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  1. Interleukin-1β Accelerates the Onset of Stroke in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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    Tsuyoshi Chiba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High blood levels of inflammatory biomarkers and immune cells in stroke lesions have been recognized as results of stroke. However, recent studies have suggested that inflammation occurs prior to stroke onset. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of inflammation in stroke onset among stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP. At 4 weeks of age (before stroke onset, the plasma level of IL-1β was significantly higher in SHRSP (153.0±49.7 pg/ml than in Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY (7.7±3.4 pg/ml, P<0.001 versus SHRSP or spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR (28.0±9.1 pg/ml, P<0.001 versus SHRSP (n=6 per strain. Stimulated IL-1β signal was also observed in cerebrovascular endothelial cells of SHRSP. Gene expressions of IL-1β, IL-1 receptors, caspase-1, and downstream genes (MCP-1 and ICAM-1, which associated with immune cell recruitment, were significantly greater in SHRSP than in WKY or SHR, coincident with greater NFκB protein levels in SHRSP compared to WKY or SHR. In addition, continuous administration of IL-1β (2 μg/day using an osmotic pump slightly increased the incidence of stroke in SHR (P=0.046 and significantly accelerated the onset of stroke in SHRSP (P=0.006 compared to each control (n=10 per group. These results suggest that a stimulated IL-1β signal might be a cause of stroke onset when concomitant with severe hypertension.

  2. Effects of aniracetam on impaired sleep patterns in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Kimura, M; Okano, S; Inoué, S

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the pattern of sleep disturbances and the effects on sleep of aniracetam, a cognitive enhancer, in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Compared with normotensive control rats, SHRSP exhibited an impaired sleep pattern characterized by suppressed diurnal rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and excessive nocturnal non-REM sleep. At a dose of 30 mg/kg per day p.o., aniracetam increased REM sleep in the light period after administration for 5 consecutive days. Consequently, suppressed REM sleep in SHRSP was restored by repeated treatment with aniracetam. Aniracetam could be useful in improving REM sleep impairment associated with vascular dementia.

  3. Aniracetam enhances glutamatergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Togashi, Hiroko; Nakamura, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Machiko; Ueno, Ken-ichi; Ohashi, Satoshi; Saito, Hideya; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2002-03-08

    The effects of aniracetam, a cognition enhancer, on extracellular levels of glutamate (Glu), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) were examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral amygdala (AMG) in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) using in vivo microdialysis. Basal release of Glu, was lower in the AMG of SHRSP than in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats, whereas no difference in GABA and NOx was noted. Aniracetam (100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the area under the curve of Glu levels in the PFC, but not in the AMG, of SHRSP. Aniracetam failed to exert any remarkable effects on GABA or NOx levels in either brain region. Our findings suggest that aniracetam enhances cortical glutamatergic release, which may be the mechanism involved in the ameliorating effects of aniracetam on various neuronal dysfunctions.

  4. Decreased cerebral metabolism in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) with stroke and its possible improvement by Solcoseryl.

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    Yamasaki, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Senga, Y; Isogai, M; Shimizu, H; Yamori, Y

    1991-01-01

    Local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) was decreased in SHRSP with stroke compared with normotensive Wistar rats. The decrement of LCGU was less in Solcoseryl-treated SHRSP with stroke than that in saline-treated SHRSP with stroke and these brain areas where LCGU was less damaged, in Solcoseryl-treated SHRSP were consistent with the important functioning sites of emotion, motor movement and memory. The result suggests that Solcoseryl may be useful for metabolic improvement of the brain damage after stroke.

  5. Normal values of quantitative T2′ in a spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rat stem at 3 T

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    Jensen-Kondering, U.; Böhm, R.; Höcker, J.; Ruhe, R.; Brdon, J.; Ulmer, S.; Herdegen, T.; Jansen, O.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Regarding therapy and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke the identification of ischemic penumbra is pivotal. A promising candidate is BOLD-imaging using qT2′-maps. For valid interpretation of experimental studies in animals normal values for qT2′ are needed. Normal values in humans at 1.5 T already exist. Normal values for cortical and subcortical structures in a spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rat stem (SHR-SP) at a fieldstrength of 3 T are reported. Materials and methods: 39 (20 males and 19 females) spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone (SHRSP) rats were examined in a 3 T scanner using a dedicated small animal coil. Mean weight was 144.1 ± 8.2 g and mean age was 60.2 ± 2.7 days. For the calculation of qT2′ multiple echo T2w and T2*w images were acquired. ROIs were placed into deep and cortical grey matter in five different brain regions to obtain values for qT2′, qT2 and qT2*. Results: Mean qT2′ for cortical grey matter was 74.76 ± 33.27 ms and 67.73 ± 17.86 ms for deep grey matter. The 99% confidence interval for cortical grey matter was 69.91–79.61 ms. For qT2 it was 79.02 ± 2.9 ms and 70.45 ± 1.89 ms, respectively. For qT2* it was 34.65 ± 5.25 ms and 31.9 ± 2.99 ms. Conclusion: The values for qT2′ presented here can serve as reference values for further studies examining the ischemic penumbra in a rat model.

  6. Effect of chlorella and its fractions on blood pressure, cerebral stroke lesions, and life-span in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Sansawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Endo, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    Effects of Chlorella regularis (dried cell powder)--cultured axenically under heterotrophic conditions, and provided as a dietary supplement--and its fractions on the blood pressure, cerebral stroke lesions, and life-span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP/Izm) were investigated. When SHRSP were fed on diets with supplemented Chlorella to a commercial diet (Funabashi SP), elevation of blood pressure was significantly lower in the Chlorella groups than in the control group. At 21 wk of feeding, serum total cholesterol was significantly lower in the Chlorella groups than in the control group. Histopathological examination revealed cerebral vascular accidents in the brains of the control group, but those of Chlorella groups showed apparently low incidence compared to the control group. The average life-span of the Chlorella groups were significantly longer than that of the control group (p vascular function of rats.

  7. Superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol, aggravates renal injury in advanced-stage stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Sugama, Ikuko; Kohagura, Kentaro; Yamazato, Masanobu; Nakamura, Takuto; Shinzato, Tomoko; Ohya, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether antioxidant therapy could relieve hypertension and retard the progression of renal damage in advanced-stage hypertensive rats. Twenty-four-week-old spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats were treated for 8 weeks with the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol, low-dose or high-dose candesartan (an angiotensin receptor blocker), or hydralazine, and blood pressure and renal damage were compared. Elevated blood pressure and renal damage with heterogeneity were present after 8 weeks, with greater glomerulosclerosis in the juxtamedullary glomeruli than in the superficial glomeruli. Although both tempol and candesartan effectively reduced reactive oxygen species production in the kidney, tempol did not decrease blood pressure and exacerbated urine protein and histological damage, such as glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis, particularly in juxtamedullary nephrons (tempol vs. untreated: glomerulosclerosis index, 2.0 vs. 1.5, Ptempol-treated rats, suggesting that changes in glomerular hemodynamics may be responsible for the exacerbation of glomerulosclerosis. Both candesartan- and hydralazine-treated rats had glomeruli that were slightly decreased in size. These results suggest that single-antioxidant therapy starting at an advanced-stage may be ineffective for hypertension and rather exacerbate renal damage in nonsalt loaded SHRSP. Furthermore, lowering blood pressure and inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system could be critical for slowing the progression of hypertensive renal damage at an advanced stage.

  8. Introgressed chromosome 2 quantitative trait loci restores aldosterone regulation and reduces response to salt in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampson, Amanda K.; Mohammed, Dashti; Beattie, Wendy; Graham, Delyth; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Al-Dujaili, Emad A. S.; Guryev, Victor; Mcbride, Martin W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The genetic contribution to salt-sensitivity in hypertension remains unclear. We have previously identified a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 2 in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSPs) responsible for an increase in SBP in response to a salt challenge. This

  9. Vasodilator effects of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, on retinal arterioles in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Okamura, Nami; Saito, Maki; Mori, Asami; Sakamoto, Kenji; Kametaka, Sokichi; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Ishii, Kunio

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the vasodilator effect of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, on retinal arterioles in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSPs) and in age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs). Rats (12-14 weeks-old) were anesthetized with thiobutabarbital (120 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Fundus images were captured with a digital camera that was equipped with a special objective lens. The vasodilator responses of retinal arterioles were assessed by measuring changes in the diameters of the vessels. The baseline diameter of the retinal arteriole was significantly smaller in SHRSPs than in WKYs. Fasudil (50-200 microg/kg/min, intravenous) dose-dependently increased the diameter of the retinal arteriole and decreased the systemic blood pressure in both groups. The vasodilator effect of fasudil on the retinal arteriole in SHRSPs was greater than in WKYs. These results suggest that fasudil has beneficial effects on retinal vascular complications associated with chronic hypertension.

  10. Influence of sources of dietary oils on the life span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Ratnayake, W M; Plouffe, L; Hollywood, R; L'Abbé, M R; Hidiroglou, N; Sarwar, G; Mueller, R

    2000-04-01

    In recent studies, the life span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats was altered by a variety of dietary fats. It was relatively shorter in rats fed canola oil as the sole source of fat. The present study was performed to find out whether the fatty acid profile and the high content of sulfur compounds in canola oil could modulate the life span of SHRSP rats. SHRSP rats (47 d old, n = 23/group) were matched by body weight and systolic blood pressure and fed semipurified diets containing 10% canola oil, high-palmitic canola oil, low-sulfur canola oil, soybean oil, high-oleic safflower oil, a fat blend that mimicked the fatty acid composition of canola oil, or a fat blend high in saturated fatty acids. A 1% sodium chloride solution was used as drinking water to induce hypertension. After consuming the diets for 37 d, five rats from each dietary group were killed for collection of blood and tissue samples for biochemical analysis. The 18 remaining animals from each group were used for determining their life span. The mean survival time of SHRSP rats fed canola oil (87.4+/-4.0 d) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those fed low-sulfur canola oil (89.7+/-8.5 d), suggesting that content of sulfur in canola oil has no effect on the life span of SHRSP rats. The SHRSP rats fed the noncanola oil-based diets lived longer (mean survival time difference was 6-13 d, P < 0.05) than those fed canola and low-sulfur canola oils. No marked differences in the survival times were observed among the noncanola oil-based groups. The fatty acid composition of the dietary oils and of red blood cells and liver of SHRSP rats killed after 37 d of treatment showed no relationship with the survival times. These results suggest that the fatty acid profile of vegetable oils plays no important role on the life span of SHRSP rat. However, phytosterols in the dietary oils and in liver and brain were inversely correlated with the mean survival times,indicating that the

  11. Involvement of arterial baroreflex and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit pathway in the protection of metformin against stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Guo, Jin-Min; Zhang, Li; Niu, Xue-Cai; Shu, He; Wang, Lei; Su, Ding-Feng; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Ai-Jun; Zhu, De-Qiu; Xu, Jian-Jiang

    2017-03-05

    Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide. There is growing evidence that metformin (Met) has potent neuroprotective effects; however, its mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the role of the arterial baroreflex and cholinergic-α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) anti-inflammory pathway in the beneficial effects of Met against stroke. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were used to observe stroke development indicated by lifespan of SHRSP and the ischemic injury induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Sinoaortic denervation was used to inactivate the arterial baroreflex. MCAO were also performed in α7nAChR knockout (KO) mice. Briefly, Met increased the life span of SHRSP and reduced the infarct area induced by MCAO. Met also improved the function of arterial baroreflex. The beneficial effects of Met on stroke were markedly attenuated by blunting the arterial baroreflex. Met up-regulated the expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and α7nAChR, down-regulated the level of pro-inflammtory cytokines in serum and peri-infarct of ischemic brain. Arterial baroreflex dysfunction decreased the expression of VAchT and α7nAChR, showed upward tendency in the level of pro-inflammtory cytokines. Most importantly, arterial baroreflex dysfunction nearly abolished such effect of Met on cholinergic signaling. In addition, the α7nAChR KO mice also had significantly worse ischemic damage induced by MCAO, and neuroprotection of Met disappeared in α7nAChR KO mice. In conclusion, Met improved the arterial baroreflex function, and then enhancing cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in an α7nAChR-dependent manner, thereby effectively prevent ischemic induced brain injury and delayed stroke onset in SHRSP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective effects of D-Limonene against transient cerebral ischemia in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Wang, Xifeng; Li, Gang; Shen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death world-wide and there is currently a lack of effective treatments for acute stroke. D-Limonene is a common natural monocyclic monoterpene possessing various activities. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of D-limonene against ischemia-associated cerebral injury in hypertensive SHRsp rats. Although systolic blood pressure was not altered by ischemia, D-Limonene decreased the systolic blood pressure of SHRsp rats following stroke. Induction of stroke resulted in increased escape latency time, decreased time spent in the target quadrant in the probe trial, decreased capacity to distinguish between familiar objects and novel objects, and increased sensory neglect in the SHRsp rat, however these symptoms were significantly inhibited by D-limonene. D-limonene also decreased the cerebral infarct size in the SHRsp rats following stroke. D-Limonene markedly decreased the mRNA expression of interleukin-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in SHRsp rats following stroke. The mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the brain of SHRsp rats following stroke was significantly increased by D-Limonene. D-Limonene increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, decreased the malondialdehyde level, increased glutathione content and reduced the DHE-staining in SHRsp rats following stroke. Overall, inhibition of cerebral inflammation, vascular remodeling and antioxidant activities of D-Limonene may be involved in the protective effects against ischemia-induced damage in SHRsp rats. The present study identified D-Limonene as a potential therapeutic candidate for treatment of stroke-associated cerebral and vascular damage under conditions of hypertension.

  13. SELECTIVE CHLORIDE LOADING IS PRESSOR IN THE STROKE-PRONE SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RAT DESPITE HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE-INDUCED NATRIURESIS

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    Schmidlin, Olga; Tanaka, Masae; Sebastian, Anthony; Morris, R. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP), the pressor effect of selective dietary chloride loading depends on a positive external sodium balance. Methods In 43 male SHRSP fed a Japanese style diet containing a low normal amount of NaCl (0.4%) we compared the effects on telemetrically measured systolic blood pressure (SBP) of hydrochlorothiazide, 25 mg/kg per day, alone (“TZ”, n=11); hydrochlorothiazide combined with either KCl (“KCLTZ”, 2%K, n=10) or KHCO3 (“KBCTZ”, 2%K, n=11) and no hydrochlorothiazide (“CTL”, n=11) over a 10-week period starting at 10 weeks of age. Results With either TZ or KBCTZ, SBP did not increase above baseline values. However, KCLTZ induced a sustained increase in SBP of 17 mmHg (phydrochlorothiazide (CTL), 38 mmHg (phydrochlorothiazide, but did not differ between KCLTZ and KBCTZ. Changes in SBP occurring on the 2nd day after treatment assignment predicted final changes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that in the SHRSP, dietary KCl loading can induce a pressor effect despite concomitant hydrochlorothiazide-induced natriuresis that elicits a negative external sodium balance. The results provide evidence that in the SHRSP the pressor effect of selective chloride loading does not depend on a positive external sodium balance, but rather on a mechanism actuated by chloride per se. PMID:19851120

  14. Impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on platelet tissue factor expression in stroke-prone rats.

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    Brambilla, Marta; Gelosa, Paolo; Rossetti, Laura; Castiglioni, Laura; Zara, Chiara; Canzano, Paola; Tremoli, Elena; Sironi, Luigi; Camera, Marina

    2018-03-06

    Hypertension is a well known risk factor for thrombotic events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Platelets express tissue factor (TF), the key activator of blood coagulation and thrombus formation. The number of TF-positive platelets increases in pathological conditions characterized by thrombotic complications but whether this occurs in hypertension is unknown. Here we investigated whether platelet TF expression is increased in a hypertensive status through a mechanism acting on megakaryocytes; the phenomenon could be modulated by antihypertensive drug as captopril; angiotensin (AngII) influences platelet TF expression. Spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone (SHRSP) rats received standard diet (StD) or a Japanese high-salt permissive diet (JpD). After 3 weeks, JpD animals were randomized to receive captopril or vehicle. Normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were used as controls. Cell-associated TF expression and activity were analyzed by flow cytometry and calibrated automated thrombogram, respectively. Hypertensive StD-SHRSP showed an increased number of TF-positive platelets compared with normotensive WKY. After JpD administration, SHRSP developed severe hypertension and renal damage; the number of TF-positive megakaryocytes significantly increased compared with StD-SHRSP resulting in a higher number of TF-positive platelets with a faster kinetic of thrombin generation. These effects were reverted by captopril. Ex-vivo stimulation of platelets, isolated from normotensive WKY and from healthy individuals, with AngII induced a concentration-dependent increase of surface-associated TF expression. The current study shows for the first time that in hypertension the number of TF-positive megakaryocytes increases thus releasing in the circulation more platelets carrying a functionally active TF. AngII stimulates platelets to express TF.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives

  15. Arginine vasopressin regulated ASCT1 expression in astrocytes from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats and congenic SHRpch1_18 rats.

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    Yamagata, K; Yamamoto, M; Kawakami, K; Ohara, H; Nabika, T

    2014-05-16

    In stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP/Izm), ischemia induces swelling of astrocytes, a process that subsequently leads to neuronal death. Following ischemic insult, arginine vasopressin (AVP) can induce edema and l-serine released by astrocytes supports the survival of neuronal cells. The purpose of this study was to examine whether AVP contributed to the regulation of l-serine production following ischemic stroke. Here, we used cultured astrocytes from SHRSP/Izm rats and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY/Izm) to examine whether AVP changed the production of l-serine and/or altered gene expression levels of the neural amino acid transporter (Slc1a4), 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) and serine racemase (SRR). Furthermore, using astrocytes from the congenic rat SHRpch1_18 strain having quantitative trait loci (QTL) of stroke, we examined expression of those genes under conditions of hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R). The expression levels of ASCT1 protein, the genes described above and l-serine levels were determined by Western blotting (WB), RT-PCR, real-time quantitative RT-PCR and HPLC. AVP increased the production of l-serine and the expression of Slc1a4 in WKY/Izm and SHRSP/Izm astrocytes. The production of l-serine and the expression of Slc1a4 were lower in SHRSP/Izm than in WKY/Izm cells. This difference was not seen with Phgdh. In the SHRpch1_18 strain, the expression of Slc1a4 and Phgdh significantly decreased after H/R. AVP-mediated enhanced expression of ASCT1 was blocked by the addition of bumetanide. These results suggest that the AVP-mediated attenuated expression of ASCT1 in astrocytes is associated with reduced l-serine production in SHRSP/Izm astrocytes. We hypothesize that reduction of gene expression by AVP might be related to the induction of stroke in the SHRpch1_18 rat strain. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aortic and carotid arterial stiffness and epigenetic regulator gene expression changes precede blood pressure rise in stroke-prone Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats.

