  19. Migraine as a risk factor for young patients with ischemic stroke: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanoz, Yasin; Gülen Abanoz, Yeşim; Gündüz, Ayşegül; Uludüz, Derya; İnce, Birsen; Yavuz, Burcu; Göksan, Baki

    2017-04-01

    Studies have suggested a possible association of migraine and increased risk of ischemic stroke in young adults, particularly in smokers and in women who use oral contraceptive drugs. We aimed to analyze the association between migraine and ischemic stroke in young population in a hospital-based cohort. We included 202 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of ischemic stroke who were between 15 and 50 years and age- and gender-matched 250 volunteers with no history of stroke. All participants were interviewed using a questionnaire for migraine. Localization of ischemic lesion was classified as anterior and posterior circulation according to neuroimaging findings. The cause of ischemic lesion and all risk factors were recorded. Undetermined etiology was the most frequent (43.1%) and the most common determined cause was cardioembolism (22.3%) in young stroke patients. Frequency of migraine was 30.2% among patients with stroke whereas 16.8% of healthy subjects had migraine (p = 0.001). Migraine with aura was significantly more common among patients with stroke compared to healthy subjects (18.3 vs 4.4%; p = 0.000) whereas the frequency of migraine without aura was similar in both groups (11.9 vs 12.4%). Using logistic regression, migraine with aura was shown to be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke in young population (p = 0.000) and separate analysis for gender demonstrated that it was only a risk factor for women (p = 0.009) but not for men (p = 0.107). Migraine with aura was found to be more common in ischemic stroke in young patients. It was an independent risk factor in women.

  20. Risk factor profile by etiological subtype of ischemic stroke in the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffre, Aude; Ruidavets, Jean Bernard; Calviere, Lionel; Viguier, Alain; Ferrieres, Jean; Larrue, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    Studies of risk factors for ischemic stroke in the young have generally considered ischemic stroke as a whole. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association of traditional cardiovascular risk factors with etiological subtypes of ischemic stroke in young adults. Retrospective review of data from patients aged 16-54 years consecutively treated for first-ever ischemic stroke in an academic stroke unit. Definite causes of stroke were classified using the ASCO (A for atherothrombosis, S for small vessel disease, C for cardiac source, O for other cause) classification system. We used multinomial logistic regression analysis to evaluate associations of age, gender, smoking, hypertension, diabetes and blood lipids with each etiological subtype. A total of 400 patients were included: 244 men (61.1%), 156 women (38.9%); mean age (SD) 44.5 (8.5) years. A definite cause of stroke could be identified in 202 (50.5%) patients. Definite causes of stroke included: atherothrombosis, 72 (18.0%) patients; cardioembolism, 37 (9.25%) patients; small vessel disease, 28 (7.0%) patients; other definite cause, 65 (16.25%) patients including 44 patients with carotid or vertebral artery dissection. Atherothrombosis was associated with age, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and low HDL-cholesterol. Small vessel disease was associated with age and hypertension. Cardioembolism was associated with age. The risk factor profile differs between etiological subtypes of ischemic stroke in young adults. Our findings emphasize the impact of smoking, diabetes, hypertension and low HDL-cholesterol as risk factors for atherothrombosis, and of hypertension as a risk factor for small vessel disease in young adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The prevalence and risk factors of stroke in patients with chronic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ying Liang,1 Jian Huang,1 Jingbin Tian,2 Yuanyuan Cao,2 Guoling Zhang,2 Chungang Wang,2 Ying Cao,2 Jianrong Li2 1National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, Peking University Sixth Hospital, Institute of Mental Health, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Peking University, 2Changping Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the stroke risk and risk factors in patients with chronic schizophrenia.Patients and methods: This study was a large-sample, cross-sectional survey. A total of 363 patients with chronic schizophrenia were selected from the Changping Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Beijing, in August 2014. The patients were divided into either stroke group or control group based on the presence of stroke. Clinical evaluation included positive and negative syndrome scale assessment and a detailed questionnaire to collect the general information and disease-related conditions.Results: The prevalence of stroke was 16.5% (60 cases. Stroke and control groups showed a significant difference in age, sex, smoking, combined medication, doses, negative factor score in positive and negative syndrome scale, body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure. Multivariate analysis showed that a number of factors are significantly related to stroke, including age, sex, smoking, combined medication, doses, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure.Conclusion: The prevalence of stroke is relatively higher in Chinese patients with chronic schizophrenia. Chronic schizophrenia patients are more likely to suffer from stroke; meanwhile, a number of risk factors were identified, including old age, female sex, smoking history, combined medication with a variety of drugs, high doses, obesity, and high blood pressure. Keywords: schizophrenia, stroke, risk, risk factors

  2. Risk Factors for Stroke-associated Pneumonia: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Suárez Quesada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: stroke-associated pneumonia prolongs hospital stay and is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Objective: to determine risk factors for stroke-associated pneumonia. Methods: a prospective single-cohort study was conducted involving 390 patients aged 16-93 years who met clinical and neuroimaging criteria for acute stroke treated at the Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Hospital from January 2012 through March 2015. Univariate comparison of qualitative variables was performed by using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox regression model was applied for multivariate analysis of risk factors for pneumonia. The area under the ROC curve was used to determine the discriminatory power of the model. Results: two hundred thirteen patients (54.6 % with ischemic stroke and 177 (45.4 % with hemorrhagic stroke were studied. Cases of nosocomial pneumonia after acute stroke accounted for 25.4 %. Subjects who developed pneumonia had lower scores on the Glasgow scale and higher scores on the modified Rankin scale. The following risk factors were identified using the Cox regression model: Glasgow coma score (Exp (B: 0.687; 95 % CI 0.630 to 0.750 and stroke subtype (Exp (B: 1.723; 95 % CI 1.137 to 2.610. The area under the ROC curve was 0.88. Conclusions: the risk factors for the development of nosocomial pneumonia after acute stroke found were the level of consciousness and suffering a hemorrhagic stroke. Other influencing variables are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart disease as a comorbid condition.

  3. Intake of beer, wine, and spirits and risk of stroke : the copenhagen city heart study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelsen, T; Gronbaek, M; Schnohr, P; Boysen, G

    1998-12-01

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with a protective effect on risk of ischemic stroke. There may, however, be differences in the effect of beer, wine, and spirits due to properties other than ethanol, a topic that has gained only little attention in stroke research. Our analysis was a prospective cohort study of 13 329 eligible men and women, aged 45 to 84 years, participating in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Information on alcohol habits and a number of socioeconomic and health-related factors was obtained at baseline. During 16 years of follow-up, 833 first-ever strokes occurred. Data were analyzed by means of multiple Poisson regression. We found indications of a U-shaped relation between intake of alcohol and risk of stroke. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and smoking, intake of wine on a monthly, weekly, or daily basis was associated with a lower risk of stroke compared with no wine intake (monthly: relative risk [RR], 0. 83; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.98; weekly: RR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.77; daily: RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.46 to 1.00). This effect of wine intake remained after complete adjustment for confounding variables (monthly: RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.02; weekly: RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.88; daily: RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.02). There was no association between intake of beer or spirits on risk of stroke. The differences in the effects of beer, wine, and spirits on the risk of stroke suggest that compounds in the wine in addition to ethanol are responsible for the protective effect on risk of stroke.

  4. Lower Your Stroke Risk (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-05

    Stroke is among the leading causes of death and disability, worldwide. This podcast discusses the importance of maintaining healthy blood pressure.  Created: 11/5/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/5/2015.

  5. Randomized controlled trial of a coordinated care intervention to improve risk factor control after stroke or transient ischemic attack in the safety net: Secondary stroke prevention by Uniting Community and Chronic care model teams Early to End Disparities (SUCCEED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towfighi, Amytis; Cheng, Eric M; Ayala-Rivera, Monica; McCreath, Heather; Sanossian, Nerses; Dutta, Tara; Mehta, Bijal; Bryg, Robert; Rao, Neal; Song, Shlee; Razmara, Ali; Ramirez, Magaly; Sivers-Teixeira, Theresa; Tran, Jamie; Mojarro-Huang, Elizabeth; Montoya, Ana; Corrales, Marilyn; Martinez, Beatrice; Willis, Phyllis; Macias, Mireya; Ibrahim, Nancy; Wu, Shinyi; Wacksman, Jeremy; Haber, Hilary; Richards, Adam; Barry, Frances; Hill, Valerie; Mittman, Brian; Cunningham, William; Liu, Honghu; Ganz, David A; Factor, Diane; Vickrey, Barbara G

    2017-02-06

    Recurrent strokes are preventable through awareness and control of risk factors such as hypertension, and through lifestyle changes such as healthier diets, greater physical activity, and smoking cessation. However, vascular risk factor control is frequently poor among stroke survivors, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged blacks, Latinos and other people of color. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an effective framework for multi-component interventions aimed at improving care processes and outcomes for individuals with chronic disease. In addition, community health workers (CHWs) have played an integral role in reducing health disparities; however, their effectiveness in reducing vascular risk among stroke survivors remains unknown. Our objectives are to develop, test, and assess the economic value of a CCM-based intervention using an Advanced Practice Clinician (APC)-CHW team to improve risk factor control after stroke in an under-resourced, racially/ethnically diverse population. In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 516 adults (≥40 years) with an ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack or intracerebral hemorrhage within the prior 90 days are being enrolled at five sites within the Los Angeles County safety-net setting and randomized 1:1 to intervention vs usual care. Participants are excluded if they do not speak English, Spanish, Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean or if they are unable to consent. The intervention includes a minimum of three clinic visits in the healthcare setting, three home visits, and Chronic Disease Self-Management Program group workshops in community venues. The primary outcome is blood pressure (BP) control (systolic BP risk factors including lipids and hemoglobin A1c, (3) inflammation (C reactive protein [CRP]), (4) medication adherence, (5) lifestyle factors (smoking, diet, and physical activity), (6) estimated relative reduction in risk for recurrent stroke or myocardial infarction (MI), and (7) cost

  6. Increased risk of stroke and transient ischemic attack in 5-year survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; van't Veer, Mars B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on clinically verified stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) following Hodgkin lymphoma is scarce. We quantified the long-term risk of cerebrovascular disease associated with the use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma and explored...... Cox regression techniques to study treatment-related factors and other risk factors. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 17.5 years, 96 patients developed cerebrovascular disease (55 strokes, 31 TIAs, and 10 with both TIA and stroke; median age = 52 years). Most...... ischemic events were from large-artery atherosclerosis (36%) or cardioembolisms (24%). The standardized incidence ratio for stroke was 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7 to 2.8), and for TIA, it was 3.1 (95% CI = 2.2 to 4.2). The risks remained elevated, compared with those in the general population...

  7. Better adherence to antithyroid drug is associated with decreased risk of stroke in hyperthyroidism patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M-S; Chuang, P-Y; Huang, C-H; Shih, S-R; Chang, W-T; Chen, N-C; Yu, P-H; Cheng, H-J; Tang, C-H; Chen, W-J

    2015-12-01

    An increased risk for ischaemic stroke has been reported in young hyperthyroidism patients independent of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, whether the use of antithyroid drugs in hyperthyroidism patients can reduce the occurrence of ischaemic stroke remains unclear. A total of 36,510 newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism patients during 2003-2006 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Each patient was individually tracked for 5 years from their index date (beginning the antithyroid drugs) to identify those who suffered from new episode of ischaemic stroke. Medication possession ratio (MPR) was used to represent the antithyroid drug compliance. The association between the MPR and the risk of stroke was examined. The stroke incidence rates for hyperthyroidism patients with age hyperthyroidism patients without AF, good antithyroid drugs compliance also reduced the incidence of stroke significantly (adjusted HR, range: 1.52-1.61; p = 0.02); but not in hyperthyroidism with AF. Hyperthyroidism patients with good antithyroid drug compliance had a lower risk of ischaemic stroke than patients with poor compliance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Heavy cannabis users at elevated risk of stroke: evidence from a general population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Dilini; McKetin, Rebecca; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2016-06-01

    Case reports and hospital-based case-control studies suggest that cannabis use may increase the risk of stroke. We examined the risk of non-fatal stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) among cannabis users in the general community. A general population survey of Australians aged 20-24 years (n=2,383), 40-44 years (n=2,525) and 60-64 years (n=2,547) was used to determine the odds of lifetime stroke or TIA among participants who had smoked cannabis in the past year while adjusting for other stroke risk factors. There were 153 stroke/TIA cases (2.1%). After adjusting for age cohort, past year cannabis users (n=1,043) had 3.3 times the rate of stroke/TIA (95% CI 1.8-6.3, pcannabis weekly or more often (IRR 4.7, 95% CI 2.1-10.7) with no elevation among participants who used cannabis less often. Heavy cannabis users in the general community have a higher rate of non-fatal stroke or transient ischemic attack than non-cannabis users. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. Risk of Stroke/Transient Ischemic Attack or Myocardial Infarction with Herpes Zoster: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanting; Luo, Ganfeng; Huang, Yuanwei; Yu, Qiuyan; Wang, Li; Li, Ke

    2017-08-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that herpes zoster (HZ) may increase the risk of stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) or myocardial infarction (MI), but the results are inconsistent. We aim to explore the relationship between HZ and risk of stroke/TIA or MI and between herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) and stroke. We estimated the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with the meta-analysis. Cochran's Q test and Higgins I 2 statistic were used to check for heterogeneity. HZ infection was significantly associated with increased risk of stroke/TIA (RR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.17-1.46) or MI (RR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.07-1.30). The risk of stroke after HZO was 1.91 (95% CI 1.32-2.76), higher than that after HZ. Subgroup analyses revealed increased risk of ischemic stroke after HZ infection but not hemorrhagic stroke. The risk of stroke was increased more at 1 month after HZ infection than at 1-3 months, with a gradual reduced risk with time. The risk of stroke after HZ infection was greater with age less than 40 years than 40-59 years and more than 60 years. Risk of stroke with HZ infection was greater without treatment than with treatment and was greater in Asia than Europe and America but did not differ by sex. Our study indicated that HZ infection was associated with increased risk of stroke/TIA or MI, and HZO infection was the most marked risk factor for stroke. Further studies are needed to explore whether zoster vaccination could reduce the risk of stoke/TIA or MI. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Statin Adherence Is Associated With Reduced Recurrent Stroke Risk in Patients With or Without Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Alexander C; Conell, Carol; Ren, Xiushui; Kamel, Hooman; Chan, Sheila L; Rao, Vivek A; Johnston, S Claiborne

    2017-07-01

    Outpatient statin use reduces the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke among patients with stroke of atherothrombotic cause. It is not known whether statins have similar effects in ischemic stroke caused by atrial fibrillation (AFib). We studied outpatient statin adherence, measured by percentage of days covered, and the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with or without AFib in a 21-hospital integrated healthcare delivery system. Among 6116 patients with ischemic stroke discharged on a statin over a 5-year period, 1446 (23.6%) had a diagnosis of AFib at discharge. The mean statin adherence rate (percentage of days covered) was 85, and higher levels of percentage of days covered correlated with greater degrees of low-density lipoprotein suppression. In multivariable survival models of recurrent ischemic stroke over 3 years, after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, medical comorbidities, and hospital center, higher statin adherence predicted reduced stroke risk both in patients without AFib (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.97) and in patients with AFib (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.81). This association was robust to adjustment for the time in the therapeutic range for international normalized ratio among AFib subjects taking warfarin (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.89). The relationship between statin adherence and reduced recurrent stroke risk is as strong among patients with AFib as it is among patients without AFib, suggesting that AFib status should not be a reason to exclude patients from secondary stroke prevention with a statin. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Infratentorial posterior circulation stroke in a Nigerian population: Clinical characteristics, risk factors, and predictors of outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Femi Owolabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posterior circulation stroke (PCS, though less common, differs from stroke in anterior circulation in many aspects. Relatively, it portends a poorer prognosis. However, there is a paucity of data from African countries, in particular, where stroke is a menace. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the etiology, clinical characteristics, outcome, and predictors of outcome in a cohort of patients with IPCS in Northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Out of 595 patients with stroke, we prospectively analyzed 57 patients with PCS in a Tertiary Care Center in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria. Patients were analyzed for demographic data, risk factors, clinical characteristics, stroke subtypes, mortality, and predictors of mortality. Results: Posterior circulation ischemic stroke accounted for 57 (9.6% of 595 of all strokes seen in the study period. They comprised 44 males (mean age 47.8 ± 17.7 and 13 females (mean age 46.3 ± 13.7. Overall, their age ranged between 24 and 90 (mean age 47.4 ± 16.7. However, 52.7% of the patients were < 45 years of age. The most common site affected was the cerebellum seen in 33 (57.9% patients. Hypertension was the most common risk factor (86%. Headache and vertigo were the most common features accounting for 83.6% and 86.3%, respectively. Thirty-eight (66.7% patients had an ischemic stroke. Twenty-one (36.8% of the patients died during the 1-month period of follow-up. Independent predictors of death in the study were hyperglycemia on admission and hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusions: IPCS occurred in a relatively younger age group. Headache and vertigo were the most common symptoms. The independent predictors of death in the study were hyperglycemia at presentation and hemorrhagic stroke.

  12. Symptoms and risk factors for stroke in a community-based observational sample in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Ngo, Quang Van; Ly, Kiet A; Ton, Thanh G N; Longstreth, W T; Vo, Tung T; Heitzinger, Kristen; Pham, Chien H; Tirschwell, David L

    2012-09-01

    Viet Nam is experiencing a health transition from infectious to chronic disease. Data on cardiovascular diseases, including strokes, are limited. Data were randomly collected from six communities in Da Nang, Viet Nam, on participant demographics, medical history, blood pressure, anthropometrics and health behavior using World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Stroke symptoms were collected by self-report with the standardized Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke Free Status. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the presence of stroke symptoms. One thousand six hundred and twenty one adults were examined with a mean age of 52.0 years (± 12.5 years), of which 56.1% were women. 27.3% of the participants were found to have hypertension, 26.2% used tobacco, and 16.1% were overweight. More than two-thirds of the participants with hypertension were unaware of their condition. Almost one fourth of the participants were identified by the questionnaire as previously experiencing at least one stroke symptom. Age, rural residence, and education were associated with the presence of stroke symptoms. Models adjusted for demographics found hypertension, high cholesterol, reported severe chest pain, former smoking, and being overweight to be associated with a higher prevalence of stroke symptoms. The high frequency of stroke symptoms in Da Nang calls for further evaluation and interventions to reduce hypertension and other risk factors for chronic disease in Viet Nam and other health transition countries.

  13. Lifestyle Factors and Gender-Specific Risk of Stroke in Adults with Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Guan, Tianjia; Shen, Ying; Chao, Baohua; Li, Mei; Wang, Longde; Liu, Yuanli

    2018-07-01

    The lifestyle interventions are effective preventive measures for stroke in general population, and the stroke risk with lifestyle factors may be modified by gender, health conditions, etc. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the gender-specific association between stroke risk and lifestyle factors in adults with diabetes based on the China National Stroke Screening Survey. Structured questionnaires were used to collect demographic data and information regarding lifestyle factors, history of chronic medical conditions, and family history of stroke and the status of treatment. The case group comprised individuals diagnosed with first-ever stroke in 2013-2014 screening period. Their corresponding controls (frequency-matched for age group and urban/rural ratio) were randomly selected from individuals with diabetes without stroke. There were 170 total stroke cases (500 controls) and 152 ischemic stroke cases (456 controls) among men with diabetes, and 183 total stroke cases (549 controls) and 168 ischemic stroke cases (504 controls) among women with diabetes. We found that physical inactivity was significantly associated with increased risk of total stroke (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.21) and of ischemic stroke (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.04-2.36) in women with diabetes. We found no significant association of smoking, overweight/obesity, or physical inactivity with risk of total or ischemic stroke in men with diabetes. Among the lifestyle factors of smoking, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity, physical inactivity might increase the risk of total and ischemic stroke in women with diabetes. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezmu T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tefera Gezmu,1 Dona Schneider,1 Kitaw Demissie,2 Yong Lin,2 Christine Giordano,3 Martin S Gizzi4 1Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, 2Rutgers School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Piscataway, NJ, 3Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, 4New Jersey Neuroscience Institute at JFK Medical Center and Seton Hall University, Edison, NJ, USA Abstract: Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014. All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke

  15. [Elements of system semiotics of the brain and head with cranial vessels of patients with stroke and with risk of stroke development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makomela, N M

    2007-01-01

    By means of a multispiral computer and magnetic resonance tomography 211 patients with an ischemic stroke, 109 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, 41 patients with an arterial hypertensia, 43 patients with aneurism, 58 patients with discirculation encephalopathy, 125 patients with ischemic illness of heart, practically healthy 62 have been observed. The author found high frequency of pathological deformations of carotid and vertebral arteries of not closed arterial circle, calcification of the pineal body and vascular plexus of lateral ventricles. cysts of maxillary sinuses of patients with stroke in comparison with patients at risk of the development of stroke and practically healthy subjects.

  16. Relation between change in blood pressure in acute stroke and risk of early adverse events and poor outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandset, Else C; Murray, Gordon D; Bath, Philip M W

    2012-01-01

    The Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial (SCAST) found no benefits of candesartan in acute stroke. In the present analysis we aim to investigate the effect of change in blood pressure during the first 2 days of stroke on the risk of early adverse events and poor outcome....

  17. Prior use of durable medical equipment as a risk adjuster for health-based capitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. van Kleef (Richard); R.C.J.A. van Vliet (René)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines a new risk adjuster for capitation payments to Dutch health plans, based on the prior use of durable medical equipment (DME). The essence is to classify users of DME in a previous year into clinically homogeneous classes and to apply the resulting classification as a

  18. Race, Marital History, and Risks for Stroke in US Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupre, Matthew E

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is among the leading causes of disability and death in the United States, and racial differences are greater for stroke than for all other major chronic diseases. Considering the equally sizeable racial disparities in marital life and associated risks across adulthood, the current study hypothesizes that black-white differences in marital history play an important role in the large racial inequalities in the incidence of stroke. The major objective are to (i) demonstrate how marital history is associated with the incidence of stroke, (ii) examine how marital factors mediate and/or moderate racial disparities in stroke, and (iii) examine the factors that may explain the associations. Using retrospective and prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study ( n = 23,289), the results show that non-Hispanic (NH) blacks have significantly higher rates of marital instability, greater numbers of health-risk factors, and substantially higher rates of stroke compared with NH whites. Contrary to the cumulative disadvantage hypothesis, findings from discrete-time-hazard models show that the effects of marital history are more pronounced for NH whites than for NH blacks. Risks for stroke were significantly higher in NH whites who were currently divorced, remarried, and widowed, as well as in those with a history of divorce or widowhood, compared with NH whites who were continuously married. In NH blacks, risks for stroke were elevated only in those who had either never married or had been widowed-with no significant risks attributable to divorce. The potential mechanisms underlying the associations are assessed, and the implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Growth hormone treatment for childhood short stature and risk of stroke in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poidvin, Amélie; Touzé, Emmanuel; Ecosse, Emmanuel; Landier, Fabienne; Béjot, Yannick; Giroud, Maurice; Rothwell, Peter M; Carel, Jean-Claude; Coste, Joël

    2014-08-26

    We investigated the incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes in a population-based cohort of patients in France treated with growth hormone (GH) for short stature in childhood. Adult morbidity data were obtained in 2008-2010 for 6,874 children with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency or short stature who started GH treatment between 1985 and 1996. Cerebrovascular events were validated using medical reports and imaging data and classified according to standard definitions of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and ischemic stroke. Case ascertainment completeness was estimated with capture-recapture methods. The incidence of stroke and of stroke subtypes was calculated and compared with population values extracted from registries in Dijon and Oxford, between 2000 and 2012. Using both Dijon and Oxford population-based registries as references, there was a significantly higher risk of stroke among patients treated with GH in childhood. The excess risk of stroke was mainly attributable to a very substantially and significantly higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke (standardized incidence ratio from 3.5 to 7.0 according to the registry rates considered, and accounting or not accounting for missed cases), and particularly subarachnoid hemorrhage (standardized incidence ratio from 5.7 to 9.3). We report a strong relationship between hemorrhagic stroke and GH treatment in childhood for isolated growth hormone deficiency or childhood short stature. Patients treated with GH worldwide should be advised about this association and further studies should evaluate the potentially causal role of GH treatment in these findings. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Migraine and risk of stroke and acute coronary syndrome in two case-control studies in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Migraine has consistently been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, while the evidence for a relation with other types of stroke or coronary outcomes is limited. We examined the association between migraine and stroke and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subtypes and the ......INTRODUCTION: Migraine has consistently been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, while the evidence for a relation with other types of stroke or coronary outcomes is limited. We examined the association between migraine and stroke and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subtypes...... medication had increased ORs of all stroke subtypes (ischemic, hemorrhagic stroke and transient ischemic attacks). The diagnosis of migraine was also associated with both angina and myocardial infarction (ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction [STEMI], non-STEMI and unspecified) with the highest OR for angina...

  1. Risk of ischemic stroke after an acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Stina; Bergström, Lisa; Björklund, Fredrik; Jernberg, Tomas; Söderström, Lars; Mooe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Incidence, any trend over time, and predictors of ischemic stroke after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in diabetic patients are unknown. Data for 173,233 unselected patients with an AMI, including 33,503 patients with diabetes mellitus, were taken from the Swedish Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions (RIKS-HIA) during 1998 to 2008. Ischemic stroke events were recorded during 1 year of follow-up. Patients with diabetes mellitus more often had a history of cardiovascular disease, received less reperfusion therapy, and were treated with acetylsalicylic acid, P2Y12 inhibitors, and statins to a lesser extent compared with patients without diabetes mellitus. However, the use of evidence-based therapies increased markedly in both groups during the study period. The incidence of ischemic stroke during the first year after AMI decreased from 7.1% to 4.7% in patients with diabetes mellitus and from 4.2% to 3.7% in patients without diabetes mellitus. Risk reduction was significantly larger in the diabetic subgroup. Reperfusion therapy, acetylsalicylic acid, P2Y12 inhibitors, and statins were independently associated with the reduced stroke risk. Ischemic stroke is a fairly common complication after an AMI in patients with diabetes mellitus, but the risk of stroke has decreased during recent years. The increased use of evidence-based therapies contributes importantly to this risk reduction, but there is still room for improvement.

  2. The psychosocial work environment is associated with risk of stroke at working age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jood, Katarina; Karlsson, Nadine; Medin, Jennie; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Wester, Per; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2017-07-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the relation between the risk of first-ever stroke at working age and psychological work environmental factors. Methods A consecutive multicenter matched 1:2 case-control study of acute stroke cases (N=198, age 30-65 years) who had been working full-time at the time of their stroke and 396 sex- and age-matched controls. Stroke cases and controls answered questionnaires on their psychosocial situation during the previous 12 months. The psychosocial work environment was assessed using three different measures: the job-control-demand model, the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) score, and exposures to conflict at work. Results Among 198 stroke cases and 396 controls, job strain [odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.05-1.62], ERI (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01-1.62), and conflict at work (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.07-2.88) were independent risk factors of stroke in multivariable regression models. Conclusions Adverse psychosocial working conditions during the past 12 months were more frequently observed among stroke cases. Since these factors are presumably modifiable, interventional studies targeting job strain and emotional work environment are warranted.

  3. Carotid Web (Intimal Fibromuscular Dysplasia) Has High Stroke Recurrence Risk and Is Amenable to Stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussen, Diogo C; Grossberg, Jonathan A; Bouslama, Mehdi; Pradilla, Gustavo; Belagaje, Samir; Bianchi, Nicolas; Allen, Jason W; Frankel, Michael; Nogueira, Raul G

    2017-11-01

    Carotid webs have been increasingly recognized as a cause of recurrent stroke, but evidence remains scarce. We aim to report the clinical outcomes and first series of carotid stenting in a cohort of patients with strokes from symptomatic carotid webs. Prospective and consecutive data of patients web was defined by a shelf-like/linear filling defect in the posterior internal carotid artery bulb by computed tomographic angiography. Twenty-four patients were identified (91.6% strokes/8.4% transient ischemic attacks [TIAs]). Median age was 46 (41-59) years, 61% were female, and 75% were black. Median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 10.5 (3.0-16.0) and ASPECTS (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score) was 8 (7-8). There were no parenchymal hemorrhages, and 96% of patients were independent at 3 months. All webs caused webs (58%), median ipsilateral web length was larger than contralateral (3.1 [3.0-4.5] mm versus 2.6 [1.85-2.9] mm; P =0.01), respectively. Twenty-nine percent of patients had thrombus superimposed on the symptomatic carotid web. A recurrent stroke/TIA involving the territory of the previously symptomatic web occurred in 7 (32%; 6 strokes/1 TIA) patients: 3 1 year of follow-up. Two recurrences occurred on dual antiplatelet therapy, 3 on antiplatelet monotherapy, 1 within 24 hours of thrombolysis, and 1 off antithrombotics. Median follow-up was 12.2 (8.0-18.0) months. Sixteen (66%) patients were stented at a median 12.2 (7.0-18.7) days after stroke with no periprocedural complications. No recurrent strokes/TIAs occurred in stented individuals (median follow-up of 4 [2.4-12.0] months). Carotid web is associated with high recurrent stroke/TIA risk, despite antithrombotic use, and is amenable to carotid stenting. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Influenza vaccination and risk of stroke: Self-controlled case-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Zahid; Coupland, Carol; Siriwardena, Niroshan

    2015-10-05

    Stroke may be triggered by respiratory infections, including influenza. Influenza vaccination could therefore reduce risk of stroke. Previous studies of this association have shown conflicting results. We aimed to investigate whether influenza vaccination was associated with reduced risk of stroke. We used a self-controlled case series design. The General Practice Research Database (GPRD) was used to extract records of patients aged 18 years or over recorded with stroke (fatal or non-fatal) from September 2001 to May 2009. Statistical modelling with conditional Poisson regression was employed to compute incidence rate ratios (IRR). The incidence rate of stroke in fixed time periods after influenza vaccination was compared with the incidence rate during a baseline period. There were 17,853 eligible individuals who received one or more influenza vaccinations and experienced a stroke during the observation period. The incidence of stroke was significantly reduced in the first 59 days following influenza vaccination compared with the baseline period. We found reductions of 55% (IRR 0.45; 95% CI 0.36-0.57) in the first 1-3 days after vaccination, 36% (0.64; 0.53-0.76) at 4-7 days, 30% (0.70; 0.61-0.79) at 8-14 days, 24% (0.76; 0.70-0.84) at 15-28 days and 17% (0.83; 0.77-0.89) at 29-59 days after vaccination. Early vaccination between 1 September and 15 November showed a greater reduction in IRR compared to later vaccination given after mid-November. Influenza vaccination is associated with a reduction in incidence of stroke. This study supports previous studies which have shown a beneficial association of influenza vaccination for stroke prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased Risk of Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Strokes in Patients With Splenic Injury and Splenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Chih-Hui; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The spleen is a crucial organ in humans. Little is known about the association between stroke and splenic injury or splenectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of stroke in patients with splenic injury and splenectomy. A nationwide cohort study was conducted by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. For comparison, control patients were selected and matched with splenic injury patients in a ratio of 4:1 according to age, sex, and the year of hospitalization. We analyzed the risks of stroke using a Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis. A total of 11,273 splenic injury patients, including 5294 splenectomized and 5979 nonsplenectomized patients, and 45,092 control patients were included in this study. The incidence rates of stroke were 8.05, 6.53, and 4.25 per 1000 person-years in splenic injury patients with splenectomy, those without splenectomy, and the control cohort, respectively. Compared with the control cohort, splenic injury patients with splenectomy exhibited a 2.05-fold increased risk of stroke (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8–2.34), whereas those without splenectomy exhibited a 1.74-fold increased risk (95% CI 1.51–2). Splenectomy entailed an additional 1.21-fold increased risk of stroke compared with nonsplenectomy in patients with splenic injury. This study revealed that splenic injury and splenectomy were significantly associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. The results of this study may alert physicians and patients to the complications of splenic injury and splenectomy. PMID:26334909

  6. Efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for stroke modifiable risk factors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenbo; Lauche, Romy; Ferguson, Caleb; Frawley, Jane; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of stroke burden is attributable to its modifiable risk factors. This paper aimed to systematically summarise the evidence of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) interventions on stroke modifiable risk factors for stroke prevention. A literature search was conducted via the MEDLINE, CINAHL/EBSCO, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Database from 1996 to 2016. Randomised controlled trials or cross-over studies were included. Risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. A total of 46 trials (6895 participants) were identified regarding the use of CHM interventions in the management of stroke risk factors, including 12 trials for hypertension, 10 trials for diabetes, eight trials for hyperlipidemia, seven trials for impaired glucose tolerance, three trials for obesity, and six trials for combined risk factors. Amongst the included trials with diverse study design, an intervention of CHM as a supplement to biomedicine and/or a lifestyle intervention was found to be more effective in lowering blood pressure, decreasing blood glucose level, helping impaired glucose tolerance reverse to normal, and/or reducing body weight compared to CHM monotherapy. While no trial reported deaths amongst the CHM groups, some papers do report moderate adverse effects associated with CHM use. However, the findings of such beneficial effects of CHM should be interpreted with caution due to the heterogeneous set of complex CHM studied, the various control interventions employed, the use of different participants' inclusion criteria, and low methodological quality across the published studies. The risk of bias of trials identified was largely unclear in the domains of selection bias and detection bias across the included studies. This study showed substantial evidence of varied CHM interventions improving the stroke modifiable risk factors. More rigorous research examining the use of CHM products for sole or multiple major stroke risk factors are warranted.

  7. Risk of death and stroke associated with anticoagulation therapy after mitral valve repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Nana; Mérie, Charlotte; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2016-01-01

    patients who underwent mitral valve repair during the period between 1997 and 2012. Medication, hospitalisation and mortality data were studied. The association of use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) at discharge and risk of stroke/death was evaluated by means of Cox regression, landmark analyses...... months were comparable in the two groups with 23 (2%) among patients without VKA and 6 (1%) among VKA-treated. CONCLUSION: VKA treatment after mitral valve repair is associated with a markedly lower risk of adverse events as stroke or death without excess major bleeding risk during the first 3 months...

  8. Risk factors of short-term stroke recurrence in patients with minor ischemic cerebrovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavian Ghandehari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assessing the risk of recurrent ischemic events in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA and minor ischemic stroke (MIS is of a great importance in clinical practice. METHODS: Consecutive patients with TIA or MIS who were visited in Ghaem Hospital, (Mashhad, Iran were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2010 to 2011. Diagnosis of TIA or MIS was accomplished by a stroke neurologist. Only those who presented within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms were recruited. MIS was considered as an ischemic stroke with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS < 4. The endpoint of the study was a new ischemic cerebrovascular event or vascular death in 90 days and additionally in 3 days. The decision to admit and type of treatment in each case was left to the discretion of the stroke neurologist. The association between 20 potential factors with recurrent ischemic events in 3 and 90 days was investigated using univariate and multivariate analysis (MVA. RESULTS: 393 TIA patients (238 males and 155 females and 118 MIS patients (77 males and 41 females were enrolled in the study. Stroke occurred in 117 (23.2% patients, TIA in 99 (19.6%, and there was 11 (2.2% vascular deaths within 3 months in the total 511 patients with minor ischemic events. Crescendo TIAs and multiple TIAs were associated with greater risk of stroke in 3 days in a univariate analysis (OR = 5.12, P < 0.001 and (OR = 3.98, P = 0.003, respectively. Patients with index stroke had 11.5% lower risk of recurrent stroke in 3 days than patients with index TIA in multivariate analysis (OR = 0.115, P = 0.039. Diabetes was independently associated with 3 months stroke recurrence in the patients with minor ischemic events (OR = 2.65, P = 0.039. CONCLUSION: Multiple and crescendo TIAs are the main predictors of stroke recurrence, derived from the univariate analysis of the patients with minor ischemic events.   Keywords: Transient Ischemic Attacks, Infarction, Brain

  9. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias; Andersen, Zorana J; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association with risk for stroke. In a population-based cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrollment, we identified 1999 incident stroke cases in national registries, followed by validation through medical records. Mean follow-up time was 11.2 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10 µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10 dB road traffic noise at the residential address was associated with ischemic stroke with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.20) and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.24), respectively, in single exposure models. In two-exposure models road traffic noise (IRR: 1.15) and not NO2 (IRR: 1.02) was associated with ischemic stroke. The strongest association was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air pollution affected risk for fatal strokes. There were indications of combined effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective effect of time spent walking on risk of stroke in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferis, Barbara J; Whincup, Peter H; Papacosta, Olia; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2014-01-01

    Older adults have the highest risks of stroke and the lowest physical activity levels. It is important to quantify how walking (the predominant form of physical activity in older age) is associated with stroke. A total of 4252 men from a UK population-based cohort reported usual physical activity (regular walking, cycling, recreational activity, and sport) in 1998 to 2000. Nurses took fasting blood samples and made anthropometric measurements. Among 3435 ambulatory men free from cardiovascular disease and heart failure in 1998 to 2000, 195 first strokes occurred during 11-year follow-up. Men walked a median of 7 (interquartile range, 3-12) hours/wk; walking more hours was associated with lower heart rate, D-dimer, and higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Compared with men walking 0 to 3 hours/wk, men walking 4 to 7, 8 to 14, 15 to 21, and >22 hours had age- and region-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for stroke of 0.89 (0.60-1.31), 0.63 (0.40-1.00), 0.68 (0.35-1.32), and 0.36 (0.14-0.91), respectively, P (trend)=0.006. Hazard ratios were somewhat attenuated by adjustment for established and novel risk markers (inflammatory and hemostatic markers and cardiac function [N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide]) and walking pace, but linear trends remained. There was little evidence for a dose-response relationship between walking pace and stroke; comparing average pace or faster to a baseline of slow pace, the hazard ratio for stroke was 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.97), which was fully mediated by time spent walking. Time spent walking was associated with reduced risk of onset of stroke in dose-response fashion, independent of walking pace. Walking could form an important part of stroke-prevention strategies in older people.

  11. Effectiveness of a fall-risk reduction programme for inpatient rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goljar, Nika; Globokar, Daniel; Puzić, Nataša; Kopitar, Natalija; Vrabič, Maja; Ivanovski, Matic; Vidmar, Gaj

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate effectiveness of fall-risk-assessment-based fall prevention for stroke rehabilitation inpatients. A consecutive series of 232 patients admitted for the first time to a subacute stroke-rehabilitation ward during 2010-2011 was studied in detail. The Assessment Sheet for Fall Prediction in Stroke Inpatients (ASFPSI by Nakagawa et al.) was used to assess fall-risk upon admission. Association of ASFPSI score and patient characteristics with actual falls was statistically tested. Yearly incidence of falls per 1000 hospital days (HD) was retrospectively audited for the 2006-2014 period to evaluate effectiveness of fall-risk reduction measures. The observed incidence of falls over the detailed-study-period was 3.0/1000 HD; 39% of the fallers fell during the first week after admission. ASFPSI score was not significantly associated with falls. Longer hospital stay, left body-side affected and non-extreme FIM score (55-101) were associated with higher odds of fall. Introduction of fall-risk reduction measures followed by compulsory fall-risk assessment lead to incidence of falls dropping from 7.1/1000 HD in 2006 to 2.8/1000 HD in 2011 and remaining at that level until 2014. The fall-risk-assessment-based measures appear to have led to decreasing falls risk among post-stroke rehabilitation inpatients classified as being at high risk of falls. The fall prevention programme as a whole was successful. Patients with non-extreme level of functional independence should receive enhanced fall prevention. Implications for Rehabilitation Recognising the fall risk upon the patient's admission is essential for preventing falls in rehabilitation wards. Assessing the fall risk is a team tasks and combines information from various sources. Assessing fall risk in stroke patients using the assessment sheet by Nakagawa et al. immediately upon admission systematically draws attention to the risk of falls in each individual patient.

  12. Warfarin use and the risk of mortality, stroke, and bleeding in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Brandon; Bogorad, Yuliya; Nguyen, Leigh-Anh N; Yang, Su-Jau; Chen, Wansu; Spencer, Hillard T; Shen, Albert Y-J; Lee, Ming-Sum

    2017-05-01

    The optimal management of stroke prophylaxis in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of mortality, stroke, and bleeding associated with the use of warfarin in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation. This was a retrospective, population-based study of hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation between January 1, 2006, and September 30, 2015. Association of warfarin use with mortality, stroke, and bleeding was determined by propensity score-matched, Cox proportional hazard models. Among the 4286 patients with atrial fibrillation on hemodialysis, 989 (23%) were prescribed warfarin. Propensity score matching was used to identify 888 matched pairs with similar baseline characteristics. Warfarin use was associated with lower risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-0.84) and lower risk of ischemic stroke (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.52-0.91). Warfarin use was not associated with a higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.6-2.2) or gastrointestinal bleeding (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.77-1.2). The treatment effect was largest in the group with the best international normalized ratio control as measured by time in therapeutic range. Subgroup analyses showed warfarin use was associated with survival benefit in most subgroups. The 2 subgroups that did not benefit were patients with a history of hemorrhagic stroke and patients with concurrent aspirin use. Warfarin use is associated with lower all-cause mortality and ischemic stroke, without significantly increasing the risk of bleeding in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Longitudinal Change of Perceived Salt Intake and Stroke Risk in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Huang, Zhe; Jin, Cheng; Xing, Aijun; Liu, Yesong; Huangfu, Chunmei; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2018-06-01

    Data for a relationship between salt intake and stroke have been inconsistent. This inconstancy could be because of the majority of studies evaluated salt intake at a single time point, which may be insufficient to accurately characterize salt intake throughout the observation period. Included were 77 605 participants from the Kailuan study. We assessed perceived salt intake via questionnaire in 2006, 2008, and 2010. Salt intake trajectories from 2006 to 2010 were identified using latent mixture models. Incident stroke cases were identified from 2010 to 2015 and confirmed by review of medical records. Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the association between salt intake trajectories and stroke risk after adjusting for possible confounders, including age, sex, lifestyle, social economic status, body mass index, use of medicines, blood pressure, and lipoprotein profiles. Identified were 5 distinct salt intake trajectories: moderate-stable (n=59 241), moderate-decreasing (n=9268), moderate-increasing (n=2975), low-increasing (n=2879), and high-decreasing (n=3242). During the 5-year follow-up period, there were 1564 incident strokes cases. Compared with individuals with the moderate-stable salt intake trajectory, individuals with moderate-decreasing salt intake trajectory had significantly lower cerebral infarction stroke risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.92) but not intracerebral hemorrhage risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.29). Further adjustment for 2006 or 2010 perceived salt intakes generated similar results. When baseline perceived salt intake only was used as the exposure, a significant dose-response relationship between higher perceived salt intake and higher stroke risk was observed ( P trend=0.006). Change in salt intake was associated with the stroke risk. These data support the dietary recommendation to the reduction of salt intake. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  15. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  16. Decreased risk of stroke among 10-year survivors of breast cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooning, M.J.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Aleman, B.; Kappelle, A.C.; Klijn, J.G.M.; Boogerd, W.; Leeuwen, F.E. van

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess treatment-specific risk of cerebrovascular events in early breast cancer (BC) patients, accounting for cerebrovascular risk factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied the incidence of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA; stroke and transient ischemic attack [TIA]) in 10-year survivors

  17. Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homocysteine Studies Collab, .

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: It has been suggested that total blood homocysteine concentrations are associated with the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of homocysteine concentrations with vascular disease risk. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched for articles

  18. Intracardiac tumor: A risk factor for stroke in the young –A case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intracardiac mass should be considered a possible risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adult, especially in the absence of other risk factors such as connective tissue disorders, HIV/AIDS, hemoglobinopathy or use of recreational drugs. High index of suspicion is required in order not to overlook such source of emboli.

  19. Combined oral contraceptives : the risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roach, Rachel E J; Helmerhorst, Frans M.; Lijfering, Willem M.; Stijnen, Theo; Algra, Ale; Dekkers, Olaf M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have been associated with an increased risk of arterial thrombosis, i.e. myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. However, as these diseases are rare in young women and as many types of combined oral contraception exist, the magnitude of the risk and

  20. Lipoprotein(a) concentration and the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and nonvascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    (Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.) The Fibrinogen Studies Collaboration.The Copenhagen City Heart Study; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Circulating concentration of lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), a large glycoprotein attached to a low-density lipoprotein-like particle, may be associated with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of Lp(a) concentration with risk of major vascular...

  1. Risk Factors for Post-stroke Depression: A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke not only impacts patients physically but also economically. Post-stroke depression (PSD, as a common complication of stroke, always obstructs the process of stroke rehabilitation. Accordingly, defining the risk factors associated with PSD has extraordinary importance. Although there have been many studies investigating the risk factors for PSD, the results are inconsistent.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify the risk factors for PSD by evidence-based medicine.Data sources: A systematic and comprehensive database search was performed of PubMed, Medline, CENTRAL, EMBASE.com, the Cochrane library and Web of Science for Literature, covering publications from January 1, 1998 to November 19, 2016.Study Selection: Studies on risk factors for PSD were identified, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The risk of bias tool, described in the Cochrane Handbook version 5.1.0, was used to assess the quality of each study. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software.Results: Thirty-six studies were included for review. A history of mental illness was the highest ranking modifiable risk factor; other risk factors for PSD were female gender, age (<70 years, neuroticism, family history, severity of stroke, and level of handicap. Social support was a protective factor for PSD.Conclusion: There are many factors that have effects on PSD. The severity of stroke is an important factor in the occurrence of PSD. Mental history is a possible predictor of PSD. Prevention of PSD requires social and family participation.

  2. The associations of diastolic blood pressure with the risk of stroke in Western and Eastern populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Rodgers, A; MacMahon, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence from two overviews of prospective, observational studies of the association of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with the risk of stroke in populations from the US and Europe and populations from China and Japan. The Western overview included seven studies involving a total of 405,511 individuals. During a mean follow-up period of 11 years, 843 strokes were observed. The Eastern overview included 18 cohorts involving a total of 124,774 participants. During a mean follow-up duration of 9 years, 1,798 strokes were observed. The shape of the association between usual DBP and the risk of stroke was similar in Western and Eastern populations, but in Eastern populations the size of the association was about 50% steeper than that in Western populations. This may be due, at least in part, to cerebral haemorrhage comprising a greater proportion of total stroke in Eastern populations. This finding, together with the high stroke rates in many Eastern Asian populations, suggests that the potential benefits of blood pressure lowering may be greater in Eastern Asia.

  3. A scoring system for ascertainment of incident stroke; the Risk Index Score (RISc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass-Hout, T A; Moyé, L A; Smith, M A; Morgenstern, L B

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop and validate a computer-based statistical algorithm that could be translated into a simple scoring system in order to ascertain incident stroke cases using hospital admission medical records data. The Risk Index Score (RISc) algorithm was developed using data collected prospectively by the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, 2000. The validity of RISc was evaluated by estimating the concordance of scoring system stroke ascertainment to stroke ascertainment by physician and/or abstractor review of hospital admission records. RISc was developed on 1718 randomly selected patients (training set) and then statistically validated on an independent sample of 858 patients (validation set). A multivariable logistic model was used to develop RISc and subsequently evaluated by goodness-of-fit and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. The higher the value of RISc, the higher the patient's risk of potential stroke. The study showed RISc was well calibrated and discriminated those who had potential stroke from those that did not on initial screening. In this study we developed and validated a rapid, easy, efficient, and accurate method to ascertain incident stroke cases from routine hospital admission records for epidemiologic investigations. Validation of this scoring system was achieved statistically; however, clinical validation in a community hospital setting is warranted.

  4. Substitutions of dairy product intake and risk of stroke: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2018-02-01

    Low fat dairy products are part of dietary guidelines to prevent stroke. However, epidemiological evidence is inconclusive with regard to the association between dairy products and stroke. We therefore investigated associations for substitutions between dairy product subgroups and risk of total stroke and stroke subtypes. We included 55,211 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years without previous stroke. Baseline diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Cases were identified through a national register and subsequently verified. The associations were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression. During a median follow-up of 13.4 years, we identified 2272 strokes, of which 1870 were ischemic (318 large artery atherosclerotic, 839 lacunar, 102 cardioembolic, 98 other determined types, 513 of unknown type), 389 were hemorrhages (273 intracerebral, 116 subarachnoid) and 13 of unknown etiology. Substitution of semi-skimmed fermented milk or cheese for whole-fat fermented milk was associated with a higher rate of ischemic stroke [semi-skimmed fermented milk: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.45), cheese: HR = 1.14 (95% CI 0.98-1.31) per serving/day substituted] and substitutions of whole-fat fermented milk for low-fat milk, whole-fat milk or buttermilk were associated with a lower rate [low-fat milk: HR = 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.99), whole-fat milk: HR = 0.84 (95% CI 0.71-0.98) and buttermilk: HR = 0.83 (95% CI 0.70-0.99)]. We observed no associations for substitutions between dairy products and hemorrhagic stroke. Our results suggest that intake of whole-fat fermented milk as a substitution for semi-skimmed fermented milk, cheese, buttermilk or milk, regardless of fat content, is associated with a lower rate of ischemic stroke.

  5. Risk factors for ischaemic and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, Martin J; Xavier, Denis; Liu, Lisheng

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The contribution of various risk factors to the burden of stroke worldwide is unknown, particularly in countries of low and middle income. We aimed to establish the association of known and emerging risk factors with stroke and its primary subtypes, assess the contribution of these risk...... factors to the burden of stroke, and explore the differences between risk factors for stroke and myocardial infarction. METHODS: We undertook a standardised case-control study in 22 countries worldwide between March 1, 2007, and April 23, 2010. Cases were patients with acute first stroke (within 5 days......; 18.8%, 11.2-29.7); regular physical activity (0.69, 0.53-0.90; 28.5%, 14.5-48.5); diabetes mellitus (1.36, 1.10-1.68; 5.0%, 2.6-9.5); alcohol intake (1.51, 1.18-1.92 for more than 30 drinks per month or binge drinking; 3.8%, 0.9-14.4); psychosocial stress (1.30, 1.06-1.60; 4.6%, 2...

  6. Patent foramen ovale is not associated with an increased risk of stroke recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurer, R; Sadikovic, S; Sepp, D; Esposito, L; Schleef, M; Bockelbrink, A; Schwarze, J; Hemmer, B; Sander, D; Poppert, H

    2010-11-01

    Despite numerous studies suggesting a relationship between paradoxical embolism from a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and stroke, the role of PFO as a risk factor for cerebral ischaemia remains controversial. We therefore sought to determine the association between a RLS detected by contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (c-TCD) and recurrent stroke in an unselected population sample. We analyzed the records of 763 patients with diagnosis of cerebral ischaemia at our institution. All patients had undergone TCD-based detection of RLS. Embolic signals have been measured both under resting conditions and after performing a Valsalva maneuver. For follow-up, all patients were contacted by mail, which included a standardized questionnaire. Endpoints of follow-up were defined as recurrence of cerebral ischaemia, occurrence of myocardial infarction or death from any cause. Follow-up data were available in 639 patients (83.7%). At baseline, a RLS was detected in 140 (28%) men and in 114 (42%) women. Ten shunt-carriers (1.6%) and 32 patients (5.0%) without RLS had suffered a recurrent stroke. After adjustment for age, sex, and atrial fibrillation, the hazard ratio of RLS for stroke recurrence was 0.86 (95% CI 0.41-1.79). The condition of RLS at rest adjusted for age, sex, stroke subtype, and cardiovascular risk factors was not found to increase the risk of stroke substantially (HR 1.16 [95% CI 0.41-3.29]) Our data suggest that the risk of recurrent stroke in subjects with PFO is not significantly increased in comparison with subject without it. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 EFNS.

  7. Increased Vascular Disease Mortality Risk in Prediabetic Korean Adults Is Mainly Attributable to Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hoon; Kwon, Tae Yeon; Yu, Sungwook; Kim, Nan Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Park, Yousung; Kim, Sin Gon

    2017-04-01

    Prediabetes is a known risk factor for vascular diseases; however, its differential contribution to mortality risk from various vascular disease subtypes is not known. The subjects of the National Health Insurance Service in Korea (2002-2013) nationwide cohort were stratified into normal glucose tolerance (fasting glucose mortality risk for vascular disease and its subtypes-ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke. When adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index, IFG stage 2, but not stage 1, was associated with significantly higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.34) and vascular disease mortality (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.08-1.49) compared with normal glucose tolerance. Among the vascular disease subtypes, mortality from ischemic stroke was significantly higher (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.18-2.18) in subjects with IFG stage 2 but not from ischemic heart disease and hemorrhagic stroke. The ischemic stroke mortality associated with IFG stage 2 remained significantly high when adjusted other modifiable vascular disease risk factors (HR, 1.51; 95% CI: 1.10-2.09) and medical treatments (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.19-2.57). Higher IFG degree (fasting glucose, 110-125 mg/dL) was associated with increased all-cause and vascular disease mortality. The increased vascular disease mortality in IFG stage 2 was attributable to ischemic stroke, but not ischemic heart disease or hemorrhagic stroke in Korean adults. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Cumulative keyboard strokes: a possible risk factor for carpal tunnel syndrome

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    Eleftheriou Andreas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contradictory reports have been published regarding the association of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS and the use of computer keyboard. Previous studies did not take into account the cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes among computer workers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cumulative keyboard use (keyboard strokes and CTS. Methods Employees (461 from a Governmental data entry & processing unit agreed to participate (response rate: 84.1 % in a cross-sectional study. Α questionnaire was distributed to the participants to obtain information on socio-demographics and risk factors for CTS. The participants were examined for signs and symptoms related to CTS and were asked if they had previous history or surgery for CTS. The cumulative amount of the keyboard strokes per worker per year was calculated by the use of payroll’s registry. Two case definitions for CTS were used. The first included subjects with personal history/surgery for CTS while the second included subjects that belonged to the first case definition plus those participants were identified through clinical examination. Results Multivariate analysis used for both case definitions, indicated that those employees with high cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes were at increased risk of CTS (case definition A: OR = 2.23;95 % CI = 1.09-4.52 and case definition B: OR = 2.41; 95%CI = 1.36-4.25. A dose response pattern between cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes and CTS has been revealed (p  Conclusions The present study indicated a possible association between cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes and development of CTS. Cumulative exposure to key-board strokes would be taken into account as an exposure indicator regarding exposure assessment of computer workers. Further research is needed in order to test the results of the current study and assess causality between cumulative keyboard strokes and

  9. Fruits and vegetables consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dan; Huang, Junqian; Wang, Yuchun; Zhang, Dongfeng; Qu, Yan

    2014-06-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize evidence from prospective cohort studies about the association of fruits and vegetables consumption with the risk of stroke. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed databases to January 2014. Study-specific relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effects model. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline. Twenty prospective cohort studies were included, involving 16 981 stroke events among 760 629 participants. The multivariable relative risk (95% confidence intervals) of stroke for the highest versus lowest category of total fruits and vegetables consumption was 0.79 (0.75-0.84), and the effect was 0.77 (0.71-0.84) for fruits consumption and 0.86 (0.79-0.93) for vegetables consumption. Subgroup and meta-regression showed that the inverse association of total fruits and vegetables consumption with the risk of stroke was consistent in subgroup analysis. Citrus fruits, apples/pears, and leafy vegetables might contribute to the protection. The linear dose-response relationship showed that the risk of stroke decreased by 32% (0.68 [0.56-0.82]) and 11% (0.89 [0.81-0.98]) for every 200 g per day increment in fruits consumption (P for nonlinearity=0.77) and vegetables consumption (P for nonlinearity=0.62), respectively. Fruits and vegetables consumption are inversely associated with the risk of stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Timing of Incident Stroke Risk After Cervical Artery Dissection Presenting Without Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nicholas A; Merkler, Alexander E; Gialdini, Gino; Kamel, Hooman

    2017-03-01

    Cervical artery dissection is a common cause of stroke in young people. The temporal profile of stroke risk after cervical artery dissection presenting without ischemia remains uncertain. We performed a crossover cohort study using administrative claims data on all emergency department visits and acute care hospitalizations from 2005 to 2011 in CA, 2006 to 2013 in NY, and 2005 to 2013 in FL. Using previously validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes, we identified patients with a cervical artery dissection and no previous or concurrent stroke or transient ischemic attack diagnosis. We compared the risk of stroke in successive 2-week periods during the 12 weeks after dissection versus the corresponding 2-week period 1 year later. Absolute risk increases were calculated using McNemar test for matched data. In a sensitivity analysis, we limited our population to patients presenting with typical symptoms of cervical artery dissection. We identified 2791 patients with dissection without ischemia. The absolute increase in stroke risk was 1.25% (95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.67%) in the first 2 weeks after dissection compared with the same time period 1 year later. The absolute risk increase was 0.18% (95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.34%) during weeks 3 to 4 and was no longer significant during the remainder of the 12-week postdissection period. Our findings were similar in a sensitivity analysis identifying patients who presented with typical symptoms of acute dissection. The risk of stroke after cervical artery dissection unaccompanied by ischemia at time of diagnosis seems to be limited to the first 2 weeks. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Risk Factors for Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa

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    Gertrude Namale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, there is a significant burden of ischemic stroke (IS and hemorrhagic stroke (HS, although data on risk factors for each type are sparse. In this systematic review we attempt to characterize the risk factors. Methods. We systematically reviewed (PubMed, EMBASE, WHOLIS, Google Scholar, Wiley online, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL case-control studies and case series from 1980 to 2016 that reported risk factors for IS and/or HS in SSA. For each risk factor we calculated random-effects pooled odds ratios (ORs for case-control studies and pooled prevalence estimates for case series. Results. We identified 12 studies, including 4,387 stroke patients. Pooled analysis showed that patients who had diabetes (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.14–5.03 and HIV (OR = 2.46 (95% CI: 1.59–3.81 were at a significantly greater risk of suffering from all stroke types. There were insufficient data to examine these factors by stroke type. Among case series, the pooled prevalence of hypertension was higher for HS than for IS (73.5% versus 62.8%, while diabetes mellitus (DM and atrial fibrillation (AF were more prevalent among IS compared to HS (15.9% versus 10.6% and 9.6% versus 2.3%, respectively. Conclusions. There remain too few data from SSA to reliably estimate the effect of various factors on the risk of IS and HS. Furthermore, the vast majority of cases were identified in hospital and so are unlikely to be representative of the totality of stroke cases in the community.

  12. Minor Electrocardiographic ST-T Change and Risk of Stroke in the General Japanese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Joji; Hirose, Hideo; Schwartz, Joseph E; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo

    2018-06-25

    Minor ST-T changes are frequently observed on the electrocardiogram (ECG), but the risk of stroke associated with such changes is unclear.Methods and Results:In 10,642 subjects from the Japanese general population, we evaluated minor and major ST-T changes (major ST depression ≥0.1 mV) on ECGs obtained at annual health examinations. At baseline, minor ST-T changes were found in 10.7% of the subjects and 0.5% had major ST-T changes. Minor ST-T changes were associated with older age, female gender, higher systolic blood pressure, presence of hyperlipidemia, and use of antihypertensive medication. There were 375 stroke events during the follow-up period (128.7±28.1 months). In all subjects, minor ST-T changes (HR, 2.10; 95% CI: 1.57-2.81) and major ST-T changes (HR, 8.64; 95% CI: 4.44-16.82) were associated with an increased risk of stroke, but the stroke risk associated with minor ST-T changes had borderline significance after adjustment for conventional risk factors (P=0.055). In subgroup analysis, the risk of stroke was significantly associated with minor ST-T changes in subjects who had hyperlipidemia (HR, 1.75; 95% CI: 1.15-2.67) compared to those without hyperlipidemia (HR, 1.01; 95% CI: 0.64-1.59; P for interaction=0.016), even after adjustment for ECG-diagnosed left ventricular hypertrophy. Minor ST-T changes were particularly associated with a higher risk of stroke in subjects with hyperlipidemia and this association was independent of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy.