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    Herrera, Victoria L; Decano, Julius L; Giordano, Nicholas; Moran, Ann Marie; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Multiple clinical studies show that arterial stiffness, measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV), precedes hypertension and is an independent predictor of hypertension end organ diseases including stroke, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Risk factor studies for arterial stiffness implicate age, hypertension and sodium. However, causal mechanisms linking risk factor to arterial stiffness remain to be elucidated. Here, we studied the causal relationship of arterial stiffness and hypertension in the Na-induced, stroke-prone Dahl salt-sensitive (S) hypertensive rat model, and analyzed putative molecular mechanisms. Stroke-prone and non-stroke-prone male and female rats were studied at 3- and 6-weeks of age for arterial stiffness (PWV, strain), blood pressure, vessel wall histology, and gene expression changes. Studies showed that increased left carotid and aortic arterial stiffness preceded hypertension, pulse pressure widening, and structural wall changes at the 6-week time-point. Instead, differential gene induction was detected implicating molecular-functional changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) structural constituents, modifiers, cell adhesion, and matricellular proteins, as well as in endothelial function, apoptosis balance, and epigenetic regulators. Immunostaining testing histone modifiers Ep300, HDAC3, and PRMT5 levels confirmed carotid artery-upregulation in all three layers: endothelial, smooth muscle and adventitial cells. Our study recapitulates observations in humans that given salt-sensitivity, increased Na-intake induced arterial stiffness before hypertension, increased pulse pressure, and structural vessel wall changes. Differential gene expression changes associated with arterial stiffness suggest a molecular mechanism linking sodium to full-vessel wall response affecting gene-networks involved in vascular ECM structure-function, apoptosis balance, and epigenetic regulation.

  17. Aortic and carotid arterial stiffness and epigenetic regulator gene expression changes precede blood pressure rise in stroke-prone Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats.

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    Victoria L Herrera

    Full Text Available Multiple clinical studies show that arterial stiffness, measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV, precedes hypertension and is an independent predictor of hypertension end organ diseases including stroke, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Risk factor studies for arterial stiffness implicate age, hypertension and sodium. However, causal mechanisms linking risk factor to arterial stiffness remain to be elucidated. Here, we studied the causal relationship of arterial stiffness and hypertension in the Na-induced, stroke-prone Dahl salt-sensitive (S hypertensive rat model, and analyzed putative molecular mechanisms. Stroke-prone and non-stroke-prone male and female rats were studied at 3- and 6-weeks of age for arterial stiffness (PWV, strain, blood pressure, vessel wall histology, and gene expression changes. Studies showed that increased left carotid and aortic arterial stiffness preceded hypertension, pulse pressure widening, and structural wall changes at the 6-week time-point. Instead, differential gene induction was detected implicating molecular-functional changes in extracellular matrix (ECM structural constituents, modifiers, cell adhesion, and matricellular proteins, as well as in endothelial function, apoptosis balance, and epigenetic regulators. Immunostaining testing histone modifiers Ep300, HDAC3, and PRMT5 levels confirmed carotid artery-upregulation in all three layers: endothelial, smooth muscle and adventitial cells. Our study recapitulates observations in humans that given salt-sensitivity, increased Na-intake induced arterial stiffness before hypertension, increased pulse pressure, and structural vessel wall changes. Differential gene expression changes associated with arterial stiffness suggest a molecular mechanism linking sodium to full-vessel wall response affecting gene-networks involved in vascular ECM structure-function, apoptosis balance, and epigenetic regulation.

  18. Novel effects of a single administration of ferulic acid on the regulation of blood pressure and the hepatic lipid metabolic profile in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Ardiansyah; Ohsaki, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Koseki, Takuya; Komai, Michio

    2008-04-23

    We studied the effects of a single oral administration of ferulic acid (FA) on the blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Male 12-week-old SHRSP were administered FA (9.5 mg/kg of body weight) and distilled water as the control (C) (1 mL) via a gastric tube. The hypotensive effect of FA was observed at the lowest value after 2 h administration. A decrease in the angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the plasma corresponded well with the reduction of BP. Plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower after 2 h administration. The mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid and drug metabolism was downregulated in the FA group. These results suggest that oral administration of FA appears beneficial in improving hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

  19. Differential modulation of uncoupling protein 2 in kidneys of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats under high-salt/low-potassium diet.

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    Di Castro, Sara; Scarpino, Stefania; Marchitti, Simona; Bianchi, Franca; Stanzione, Rosita; Cotugno, Maria; Sironi, Luigi; Gelosa, Paolo; Duranti, Enrico; Ruco, Luigi; Volpe, Massimo; Rubattu, Speranza

    2013-02-01

    The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRsp) represents an animal model of increased susceptibility to high-salt diet-induced cerebral and renal vascular injuries. High blood pressure and genetic factors are viewed as major contributing factors. In high-salt-loaded SHRsp and stroke-resistant SHR animals, we determined blood pressure levels, degree of kidney lesions, renal uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) gene and protein expression levels along with rattus norvegicus (rno)-microRNA (miR) 24 and 34a gene expression, nuclear factor-κB protein levels, and oxidative stress. In vitro, UCP2 gene silencing was performed in renal mesangial cells. We found more severe degree of renal damage in SHRsp at the end of 4-week high-salt dietary treatment as compared with stroke-resistant SHR, despite comparable blood pressure levels, along with increased rate of inflammation and oxidative stress. Kidney UCP2 gene and protein expression levels were significantly downregulated under high-salt diet in SHRsp, but not in stroke-resistant SHR. Differential UCP2 regulation was paralleled by differential expression of kidney rno-miR 24 and 34a, known to target UCP2 gene, in the 2 strains. UCP2 gene silencing in renal mesangial cells led to increased rate of reactive oxygen species generation, increased inflammation and apoptosis, reduced cell vitality, and increased necrosis. In conclusion, high-salt diet downregulates the antioxidant UCP2-dependent mechanism in kidneys of SHRsp, but not of stroke-resistant SHR. A parallel differential kidney miR regulation under high-salt diet in the 2 strains may contribute to the differential UCP2 modulation. UCP2 is a critical protein to prevent oxidative stress damage in renal mesangial cells in vitro.

  20. Effect of tempol and tempol plus catalase on intra-renal haemodynamics in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHSP) and Wistar rats.

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    Ahmeda, Ahmad F; Rae, Mark G; Al Otaibi, Mohammed F; Anweigi, Lamyia M; Johns, Edward J

    2017-05-01

    Vasoconstriction within the renal medulla contributes to the development of hypertension. This study investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating renal medullary and cortical blood perfusion (MBP and CBP respectively) in both stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and Wistar rats. CBP and MBP were measured using a laser-Doppler flow meter before and after intra-renal infusion of tempol, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic or tempol plus catalase, the hydrogen peroxide-degrading enzyme. Tempol infusion significantly elevated blood perfusion within the renal medulla (MBP) in both SHRSP (by 43 ± 7%, P catalase and tempol were co-infused, MBP was again significantly increased in SHRSP (by 57 ± 6%, P < 0.001) and Wistar rats (by 33 ± 6%, P < 0.001), with a significantly greater increase in perfusion being induced in the SHRSP relative to the Wistar rats (P < 0.01). Notably, this increase was significantly greater than in those animals infused with tempol alone (P < 0.01). These results suggest that ROS plays a proportionally greater role in reducing renal vascular compliance, particularly within the renal medulla, in normotensive and hypertensive animals, with effects being greater in the hypertensive animals. This supports the hypothesis that SHRSP renal vasculature might be subjected to elevated level of oxidative stress relative to normotensive animals.

  1. Histomorphometric, biochemical and ultrastructural changes in the aorta of salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a Japanese-style diet.

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    Baccarani Contri, M; Taparelli, F; Miselli, M; Bacchelli, B; Biagini, G

    2003-02-01

    It is demonstrated that dietary habits play a role in cardiovascular diseases. In stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRsp), concomitant salt loading and a Japanese-style diet greatly accelerate hypertension and the appearance of cerebrovascular lesions by directly damaging arterial vessels. A number of studies have characterised medium and small vessel lesions in SHRsp, but little attention has been paid to the changes in the wall structure of large arteries induced by exposure to a salt-enriched diet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a Japanese-style diet and salt loading on the thoracic aorta. Two-month-old SHRsp were kept on a Japanese-style diet with 1% sodium chloride solution replacing tap water. Two months later, they were sacrificed and compared with age-matched or two-month-old control SHRsp kept on a standard diet and tap water in terms of the histomorphometry, ultrastructure and biochemical composition of the thoracic aorta. The vessel was consistently thicker in the four-month-old SHRsp (+20%, p vs two-month-old rats) regardless of diet. The salt-loaded SHRsp showed a significant reduction in elastic fibre density (-20%, p vs two-month-old rats) and an increase in the other matrix components (%), whereas the four-month-old controls showed preserved elastic fibres and a significant increase in the other matrix components (+65%, p vs two-month-old rats). There was a considerable increase in the amounts of 4-OH-proline (+147%), 5-OH-lysine (+174%) and desmosines (+360%) in the four-month-old controls vs their two-month-old counterparts (p two months of treatment.

  2. Identification of Stim1 as a candidate gene for exaggerated sympathetic response to stress in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zubaerul Ferdaus

    Full Text Available The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP is known to have exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity to various types of stress, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of severe hypertension and stroke observed in this strain. Previously, by using a congenic strain (called SPwch1.72 constructed between SHRSP and the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY, we showed that a 1.8-Mbp fragment on chromosome 1 (Chr1 of SHRSP harbored the responsible gene(s for the exaggerated sympathetic response to stress. To further narrow down the candidate region, in this study, another congenic strain (SPwch1.71 harboring a smaller fragment on Chr1 including two functional candidate genes, Phox2a and Ship2, was generated. Sympathetic response to cold and restraint stress was compared among SHRSP, SPwch1.71, SPwch1.72 and WKY by three different methods (urinary norepinephrine excretion, blood pressure measurement by the telemetry system and the power spectral analysis on heart rate variability. The results indicated that the response in SPwch1.71 did not significantly differ from that in SHRSP, excluding Phox2a and Ship2 from the candidate genes. As the stress response in SPwch1.72 was significantly less than that in SHRSP, it was concluded that the 1.2-Mbp congenic region covered by SPwch1.72 (and not by SPwch1.71 was responsible for the sympathetic stress response. The sequence analysis of 12 potential candidate genes in this region in WKY/Izm and SHRSP/Izm identified a nonsense mutation in the stromal interaction molecule 1 (Stim1 gene of SHRSP/Izm which was shared among 4 substrains of SHRSP. A western blot analysis confirmed a truncated form of STIM1 in SHRSP/Izm. In addition, the analysis revealed that the protein level of STIM1 in the brainstem of SHRSP/Izm was significantly lower when compared with WKY/Izm. Our results suggested that Stim1 is a strong candidate gene responsible for the exaggerated sympathetic response to stress in SHRSP.

  3. The lack of age-pigments and the alterations in intracellular monovalent electrolytes in spontaneously hypertensive, stroke-prone (SHRsp) rats as revealed by electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, I.; Nagy, V.; Casoli, T.; Lustyik, G.

    1989-01-01

    Male, spontaneously hypertensive, stroke-prone (SHRsp) rats established by Okamoto et al. were studied. About 80% of the males of this strain have a particularly short life span (33-41 weeks); they display a considerable hypertension (above 220 mmHg) and a tendency for plurifocal brain strokes. Hypertension and strokes can be provoked in an accelerated and synchronized fashion by supplementing 1% NaCl into their drinking water. Symptoms of the appearance of brain strokes can be judged from characteristic signs of motor disorders, and can be established also by pathohistology. Since hypertension and arteriosclerosis are frequently involved in aging, the question we intended to answer was whether these animals may represent a model of the normal aging process or not. Two approaches are described: (1) Accumulation of lipofuscin granules in their brain, liver and myocardium was followed by transmission electron microscopy before and after the appearance of strokes. It has been established that these tissues do not show any typical accumulation of lipofuscin granules, although submicroscopic signs of an enhanced damage of cell organelles (especially of mitochondria in liver and brain cells, but not in myocardium) were encountered. (2) The intracellular monovalent composition in the brain and liver was measured by using bulk-specimen X-ray microanalysis. The intracellular Na-content (mEq/kg water) was significantly higher (170-200%) in both the brain and liver cells, whereas the K-content increased only moderately (118-130%). The results suggest that although the SHRsp rats do not represent a direct model for the normal aging process from the point of view of lipofuscin accumulation, the shifts of the monovalent electrolyte contents in the brain and liver cells observed already in the youngest ages, are similar to those observed in aged normal rats

  4. Characteristics of daily life gait in fall and non fall-prone stroke survivors and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Michiel; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; van Schooten, Kimberley S; Pijnappels, Mirjam; van de Port, Ingrid G; Wittink, Harriet; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2016-07-27

    Falls in stroke survivors can lead to serious injuries and medical costs. Fall risk in older adults can be predicted based on gait characteristics measured in daily life. Given the different gait patterns that stroke survivors exhibit it is unclear whether a similar fall-prediction model could be used in this group. Therefore the main purpose of this study was to examine whether fall-prediction models that have been used in older adults can also be used in a population of stroke survivors, or if modifications are needed, either in the cut-off values of such models, or in the gait characteristics of interest. This study investigated gait characteristics by assessing accelerations of the lower back measured during seven consecutive days in 31 non fall-prone stroke survivors, 25 fall-prone stroke survivors, 20 neurologically intact fall-prone older adults and 30 non fall-prone older adults. We created a binary logistic regression model to assess the ability of predicting falls for each gait characteristic. We included health status and the interaction between health status (stroke survivors versus older adults) and gait characteristic in the model. We found four significant interactions between gait characteristics and health status. Furthermore we found another four gait characteristics that had similar predictive capacity in both stroke survivors and older adults. The interactions between gait characteristics and health status indicate that gait characteristics are differently associated with fall history between stroke survivors and older adults. Thus specific models are needed to predict fall risk in stroke survivors.

  5. The incidence of vasculitis is increased in female stroke-prone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vascular changes in hypertension share common characteristics with inflammatory wall injury. Since it is known that chronic inflammatory diseases are frequently more prevalent in females, this study tested the hypothesis that vasculitis would be more evident in female stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive ...

  6. Increased potency and binding of mazindol to putative brain anorectic receptors in obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, B E; Brown, K L; Vincent, G

    1994-12-30

    A class of sodium-sensitive, low affinity binding sites in the brain recognizes [3H]mazindol (MAZ). Competition for [3H]MAZ binding at these sites correlates with the anorectic potency of various phenethylamine drugs suggesting that these might be anorectic binding sites. Here [3H]MAZ binding, in the absence of sodium, was assessed by quantitative receptor autoradiography in rat brain. Binding was saturable, widespread and heterogenous with Kd = 3-229 microM and Bmax = 0.64-21.9 nmol/mg protein in various brain areas. By saturation studies, highest binding was in the somatosensory cortex, central amygdalar nucleus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Hypothalamic subnuclei had intermediate and the piriform cortex had low binding. Rats were identified as prone to develop (DIO-prone) or resist (DR-prone) diet-induced obesity by their low vs. high 24 h urine norepinephrine excretion, respectively. While similar in body weight and basal 30 min intake of 4% sucrose, DIO-prone rats had 28% greater inhibition of sucrose intake by 3 mg/kg MAZ, i.p. (86 +/- 5%) than DR-prone rats (67 +/- 6%; P = 0.05). DIO-prone rats also had 23-55% higher levels of 10 nM [3H]MAZ binding in various hypothalamic and amygdalar nuclei, the somatosensory, piriform and gustatory cortices and thalamus. Given their greater sensitivity the highest dose of MAZ used and their higher binding of MAZ to putative brain anorectic receptors, DIO-prone rats might have a deficiency of an endogenous satiety factor which could predispose them to develop obesity when challenged with high energy, high sucrose diets.

  7. The contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and respiratory allergy in the Th2-prone Brown Norway rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Stierum, R.H.; Boorsma, A.; Schijf, M.A.; Prinsen, M.; Bruijntjes, J.P.; Bloksma, N.; Arts, J.H.E.

    2008-01-01

    All LMW respiratory allergens known to date can also induce skin allergy in test animals. The question here was if in turn skin allergens can induce allergy in the respiratory tract. Respiratory allergy was tested in Th2-prone Brown Norway (BN) rats by dermal sensitization with the contact allergen

  8. Obesity-resistant S5B rats showed great cocaine conditioned place preference than the obesity-prone OM rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K..; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Michaelides, M.; Anderson, B.J.; Primeaux, S.D.; Bray, G.A.; Wang, G.-J.; Robinson, J.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) and the DA D2 receptor (D2R) are involved in the rewarding and conditioned responses to food and drug rewards. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are genetically prone and S5B/P rats are genetically resistant to obesity when fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the differential sensitivity of these two rat strains to natural rewards may also be reflected in sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Therefore, we tested whether OM and S5B/P rats showed a differential preference to cocaine using conditioned place preference (CPP). To also evaluate whether there is specific involvement of the D2R in this differential conditioning sensitivity, we then tested whether the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differentially affect the effects of cocaine in the two strains. OM and S5B/P rats were conditioned with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) in one chamber and saline in another for 8 days. Rats were then tested for cocaine preference. The effects of BC (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) on cocaine preference were then assessed in subsequent test sessions. OM rats did not show a significant preference for the cocaine-paired chamber on test day. Only the S5B/P rats showed cocaine CPP. Later treatment with only the highest dose of BC resulted in reduced cocaine CPP in S5B/P rats when treated with 5 mg/kg cocaine and in OM rats treated with 10 mg/kg cocaine. Our results indicated that obesity-resistant S5B rats showed greater cocaine CPP than the obesity-prone OM rats. These findings do not support a theory of common vulnerability for reinforcer preferences (food and cocaine). However, they show that BC reduced cocaine conditioning effects supporting at least a partial regulatory role of D2R in conditioned responses to drugs.

  9. Thymectomy should be the first choice in the protection of diabetes-prone BB rats for breeding purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Jeroen; Klatter, F; Hillebrands, JL; Jansen, Ar; Vijfschaft, L; Rozing, J

    2004-01-01

    Diabetes-prone (DP)-BB rats spontaneously develop diabetes and are widely used as an animal model for the study of type I diabetes. Since DP-BB rats develop diabetes before or at the time of breeding, such rats used for breeding need to be protected against diabetes development by the transfer of

  10. Characteristics of daily life gait in fall and non fall-prone stroke survivors and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirjam Pijnappels; Sjoerd M. Bruijn; Kimberley M. Schooten; Jaap H. van Dieën; Dr. H.M. Wittink; Michiel Punt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Falls in stroke survivors can lead to serious injuries and medical costs. Fall risk in older adults can be predicted based on gait characteristics measured in daily life. Given the different gait patterns that stroke survivors exhibit it is unclear whether a similar fall-prediction model

  11. Ischemic stroke selectively inhibits REM sleep of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Samreen; Meng, He; Liu, Tiecheng; Sutton, Blair; Opp, Mark R.; Borjigin, Jimo; Wang, Michael M.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disorders are important risk factors for stroke; conversely, stroke patients suffer from sleep disturbances including disruptions of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and a decrease in total sleep. This study was performed to characterize the effect of stroke on sleep architecture of rats using continuous electroencephalography (EEG) and activity monitoring. Rats were implanted with transmitters which enabled continuous real time recording of EEG, electrom...

  12. Characteristics of daily life gait in fall and non fall-prone stroke survivors and controls

    OpenAIRE

    Pijnappels, Mirjam; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Schooten, Kimberley M.; Dieën, van, Jaap H.; Wittink, H.M.; Punt, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Falls in stroke survivors can lead to serious injuries and medical costs. Fall risk in older adults can be predicted based on gait characteristics measured in daily life. Given the different gait patterns that stroke survivors exhibit it is unclear whether a similar fall-prediction model could be used in this group. Therefore the main purpose of this study was to examine whether fall-prediction models that have been used in older adults can also be used in a population of stroke s...