  13. Measures of abdominal adiposity and the risk of stroke: the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph (MORGAM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenant, Marie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Wagner, Aline; Kee, Frank; Palmieri, Luigi; Ferrario, Marco M; Montaye, Michèle; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2011-10-01

    Excess fat accumulates in the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue compartments. We tested the hypothesis that indicators of visceral adiposity, namely, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), are better predictors of stroke risk than body mass index (BMI). The association of BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR with stroke was assessed in 31,201 men and 23,516 women, free of vascular disease at baseline, from the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph (MORGAM) study. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1130 strokes were recorded. Relative risks (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression after stratification for center and adjustment for age, smoking, educational level, alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and BMI and model fit was assessed using log-likelihoods. BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR were associated with the risk of stroke in men. After full adjustment including BMI, the relative risks for stroke remained significant for WC (1.19 [1.02 to 1.34] per 1 SD increase in WC), WHR (1.14 [1.03 to 1.26]), and WHtR (1.50 [1.28 to 1.77]). Among women, the extent of the associations with stroke risk was similar for WHtR (1.31 [1.04 to 1.65]), WC (1.19 [0.96 to 1.47]), and WHR (1.08 [0.97 to 1.22]). Further analyses by World Health Organization obesity categories showed that WC, WHR, and WHtR were associated with the risk of stroke also in lean men and women (BMI<25 kg/m2), independently of confounders, cardiovascular risk factors, and BMI. Indicators of abdominal adiposity, especially WHtR, are more strongly associated with stroke risk than BMI. These results emphasize the importance of measuring abdominal adiposity, especially in lean subjects.

  14. Lower Risk of Stroke after Deformity Surgery: Long Term Benefit Demonstrated by a National Cohort Study

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    Liang-Chung Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the long-term risk of stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity. Specifically, the study addressed the possible protective effect of surgery for spinal deformity against stroke. Methods: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD, a monopolistic national database in Taiwan, this retrospective cohort study analyzed the incidence of stroke in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD in a 11-year period. A total of 13,503 patients, between 55 and 75 years old, were identified for the diagnosis of ASD. The patients were grouped into two: the surgical group (n = 10,439 who received spinal fusion surgery, and the control group (n = 2124 who received other medical treatment. The incidence rates of all subsequent cerebrovascular accidents, including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, were calculated. Hazard ratios for stroke were calculated use a full cohort and a propensity score matched cohort. Adjustments for co-morbidities that may predispose to stroke, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia and coronary heart disease were conducted. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the risk of stroke between the two groups. Results: During the total observation period of 50,450 person-years, the incidence rate of stroke in the surgical group (15.55 per 1000 person-years was significantly lower than that of the control group (20.89 per 1000 person-years, p < 0.001. Stroke was more likely to occur in the control group than in the surgical group (crude hazard ratio 1.34, p < 0.001; adjusted HR 1.28, p < 0.001, by a propensity score matched model. Conclusions: In this national cohort of more than 13,000 ASD patients covering 10 years, stroke was approximately 25% less likely to happen in patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery than those who received medical management. Therefore, spinal fusion surgery may provide a protective effect against stroke

  15. Stroke in systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome: risk factors, clinical manifestations, neuroimaging, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Amorim, L C D; Maia, F M; Rodrigues, C E M

    2017-04-01

    Neurologic disorders are among the most common and important clinical manifestations associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), mainly those that affect the central nervous system (CNS). Risk of cerebrovascular events in both conditions is increased, and stroke represents one of the most severe complications, with an incidence rate between 3% and 20%, especially in the first five years of diagnosis. This article updates the data regarding the risk factors, clinical manifestations, neuroimaging, and treatment of stroke in SLE and APS.

  16. Lung function and risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T; Prescott, E; Lange, P

    2001-01-01

    results on the relation between forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and risk of incident and fatal first-ever stroke. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The analyses are based on prospective cohort data from 12 878 eligible men and women aged 45-84 years, who participated in the first health examination...... adjustment for potential confounders: sex, age, smoking, inhalation, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, physical activity in leisure time, education, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment. RESULTS: We found an inverse association between FEV1 and risk of first-time stroke...

  17. Higher Education Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Dementia after a Stroke or TIA. The Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Saira Saeed; Portegies, Marileen L P; Wolters, Frank J; Hofman, Albert; Koudstaal, Peter J; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia, possibly because of a higher tolerance to subclinical neurodegenerative pathology. Whether higher education also protects against dementia after clinical stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains unknown. Within the population-based Rotterdam Study, 12,561 participants free of stroke, TIA and dementia were followed for occurrence of stroke, TIA and dementia. Across the levels of education, associations of incident stroke or TIA with subsequent development of dementia and differences in cognitive decline following stroke or TIA were investigated. During 124,862 person-years, 1,463 persons suffered a stroke or TIA, 1,158 persons developed dementia, of whom 186 developed dementia after stroke or TIA. Risk of dementia after a stroke or TIA, compared to no stroke or TIA, was highest in the low education category (hazards ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% CI 1.18-1.81) followed by intermediate education category (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03-1.81). No significant association was observed in the high education category (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.25-1.54). In gender stratified analyses, decrease in risk of dementia with increasing education was significant only in men. Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia after stroke or TIA, particularly in men, which might be explained by a higher cognitive reserve. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Prior rates of visual field loss and lifetime risk of blindness in glaucomatous patients undergoing trabeculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulsham, W S; Fu, L; Tatham, A J

    2015-10-01

    Trend-based analyses examining rates of visual field (VF) loss in glaucoma are useful for predicting risk of vision-related morbidity. Although patients with faster losses are likely to require treatment escalation, little is known about rates that might trigger a decision to intervene surgically. The aims of this study were to investigate prior rates of VF loss in patients attending for trabeculectomy and to estimate, in the absence of surgical intervention, lifetime risk of visual impairment, and blindness. A retrospective analysis of 117 eyes of 86 consecutive patients with glaucoma attending for trabeculectomy, including 53 patients referred from general ophthalmology clinics and 33 patients from specialist glaucoma clinics. Rates of change in standard automated perimetry mean deviation were examined using linear regression and random coefficient models. Risk of lifetime visual impairment and blindness was calculated using life expectancy data. Mean age at surgery was 71.0±9.7 years. Patients were followed for 10.7±7.5 years prior to surgery with an average of seven useable fields per eye. On average patients referred from general clinics lost 1.04 dB/year compared with 0.77 dB/year in those referred from glaucoma clinics (P=0.070). Patients referred from general clinics had more medication changes prior to surgery (3.4 and 2.6 changes, respectively; P=0.004). Given Scottish life expectancy data, untreated, 61 eyes (52%) would have passed the threshold for visual impairment, whereas 40 (34%) would have passed the threshold demarcating blindness. Patients attending for trabeculectomy had faster average rates of field loss prior to surgery than published values for the general glaucoma population with over one-third of eyes studied predicted to have become blind without intervention. Those managed by glaucoma specialists had fewer changes in medication and tended to slower rates of VF loss, although the latter did not reach statistical significance.

  19. Ischemic stroke and patent foramen ovale: risk factors and genetic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Maria; Sjöstrand, Christina; Kostulas, Konstantinos

    2013-08-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is considered to be a risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD), especially in young people. However, the potential pathophysiological relevance in ischemic stroke is controversial and in need of further investigation. In this study, we examined the conventional risk factors and the distribution of 100 polymorphisms in 47 suspected susceptibility genes for ICVD in stroke patients with or without a PFO. In the South Stockholm Ischemic Stroke Study, 928 ICVD patients and 602 controls were genotyped for 100 different gene polymorphisms. The stroke patients also underwent relevant investigation and standardized blood tests. Patients who underwent transeosophageal echocardiography as part of their investigation were divided into groups that either had or did not have a PFO. There were no significant differences in the 2 groups with regard to conventional risk factors or blood analyses. Three different polymorphisms located in the prothrombin, F2 (20210G/A), and apolipoprotein-C3 (-641A/C and -455T/A) genes were significantly associated with ICVD and PFO. The strongest association was found for F2 (P = .0049; odds ratio 26.4). We found that F2, which previously has been described as being a possible link between PFO and ICVD, was significantly associated with ICVD and PFO. There was also a trend toward an association between 2 other polymorphisms in the APO-CIII gene and PFO and ICVD. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lipoprotein (a) as a risk factor for ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Alexander H; Lange, Kristin S; Leonards, Christopher O; Siegerink, Bob; Doehner, Wolfram; Landmesser, Ulf; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Endres, Matthias; Ebinger, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] harbors atherogenic potential but its role as a risk factor for ischemic stroke remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the relative strength of the association between Lp(a) and ischemic stroke and identify potential subgroup-specific risk differences. A systematic search using the MeSH terms "lipoproteins" OR "lipoprotein a" AND "stroke" was performed in PubMed and ScienceDirect for case-control studies from June 2006 and prospective cohort studies from April 2009 until December 20th 2014. Data from eligible papers published before these dates were reviewed and extracted from previous meta-analyses. Studies that assessed the relationship between Lp(a) levels and ischemic stroke and reported generic data-i.e. odds ratio [OR], hazard ratio, or risk ratio [RR]-were eligible for inclusion. Studies that not distinguish between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and transient ischemic attack were excluded. Random effects meta-analyses with mixed-effects meta-regression were performed by pooling adjusted OR or RR. A total of 20 articles comprising 90,904 subjects and 5029 stroke events were eligible for the meta-analysis. Comparing high with low Lp(a) levels, the pooled estimated OR was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.26-1.57) for case-control studies (n = 11) and the pooled estimated RR was 1.29 (95% CI, 1.06-1.58) for prospective studies (n = 9). Sex-specific differences in RR were inconsistent between case-control and prospective studies. Study populations with a mean age of ≤55 years had an increased RR compared to older study populations. Reported Lp(a) contrast levels and ischemic stroke subtype significantly contributed to the heterogeneity observed in the analyses. Elevated Lp(a) is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke and may be especially relevant for young stroke patients. Sex-specific risk differences remain conflicting. Further studies in these subgroups may be warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  1. A STUDY ON RISK FACTORS AND LIPID PROFILE PATTERN IN PATIENTS OF STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawgam Umbon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stroke is usually end result of predisposing conditions that originated years before the ictus. Creating awareness and treatment of its modifiable risk factors will reduce the incidence of stroke. OBJECTIVE To study the risk factors and lipid profile pattern in stroke patients. METHODS Patients with diagnosis of stroke comprising 50 consecutive patients each of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes who were admitted in Jorhat Medical College & Hospital, Assam over a period of 1 year (May 2015 - April 2016 included in the study, while patients on lipid lowering therapy were excluded from the study. History of risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcoholism were taken. To determine the subtype of stroke, clinical examination followed by CT scan/MRI of brain were done. A serum sample after 8 hours of overnight fasting was taken on the next day of admission for both groups of patients. Total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol was determined, using enzymatic colorimetric method. RESULTS A total of 100 patients were studied, of whom 66 were males and 34 were females. The mean age for the ischaemic group was 62±12 years and for the haemorrhagic group were 55±14 years. In this study, dyslipidaemia was present in 58 (58% patients. Patients with high total cholesterol - 33 (18 ischaemic, 15 haemorrhagic, high LDL-cholesterol was found in 38 (22 ischaemic, 16 haemorrhagic, high triglycerides in 31 (14 ischaemic, 17 haemorrhagic and low HDL-cholesterol in 47 (29 ischaemic, 18 haemorrhagic. Among 100 patients, 66 had hypertension, 20 had diabetes mellitus, 18 had both diabetes and hypertension, 43 were smokers, 36 consumed alcohol and >2 risk factor were found in 44. CONCLUSION Dyslipidaemia was found in 58% of patients and most striating features were low HDL-cholesterol and elevated triglycerides level, indicating they are independent risk factors for stroke. No

  2. Magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intakes and risk of stroke in male smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Virtanen, Mikko J; Mars, Monica; Männistö, Satu; Pietinen, Pirjo; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo

    2008-03-10

    A high intake of magnesium, calcium, and potassium and a low intake of sodium have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of stroke. However, prospective data relating intake of these minerals to risk of stroke are inconsistent. We examined the relationship of dietary magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intake with risk of stroke in a cohort of 26 556 Finnish male smokers, aged 50 to 69 years, who were free from stroke at baseline. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a detailed and validated food frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 13.6 years (1985-2004), 2702 cerebral infarctions, 383 intracerebral hemorrhages, and 196 subarachnoid hemorrhages were identified in the national registries. After adjustment for age and cardiovascular risk factors, a high magnesium intake was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of cerebral infarction but not with intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhages. The multivariate relative risk of cerebral infarction was 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.97; P for trend = .004) for men in the highest quintile of magnesium intake compared with those in the lowest quintile. The inverse association between magnesium intake and cerebral infarction was stronger in men younger than 60 years (relative risk, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.89; P for interaction = .02). Calcium, potassium, and sodium intake was not significantly associated with risk of any subtype of stroke (P for trend > .05). These findings in male smokers suggest that a high magnesium intake may play a role in the primary prevention of cerebral infarction.

  3. Incidence of Depression After Stroke, and Associated Risk Factors and Mortality Outcomes, in a Large Cohort of Danish Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Terese S. H.; Wium-Andersen, Ida K.; Wium-Andersen, Marie K.

    2016-01-01

    the incidence of and risk factors for depression differ between patients with stroke and a reference population without stroke and to assess how depression influences mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Register-based cohort study in Denmark. Participants were all individuals 15 years or older......Importance: More than 30 million people live with a stroke diagnosis worldwide. Depression after stroke is frequent, and greater knowledge of associated risk factors and outcomes is needed to understand the etiology and implications of this disabling complication. Objectives: To examine whether...... ratio for stroke vs the reference population, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.85-2.08). Significant risk factors for depression for patients with stroke and the reference population included older age, female sex, single cohabitation status, basic educational attainment, diabetes, high level of somatic comorbidity...

  4. Risk factors for ischaemic and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study): a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M.J.; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Xiufeng, Liu

    2010-01-01

    Background The contribution of various risk factors to the burden of stroke worldwide is unknown, particularly in countries of low and middle income. We aimed to establish the association of known and emerging risk factors with stroke and its primary subtypes, assess the contribution of these ris...

  5. Risk of stroke in people with type 2 diabetes in the UK: a study using the General Practice Research Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulnier, H.E.; Seaman, H.E.; Raleigh, V.S.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Colhoun, H.M.; Lawrenson, R.A.; Vries, de C.S.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Risk estimates for stroke in patients with diabetes vary. We sought to obtain reliable risk estimates for stroke and the association with diabetes, comorbidity and lifestyle in a large cohort of type 2 diabetic patients in the UK. Materials and methods Using the General Practice

  6. Effects of epilepsy and selected antiepileptic drugs on risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death in patients with or without previous stroke: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J. B.; Abildstrom, S. Z.; Erdal, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    .64; 95%CI, 1.57-1.72), and all-cause death (HR, 1.92; 95%CI, 1.86-1.97). Compared with carbamazepine monotherapy, valproate was associated with a decreased risk of MI (HR, 0.72; 95%CI, 0.59-0.87) and stroke (HR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.76-0.96), oxcarbazepine and phenobarbital with increased risk...... Patients with epilepsy exhibit increased risk of MI, stroke, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death. Compared with carbamazepine monotherapy, valproate may decrease, and oxcarbazepine and phenobarbital may increase, the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in these patients. Copyright (C) 2011 John...

  7. Attitudes toward anticoagulant treatment among nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients at high risk of stroke and low risk of bleed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crivera C

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Concetta Crivera,1 Winnie W Nelson,1 Jeff R Schein,1 Edward A Witt2 1Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Raritan, 2Kantar Health, Princeton, NJ, USA Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF is associated with an increased risk of stroke. Anticoagulant (AC therapies are effective at treating AF, but carry with them an increased risk of bleed. Research suggests that a large proportion of AF patients who have high risk of stroke and low risk of bleeding are not currently receiving AC treatment. The goal of this study was to understand the reasons why these patients do not engage in this potentially life-saving treatment.Method: Through a self-report online survey, using validated instruments, 1,184 US adults who self-reported a diagnosis of AF were screened for the risk of stroke and bleed. Of these patients, 230 (19.4% were at high risk of stroke, low risk of bleed, and not currently using an AC treatment, and were asked follow-up questions to assess their reasons for nontreatment, attitudes toward treatment, and attitudes toward dosing regimens.Results: The most common reasons patients stopped AC treatment were concerns regarding bleeding (27.8% and other medical concerns (26.6%, whereas the most common reason cited for not being prescribed an AC in the first place was the use of antiplatelet therapy as an alternative (57.1%. In both cases, potentially erroneous decisions regarding perceived stoke and/or bleeding risk were also a factor. Finally, the largest factors regarding attitudes toward treatment and dosing regimen were instructions from an authority figure (eg, physician, pharmacist and ease of use, respectively.Conclusion: Results suggest that many AF patients who are at high risk of stroke but at low risk of bleed may not be receiving AC due to potentially inaccurate beliefs about risk. This study also found that AF patients place trust in physicians above other factors such as cost when making treatment decisions. Increased education of

  8. Self-reported stress and risk of stroke: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Nielsen, Naja; Boysen, Gudrun

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lay people often mention stress as one of the most important risk factors for stroke. Stress might trigger a cerebrovascular event directly or could be associated with higher levels of blood pressure or an unfavorable lifestyle. To examine these possibilities, we analyzed...... the association between self-reported stress frequency and intensity and risk of stroke. METHODS: Data from the second examination, 1981 to 1983, of participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were analyzed with Cox regression after a mean of 13 years of follow-up. A total of 5604 men and 6970 women were...... included, and 929 first-ever strokes occurred, of which 207 (22%) were fatal within 28 days after onset of symptoms. The stress frequency categories were never/hardly ever, monthly, weekly, or daily. The stress intensity categories were never/hardly ever, light, moderate, or high. RESULTS: Subjects...

  9. Ambient Air Pollution and Risk for Ischemic Stroke: A Short-Term Exposure Assessment in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on the association between air pollution and risk of ischemic stroke in China are still limited. This study aimed to investigate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of ischemic strokes in Guangzhou, the most densely-populated city in south China, using a large-scale multicenter database of stroke hospital admissions. Daily counts of ischemic stroke admissions over the study years 2013–2015 were obtained from the Guangzhou Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease Event Surveillance System. Daily particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3, and meteorological data were collected. The associations between air pollutants and hospital admissions for stroke were examined using relative risks (RRs and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs based on time-series Poisson regression models, adjusting for temperature, public holiday, day of week, and temporal trends in stroke. Ischemic stroke admissions increased from 27,532 to 35,279 through 2013 to 2015, increasing by 28.14%. Parameter estimates for NO2 exposure were robust regardless of the model used. The association between same-day NO2 (RR = 1.0509, 95% CI: 1.0353–1.0668 exposure and stroke risk was significant when accounting for other air pollutants, day of the week, public holidays, temperature, and temporal trends in stroke events. Overall, we observed a borderline significant association between NO2 exposure modeled as an averaged lag effect and ischemic stroke risk. This study provides data on air pollution exposures and stroke risk, and contributes to better planning of clinical services and emergency contingency response for stroke.

  10. Trends in risk of recurrence after the first ischemic stroke in adults younger than 55 years of age in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kok Wai; Björck, Lena; Ståhl, Christina H; Nielsen, Susanne; Sandström, Tatiana Z; Jern, Christina; Torén, Kjell; Rosengren, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on stroke recurrence in younger adults often contain small sample size which makes it difficult to study trends in stroke recurrence over a long period of time. The aim of the present study was to investigate temporal trends in the risk of recurrence in younger patients with a first ischemic stroke. All men and women aged 18-54 years who had survived at least 28 days after a first ischemic stroke from 1987 to 2006 were identified in the Swedish Inpatient Register. The patients were stratified into four 5-year periods according to their admission period and were followed up for a total of four years after the index event with regard to recurrent ischemic stroke. A Cox regression model was used to analyze the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke. Of the 17,149 ischemic stroke patients who were identified, 2432 (14.2%) had a recurrent ischemic stroke event within four years. From the first to the last periods (1987-1991 versus 2002-2006), the four-year risk of recurrent ischemic stroke decreased by 55% (hazard ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.53) in men and 59% (hazard ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.50) in women. The cumulative four-year risk was 11.8% (95% CI 10.55-13.25) in men and 9.8% (95% CI 8.40-11.46) in women during the last five-year period (2002-2006). The risk of recurrence among younger ischemic stroke patients has decreased over the past 20 years. Despite these improvements, younger patients are still at a high risk for recurrent ischemic stroke. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  11. Emergency Physician Attitudes, Preferences, and Risk Tolerance for Stroke as a Potential Cause of Dizziness Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamata V. Kene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We evaluated emergency physicians’ (EP current perceptions, practice, and attitudes towards evaluating stroke as a cause of dizziness among emergency department patients. Methods: We administered a survey to all EPs in a large integrated healthcare delivery system. The survey included clinical vignettes, perceived utility of historical and exam elements, attitudes about the value of and requisite post-test probability of a clinical prediction rule for dizziness. We calculated descriptive statistics and post-test probabilities for such a clinical prediction rule. Results: The response rate was 68% (366/535. Respondents’ median practice tenure was eight years (37% female, 92% emergency medicine board certified. Symptom quality and typical vascular risk factors increased suspicion for stroke as a cause of dizziness. Most respondents reported obtaining head computed tomography (CT (74%. Nearly all respondents used and felt confident using cranial nerve and limb strength testing. A substantial minority of EPs used the Epley maneuver (49% and HINTS (head-thrust test, gaze-evoked nystagmus, and skew deviation testing (30%; however, few EPs reported confidence in these tests’ bedside application (35% and 16%, respectively. Respondents favorably viewed applying a properly validated clinical prediction rule for assessment of immediate and 30-day stroke risk, but indicated it would have to reduce stroke risk to <0.5% to be clinically useful. Conclusion: EPs report relying on symptom quality, vascular risk factors, simple physical exam elements, and head CT to diagnose stroke as the cause of dizziness, but would find a validated clinical prediction rule for dizziness helpful. A clinical prediction rule would have to achieve a 0.5% post-test stroke probability for acceptability.

  12. Influenza vaccination and cardiovascular risk in patients with recent TIA and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Philippa C; Labreuche, Julien; Fox, Kim M; Lavados, Pablo; Mattle, Heinrich; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Amarenco, Pierre

    2014-05-27

    To determine whether current influenza vaccination is associated with reduced risk of major vascular events in patients with recent ischemic stroke or TIA of mainly atherothrombotic origin. Data were pooled from 2 prospective cohort studies, the OPTIC Registry (n = 3,635) and the AMISTAD Study (n = 618), and from the randomized PERFORM Trial (n = 19,120), all of which included patients with recent ischemic stroke or TIA. Influenza vaccination status was determined in 23,110 patients. The primary outcome was a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or vascular death up to 2 years. Secondary outcomes were myocardial infarction and stroke separately. Influenza vaccination had no association with the primary outcome in the propensity score-matched cohort (hazard ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-1.11; p = 0.67) or in the propensity score-adjusted cohort (hazard ratio 1.00, 95% CI 0.89-1.12; p = 0.99). Similarly, the risk of stroke and myocardial infarction did not differ between the vaccinated group and the unvaccinated group; in the matched cohort, the hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI 0.88-1.17; p = 0.89) for stroke and 0.84 (95% CI 0.59-1.18; p = 0.30) for myocardial infarction. Influenza vaccination was not associated with reduced outcome events in patients with recent atherothrombotic ischemic stroke after considering all baseline characteristics (including concomitant medications) associated with influenza vaccination. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Association of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring parameters with the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Pikilidou, Maria; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Stamatelopoulos, Kimon; Michas, Fotios; Lykka, Aikaterini; Zompola, Christina; Filippatou, Angeliki; Boviatsis, Efstathios; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Zakopoulos, Nikolaos; Manios, Efstathios

    2017-09-15

    The Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) is a novel and reliable tool for estimating the 10-year probability for incident stroke in stroke-free individuals, while the predictive value of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for first-ever and recurrent stroke has been well established. We sought to evaluate cross-sectionally the association of ABPM parameters with FSRP score in a large sample of 2343 consecutive stroke-free individuals (mean age: 56.0±12.9, 49.1% male) who underwent 24-hour ABPM. True hypertensives showed significantly higher FSRP (11.2±5.0) compared to the normotensives (8.2±5.0, pbest fitting model for predicting FSRP (R 2 =24.6%) on multiple linear regression analyses after adjustment for vascular risk factors not included in FSRP comprised the following parameters in descending order: 24-hour PP (β=0.349, p<0.001), daytime SBP variability (β=0.124, p<0.001), 24-hour HR variability (β=-0.091, p<0.001), mean 24-hour HR (β=-0.107, p<0.001), BMI (β=0.081, p<0.001) and dipping percentage (β=-0.063, p=0.001). 24-hour PP and daytime SBP variability are the two ABPM parameters that were more strongly associated with FSRP-score. Reverse dippers had the highest FSRP among all dipping status profiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for poor functional outcome after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenweber, Frank Arne; Zietemann, Vera; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Opherk, Christian; Dichgans, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with adverse cardiovascular events, including stroke and atrial fibrillation. However, its impact on functional outcome after stroke remains unexplored. A total of 165 consecutively recruited patients admitted for ischemic stroke were included in this observational prospective study. Blood samples were taken in the morning within 3 days after symptom onset, and patients were divided into the following 3 groups: subclinical hyperthyroidism (0.1hyperthyroidism, and 23 patients (13.9%) had subclinical hypothyroidism. Patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism had a substantially increased risk of functional disability 3 months after stroke compared with subjects with euthyroid state (odds ratio, 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-6.82, adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, and time of blood sampling). The association remained significant, when including the baseline NIHSS, TIA, serum CRP, atrial fibrillation, body mass index, and total cholesterol as additional variables (odds ratio, 3.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-12.47), and was confirmed by the secondary outcome (Barthel Index: odds ratio, 9.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.08-39.89). Subclinical hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for poor outcome 3 months after ischemic stroke.

  15. Global burden of stroke and risk factors in 188 countries, during 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigin, Valery L; Roth, Gregory A; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of stroke-related disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) associated with potentially modifiable environmental, occupational, behavioural, physiological, and metabolic risk factors in different age and sex groups worldwide and in high-income countries and low......·2-73·5) and environmental factors (air pollution and lead exposure; 33·4%, 95% UI 32·4-34·3) were the second and third largest contributors to DALYs. Globally, 29·2% (95% UI 28·2-29·6) of the burden of stroke was attributed to air pollution. Although globally there were no significant differences between sexes......-income and middle-income countries, from 1990 to 2013. METHODS: We used data on stroke-related DALYs, risk factors, and PAF from the GBD 2013 Study to estimate the burden of stroke by age and sex (with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals [UI]) in 188 countries, as measured with stroke-related DALYs in 1990...