  13. Characteristics of daily life gait in fall and non fall-prone stroke survivors and controls

    OpenAIRE

    Punt, Michiel; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; van Schooten, Kimberley S.; Pijnappels, Mirjam; van de Port, Ingrid G.; Wittink, Harriet; van Die?n, Jaap H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Falls in stroke survivors can lead to serious injuries and medical costs. Fall risk in older adults can be predicted based on gait characteristics measured in daily life. Given the different gait patterns that stroke survivors exhibit it is unclear whether a similar fall-prediction model could be used in this group. Therefore the main purpose of this study was to examine whether fall-prediction models that have been used in older adults can also be used in a population of stroke su...

  14. Glucose phosphorylation rate in rat rarietal cortex during normoglycemia, hypoglycemia, acute hyperglycemia, and in diabetes-prone rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broendsted, H.E.; Gjedde, A.

    1990-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) was studied in rats using [6- 14 C]glucose. After intravenous injection the radioactivity of the parietal cortex was corrected for loss of labeled CO 2 and divided by the integral of the arterial plasma glucose concentration, determined during tracer circulation. Treatment with insulin, resulting in plasma glucose concentrations less than 2.6 mmol/l, reduced CMRglc to 64% of the values found in control animals. CMRglc did not change in animals with acute hyper-glycemia produced by intraperiotoneal injection of a glucose solution or in diabetes-prone rats with or withour insulin treatment. (author)

  15. A non-MHC locus essential for autoimmune type I diabetes in the Komeda Diabetes-Prone rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoi, N; Kanazawa, M; Kitada, K; Tanaka, A; Kanazawa, Y; Suda, S; Ito, H; Serikawa, T; Komeda, K

    1997-01-01

    The Long-Evans Tokushima Lean (LETL) rat, characterized by rapid onset of insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes mellitus (IDDM), no sex difference in the incidence of IDDM, autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells, and no significant T cell lymphopenia, is a desirable animal model for human IDDM. We have established a diabetes-prone substrain of the LETL rat, named Komeda Diabetes-Prone (KDP) rat, showing a 100% development of moderate to severe insulitis within 220 d of age. The cumulat...

  16. Differential mesocorticolimbic responses to palatable food in binge eating prone and binge eating resistant female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Elaine B; Culbert, Kristen M; Gradl, Dana R; Richardson, Kimberlei A; Klump, Kelly L; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is a key symptom of many eating disorders (e.g. binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type), yet the neurobiological underpinnings of binge eating are poorly understood. The mesocorticolimbic reward circuit, including the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex, is likely involved because this circuit mediates the hedonic value and incentive salience of palatable foods (PF). Here we tested the hypothesis that higher propensity for binge eating is associated with a heightened response (i.e., Fos induction) of the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex to PF, using an animal model that identifies binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) rats. Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were given intermittent access to PF (high fat pellets) 3×/week for 3 weeks. Based on a pattern of either consistently high or consistently low PF consumption across these feeding tests, 8 rats met criteria for categorization as BEP, and 11 rats met criteria for categorization as BER. One week after the final feeding test, BEP and BER rats were either exposed to PF in their home cages or were given no PF in their home cages for 1h prior to perfusion, leading to three experimental groups for the Fos analysis: BEPs given PF, BERs given PF, and a No PF control group. The total number of Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells in the nucleus accumbens core and shell, and the cingulate, prelimbic, and infralimbic regions of the medial prefrontal cortex was estimated by stereological analysis. PF induced higher Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and core and in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex of BEP rats compared to No PF controls. Throughout the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, PF induced higher Fos expression in BEP than in BER rats, even after adjusting for differences in PF intake. Differences in the neural activation pattern between BEP and BER rats were more robust in prefrontal cortex

  17. Metabolic adjustments with the development, treatment, and recurrence of obesity in obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Paul S; Higgins, Janine A; Johnson, Ginger C; Fleming-Elder, Brooke K; Peters, John C; Hill, James O

    2004-08-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and predisposes afflicted individuals to several comorbidities. For these individuals, losing weight has proven to be an easier feat than maintaining a reduced weight. In obesity-prone rats, we examined if there is a metabolic propensity to regain weight after a period of significant weight loss. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (EE), sleeping metabolic rate (SMR), and nonprotein respiratory quotient (NPRQ) were obtained by indirect calorimetry with urinary nitrogen analysis and normalized to fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) acquired by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obesity-prone rats were examined after free access to a high-fat diet for 16 wk to establish the obese state. They were again examined after 2 wk of calorie restriction, which reduced body weight (14%) and FM (32%). Rats were again examined after a further 8 wk of intake-regulated weight maintenance or ad libitum feeding that led to weight regain. Metabolic data were compared with preobese and age-matched controls. Weight loss suppressed EE and SMR beyond what was expected for the change in metabolic mass. This elevated metabolic efficiency persisted throughout weight maintenance but resolved after 8 wk of regain. Adjusted NPRQ values were elevated in weight-maintained and weight-regaining rats, suggesting a preference for carbohydrate utilization. These data support the concept that weight reduction in obesity is accompanied by metabolic adjustments beyond the drive to consume calories that predispose to weight regain, and some aspects of this adjustment persist with prolonged weight maintenance and during weight regain.

  18. Pre-Existing Differences and Diet-Induced Alterations in Striatal Dopamine Systems of Obesity-Prone Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollbrecht, Peter J.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Nelson, Andrew D.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Interactions between pre-existing differences in mesolimbic function and neuroadaptations induced by consumption of fatty, sugary foods are thought to contribute to human obesity. This study examined basal and cocaine-induced changes in striatal neurotransmitter levels without diet manipulation and D2/D3 dopamine receptor-mediated transmission prior to and after consumption of “junk-foods” in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Methods Microdialysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine basal and cocaine-induced changes in neurotransmitter levels in real time with cocaine-induced locomotor activity. Sensitivity to the D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole was examined before and after restricted junk-food exposure. Selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats were used. Results Cocaine-induced locomotion was greater in obesity-prone rats versus obesity-resistant rats prior to diet manipulation. Basal and cocaine-induced increases in dopamine and serotonin levels did not differ. Obesity-prone rats were more sensitive to the D2 receptor-mediated effects of quinpirole, and junk-food produced modest alterations in quinpirole sensitivity in obesity-resistant rats. Conclusions These data show that mesolimbic systems differ prior to diet manipulation in susceptible versus resistant rats, and that consumption of fatty, sugary foods produce different neuroadaptations in these populations. These differences may contribute to enhanced food craving and an inability to limit food intake in susceptible individuals. PMID:26847484

  19. Pre-existing differences in motivation for food and sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotion in obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollbrecht, Peter J; Nobile, Cameron W; Chadderdon, Aaron M; Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is a significant problem in the United States, with roughly one third of adults having a body mass index (BMI) over thirty. Recent evidence from human studies suggests that pre-existing differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits that mediate motivational processes may promote obesity and hamper weight loss. However, few preclinical studies have examined pre-existing neurobehavioral differences related to the function of mesolimbic systems in models of individual susceptibility to obesity. Here, we used selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats to examine 1) the effect of a novel "junk-food" diet on the development of obesity and metabolic dysfunction, 2) over-consumption of "junk-food" in a free access procedure, 3) motivation for food using instrumental procedures, and 4) cocaine-induced locomotor activity as an index of general mesolimbic function. As expected, eating a sugary, fatty, "junk-food" diet exacerbated weight gain and increased fasted insulin levels only in obesity-prone rats. In addition, obesity-prone rats continued to over-consume junk-food during discrete access testing, even when this same food was freely available in the home cage. Furthermore, when asked to press a lever to obtain food in an instrumental task, rates of responding were enhanced in obesity-prone versus obesity-resistant rats. Finally, obesity-prone rats showed a stronger locomotor response to 15 mg/kg cocaine compared to obesity-resistant rats prior to any diet manipulation. This enhanced sensitivity to this dose of cocaine is indicative of basal differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-prone rats. We speculate that pre-existing differences in motivational systems may contribute to over-consumption and enhanced motivation in susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pre-existing differences in motivation for food and sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotion in obesity-prone rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollbrecht, Peter J.; Nobile, Cameron W.; Chadderdon, Aaron M.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a significant problem in the United States, with roughly one third of adults having a body mass index (BMI) over thirty. Recent evidence from human studies suggests that pre-existing differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits that mediate motivational processes may promote obesity and hamper weight loss. However, few preclinical studies have examined pre-existing neurobehavioral differences related to the function of mesolimbic systems in models of individual susceptibility to obesity. Here, we used selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats to examine 1) the effect of a novel “junk-food” diet on the development of obesity and metabolic dysfunction, 2) over-consumption of “junk-food” in a free access procedure, 3) motivation for food using instrumental procedures, and 4) cocaine-induced locomotor activity as an index of general mesolimbic function. As expected, eating a sugary, fatty, “junk-food” diet exacerbated weight gain and increased fasted insulin levels only in obesity-prone rats. In addition, obesity-prone rats continued to over-consume junk-food during discrete access testing, even when this same food was freely available in the home cage. Furthermore, when asked to press a lever to obtain food in an instrumental task, rates of responding were enhanced in obesity-prone versus obesity-resistant rats. Finally, obesity-prone rats showed a stronger locomotor response to 15 mg/kg cocaine compared to obesity-resistant rats prior to any diet manipulation. This enhanced sensitivity to this dose of cocaine is indicative of basal differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-prone rats. We speculate that pre-existing differences in motivational systems may contribute to over-consumption and enhanced motivation in susceptible individuals. PMID:26423787

  1. Blood pressure reduction combining baroreflex restoration for stroke prevention in hypertension in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wei Song

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure reduction is an important and effective strategy in stroke prevention in hypertensives. Recently, we found that baroreflex restoration was also crucial in stroke prevention. The present work was designed to test the hypothesis that a combination of blood pressure reduction and baroreflex restoration may be a new strategy for stroke prevention. In Experiment 1, the effects of ketanserin (0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg, amlodipine (0.3, 1, 2, 3 mg/kg and their combination (1+0.3, 1+1, 1+2, 1+3 mg/kg on blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP were determined under conscious state. It was found that both amlodipine and ketanserin decreased blood pressure dose-dependently. Ketanserin enfanced BRS from a very small dose but amlodipine enfanced BRS only at largest dose used. At the dose of 1 + 2 mg/kg (ketanserin + amlodipine, the combination possessed the largest synergism on blood pressure reduction. In Experiments 2 and 3, SHR-SP and two-kidney, two-clip (2K2C renovascular hypertensive rats received life-long treatments with ketanserin (1 mg/kg and amlodipine (2 mg/kg or their combination (0.5+1, 1+2, 2+4 mg/kg. The survival time was recorded and the brain lesion was examined. It was found that all kinds of treatments prolonged the survival time of SHR-SP and 2K2C rats. The combination possessed a significantly better effect on stroke prevention than mono-therapies. In conclusion, combination of blood pressure reduction and baroreflex restoration may be a new strategy for the prevention of stroke in hypertension.

  2. Anticonvulsant and antiarrhythmic effects of nifedipine in rats prone to audiogenic seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damasceno, D.D.; Ferreira, A.J.; Doretto, M.C.; Almeida, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium ion participates in the regulation of neural transmission and the presynaptic release of neurotransmitters. It is also involved in epileptic events, cardiac arrhythmias and abnormal conduction of stimuli. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, on epileptic seizures and on reperfusion arrhythmias in rats prone to audiogenic epileptic seizures (Wistar audiogenic rats, WAR) and in normal Wistar rats (N = 6/group). The seizure severity index was applied after an intraperitoneal injection of 20 or 40 mg/kg nifedipine (N20 and N40 groups, respectively). The Langendorff technique was used to analyze cardiac function, as well as the incidence and severity of the reperfusion arrhythmias after ligature and release of the left coronary artery in rats treated or not with nifedipine. We found that nifedipine treatment decreased seizure severity (0.94 ± 0.02 for WAR; 0.70 ± 0.10 for WAR + N20; 0.47 ± 0.08 for WAR + N40) and increased the latent period (13 ± 2 s for WAR; 35 ± 10 s for WAR + N20; 48 ± 7 s for WAR + N40) for the development of seizures in WAR. Furthermore, the incidence and severity of the reperfusion arrhythmias were lower in WAR and normal Wistar rats injected with nifedipine. In WAR, these effects were mediated, at least in part, by a decrease in heart rate. Thus, our results indicate that nifedipine may be considered to be a potential adjuvant drug for epilepsy treatment, especially in those cases associated with cardiac rhythm abnormalities

  3. Anticonvulsant and antiarrhythmic effects of nifedipine in rats prone to audiogenic seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damasceno, D.D. [Departamento de Desenvolvimento Educacional,Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sudeste de Minas Gerais, Barbacena, MG (Brazil); Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Ferreira, A.J. [Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Doretto, M.C.; Almeida, A.P. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-20

    Calcium ion participates in the regulation of neural transmission and the presynaptic release of neurotransmitters. It is also involved in epileptic events, cardiac arrhythmias and abnormal conduction of stimuli. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, on epileptic seizures and on reperfusion arrhythmias in rats prone to audiogenic epileptic seizures (Wistar audiogenic rats, WAR) and in normal Wistar rats (N = 6/group). The seizure severity index was applied after an intraperitoneal injection of 20 or 40 mg/kg nifedipine (N20 and N40 groups, respectively). The Langendorff technique was used to analyze cardiac function, as well as the incidence and severity of the reperfusion arrhythmias after ligature and release of the left coronary artery in rats treated or not with nifedipine. We found that nifedipine treatment decreased seizure severity (0.94 ± 0.02 for WAR; 0.70 ± 0.10 for WAR + N20; 0.47 ± 0.08 for WAR + N40) and increased the latent period (13 ± 2 s for WAR; 35 ± 10 s for WAR + N20; 48 ± 7 s for WAR + N40) for the development of seizures in WAR. Furthermore, the incidence and severity of the reperfusion arrhythmias were lower in WAR and normal Wistar rats injected with nifedipine. In WAR, these effects were mediated, at least in part, by a decrease in heart rate. Thus, our results indicate that nifedipine may be considered to be a potential adjuvant drug for epilepsy treatment, especially in those cases associated with cardiac rhythm abnormalities.

  4. Anticonvulsant and antiarrhythmic effects of nifedipine in rats prone to audiogenic seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Damasceno

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium ion participates in the regulation of neural transmission and the presynaptic release of neurotransmitters. It is also involved in epileptic events, cardiac arrhythmias and abnormal conduction of stimuli. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, on epileptic seizures and on reperfusion arrhythmias in rats prone to audiogenic epileptic seizures (Wistar audiogenic rats, WAR and in normal Wistar rats (N = 6/group. The seizure severity index was applied after an intraperitoneal injection of 20 or 40 mg/kg nifedipine (N20 and N40 groups, respectively. The Langendorff technique was used to analyze cardiac function, as well as the incidence and severity of the reperfusion arrhythmias after ligature and release of the left coronary artery in rats treated or not with nifedipine. We found that nifedipine treatment decreased seizure severity (0.94 ± 0.02 for WAR; 0.70 ± 0.10 for WAR + N20; 0.47 ± 0.08 for WAR + N40 and increased the latent period (13 ± 2 s for WAR; 35 ± 10 s for WAR + N20; 48 ± 7 s for WAR + N40 for the development of seizures in WAR. Furthermore, the incidence and severity of the reperfusion arrhythmias were lower in WAR and normal Wistar rats injected with nifedipine. In WAR, these effects were mediated, at least in part, by a decrease in heart rate. Thus, our results indicate that nifedipine may be considered to be a potential adjuvant drug for epilepsy treatment, especially in those cases associated with cardiac rhythm abnormalities.

  5. Metabolic features of newly established congenic diabetes-prone BB.SHR rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöting, I; Voigt, B; Kovács, P

    1998-01-01

    The well-known association of hypertension and diabetes mellitus and the lack of suitable animal models to study diabetic hypertension prompted us to transfer 4 chromosomal regions with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for blood pressure of the spontaneously hypertensive SHR rat onto the genetic background of the diabetes-prone and normotensive BB/OK rat. Four congenic strains developed are named as BB. Sa (Chr.1), BB.Bp2 (Chr.18), BB.1K (Chr.20) and BB.Xs (Chr.X). Because the systolic blood pressure is significantly elevated in all congenics, renal related traits were investigated in serum and urine. Comparing BB/OK and their congenic derivatives, significant differences were found in all serum and in 7 out of 8 urine constituents studied. Most significant differences were found between BB/OK and BB.Bp2 rats. Significant differences were also found between the different congenic strains indicating that each congenic strain has its own phenotype and that each chromosomal region contains most probably further QTLs for some of the traits studied.

  6. Delayed myelination and neurodevelopment in male seizure-prone versus seizure-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pragati; Powell, Kim L; Wlodek, Mary E; O'Brien, Terence J; Gilby, Krista L

    2018-01-28

    Aberrant myelination and developmental delay have been reported in epilepsy. However, it is unclear whether these are linked to intrinsic mechanisms that support a predisposition toward seizures and the development of epilepsy. Thus, we compared rates of myelination and neurodevelopment in male rats selectively bred for enhanced susceptibility to kindling epileptogenesis (FAST) with male rats bred for resistance (SLOW). Myelin-specific gene expression was compared in the brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebral hemisphere of FAST and SLOW rats on postnatal days (PNDs) 5, 11, 17, 23, and 90 to determine strain-specific myelination rates. Myelin protein levels were also compared at PNDs 5 and 23 in the brainstem. Relative rates of neurodevelopment were evaluated between PNDs 5 and 21 using physical growth landmarks and neuromotor tests including righting reflex, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, and locomotor activity. Myelin-specific mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated in FAST rats on PNDs 5 and 11 in all 3 brain structures, indicating relatively delayed myelination. Likewise, corresponding protein levels were significantly lower in FAST brainstem on PND 5. Developmental delay was evident in the FAST strain such that only 9% of FAST pups, compared to 81% of SLOW, had open eyes by PND 13, locomotor activity was significantly reduced between PNDs 12 and 16, and neuromotor task acquisition was delayed between PNDs 5 and 10. Relative delays in myelination and neurodevelopment co-occurred in the seizure-prone FAST strain in the absence of seizures. These findings suggest these symptoms are not seizure-induced and may be mechanistically linked to an underlying pathophysiology supporting a predisposition toward developing epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. IL-1beta induced protein changes in diabetes prone BB rat islets of Langerhans identified by proteome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, T; Bjerre-Christensen, Ulla; Mose Larsen, P

    2002-01-01

    of 82 out of 1 815 protein spots detected by two dimensional gel electrophoresis in IL-1beta exposed diabetes prone Bio Breeding (BB-DP) rat islets of Langerhans in vitro. The aim of this study was to identify the proteins in these 82 spots by mass spectrometry and compare these changes with those seen...