  16. The administration of hydrogen sulphide prior to ischemic reperfusion has neuroprotective effects in an acute stroke model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Woong Woo

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence has suggested that hydrogen sulfide (H2S may alleviate the cellular damage associated with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. In this study, we assessed using 1H-magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRI/MRS and histologic analysis whether H2S administration prior to reperfusion has neuroprotective effects. We also evaluated for differences in the effects of H2S treatment at 2 time points. 1H-MRI/MRS data were obtained at baseline, and at 3, 9, and 24 h after ischemia from 4 groups: sham, control (I/R injury, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS-30 and NaHS-1 (NaHS delivery at 30 and 1 min before reperfusion, respectively. The total infarct volume and the midline shift at 24 h post-ischemia were lowest in the NaHS-1, followed by the NaHS-30 and control groups. Peri-infarct volume was significantly lower in the NaHS-1 compared to NaHS-30 and control animals. The relative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC in the peri-infarct region showed that the NaHS-1 group had significantly lower values compared to the NaHS-30 and control animals and that NaHS-1 rats showed significantly higher relative T2 values in the peri-infarct region compared to the controls. The relative ADC value, relative T2 value, levels of N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA, and the NAA, glutamate, and taurine combination score (NGT in the ischemic core region at 24 h post-ischemia did not differ significantly between the 2 NaHS groups and the control except that the NAA and NGT values were higher in the peri-infarct region of the NaHS-1 animals at 9 h post-ischemia. In the ischemic core and peri-infarct regions, the apoptosis rate was lowest in the NaHS-1 group, followed by the NaHS-30 and control groups. Our results suggest that H2S treatment has neuroprotective effects on the peri-infarct region during the evolution of I/R injury. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the administration of H2S immediately prior to reperfusion produces the

  17. Sex difference in risk period for completed suicide following prior attempts: Korea National Suicide Survey (KNSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Joongyub; Kim, Eun-Young; Hyun Kim, Se; Ha, Kyooseob; Shin Kim, Young; Leventhal, Bennett L; Min Ahn, Yong

    2018-02-01

    We provide an opportunity for implementing preventive interventions to decrease suicide mortality among prior suicide attempters. We aim to identify sex-specific high risk periods and factors for later suicide death among suicide attempters. 8537 suicide attempters of Korea National Suicide Survey were collected from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011 and data on suicide death was obtained as of December 31, 2012. The risk period and risk factors for later suicide death was computed by Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and by plotting the hazard function using the Epanechnikov Kernal smoothing method and cox proportional hazard regression modeling. The hazard for later suicide death was significant up to 10 months for females and 20 months for males. Age 50-69 years (HR, 3.29; [CI: 1.80-6.02] and not being intoxicated with alcohol (HR, 1.94 [1.27-2.97])) in male attempters were significant risk factors for later suicide death. Risk for later suicide death was significantly increased during the first full year following index attempts for all with an addition 8 months of risk for males, especially those of advanced age who were sober at the time of attempt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Outcomes Associated With Neonatal Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lauran; Dewey, Deborah; Letourneau, Nicole; Kaplan, Bonnie J; Chaput, Kathleen; Gallagher, Clare; Hodge, Jacquie; Floer, Amalia; Kirton, Adam

    2017-03-01

    Hemorrhage into the brain of term newborns often results in major injury and lifelong disability. The clinical epidemiology of neonatal hemorrhagic stroke (NHS) remains undefined, hindering the development of strategies to improve outcomes. To characterize the incidence, types, presentations, associated factors, and outcomes of neonatal hemorrhagic stroke. Population-based, nested case-control study. The Alberta Perinatal Stroke Project, a provincial registry, ascertained NHS cases using exhaustive diagnostic code searching (1992-2010, >2500 medical record reviews). Prospective cases were captured through the Calgary Pediatric Stroke Program (2007-2014). Participants included term neonates with magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed NHS including primary and secondary intracerebral hemorrhage, hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic injury, and presumed perinatal hemorrhagic stroke. Control infants with common data were recruited from a population-based study (4 to 1 ratio). Infants with NHS underwent structured medical record review using data-capture forms and blinded scoring of neuroimaging. Clinical risk factor common data elements were explored using logistic regression. Provincial live births were obtained from Statistics Canada. Outcomes were extrapolated to the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure. We identified 86 cases: 51 infants (59%) with NHS, of which 32 (67%) were idiopathic, 30 (35%) were hemorrhagic transformation of primary ischemic injuries (14 with neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, 11 with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and 5 with neonatal arterial ischemic stroke), and 5 were presumed perinatal hemorrhagic stroke. Sixty-two percent were male. Incidence of pure NHS was 1 in 9500 live births and 1 in 6300 for all forms. Most presented in the first week of life with seizures and encephalopathy. Acute neurosurgical intervention was rare (3 of 86 total cases; 3.5%). Temporal lobe was the most common NHS location (16 of 51 pure NHS cases; 31%). A

  19. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90% ...

  20. First study of C2491T FV mutation with ischaemic stroke risk in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Genetic and Molecular Pathology Laboratory (LGPM),. Tarek Ibn Ziad, QH, Hassan II University, 9154 Casablanca, Morocco. [Diakite B., Hamzi K., Hmimech W., Nadifi S. and GMRAVC 2015 First study of C2491T FV mutation with ischaemic stroke risk in Morocco. J. Genet.

  1. Validation of risk stratification schemes for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lip, Gregory Y H; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the individual risk factors composing the CHADS(2) (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥ 75 years, Diabetes, previous Stroke) score and the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc (CHA(2)DS(2)-Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category) score and to calculate the capability of the schemes to p...

  2. Validation of risk stratification schemes for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lip, Gregory Y H; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the individual risk factors composing the CHADS2 (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age=75 years, Diabetes, previous Stroke) score and the CHA2DS2-VASc (CHA2DS2-Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category) score and to calculate the capability of the schemes to pr...

  3. Thyroid Function within the Reference Range and the Risk of Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaker, Layal; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P J

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The currently applied reference ranges for thyroid function are under debate. Despite evidence that thyroid function within the reference range is related with several cardiovascular disorders, its association with the risk of stroke has not been evaluated previously. DESIGN AND SETTING:...

  4. Pathological Sub-Types, Risk Factors And Outcome Of Stroke At The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stroke is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality the world over. Established risk factors such as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, hyper-lipidaemia, micro-vascular rupture, male gender, age and observed co-morbities such as sickle cell disease, HIV/AIDS infection ...

  5. estimated glomerular filtration rate and risk of survival in acute stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... ESTIMATED GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE AND RISK OF SURVIVAL IN ACUTE STROKE. E. I. Okaka, MBBS, FWACP, F. A. Imarhiagbe, MBChB, FMCP, F. E. Odiase, MBBS, FMCP, O. C. A. Okoye, MBBS, FWACP,. Department of Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.

  6. Effect modification by population dietary folate on the association between MTHFR genotype, homocysteine, and stroke risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Newcombe, Paul; Hubacek, Jaroslav A

    2011-01-01

    The MTHFR 677C→T polymorphism has been associated with raised homocysteine concentration and increased risk of stroke. A previous overview showed that the effects were greatest in regions with low dietary folate consumption, but differentiation between the effect of folate and small-study bias wa...

  7. Risks of cardiovascular adverse events and death in patients with previous stroke undergoing emergency noncardiac, nonintracranial surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mia N.; Andersson, Charlotte; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The outcomes of emergent noncardiac, nonintracranial surgery in patients with previous stroke remain unknown. Methods: All emergency surgeries performed in Denmark (2005 to 2011) were analyzed according to time elapsed between previous ischemic stroke and surgery. The risks of 30-day...... mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events were estimated as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs using adjusted logistic regression models in a priori defined groups (reference was no previous stroke). In patients undergoing surgery immediately (within 1 to 3 days) or early after stroke (within 4 to 14...... and general anesthesia less frequent in patients with previous stroke (all P Risks of major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality were high for patients with stroke less than 3 months (20.7 and 16.4% events; OR = 4.71 [95% CI, 4.18 to 5.32] and 1.65 [95% CI, 1.45 to 1.88]), and remained...

  8. Interventions for improving modifiable risk factor control in the secondary prevention of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Kate E; Mistri, Amit K; Khunti, Kamlesh; Haunton, Victoria J; Sett, Aung K; Wilson, Andrew D

    2014-05-02

    People with stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) are at increased risk of future stroke and other cardiovascular events. Evidence-based strategies for secondary stroke prevention have been established. However, the implementation of prevention strategies could be improved. To assess the effects of stroke service interventions for implementing secondary stroke prevention strategies on modifiable risk factor control, including patient adherence to prescribed medications, and the occurrence of secondary cardiovascular events. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (April 2013), the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group Trials Register (April 2013), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (1981 to April 2013) and 10 additional databases. We located further studies by searching reference lists of articles and contacting authors of included studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of organisational or educational and behavioural interventions (compared with usual care) on modifiable risk factor control for secondary stroke prevention. Two review authors selected studies for inclusion and independently extracted data. One review author assessed the risk of bias for the included studies. We sought missing data from trialists. This review included 26 studies involving 8021 participants. Overall the studies were of reasonable quality, but one study was considered at high risk of bias. Fifteen studies evaluated predominantly organisational interventions and 11 studies evaluated educational and behavioural interventions for patients. Results were pooled where appropriate, although some clinical and methodological heterogeneity was present. The estimated effects of organisational interventions were compatible with improvements and no differences in the modifiable risk factors mean systolic blood pressure (mean difference (MD) -2.57 mmHg; 95% confidence

  9. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P.; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine’s main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. Results There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59–1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69–1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3–126.6, 126.7–152.9, and 153.0–308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37–1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26–0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS. PMID:26866594

  10. Recurrent Stroke: The Value of the CHA2DS2VASc Score and the Essen Stroke Risk Score in a Nationwide Stroke Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Due; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2015-01-01

    , and cardiovascular events (stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, or arterial thromboembolism) in a nationwide Danish cohort study, among patients with incident ischemic stroke and no atrial fibrillation. Methods—We conducted a registry-based study in patients with incident ischemic stroke...

  11. Using prior risk-related knowledge to support risk management decisions: lessons learnt from a tunneling project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Ibsen Chivatá; Al-Jibouri, Saad S H; Halman, Johannes I M; van de Linde, Wim; Kaalberg, Frank

    2014-10-01

    The authors of this article have developed six probabilistic causal models for critical risks in tunnel works. The details of the models' development and evaluation were reported in two earlier publications of this journal. Accordingly, as a remaining step, this article is focused on the investigation into the use of these models in a real case study project. The use of the models is challenging given the need to provide information on risks that usually are both project and context dependent. The latter is of particular concern in underground construction projects. Tunnel risks are the consequences of interactions between site- and project-specific factors. Large variations and uncertainties in ground conditions as well as project singularities give rise to particular risk factors with very specific impacts. These circumstances mean that existing risk information, gathered from previous projects, is extremely difficult to use in other projects. This article considers these issues and addresses the extent to which prior risk-related knowledge, in the form of causal models, as the models developed for the investigation, can be used to provide useful risk information for the case study project. The identification and characterization of the causes and conditions that lead to failures and their interactions as well as their associated probabilistic information is assumed to be risk-related knowledge in this article. It is shown that, irrespective of existing constraints on using information and knowledge from past experiences, construction risk-related knowledge can be transferred and used from project to project in the form of comprehensive models based on probabilistic-causal relationships. The article also shows that the developed models provide guidance as to the use of specific remedial measures by means of the identification of critical risk factors, and therefore they support risk management decisions. Similarly, a number of limitations of the models are

  12. Atopic dermatitis and risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction and stroke in a cross-sectional analysis from the Canadian Partnership for Tomorrow Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, A M; Qureshi, A A; Dummer, T J B; Parker, L; Li, W-Q

    2017-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors and diseases, but epidemiological studies to date have found conflicting results. To determine the associations of AD with hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D), myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Canadian Partnership for Tomorrow Project, which includes Canadian residents aged 30-74 years living in British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, Quebec and the Atlantic Provinces. We excluded participants with incomplete data on AD, hypertension, T2D, MI or stroke, who had type 1 or gestational diabetes or who developed any of the outcomes at an age prior to a diagnosis of AD. This left 259 119 participants in our analysis. We used logistic regression to calculate age- and sex-, and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between AD and subsequent hypertension, T2D, MI and stroke. AD was reported by 21 379 (8·4%) participants. In total, 52 787 cases of hypertension, 12 739 cases of T2D, 4390 cases of MI and 2235 cases of stroke were reported by participants at enrolment. In the multivariable-adjusted model, AD was associated with decreased odds of hypertension (OR 0·87, 95% CI 0·83-0·90), T2D (OR 0·78, 95% CI 0·71-0·84), MI (OR 0·87, 95% CI 0·75-1·00) and stroke (OR 0·79, 95% CI 0·66-0·95). We did not find evidence of a positive association between AD and subsequent hypertension, T2D, MI or stroke; AD was inversely associated with these outcomes in our study. Given our findings and the conflicting literature, AD is likely not a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE (BNP: BIOMARKER FOR RISK STRATIFICATION AND FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY PREDICTION IN ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANESCU Ioana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional outcome after cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events is traditionally predicted using demographic and clinical variables like age, gender, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, diabetes status, smoking habits or pre-existing morbidity. Identification of new variables will improve the risk stratification of specific categories of patients. Numerous blood-based biomarkers associated with increased cardiovascular risk have been identified; some of them even predict cardiovascular events. Investigators have tried to produce prediction models by incorporating traditional risk factors and biomarkers. (1. Widely-available, rapidly processed and less expensive biomarkers could be used in the future to guide management of complex cerebrovascular patients in order to maximize their recovery (2 Recently, studies have demonstrated that biomarkers can predict not only the risk for a specific clinical event, but also the risk of death of vascular cause and the functional outcome after cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events. Early prediction of fatal outcome after stroke may improve therapeutic strategies (such as the use of more aggressive treatments or inclusion of patients in clinical trials and guide decision-making processes in order to maximize patient’s chances for survival and recovery. (3 Long term functional outcome after stroke is one of the most difficult variables to predict. Elevated serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP are powerful predictor of outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease (heart failure, atrial fibrillation. Potential role of BNP in predicting atrial fibrillation occurrence, cardio-embolic stroke and post-stroke mortality have been proved in many studies. However, data concerning the potential role of BNP in predicting short term and long term functional outcomes after stroke remain controversial.

  14. Risk of Stroke after Herpes Zoster - Evidence from a German Self-Controlled Case-Series Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schink, Tania; Behr, Sigrid; Thöne, Kathrin; Bricout, Hélène; Garbe, Edeltraut

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV). A severe complication of HZ is VZV vasculopathy which can result in ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. The aims of our study were to assess the risk of stroke after the onset of HZ and to investigate the roles of stroke subtype, HZ location and the time interval between HZ onset and stroke. A self-controlled case-series study was performed on a cohort of patients with incident stroke recorded in the German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database (GePaRD), which covers about 20 million persons throughout Germany. We estimated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) by comparing the rate of stroke in risk periods (i.e., periods following HZ) with the rate of stroke in control periods (i.e., periods without HZ) in the same individuals, controlling for both time-invariant and major potentially time-variant confounders. The cohort included 124,462 stroke patients, of whom 6,035 (5%) had at least one HZ diagnosis identified in GePaRD either as main hospital discharge diagnosis or as HZ treated with antivirals. The risk of stroke was about 1.3 times higher in the risk periods 3 months after HZ onset, than in the control periods (IRR: 1.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.16-1.44). An elevated risk of similar magnitude was observed for ischemic and unspecified stroke, but a 1.5-fold higher risk was observed for hemorrhagic stroke. A slightly stronger effect on the risk of stroke was also observed during the 3 months after HZ ophthalmicus (HZO) onset (1.59; 1.10-2.32). The risk was highest 3 and 4 weeks after HZ onset and decreased thereafter. Our study corroborates an increased risk of stroke after HZ, which is highest 3 to 4 weeks after HZ onset. The results suggest that the risk is more pronounced after HZO and is numerically higher for hemorrhagic than for ischemic stroke.

  15. Stenting Prior to Cystectomy is an Independent Risk Factor for Upper Urinary Tract Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Bernhard; Furrer, Marc A; Wuethrich, Patrick Y; Burkhard, Fiona C; Thalmann, George N; Roth, Beat

    2017-12-01

    Patients with bladder cancer who present with hydronephrosis may require drainage of the affected kidney before receiving further cancer treatment. Drainage can be done by retrograde stenting or percutaneously. However, retrograde stenting carries the risk of tumor cell spillage to the upper urinary tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients with bladder cancer are at higher risk for upper urinary tract recurrence if retrograde stenting has been performed prior to radical cystectomy. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 1,005 consecutive patients with bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy at our department between January 2000 and June 2016. Negative intraoperative ureteral margins were mandatory for study inclusion. Patients received regular followup according to our institutional protocol, including imaging of the upper urinary tract and urine cytology. Preoperative drainage of the upper urinary tract was performed in 114 of the 1,005 patients (11%), including in 53 (46%) by Double-J® stenting and in 61 (54%) by percutaneous nephrostomy. Recurrence developed in the upper urinary tract in 31 patients (3%) at a median of 17 months after cystectomy, including 7 of 53 (13%) in the Double-J group, 0% in the nephrostomy group and 24 of 891 (3%) in the no drainage group. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a higher risk of upper urinary tract recurrence if patients underwent Double-J stenting (HR 4.54, 95% CI 1.43-14.38, p = 0.01) and preoperative intravesical instillations (HR 2.94, 95% CI 1.40-6.16, p = 0.004). Patients who undergo Double-J stenting prior to radical cystectomy are at higher risk for upper urinary tract recurrence. If preoperative upper urinary tract drainage is required, percutaneous drainage might be recommended. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Delirium in stroke patients : Critical analysis of statistical procedures for the identification of risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydahl, P; Margraf, N G; Ewers, A

    2017-04-01

    Delirium is a relevant complication following an acute stroke. It is a multifactor occurrence with numerous interacting risk factors that alternately influence each other. The risk factors of delirium in stroke patients are often based on limited clinical studies. The statistical procedures and clinical relevance of delirium related risk factors in adult stroke patients should therefore be questioned. This secondary analysis includes clinically relevant studies that give evidence for the clinical relevance and statistical significance of delirium-associated risk factors in stroke patients. The quality of the reporting of regression analyses was assessed using Ottenbacher's quality criteria. The delirium-associated risk factors identified were examined with regard to statistical significance using the Bonferroni method of multiple testing for forming incorrect positive hypotheses. This was followed by a literature-based discussion on clinical relevance. Nine clinical studies were included. None of the studies fulfilled all the prerequisites and assumptions given for the reporting of regression analyses according to Ottenbacher. Of the 108 delirium-associated risk factors, a total of 48 (44.4%) were significant, whereby a total of 28 (58.3%) were false positive after Bonferroni correction. Following a literature-based discussion on clinical relevance, the assumption of statistical significance and clinical relevance could be found for only four risk factors (dementia or cognitive impairment, total anterior infarct, severe infarct and infections). The statistical procedures used in the existing literature are questionable, as are their results. A post-hoc analysis and critical appraisal reduced the number of possible delirium-associated risk factors to just a few clinically relevant factors.

  17. Is the effect of alcohol on risk of stroke confined to highly stressed persons?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N R; Truelsen, T; Barefoot, J C

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological stress and alcohol are both suggested as risk factors for stroke. Further, there appears to be a close relation between stress and alcohol consumption. Several experimental studies have found alcohol consumption to reduce the immediate effects of stress in a laboratory...... setting. We aimed to examine whether the association between alcohol and stroke depends on level of self-reported stress in a large prospective cohort. METHODS: The 5,373 men and 6,723 women participating in the second examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1981-1983 were asked at baseline...... about their self-reported level of stress and their weekly alcohol consumption. The participants were followed-up until 31st of December 1997 during which 880 first ever stroke events occurred. Data were analysed by means of Cox regression modelling. RESULTS: At a high stress level, weekly total...

  18. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association...... to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10dB road traffic noise at the residential address...... was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air...

  19. Stroke rehabilitation and risk of mortality: a population-based cohort study stratified by age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Ni, Cheng-Hua; Li, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Lin, Li-Fong; Shen, Hsiu-Nien

    2015-06-01

    To determine the survival of patients with stroke for up to 10 years after a first-time stroke and to investigate whether stroke rehabilitation within the first 3 months reduced long-term mortality in these patients. We used the medical claims data for a random sample of 1 million insured Taiwanese registered in the year 2000. A total of 7767 patients admitted for a first-time stroke between 2000 and 2005; 1285 (16.7%) received rehabilitation within the first 3 months after stroke admission. The other 83.3% of patients served as a comparison cohort. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risk of mortality in relation to the rehabilitation intervention. In all, 181 patients with rehabilitation and 1123 controls died, representing respective mortality rates of 25.0 and 32.7 per 1000 person-years. Rehabilitation was significantly associated with a lower risk of mortality (hazard ratio .68, 95% confidence interval .58-.79). Such a beneficial effect tended to be more obvious as the frequency of rehabilitation increased (P for the trend Stroke rehabilitation initiated in the first 3 months after a stroke admission may significantly reduce the risk of mortality for 10 years after the stroke. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Management of Stroke Prevention in Canadian Patients with Atrial Fibrillation at Moderate to High Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchuk, William M; Levac, Brandon; Lara, Muria; Shakespeare, Annabelle; Evers, Thomas; Bolt, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Many patients with atrial fibrillation who are at moderate to high risk of stroke do not receive anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in accordance with recommendations. Objective: To determine (1) why Canadian patients with atrial fibrillation who are potentially eligible for VKA do not receive this therapy, (2) why Canadian primary care physicians discontinue VKA therapy, and (3) why VKA therapy is perceived as difficult to manage. Methods: The study involved a chart review of 3 cohorts of patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at moderate to high risk of stroke: patients who had never received VKA treatment (VKA-naive), those whose treatment had been discontinued, and those whose VKA treatment was considered difficult to manage. Results: Charts for 187 patients (mean age 78.4 years, standard deviation 8.9 years) treated at 39 primary care sites were reviewed (62 treatment-naive, 42 with therapy discontinued, and 83 whose therapy was considered difficult to manage). Atrial fibrillation was paroxysmal in 82 (44%) of the patients, persistent in 47 patients (25%), and permanent in 58 (31%). One patient in each of the 3 cohorts had experienced a stroke during the 6 months before study participation. Bleeding events were more frequent among patients who had discontinued VKA therapy than in the other 2 groups. Among those whose therapy was discontinued and those whose therapy was difficult to manage, the mean time in the therapeutic range was 46.3% and 56.4%, respectively. The most common reason for not initiating VKA therapy in treatment-naive patients was the transient nature of atrial fibrillation (25/62 [40%]). The most common reason for discontinuation of VKA therapy was a bleeding event (10/42 [24%]). The presence of a concomitant chronic disease was the most common reason that a patient’s therapy was considered difficult to manage (46/83 [55%]). Conclusions: VKA therapy was not initiated or was discontinued for various reasons

  1. Management of stroke prevention in canadian patients with atrial fibrillation at moderate to high risk of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchuk, William M; Levac, Brandon; Lara, Muria; Shakespeare, Annabelle; Evers, Thomas; Bolt, Jennifer

    2013-09-01

    Many patients with atrial fibrillation who are at moderate to high risk of stroke do not receive anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in accordance with recommendations. To determine (1) why Canadian patients with atrial fibrillation who are potentially eligible for VKA do not receive this therapy, (2) why Canadian primary care physicians discontinue VKA therapy, and (3) why VKA therapy is perceived as difficult to manage. The study involved a chart review of 3 cohorts of patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at moderate to high risk of stroke: patients who had never received VKA treatment (VKA-naive), those whose treatment had been discontinued, and those whose VKA treatment was considered difficult to manage. Charts for 187 patients (mean age 78.4 years, standard deviation 8.9 years) treated at 39 primary care sites were reviewed (62 treatment-naive, 42 with therapy discontinued, and 83 whose therapy was considered difficult to manage). Atrial fibrillation was paroxysmal in 82 (44%) of the patients, persistent in 47 patients (25%), and permanent in 58 (31%). One patient in each of the 3 cohorts had experienced a stroke during the 6 months before study participation. Bleeding events were more frequent among patients who had discontinued VKA therapy than in the other 2 groups. Among those whose therapy was discontinued and those whose therapy was difficult to manage, the mean time in the therapeutic range was 46.3% and 56.4%, respectively. The most common reason for not initiating VKA therapy in treatment-naive patients was the transient nature of atrial fibrillation (25/62 [40%]). The most common reason for discontinuation of VKA therapy was a bleeding event (10/42 [24%]). The presence of a concomitant chronic disease was the most common reason that a patient's therapy was considered difficult to manage (46/83 [55%]). VKA therapy was not initiated or was discontinued for various reasons. Multiple comorbid conditions made management of VKA

  2. Impact of living and socioeconomic characteristics on cardiovascular risk in ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Abboud, Halim; Labreuche, Julien; Arauz, Antonio; Bryer, Alan; Lavados, Pablo M; Massaro, Ayrton; Munoz Collazos, Mario; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Yamout, Bassem I; Vicaut, Eric

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to stratify the risk of vascular event recurrence in patients with cerebral infarction according to living and socioeconomic characteristics and geographic region. The Outcomes in Patients with TIA and Cerebrovascular Disease (OPTIC) study is an international prospective study of patients aged 45 years or older who required secondary prevention of stroke [following either an acute transient ischemic attack, minor ischemic strokes, or recent (less than six-months previous), stable, first-ever, nondisabling ischemic stroke]. A total 3635 patients from 245 centers in 17 countries in four regions (Latin America, Middle East, North Africa, South Africa) were enrolled between 2007 and 2008. The outcome measure was the two-year rate of a composite of major vascular events (vascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke). During the two-year follow-up period, 516 patients experienced at least one major cardiovascular event, resulting in an event rate of 15·6% (95% confidence interval 14·4-16·9%). Event rates varied across geographical region (P socioeconomic conditions (from 13·4% to 47·9%, adjusted P value for trend socioeconomic variables. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  3. The role of classic risk factors and prothrombotic factor gene mutations in ischemic stroke risk development in young and middle-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supanc, Visnja; Sonicki, Zdenko; Vukasovic, Ines; Solter, Vesna V; Zavoreo, Iris; Kes, Vanja B

    2014-03-01

    In young individuals, a genetically predisposing hypercoagulability and classic modifying risk factors can act synergistically on the ischemic stroke risk development. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of classic vascular risk factors and polymorphisms of the G20210A coagulation factor II (prothrombin), Arg506Glu coagulation factor V Leiden, C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and the impact of these gene mutations and classic vascular risk factors on the overall stroke risk in individuals aged 55 years or younger. The study included 155 stroke patients aged 55 years or younger and 150 control subjects. Stroke prevalence and odds ratio (OR) were assessed for the following parameters: G20210A prothrombin, Arg506Glu factor V Leiden, C677T MTHFR, and 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphisms; total number of study polymorphisms in a particular subject (genetic sum); and classic vascular risk factors of hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The prevalence of hypertension (P stroke patients. The following parameters were found to act as independent risk factors for ischemic stroke: decreased HDL cholesterol level (P ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged individuals. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia and Posterior Circulation Infarction in Patients with Isolated Vertigo with Stroke Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dao Pei; Lu, Gui Feng; Zhang, Jie Wen; Zhang, Shu Ling; Ma, Qian Kun; Yin, Suo

    2017-02-01

    We aimed in this study to investigate the prevalence of vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) in a population with isolated vertigo in association with stroke risk factors, to determine whether VAH is an independent risk factor for posterior circulation infarction (PCI). We sequentially enrolled 245 patients with isolated vertigo with at least 1 vascular risk factor, who were divided into PCI and non-PCI groups, according to present signs of acute infarction on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent magnetic resonance angiography and cervical contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography to screen for VAH. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the significant risk factors for PCI. VAH was found in 64 of 245 patients (26%). VAH (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95%confidence interval [CI] 1.17-6.23, P = .020), median stenosis of the posterior circulation (OR = 7.09, 95%CI = 2.54-19.79, P vertigo with PCI complicated by VAH was mainly small-artery occlusion. Our findings suggest that VAH is an independent risk factor for PCI in patients with isolated vertigo with confirmed risk from stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk factors for heart disease and stroke among diabetic persons, by disability status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Catherine A; Denny, Clark H; Greenlund, Kurt J; Benjamin, Stephanie M; Strine, Tara W; Balluz, Lina S; Mokdad, Ali H

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether disabled diabetic persons have a higher prevalence of risk factors for heart disease and stroke than do diabetic persons without disability. RESEARCH, DESIGN, AND METHODS: Data were analyzed for noninstitutionalized adults in 27 states and the District of Columbia that participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2001 and/or 2003. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence and odds ratios of disabled diabetic persons, by sociodemographic characteristics. The logit form of each model was used to estimate conditional marginal probabilities of risk factors for heart disease and stroke among diabetic persons, by disability status. Diabetic persons with disability were more likely than those without disability to have more risk factors for heart disease and stroke, including insufficient leisure-time physical activity or inactivity (adjusted prevalence: 75.2% vs. 63.3%; Pvs. 43.3%; Pvs. 48.4%; P=.038), and hypertension (63.9% vs. 56.6%; Ptwo or more, three or more, and four or more risk factors (97.2% vs. 95.6%, 83.5% vs. 74.0%, 56.5% vs. 41.1%, and 22.2% vs. 13.6%, respectively; Pstroke. Health care guidelines specifically targeting diabetic patients with disability may be needed to aid health care providers in addressing these risk factors.

  6. The Role of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Stroke in Familial Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosto, Giuseppe; Bird, Thomas D; Bennett, David A; Boeve, Bradley F; Brickman, Adam M; Cruchaga, Carlos; Faber, Kelley; Foroud, Tatiana M; Farlow, Martin; Goate, Alison M; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Lantigua, Rafael; Manly, Jennifer; Ottman, Ruth; Rosenberg, Roger; Schaid, Daniel J; Schupf, Nicole; Stern, Yaakov; Sweet, Robert A; Mayeux, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The contribution of cardiovascular disease (CV) and cerebrovascular disease to the risk for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been long debated. Investigations have shown that antecedent CV risk factors increase the risk for LOAD, although other investigations have failed to validate this association. To study the contribution of CV risk factors (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease) and the history of stroke to LOAD in a data set of large families multiply affected by LOAD. The National Institute on Aging Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease/National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease family study (hereinafter referred to as NIA-LOAD study) is a longitudinal study of families with multiple members affected with LOAD. A multiethnic community-based longitudinal study (Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project [WHICAP]) was used to replicate findings. The 6553 participants in the NIA-LOAD study were recruited from 23 US Alzheimer disease centers with ongoing data collection since 2003; the 5972 WHICAP participants were recruited at Columbia University with ongoing data collection since 1992. Data analysis was performed from 2003 to 2015. Generalized mixed logistic regression models tested the association of CV risk factors (primary association) with LOAD. History of stroke was used for the secondary association. A secondary model adjusted for the presence of an apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele. A genetic risk score, based on common variants associated with LOAD, was used to account for LOAD genetic risk beyond the APOE ε4 effect. Mediation analyses evaluated stroke as a mediating factor between the primary association and LOAD. A total of 6553 NIA-LOAD participants were included in the analyses (4044 women [61.7%]; 2509 men [38.3%]; mean [SD] age, 77.0 [9] years), with 5972 individuals from the WHICAP study included in the replication sample (4072 women [68.2%]; 1900 men [31.8%]; mean [SD] age, 76.5 [7.0] years). Hypertension was associated

  7. Risk factors associated with injury attributable to falling among elderly population with history of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divani, Afshin A; Vazquez, Gabriela; Barrett, Anna M; Asadollahi, Marjan; Luft, Andreas R

    2009-10-01

    Stroke survivors are at high risk for falling. Identifying physical, clinical, and social factors that predispose stroke patients to falls may reduce further disability and life-threatening complications, and improve overall quality of life. We used 5 biennial waves (1998-2006) from the Health and Retirement Study to assess risk factors associated with falling accidents and fall-related injuries among stroke survivors. We abstracted demographic data, living status, self-evaluated general health, and comorbid conditions. We analyzed the rate ratio (RR) of falling and the OR of injury within 2 follow-up years using a multivariate random effects model. We identified 1174 stroke survivors (mean age+/-SD, 74.4+/-7.2 years; 53% female). The 2-year risks of falling, subsequent injury, and broken hip attributable to fall were 46%, 15%, and 2.1% among the subjects, respectively. Factors associated with an increased frequency of falling were living with spouse as compared to living alone (RR, 1.4), poor general health (RR, 1.1), time from first stroke (RR, 1.2), psychiatric problems (RR, 1.7), urinary incontinence (RR, 1.4), pain (RR, 1.4), motor impairment (RR, 1.2), and past frequency of > or = 3 falls (RR, 1.3). Risk factors associated with fall-related injury were female gender (OR, 1.5), poor general health (OR, 1.2), past injury from fall (OR, 3.2), past frequency of > or = 3 falls (OR, 3.1), psychiatric problems (OR, 1.4), urinary incontinence (OR, 1.4), impaired hearing (OR, 1.6), pain (OR, 1.8), motor impairment (OR, 1.3), and presence of multiple strokes (OR, 3.2). This study demonstrates the high prevalence of falls and fall-related injuries in stroke survivors, and identifies factors that increase the risk. Modifying these factors may prevent falls, which could lead to improved quality of life and less caregiver burden and cost in this population.