  8. Diesel Exhaust-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction Is Mediated by Sympathetic Dominance in Heart Failure-Prone Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-term exposure to vehicular emissions is associated with adverse cardiac events. Diesel exhaust (DE) may provoke cardiac events through defective co-ordination of the two main autonomic nervous system (ANS) branches. We exposed heart failure-prone rats once to DE (500 g/m3 ...

  9. Individual Differences in Gambling Proneness among Rats and Common Marmosets: An Automated Choice Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Zoratto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest is rising for animal modeling of pathological gambling. Using the operant probabilistic-delivery task (PDT, gambling proneness can be evaluated in laboratory animals. Drawing a comparison with rats, this study evaluated the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus using a PDT. By nose- or hand-poking, subjects learnt to prefer a large (LLL, 5-6 pellets over a small (SS, 1-2 pellets reward and, subsequently, the probability of occurrence of large-reward delivery was decreased progressively to very low levels (from 100% to 17% and 14%. As probability decreased, subjects showed a great versus little shift in preference from LLL to SS reinforcer. Hence, two distinct subpopulations (“non-gambler” versus “gambler” were differentiated within each species. A proof of the model validity comes from marmosets’ reaction to reward-delivery omission. Namely, depending on individual temperament (“gambler” versus “non-gambler”, they showed either persistence (i.e., inadequate pokes towards LLL or restlessness (i.e., inadequate pokes towards SS, respectively. In conclusion, the marmoset could be a suitable model for preclinical gambling studies. Implementation of the PDT to species other than rats may be relevant for determining its external validity/generalizability and improving its face/construct validity.

  10. Prevention and intervention studies with telmisartan, ramipril and their combination in different rat stroke models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Thoene-Reineke

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The effects of AT1 receptor blocker, telmisartan, and the ACE inhibitor, ramipril, were tested head-to head and in combination on stroke prevention in hypertensive rats and on potential neuroprotection in acute cerebral ischemia in normotensive rats. METHODS: Prevention study: Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP were subjected to high salt and randomly assigned to 4 groups: (1 untreated (NaCl, n = 24, (2 telmisartan (T; n = 27, (3 ramipril (R; n = 27 and (4 telmisartan + ramipril (T+R; n = 26. Drug doses were selected to keep blood pressure (BP at 150 mmHg in all groups. Neurological signs and stroke incidence at 50% mortality of untreated SHR-SP were investigated. Intervention study: Normotensive Wistar rats were treated s.c. 5 days prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO for 90 min with reperfusion. Groups (n = 10 each: (1 sham, (2 vehicle (V; 0.9% NaCl, (3 T (0.5 mg/kg once daily, (4 R (0.01 mg/kg twice daily, (5 R (0.1 mg/kg twice daily or (6 T (0.5 mg/kg once daily plus R (0.01 mg/kg twice daily. Twenty-four and 48 h after MCAO, neurological outcome (NO was determined. Forty-eight h after MCAO, infarct volume by MRI, neuronal survival, inflammation factors and neurotrophin receptor (TrkB were analysed. RESULTS: Stroke incidence was reduced, survival was prolonged and neurological outcome was improved in all treated SHR-SP with no differences between treated groups. In the acute intervention study, T and T+R, but not R alone, improved NO, reduced infarct volume, inflammation (TNFα, and induced TrkB receptor and neuronal survival in comparison to V. CONCLUSIONS: T, R or T+R had similar beneficial effects on stroke incidence and NO in hypertensive rats, confirming BP reduction as determinant factor in stroke prevention. In contrast, T and T+R provided superior neuroprotection in comparison to R alone in normotensive rats with induced cerebral ischemia.

  11. Sleep deprivation attenuates experimental stroke severity in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Constantinescu, Alexandra Oana; Balseanu, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Indirect epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest that the severity of injury during stroke is influenced by prior sleep history. The aim of our study was to test the effect of acute sleep deprivation on early outcome following experimental stroke. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=20...... with a 2.5 fold smaller infarct volume and reduced morphological signs of neuronal injury at day 7 after MCAO. Our data suggest that brief TSD induces a neuroprotective response that limits the severity of a subsequent stroke, similar to rapid ischemic preconditioning....... after stroke was monitored using a battery of behavioral tests investigating the asymmetry of sensorimotor deficit (tape removal test and cylinder test), bilateral sensorimotor coordination (rotor-rod and Inclined plane) and memory (T-maze and radial maze). Following MCAO, control rats had impaired...

  12. Self-administered nicotine differentially impacts body weight gain in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Laura E; Smith, Tracy T; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2017-07-01

    Obesity and tobacco smoking represent the largest challenges to public health, but the causal relationship between nicotine and obesity is poorly understood. Nicotine suppresses body weight gain, a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit, particularly among obese smokers. The impact of nicotine on body weight regulation in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant populations consuming densely caloric diets is unknown. In the current experiment, body weight gain of adult male rats maintained on a high energy diet (31.8% kcal from fat) distributed into obesity-prone (OP), obesity-resistant (OR) and an intermediate group, which was placed on standard rodent chow (Chow). These rats were surgically implanted with intravenous catheters and allowed to self-administer nicotine (0 or 60μg/kg/infusion, a standard self-administration dose) in 1-h sessions for 20 consecutive days. Self-administered nicotine significantly suppressed body weight gain but not food intake in OP and Chow rats. Self-administered nicotine had no effect on body weight gain in OR rats. These data suggest that: 1) OR rats are also resistant to nicotine-induced suppression of body weight gain; and 2) nicotine may reduce levels of obesity in a subset of smokers prone to obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Interleukin-1 beta inhibits rat thyroid cell function in vivo and in vitro by an NO-independent mechanism and induces hypothyroidism and accelerated thyroiditis in diabetes-prone BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Rasmussen, A K; Karlsen, A E

    1996-01-01

    hypothyroidism in non-diabetic diabetes-prone BB rats. The data suggest that NO does not mediate interleukin-1 beta-induced inhibition of rat thyroid function in vivo or in vitro in FRTL-5 cells, and the induction of hypothyroidism by interleukin-1 beta in diabetes-prone BB rats is speculated to be due...

  14. Amiloride and SN-6 suppress audiogenic seizure susceptibility in genetically epilepsy-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Hillary; N'Gouemo, Prosper

    2014-09-01

    We have recently reported that amiloride, a potent and nonselective blocker of acid-sensing ion channels, prevents the development of pilocarpine-induced seizures and status epilepticus. Amiloride is also known to suppress the activity of Na(+) /Ca(2+) and Na(+) /H(+) exchangers that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of seizures. Here, we evaluated the effects of amiloride, SN-6 (a potent blocker of Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchangers) and zoniporide (a potent blocker of Na(+) /H(+) exchangers) on acoustically evoked seizures (audiogenic seizures, AGS) in genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPR-3s), a model of inherited generalized epilepsy. Male, six-week-old GEPR-3s were used. The GEPR-3s were tested for AGS susceptibility before and after treatment with various doses of amiloride, SN-6, and zoniporide (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg; per os). We found that pretreatment with amiloride and SN-6 markedly reduced the incidence and severity of AGS in the GEPR-3s. In contrast, administration of zoniporide only minimally reduced the incidence and severity of AGS in the GEPR-3s. A combination of noneffective doses of SN-6 and zoniporide also suppressed AGS susceptibility in the GEPR-3s. These findings suggest acid-sensing ion channels and the Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchanger may play an important role in the pathophysiology of inherited AGS susceptibility in the GEPR-3s. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Thrombolytic and anticoagulation treatment in a rat embolic stroke model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, K; Meden, P

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The effects of pentasaccharide (PENTA), given alone or combined with thrombolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), on infarct size and clinical outcome were evaluated in a rat embolic stroke model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-two rats were embolized unilaterally...... group, 4% (P treatment. Compared with rt-PA treatment alone, 0.5 mg/kg PENTA...... alone or combined with rt-PA did not significantly increase mortality or tendency for hemorrhage....

  16. The Characterization of Deqi during Moxibustion in Stroke Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimai Lv

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of acupuncture and moxibustion is closely related to Deqi phenomenons, which are some subjective feelings. However, no one has reported the objective characterization of Deqi. Our preliminary research has found a phenomenon of tail temperature increasing (TTI obviously in some stroke rats by suspended moxibustion at the acupoint dà zhuī (DU 14, which is similar to one characterization of Deqi during moxibustion that moxibustion heat is transferred from the original moxibustion acupoint to the other areas of the body. We wonder whether TTI is the objective indicator of Deqi characterization in animals. The present study showed that the stroke rat’s recovery was also associated with TTI phenomenon. This suggests that TTI phenomenon is one objective characterization of the Deqi in stroke rats. Application of the TTI phenomenon contributes to explore the physiological mechanism of Deqi.

  17. Overeating by young obesity-prone and lean rats caused by tastes associated with low energy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, W David; Heth, C Donald; Owczarczyk, Joanna C; Russell, James C; Proctor, Spencer D

    2007-08-01

    Childhood obesity is a prominent health problem that may involve early learning about tastes and the energy content of foods. We tested the hypothesis that food tastes predictive of low energy content cause overeating in young animals. Juvenile and adolescent (4- and 8-week-old) male JCR:LA-cp lean (+/cp or +/+) and obesity-prone (cp/cp) rats were given sweet (saccharin) and salty (sodium chloride) gelatin cubes made with starch (high caloric) or no starch (low caloric) for 16 days of taste conditioning. After 10 hours of food deprivation, rats received pre-meals with flavors that had been paired or unpaired with high caloric content during taste conditioning, followed immediately by measurement of chow intake at regular meals. Our findings show that both lean (+/cp) and obesity-prone (cp/cp) juvenile rats ate more regular chow after a pre-meal with a flavor associated with low caloric value than after a similar pre-meal with a flavor predictive of high caloric content. This effect occurred with juvenile rats but not with adolescents. Data from our study indicate that the subversion of the relationship between taste and caloric content disrupts the normal physiological and behavioral energy balance of juvenile rats, resulting in overeating that is independent of genetic disposition for obesity.

  18. A non-MHC locus essential for autoimmune type I diabetes in the Komeda Diabetes-Prone rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, N; Kanazawa, M; Kitada, K; Tanaka, A; Kanazawa, Y; Suda, S; Ito, H; Serikawa, T; Komeda, K

    1997-10-15

    The Long-Evans Tokushima Lean (LETL) rat, characterized by rapid onset of insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes mellitus (IDDM), no sex difference in the incidence of IDDM, autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells, and no significant T cell lymphopenia, is a desirable animal model for human IDDM. We have established a diabetes-prone substrain of the LETL rat, named Komeda Diabetes-Prone (KDP) rat, showing a 100% development of moderate to severe insulitis within 220 d of age. The cumulative frequency of IDDM was 70% at 120 d of age, and reached 82% within 220 d of age. Here, we performed the first genome-wide scan for non-MHC IDDM susceptibility genes in this strain. The analysis of three crosses has led to the revelation of a major IDDM susceptibility gene, termed Iddm/kdp1, on rat chromosome (Chr) 11. Homozygosity for the KDP allele at this locus is shown to be essential for the development of moderate to severe insulitis and the onset of IDDM. Comparative mapping suggests that the homologues of Iddm/ kdp1 are located on human Chr 3 and mouse Chr 16 and would therefore be different from previously reported IDDM susceptibility genes.

  19. Use of a chemically induced-colon carcinogenesis-prone Apc-mutant rat in a chemotherapeutic bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimi, Kazuto; Hashimoto, Takao; Niwa, Yusuke; Hata, Kazuya; Serikawa, Tadao; Tanaka, Takuji; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic bioassay for colorectal cancer (CRC) with a rat model bearing chemically-induced CRCs plays an important role in the development of new anti-tumor drugs and regimens. Although several protocols to induce CRCs have been developed, the incidence and number of CRCs are not much enough for the efficient bioassay. Recently, we established the very efficient system to induce CRCs with a chemically induced-colon carcinogenesis-prone Apc-mutant rat, Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) rat. Here, we applied the KAD rat to the chemotherapeutic bioassay for CRC and showed the utility of the KAD rat. The KAD rat has been developed by the ENU mutagenesis and carries a homozygous nonsense mutation in the Apc gene (S2523X). Male KAD rats were given a single subcutaneous injection of AOM (20 mg/kg body weight) at 5 weeks of age. Starting at 1 week after the AOM injection, they were given 2% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. Tumor-bearing KAD rats were divided into experimental and control groups on the basis of the number of tumors observed by endoscopy at week 8. The 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was administrated intravenously a dose of 50 or 75 mg/kg weekly at week 9, 10, and 11. After one-week interval, the 5-FU was given again at week 13, 14, and 15. At week 16, animals were sacrificed and tumor number and volume were measured macroscopically and microscopically. In total 48 tumors were observed in 27 KAD rats with a 100% incidence at week 8. The maximum tolerated dose for the KAD rat was 50 mg/kg of 5-FU. Macroscopically, the number or volume of tumors in the 5-FU treated rats was not significantly different from the control. Microscopically, the number of adenocarcinoma in the 5-FU treated rats was not significantly different (p < 0.02) from that of the control. However, the volume of adenocarcinomas was significantly lower than in the control. Anticancer effect of the 5-FU could be obtained only after the 16 weeks of experimental period. The use of the AOM/DSS-treated tumor

  20. Oxidative stress as a mechanism of diabetes in diabetic BB prone rats: effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K

    2000-06-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) isolated from flaxseed has antioxidant activity and has been shown to prevent hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. An investigation was made of the effects of SDG on the development of diabetes in diabetic prone BioBreeding rats (BBdp rats), a model of human type I diabetes [insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)] to determine if this type of diabetes is due to oxidative stress and if SDG can prevent the incidence of diabetes. The rats were divided into three groups: Group I, BioBreeding normal rats (BBn rats) (n = 10); group II, BBdp untreated (n = 11); and group III, BBdp treated with SDG 22 mg/kg body wt, orally) (n = 14). Oxidative stress was determined by measuring lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) an index of level of reactive oxygen species in blood and pancreas; and pancreatic chemiluminescence (Pancreatic-CL), a measure of antioxidant reserve. Incidence of diabetes was 72.7% in untreated and 21.4% in SDG-treated group as determined by glycosuria and hyperglycemia. SDG prevented the development of diabetes by approximately 71%. Development of diabetes was associated with an increase in serum and pancreatic MDA and a decrease in antioxidant reserve. Prevention in development of diabetes by SDG was associated with a decrease in serum and pancreatic-MDA and an increase in antioxidant reserve. These results suggest that IDDM is mediated through oxidative stress and that SDG prevents the development of diabetes.

  1. Dynamics of myelin content decrease in the rat stroke model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisel, A.; Khodanovich, M.; Atochin, D.; Mustafina, L.; Yarnykh, V.

    2017-08-01

    The majority of studies were usually focused on neuronal death after brain ischemia; however, stroke affects all cell types including oligodendrocytes that form myelin sheath in the CNS. Our study is focused on the changes of myelin content in the ischemic core and neighbor structures in early terms (1, 3 and 10 days) after stroke. Stroke was modeled with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in 15 male rats that were divided into three groups by time points after operation. Brain sections were histologically stained with Luxol Fast Blue (LFB) for myelin quantification. The significant demyelination was found in the ischemic core, corpus callosum, anterior commissure, whereas myelin content was increased in caudoputamen, internal capsule and piriform cortex compared with the contralateral hemisphere. The motor cortex showed a significant increase of myelin content on the 1st day and a significant decrease on the 3rd and 10th days after MCAo. These results suggest that stroke influences myelination not only in the ischemic core but also in distant structures.

  2. Reduction of infarct volume by thrombolysis with rt-PA in an embolic rat stroke model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, K.; Sereghy, T.; Boysen, G.

    1993-01-01

    Rat, thrombolytic therapy, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, acute ischaemic stroke, cerebral infarction and embolism, experimental thromboembolism, in vitro thrombotic clotting, cerebral ......Rat, thrombolytic therapy, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, acute ischaemic stroke, cerebral infarction and embolism, experimental thromboembolism, in vitro thrombotic clotting, cerebral ...

  3. Thymus transplantation and disease prevention in the diabetes-prone Bio-Breeding rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, H.M.; Bellgrau, D.

    1989-01-01

    Bio-Breeding rat T lymphocytes proliferate poorly in response to alloantigen. Transplantation of Bio-Breeding rats with fetal thymus tissue from diabetes resistant rats leads to an improvement in the T cell proliferative response, but only if the thymus contains bone marrow-derived, radiation-resistant thymic antigen presenting cells of the diabetes-resistant phenotype. The current study provides evidence that thymus transplantation leading to the restoration of Bio-Breeding T cell proliferative function can also significantly reduce the incidence of insulitis and prevent the development of diabetes. It appears that a defect in the bone marrow-derived thymic APC population contributes to an abnormal maturation of Bio-Breeding T lymphocytes which in turn predisposes animals to insulitis and diabetic disease

  4. Cell Treatment for Stroke in Type Two Diabetic Rats Improves Vascular Permeability Measured by MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangliang Ding

    Full Text Available Treatment of stroke with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC significantly enhances brain remodeling and improves neurological function in non-diabetic stroke rats. Diabetes is a major risk factor for stroke and induces neurovascular changes which may impact stroke therapy. Thus, it is necessary to test our hypothesis that the treatment of stroke with BMSC has therapeutic efficacy in the most common form of diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. T2DM was induced in adult male Wistar rats by administration of a high fat diet in combination with a single intraperitoneal injection (35mg/kg of streptozotocin. These rats were then subjected to 2h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. T2DM rats received BMSC (5x106, n = 8 or an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS (n = 8 via tail-vein injection at 3 days after MCAo. MRI was performed one day and then weekly for 5 weeks post MCAo for all rats. Compared with vehicle treated control T2DM rats, BMSC treatment of stroke in T2DM rats significantly (p<0.05 decreased blood-brain barrier disruption starting at 1 week post stroke measured using contrast enhanced T1-weighted imaging with gadopentetate, and reduced cerebral hemorrhagic spots starting at 3 weeks post stroke measured using susceptibility weighted imaging, although BMSC treatment did not reduce the ischemic lesion volumes as demarcated by T2 maps. These MRI measurements were consistent with histological data. Thus, BMSC treatment of stroke in T2DM rats initiated at 3 days after stroke significantly reduced ischemic vascular damage, although BMSC treatment did not change infarction volume in T2DM rats, measured by MRI.