  8. Research on the nutrition and cognition of high-risk stroke groups in community and the relevant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, N-N; Zeng, K-X; Wang, Y-L; Sheng, P-J; Tang, C-Z; Xiao, P; Liu, X-W

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence rate of nutritional risk in high-risk stroke groups in community, analyze its influencing factors, and analyze and compare the relationship between nutritional risk or malnutrition assessed by different nutritional evaluation methods and cognitive function, so as to provide the basis and guidance for clinical nutritional assessment and support. A cross-sectional survey was performed for 1196 cases in high-risk stroke groups in community from December 2015 to January 2017. At the same time, the nutritional status of patients was evaluated using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) and MNA-short form (MNA-SF), and the cognitive status of patients was evaluated using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Moreover, the relevant influencing factors of nutritional risk and MMSE score were analyzed and compared. High-risk stroke groups in community suffered from a high risk of malnutrition. MNA-SF had a higher specificity and lower false positive rate than MNA. Nutritional risk occurred more easily in high-risk stroke groups in community with a history of diabetes mellitus, less physical exercise or light manual labor, daily use of multiple drugs, and higher age. Those with a higher nutritional risk were more prone to cognitive impairment. High-risk stroke groups in community, complicated with hyperhomocysteinemia, daily use of three or more kinds of prescription drugs, and a previous history of stroke, were accompanied by cognitive impairment easily. MNA-SF can be used for the nutritional screening of high-risk stroke groups in community. For the high-risk stroke groups in community, the rational nutritional diet should be publicized, blood sugar should be controlled in a scientific manner and physical exercise should be moderately increased.

  9. Dominant modifiable risk factors for stroke in Ghana and Nigeria (SIREN: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayowa O Owolabi, ProfDrMed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence, prevalence, and fatality from stroke globally. Yet, only little information about context-specific risk factors for prioritising interventions to reduce the stroke burden in sub-Saharan Africa is available. We aimed to identify and characterise the effect of the top modifiable risk factors for stroke in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN study is a multicentre, case-control study done at 15 sites in Nigeria and Ghana. Cases were adults (aged ≥18 years with stroke confirmed by CT or MRI. Controls were age-matched and gender-matched stroke-free adults (aged ≥18 years recruited from the communities in catchment areas of cases. Comprehensive assessment for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was done using standard instruments. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and population-attributable risks (PARs with 95% CIs. Findings: Between Aug 28, 2014, and June 15, 2017, we enrolled 2118 case-control pairs (1192 [56%] men with mean ages of 59·0 years (SD 13·8 for cases and 57·8 years (13·7 for controls. 1430 (68% had ischaemic stoke, 682 (32% had haemorrhagic stroke, and six (<1% had discrete ischaemic and haemorrhagic lesions. 98·2% (95% CI 97·2–99·0 of adjusted PAR of stroke was associated with 11 potentially modifiable risk factors with ORs and PARs in descending order of PAR of 19·36 (95% CI 12·11–30·93 and 90·8% (95% CI 87·9–93·7 for hypertension, 1·85 (1·44–2·38 and 35·8% (25·3–46·2 for dyslipidaemia, 1·59 (1·19–2·13 and 31·1% (13·3–48·9 for regular meat consumption, 1·48 (1·13–1·94 and 26·5% (12·9–40·2 for elevated waist-to-hip ratio, 2·58 (1·98–3·37 and 22·1% (17·8–26·4 for diabetes, 2·43 (1·81–3·26 and 18·2% (14·1–22·3 for low green leafy vegetable consumption, 1·89 (1·40–2·54 and 11·6% (6·6–16·7

  10. P2Y12 Receptor Antagonist, Clopidogrel, Does Not Contribute to Risk of Osteoporotic Fractures in Stroke Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas R; Schwarz, Peter; Iversen, Helle K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. It is associated with excessive bone loss and risk of fracture in stroke patients is high. The P2Y12R antagonist and platelet inhibitor, clopidogrel, is widely used for secondary prevention after a stroke. However, recent studies...... have shown that clopidogrel has negative effects on bone and that long-term clopidogrel use is associated with increased fracture risk. The purpose of the current study was therefore to investigate the association of clopidogrel treatment with risk of fractures in stroke and TIA patients.......Methods:The study was a cohort study including all subjects who were prescribed clopidogrel between 1996 and 2008 in Denmark (n= 77,503). Age- and gender matched controls (n= 232,510) were randomly selected from the background population. The study end-points were occurrence of stroke or TIA and occurrence...

  11. The development and implementation of stroke risk prediction model in National Health Insurance Service's personal health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Woo; Lim, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Dong-Wook; Shin, Soon-Ae; Kim, Jinkwon; Yoo, Bora; Cho, Kyung-Hee

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build a 10-year stroke prediction model and categorize a probability of stroke using the Korean national health examination data. Then it intended to develop the algorithm to provide a personalized warning on the basis of each user's level of stroke risk and a lifestyle correction message about the stroke risk factors. Subject to national health examinees in 2002-2003, the stroke prediction model identified when stroke was first diagnosed by following-up the cohort until 2013 and estimated a 10-year probability of stroke. It sorted the user's individual probability of stroke into five categories - normal, slightly high, high, risky, very risky, according to the five ranges of average probability of stroke in comparison to total population - less than 50 percentile, 50-70, 70-90, 90-99.9, more than 99.9 percentile, and constructed the personalized warning and lifestyle correction messages by each category. Risk factors in stroke risk model include the age, BMI, cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status and intensity, physical activity, alcohol drinking, past history (hypertension, coronary heart disease) and family history (stroke, coronary heart disease). The AUC values of stroke risk prediction model from the external validation data set were 0.83 in men and 0.82 in women, which showed a high predictive power. The probability of stroke within 10 years for men in normal group (less than 50 percentile) was less than 3.92% and those in very risky group (top 0.01 percentile) was 66.2% and over. The women's probability of stroke within 10 years was less than 3.77% in normal group (less than 50 percentile) and 55.24% and over in very risky group. This study developed the stroke risk prediction model and the personalized warning and the lifestyle correction message based on the national health examination data and uploaded them to the personal health record service called My Health Bank in the health information website - Health

  12. Risk of First and Recurrent Stroke in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated With Cranial and Cervical Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Sabine; Sear, Katherine; Hills, Nancy K.; Chettout, Nassim; Afghani, Shervin; Gastelum, Erica; Haas-Kogan, Daphne; Fullerton, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess, in a retrospective cohort study, rates and predictors of first and recurrent stroke in patients treated with cranial irradiation (CRT) and/or cervical irradiation at ≤18 years of age. Methods and Materials: We performed chart abstraction (n=383) and phone interviews (n=104) to measure first and recurrent stroke in 383 patients who received CRT and/or cervical radiation at a single institution between 1980 and 2009. Stroke was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms consistent with stroke. Incidence of first stroke was number of first strokes per person-years of observation after radiation. We used survival analysis techniques to determine cumulative incidence of first and recurrent stroke. Results: Among 325 subjects with sufficient follow-up data, we identified 19 first strokes (13 ischemic, 4 hemorrhagic, 2 unknown subtype) occurring at a median age of 24 years (interquartile range 17-33 years) in patients treated with CRT. Imaging was reviewed when available (n=13), and the stroke was confirmed in 12. Overall rate of first stroke was 625 (95% confidence interval [CI] 378-977) per 100,000 person-years. The cumulative incidence of first stroke was 2% (95% CI 0.01%-5.3%) at 5 years and 4% (95% CI 2.0%-8.4%) at 10 years after irradiation. With each 100-cGy increase in the radiation dose, the stroke hazard increased by 5% (hazard ratio 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09; P=.02). We identified 6 recurrent strokes; 5 had available imaging that confirmed the stroke. Median time to recurrence was 15 months (interquartile range 6 months-3.2 years) after first stroke. The cumulative incidence of recurrent stroke was 38% (95% CI 17%-69%) at 5 years and 59% (95% CI 27%-92%) at 10 years after first stroke. Conclusion: Cranial irradiation puts childhood cancer survivors at high risk of both first and recurrent stroke. Stroke prevention strategies for these survivors are needed

  13. Education, Socioeconomic Status, and Intelligence in Childhood and Stroke Risk in Later Life: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHutchison, Caroline A; Backhouse, Ellen V; Cvoro, Vera; Shenkin, Susan D; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2017-07-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of death, and a common cause of dependency and dementia. Adult vascular risk factors and socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with increased risk, but less is known about early life risk factors, such as education, childhood SES, or intelligence (IQ). We comprehensively searched Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE from inception to November 2015. We included all studies reporting data on >50 strokes examining childhood/premorbid IQ, SES, and education. Two reviewers independently screened full texts and extracted and cross-checked data, including available risk factor adjustments. We meta-analyzed stroke risk using hazard ratios (HR), odds ratios (OR), and mean differences (MD). We tested effects of study and participant characteristics in sensitivity analyses and meta-regression, and assessed heterogeneity and publication bias. We identified 90 studies examining stroke risk and education (79), SES (10), or IQ (nine) including approximately 164,683 stroke and over 5 million stroke-free participants. Stroke risk increased with lower education (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.24, 1.48), SES (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.12, 1.46), and IQ (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.37) in studies reporting point estimates, with similar associations for MD. We found minimal publication bias. Between-study heterogeneity was partly explained by participant age and case ascertainment method. Education, childhood SES, and intelligence have modest but important associations with lifetime stroke, and hence dementia, risks. Future studies distinguishing between the individual and combined effects of education, childhood SES and intelligence are needed to determine the independent contribution of each factor to stroke risk. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B210.

  14. A comparison of risperidone and haloperidol for the risk of ischemic stroke in the elderly: a propensity score-matched cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju-Young; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Lee, Joongyub; Park, Mi-Ju; Lee, Shin Haeng; Park, Byung-Joo

    2015-08-01

    With an increase in antipsychotic use in the elderly, the safety profile of antipsychotics has been emphasized. Strong concerns have been raised about whether the risk of ischemic stroke differs between risperidone and haloperidol. This study compared the risk of ischemic stroke between elderly patients taking risperidone and haloperidol. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database, applying a propensity-matched analysis. The cohort consisted of elderly patients who were newly prescribed haloperidol or risperidone between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2009. Patients with prior cerebrovascular diseases (ICD-10, I60-I69), transient ischemic attack (ICD-10, G45), or cerebral tumors (ICD-10, C31) during 365 days prior to the initiation date were excluded. The study subjects were selected by propensity score matching. The outcome was defined as the first hospitalization for ischemic stroke (ICD-10, I63). Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for ischemic stroke with haloperidol compared with risperidone use. A total of 14,103 patients were included in the propensity-matched cohort for each drug. Overall, the incidence rate was higher for haloperidol users compared to the risperidone users (6.43 per 1000 person-years vs. 2.88 per 1000 person-years). A substantially increased risk was observed in haloperidol users (adjusted HR = 2.02, 95% CI, 1.12-3.62). The evidence showed that haloperidol should be prescribed in the elderly with caution. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Socioeconomic status and stroke incidence in the US elderly: the role of risk factors in the EPESE study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avendano, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro; Lenthe, Frank J van; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Mackenbach, Johan P; Bos, G A M van den; Fay, Martha E; Berkman, Lisa F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study assesses the effect of socioeconomic status on stroke incidence in the elderly, and the contribution of risk factors to stroke disparities. METHODS: Data comprised a sample of 2812 men and women aged 65 years and over from the New Haven cohort of the Established

  16. Total and HDL cholesterol and risk of stroke. EUROSTROKE: a collaborative study among research centres in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Bots (Michiel); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); P.C. Elwood; Y. Nikitin; J.T. Salonen; A. Freire de Concalves; D. Inzitari; J. Sivenius; V. Benetou (Vassiliki); J. Tuomilehto; P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Controversy remains on the relation between serum lipids levels and stroke risk. This paper investigated the association of total and HDL cholesterol level to fatal and non-fatal, and haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in four European cohorts participating

  17. Global and regional effects of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with acute stroke in 32 countries (INTERSTROKE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, Martin J; Chin, Siu Lim; Rangarajan, Sumathy

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. We sought to quantify the importance of potentially modifiable risk factors for stroke in different regions of the world, and in key populations and primary pathological subtypes o...

  18. Risk factors and prognosis of young stroke. The FUTURE study: a prospective cohort study. Study rationale and protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Alebeek, M.E. van; Schaapsmeerders, P.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Overeem, S.; Drost, G.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Heerde, W.L. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Zwiers, M.P.; Norris, D.G.; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young stroke can have devastating consequences with respect to quality of life, the ability to work, plan or run a family, and participate in social life. Better insight into risk factors and the long-term prognosis is extremely important, especially in young stroke patients with a life

  19. Risk factors and prognosis of young stroke. The FUTURE study: A prospective cohort study. Study rationale and protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Alebeek, M.E. van; Schaapsmeerders, P.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Overeem, S.; Drost, G.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Heerde, W.L. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Zwiers, M.P.; Norris, D.G.; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, H.F. de

    2011-01-01

    Background Young stroke can have devastating consequences with respect to quality of life, the ability to work, plan or run a family, and participate in social life. Better insight into risk factors and the long-term prognosis is extremely important, especially in young stroke patients with a life

  20. Nonfasting Triglycerides and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, J.J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Context The role of triglycerides in the risk of ischemic stroke remains controversial. Recently, a strong association was found between elevated levels of nonfasting triglycerides, which indicate the presence of remnant lipoproteins, and increased risk of ischemic heart disease. Objective To test...... the hypothesis that increased levels of nonfasting triglycerides are associated with ischemic stroke in the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants The Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective, Danish population - based cohort study initiated in 1976, with follow- up through July 2007....... Participants were 13 956 men and women aged 20 through 93 years. A cross- sectional study included 9637 individuals attending the 1991- 1994 examination of the prospective study. Main Outcome Measures Prospective study: baseline levels of nonfasting triglycerides, other risk factors at baseline and at follow...

  1. Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies as risk factors for stroke in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Murshid, Waleed R.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Tjan, G. T.

    2006-01-01

    To explore the role of and report congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies as risk factors for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology (Dpn), or were seen as inpatients in the Pediatric Wards at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Stroke work-up for each suspected case included hemostatic assays, serological, biochemical and neurophysiological tests. Neuroimaging modalities included routine skill x-rays, CT, MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and conventional cerebral angiography. Of 104 children with stroke, congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying risk factor in 7 (6.7%). The patients were evaluated at the DPN at a mean age of 66 months (range = 8 months to 11 years, median = 6 years); and they had stroke at a mean age of 48 months (range = 2 months to 10 years, median = 8 months). Four patients had stroke in association with neurocutaneous syndromes. Two had Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), one had Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome associated with SWS, and the fourth had neurofibromatosis type 1. Two patients had intracranial hemorrhage secondary to ruptured aneurysm. A girl (aged 9 years and 4 months) had left posterior cerebral artery aneurysm. She was diagnosed to have autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease following renal ultrasonography. She died 5 months later despite surgical intervention (clipping of aneurysm). The second child was an 8-months-old boy who presented with subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) following ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. He recovered with no residual symptoms following successful clipping of the aneurysm. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) caused IVH in a 7-year-old boy who reported to hospital 5 hours

  2. Infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system as risk factors for stroke in Saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Anal Y.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Abdel-Gader, Mohamed O.; Gadelrab, Mohamed O.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective was to report on the role of infectious and inflammatory disorders as risk factors for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children, who presented with stroke, were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included haemostatic assays, microbiological and serological tests. Neuroimaging included cranial CT, MRI magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain scan. Of the 104 Saudi children with stroke, seen during the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory systems were identified risk factors in 18 (17.3%). Five children had stroke following acute bacterial meningitis at ages ranging between 5-21 months. The causative organism was identified in 3 of them and consisted of Haemophilus influenza (in a 5-months-old girl), Streptococcus pneumonia (in a 21-months-old girl complicated by subdural empyema and sinovenous thrombosis), and Staphylococcus aureus in a 6-months-old boy who had an underlying chronic granulomatous disease. Unspecified meningitis/meningoencephalitis affected 4 patients, whereas 3 children had an underlying congenital infection as a cause for their stroke. Two of the latter 3 children were diagnosed to have congenital toxoplasmosis, and the third had congenital rubella syndrome. Two girls had stroke following septicemia at ages of one and 2 months. Neurobrucellosis caused stroke in 2 boys at the ages of 4 1/2 and 4 years. In both patients, neuroimaging revealed lacunar and other infects involving mainly the deep cerebral nuclei, secondary to occlusion of small penetrating end

  3. Health risk behaviours of stroke patients in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Biggs

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and a major cause of disability globally. Individuals with physical disabilities, including thosewho have suffered a stroke are at risk of secondary complications due to the impact of their disability, which may be exacerbated by their lifestylechoices. The aim of the present study was to determine the health riskbehaviours and factors that influence these behaviours of stroke patients inthe Metropole Region of the Western Cape, South Africa. A cross – sectionalsurvey, utilizing a self-administered questionnaire on a convenient sampleof 417 stroke patients, was used to collect data. A sub-sample of 10 parti-cipants was purposively selected for in-depth, face-to-face interviews.Approximately forty percent (40.3% of the participants did not engage in physical exercise. While 30.2% smoked only9% abused alcohol. A significant association was found between age and smoking (p<0.002. Information gathered in the in-depth interviews revealed factors that influenced the behaviours of the participants. These factors includedlack of financial resources and lack of access to information. As participants were found to be at risk of secondarycomplications because of poor lifestyle choices, there is a clear need to implement health promotion programmes topromote well-ness enhancing behaviours in order to enhance the quality of health of patients who have suffered astroke in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  4. Usefulness of cardiometabolic index for the estimation of ischemic stroke risk among general population in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoyu; Chen, Yintao; Guo, Xiaofan; Chang, Ye; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-11-01

    Cardiometabolic index (CMI) has been recognized as a novel and practical marker for the assessment of cardiometabolic risk as it is independently related to diabetes and atherosclerotic progression. This study tested the hypothesis that CMI represents a risk of ischemic stroke in a general population of rural China. From July 2012 to August 2013, we examined data from a large cross-sectional study of 11,345 participants (mean age 53.8 years; 60.8% females) who underwent biochemical determinations and anthropometric measurements in rural areas of northeast China. Ischemic stroke was documented as a history of cerebrovascular events and verified by medical record review. The prevalence of ischemic stroke was given to 3.1% of females and 3.2% of males. The cardio-metabolic profile was notably more adverse in ischemic stroke groups, irrespective of gender. A dose-response manner was detected for the prevalence of ischemic stroke, exhibiting a significant increase from the lowest to the highest quartiles of CMI (1.2% to 6.4% in females, P for trenddiscrimination power of CMI in predicting ischemic stroke was relatively higher for females (AUC: 0.685) than males (AUC: 0.573). The strong and independent association of CMI with ischemic stroke in females, in comparison with the much lesser degree in males, provides further insight to better stratify by sex in investigations of ischemic stroke and solidly corroborates the potential role of ischemic stroke prevention targeted at CMI.

  5. New oral anticoagulants are not superior to warfarin in secondary prevention of stroke or transient ischemic attacks, but lower the risk of intracranial bleeding: insights from a meta-analysis and indirect treatment comparisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Sardar

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (AF and prior stroke are classified as high risk in all risk stratification schemes. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of New Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs to warfarin in patients with AF and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA. METHODS: Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs, including total 14527 patients, comparing NOACs (apixaban, dabigatran and rivaroxaban with warfarin were included in the analysis. Primary efficacy endpoint was ischemic stroke, and primary safety endpoint was intracranial bleeding. Random-effects models were used to pool efficacy and safety data across RCTs. RevMan and Stata software were used for direct and indirect comparisons, respectively. RESULTS: In patients with AF and previous stroke or TIA, effects of NOACs were not statistically different from that of warfarin, in reduction of stroke (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73- 1.01, disabling and fatal stroke (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.71-1.04, and all-cause mortality (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.79 -1.02. Randomization to NOACs was associated with a significantly lower risk of intracranial bleeding (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.25-0.70. There were no major differences in efficacy between apixaban, dabigatran (110 mg BID and 150 mg BID and rivaroxaban. Major bleeding was significantly lower with apixaban and dabigatran (110 mg BID compared with dabigatran (150 mg BID and rivaroxaban. CONCLUSION: NOACs may not be more effective than warfarin in the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke in patients with a prior history of cerebrovascular ischemia, but have a lower risk of intracranial bleeding.

  6. Atrial ectopic activity in cryptogenic ischemic stroke and TIA: a risk factor for recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, João; Braga, Carlos Galvão; Rocha, Sofia; Santos, Ana Filipa; Gomes, André; Cabreiro, Ana; Magalhães, Sónia; Ferreira, Carla

    2015-02-01

    To characterize atrial ectopic activity in patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and determine its prognostic significance. Retrospective cohort study, in which 184 patients with CIS or TIA who had performed 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram were included. The median follow-up was 27.5 months. Baseline clinical and imagiologic characteristics, etiologic investigation results, and ischemic stroke and TIA recurrences information were collected. Number of atrial premature complexes (APCs) per hour was categorized as less than 10 APCs/hour, 10-30 APCs/hour, and more than 30 APCs/hour. Most of the patients had less than 10 APCs/hour (82.6%), 8.2% had 10-30 APCs/hour, and 9.2% had more than 30 APCs/hour. Patients with more than 30 APCs/hour had a greater median left atrium diameter than patients with 30 APCs/hour or less (42 mm vs. 38 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI], .50-7.00; P = .003). Annual recurrence rate of CIS or TIA was 2.9% in patients with less than 10 APCs/hour, 11.0% in 10-30 APCs/hour, and 22.6% in more than 30 APCs/hour (P = .001). More than 30 APCs/hour were independently associated with recurrence risk in multivariate survival analysis (hazard ratio, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.12-10.32; P = .030). In patients with CIS or TIA, frequent atrial ectopic activity (>30 APCs/h) was independently associated with increased risk of stroke or TIA recurrence. Further studies need to validate frequent atrial ectopic activity as a risk factor for recurrence in cryptogenic stroke and confirm its role as a predictor of occult atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Labor Dystocia and the Risk of Uterine Rupture in Women with Prior Cesarean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon-Marceau, Chantale; Demers, Suzanne; Goyet, Martine; Gauthier, Robert; Roberge, Stéphanie; Chaillet, Nils; Laroche, Jasmin; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between labor dystocia and uterine rupture. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of a multicenter case-control study that included women with single, prior, low-transverse cesarean section who experienced complete uterine rupture during a trial of labor (TOL). For each case, three women who underwent a TOL without uterine rupture were selected as controls. Data were collected on cervical dilatations from admission to delivery. We evaluated the relationship between uterine rupture and labor dystocia according to several criteria, including the World Health Organization's (WHO's) partogram. Results Data were available for 90 cases and 260 controls. Compared with the controls, uterine rupture was associated with less cervical dilatation on admission, slower cervical dilatation in the first stage of labor and longer second stage of labor (all with p dystocia is a significant risk factor for uterine rupture. Labor progression should be assessed regularly in women with prior cesarean. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Cryptogenic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saadatnia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptogenic stroke is defined as brain infarction that is not attributable to a source of definite embolism, large artery atherosclerosis, or small artery disease despite a thorough vascular, cardiac, and serologic evaluation. Despite many advances in our understanding of ischemic stroke, cryptogenic strokes remain a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The pathophysiology of cryptogenic stroke is likely various. Probable mechanisms include cardiac embolism secondary to occult paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, aortic atheromatous disease or other cardiac sources, paradoxical embolism from atrial septal abnormalities such as patent foramen ovale, hypercoagulable states, and preclinical or subclinical cerebrovascular disease.  Cryptogenic stroke is one-fourth among cerebral infarction, but most of them could be ascribed to embolic stroke. A significant proportion of cryptogenic strokes adhere to embolic infarct topography on brain imaging and improvement in our ability to detect paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with cryptogenic stroke has strengthened the idea that these strokes are embolic in nature. a significant proportion of cryptogenic strokes adhere to embolic infarct topography on brain imaging.embolic stroke of undetermined sources(ESUS was planned for unifying embolic stroke of undetermined source.  The etiologies underlying ESUS included minor-risk potential cardioembolic sources, covert paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, cancer-associated coagulopathy and embolism, arteriogenic emboli, and paroxysmal embolism. Extensive evaluation including transesophageal echocardiography and cardiac monitoring for long time could identify the etiology of these patients. Therefore cryptogenic stroke is a diagnosis of exclusion. Compared with other stroke subtypes, cryptogenic stroke tends to have a better prognosis and lower long-term risk of recurrence.

  9. Dietary Sodium to Potassium Ratio and Risk of Stroke in a Multiethnic Urban Population: The Northern Manhattan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Joshua; Gardener, Hannah; Cespedes, Sandino; Cheung, Ying K; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-11-01

    There is growing evidence that increased dietary sodium (Na) intake increases the risk of vascular diseases, including stroke, at least in part via an increase in blood pressure. Higher dietary potassium (K), seen with increased intake of fruits and vegetables, is associated with lower blood pressure. The goal of this study was to determine the association of a dietary Na:K with risk of stroke in a multiethnic urban population. Stroke-free participants from the Northern Manhattan Study, a population-based cohort study of stroke incidence, were followed-up for incident stroke. Baseline food frequency questionnaires were analyzed for Na and K intake. We estimated the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of Na:K with incident total stroke using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Among 2570 participants with dietary data (mean age, 69±10 years; 64% women; 21% white; 55% Hispanic; 24% black), the mean Na:K ratio was 1.22±0.43. Over a mean follow-up of 12 years, there were 274 strokes. In adjusted models, a higher Na:K ratio was associated with increased risk for stroke (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.1) and specifically ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.1). Na:K intake is an independent predictor of stroke risk. Further studies are required to understand the joint effect of Na and K intake on risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Periodic Limb Movements and White Matter Hyperintensities in First-Ever Minor Stroke or High-Risk Transient Ischemic Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Mark I; Murray, Brian J; Muir, Ryan T; Gao, Fuqiang; Szilagyi, Gregory M; Huroy, Menal; Kiss, Alexander; Walters, Arthur S; Black, Sandra E; Lim, Andrew S; Swartz, Richard H

    2017-03-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that periodic limb movements (PLMs) may contribute to the development of cerebrovascular disease. White matter hyperintensities (WMHs), a widely accepted biomarker for cerebral small vessel disease, are associated with incident stroke and death. We evaluated the association between increased PLM indices and WMH burden in patients presenting with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), while controlling for vascular risk factors and stroke severity. Thirty patients presenting within 2 weeks of a first-ever minor stroke or high-risk TIA were prospectively recruited. PLM severity was measured with polysomnography. WMH burden was quantified using the Age Related White Matter Changes (ARWMC) scale based on neuroimaging. Partial Spearman's rank-order correlations and multiple linear regression models tested the association between WMH burden and PLM severity. Greater WMH burden was correlated with elevated PLM index and stroke volume. Partial Spearman's rank-order correlations demonstrated that the relationship between WMH burden and PLM index persisted despite controlling for vascular risk factors. Multivariate linear regression models revealed that PLM index was a significant predictor of an elevated ARWMC score while controlling for age, stroke volume, stroke severity, hypertension, and apnea-hypopnea index. The quantity of PLMs was associated with WMH burden in patients with first-ever minor stroke or TIA. PLMs may be a risk factor for or marker of WMH burden, even after considering vascular risk factors and stroke severity. These results invite further investigation of PLMs as a potentially useful target to reduce WMH and stroke burden. © Sleep Research Society (SRS) 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Cardiac diseases as a risk factor for stroke in Saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah; Ahmed, A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; A-Jarallah, Abdullah S.; Al-Saadi, Muslim M.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective was to ascertain the role of cardiac diseases as a risk factor for stroke in a cohort of Saudi children who were evaluated in a retrospective and prospective study. Children with cardiac diseases were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who presented with stroke. They were seen as inpatients in the Pediatric Wards or evaluated at the Outpatient Clinics of the Division of Pediatric Neurology (DPN), and the Division of Pediatric Cardiology at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). A comprehensive form for clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological and laboratory data retrieval was designed and completed for each patient. Cardiac evaluation included 12-lead ECG and serial echocardiograms. Cardiac catheterization and 24-hour ambulatory ECG (Holter) were conducted on clinical discretion. Cardiac diseases were the underlying risk factor for stroke in 6 (5.8%) of the 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). The patients (4males and 2 females) were evaluated at the DPN at a mean age of 5.3 years (range=1-8 years; median 6.5 years). Onset of stroke was at a mean age of 34 months (range= 4 months - 8 years; median = 30 months). Five patients had stroke in association with congenital heart disease (CHD), whereas the sixth had restrictive cardiomyopathy. The identified CHD consisted of membranous ventricular septal defect in a 5-year-old boy who had moyamoya syndrome and sickle cell b-thalassemia, asymptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in a 17-months-old girl, atrioventricular canal defect and PDA in an 8-year-old boy who also had Down syndrome, partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage in a one-year-old boy. The latter patient developed hemiparesis secondary to a septic embolus, which evolved into brain abscess involving the right fronto-preital region. This was successfully managed surgically

  12. Behavioral Risk Factor Data: Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information about modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases and other...

  13. Genetic variation of the androgen receptor and risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexrode, Kathryn M; Ridker, Paul M; Hegener, Hillary H; Buring, Julie E; Manson, JoAnn E; Zee, Robert Y L

    2008-05-01

    Androgen receptors (AR) are expressed in endothelial cells and vascular smooth-muscle cells. Some studies suggest an association between AR gene variation and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men; however, the relationship has not been examined in women. Six haplotype block-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs962458, rs6152, rs1204038, rs2361634, rs1337080, rs1337082), as well as the cysteine, adenine, guanine (CAG) microsatellite in exon 1, of the AR gene were evaluated among 300 white postmenopausal women who developed CVD (158 myocardial infarctions and 142 ischemic strokes) and an equal number of matched controls within the Women's Health Study. Genotype distributions were similar between cases and controls, and genotypes were not significantly related to risk of CVD, myocardial infarctions or ischemic stroke in conditional logistic regression models. Seven common haplotypes were observed, but distributions did not differ between cases and controls nor were significant associations observed in logistic regression analysis. The median CAG repeat length was 21. In conditional logistic regression, there was no association between the number of alleles with CAG repeat length >or=21 (or >or=22) and risk of CVD, myocardial infarctions or ischemic stroke. No association between AR genetic variation, as measured by haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms and CAG repeat number, and risk of CVD was observed in women.

  14. Age, gender and risk factor disparities in first-stroke Jewish and Arab patients in Israel undergoing rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Elina; Treger, Iuly; Schwarz, Juliana

    2011-11-01

    Little is known of the risk factor disparities in first stroke among Jewish and Arab patients undergoing rehabilitation in Israel. To investigate the age, gender and risk factor disparities in first stroke among Jewish (immigrant and non-immigrant) and Arab patients undergoing rehabilitation and to compare the prevalence and odds ratio of stroke risk factors in these patients. The database of the Department of Neurological Rehabilitation C at Loewenstein Rehabilitation Center was used to investigate first ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients admitted for hospital rehabilitation over a 15 year period, January 1993 to December 2008. Particular attention was paid to age, gender and risk factor disparities. The 2000 patients with first stroke who were included in the study were grouped as Jewish (immigrant and non-immigrant) orArab; there were 237 Arabs, 370 non-immigrant Jews and 1393 immigrant Jews. A high percentage of Arab patients were found to have hypertension and diabetes mellitus, while a high percentage of Jewish immigrants had stenosis of the internal carotid artery. The study demonstrated some differences in the effect of risk factors between the groups. It may be important to address such differences when developing stroke preventative strategies in this population of Jewish and Arab stroke survivors in Israel.

  15. Prevention Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  16. Increased risk of developing stroke for patients with major affective disorder--a registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Flemming M; Kessing, Lars V

    2004-01-01

    and cerebrovascular diseases in hospitalised patients. The main finding of this study was that patients with depression severe enough to be hospitalised, seem to be at an increased risk of developing cerebrovascular disease. The hazard ratio of getting a diagnosis of stroke after initially having been discharged......Only a few studies have evaluated depressive disorder as a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. In a hospital discharge register with nation-wide coverage of all hospitals in Denmark we used linkage between the somatic and psychiatric registries to study comorbidity between affective disorders...... with a diagnosis of depression was found to be 1.22 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.06-1.41). In the group of patients with manic/bipolar disorder no association was found concerning development of stroke. In elderly with first time depression admitted to hospital, neurological disorders should be carefully evaluated...

  17. Alcohol consumption and the risk of morbidity and mortality for different stroke types - a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roerecke Michael

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Observational studies have suggested a complex relationship between alcohol consumption and stroke, dependent on sex, type of stroke and outcome (morbidity vs. mortality. We undertook a systematic review and a meta-analysis of studies assessing the association between levels of average alcohol consumption and relative risks of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes separately by sex and outcome. This meta-analysis is the first to explicitly separate morbidity and mortality of alcohol-attributable stroke and thus has implications for public health and prevention. Methods Using Medical Subject Headings (alcohol drinking, ethanol, cerebrovascular accident, cerebrovascular disorders, and intracranial embolism and thrombosis and the key word stroke, a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CABS, WHOlist, SIGLE, ETOH, and Web of Science databases between 1980 to June 2009 was performed followed by manual searches of bibliographies of key retrieved articles. From twenty-six observational studies (cohort or case-control with ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes the relative risk or odds ratios or hazard ratios of stroke associated with alcohol consumption were reported; alcohol consumption was quantified; and life time abstention (manually estimated where data for current abstainers were given was used as the reference group. Two reviewers independently extracted the information on study design, participant characteristics, level of alcohol consumption, stroke outcome, control for potential confounding factors, risk estimates and key criteria of study quality using a standardized protocol. Results The dose-response relationship for hemorrhagic stroke had monotonically increasing risk for increasing consumption, whereas ischemic stroke showed a curvilinear relationship, with a protective effect of alcohol for low to moderate consumption, and increased risk for higher exposure. For more than 3 drinks on average/day, in general women had

  18. Prothrombotic factors do not increase the risk of recurrent ischemic events after cryptogenic stroke at young age: the FUTURE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Mijntje M I; van Alebeek, Mayte E; Arntz, Renate M; Synhaeve, Nathalie E; Maaijwee, Noortje A M M; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; van der Vlugt, Maureen J; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2018-05-01

    The role of hypercoagulable states and preceding infections in the etiology of young stroke and their role in developing recurrent ischemic events remains unclear. Our aim is to determine the prevalence of these conditions in patients with cryptogenic stroke at young age and to assess the long-term risk of recurrent ischemic events in patients with and without a hypercoagulable state or a recent pre-stroke infection with Borrelia or Syphilis. We prospectively included patients with a first-ever transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke, aged 18-50, admitted to our hospital between 1995 and 2010. A retrospective analysis was conducted of prothrombotic factors and preceding infections. Outcome was recurrent ischemic events. Prevalence of prothrombotic factors did not significantly differ between patients with a cryptogenic stroke and with an identified cause (24/120 (20.0%) and 32/174 (18.4%) respectively). In patients with a cryptogenic stroke the long-term risk [mean follow-up of 8.9 years (SD 4.6)] of any recurrent ischemic event or recurrent cerebral ischemia did not significantly differ between patients with and without a hypercoagulable state or a recent infection. In patients with a cryptogenic stroke 15-years cumulative risk of any recurrent ischemic event was 24 and 23% in patients with and without any prothrombotic factor respectively. The prevalence of prothrombotic factors and preceding infections did not significantly differ between stroke patients with a cryptogenic versus an identified cause of stroke and neither is significantly associated with an increased risk of recurrent ischemic events after cryptogenic stroke.

  19. Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia after a stroke or TIA : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Mirza (Saira); M.L.P. Portegies (Marileen); F.J. Wolters (Frank J.); A. Hofman (Albert); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.A. Ikram (Arfan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia, possibly because of a higher tolerance to subclinical neurodegenerative pathology. Whether higher education also protects against dementia after clinical stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains

  20. Risk of stroke in patients hospitalized for isolated vertigo: a four-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Su, Yu-Chieh; Ho, Hsu-Chieh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chou, Pesus; Huang, Yung-Sung

    2011-01-01

    vertigo is a common presenting symptom in ambulatory care settings, and stroke is its leading and most challenging concern. This study aimed to determine the risk of stroke in vertigo patients in a 4-year follow-up after hospitalization for acute isolated vertigo. the study cohorts consisted of all patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of vertigo (n=3021), whereas patients hospitalized for an appendectomy in 2004 (n=3021) comprised the control group and surrogate for the general population. Cox proportional hazard model was performed as a means of comparing the 4-year stroke-free survival rate between the 2 cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. Among vertigo patients, there was further stratification for risk factors to identify the group at high risk for stroke. of the 243 stroke patients, 185 (6.1%) were from the study cohort and 58 (1.9%) were from the control group. Comparing the 2 groups, patients with vertigo symptoms had a 3.01-times (95% CI, 2.20-4.11; Pstroke after adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, geographic region, urbanization level of residence, and socioeconomic status. Vertigo patients with ≥ 3 risk factors had a 5.51-fold higher risk for stroke (95% CI, 3.10-9.79; Pstroke than the general population. They should have a comprehensive neurological examination, vascular risk factors survey, and regular follow-up for several years after hospital discharge after treatment of isolated vertigo.

  1. Mild Hypokalemia and Supraventricular Ectopy Increases the Risk of Stroke in Community-Dwelling Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Nick; Kumarathurai, Preman; Larsen, Bjørn Strøier

    2017-01-01

    .0±6.94 versus 64.0±6.66 years; Pconfidence interval, 1.04-3.28) after...... covariate adjustments, as well as in a competing risk analysis with death (hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.04). Excessive supraventricular ectopic activity was also associated with stroke (hazard ratio, 2.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-3.76). The combination of hypokalemia...

  2. The South African Stroke Risk in General Practice Study | Connor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred general practices were randomly selected from lists provided by pharmaceutical .representatives. Each GP approached 50 consecutive patients aged 30 years and older. Patients completed an information sheet and the GP documented the patient's risk factors. The resulting sample is relevant.if not necessarily ...

  3. Fibrinogen concentration and risk of ischemic stroke and acute coronary events in 5113 patients with transient ischemic attack and minor ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothwell, PM; Howard, SC; Power, DA; Gutnikov, SA; Algra, A; van Gijn, J; Clark, TG; Murphy, MFG; Warlow, CP

    2004-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Fibrinogen is an independent risk factor for coronary events in population-based studies and in patients with coronary heart disease, but there is uncertainty about prediction of stroke, particularly in secondary prevention. Methods - We studied unpublished data from 3

  4. Posterior circulation ischemic stroke-clinical characteristics, risk factors, and subtypes in a north Indian population: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehndiratta, Manmohan; Pandey, Sanjay; Nayak, Rajeev; Alam, Anwar

    2012-04-01

    Posterior circulation stroke accounts for approximately 20% of all strokes with varied clinical presentation, which differ from strokes in anterior circulation, with reference to etiology, clinical features, and prognosis. Short penetrating and circumferential branches in the posterior circulation supply the brain stem, thalamus, cerebellum, occipital, and medial temporal lobes. We prospectively analyzed 80 participants of posterior circulation ischemic stroke from a registry of 944 participants attending a tertiary care referral university hospital. Patients were analyzed for demographics, stroke risk factors, clinical characteristics, neuroimaging, and stroke subtypes. Posterior circulation ischemic stroke accounted for 80 (8.5%) of 944 of all strokes and 80 (10.45%) of 765 of ischemic stroke. Sixty-three were males with mean age 51.7 ± 14.4 years. Twenty-one participants were young (defined as age less than 45 years). Hypertension was found to be the most common risk factor (63.75%). Vertigo was the most common clinical symptom reported in 45 (56.25%) cases. Sixty-eight (85%) patients had large artery disease, 8 (10%) had documented cardioembolic source, 3 (3.75%) small artery disease, and 2 (2.5%) vasculitis. Posterior cerebral artery was most commonly involved. Topographically distal intracranial involvement was most frequent (66.25%) followed by proximal (30%) and middle intracranial territory (3.75%). Our study demonatrated the occurrence of posterior circulation stroke in relatively younger age group compared to the Western world. We also found higher percentage of large artery disease, while cardioembolism as a less frequent cause of posterior circulation ischemic stroke in North Indian population. Distal territory involvement was most common in our study.

  5. Effects of Pedalo® training on balance and fall risk in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Yeon; Lim, Chae-Gil

    2017-07-01

    [Purpose] This study sought to examine the effects of Pedalo ® training on balance and fall risk in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects with stroke were recruited and randomly allocated into two groups: the Pedalo ® group (n=15) and the Treadmill group (n=16). The Pedalo ® group performed conventional physical therapy program with Pedalo ® training for 30 minutes, five times a week, for 8 weeks, while the Treadmill group conducted conventional physical therapy programs and treadmill gait training for 30 minutes, five times a week, for 8 weeks. [Results] After intervention, both groups showed a significant improvement in balance. A significant greater balance improvement was found in the Pedalo ® group compared to the Treadmill group. Also, a significant reduction in risk of fall was seen in both group but this reduction was not significantly different between the two groups. [Conclusion] Pedalo ® training may be used to improve balance and reduce fall risk in stroke patients.

  6. Hypercoagulability and the risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegerink, B; Maino, A; Algra, A; Rosendaal, F R

    2015-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke (IS) are acute forms of arterial thrombosis and share some, but not all, risk factors, indicating different pathophysiological mechanisms. This study aims to determine if hypercoagulability has a differential effect on the risk of MI and IS. We reviewed the results from the Risk of Arterial Thrombosis in Relation to Oral Contraceptives study, a population-based case-control study involving young women ( 1; for 12 (41%), it was > 2; and for 5 (17%), it was > 2.75. The five risk factors with the largest differences in associations were high levels of activated factor XI (FXI) and FXII, kallikrein, the presence of lupus anticoagulans, and a genetic variation in the FXIII gene. In young women, prothrombotic factors are associated more with the risk of IS than with MI risk, suggesting a different role of hypercoagulability in the mechanism leading to these two diseases. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  7. Cerebral Microbleeds and the Risk of Incident Ischemic Stroke in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puy, Laurent; De Guio, François; Godin, Ophélia; Duering, Marco; Dichgans, Martin; Chabriat, Hugues; Jouvent, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral microbleeds are associated with an increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Recent data suggest that microbleeds may also predict the risk of incident ischemic stroke. However, these results were observed in elderly individuals undertaking various medications and for whom causes of microbleeds and ischemic stroke may differ. We aimed to test the relationship between the presence of microbleeds and incident stroke in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy)-a severe monogenic small vessel disease known to be responsible for both highly prevalent microbleeds and a high incidence of ischemic stroke in young patients. We assessed microbleeds on baseline MRI in all 378 patients from the Paris-Munich cohort study. Incident ischemic strokes were recorded during 54 months. Survival analyses were used to test the relationship between microbleeds and incident ischemic stroke. Three hundred sixty-nine patients (mean age, 51.4±11.4 years) were followed-up during a median time of 39 months (interquartile range, 19 months). The risk of incident ischemic stroke was higher in patients with microbleeds than in patients without (35.8% versus 19.6%, hazard ratio, 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-3.01; P =0.009). These results persisted after adjustment for history of ischemic stroke, age, sex, vascular risk factors, and antiplatelet agents use (hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.26; P =0.02). The presence of microbleeds is an independent risk marker of incident ischemic stroke in CADASIL, emphasizing the need to carefully interpret MRI data. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Are 12-lead ECG findings associated with the risk of cardiovascular events after ischemic stroke in young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirinen, Jani; Putaala, Jukka; Aarnio, Karoliina; Aro, Aapo L; Sinisalo, Juha; Kaste, Markku; Haapaniemi, Elena; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Lehto, Mika

    2016-11-01

    Ischemic stroke (IS) in a young patient is a disaster and recurrent cardiovascular events could add further impairment. Identifying patients with high risk of such events is therefore important. The prognostic relevance of ECG for this population is unknown. A total of 690 IS patients aged 15-49 years were included. A 12-lead ECG was obtained 1-14 d after the onset of stroke. We adjusted for demographic factors, comorbidities, and stroke characteristics, Cox regression models were used to identify independent ECG parameters associated with long-term risks of (1) any cardiovascular event, (2) cardiac events, and (3) recurrent stroke. Median follow-up time was 8.8 years. About 26.4% of patients experienced a cardiovascular event, 14.5% had cardiac events, and 14.6% recurrent strokes. ECG parameters associated with recurrent cardiovascular events were bundle branch blocks, P-terminal force, left ventricular hypertrophy, and a broader QRS complex. Furthermore, more leftward P-wave axis, prolonged QTc, and P-wave duration >120 ms were associated with increased risks of cardiac events. No ECG parameters were independently associated with recurrent stroke. A 12-lead ECG can be used for risk prediction of cardiovascular events but not for recurrent stroke in young IS patients. KEY MESSAGES ECG is an easy, inexpensive, and useful tool for identifying young ischemic stroke patients with a high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events and it has a statistically significant association with these events even after adjusting for confounding factors. Bundle branch blocks, P-terminal force, broader QRS complex, LVH according to Cornell voltage duration criteria, more leftward P-wave axis, prolonged QTc, and P-wave duration >120 ms are predictors for future cardiovascular or cardiac events in these patients. No ECG parameters were independently associated with recurrent stroke.

  9. Lifestyle risk factors for ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack in young adults in the Stroke in Young Fabry Patients study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sarnowski, Bettina; Putaala, Jukka; Grittner, Ulrike; Gaertner, Beate; Schminke, Ulf; Curtze, Sami; Huber, Roman; Tanislav, Christian; Lichy, Christoph; Demarin, Vida; Basic-Kes, Vanja; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Neumann-Haefelin, Tobias; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Rothwell, Peter M; Dichgans, Martin; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J; Heuschmann, Peter U; Kaps, Manfred; Norrving, Bo; Rolfs, Arndt; Kessler, Christof; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2013-01-01

    Although many stroke patients are young or middle-aged, risk factor profiles in these age groups are poorly understood. The Stroke in Young Fabry Patients (sifap1) study prospectively recruited a large multinational European cohort of patients with cerebrovascular events aged 18 to 55 years to establish their prevalence of Fabry disease. In a secondary analysis of patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, we studied age- and sex-specific prevalences of various risk factors. Among 4467 patients (median age, 47 years; interquartile range, 40-51), the most frequent well-documented and modifiable risk factors were smoking (55.5%), physical inactivity (48.2%), arterial hypertension (46.6%), dyslipidemia (34.9%), and obesity (22.3%). Modifiable less well-documented or potentially modifiable risk factors like high-risk alcohol consumption (33.0%) and short sleep duration (20.6%) were more frequent in men, and migraine (26.5%) was more frequent in women. Women were more often physically inactive, most pronouncedly at ages young patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular events, modifiable risk factors were highly prevalent, particularly in men and older patients. These data emphasize the need for vigorous primary and secondary prevention measures already in young populations targeting modifiable lifestyle vascular risk factors.

  10. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on the risks of stroke: a result from the Kailuan study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Wu

    Full Text Available AIMS: To prospectively explore the association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDLC and the risks of stroke and its subtypes. METHODS: A total of 95,916 participants (18-98 years old; 76,354 men and 19,562 women from a Chinese urban community who were free of myocardial infarction and stroke at baseline time point (2006-2007 were eligible and enrolled in the study. The serum non-HDLC levels of participants were determined by subtracting the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC from total serum cholesterol. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of stroke, which was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria and classified into three subtypes: ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate risk of stroke and its subtypes. RESULTS: During the four-year follow-up, we identified 1614 stroke events (1,156 ischemic, 416 intracerebral hemorrhagic and 42 subarachnoid hemorrhagic. Statistical analyses showed that hazard ratios (HR (95% Confidence Interval: CI of serum Non-HDLC level for total and subtypes of stroke were: 1.08 (1.03-1.12 (total, 1.10 (1.05-1.16 (ischemic, 1.03 (0.96-1.10 (intracerebral hemorrhage and 0.83 (0.66-1.05 (subarachnoid hemorrhage. HR for non-HDLC refers to the increase per each 20 mg/dl. For total and ischemic stroke, the risks were significantly higher in the fourth and fifth quintiles of non-HDLC concentrations compared to the first quintile after adjusting the confounding factors (total stroke: 4(th quintile HR=1.33 (1.12-1.59; 5(th quintile HR = 1.36 (1.15-1.62; ischemic stroke: 4(th quintile HR =1.34 (1.09-1.66; 5(th quintile HR = 1.53 (1.24-1.88. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that serum non-HDLC level is an independent risk factor for total and ischemic stroke, and that higher serum non-HDLC concentrations are associated with increased risks for total stroke and ischemic stroke, but not

  11. Identification of Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Language Delay Prior to 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole A.; Stapleton, Emily J.; Aliabadi, Farhad; Graw, Robert; Vickers, Rebecca; Haskell, Kathryn; Sadeghin, Teresa; Jameson, Robert; Parmele, Charles L.; Gropman, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown an increased head circumference and the absence of the head tilt reflex as possible risk factors for autism spectrum disorder, allowing for early detection at 12 months in typically developing population of infants. Our aim was to develop a screening tool to identify infants prior to 12 months at risk for autism spectrum…

  12. Risk, treatment duration, and recurrence risk of postpartum affective disorder in women with no prior psychiatric history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marie-Louise H; Strøm, Marin; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some 5%-15% of all women experience postpartum depression (PPD), which for many is their first psychiatric disorder. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of postpartum affective disorder (AD), duration of treatment, and rate of subsequent postpartum AD and other...... total of 789,068 births) and no prior psychiatric hospital contacts and/or use of antidepressants. These women were followed from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2014. Postpartum AD was defined as use of antidepressants and/or hospital contact for PPD within 6 months after childbirth. The main outcome.......4%. The recurrence risk of postpartum AD for women with a PPD hospital contact after first birth was 55.4 per 100 person-years; for women with postpartum antidepressant medication after first birth, it was 35.0 per 100 person-years. The rate of postpartum AD after second birth for women with no history of postpartum...

  13. Zinc Serum Level Can Be a Risk Factor In Babol Stroke Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijan AhmadiAhangar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. The role of zinc as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of stroke was considered. Results: This cross-sectional study on 100 stroke patients in Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital and 100 control group from cohort master plan "Ageing and health projects Amirkola was conducted. Zinc levels Serum simultaneously with other blood tests in the early hours of hospitalization. Zinc serum level was defined 70 to 120 micrograms per deciliter. Findings: The difference in mean of zinc level in patients and control group was not significant (102.6±47.7 in control group vs 100.9±35.8 in patient, p=0.7. Difference in zinc Serum level had statically significant with IHD (under70 0 cases (0, 70 to120 8 cases (24, 120 and upper24 cases (75, p=0.003 and with type of stroke (under70 (3(3.3 hemorrhagic vs 0(0 ischemic, 70 to 120(19(21 vs6 (60, 120 and upper68 (75.6 vs4 (40, p=0.025 and also with patient and control group (under70 (3(3 in patient's vs 20(20 control group, 70 to 120(25(25 vs54 (54, 120 and upper72 (72 vs26 (26, p<0001. In patients group 72(73.5 of cases had zinc serum level above 120. HLP difference was significant in patient and control group (50(50 in control group vs 35(35 in patients, p=0.04. Regression logistic show that IHD (p<0001, OR=30, CI=6-152, HLP (p<0001, OR=4, CI=9.09-1.85, zinc serum level (p<0001, OR=15.5, CI=4-59.8 had significant role. Conclusions: Zinc serum levels, Ischemic Heart Disease, Hyperlipidemia were most risk factor that play role in Babol stroke patients.

  14. Differences in the distribution of risk factors for stroke among the high-risk population in urban and rural areas of Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Te; Sun, Shangwen; Du, Yifeng; Guo, Shougang; Cong, Lin; Cao, Mingfeng; Sun, Qinjian; Sun, Yi; Qu, Chuanqiang

    2016-05-01

    Considering the program of screening for risk factors of stroke in Eastern China, the aim of this study was to compare the distribution differences in risk factors for stroke among the high-risk population living in urban and rural areas. A total of 231,289 residents were screened and basic information collected. Risk factors for stroke among the high-risk population were compared between the urban and rural groups. A total of 117,776 high-risk residents from urban areas and 113,513 from rural areas were included in the analysis. The prevalence of hypertension was much higher in rural areas (73.3%) than that in urban areas (64.1%). Dyslipidemia (48.9% vs. 26.9%), sport lack (46.6% vs. 31.6%), diabetes mellitus (21.3% vs. 16.5%), and atrial fibrillation (18.7% vs. 9.8%) were more prevalent in the urban group, while smoking (26.5% vs. 28.8%), previous stroke (10.1% vs. 16.9%), and transient ischemic attack (20.9% vs. 24.6%) were less prevalent. Among the population at high risk of stroke, there were significant differences in the distribution of the following risk factors between the urban and rural groups: hypertension, atrial fibrillation, dyslipidemia, lack of physical exercise, and a previous stroke.

  15. Stroke education for the at-risk elderly: Do words really matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Olea Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available “You can do nothing to bring the dead to life; but you can do much to save the living” Statement of the problem According to the Center for Disease Control (2011, stroke is the fourth leading causes of death in the United States and the leading cause of long-term severe disability. Health disparities are indicated, with a higher incidence of stroke among ethnic minorities as compared to Caucasian Americans. The CDC (2011 further states that older individuals who survive a stroke are more likely to experience moderate-to-severe disability. Health prevention and promotion campaigns have begun investigating the role of information structure in educating at-risk individuals (Kreuter & McClure, 2004. Information structure, commonly in the form of narrative and expository discourse, has been compared especially across ethnic groups. For example, nutritional information in the context of narratives are perceived by Hispanic Americans as more believable compared to expository text (Slater, Buller, Waters, Archibeque, and LeBlanc, 2003. With regard to cancer screenings, illness narratives are more likely to result in better comprehension and compliance among African Americans (Kreuter, Holmes, Alcaraz, et al., 2010; Dillard, Fagerlin, Cin, Zikmund-Fisher & Ubel, 2010. Although stroke narratives in aphasia have been studied for decades, the role of this information structure in preventing stroke has yet to be investigated among the at-risk elderly. This study focuses on stroke prevention via two commonly used forms of information structure: narrative and expository discourse. It further investigates how elderly individuals recall medical categories essential to constructing an illness: symptoms, timeline, consequences, causes and treatment. The study specifically addresses stroke education among Elderly Filipino Americans. Despite being a highly collectivistic and well-educated group (McBride, 2002, Filipino Americans tend to have a short lifespan and

  16. Outdoor air pollution as a possible modifiable risk factor to reduce mortality in post-stroke population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Desikan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor air pollution is a known risk factor for mortality and morbidity. The type of air pollutant most reliably associated with disease is particulate matter (PM, especially finer particulate matter that can reach deeper into the lungs like PM2.5 (particulate matter diameter < 2.5 μm. Some subpopulations may be particularly vulnerable to PM pollution. This review focuses on one subgroup, long-term stroke survivors, and the emerging evidence suggesting that survivors of a stroke may be at a higher risk from the deleterious effects of PM pollution. While the mechanisms for mortality are still under debate, long-term stroke survivors may be vulnerable to similar mechanisms that underlie the well-established association between PM pollution and cardiovascular disease. The fact that long-term stroke survivors of ischemic, but not hemorrhagic, strokes appear to be more vulnerable to the risk of death from higher PM pollution may also bolster the connection to ischemic heart disease. Survivors of an ischemic stroke may be more vulnerable to dying from higher concentrations of PM pollution than the general population. The clinical implications of this association suggest that reduced exposure to PM pollution may result in fewer deaths amongst stroke survivors.

  17. Cognitive performance after ischaemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela R. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment after stroke affects the patient recovery process. Therefore, the identification of factors associated with cognitive outcomes is important since it allows risk profiles of stroke survivors to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To assess cognitive outcome of stroke outpatients and investigate associations among clinical and demographic variables, vascular risk factors, depression symptoms and functional ability; and to describe the neuropsychological profile of these patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional design study was conducted. Subjects who suffered a first-ever ischaemic stroke 6 to 10 months prior to data collection underwent neuropsychological assessment and screening for depressive symptoms and functional ability. The outcome "cognitive performance" was analyzed considering two groups: "cognitive impairment" and "no cognitive impairment". RESULTS: There was a statistically significant association between cognitive impairment and female gender, age, stroke severity and functional ability. Regarding neuropsychological profile, the cognitive impairment group exhibited more generalized deficits in attention, visuospatial organization, verbal functions and verbal memory domains compared to the community control group. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of cognitive impairment among patients was high, especially in women, older participants, individuals with more severe stroke, and greater impairment in functional ability. Multiple cognitive domains are affected and this may hamper recovery and negatively impact independence and quality of life after stroke.

  18. Risk of falling in a stroke unit after acute stroke: The Fall Study of Gothenburg (FallsGOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Carina U; Kjellberg, Sigvar; Lernfelt, Bodil; Westerlind, Ellen; Cruce, Malin; Hansson, Per-Olof

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate incidence of falls and different baseline variables and their association with falling during hospitalization in a stroke unit among patients with acute stroke. Prospective observational study. A stroke unit at a university hospital. A consecutive sample of stroke patients, out of which 504 were included, while 101 declined participation. The patients were assessed a mean of 1.7 days after admission and 3.8 days after stroke onset. The primary end-point was any fall, from admission to the stroke unit to discharge. Factors associated with falling were analysed using univariable and multivariable Cox hazard regression analyses. Independent variables were related to function, activity and participation, as well as personal and environmental factors. In total, 65 patients (13%) fell at least once. Factors statistically significantly associated with falling in the multivariable analysis were male sex (hazard ratio (HR): 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-3.14, P = 0.015), use of a walking aid (HR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.24-3.60, P = 0.006) and postural control as assessed with the modified version of the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (SwePASS). No association was found with age, cognition or stroke severity, the HR for low SwePASS scores (⩽24) was 9.33 (95% CI: 2.19-39.78, P = 0.003) and for medium SwePASS scores (25-30) was 6.34 (95% CI: 1.46-27.51, P = 0.014), compared with high SwePASS scores (⩾31). Postural control, male sex and use of a walking aid are associated with falling during hospitalization after acute stroke.