  5. Maternal Style Selectively Shapes Amygdalar Development and Social Behavior in Rats Genetically Prone to High Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua L; Glover, Matthew E; Pugh, Phyllis C; Fant, Andrew D; Simmons, Rebecca K; Akil, Huda; Kerman, Ilan A; Clinton, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    The early-life environment critically influences neurodevelopment and later psychological health. To elucidate neural and environmental elements that shape emotional behavior, we developed a rat model of individual differences in temperament and environmental reactivity. We selectively bred rats for high versus low behavioral response to novelty and found that high-reactive (bred high-responder, bHR) rats displayed greater risk-taking, impulsivity and aggression relative to low-reactive (bred low-responder, bLR) rats, which showed high levels of anxiety/depression-like behavior and certain stress vulnerability. The bHR/bLR traits are heritable, but prior work revealed bHR/bLR maternal style differences, with bLR dams showing more maternal attention than bHRs. The present study implemented a cross-fostering paradigm to examine the contribution of maternal behavior to the brain development and emotional behavior of bLR offspring. bLR offspring were reared by biological bLR mothers or fostered to a bLR or bHR mother and then evaluated to determine the effects on the following: (1) developmental gene expression in the hippocampus and amygdala and (2) adult anxiety/depression-like behavior. Genome-wide expression profiling showed that cross-fostering bLR rats to bHR mothers shifted developmental gene expression in the amygdala (but not hippocampus), reduced adult anxiety and enhanced social interaction. Our findings illustrate how an early-life manipulation such as cross-fostering changes the brain's developmental trajectory and ultimately impacts adult behavior. Moreover, while earlier studies highlighted hippocampal differences contributing to the bHR/bLR phenotypes, our results point to a role of the amygdala as well. Future work will pursue genetic and cellular mechanisms within the amygdala that contribute to bHR/bLR behavior either at baseline or following environmental manipulations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Short-term dietary adjustment with a hydrolyzed casein-based diet postpones diabetes development in the diabetes-prone BB rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J; Brugman, S; Klatter, F; Vis, L; Groen, H; Strubbe, J; Rozing, J

    From earlier studies it appears that weaning associated changes in the animal's physiology and that of the pancreas in particular, render diabetes-prone Bio-Breeding (DP-BB) rats susceptible to the induction and development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). In this study we tested

  7. Short-Term Dietary Adjustment With a Hydrolyzed Casein–Based Diet Postpones Diabetes Development in the Diabetes-Prone BB Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Jeroen; Brugman, Sylvia; Klatter, Flip; Vis, Lotte; Groen, Herman; Strubbe, Jan; Rozing, Jan

    2003-01-01

    From earlier studies it appears that weaning associated changes in the animal’s physiology and that of the pancreas in particular, render diabetes-prone Bio-Breeding (DP-BB) rats susceptible to the induction and development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). In this study we tested

  8. Role of the intestinal tight junction modulator zonulin in the pathogenesis of type I diabetes in BB diabetic-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tammara; Berti, Irene; Sapone, Anna; Gerarduzzi, Tania; Not, Tarcisio; Zielke, Ronald; Fasano, Alessio

    2005-02-22

    Increased intestinal permeability has been observed in numerous human autoimmune diseases, including type-1 diabetes (T1D) and its' animal model, the BB-wor diabetic prone rat. We have recently described zonulin, a protein that regulates intercellular tight junctions. The objective of this study was to establish whether zonulin-dependent increased intestinal permeability plays a role in the pathogenesis of T1D. In the BB diabetic-prone rat model of T1D, intestinal intraluminal zonulin levels were elevated 35-fold compared to control BB diabetic-resistant rats. Zonulin up-regulation was coincident with decreased small intestinal transepithelial electrical resistance, and was followed by the production of autoantibodies against pancreatic beta cells, which preceded the onset of clinically evident T1D by approximately 25 days. In those diabetic prone rats that did not progress to diabetes, both intraluminal zonulin and transepithelial electrical resistance were similar to those detected in diabetic-resistant animal controls. Blockade of the zonulin receptor reduced the cumulative incidence of T1D by 70%, despite the persistence of intraluminal zonulin up-regulation. Moreover, treatment responders did not seroconvert to islet cell antibodies. Combined together, these findings suggest that the zonulin-induced loss in small intestinal barrier function is involved in the pathogenesis of T1D in the BB diabetic-prone animal model.

  9. The site of embolization related to infarct size, oedema and clinical outcome in a rat stroke model - further translational stroke research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Karsten; Rasmussen, Rune S; Johansen, Flemming F

    2010-01-01

    Reliable models are essential for translational stroke research to study the pathophysiology of ischaemic stroke in an effort to find therapies that may ultimately reduce oedema, infarction and mortality in the clinic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between the site...... of arterial embolization and the subsequent oedema, infarction and clinical outcome in a rat embolic stroke model....

  10. Modeling Diet-Induced Obesity with Obesity-Prone Rats: Implications for Studies in Females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin D Giles

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, and the comorbidities associated with obesity are numerous. Over the last two decades, we and others have employed an outbred rat model to study the development and persistence of obesity, as well as the metabolic complications that accompany excess weight. In this review, we summarize the strengths and limitations of this model and how it has been applied to further our understanding of human physiology in the context of weight loss and weight regain. We also discuss how the approach has been adapted over time for studies in females and female-specific physiological conditions, such as menopause and breast cancer. As excess weight and the accompanying metabolic complications have become common place in our society, we expect that this model will continue to provide a valuable translational tool to establish physiological relevant connections to the basic science studies of obesity and body weight regulation.

  11. Lactobacillus johnsonii N6.2 diminishes caspase-1 maturation in the gastrointestinal system of diabetes prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, L D; Kling, D N; Lorca, G L; Gonzalez, C F

    2018-04-10

    The cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium are the first to contact the microbiota and food components. As a direct consequence of this, these cells are the first line of defence and key players in priming the immune response. One of the first responses against GI insults is the formation of the inflammasome, a multiprotein complex assembled in response to environmental threats. The formation of the inflammasome regulates caspase-1 by cleaving it into its active form. Once activated, caspase-1 can cleave interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which promotes adaptive and humoral immunity. Some strains, like Lactobacillus johnsonii N6.2, are able to modulate the biosynthesis of important host metabolites mediating inflammation. Of these metabolites are the pro-inflammatory kynurenines. L. johnsonii N6.2 is able to downregulate kynurenines biosynthesis via a redox active mechanism negatively affecting indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. In this study, we evaluated the effects of L. johnsonii N6.2 combined with the natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule rosmarinic acid (RA). Inflammasome assembly and the kynurenine pathway were evaluated in GI samples of BioBreeding diabetes-prone (BB-DP) rats. In this work, BB-DP rats were fed daily with RA, L. johnsonii N6.2; or both combined. The transcriptional rate and proteins levels of inflammasome and kynurenine pathway components in ileum tissue were evaluated. Elevated levels of pro-caspase-1 were observed in rats fed with L. johnsonii, while RA had no effect on pro-caspase-1 expression. Western blot assays demonstrated that L. johnsonii fed rats showed lower levels of mature caspase-1, when compared to the other treatments. Furthermore, IL-1β maturation followed a similar pattern across the treatments. Differences were also observed between treatments in expression levels of key enzymes in the kynurenine pathway. These findings support the role of L. johnsonii in modulating the assembly of the inflammasome as well

  12. High-Fat Diet Alters Serum Fatty Acid Profiles in Obesity Prone Rats: Implications for In Vitro Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-Wen; Heden, Timothy D; Matthew Morris, E; Fritsche, Kevin L; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Thyfault, John P

    2015-10-01

    High-fat diets (HFD) are commonly used in rodents to induce obesity, increase serum fatty acids and induce lipotoxicity in various organs. In vitro studies commonly utilize individual free fatty acids (FFA) to study lipid exposure in an effort to model what is occurring in vivo; however, these approaches are not physiological as tissues are exposed to multiple fatty acids in vivo. Here we characterize circulating lipids in obesity-prone rats fed an HFD in both fasted and fed states with the goal of developing physiologically relevant fatty acid mixtures for subsequent in vitro studies. Rats were fed an HFD (60% kcal fat) or a control diet (10% kcal fat) for 3 weeks; liver tissue and both portal and systemic blood were collected. Fatty acid profiles and absolute concentrations of triglycerides (TAG) and FFA in the serum and TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG) and phospholipids in the liver were measured. Surprisingly, both systemic and portal serum TAG were ~40% lower in HFD-fed compared to controls. Overall, compared to the control diet, HFD feeding consistently induced an increase in the proportion of circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with a concomitant decline in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both serum TAG and FFA. The elevations of PUFA were mostly attributed to increases in n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. In conclusion, fatty acid mixtures enriched with linoleic and arachidonic acid in addition to SFA and MUFA should be utilized for in vitro studies attempting to model lipid exposures that occur during in vivo HFD conditions.

  13. Antioxidant supplementation and obesity have independent effects on hepatic oxylipin profiles in insulin-resistant, obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklo, Matthew J; Newman, John W

    2015-12-01

    Obesity-induced changes in lipid metabolism are mechanistically associated with the development of insulin resistance and prediabetes. Recent studies have focused on the extent to which obesity-induced insulin resistance is mediated through oxylipins, derived from enzymatic and nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation. Vitamin E and vitamin C are widely used antioxidant supplements, but conflicting data exist as to whether supplementation with vitamins E and C reduces insulin resistance. The purpose of this work is (1) to test the hypothesis that supplementation with vitamin E and vitamin C prevents the development of insulin resistance and (2) to determine the extent to which antioxidant supplementation modifies obesity-induced changes in hepatic oxylipins. Using obesity-prone Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat, hypercaloric diet, we found that vitamin E and C supplementation did not block the development of insulin resistance, despite increased plasma levels of these antioxidants and decreased hepatic F2-isoprostane (F2-IsoP) concentrations. The obese phenotype was associated with increased hepatic concentrations of cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-dependent linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid-derived epoxides. Antioxidant supplementation, but not obesity, decreased levels of the lipoxygenase (LOX)-dependent, arachidonic acid-derived products lipoxin A4 (LXA4), 8,15-dihydroxtetraenoate (8,15-DiHETE), and 5,15-DiHETE. Our data demonstrate that antioxidant supplementation and obesity impact hepatic LOX- and CYP450-dependent oxylipin metabolism. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Adverse effects of high-intensity sweeteners on energy intake and weight control in male and obesity-prone female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E; Sample, Camille H; Davidson, Terry L

    2013-04-01

    The use of high-intensity sweeteners has been proposed as a method to combat increasing rates of overweight and obesity in the human population. However, previous work with male rats suggests that consumption of such sweeteners might contribute to, rather than ameliorate, weight gain. The goals of the present experiments were to assess whether intake of high-intensity sweeteners is associated with increased food intake and body weight gain in female rats; to evaluate whether this effect depends on composition of the maintenance diet (i.e., standard chow compared with diets high in energy, fat, and sugar [HE diets]); and to determine whether the phenotype of the rats with regard to propensity to gain weight on HE diets affects the consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners. The data demonstrated that female rats fed a low-fat, standard laboratory chow diet did not gain extra weight when fed yogurt dietary supplements sweetened with saccharin compared with those fed glucose-sweetened dietary supplements. However, female rats maintained on a "Westernized" diet high in fat and sugar (HE diet) showed significant increases in energy intake, weight gain, and adiposity when given saccharin-sweetened compared with glucose-sweetened yogurt supplements. These differences were most pronounced in female rats known to be prone to obesity prior to the introduction of the yogurt diets. Both selectively bred Crl:OP[CD] rats and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats fed an HE diet showing high levels of weight gain (diet-induced obese [DIO] rats) had increased weight gain in response to consuming saccharin-sweetened compared with glucose-sweetened supplements. However, in male rats fed an HE diet, saccharin-sweetened supplements produced extra weight gain regardless of obesity phenotype. These results suggest that the most negative consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners may occur in those most likely to use them for weight control, females consuming a "Westernized" diet

  15. Neurorestorative Therapy of Stroke in Type two Diabetes Rats Treated with Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tao; Venkat, Poornima; Chopp, Michael; Zacharek, Alex; Ning, Ruizhuo; Cui, Yisheng; Roberts, Cynthia; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Cyndy Davis; Chen, Jieli

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Diabetes mellitus is a high risk factor for ischemic stroke. Diabetic stroke patients suffer worse outcomes, poor long term recovery, risk of recurrent strokes and extensive vascular damage. We investigated the neurorestorative effects and the underlying mechanisms of stroke treatment with human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs) in Type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. Methods Adult male T2DM rats were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Three days after MCAo, rats were treated via tail-vein injection with: 1) phosphate-buffered-saline (PBS); 2) HUCBCs (5×106); n=10/group. Results HUCBC stroke treatment initiated 3 days after MCAo in T2DM rats did not significantly decrease blood-brain-barrier (BBB) leakage (p=0.1) and lesion volume (p=0.078), but significantly improved long term functional outcome and decreased brain hemorrhage (ptreatment significantly promoted white matter (WM) remodeling as indicated by increased expression of Bielschowsky silver (axons marker), Luxol fast blue (myelin marker), SMI-31 (neurofilament) and Synaptophysin in the ischemic border zone (IBZ). HUCBC promoted vascular remodeling, and significantly increased arterial and vascular density. HUCBC treatment of stroke in T2DM rats significantly increased M2 macrophage polarization (increased M2 macrophage CD163, CD 206; decreased M1 macrophage ED1 and iNOS expression) in the ischemic brain compared to PBS-treated T2DM-MCAo controls (ptreatment initiated 3 days after stroke significantly increased WM and vascular remodeling in the ischemic brain as well as decreased neuroinflammatory factor expression in the ischemic brain in T2DM rats and promoted M2 macrophage polarization. HUCBC reduction of neuroinflammation and increased vascular and WM-axonal remodeling may contribute to the HUCBC induced beneficial effects in T2DM stroke rats. PMID:26243222

  16. The Effect of Ciprofloxacin Injection on Genetically Absence Prone (Wag/Rij Rat\\'s Electroencephalogram Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moghimi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ciprofloxacin which was used in this study is a Fluoroquinolone (FQ. This kind of drug may cause epileptic seizures probably because of the inhibition of GABA binding to its receptors. Wag/Rij rats (an animal model for generalized absence epilepsy, were used as experimental subjects. Methods: For EEG study, electrodes were inserted into the cortex of animals according to paxinos coordinates. After and before ciprofloxacin injection, EEG was recorded and their SWDs were compared with each others. Results: Findings showed a significant increase in the mean number of seizures during recording period. But the mean number of SWDs during seizures did not show any significant differences between groups. Discussion: These results may be due to involvement of GABA antagonistic effects of FQs and/or Mg2+ linked blockade of NMDA receptors. More researches are going to determine physiopathology of SWDs and .nd new effective substance against this kind of epilepsy.

  17. Acute but not delayed amphetamine treatment improves behavioral outcome in a rat embolic stroke model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, Karsten; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of d-amphetamine (amph) upon recovery after embolic stroke in rats. METHODS: Ninety-three rats were embolized in the right middle cerebral artery and assigned to: (1) controls; (2) combination (acute amph and later amph-facilitate...

  18. Age-dependence of sensorimotor and cerebral electroencephalographic asymmetry in rats subjected to unilateral cerebrovascular stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyanova, Slavianka G; Mitreva, Rumiana G; Kortenska, Lidia V; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Ngomba, Richard T

    2013-11-19

    The human population mostly affected by stroke is more than 65 years old. This study was designed to meet the recommendation that models of cerebral ischemia in aged animals are more relevant to the clinical setting than young animal models. Until now the majority of the pre-clinical studies examining age effects on stroke outcomes have used rats of old age. Considering the increasing incidence of stroke among younger than old human population, new translational approaches in animal models are needed to match the rejuvenation of stroke. A better knowledge of alterations in stroke outcomes in middle-aged rats has important preventive and management implications providing clues for future investigations on effects of various neuroprotective and neurorestorative drugs against cerebrovascular accidents that may occur before late senescence. We evaluated the impact of transient focal ischemia, induced by intracerebral unilateral infusion of endothelin-1 (Et-1) near the middle cerebral artery of conscious rats, on volume of brain damage and asymmetry in behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) output measures in middle-aged (11-12 month-old) rats. We did not find any age-dependent difference in the volume of ischemic brain damage three days after Et-1 infusion. However, age was an important determinant of neurological and EEG outcomes after stroke. Middle-aged ischemic rats had more impaired somatosensory functions of the contralateral part of the body than young ischemic rats and thus, had greater left-right reflex/sensorimotor asymmetry. Interhemispheric EEG asymmetry was more evident in middle-aged than in young ischemic rats, and this could tentatively explain the behavioral asymmetry. With a multiparametric approach, we have validated the endothelin model of ischemia in middle-aged rats. The results provide clues for future studies on mechanisms underlying plasticity after brain damage and motivate investigations of novel neuroprotective strategies against

  19. [Effect of high-fat diet and food restriction on energy metabolism in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianmin; Wang, Junxia; Zheng, Long; Lian, Weiguang; Liu, Shufeng

    2015-09-01

    To explore the effect of high-fat diet and food restriction on energy metabolism in obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into OP, OR and control groups according to their body weight gain after fed with high-fat diet for 3 wk. OP and OR groups were fed with high-fat diet in the following 12 wk to promote the development of obesity. Then one-half of the rats of each group began to food restriction and were allowed access to 50% of their individual baseline mean daily food intake each day, while the other half were maintained on ad libitum food for 2 wk. Basal metabolic rate (BMR), resting metabolic rate (RMR) of each group were measured by indirect calorimetry during the high-fat diet feeding and food restriction conditions. After the rats were sacrificed, body fat content was measured. OR rats had significantly higher BMR and RMR than the other two groups during high-fat diet feeding condition. There was no significant difference between OP and control group. Food restriction led to a reduction in BMR and RMR in all groups. OR rats showed a significantly greater reduction. OP group showed a significant decrease in body fat weight and fat content during the food restriction period, while there was no significant differences in OR rats. There are significant differences between OP and OR rats in BMR and RMR either in high-fat diet feeding condition or food restricted state. OR rat has the ability to sense and respond to energy imbalance more accurately than OP rat.

  20. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase oxidative stress in rats with intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongsoon; Nam, Somyoung; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Hong, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Myoungsook

    2009-11-01

    Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been suggested to associate with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that EPA and DHA increase oxidative stress and hemorrhage volume in rats with intracerebral hemorrhagic (ICH) stroke. Thirty-five-week-old male rats were fed an American Institute of Nutrition-93M diet containing 0% (n = 27), 0.5% (n = 15), or 1% EPA + DHA of total energy for 5 weeks. Of 5 rats fed 1% EPA + DHA (41%), 5 died because of excessive bleeding within 12 hours after ICH surgery. Behavior test score and hemorrhage volume were significantly (P surgery rats. Brain levels of EPA and DHA were highest in rats fed 1% EPA + DHA than in rats fed 0% and 0.5% EPA + DHA. These results suggested that intake of 1% EPA + DHA of total energy could lead to oxidative damage to the brain and thus increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in this rat model.

  1. Feeding butter with elevated content of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid to obese-prone rats impairs glucose and insulin tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Melissa; Hopkins, Loren E; AlZahal, Ousama; MacDonald, Tara L; Cervone, Daniel T; Wright, David C; McBride, Brian W; Dyck, David J

    2015-09-28

    We recently demonstrated that feeding a natural CLAt10,c12-enriched butter to lean female rats resulted in small, but significant increases in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, and impaired insulin tolerance. Our goal was to extend these findings by utilizing the diabetes-prone female fatty Zucker rat. Rats were fed custom diets containing 45 % kcal of fat derived from control and CLAt10,c12-enriched butter for 8 weeks. CLA t10,c12-enriched butter was prepared from milk collected from cows fed a high fermentable carbohydrate diet to create subacute rumen acidosis (SARA); control (non-SARA) butter was collected from cows fed a low grain diet. Female fatty Zucker rats (10 weeks old) were randomly assigned to one of four diet treatments: i) low fat (10 % kcal), ii) 45 % kcal lard, iii) 45 % kcal SARA butter, or iv) 45 % kcal non-SARA butter. A low fat fed lean Zucker group was used as a control group. After 8 weeks, i) glucose and insulin tolerance tests, ii) insulin signaling in muscle, adipose and liver, and iii) metabolic caging measurements were performed. Glucose and insulin tolerance were significantly impaired in all fatty Zucker groups, but to the greatest extent in the LARD and SARA conditions. Insulin signaling (AKT phosphorylation) was impaired in muscle, visceral (perigonadal) adipose tissue and liver in fatty Zucker rats, but was generally similar across dietary groups. Physical activity, oxygen consumption, food intake and weight gain were also similar amongst the various fatty Zucker groups. Increasing the consumption of a food naturally enriched with CLAt10,c12 significantly worsens glucose and insulin tolerance in a diabetes-prone rodent model. This outcome is not explained by changes in tissue insulin signaling, physical activity, energy expenditure, food intake or body mass.

  2. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) does not reduce the diabetes incidence in diabetes-prone BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Mørch, L; Markholst, H

    1994-01-01

    ) BB rats (75%) when compared to pair-fed, vehicle treated controls (55%, p = 0.18), or to unhandled DP BB rats (80%, p = 0.71). However, IL-1 induced significantly higher blood glucose concentrations in the prediabetic period (p ... episodes of blood glucose concentrations > 11 mmol/l in the prediabetic period in 11/20 DP BB rats compared to 4/27 diabetes-resistant (DR) BB rats and 4/28 Wistar Furth (WF) rats (both p .... The reduced pyrogenic and endocrine effect of rhIL-1 in the DR BB and WF rats compared to the DP BB rats could be explained by the impaired ability of the DP BB rats to produce anti-rhIL-1-antibodies. In conclusion, administration of rhIL-1 modulated the prediabetic period, and produced higher blood glucose...

  3. Centrally administered urocortin 2 decreases gorging on high-fat diet in in both diet induced obesity-prone and -resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina; Nagy, Tim R.; Coscina, Donald V.; Levin, Barry E.; Zorrilla, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a costly, deadly public health problem for which new treatments are needed. Individual differences in meal pattern have been proposed to play a role in obesity risk. The present study tested the hypothesis that i) the microstructure of chronic high-fat diet intake differs between genetically selected Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO) and Diet Resistant (DR) rats, and ii) central administration of urocortin 2 (Ucn 2), a corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 (CRF2) agonist, decreases high-fat diet intake not only in lean DR rats, but also in obese DIO rats. Design Male, selectively bred DIO and DR rats (n=10/genotype) were chronically fed a high-fat diet. Food and water intake as well as ingestion microstructure were then compared under baseline conditions and following third intracerebroventricular injection of Ucn 2 (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 µg). Results Irrespective of genotype, Ucn 2 reduced nocturnal food intake with a minimum effective dose of 0.3 µg, suppressing high-fat diet intake by ~40% at the 3 µg dose. Ucn 2 also made rats of both genotypes eat smaller and briefer meals, including at doses that did not reduce drinking. Obese DIO rats ate fewer but larger meals than DR rats, which they ate more quickly and consumed with 2/3rd less water. Conclusions Unlike leptin and insulin, Ucn 2 retains its full central anorectic efficacy to reduce high-fat diet intake even in obese, genetically-prone DIO rats, which otherwise show a “gorging” meal pattern. These results open new opportunities of investigation towards treating some forms of diet-induced obesity. PMID:23478425

  4. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Bertinato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone or resistance (OR, obese-resistant were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05 in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume, and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.

  5. Behavior outcome after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, with similar brain damage, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestriner, Régis Gemerasca; Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Bagatini, Pamela Brambilla; Saur, Lisiani; Boisserand, Lígia Simões Braga; Baptista, Pedro Porto Alegre; Xavier, Léder Leal; Netto, Carlos Alexandre

    2013-05-01

    Stroke causes disability and mortality worldwide and is divided into ischemic and hemorrhagic subtypes. Although clinical trials suggest distinct recovery profiles for ischemic and hemorrhagic events, this is not conclusive due to stroke heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to produce similar brain damage, using experimental models of ischemic (IS) and hemorrhagic (HS) stroke and evaluate the motor spontaneous recovery profile. We used 31 Wistar rats divided into the following groups: Sham (n=7), ischemic (IS) (n=12) or hemorrhagic (HS) (n=12). Brain ischemia or hemorrhage was induced by endotelin-1 (ET-1) and collagenase type IV-S (collagenase) microinjections, respectively. All groups were evaluated in the open field, cylinder and ladder walk behavioral tests at distinct time points as from baseline to 30 days post-surgery (30 PS). Histological and morphometric analyses were used to assess the volume of lost tissue and lesion length. Present results reveal that both forms of experimental stroke had a comparable long-term pattern of damage, since no differences were found in volume of tissue lost or lesion size 30 days after surgery. However, behavioral data showed that hemorrhagic rats were less impaired at skilled walking than ischemic ones at 15 and 30 days post-surgery. We suggest that experimentally comparable stroke design is useful because it reduces heterogeneity and facilitates the assessment of neurobiological differences related to stroke subtypes; and that spontaneous skilled walking recovery differs between experimental ischemic and hemorrhagic insults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impacts of perinatal induced photothrombotic stroke on sensorimotor performance in adult rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brima, Tufikameni; Mikulecká, Anna; Otáhal, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 1 (2013), s. 85-94 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0999 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : photothrombosis * perinatal ischemic stroke * sensorimotor performance * immature rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  7. Down-regulation of serotonin and dopamine transporter genes in individual rats expressing a gambling-prone profile: A possible role for epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoratto, Francesca; Romano, Emilia; Pascale, Esterina; Pucci, Mariangela; Falconi, Anastasia; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Maccarrone, Mauro; Laviola, Giovanni; D'Addario, Claudio; Adriani, Walter

    2017-01-06

    Gambling Disorder (GD) is characterized by excessive gambling despite adverse consequences on individual functioning. In spite of some positive findings, it is difficult to draw any conclusion on the genetics of GD. Indeed, beyond DNA sequence variation, other regulatory mechanisms (like those that engage epigenetics) may explain gene alterations in this addictive disease. Wistar male rats underwent an operant task for the evaluation of individual propensity to gamble. Few rats, after having learnt to prefer nose-poking for a large over a small food reward, were sacrificed to obtain a baseline profile of gene expression at both central and peripheral levels. In the remaining rats, probability of occurrence of large-reward delivery decreased progressively to very low levels. Thus, rats were faced with temptation to "gamble", i.e. to nose-poke for a binge reward, whose delivery was omitted the majority of times. After 3weeks of testing, rats showing a clear-cut profile of either gambling proneness or aversion were selected and sacrificed after the last session. A selective down-regulation of i) serotonin transporter in prefrontal cortex, ii) tyrosine hydroxylase in ventral striatum, iii) dopamine transporter in lymphocytes was evidenced in "gambler" vs "non-gambler" rats. The exposure to such operant task (compared to home-cage alone) modulated ventrostriatal but not prefrontal genes. A consistent increase of DNA methylation, in one specific CpG site at serotonin transporter gene, was evident in prefrontal cortex of "gambler" rats. Elucidation of epigenetic changes occurring during GD progression may pave the way to the development of new therapeutic strategies through specific modulation of epigenetic factors. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Restoration of impaired intestinal barrier function by the hydrolysed casein diet contributes to the prevention of type 1 diabetes in the diabetes-prone BioBreeding rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, J T J; Lammers, K; Hoogendijk, A; Boer, M W; Brugman, S; Beijer-Liefers, S; Zandvoort, A; Harmsen, H; Welling, G; Stellaard, F; Bos, N A; Fasano, A; Rozing, J

    2010-12-01

    Impaired intestinal barrier function is observed in type 1 diabetes patients and animal models of the disease. Exposure to diabetogenic antigens from the intestinal milieu due to a compromised intestinal barrier is considered essential for induction of the autoimmune process leading to type 1 diabetes. Since a hydrolysed casein (HC) diet prevents autoimmune diabetes onset in diabetes-prone (DP)-BioBreeding (BB) rats, we studied the role of the HC diet on intestinal barrier function and, therefore, prevention of autoimmune diabetes onset in this animal model. DP-BB rats were fed the HC diet from weaning onwards and monitored for autoimmune diabetes development. Intestinal permeability was assessed in vivo by lactulose-mannitol test and ex vivo by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Levels of serum zonulin, a physiological tight junction modulator, were measured by ELISA. Ileal mRNA expression of Myo9b, Cldn1, Cldn2 and Ocln (which encode the tight junction-related proteins myosin IXb, claudin-1, claudin-2 and occludin) and Il-10, Tgf-ß (also known as Il10 and Tgfb, respectively, which encode regulatory cytokines) was analysed by quantitative PCR. The HC diet reduced autoimmune diabetes by 50% in DP-BB rats. In DP-BB rats, prediabetic gut permeability negatively correlated with the moment of autoimmune diabetes onset. The improved intestinal barrier function that was induced by HC diet in DP-BB rats was visualised by decreasing lactulose:mannitol ratio, decreasing serum zonulin levels and increasing ileal TEER. The HC diet modified ileal mRNA expression of Myo9b, and Cldn1 and Cldn2, but left Ocln expression unaltered. Improved intestinal barrier function might be an important intermediate in the prevention of autoimmune diabetes by the HC diet in DP-BB rats. Effects on tight junctions, ileal cytokines and zonulin production might be important mechanisms for this effect.

  9. Combination cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells for brain stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Razi, Zahra; Delavari, Somayeh; Shakibajahromi, Benafsheh; Sarvestani, Fatemeh Sabet; Kazemi, Sepehr; Semsar, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Brain stroke is the second most important events that lead to disability and morbidity these days. Although, stroke is important, there is no treatment for curing this problem. Nowadays, cell therapy has opened a new window for treating central nervous system disease. In some previous studies the Mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells. In this study, we have designed an experiment to assess the combination cell therapy (Mesenchymal and Neural stem cells) effects on brain stroke. The Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adult rat bone marrow and the neural stem cells were isolated from ganglion eminence of rat embryo 14 days. The Mesenchymal stem cells were injected 1 day after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the neural stem cells transplanted 7 day after MCAO. After 28 days, the neurological outcomes and brain lesion volumes were evaluated. Also, the activity of Caspase 3 was assessed in different groups. The group which received combination cell therapy had better neurological examination and less brain lesion. Also the combination cell therapy group had the least Caspase 3 activity among the groups. The combination cell therapy is more effective than Mesenchymal stem cell therapy and neural stem cell therapy separately in treating the brain stroke in rats.

  10. Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adjust your treatment as needed. Rehabilitation After a stroke, you may need rehabilitation (rehab) to help you recover. Rehab may include working with speech, physical, and occupational therapists. Language, ... may have trouble communicating after a stroke. You may not be able to find the ...

  11. Divergent brain changes in two audiogenic rat strains: A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging comparison of the genetically epilepsy prone rat (GEPR-3) and the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yichien; Rodriguez, Olga C; Albanese, Chris; Santos, Victor Rodrigues; Cortes de Oliveira, José Antônio; Donatti, Ana Luiza Ferreira; Fernandes, Artur; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; N'Gouemo, Prosper; Forcelli, Patrick A

    2018-03-01

    Acoustically evoked seizures (e.g., audiogenic seizures or AGS) are common in models of inherited epilepsy and occur in a variety of species including rat, mouse, and hamster. Two models that have been particularly well studied are the genetically epilepsy prone rat (GEPR-3) and the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strains. Acute and repeated AGS, as well as comorbid conditions, displays a close phenotypic overlap in these models. Whether these similarities arise from convergent or divergent structural changes in the brain remains unknown. Here, we examined the brain structure of Sprague Dawley (SD) and Wistar (WIS) rats, and quantified changes in the GEPR-3 and WAR, respectively. Brains from adult, male rats of each strain (n=8-10 per group) were collected, fixed, and embedded in agar and imaged using a 7 tesla Bruker MRI. Post-acquisition analysis included voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and manual volumetric tracing. In the VBM analysis, GEPR-3 displayed volumetric changes in brainstem structures known to be engaged by AGS (e.g., superior and inferior colliculus, periaqueductal grey) and in forebrain structures (e.g., striatum, septum, nucleus accumbens). WAR displayed volumetric changes in superior colliculus, and a broader set of limbic regions (e.g., hippocampus, amygdala/piriform cortex). The only area of significant overlap in the two strains was the midline cerebellum: both GEPR-3 and WAR showed decreased volume compared to their control strains. In the DTI analysis, GEPR-3 displayed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the corpus callosum, posterior commissure and commissure of the inferior colliculus (IC). WAR displayed increased FA only in the commissure of IC. These data provide a biological basis for further comparative and mechanistic studies in the GEPR-3 and WAR models, as well as provide additional insight into commonalities in the pathways underlying AGS susceptibility and behavioral comorbidity. Copyright © 2017

  12. Iodine and tri-iodo-thyronine reduce the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in the autoimmune prone BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Rasmussen, Aase Krogh; Bock, Troels

    2009-01-01

    affect the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim was to investigate the influence of changes in thyroid function during postnatal development on the prevalence of T1DM in BB rats and the influence of T3 on the beta cell mass in non-diabetic Wistar rats. BB rats were treated with sodium...... iodine (NaI) or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) neonatally or with tri-iodo-thyronine (T3) during adolescence. At the age of 19 weeks the incidence of T1DM and the degree of insulitis were evaluated. The influence of T3 treatment on the beta cell mass was evaluated in Wistar rats by unbiased...... stereological methods. The incidence of T1DM in control BB rats was 68% at the age of 19 weeks. NaI and T3 reduced the incidence, whereas TSH had no effect. In Wistar rats T3 treatment increased the beta cell mass per bodyweight. The modulation of thyroid function during postnatal development may thus affect...

  13. Scalp acupuncture attenuates neurological deficits in a rat model of hemorrhagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Sun, Xiaowei; Zou, Wei; Leng, Mengtong; Zhang, Beng; Kang, Xiaoyu; He, Tao; Wang, Hui

    2017-06-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately 15% of all stroke cases, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Limited human studies suggested that scalp acupuncture could facilitate functional recovery after cerebral hemorrhage. In the current study, we used an animal model of cerebral hemorrhage to examine the potential effects of scalp acupuncture. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received autologous blood (50μL) into the right caudate nucleus on the right side under pentobarbital anesthesia, and then received scalp acupuncture (DU20 through GB7 on the lesion side) or sham acupuncture (1cm to the right side of the acupoints) (n=10 per group). A group of rats receiving autologous blood into the caudate nucleus but no other intervention, as well as a group of rats receiving anesthesia but no blood injection to the brain (n=10 per group) were included as additional controls. Composite neuroscore, corner turn test, forelimb placing test, wire hang task and beam walking were used to evaluate the behavior of rats. Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the histopathological changes. Western blot was used to detect the content of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-KappaB (NFκB) protein expression. Scalp acupuncture attenuated neurological deficits (ptreatment. The brain content of TNF-α and NFκB was decreased (phemorrhagic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vagus nerve stimulation delivered during motor rehabilitation improves recovery in a rat model of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaparast, Navid; Hays, Seth A; Sloan, Andrew M; Fayyaz, Tabbassum; Hulsey, Daniel R; Rennaker, Robert L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Neural plasticity is widely believed to support functional recovery following brain damage. Vagus nerve stimulation paired with different forelimb movements causes long-lasting map plasticity in rat primary motor cortex that is specific to the paired movement. We tested the hypothesis that repeatedly pairing vagus nerve stimulation with upper forelimb movements would improve recovery of motor function in a rat model of stroke. Rats were separated into 3 groups: vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitation (rehab), vagus nerve stimulation after rehab, and rehab alone. Animals underwent 4 training stages: shaping (motor skill learning), prelesion training, postlesion training, and therapeutic training. Rats were given a unilateral ischemic lesion within motor cortex and implanted with a left vagus nerve cuff. Animals were allowed 1 week of recovery before postlesion baseline training. During the therapeutic training stage, rats received vagus nerve stimulation paired with each successful trial. All 17 trained rats demonstrated significant contralateral forelimb impairment when performing a bradykinesia assessment task. Forelimb function was recovered completely to prelesion levels when vagus nerve stimulation was delivered during rehab training. Alternatively, intensive rehab training alone (without stimulation) failed to restore function to prelesion levels. Delivering the same amount of stimulation after rehab training did not yield improvements compared with rehab alone. These results demonstrate that vagus nerve stimulation repeatedly paired with successful forelimb movements can improve recovery after motor cortex ischemia and may be a viable option for stroke rehabilitation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Characterization of ICP Behavior in an Experimental Model of Hemorrhagic Stroke in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Danilo Augusto; do Val da Silva, Raquel Araújo; Cardim, Ana Carolina; Cabella, Brenno Caetano Troca; Frigieri, Gustavo Henrique; de Sousa Torres, Cecília Vidal; Wang, Charles Chenwei; de Pacheco Andrade, Rodrigo Albuquerque; Scandiuzzi, Renata Caldo; Rizzatti, Ana Carolina Segato; Mascarenhas, Yvonne Maria; Leite, João Pereira; Mascarenhas, Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is sometimes required in clinical pictures of stroke, as extensive intraparenchymal hematomas and intracranial bleeding may severely increase ICP, which can lead to irreversible conditions, such as dementia and cognitive derangement. ICP monitoring has been accepted as a procedure for the safe diagnosis of increased ICP, and for the treatment of intracranial hypertension in some diseases. In this work, we evaluated ICP behavior during the induction of an experimental model of autologous blood injection in rats, simulating a hemorrhagic stroke. Rats were subjected to stereotactic surgery for the implantation of a unilateral cannula into the left striatal region of the brain. Autologous blood was infused into the left striatal region with an automatic microinfusion pump. ICP monitoring was performed throughout the procedure of hemorrhagic stroke induction. Analyses consisted of short-time Fourier transform for ICP before and after stroke induction and the histological processing of the animals' brains. Short-time Fourier transform analysis demonstrated oscillations in the ICP frequency components throughout time after the microinjections compared with data before them. Histological analysis revealed neuropathological changes in the striatum in all microinjected animals.

  16. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  17. Risk-prone individuals prefer the wrong options on a rat version of the Iowa Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalan, Marion; Ahmed, Serge H; Dellu-Hagedorn, Françoise

    2009-10-15

    Decision making in complex and conflicting situations, as measured in the widely used Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), can be profoundly impaired in psychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction, and also in healthy individuals for whom immediate gratification prevails over long-term gain. The cognitive processes underlying these deficits are poorly understood, in part due to a lack of suitable animal models assessing complex decision making with good construct validity. We developed a rat gambling task analogous to the IGT that tracks, for the first time, the ongoing decision process within a single session in an operant cage. Rats could choose between various options. Disadvantageous options, as opposed to advantageous ones, offered bigger immediate food reward but were followed by longer, unpredictable penalties (time-out). The majority of rats can evaluate and deduce favorable options more or less rapidly according to task complexity, whereas others systematically choose disadvantageously. These interindividual differences are stable over time and do not depend on task difficulty or on the level of food restriction. We find that poor decision making does not result from a failure to acquire relevant information but from hypersensitivity to reward and higher risk taking in anxiogenic situations. These results suggest that rats, as well as human poor performers, share similar traits to those observed in decision-making related psychiatric disorders. These traits could constitute risk factors of developing such disorders. The rapid identification of poor decision makers using the rat gambling task should promote the discovery of the specific brain dysfunctions that cause maladapted decision making.