  19. MAJOR RISK FACTORS FOR STROKE AND THEIR CONTROL IN PATIENTS LIVING IN A SMALL TOWN OF THE MOSCOW REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kozyaykin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of prevalence and degree of control of leading risk factors for stroke among population of various regions of the Russian Federation enables rational planning of preventive activities.Aim: To analyze prevalence of the leading stroke risk factors, to assess efficacy of their control and to determine their impact on outcomes.Materials and methods: We examined and treated 129 patients with primary and repeated cerebral accidents living in a small town of the Moscow region.Results: The most prevalent stroke risk factor was arterial hypertension (94.6%. During 6 months before the stroke, target levels of systolic blood pressure had been achieved in 36/122 patients with arterial hypertension and those of diastolic blood pressure, in 4/122 patients. During the last 2 years preceding the index stroke, 48.8% of patients had hypertensive crises. More than half of the patients (71/122 either had not been taking their antihypertensive medications, or had not taken them regularly. There was a positive correlation between duration of arterial hypertension and degree of stroke-related disability, assessed by NIHSS (r = 0.263, p = 0.003, as well as between duration of arterial hypertension and functional activity index on Rankin scale at manifestation of stroke (r = 0.268, p = 0.003. Other prevalent risk factors were smoking (51.9% of patients, alcohol use (67.44%, diabetes mellitus (23.26%. Hypercholesterolemia that was diagnosed in 102/129 of the stroke patients, did not significantly affect any parameter of stroke severity (p > 0.05. There were weak positive correlations between body mass index and difference in NIHSS scores at admission and at discharge (r = 0.204, p = 0.049, between body mass and difference in NIHSS scores at admission and at discharge (r = 0.227, p = 0.028, as well as between body mass and difference in Rankin scale scores at admission and at discharge (r = 0.247, p = 0.016. Chronic stress situation (depression

  20. Stroke Health and Risk Education (SHARE): design, methods, and theoretical basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Devin L; Conley, Kathleen M; Resnicow, Kenneth; Murphy, Jillian; Sánchez, Brisa N; Cowdery, Joan E; Sais, Emma; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Skolarus, Lesli E; Zahuranec, Darin B; Williams, Geoffrey C; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2012-07-01

    Stroke is a disease with tremendous individual, family, and societal impact across all race/ethnic groups. Mexican Americans, the largest subgroup of Hispanic Americans, are at even higher risk of stroke than European Americans. To test the effectiveness of a culturally sensitive, church-based, multi-component, motivational enhancement intervention for Mexican Americans and European Americans in reducing stroke risk factors. Participants enroll in family or friendship pairs, from the same Catholic church in the Corpus Christi Texas area, and are encouraged to change diet and physical activity behaviors and provide support for behavior change to their partners. Churches are randomized to either the intervention or control group. Goal enrollment for each of the 10 participating churches is 40 participant pairs. The intervention consists of self-help materials (including a motivational short film, cookbook/healthy eating guide, physical activity guide with pedometer, and photonovella), five motivational interviewing calls, two tailored newsletters, parish health promotion activities and environmental changes, and a peer support workshop where participants learn to provide autonomy supportive counseling to their partner. SHARE's three primary outcomes are self-reported sodium intake, fruit and vegetable intake, and level of physical activity. Participants complete questionnaires and have measurements at baseline, six months, and twelve months. Persistence testing is performed at 18 months in the intervention group. The trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01378780). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel J stents reduce the risk of embolic stroke in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, Carlo R.; Spence, Paul A.; Giridharan, Guruprasad A.

    2010-01-01

    Two and a half million Americans with atrial fibrillation are at an elevated risk for embolic stroke. Warfarin therapy is standard treatment for high-risk patients, yet 40-65% of elderly patients do not receive anticoagulation therapy due to bleeding complications. To address this clinical need, we are evaluating a minimally invasive stent-based stroke prevention device to divert emboli from entering the arterial supply of the brain. The feasibility of a J-shaped stroke prevention device was tested in a mock circulatory loop. Sixteen sets of 100 simulated emboli (1-5 mm 3 ) were injected into the left atrium with and without J stents protecting the aortic arch vessels. To determine efficacy, emboli were trapped in filters in the aortic arch vessels and distal aorta for manual counting. J stents decreased the number of emboli that entered the brachiocephalic trunk by 93.7% (p<0.0001), left common carotid artery by 79.8% (p<0.0001), and left subclavian artery by 89.7% (p<0.0001). In a mock circulation, J stents positioned in the aortic arch vessels and oriented downstream of aortic flow significantly decreased the number of emboli that entered the aortic arch vessels. These results warrant further investigation to determine the safety and efficacy of this prophylactic intervention to reduce embolic events, and chronic large animal studies are underway. (orig.)

  2. Novel J stents reduce the risk of embolic stroke in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, Carlo R. [University of Louisville, M.D./Ph.D. Program, Louisville, KY (United States); Spence, Paul A. [SCR Inc., Louisville, KY (United States); Giridharan, Guruprasad A. [Cardiovascular Innovation Institute, University of Louisville, Department of Bioengineering, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Two and a half million Americans with atrial fibrillation are at an elevated risk for embolic stroke. Warfarin therapy is standard treatment for high-risk patients, yet 40-65% of elderly patients do not receive anticoagulation therapy due to bleeding complications. To address this clinical need, we are evaluating a minimally invasive stent-based stroke prevention device to divert emboli from entering the arterial supply of the brain. The feasibility of a J-shaped stroke prevention device was tested in a mock circulatory loop. Sixteen sets of 100 simulated emboli (1-5 mm{sup 3}) were injected into the left atrium with and without J stents protecting the aortic arch vessels. To determine efficacy, emboli were trapped in filters in the aortic arch vessels and distal aorta for manual counting. J stents decreased the number of emboli that entered the brachiocephalic trunk by 93.7% (p<0.0001), left common carotid artery by 79.8% (p<0.0001), and left subclavian artery by 89.7% (p<0.0001). In a mock circulation, J stents positioned in the aortic arch vessels and oriented downstream of aortic flow significantly decreased the number of emboli that entered the aortic arch vessels. These results warrant further investigation to determine the safety and efficacy of this prophylactic intervention to reduce embolic events, and chronic large animal studies are underway. (orig.)

  3. Posterior communicating artery hypoplasia as a risk factor for acute ischemic stroke in the absence of carotid artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yu-Ming; Liu, Chih-Yang; Pan, Po-Jung; Lin, Ching-Po

    2008-12-01

    Posterior communicating artery (PCoA) hypoplasia is a fetal variant of the Circle of Willis. According to angiograms and autopsy reports, this congenital variation is found in 6-21% of the general population. PCoA hypoplasia only becomes a risk factor for ischemic stroke in the presence of ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. The aim of our study was to determine the role of PCoA hypoplasia in acute ischemic stroke in the absence of ICA occlusion. We examined 310 acute ischemic stroke patients (mean age+/-standard deviation; 68.9+/-15.6 years). Cerebral magnetic resonance angiography was performed within 72 hours of ischemic stroke onset. For comparison, a risk factor-matched control group was recruited. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to estimate the independent effect of potential risk factors. The overall incidence of PCoA hypoplasia in our experimental group was 19.35% (n=60), which was significantly higher than in the control group (8.20%, n=22, p=0.036, OR, 3.21; 95% CI, 1.43-9.62). The most common ischemic event was ipsilateral thalamic lacunar infarctions with or without occipital lobe involvement. Based on our results, PCoA hypoplasia appears to be a contributor to the risk of ischemic stroke, even in the absence of ICA occlusion. This risk is especially pronounced for strokes involving arteries that penetrate the thalamus.

  4. Impact of age on the importance of systolic and diastolic blood pressures for stroke risk: the MOnica, Risk, Genetics, Archiving, and Monograph (MORGAM) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishram, Julie K K; Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Ibsen, Hans; Jørgensen, Torben; Broda, Grazyna; Palmieri, Luigi; Giampaoli, Simona; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kee, Frank; Mancia, Giuseppe; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Sans, Susana; Olsen, Michael H

    2012-11-01

    This study investigates age-related shifts in the relative importance of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures as predictors of stroke and whether these relations are influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors. Using 34 European cohorts from the MOnica, Risk, Genetics, Archiving, and Monograph (MORGAM) Project with baseline between 1982 and 1997, 68 551 subjects aged 19 to 78 years, without cardiovascular disease and not receiving antihypertensive treatment, were included. During a mean of 13.2 years of follow-up, stroke incidence was 2.8%. Stroke risk was analyzed using hazard ratios per 10-mm Hg/5-mm Hg increase in SBP/DBP by multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions, including SBP and DBP simultaneously. Because of nonlinearity, DBP was analyzed separately for DBP ≥ 71 mm Hg and DBP <71 mm Hg. Stroke risk was associated positively with SBP and DBP ≥ 71 mm Hg (SBP/DBP ≥ 71 mm Hg; hazard ratios: 1.15/1.06 [95% CI: 1.12-1.18/1.03-1.09]) and negatively with DBP <71 mm Hg (0.88[0.79-0.98]). The hazard ratio for DBP decreased with age (P<0.001) and was not influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors. Taking into account the age × DBP interaction, both SBP and DBP ≥ 71 mm Hg were significantly associated with stroke risk until age 62 years, but in subjects older than 46 years the superiority of SBP for stroke risk exceeded that of DBP ≥ 71 mm Hg and remained significant until age 78 years. DBP <71 mm Hg became significant at age 50 years with an inverse relation to stroke risk. In Europeans, stroke risk should be assessed by both SBP and DBP until age 62 years with increased focus on SBP from age 47 years. From age 62 years, emphasis should be on SBP without neglecting the potential harm of very low DBP.

  5. Full Implementation of Screening for Nutritional Risk and Dysphagia in an Acute Stroke Unit: A Clinical Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampman, Margitta T; Eltoft, Agnethe; Karaliute, Migle; Børvik, Margrethe T; Nilssen, Hugo; Rasmussen, Ida; Johnsen, Stein H

    2015-10-01

    In patients with acute stroke, undernutrition and aspiration pneumonia are associated with increased mortality and length of hospital stay. Formal screening for nutritional risk and dysphagia helps to ensure optimal nutritional management in all patients with stroke and to reduce the risk of aspiration in patients with dysphagia. We developed a national guideline for nutritional and dysphagia screening in acute stroke, which was introduced in our stroke unit on June 1, 2012. The primary objective was to audit adherence to the guideline and to achieve full implementation. Second, we assessed the prevalence of nutritional risk and dysphagia. We performed a chart review to assess performance of screening for nutritional risk and dysphagia in all patients with stroke hospitalized for ≥48 hours between June 1, 2012, and May 31, 2013. Next we applied a "clinical microsystems approach" with rapid improvement cycles and audits over a 6-month period to achieve full implementation. The chart review showed that nutritional risk screening was performed in 65% and swallow testing in 91% of eligible patients (n = 185). Proactive implementation resulted in >95% patients screened (n = 79). The overall prevalence of nutritional risk was 29%, and 23% of the patients failed the initial swallow test. Proactive implementation is required to obtain high screening rates for nutritional risk and swallowing difficulties using validated screening tools. The proportion of patients at nutritional risk and the prevalence of dysphagia at initial swallow test were in the lower range of previous reports.

  6. Bayesian inference for an illness-death model for stroke with cognition as a latent time-dependent risk factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hout A. van den; Fox J.P.; Klein Entink R.H.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal data can be used to estimate the transition intensities between healthy and unhealthy states prior to death. An illness-death model for history of stroke is presented, where time-dependent transition intensities are regressed on a latent variable representing cognitive function. The

  7. Risk of stroke and bleeding in patients with heart failure and chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgaard, Line; Overvad, Thure Filskov; Skjøth, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in relation to ischaemic stroke, intracranial haemorrhage, major bleeding, and all-cause death in heart failure patients without atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this observational cohort...... study, heart failure patients without atrial fibrillation were identified using Danish nationwide registries. Risk of stroke, major haemorrhage, and death were calculated after 1 and 5 years to compare patients with and without CKD, ±dialysis [dialysis: CKD with renal replacement therapy (CKD......-RRT); no dialysis: CKD-no RRT]. A total of 43 199 heart failure patients were included, among which 0.8% had CKD-RRT and 5.9% had CKD-no RRT. When compared with heart failure patients without CKD, both CKD-RRT and CKD-no RRT were associated with a higher 5 year rate of major bleeding (CKD-RRT: adjusted hazard ratio...

  8. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Genetic Risk Factors for Stroke in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Cara L; Keene, Keith L; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Meschia, James F; Chen, Wei-Min; Nalls, Mike; Bis, Joshua C; Kittner, Steven J; Rich, Stephen S; Tajuddin, Salman; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K; Langefeld, Carl D; Gottesman, Rebecca; Mosley, Thomas H; Shahar, Eyal; Woo, Daniel; Yaffe, Kristine; Liu, Yongmei; Sale, Michèle M; Dichgans, Martin; Malik, Rainer; Longstreth, W T; Mitchell, Braxton D; Psaty, Bruce M; Kooperberg, Charles; Reiner, Alexander; Worrall, Bradford B; Fornage, Myriam

    2015-08-01

    The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of stroke have focused on European-ancestry populations; however, none has been conducted in African Americans, despite the disproportionately high burden of stroke in this population. The Consortium of Minority Population Genome-Wide Association Studies of Stroke (COMPASS) was established to identify stroke susceptibility loci in minority populations. Using METAL, we conducted meta-analyses of GWAS in 14 746 African Americans (1365 ischemic and 1592 total stroke cases) from COMPASS, and tested genetic variants with Pstroke genetic studies in European-ancestry populations. We also evaluated stroke loci previously identified in European-ancestry populations. The 15q21.3 locus linked with lipid levels and hypertension was associated with total stroke (rs4471613; P=3.9×10(-8)) in African Americans. Nominal associations (Pstroke were observed for 18 variants in or near genes implicated in cell cycle/mRNA presplicing (PTPRG, CDC5L), platelet function (HPS4), blood-brain barrier permeability (CLDN17), immune response (ELTD1, WDFY4, and IL1F10-IL1RN), and histone modification (HDAC9). Two of these loci achieved nominal significance in METASTROKE: 5q35.2 (P=0.03), and 1p31.1 (P=0.018). Four of 7 previously reported ischemic stroke loci (PITX2, HDAC9, CDKN2A/CDKN2B, and ZFHX3) were nominally associated (Pstroke in COMPASS. We identified a novel genetic variant associated with total stroke in African Americans and found that ischemic stroke loci identified in European-ancestry populations may also be relevant for African Americans. Our findings support investigation of diverse populations to identify and characterize genetic risk factors, and the importance of shared genetic risk across populations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Carotid stiffness indicates risk of ischemic stroke and TIA in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis: the SMART study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Joke M.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Bots, Michiel L.

    2004-01-01

    Patients with a carotid artery stenosis, including those with an asymptomatic or moderate stenosis, have a considerable risk of ischemic stroke. Identification of risk factors for cerebrovascular disease in these patients may improve risk profiling and guide new treatment strategies. We

  10. Comparison of atria and CHA2DS2-vasc risk stratification schemes for the prediction of stroke in the individual patient with atrial fibrillation and the impact on treatment decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Ham, Hendrika A.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Singer, Daniel E.; Leufkens, Hubert G.M.; Van Staa, Tjeerd P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of ischaemic stroke and treatment with anticoagulants should be prescribed according to stroke risk. Objectives: To compare the predictive ability of the currently recommended CHA2DS2-VASc ischaemic stroke risk score with the new ATRIA stroke

  11. Stroke in Trinidad and Tobago: burden of illness and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Mahabir

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the burden of stroke on hospital services in a Caribbean community. The settings are the two main acute general hospitals in Trinidad observed over a 12-month period. All subjects were admitted with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke. The measures were hospital admission rates, length of hospital stay, case-fatality rates, disability at discharge, and risk factors for stroke. There were 1 105 hospital admissions with a diagnosis of stroke. The median length of stay was 4 days, with an interquartile range of 2 to 9, and stroke accounted for approximately 9 478 bed days per annum. The hospital admission fatality rate was 29%. Among surviving patients, 437 (56% were severely disabled at discharge. Age-standardized admission rates for first strokes in persons aged 35_64 years were 114 (95%CI: 83 to 145 per 100 000 in Afro-Trinidadian men and 144 (109 to 179 in Indo-Trinidadian men. The equivalent rates for women were 115 (84 to 146 and 152 (118 to 186. Among patients with first strokes, 348/531 (66% reported physician-diagnosed hypertension, but only 226 (65% of these reported being on antihypertensives at admission. Stroke in Trinidad and Tobago is associated with a high case-fatality rate and severe disability in survivors. Modifiable risk factors were reported in a majority of stroke cases, and there is a need to develop effective preventive strategies.En este estudio se describe la carga que imponen los accidentes cerebrovasculares sobre los servicios hospitalarios de una comunidad caribeña. Las instituciones examinadas fueron los dos hospitales generales de mayor importancia en Trinidad y el período de observación fue de 12 meses. Todos los sujetos fueron ingresados al hospital con un diagnóstico clínico de accidente cerebrovascular agudo. Las variables medidas fueron las tasas de ingreso al hospital, estancia hospitalaria, tasas de letalidad, discapacidad al egreso y los factores de riesgo de accidente

  12. PR interval prolongation in coronary patients or risk equivalent: excess risk of ischemic stroke and vascular pathophysiological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yap-Hang; Hai, Jo Jo; Lau, Kui-Kai; Li, Sheung-Wai; Lau, Chu-Pak; Siu, Chung-Wah; Yiu, Kai-Hang; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2017-08-24

    Whether PR prolongation independently predicts new-onset ischemic events of myocardial infarction and stroke was unclear. Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of PR prolongation leading to adverse cardiovascular events were poorly understood. We investigated the role of PR prolongation in pathophysiologically-related adverse cardiovascular events and underlying mechanisms. We prospectively investigated 597 high-risk cardiovascular outpatients (mean age 66 ± 11 yrs.; male 67%; coronary disease 55%, stroke 22%, diabetes 52%) for new-onset ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), congestive heart failure (CHF), and cardiovascular death. Vascular phenotype was determined by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). PR prolongation >200 ms was present in 79 patients (13%) at baseline. PR prolongation >200 ms was associated with significantly higher mean carotid IMT (1.05 ± 0.37 mm vs 0.94 ± 0.28 mm, P = 0.010). After mean study period of 63 ± 11 months, increased PR interval significantly predicted new-onset ischemic stroke (P = 0.006), CHF (P = 0.040), cardiovascular death (P 200 ms. Using multivariable Cox regression, PR prolongation >200 ms independently predicted new-onset ischemic stroke (HR 8.6, 95% CI: 1.9-37.8, P = 0.005), cardiovascular death (HR 14.1, 95% CI: 3.8-51.4, P PR interval predicts new-onset MI at the exploratory cut-off >162 ms (C-statistic 0.70, P = 0.001; HR: 8.0, 95% CI: 1.65-38.85, P = 0.010). PR prolongation strongly predicts new-onset ischemic stroke, MI, cardiovascular death, and combined cardiovascular endpoint including CHF in coronary patients or risk equivalent. Adverse vascular function may implicate an intermediate pathophysiological phenotype or mediating mechanism.

  13. Risk of ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, bleeding, and death in patients switching from vitamin K antagonist to dabigatran after an ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallisgaard, Jannik Langtved; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Safety regarding switching from vitamin K antagonist (VKA) to dabigatran therapy in post-ablation patients has never been investigated and safety data for this is urgently needed. The objective of this study was to examine if switch from VKA to dabigatran increased the risk of stroke......, bleeding, and death in patients after ablation for atrial fibrillation. Methods: Through the Danish nationwide registries, patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation undergoing ablation were identified, in the period between August 22nd 2011 and December 31st 2015. The risk of ischemic stroke...... with the dabigatran group, compared to the VKA group. A significant increased risk of bleeding was found in the 110mg bid group with an IRR (95%CI) of 4.49(1.40-14.5). Conclusion: Shifting from VKA to dabigatran after ablation was associated with twice as high incidence of bleeding compared to the incidence...

  14. Interdelivery weight gain and risk of cesarean delivery following a prior vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dude, Annie M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Grobman, William A

    2017-09-01

    /m 2 or more were significantly more likely to undergo cesarean delivery specifically for the indications of arrest of dilation or arrest of descent (adjusted odds ratio, 2.01, 95% confidence interval, 1.21-3.33 for body mass index increase of 2 to gain or loss was not significantly associated with a cesarean delivery for fetal indications. Among women with a prior vaginal delivery, interdelivery weight gain was independently associated with an increased risk of intrapartum cesarean delivery in a subsequent pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Short- and Long-Term Stroke Risk after Urgent Management of Transient Ischaemic Attack: The Bologna TIA Clinical Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Maria; Rondelli, Francesca; Favaretto, Elisabetta; Stracciari, Andrea; Filippini, Massimo; Rinaldi, Rita; Zele, Ivana; Sartori, Michelangelo; Faggioli, Gianluca; Mondini, Susanna; Donti, Andrea; Strocchi, Enrico; Degli Esposti, Daniela; Muscari, Antonio; Veronesi, Maddalena; D'Addato, Sergio; Spinardi, Luca; Faccioli, Luca; Pastore Trossello, Marco; Cirignotta, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Rapid management can reduce the short stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack (TIA), but the long-term effect is still little known. We evaluated 3-year vascular outcomes in patients with TIA after urgent care. We prospectively enrolled all consecutive patients with TIA diagnosed by a vascular neurologist and referred to our emergency department (ED). Expedited assessment and best secondary prevention was within 24 h. Endpoints were stroke within 90 days, and stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death at 12, 24 and 36 months. Between August 2010 and July 2013, we evaluated 686 patients with suspected TIA; 433 (63%) patients had confirmed TIA. Stroke at 90 days was 2.07% (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-3.9) compared with the ABCD2-predicted risk of 9.1%. The long-term stroke risk was 2.6% (95% CI, 1.1-4.2), 3.7% (95% CI, 1.6-5.9) and 4.4% (95% CI, 1.9-6.8) at 12, 24 and 36 months, respectively. The composite outcome of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death was 3.5% (95% CI, 1.7-5.1), 4.9% (95% CI, 2.5-7.4), and 5.6% (95% CI, 2.8-8.3) at 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. TIA expedited management driven by vascular neurologists was associated with a marked reduction in the expected early stroke risk and low long-term risk of stroke and other vascular events. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The association between nut consumption and the risk of total and ischemic stroke in a German cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giuseppe, R; Fjeld, M K; Dierkes, J; Theoflylaktopoulou, D; Arregui, M; Boeing, H; Weikert, C

    2015-04-01

    Nuts have beneficial effects on coronary heart disease and many cardiovascular risk factors. However, their effect on stroke is less established, and no studies on the topic are available in Northern and Central European populations. Therefore, we aimed at investigating the association between nut consumption and the risk of stroke in a German population. We used data from a prospective cohort of 26,285 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into the Cancer and Nutrition Potsdam Study. During a median follow-up time of 8.3 years (interquartile range: 7.5-9.2), 288 incident cases of stroke occurred. Nut consumption (standard portion size of 50 g) was assessed at baseline with a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The median nut intake was 0.82 g per day, interquartile range: 0.41-4.11. In the multivariable model, an increased risk of stroke was observed among participants who never consumed nuts (hazard ratio (HR): 1.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.08), compared with those consuming 1 portion/week. Similar nonsignificant associations were observed in stratified analysis for gender, or for fatal and nonfatal stroke. We could not observe an association between nut consumption and the risk of developing stroke (fatal/nonfatal) in a population with low habitual nut consumption.

  17. Ischemic Stroke and Its Risk Factors in a Registry-Based Large Cross-Sectional Diabetic Cohort in a Country Facing a Diabetes Epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Rubeaan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of ischemic stroke among diabetic patients registered in the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR database. A cross-sectional sample of 62,681 diabetic patients aged ≥25 years was used to calculate ischemic stroke prevalence and its risk factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the roles of different risk factors. The prevalence of ischemic stroke was 4.42% and was higher in the older age group with longer diabetes duration. Poor glycemic control and the presence of chronic diabetes complications were associated with a high risk of ischemic stroke. History of smoking and type 2 diabetes were more frequent among stroke patients. Obesity significantly decreased the risk for ischemic stroke. Regression analysis for ischemic stroke risk factors proved that age ≥45 years, male gender, hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD, diabetes duration ≥10 years, insulin use, and hyperlipidemia were significant independent risk factors for ischemic stroke. We conclude that ischemic stroke is prevalent among diabetic individuals, particularly among those with type 2 diabetes. Good glycemic, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia control, in addition to smoking cessation, are the cornerstones to achieve a significant reduction in ischemic stroke risk.

  18. Designing Skin Cancer Prevention Messages: Should We Emphasize Gains or Losses? Message Framing, Risk Type, and Prior Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Kang, Hannah

    2018-05-01

    To test whether message framing (ie, gain vs. loss) and risk type (ie, health vs appearance risk) in skin cancer prevention messages interact with one's prior experience. Two experiments with a 2 (message framing: gain vs loss) × 2 (risk type: health vs appearance risk) factorial design were conducted. The participants were given a URL to the experiment website via e-mail. On the first page of the website, the participants were told that they would be asked to evaluate a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA): Online experiments. A total of 397 individuals participated (236 for experiment 1 and 161 for experiment 2). Apparatus: Four versions of the skin cancer print PSAs were developed. Four PSAs were identical except for the 2 manipulated components: message framing and risk type. Measures were adopted from Cho and Boster (message framing), Jones and Leary and Kiene et al. (risk type), De Vries, Mesters, van't Riet, Willems, and Reubsaet and Knight, Kirincich, Farmer, and Hood (prior experience), and Hammond, Fong, Zanna, Thrasher, and Borland and Hoffner and Ye (behavioral intent). General linear models were used to test hypotheses. Three-way interactions among message framing, risk type, and prior experience were found: When the intent of the message was to encourage sunscreen use, the effects of message framing and risk type were shown to be the exact opposite directions from when the intent was to discourage indoor/outdoor tanning. To discourage tanning among those with prior experience, messages emphasizing losses in terms of one's health will work better. For those with no prior experience, messages emphasizing potential appearance losses will work better for discouraging tanning while messages emphasizing gains like improving appearance will do a better job in encouraging sunscreen use.

  19. Presence of diabetic microvascular complications does not incrementally increase risk of ischemic stroke in diabetic patients with atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Annie Y.; Liu, Chia-Jen; Chao, Tze-Fan; Wang, Kang-Ling; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Conventional stroke risk prediction tools used in atrial fibrillation (AF) incorporate the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) as a risk factor. However, it is unknown whether this risk is homogenous or dependent on the presence of diabetic microvascular complications, such as diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. The present study examined the risk of ischemic stroke in diabetic patients with and without microvascular complications. The present study used the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan with detailed healthcare data on all-comers to the Taiwanese medical system from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2011. AF and DM were identified when listed as discharge diagnoses or confirmed more than twice in the outpatient department. Patients on antithrombotic agents were excluded. The clinical endpoint was ischemic stroke. Among the 50,180 AF patients with DM, the majority had no microvascular complications (72.7%), while 2.6% had diabetic retinopathy, 8.4% had diabetic nephropathy, and 16.1% had diabetic neuropathy. Ischemic stroke occurred in 6003 patients, with a 4.74% annual risk of ischemic stroke. When compared with DM patients without microvascular complications, those with diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, or neuropathy had higher incidences of ischemic stroke (4.65 vs 5.07, 4.77, or 5.20 per 100 person-years, respectively). However, after adjusting for confounding factors, the differences were no longer significant. In a large nationwide AF cohort with DM, risk of ischemic stroke was similar between patients with and without microvascular complications, suggesting that risk stratification of these patients does not require inclusion of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. PMID:27399075

  20. Early risk of recurrent stroke in patients with symptomatic carotid near-occlusion: Results from CAOS, a multicenter registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pastor, Andrés; Gil-Núñez, Antonio; Ramírez-Moreno, José María; González-Nafría, Noelia; Tejada, Javier; Moniche, Francisco; Portilla-Cuenca, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Sánchez, Patricia; Fuentes, Blanca; Gamero-García, Miguel Ángel; Alonso de Leciñana, María; Cánovas-Verge, David; Aladro, Yolanda; Parkhutik, Vera; Lago-Martín, Aida; de Arce-Borda, Ana María; Usero-Ruíz, María; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Pampliega, Ana; Ximenez-Carrillo, Álvaro; Bártulos-Iglesias, Mónica; Castro-Reyes, Enrique

    2017-10-01

    Background The risk of recurrent stroke among patients with symptomatic carotid near-occlusion is not well established, and management of the condition remains controversial. Symptomatic carotid near-occlusion with full collapse has been identified as a strong predictor of early recurrence. We aimed to analyze the 90-day risk of recurrent ipsilateral ischemic stroke in medically treated patients with symptomatic carotid near-occlusion. Methods We performed a multicenter, nationwide, prospective study from January 2010 to May 2016. Patients with angiography-confirmed symptomatic carotid near-occlusion were included. The primary endpoint was ipsilateral ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) within 90 days after the presenting event. For this analysis, patients who underwent revascularization within 90 days after stroke were excluded. Results The study population comprised 141 patients from 17 Spanish centers; 83 patients were treated medically. Primary endpoint occurred in eight patients, resulting in a cumulative rate of 10.6% (95% CI, 3.7-17.5). Previous history of stroke or transient ischemic attack was identified as an independent predictor for recurrence in the multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR, 4.37 [95% CI, 1.05-18.18]; p = 0.043), while the presence of full collapse was not associated with an increased risk (HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.17-3.92]; p = 0.793). The risk of recurrence was also not affected by the presence of significant stenosis or occlusion of the contralateral carotid artery, or by the collateral circulation. Conclusions Patients with symptomatic carotid near-occlusion seem to have an increased risk of early ipsilateral recurrent stroke. Our results contrast with the low risk of symptomatic carotid near-occlusion reported to date. Full collapse did not increase the risk of recurrent stroke in our study.