  18. Rats prone to obesity under a high-carbohydrate diet have increased post-meal CCK mRNA expression and characteristics of rats fed a high-glycemic index diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eChaumontet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that rats prone to obesity exhibit an exaggerated increase in glucose oxidation and an exaggerated decline in lipid oxidation under a low-fat high-carbohydrate (LF/HC diet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in these metabolic dysregulations. After a one week adaptation to laboratory conditions, 48 male Wistar rats were fed a LF/HC diet for 3 weeks. During weeks 2 and 3, glucose tolerance tests (GTT, insulin tolerance tests (ITT and meal tolerance tests (MTT were performed to evaluate blood glucose, plasma and insulin. Glucose and lipid oxidation were also assayed during the GTT. At the end of the study, body composition was measured in all the rats, and they were classified as carbohydrate resistant (CR or carbohydrate sensitive (CS according to their adiposity. Before sacrifice, 24 of the 48 rats received a calibrated LF/HC meal. Liver, muscle and intestine tissue samples were taken to measure mRNA expression of key genes involved in glucose, lipid and protein metabolism. ITT, GTT and MTT showed that CS rats were neither insulin resistant nor glucose intolerant, but mRNA expression of CCK in the duodenum was higher and that of CPT1, PPARα and PGC1α in liver were lower than in CR rats. From these results, we make the hypothesis that in CS rats, CCK increased pancreatic secretion which may favor a quicker absorption of carbohydrates and consequently induces an enhanced inhibition of lipid oxidation in the liver leading to a progressive accumulation of fat preferentially in visceral deposits. Such a mechanism may explain why CS rats share many characteristics observed in rats fed a high glycemic index diet.

  19. Long-term effects of cocaine experience on neuroplasticity in the nucleus accumbens core of addiction-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waselus, M; Flagel, S B; Jedynak, J P; Akil, H; Robinson, T E; Watson, S J

    2013-09-17

    Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse is associated with structural plasticity in brain reward pathways. Rats selectively bred for locomotor response to novelty differ on a number of neurobehavioral dimensions relevant to addiction. This unique genetic animal model was used here to examine both pre-existing differences and long-term consequences of repeated cocaine treatment on structural plasticity. Selectively bred high-responder (bHR) and low-responder (bLR) rats received repeated saline or cocaine injections for 9 consecutive days. Escalating doses of cocaine (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg) were administered on the first (day 1) and last (day 9) days of treatment and a single injection of the intermediate dose (15 mg/kg) was given on days 2-8. Motor activity in response to escalating doses of cocaine was compared on the first and last days of treatment to assess the acute and sensitized response to the drug. Following prolonged cocaine abstinence (28 days), spine density was examined on terminal dendrites of medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens core. Relative to bLRs, bHRs exhibited increased psychomotor activation in response to both the acute and repeated effects of cocaine. There were no differences in spine density between bHR and bLR rats under basal conditions or following repeated saline treatment. However, spine density differed markedly between these two lines following prolonged cocaine abstinence. All spine types were decreased in cocaine-treated bHRs, while only mushroom spines were decreased in bLRs that received cocaine. Changes in spine density occurred specifically near the branch point of terminal dendrites. These findings indicate that structural plasticity associated with prolonged cocaine abstinence varies markedly in two selected strains of rats that vary on numerous traits relevant to addiction. Thus, genetic factors that contribute to individual variation in the behavioral response to cocaine also influence cocaine-induced structural

  20. Intracranial Pressure Elevation 24 Hours after Ischemic Stroke in Aged Rats is Prevented by Early, Short Hypothermia Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Anne Murtha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is predominantly a senescent disease, yet most preclinical studies investigate treatment in young animals. We recently demonstrated that short-duration hypothermia-treatment completely prevented the dramatic intracranial pressure (ICP rise seen post-stroke in young rats. Here, our aim was to investigate whether a similar ICP rise occurs in aged rats and to determine whether short-duration hypothermia is an effective treatment in aged animals. Experimental Middle Cerebral Artery occlusion (MCAo - 3 hour occlusion was performed on male Wistar rats aged 19-20 months. At one hour after stroke-onset, rats were randomized to 2.5 hours hypothermia-treatment (32.5 °C or normothermia (37 °C. ICP was monitored at baseline, for 3.5 hours post-occlusion, and at 24 hours post-stroke. Infarct and edema volumes were calculated from histology. Baseline pre-stroke ICP was 11.2 ± 3.3 mmHg across all animals. Twenty-four hours post-stroke, ICP was significantly higher in normothermic animals compared to hypothermia-treated animals (27.4 ± 18.2 mmHg vs. 8.0 ± 5.0 mmHg, p = 0.03. Infarct and edema volumes were not significantly different between groups. These data demonstrate ICP may also increase 24 hours post-stroke in aged rats, and that short-duration hypothermia treatment has a profound and sustained preventative effect. These findings may have important implications for the use of hypothermia in clinical trials of aged stroke patients.

  1. Erythropoietin reduces brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen; Tang, Ling; Chen, Lifen; Li, Jinfang; Wu, Wanfu; Hu, Changlin

    2013-11-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to be neuroprotective in various models of neuronal injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial effect of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms. ICH was induced using autologous blood injection in adult rats. rhEPO (5000 IU/kg) or vehicle was administered to rats with ICH 2 h following surgery and every 24 h for 1 or 3 days. To study the involvement of the PI3K signaling pathway in the rhEPO‑mediated effect, the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin (15 µg/kg), was intravenously administered to rats with ICH 90 min prior to rhEPO treatment. Brain edema was measured 3 days following ICH and behavioral outcomes were measured at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days following ICH using the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and the corner turn test. Proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, in the ipsilateral striatum were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 24 h following ICH. Neuronal apoptosis in the perihematomal area was determined by NeuN and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) double-staining. The results showed that rhEPO treatment reversed ICH, increased brain water content, upregulated proinflammatory cytokines, neuronal loss and apoptosis in the perihematomal area and rescued behavioral deficits in injured rats. Inhibiting the PI3K pathway with wortmannin abolished the rhEPO‑mediated neuroprotective effects. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that rhEPO induced the upregulation of Akt phosphorylation and downregulation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)‑3β phosphorylation, which were reversed by pretreatment with wortmannin, indicating the involvement of PI3K signaling in rhEPO-mediated anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects following ICH. In conclusion, these results suggested that rhEPO may exert its

  2. The Effect of Electromagnetic Field Treatment on Recovery from Ischemic Stroke in a Rat Stroke Model: Clinical, Imaging, and Pathological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Segal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Effects of stroke include significant deficits in sensory-motor skills and cognitive abilities. At present, there are limited effective interventions for postacute stroke patients. In this preliminary research we studied a new noninvasive, very low intensity, low frequency, electromagnetic field treatment (VLIFE, targeting a neural network, on an in vivo stroke rat model. Eighteen rats were divided into three groups: sham (M1 and two treatment groups which were exposed to VLIFE treatment for 4 weeks, one using theta waves (M2 and another using beta waves (M3; all groups were followed up for an additional month. Results indicate that the M2 and M3 treated groups showed recovery of sensorimotor functional deficits, as demonstrated by Modified Neurological Severity Score and forelimb placement tests. Brain MRI imaging results show a decrease in perilesional edema and lateral ventricle widening in the treated groups. Fiber tracts’ imaging, following VLIFE treatment, showed a higher white matter integrity compared to control. Histological findings support neural regeneration processes. Our data suggest that VLIFE treatment, targeting a specific functional neural network by frequency rather than location, promotes neuronal plasticity after stroke and, as a result, improves clinical recovery. Further studies will investigate the full potential of the treatment.

  3. Sonothrombolysis with BR38 Microbubbles Improves Microvascular Patency in a Rat Model of Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schleicher

    Full Text Available Early recanalization of large cerebral vessels in ischemic stroke is associated with improved clinical outcome, however persisting hypoperfusion leads to poor clinical recovery despite large vessel recanalization. Limited experimental sonothrombolysis studies have shown that addition of microbubbles during treatment can improve microvascular patency. We aimed to determine the effect of two different microbubble formulations on microvascular patency in a rat stroke model.We tested BR38 and SonoVue® microbubble-enhanced sonothrombolysis in Wistar rats submitted to 90-minute filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Rats were randomized to treatment (n = 6/group: control, rt-PA, or rt-PA+3-MHz ultrasound insonation with BR38 or SonoVue® at full or 1/3 dose. Treatment duration was 60 minutes, beginning after withdrawal of the filament, and sacrifice was immediately after treatment. Vascular volumes were evaluated with microcomputed tomography.Total vascular volume of the ipsilateral hemisphere was reduced in control and rt-PA groups (p0.1.Microbubble-enhanced sonothrombolysis improves microvascular patency. This effect is not dose- or microbubble formulation-dependent suggesting a class effect of microbubbles promoting microvascular reopening. This study demonstrates that microbubble-enhanced sonothrombolysis may be a therapeutic strategy for patients with persistent hypoperfusion of the ischemic territory.

  4. Methylene Blue promotes cortical neurogenesis and ameliorates behavioral deficit after photothrombotic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohammad Ejaz; Tucker, Donovan; Dong, Yan; Lu, Yujiao; Zhao, Ningjun; Wang, Ruimin; Zhang, Quanguang

    2016-11-12

    Ischemic stroke in rodents stimulates neurogenesis in the adult brain and the proliferation of newborn neurons that migrate into the penumbra zone. The present study investigated the effect of Methylene Blue (MB) on neurogenesis and functional recovery in a photothrombotic (PT) model of ischemic stroke in rats. PT stroke model was induced by photo-activation of Rose Bengal dye in cerebral blood flow by cold fiber light. Rats received intraperitoneal injection of either MB (0.5mg/kg/day) from day 1 to day 5 after stroke or an equal volume of saline solution as a control. Cell proliferative marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected twice daily (50mg/kg) from day 2 to day 8 and animals were sacrificed on day 12 after PT induction. We report that MB significantly enhanced cell proliferation and neurogenesis, as evidenced by the increased co-localizations of BrdU/NeuN, BrdU/DCX, BrdU/MAP2 and BrdU/Ki67 in the peri-infarct zone compared with vehicle controls. MB thus effectively limited infarct volume and improved neurological deficits compared to PT control animals. The effects of MB were accompanied with an attenuated level of reactive gliosis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as elevated levels of cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP production in peri-infarct regions. Our study provides important information that MB has the ability to promote neurogenesis and enhance the newborn-neurons' survival in ischemic brain repair by inhibiting microenvironmental inflammation and increasing mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPRs) and DBA/2 mice: Two animal models of audiogenic reflex epilepsy for the evaluation of new generation AEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sarro, Giovambattista; Russo, Emilio; Citraro, Rita; Meldrum, Brian S

    2017-06-01

    This review summarizes the current knowledge about DBA/2 mice and genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPRs) and discusses the contribution of such animal models on the investigation of possible new therapeutic targets and new anticonvulsant compounds for the treatment of epilepsy. Also, possible chemical or physical agents acting as proconvulsant agents are described. Abnormal activities of enzymes involved in catecholamine and serotonin synthesis and metabolism were reported in these models, and as a result of all these abnormalities, seizure susceptibility in both animals is greatly affected by pharmacological manipulations of the brain levels of monoamines and, prevalently, serotonin. In addition, both genetic epileptic models permit the evaluation of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions among several drugs measuring plasma and/or brain level of each compound. Audiogenic models of epilepsy have been used not only for reflex epilepsy studies, but also as animal models of epileptogenesis. The seizure predisposition (epileptiform response to sound stimulation) and substantial characterization of behavioral, cellular, and molecular alterations in both acute and chronic (kindling) protocols potentiate the usefulness of these models in elucidating ictogenesis, epileptogenesis, and their mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Genetic and Reflex Epilepsies, Audiogenic Seizures and Strains: From Experimental Models to the Clinic". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Post-stroke angiotensin II type 2 receptor activation provides long-term neuroprotection in aged rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennion, Douglas M; Isenberg, Jacob D; Harmel, Allison T

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) by administration of Compound 21 (C21), a selective AT2R agonist, induces neuroprotection in models of ischemic stroke in young adult animals. The mechanisms of this neuroprotective action are varied, and may include direct and indirect....... These findings demonstrate that the neuroprotection previously characterized only during earlier time points using stroke models in young animals is sustained long-term in aged rats, implying even greater clinical relevance for the study of AT2R agonists for the acute treatment of ischemic stroke in human....... Intraperitoneal injections of C21 (0.03mg/kg) after ischemic stroke induced by transient monofilament middle cerebral artery occlusion resulted in protective effects that were sustained for up to at least 3-weeks post-stroke. These included improved neurological function across multiple assessments...

  7. Original nerve growth factor mimetic dipeptide GK-2 limits the manifestations of hemorrhagic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraineva, V A; Gudasheva, T A; Kotelnikova, S O; Antipova, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2013-03-01

    The protective effects of a new low-molecular-weight mimetic of nerve growth factor hexamethylene diamide bis-(N-monosuccinyl-L-glutamine-L-lysine; GK-2) were studied on the experimental model of hemorrhagic stroke (intracerebral posttraumatic hematoma) in rats. Intraperitoneal injections of GK-2 in a dose of 1 mg/kg 4 and 24 h after surgery and 24 h before testing the CNS function on days 3, 7, and 14 prevent death of experimental animals, reduce the neurological deficit, and normalized behavior.

  8. A modified thromboembolic stroke model of rat suitable for the delayed thrombolytic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Xiaofang; Li Minghua; Zhao Jungong; Li Yongdong; Cheng Yingsheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To develop a modified focal thromboembolic stroke model of rat suitable for the delayed thrombolytic therapy. Methods: Ten fibrin-rich autologous blood clots (0.8-1.0 mm in length, 0.35 mm in width) were injected into the internal carotid artery to establish a focal thromboembolic stroke model. 138 embolized rats were divided randomly into ischemic group (n=68) and delayed thrombolytic therapeutic group (n=70). At 3 h, 6 h and 9 h after embolization, the rats in delayed thrombolytic therapeutic group were treated with 10 mg/kg recombinant tissue plasminogen activator respectively, while no treatment was performed on ischemic group. Lesion size, location, relative cerebral blood flow volume at different time, and intracranial hemorrhage after treatment were evaluated by MRI. After the last MRI examination, the rats were decapitated and their brain tissue were fixed with formalin for further pathology study. Results: Embolization with a preformed clot resulted in a focal infarction in the territory supplied by the MCA branch or anterior choroid artery, including 79.4% (104/131) of infarction located in ipsilateral parietal cortex or /and audoputamen, with infarction volume of (23.12 ± 6.04)% in embolized hemisphere. At 3 h, 6 h, and 9 h after embolization, the relative cerebral blood flow volumes were (36.86 ± 16.02)%, (40.67 ± 25.91)% and (44.72 ± 26.51)% respectively, with no statistical difference between them (3 h vs 6 h, Z=- 0.958, P=0.338, 3 h vs 9 h, Z=- 1.147, P=0.251). Hemorrhage was observed in 12 rats, all of that were in delayed thrombolytic therapeutic group. 13 rats died within 24 hours and 3 died within 12 days after delayed thrombolytic therapy. Conclusion: The modified rat thromboembolic brain model is reliable and repeaducible closely mimicking that of the human middle cerebral arterial branch thrombosis, suitable for investigating the delayed thrombolytic therapy in rats. (authors)

  9. The neuroprotective effects ofTao-Ren-Cheng-Qi Tangagainst embolic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ling-Wei; Shiao, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Nen-Chung; Yu, Meng-Che; Yen, Ting-Lin; Thomas, Philip Aloysius; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Combinations of the traditional Chinese and Western medicines have been used to treat numerous diseases throughout the world, and there is a growing body of evidence showing that some of the herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine elicit significant pharmacological effects. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the neuroprotective effects of Tao - Ren - Cheng - Qi Tang (TRCQT) in combination with aspirin following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced embolic stroke in rats. A blood clot was embolized into the middle cerebral artery of rats to induce focal ischemic brain injury. After 24 h of MCAO occlusion, the rats were arbitrarily separated into five groups and subjected to different oral treatment processes with TRCQT and aspirin for 30 days before being evaluated in terms of their neurological behavior using a four-point system. The rats were sacrificed at 30 days after drug treatment and the infarct volumes were measured using a 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining method. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), activated caspase-3 and Bax were detected by western blot analysis. The apoptotic cells were identified by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. ROS generation was also measured by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Rats treated with TRCQT alone or in combination with aspirin showed a significantly reduced infarct volume ( P  < 0.001) and improved neurological outcome compared with those treated with distilled water. Rats treated with TRCQT alone ( P  = 0.021) or in combination with aspirin ( P  = 0.02) also showed significantly reduced MCAO-induced expression levels of TNF-α and pJNK ( P  < 0.001) in their ischemic regions. Rats treated with TRCQT alone or in combination with aspirin showed decreased apoptosis by a reduction in the number of TUNEL positive cells, which inhibited the expression of activated caspase-3 ( P  = 0.038) and Bax ( P

  10. Post-stroke angiotensin II type 2 receptor activation provides long-term neuroprotection in aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M Bennion

    Full Text Available Activation of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R by administration of Compound 21 (C21, a selective AT2R agonist, induces neuroprotection in models of ischemic stroke in young adult animals. The mechanisms of this neuroprotective action are varied, and may include direct and indirect effects of AT2R activation. Our objectives were to assess the long-term protective effects of post-stroke C21 treatments in a clinically-relevant model of stroke in aged rats and to characterize the cellular localization of AT2Rs in the mouse brain of transgenic reporter mice following stroke. Intraperitoneal injections of C21 (0.03mg/kg after ischemic stroke induced by transient monofilament middle cerebral artery occlusion resulted in protective effects that were sustained for up to at least 3-weeks post-stroke. These included improved neurological function across multiple assessments and a significant reduction in infarct volume as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. We also found AT2R expression to be on neurons, not astrocytes or microglia, in normal female and male mouse brains. Stroke did not induce altered cellular localization of AT2R when assessed at 7 and 14 days post-stroke. These findings demonstrate that the neuroprotection previously characterized only during earlier time points using stroke models in young animals is sustained long-term in aged rats, implying even greater clinical relevance for the study of AT2R agonists for the acute treatment of ischemic stroke in human disease. Further, it appears that this sustained neuroprotection is likely due to a mix of both direct and indirect effects stemming from selective activation of AT2Rs on neurons or other cells besides astrocytes and microglia.

  11. Post-stroke angiotensin II type 2 receptor activation provides long-term neuroprotection in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Douglas M; Isenberg, Jacob D; Harmel, Allison T; DeMars, Kelly; Dang, Alex N; Jones, Chad H; Pignataro, Megan E; Graham, Justin T; Steckelings, U Muscha; Alexander, Jon C; Febo, Marcelo; Krause, Eric G; de Kloet, Annette D; Candelario-Jalil, Eduardo; Sumners, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) by administration of Compound 21 (C21), a selective AT2R agonist, induces neuroprotection in models of ischemic stroke in young adult animals. The mechanisms of this neuroprotective action are varied, and may include direct and indirect effects of AT2R activation. Our objectives were to assess the long-term protective effects of post-stroke C21 treatments in a clinically-relevant model of stroke in aged rats and to characterize the cellular localization of AT2Rs in the mouse brain of transgenic reporter mice following stroke. Intraperitoneal injections of C21 (0.03mg/kg) after ischemic stroke induced by transient monofilament middle cerebral artery occlusion resulted in protective effects that were sustained for up to at least 3-weeks post-stroke. These included improved neurological function across multiple assessments and a significant reduction in infarct volume as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. We also found AT2R expression to be on neurons, not astrocytes or microglia, in normal female and male mouse brains. Stroke did not induce altered cellular localization of AT2R when assessed at 7 and 14 days post-stroke. These findings demonstrate that the neuroprotection previously characterized only during earlier time points using stroke models in young animals is sustained long-term in aged rats, implying even greater clinical relevance for the study of AT2R agonists for the acute treatment of ischemic stroke in human disease. Further, it appears that this sustained neuroprotection is likely due to a mix of both direct and indirect effects stemming from selective activation of AT2Rs on neurons or other cells besides astrocytes and microglia.