  1. Predictors of early neurological deterioration after ischaemic stroke: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Mark; Wright, Fiona; Stott, David J; Langhorne, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Early neurological deterioration after ischaemic stroke (stroke in progression) is reported to be common and associated with poor outcome or death. The causes of progressing stroke are, however, uncertain. To determine whether prior drug treatment (with anticoagulant or antiplatelet agents) or early adverse physiological features (pyrexia, hypoxia, dehydration or hyperglycaemia) are associated with progressing ischaemic stroke. The study used a case-control design. From a database of 873 consecutive acute stroke admissions, 196 cases of progressing ischaemic stroke (defined by point deterioration in components of the Scandinavian Stroke Scale or death over the first 72 h after hospital admission) were matched to 196 controls on the basis of age and stroke type. Univariate and conditional logistic regression techniques were used to explore predictors of progressing stroke. Cases and controls were well matched for baseline stroke severity. Warfarin use prior to admission was associated with a reduced risk of progressing stroke [odds ratio (OR) 0.10, p = 0.005]. Prior antiplatelet use was not related. A previous history of diabetes (OR 2.11, p = 0.039) and elevated systolic blood pressure on admission (OR 1.01 for each 1 mm Hg rise, p = 0.017) predicted progressing stroke. Although there were no differences in time to presentation or to brain imaging, a visible causative lesion on CT scanning was more common in the progressing stroke group (OR 2.30, p = 0.022). We found no evidence that adverse physiological features were associated with progressing stroke. Outcomes were worse in the progressing stroke group with 70% being dead or dependent by 30 days compared to 55% in the control group (p = 0.002). Prior warfarin use may be protective against progressing ischaemic stroke. A previous history of diabetes along with elevated admission systolic blood pressure predict deterioration. We found no evidence for an association between adverse physiological features and

  2. Increased Risk of Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Strokes in Patients With Splenic Injury and Splenectomy: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Chih-Hui; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    The spleen is a crucial organ in humans. Little is known about the association between stroke and splenic injury or splenectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of stroke in patients with splenic injury and splenectomy.A nationwide cohort study was conducted by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. For comparison, control patients were selected and matched with splenic injury patients in a ratio of 4:1 according to age, sex, and the year of hospitalization. We analyzed the risks of stroke using a Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis.A total of 11,273 splenic injury patients, including 5294 splenectomized and 5979 nonsplenectomized patients, and 45,092 control patients were included in this study. The incidence rates of stroke were 8.05, 6.53, and 4.25 per 1000 person-years in splenic injury patients with splenectomy, those without splenectomy, and the control cohort, respectively. Compared with the control cohort, splenic injury patients with splenectomy exhibited a 2.05-fold increased risk of stroke (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-2.34), whereas those without splenectomy exhibited a 1.74-fold increased risk (95% CI 1.51-2). Splenectomy entailed an additional 1.21-fold increased risk of stroke compared with nonsplenectomy in patients with splenic injury.This study revealed that splenic injury and splenectomy were significantly associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. The results of this study may alert physicians and patients to the complications of splenic injury and splenectomy.

  3. Physician assessment of stroke risk in hypertensive patients in the Middle East and Africa: results of the action survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Kamal F; Boudia, Khereddine M Merad; Alami, Mohamed; Khoja, Waleed A; Belhani, Ali B; Nawar, Moustafa; Ragy, Hany; Ishaq, Mohammad; Baron, J M Muscat; Hammoudeh, Ayman J; De Mar Youssef, Suzan S; Nakhle, Reine M; Chalfoun, Amale G

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of reliable, contemporary national data, the ACTION survey was designed to: a) provide preliminary data on stroke risk in the MEA (Middle East and Africa); b) describe the contribution of specific cardiovascular risk factors; 3) assess blood pressure (BP) control. This was a multi-center observational study in nine countries in the MEA region. From 2003 to 2005, 562 physicians from a variety of specialties recorded observations of cardiovascular risk factors in 4,747 hypertensive patients, aged 54-80 years. The 10-year absolute stroke risk was calculated using a scoring system based on the Framingham Heart Study observations, and comparisons made with an age-matched cohort. The mean 10-year stroke risk was estimated at 22.7% and was significantly higher for men (25.4%) than for women (19.5%) (P age-matched Framingham cohort, the estimated stroke risk in our population was almost double, and was significantly higher for females (212%) than for males (192%) (P < .001). Hypertension, diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, and smoking were major contributing risk factors, as were physical inactivity and elevated cholesterol. Blood pressure was controlled in only 18% of the population and in 12% of diabetics. Physicians of all specialties were willing to participate in stroke risk assessment. The risk of stroke in hypertensive patients in the MEA region is high, and is higher than would be predicted using Framingham data, particularly for females. Hypertension appears to be poorly controlled in more than 80% of hypertensive patients in the MEA region.

  4. A new theory of cryptogenic stroke and its relationship to patent foramen ovale; or, the puzzle of the missing extra risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Arnold E

    2006-01-01

    Cryptogenic stroke (or stroke of undetermined cause) is a common cause of stroke and is statistically associated with patent foramen ovale (PFO). The largest study of cryptogenic stroke is the Homma study, which is a sub-study of the WARSS trial; it produced the following data: cryptogenic stroke patients with and without PFO, when treated with either aspirin or warfarin, all had identical recurrence rates. This is puzzling because it seems as though there ought to have been some extra risk in one of the two groups under one of the two treatments. How could everything come out the same? A review of the epidemiology of cryptogenic stroke shows that, compared to patients with stroke of determined cause, cryptogenic stroke patients are a little younger and have lower doses of the usual risk factors (hypertension and diabetes mellitus) but more PFO. Cryptogenic strokes appear to be embolic strokes from an unknown source. A previously published article setting forth a hypothetical theory of stress-induced stroke was used to analyze these data. It is suggested that stress can induce episodic systemic platelet activation and hypercoagulability, which causes transient thrombus formation and subsequent embolization on both the arterial and venous sides of the circulation; the latter requires a PFO to cause a stroke (paradoxical embolism). The sum of these two mechanisms explains cryptogenic stroke. The PFO subset of cryptogenic stroke includes patients with both early and late stage disease who have an aggregate risk approximately equal to that of patients without PFO. Cryptogenic stroke is part of the disease of stress-induced cerebrovascular disease. Aspirin and warfarin have already been shown to be equally effective in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  5. Low risk of urinary incontinence following prostate brachytherapy in patients with a prior transurethral prostate resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, Kent; Lee, Henry; Wasserman, Stuart; Dattoli, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To review post implant morbidity in patients with prior transurethral prostate resection (TURP). Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients with stage T1-T2 prostatic carcinoma and prior TURP were treated with I-125 or Pd-103 implantation from 1991 through 1994. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years (median: 3 years). The time from TURP to implantation ranged from 2 months to 15 years (median: 3 years). Results: Only one patient developed mild urinary stress incontinence, 6 months following his I-125 implant. The actuarial freedom from permanent urinary incontinence at 3 years after implantation was 94%. No patient required urethral dilatation for urethral stricture. Eleven patients were sexually potent prior to implantation. At 3 years after treatment, all patients had maintained potency. Conclusion: In our experience, there has been remarkably little adverse sequelae following I-125 or Pd-103 implantation in patients with a prior history of TURP

  6. Risk factors and mortality from hospital acquired pneumonia in the Stroke Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Carnesoltas Suarez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stroke is the third leading cause of death. Hospital acquired pneumonia is an ongoing challenge due to the current microbiological spectrum, antimicrobial resistance, high mortality and associated costs. Objetive. To describe risk factors and their relationship to hospital stay and mortality of patients admitted to the Stroke ICU with hospital acquired pneumonia from 2007 to 2009. Methods. Prospective descriptive study. Variables: age, sex, risk factors, time of onset, stay and discharge status. We used chi square (X2 of homogeneity to determine the possible association between variables and the Fisher test probabilities. Results. 61 patients developed hospital acquired pneumonia (34.07%. We found a predominance of 60-80 year-old males. Among the risk factors we found major neurological damage in 21 (34.4%, smoking in 15 (24.5%, heart failure in 11 (18.0%, diabetes mellitus in 6 (9.8%, COPD in 4 (6.5%. Mechanical ventilation was used in 14 (38.4%, endotracheal intubation in 16 (29.2%, prolonged bedridden condition in 11 (18% and nasogastric tube placement in 7 (11.5%. The infection appeared between the third and sixth day in 57.4%; hospital stay was prolonged in 54% and 25 patients died (40.92%. Conclusions. Hospital acquired pneumonia was more common patients with mechanical ventilation, which prolonged stay and increased mortality. The microbiological environment was dominated by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanni.

  7. Frequency of risk factors of cerebral infarction in stroke patients. a study of 100 cases in naseer teaching hospital, peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safeer, M.; Tariq, M.; Rehman, U.U.

    2008-01-01

    To study the risk factors of cerebral infarction in stroke patients. It is a descriptive hospital based study conducted at the Department of Medicine, Naseer Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from January 2005 to December 2005. One hundred patients of stroke with cerebral infarction confirmed on C.T. scan brain and more than twenty years of age were included. Risk factors for cerebral infarction were defined in terms of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, smoking, dyslipidaemia, TIAs (transient ischemic attacks), carotid artery stenosis and family history of stroke. Data of 100 cases with cerebral infarction was recorded. Most of the patients had more than one risk factors for cerebral infarction. hypertension was commonest risk factor (55%), smoking (30%), ischemic heart disease (34%), diabetes mellitus) (26%), hyperlipedaemia (30%), atrial fibrillation (25%), carotid artery stenosis (27%), obesity (15%) and family history of stroke (12%). 39% of patients had physical inactivity. Males were slightly predominant than females (51% vs 49%) and mean age was 50 years. females were rather older with mean age of 53 years. Cerebral infarction accounts for 80% to 85% of cases of stroke, which is a common neurological disorder. It increases a burden of disability and misery for patients and their families. Most of the risk factors of cerebral infarction are modifiable, its prevention should be the main cause of concern for the community. (author)

  8. Decreased risk of stroke in patients receiving traditional Chinese medicine for vertigo: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Li, Chung-Yi; Livneh, Hanoch; Lin, I-Hsin; Lu, Ming-Chi; Yeh, Chia-Chou

    2016-05-26

    Patients with vertigo are reported to exhibit a higher risk of subsequent stroke. However, it remains unclear if Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the most common form of complementary and alternative medicine, can help lower the risk of stroke for these patients. So the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of TCM on stroke risk among patients with vertigo. This longitudinal cohort study used the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify 112,458 newly diagnosed vertigo patients aged ≥20 years who received treatment between 1998 and 2007. Among these patients, 53,203 (47.31%) received TCM after vertigo onset (TCM users), and the remaining 59,201 patients were designated as a control group (non-TCM users). All enrollees received follow-up until the end of 2012 to measure stroke incidence. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute the hazard ratio (HR) of stroke in recipients of TCM services. During 15-year follow-up, 5532 TCM users and 12,295 non-TCM users developed stroke, representing an incidence rate of 13.10% and 25.71% per 1000 person-years. TCM users had a significantly reduced risk of stroke compared to non-TCM users (adjusted HR=0.64; 95% confidence interval CI=0.59-0.74). The predominant effect was observed for those receiving TCM for more than 180 days (adjusted HR=0.52; 95% CI=0.49-0.56). Commonly used TCM formulae, including Ban-Xia-Bai-Zhu-Tian-Ma-Tang, Ling-Gui-Zhu-Gan-Tang, Bai Zhi (Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Franch. & Sav., root), Ge Gen (Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, root) and Hai Piao Xiao (Endoconcha Sepiae, Cuttlefish Bone) were significantly associated with lower risk of stroke. Results of this population-based study support the effects of TCM on reducing stroke risk, and may provide a reference for stroke prevention strategies. The study results may also help to integrate TCM into clinical intervention programs that provide a favorable prognosis for vertigo patients

  9. Preoperative Hematocrit Concentration and the Risk of Stroke in Patients Undergoing Isolated Coronary-Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Musallam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Identification and management of risk factors for stroke following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG could potentially lower the risk of such serious morbidity. Methods. We retrieved data for 30-day stroke incidence and perioperative variables for patients undergoing isolated CABG and used multivariate logistic regression to assess the adjusted effect of preoperative hematocrit concentration on stroke incidence. Results. In 2,313 patients (mean age 65.9 years, 73.6% men, 43 (1.9%, 95% CI: 1.4–2.5 developed stroke within 30 days following CABG (74.4% within 6 days. After adjustment for a priori defined potential confounders, each 1% drop in preoperative hematocrit concentration was associated with 1.07 (95% CI: 1.01–1.13 increased odds for stroke (men, OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01–1.16; women, OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.91–1.16. The predicted probability of stroke for descending preoperative hematocrit concentration exceeded 2% for values <37% (<37% for men (adjusted OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.08–5.26 and <38% for women (adjusted OR: 2.52, 95% CI: 0.53–11.98, with a steeper probability increase noted in men. The association between lower preoperative hematocrit concentration and stroke was evident irrespective of intraoperative transfusion use. Conclusion. Screening and management of patients with low preoperative hematocrit concentration may alter postoperative stroke risk in patients undergoing isolated CABG.

  10. Trial of Labor After One Cesarean: Role of the Order and Number of Prior Vaginal Births on the Risk of Emergency Cesarean Delivery and Neonatal Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chiong Tan

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: In women who have had prior vaginal birth attempting a trial of labor after cesarean, a vaginal delivery before cesarean delivery is an independent risk factor for repeat cesarean. Women with two or more prior vaginal births have a similar risk for repeat cesarean and neonatal admission to women with only one prior vaginal birth.

  11. Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    , Economic and Social Research Council, European Union New and Emerging Risks in Occupational Safety and Health research programme, Finnish Work Environment Fund, Swedish Research Council for Working Life and Social Research, German Social Accident Insurance, Danish National Research Centre for the Working......BACKGROUND: Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. METHODS: We...... identified published studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Embase from inception to Aug 20, 2014. We obtained unpublished data for 20 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium and open-access data archives. We used cumulative...

  12. Preventing stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with which you were born Changes to your lifestyle You can change some risk factors for stroke, ... sodium (salt). Read labels and stay away from unhealthy fats. Avoid foods with: Saturated fat Partially-hydrogenated ...

  13. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of stroke: A pooled analysis of data from population-based cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán D Carrasquilla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates a favourable influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT if initiated early, but not late, on subclinical atherosclerosis. However, the clinical relevance of timing of HT initiation for hard end points such as stroke remains to be determined. Further, no previous research has considered the timing of initiation of HT in relation to haemorrhagic stroke risk. The importance of the route of administration, type, active ingredient, and duration of HT for stroke risk is also unclear. We aimed to assess the association between HT and risk of stroke, considering the timing of initiation, route of administration, type, active ingredient, and duration of HT.Data on HT use reported by the participants in 5 population-based Swedish cohort studies, with baseline investigations performed during the period 1987-2002, were combined in this observational study. In total, 88,914 postmenopausal women who reported data on HT use and had no previous cardiovascular disease diagnosis were included. Incident events of stroke (ischaemic, haemorrhagic, or unspecified and haemorrhagic stroke were identified from national population registers. Laplace regression was employed to assess crude and multivariable-adjusted associations between HT and stroke risk by estimating percentile differences (PDs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. The fifth and first PDs were calculated for stroke and haemorrhagic stroke, respectively. Crude models were adjusted for age at baseline only. The final adjusted models included age at baseline, level of education, smoking status, body mass index, level of physical activity, and age at menopause onset. Additional variables evaluated for potential confounding were type of menopause, parity, use of oral contraceptives, alcohol consumption, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, family history of cardiovascular disease, and cohort. During a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 6,371 first-time stroke events were recorded

  14. Risk Factors for Pregnancy-Associated Stroke in Women With Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eliza C; Gatollari, Hajere J; Too, Gloria; Boehme, Amelia K; Leffert, Lisa; Marshall, Randolph S; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Willey, Joshua Z

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia affects 3% to 8% of pregnancies and increases risk of pregnancy-associated stroke (PAS). Data are limited on which women with preeclampsia are at highest risk for PAS. Using billing data from the 2003 to 2012 New York State Department of Health inpatient database, we matched women with preeclampsia and PAS 1:3 to preeclamptic controls based on age and race/ethnicity. Pre-defined PAS risk factors included pregnancy complications, infection present on admission, vascular risk factors, prothrombotic states, and coagulopathies. We constructed multivariable conditional logistic regression models to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for independent risk factors for PAS. Among women aged 12 to 55 years admitted to New York State hospitals for any reason during the study period (n=3 373 114), 88 857 had preeclampsia, and 197 of whom (0.2%) had PAS. In multivariable analysis, women with preeclampsia and stroke were more likely than controls to have severe preeclampsia or eclampsia (OR, 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6-11.3), infections present on admission (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.8), prothrombotic states (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.3-9.2), coagulopathies (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.1), or chronic hypertension (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.8-5.5). Additional analyses matched and stratified by severity of preeclampsia confirmed these results. Infections, chronic hypertension, coagulopathies, and underlying prothrombotic conditions increase PAS risk in women with preeclampsia. These women may warrant closer monitoring. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Risk of hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Tapan; Hussain, Mohammed; Sheth, Khushboo; Ding, Yuchuan; McCullough, Louise D

    2017-06-01

    Several rheumatologic conditions including systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody (APS) syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma are known risk factors for stroke. The risk of hemorrhagic transformation after an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in these patients is not known. We queried the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data between 2010 and 2012 with ICD 9 diagnostic codes for AIS. The primary outcome was the development of hemorrhagic transformation. Multivariate predictors for hemorrhagic transformation were identified with a logistic regression model. Using SAS 9.2, Survey procedures were used to accommodate for hierarchical two stage cluster design of NIS. APS (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.14-5.81, p = 0.0228) independently predicted risk of hemorrhagic transformation in multivariate regression analysis. Similarly, in multivariate regression models for the outcome variables of total charges of the hospitalization and length of stay (LOS), patients with APS had the highest charges ($56,286, p = 0.0228) and LOS (3.87 days, p = 0.0164) compared to other co-variates. Univariate analysis showed increased mortality in the APS compared to the non-APS group (11.68% vs. 7.16%, p = 0.0024). APS is an independent risk factor for hemorrhagic transformation in both thrombolytic and non-thrombolytic treated patients. APS is also associated with longer length and cost of hospital stay. Further research is warranted to identify the unique risk factors in these patients to identify strategies to reduce the risk of hemorrhagic transformation in this subgroup of the population.

  16. Long-term increased risk of unemployment after young stroke: A long-term follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Arntz, R.M.; Schaapsmeerders, P.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence, excess risk, and risk factors of unemployment in patients after a TIA, ischemic stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhage at ages 18 through 50 years, compared with nationwide controls. METHODS: We performed a hospital-based cohort study among 694 patients, aged

  17. Left atrial function to identify patients with atrial fibrillation at high risk of stroke: new insights from a large registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Melissa; van Rosendael, Philippe J; Abou, Rachid; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Leung, Dominic Y; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J

    2018-04-21

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an independent risk factor for ischaemic stroke. The CHA2DS2-VASc is the most widely used risk stratification model; however, echocardiographic refinement may be useful, particularly in low risk AF patients. The present study examined the association between advanced echocardiographic parameters and ischaemic stroke, independent of CHA2DS2-VASc score. One thousand, three hundred and sixty-one patients (mean age 65±12 years, 74% males) with first diagnosis of AF and baseline transthoracic echocardiogram were followed by chart review for the occurrence of stroke over a mean of 7.9 years. Left atrial (LA) volumes, LA reservoir strain, P-wave to A' duration on tissue Doppler imaging (PA-TDI, reflecting total atrial conduction time), and left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) were evaluated in patients with and without stroke. The independent association of these echocardiographic parameters with the occurrence of ischaemic stroke was evaluated with Cox proportional hazard models. One-hundred patients (7%) developed an ischaemic stroke, representing an annualized stroke rate of 0.9%. The incident stroke rate in the year following the first diagnosis of AF was 2.6% in the entire population and higher than the remainder of the follow-up period. Left atrial reservoir (14.5% vs. 18.9%, P = 0.005) and conduit strains were reduced (10.5% vs. 13.5%, P = 0.013), and PA-TDI lengthened (166 ms vs. 141 ms, P Left atrial reservoir strain and PA-TDI were independently associated with risk of stroke in a model including CHA2DS2-VASc score, age, and anticoagulant use. The assessment of LA reservoir strain and PA-TDI on echocardiography after initial CHA2DS2-VASc scoring provides additional risk stratification for stroke and may be useful to guide decisions regarding anticoagulation for patients upon first diagnosis of AF.

  18. Moyamoya syndrome as a risk factor for stroke in Saudi children: Novel and usual associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Murshid, Waleed R.; Elgamal, Essam A.; Al-Salman, Mussaad M.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Othman, Saleh A.; El-Desouki, Mahmoud I.; Maldergem, L. V.

    2006-01-01

    To report on moyamoya syndrome (MMS) as a risk factor for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. The usual and novel associations of MMS in this cohort will also be described. Children with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February201 to March 2003 (retrospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included hemostatic assays, biochemical, and serological tests. Neuroimaging included CT, MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), single photon computerized tomography (SPECT) brain scan and conventional cerebral angiography. Moyamoya syndrome was the underlying risk factor for stroke in 6 (5.8%) of the 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). They were 4 females and 2 males. Their first cerebral ischemic event occurred at a mean age of 45 months (median = 44 months, range 17-66 months). In all 6 cases, MMS was associated with an underlying hematologic abnormality or other diseases. Protein C deficiency was identified in one girl and protein S deficiency in another. Two patients had retrospectively, sickle cell disease (SCD) and sickle cell-b-thalassemia (Sb-thalssemia), which had been associated in the latter with membranous ventricular septal defect. Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS, OMIM 100300) was associated with MMS in an 18-month-old girl. A 4-year-old boy had wrinkly skin syndrome (WWS, OMIM 278250) phenotype. The association of MMS and protein C deficiency was first reported in this cohort of patients, whereas the association of the syndrome with WWS and AOS has not, hitherto, been described. The 3 patients who had MMS associated with protein C deficiency, SCD, and AOS underwent successful revascularization surgery in the form of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis. Moyamoya syndrome constitutes an important risk factor of

  19. Herpes zoster as a risk factor for stroke and TIA: a retrospective cohort study in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Judith; Pacou, Maud; Gautier, Aline; Brown, Martin M

    2014-07-08

    Stroke and TIA are recognized complications of acute herpes zoster (HZ). Herein, we evaluate HZ as a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (stroke and TIA) and myocardial infarction (MI) in a UK population cohort. A retrospective cohort of 106,601 HZ cases and 213,202 controls, matched for age, sex, and general practice, was identified from the THIN (The Health Improvement Network) general practice database. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the risks of stroke, TIA, and MI in cases and controls, adjusted for vascular risk factors, including body mass index >30 kg/m(2), smoking, cholesterol >6.2 mmol/L, hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, intermittent arterial claudication, carotid stenosis, and valvular heart disease, over 24 (median 6.3) years after HZ infection. Risk factors for vascular disease were significantly increased in cases of HZ compared with controls. Adjusted hazard ratios for TIA and MI but not stroke were increased in all patients with HZ (adjusted hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals]: 1.15 [1.09-1.21] and 1.10 [1.05-1.16], respectively). However, stroke, TIA, and MI were increased in cases whose HZ occurred when they were younger than 40 years (adjusted hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals]: 1.74 [1.13-2.66], 2.42 [1.34-4.36], and 1.49 [1.04-2.15], respectively). Subjects younger than 40 years were significantly less likely to be asked about vascular risk factors compared with older patients (p TIA, and MI in subjects affected before the age of 40 years. In older subjects, better ascertainment of vascular risk factors and earlier intervention may explain the reduction in risk of stroke after HZ infection. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Thyrotoxic Atrial Fibrillation: Factors Associated with Persistence and Risk of Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheuk-Lik Wong

    2017-01-01

    anticoagulation can be initiated in a timely manner to reduce risk of ischemic stroke.

  1. A Potential Epigenetic Marker Mediating Serum Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels Contributes to the Risk of Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo Keat Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a multifactorial disease that may be associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. We investigated epigenetic dysregulation for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene among ischemic stroke patients. Cases and controls were recruited after obtaining signed written informed consents following a screening process against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Serum vitamin profiles (folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine were determined using immunoassays. Methylation profiles for CpGs A and B in the MTHFR gene were determined using a bisulfite-pyrosequencing method. Methylation of MTHFR significantly increased the susceptibility risk for ischemic stroke. In particular, CpG A outperformed CpG B in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels to increase ischemic stroke susceptibility risks by 4.73-fold. However, both CpGs A and B were not associated with serum homocysteine levels or ischemic stroke severity. CpG A is a potential epigenetic marker in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 to contribute to ischemic stroke.

  2. Diabetes, fasting glucose levels, and risk of ischemic stroke and vascular events: findings from the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Cammack, Sam; Chong, Ji; Wang, Culing; Wright, Clinton; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Paik, Myunghee C; Sacco, Ralph L

    2008-06-01

    There is insufficient randomized trial data to support evidence-based recommendations for tight control of fasting blood glucose (FBG) among diabetic subjects in primary stroke prevention. We explored the relationship between FBG among diabetic subjects and risk of ischemic stroke in a multiethnic prospective cohort. Medical and social data and FBG values were collected for 3,298 stroke-free community residents: mean age +/- SD was 69 +/-10 years; 63% were women, 21% were white, 24% were black, and 53% were Hispanic; and follow-up was 6.5 years. Baseline FBG levels were categorized: 1) elevated FBG: history of diabetes and FBG >or=126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l); 2) target FBG: history of diabetes and FBG benefits of tighter glucose control for primary stroke prevention.

  3. Chocolate consumption and risk of stroke among men and women: A large population-based, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jia-Yi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-05-01

    Chocolate consumption may have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health, but evidence from prospective cohort studies is still limited. We aimed to examine the prospective associations between chocolate consumption and risk of stroke among men and women in a large population-based cohort. A total of 38,182 men and 46,415 women aged 44-76 years, and free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at baseline in 1995 and 1998, were followed up until the end of 2009 and 2010, respectively. We obtained data on chocolate consumption for each participant using a self-administrated food frequency questionnaire that included 138 food and beverage items. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of stroke in relation to chocolate consumption. During a median follow-up of 12.9 years, we identified 3558 incident strokes cases (2146 cerebral infarctions and 1396 hemorrhagic strokes). After adjustment for age, body mass index, life styles, dietary intakes, and other risk factors, chocolate consumption was associated with a significant lower risk of stroke in women (HR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99). However, the association in men was not significant (HR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.80-1.10). In addition, the association did not vary by stroke subtypes in either men or women. Findings from this large Japanese cohort supported a significant inverse association between chocolate consumption and risk of developing stroke in women. However, residual confounding could not be excluded as an alternative explanation for our findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Homocyst(e)ine and risk of cerebral infarction in a biracial population : the stroke prevention in young women study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittner, S J; Giles, W H; Macko, R F; Hebel, J R; Wozniak, M A; Wityk, R J; Stolley, P D; Stern, B J; Sloan, M A; Sherwin, R; Price, T R; McCarter, R J; Johnson, C J; Earley, C J; Buchholz, D W; Malinow, M R

    1999-08-01

    Genetic enzyme variation and vitamin intake are important determinants of blood homocyst(e)ine levels. The prevalence of common genetic polymorphisms influencing homocyst(e)ine levels varies by race, and vitamin intake varies by socioeconomic status. Therefore, we examined the effect of vitamin intake, race, and socioeconomic status on the association of homocyst(e)ine with stroke risk. All 59 hospitals in the greater Baltimore-Washington area participated in a population-based case-control study of stroke in young women. One hundred sixty-seven cases of first ischemic stroke among women aged 15 to 44 years were compared with 328 controls identified by random-digit dialing from the same region. Risk factor data were collected by standardized interview and nonfasting phlebotomy. Plasma homocyst(e)ine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Blacks and whites did not differ in median homocyst(e)ine levels, nor did race modify the association between homocyst(e)ine and stroke. After adjustment for cigarettes per day, poverty status, and regular vitamin use, a plasma homocyst(e)ine level of >/=7.3 micromol/L was associated with an odds ratio for stroke of 1.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 2.5). The association between elevated homocyst(e)ine and stroke was independent not only of traditional vascular risk factors but also of vitamin use and poverty status. The degree of homocyst(e)ine elevation associated with an increased stroke risk in young women is lower than that previously reported for middle-aged men and the elderly and was highly prevalent, being present in one third of the control group.

  5. Increased risk of ischemic stroke after hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state: a population-based follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Yu Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although much attention has been focused on the association between chronic hyperglycemia and cerebrovascular diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients, there is no data regarding the risk of ischemic stroke after a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS attack. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of ischemic stroke in type 2 DM patients after an HHS attack. METHODS: From 2004 to 2008, this retrospective observational study was conducted on a large cohort of Taiwanese using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD. We identified 19,031 type 2 DM patients who were discharged with a diagnosis of HHS and 521,229 type 2 DM patients without an HHS diagnosis. Using the propensity score generated from logistic regressio