  12. Hypertension-Induced Vascular Remodeling Contributes to Reduced Cerebral Perfusion and the Development of Spontaneous Stroke in Aged SHRSP Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    additional. thrombosis (Figure 4, top row, asterisks) and diapedesis of blood. Affected vessels were 100 to 250 J.lm in diameter (average 150 J.lm (40...hypertensive rats. Stroke 29:1671-7; discussion 1677-1678 Blezer EL, Schurink M, Nicolay K, Bar PR, Jansen GH, Koomans HA, Joles JA (1998b) Proteinuria

  13. Therapeutic effects of lipo-prostaglandin E1 on angiogenesis and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Li; Zhang, Suping; Ji, Zhangge; Huang, Huihong; Yao, Gang; Wang, Muzhen; He, Rui; Deng, Wanqing; Fang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) has a neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia. However, it remains unknown whether PGE1 promotes angiogenesis and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke. In this study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanently distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Rats were treated with lipo-prostaglandin E1(lipo-PGE1, 10 μg/kg/d) or the same volume of 0.9% saline starting 24 hours after MCAO daily for 6 consecutive days. All rats were injected 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU, 50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally every 12 hours for 3 consecutive days before being sacrificed. At 7 and 14 days after MCAO or sham-operation, rats were sacrificed. Post-stroke neurological outcome, infarction volume, angiogenesis and neurogenesis were evaluated. Treatment with lipo-PGE1 significantly increased the vascular density in the peri-infarct areas at 7 and 14 days after MCAO. The lipo-PGE1 treatment significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration of endogenous neural stem cells in the ipsilateral subventricular zone. The neural stem cells associated with blood vessels closely within a neurovascular niche in lipo-PGE1-treated rats after stroke. The lipo-PGE1 treatment also significantly improved the neurological recovery after MCAO. These results indicate that treatment with lipo-PGE1 promotes post-stroke angiogenesis, neurogenesis and their interaction, which would contribute to neurological recovery after cerebral infarction. Our study provides novel experimental evidences for the neuroprotective roles of PGE1 in ischemic stroke.

  14. Feeding a Protective Hydrolysed Casein Diet to Young Diabetes-prone BB Rats Affects Oxidation of L[U−C14] glutamine in Islets and Peyer's Patches, Reduces Abnormally High Mitotic Activity in Mesenteric Lymph Nodes, Enhances Islet Insulin and Tends to Normalize NO Production

    OpenAIRE

    Malaisse, Willy J.; Olivares, Elizabeth; Laghmich, Aouatif; Ladrière, Laurence; Sener, Abdullah; Scott, Fraser W.

    2000-01-01

    The present studies were undertaken to examine concomitant diet-induced changes in pancreatic islets and cells of the gut immune system of diabetes-prone BB rats in the period before classic insulitis. Diabetes-prone (BBdp) and control non-diabetes prone (BBc) BB rats were fed for ~ 17 days either a mainly plant-based standard laboratory rodent diet associated with high diabetes frequency, NIH-07 (NIH) or a protective semipurified diet with hydrolyzed casein (HC) as the amino acid source. By ...

  15. Neuroprotective Functions Through Inhibition of ER Stress by Taurine or Taurine Combination Treatments in a Rat Stroke Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Howard; Gharibani, Payam M; Ma, Zhiyuan; Alexandrescu, Anamaria; Genova, Rafaella; Chen, Po-Chih; Modi, Jigar; Menzie, Janet; Pan, Chunliu; Tao, Rui; Wu, Jang-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Taurine, as a free amino acid, is found at high levels in many tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle and is known to demonstrate neuroprotective effects in a range of disease conditions including stroke and neurodegenerative disease. Using in vitro culture systems we have demonstrated that taurine can elicit protection against endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) from glutamate excitotoxicity or from excessive reactive oxygen species in PC12 cells or rat neuronal cultures. In our current investigation we hypothesized that taurine treatment after stroke in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model would render protection against ER stress processes as reflected in decreased levels of expression of ER stress pathway components. We demonstrated that taurine elicited high level protection and inhibited both ATF-6 and IRE-1 ER stress pathway components. As ischemic stroke has a complex pathology it is likely that certain combination treatment approaches targeting multiple disease mechanisms may have excellent potential for efficacy. We have previously employed the partial NMDA antagonist DETC-MeSO to render protection against in vivo ischemic stroke using a rat cerebral ischemia model. Here we tested administration of subcutaneous administration of 0.56 mg/kg DETC-MeSO or 40 mg/kg of taurine separately or as combined treatment after a 120 min cerebral ischemia in the rat MCAO model. Neither drug alone demonstrated protection at the low doses employed. Remarkably however the combination of low dose DETC-MeSO plus low dose taurine conferred a diminished infarct size and an enhanced Neuroscore (reflecting decreased neurological deficit). Analysis of ER stress markers pPERK, peIF-2-alpha and cleaved ATF-6 all showed decreased expression demonstrating that all 3 ER stress pathways were inhibited concurrent with a synergistic protective effect by the post-stroke administration of this DETC-MeSO-taurine combination treatment.

  16. Cerebellar Fastigial Nucleus Electrical Stimulation Alleviates Depressive-Like Behaviors in Post-Stroke Depression Rat Model and Potential Mechanisms

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    Lei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the molecular mechanism of post-stroke depression (PSD, and observe the therapeutic effects of cerebellar fastigial nucleus electrical stimulation (FNS on the behaviors and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in a PSD rat model. Methods: Healthy SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (sham, stroke, post-stroke depress and FNS group. Sham group (n = 6 underwent sham operation. The other three groups (n = 6*3 underwent MCAO. Rats were examined twice a week in open filed test. Moreover, neuroprotective effect on cerebellar Purkinje cells and expression of cytokines in hippocampal tissue were examined. Results: The PSD group showed a significant weight loss, decreased consumption of sucrose water, reduced rearing and locomotor activities. The FNS significantly alleviates the body weight loss and sucrose preference, locomotor and rearing activities. The bilateral rCBF was also restored after FNS treatment. Moreover, FNS improved the neuroprotection via suppressing apoptosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells. And the inflammatory cytokines mRNA level in hippocampus was significantly decreased. Conclusion: FNS treatment alleviates depressive-like behaviors and rCBF in PSD rats model, which could be attributed to its ability to protect cerebellar Purkinje cells and decrease the mRNA level of inflammatory cytokines.

  17. Study of Antocyanins Activity from Purple Sweet Potato for Reducing Apoptotic Cells Expression of The Cerebellum On Ischemic Stroke Rats

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    Made Oka Adnyana

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine anthocyanin antioxidant performance with a dose of 2 cc/day based on the expression of apoptotic cells on ischemic stroke rats cerebellum. Research was conducted using ischemic stroke rats (Rattus norvegicus that prepared by ligated for 3 h on the Common Carotid Artery (CCA and External Carotid Artery (ECA followed by reperfusion that commonly known as MCAO (Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion. The anthocyanin extract was characterized by LC-MS and its IC50 was measured by DPPH method. The rats were divided into five groups 1 negative control; 2 reperfusion 1 h; 3 reperfusion 72 h; 4 reperfusion 24 h, with anthocyanin therapy; 5 reperfusion 72 h, with anthocyanin therapy. The results of LC-MS showed that anthocyanin from purple sweet potato extracts contained Petunidin-3,5-O-diglucoside (Pt-DG with an IC50 value of 22.16 μg/mL, categorized as very strong antioxidant. The results showed that apoptotic cells expression of cerebellum decreased significantly (p<0.01 after 72 h reperfusion with anthocyanins therapy until 2.42%. The current work proved that anthocyanin extract effectively suppresses the apoptotic cell’s expression of the cerebellum on stroke ischemic rats.

  18. Congenic diabetes-prone BB.Sa and BB.Xs rats differ from their progenitor strain BB/OK in frequency and severity of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brandt, J; Kovács, P; Klöting, I

    1999-10-05

    Two newly established congenic diabetes-prone BB rat strains designated BB.Sa and BB.Xs carrying a region of chromosome 1 (Sa-Lsn-Secr-Igf2-Tnt, 16 cM) and a region of chromosome X (DXMgh3-Mycs/Pfkb1-Ar, 36 cM) of the SHR rats, respectively, were studied to determine whether the transferred chromosomal regions influence diabetes frequency, age at onset, and clinical picture. Therefore, 4 complete litters of BB/OK (n = 43), BB.Sa (n = 45), and BB.Xs (n = 41) were observed for diabetes occurrence up to the age of 30 weeks. From these litters 6 diabetic males of each strain manifesting in an interval of 1 week were chosen to study body weight, blood glucose, insulin requirement to survive, and several diabetes-related serum constituents at onset of diabetes and after a diabetes duration of 150 days. The diabetes frequency was significantly lower in BB.Xs than in rats of the parental strain BB/OK, whereas comparable frequencies were found between BB/OK and BB.Sa rats. Obvious differences were observed 150 days after diabetes onset between BB/OK and both BB.Sa and BB.Xs rats. BB/OK rats were significantly heavier and needed significantly more insulin/100 g body weight than BB.Sa and BB.Xs rats. Comparisons of the serum constituents as lipids, proteins, and minerals revealed significant differences between diabetic BB/OK rats and their diabetic congenic derivatives in several traits studied at onset and after 150 days of insulin treatment. These results not only show the power of congenic lines in diabetes research, but indicate for the first time that there are genetic factors on chromosomes 1 and X influencing frequency and severity of diabetes in the BB/OK rat. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Charge effect of a liposomal delivery system encapsulating simvastatin to treat experimental ischemic stroke in rats

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    Campos-Martorell M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mireia Campos-Martorell,1 Mary Cano-Sarabia,2 Alba Simats,1 Mar Hernández-Guillamon,1 Anna Rosell,1 Daniel Maspoch,2,3 Joan Montaner1,4 1Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Institut de Recerca Vall d’Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 2Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2, CSIC and The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 3Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA, 4Neurovascular Unit, Department of Neurology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain Background and aims: Although the beneficial effects of statins on stroke have been widely demonstrated both in experimental studies and in clinical trials, the aim of this study is to prepare and characterize a new liposomal delivery system that encapsulates simvastatin to improve its delivery into the brain. Materials and methods: In order to select the optimal liposome lipid composition with the highest capacity to reach the brain, male Wistar rats were submitted to sham or transitory middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAOt surgery and treated (intravenous [IV] with fluorescent-labeled liposomes with different net surface charges. Ninety minutes after the administration of liposomes, the brain, blood, liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys were evaluated ex vivo using the Xenogen IVIS® Spectrum imaging system to detect the load of fluorescent liposomes. In a second substudy, simvastatin was assessed upon reaching the brain, comparing free and encapsulated simvastatin (IV administration. For this purpose, simvastatin levels in brain homogenates from sham or MCAOt rats at 2 hours or 4 hours after receiving the treatment were detected through ultra-high-protein liquid chromatography. Results: Whereas positively charged liposomes were not detected in brain or plasma 90 minutes after their administration, neutral and negatively charged liposomes

  20. Activated protein C analog protects from ischemic stroke and extends the therapeutic window of tissue-type plasminogen activator in aged female mice and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaoming; Zhao, Zhen; Chow, Nienwen; Rajput, Padmesh S; Griffin, John H; Lyden, Patrick D; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2013-12-01

    3K3A-activated protein C (APC) protects young, healthy male rodents after ischemic stroke. 3K3A-APC is currently under development as a neuroprotectant for acute ischemic stroke in humans. Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable recommends that after initial studies in young, healthy male animals, further studies should be performed in females, aged animals, and animals with comorbid conditions. Here, we studied the effects of delayed 3KA-APC therapy alone and with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in aged female mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats. We used Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable recommendations for ensuring good scientific inquiry. Murine recombinant 3K3A-APC (0.2 mg/kg) alone or with recombinant tPA (10 mg/kg) was given intravenously 4 hours after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in aged female mice and rats and after embolic stroke in spontaneously hypertensive rat. 3K3A-APC was additionally administered within 3 to 7 days after stroke. The neuropathological analysis and neurological scores, foot-fault, forelimb asymmetry, and adhesive removal tests were performed within 7 and 28 days of stroke. In all models, tPA alone had no effects on the infarct volume or behavior. 3K3A-APC alone or with tPA reduced the infarct volume 7 days after the middle cerebral artery occlusion in aged female mice and embolic stroke in spontaneously hypertensive rat by 62% to 66% and 50% to 53%, respectively, significantly improved (Pmice, 3K3A-APC was protective within 4 weeks of stroke. 3K3A-APC protects from ischemic stroke and extends the therapeutic window of tPA in aged female mice and in spontaneously hypertensive rat with a comorbid condition.

  1. Post-stroke treatment with 17β-estradiol exerts neuroprotective effects in both normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Wendy; De Geyter, Deborah; Verachtert, Sofie; Brouwers, Sofie; Verdood, Peggy; De Keyser, Jacques; Kooijman, Ron

    2017-04-21

    Although ischemic stroke is a major cause of death worldwide and the predominant cause of acquired disability, the only effective drug therapy that has been developed thus far is reperfusion by tissue plasminogen activator. Since most patients do not qualify for this treatment, new methods have to be developed. It is well known that estradiol (E 2 ) exerts neuroprotective effects in different models of cerebral ischemia, but post-stroke treatment after an acute stroke has hardly been investigated. As many patients with an acute ischemic stroke have arterial hypertension, it is also of interest to evaluate the influence of this co-morbidity on the treatment efficacy of E 2 . The effects of E 2 administered 30min after a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) induced by an intracerebral injection of endothelin-1 were assessed in male normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Treatment with E 2 reduced infarct size in both WKY and SHRs and decreased the number of degenerating neurons, indicating that acute treatment with E 2 is indeed neuroprotective. To address the role of glia in neuroprotection, the effects of E 2 on the activation of microglia and astrocytes was determined. It appeared that E 2 had no effect on microglial activation, but reduced the activation of astrocytes in SHRs but not in the normotensive controls. We conclude that post-stroke E 2 treatment in both normotensive and hypertensive rats is neuroprotective. Although the presence of hypertension changed the astrocytic response to E 2 , it did not affect treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of Endogenous Neurogenesis in Functional Recovery and Motor Map Reorganization Induced by Rehabilitative Therapy after Stroke in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiromoto, Takashi; Okabe, Naohiko; Lu, Feng; Maruyama-Nakamura, Emi; Himi, Naoyuki; Narita, Kazuhiko; Yagita, Yoshiki; Kimura, Kazumi; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2017-02-01

    Endogenous neurogenesis is associated with functional recovery after stroke, but the roles it plays in such recovery processes are unknown. This study aims to clarify the roles of endogenous neurogenesis in functional recovery and motor map reorganization induced by rehabilitative therapy after stroke by using a rat model of cerebral ischemia (CI). Ischemia was induced via photothrombosis in the caudal forelimb area of the rat cortex. First, we examined the effect of rehabilitative therapy on functional recovery and motor map reorganization, using the skilled forelimb reaching test and intracortical microstimulation. Next, using the same approaches, we examined how motor map reorganization changed when endogenous neurogenesis after stroke was inhibited by cytosine-β-d-arabinofuranoside (Ara-C). Rehabilitative therapy for 4 weeks after the induction of stroke significantly improved functional recovery and expanded the rostral forelimb area (RFA). Intraventricular Ara-C administration for 4-10 days after stroke significantly suppressed endogenous neurogenesis compared to vehicle, but did not appear to influence non-neural cells (e.g., microglia, astrocytes, and vascular endothelial cells). Suppressing endogenous neurogenesis via Ara-C administration significantly inhibited (~50% less than vehicle) functional recovery and RFA expansion (~33% of vehicle) induced by rehabilitative therapy after CI. After CI, inhibition of endogenous neurogenesis suppressed both the functional and anatomical markers of rehabilitative therapy. These results suggest that endogenous neurogenesis contributes to functional recovery after CI related to rehabilitative therapy, possibly through its promotion of motor map reorganization, although other additional roles cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. U0126 attenuates cerebral vasoconstriction and improves long-term neurologic outcome after stroke in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnstedt, Hilda; Mostajeran, Maryam; Blixt, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences are well known in cerebral ischemia and may impact the effect of stroke treatments. In male rats, the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 reduces ischemia-induced endothelin type B (ETB) receptor upregulation, infarct size and improves acute neurologic function after experimental stroke. However......, responses to this treatment in females and long-term effects on outcome are not known. Initial experiments used in vitro organ culture of cerebral arteries, confirming ERK1/2 activation and increased ETB receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in female cerebral arteries. Transient middle cerebral artery...... occlusion (tMCAO, 120 minutes) was induced in female Wistar rats, with U0126 (30 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle administered at 0 and 24 hours of reperfusion, or with no treatment. Infarct volumes were determined and neurologic function was assessed by 6-point and 28-point neuroscores. ETB receptor...

  4. Post-stroke gaseous hypothermia increases vascular density but not neurogenesis in the ischemic penumbra of aged rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandu, Raluca Elena; Uzoni, Adriana; Ciobanu, Ovidiu

    2016-01-01

    -PCR and immunofluorescence, we assessed infarct size, vascular density, neurogenesis and as well as the expression of genes coding for proteasomal proteins as well as in post-stroke aged Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to H2S- induced hypothermia. Results: Two days exposure to mild hypothermia diminishes the expression...... of several genes involved in protein degradation, thereby leading to better preservation of infarcted tissue. Further, hypothermia increased the density of newly formed blood vessels in the peri-lesional cortex did not enhance neurogenesis in the infarcted area of aged rats. Likewise, there was improved...

  5. Neuroprotective efficacy of subcutaneous insulin-like growth factor-I administration in normotensive and hypertensive rats with an ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geyter, D; Stoop, W; Sarre, S; De Keyser, J; Kooijman, R

    2013-10-10

    The aim of this study was to test the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) as a neuroprotective agent in a rat model for ischemic stroke and to compare its neuroprotective effects in conscious normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The effects of subcutaneous IGF-I injection were investigated in both rat strains using the endothelin-1 rat model for ischemic stroke. Motor-sensory functions were measured using the Neurological Deficit Score. Infarct size was assessed by Cresyl Violet staining. Subcutaneous administration of IGF-I resulted in significantly reduced infarct volumes and an increase in motor-sensory functions in normotensive rats. In these rats, IGF-I did not modulate blood flow in the striatum and had no effect on the activation of astrocytes as assessed by GFAP staining. In hypertensive rats, the protective effects of IGF-I were smaller and not always significant. Furthermore, IGF-I significantly reduced microglial activation in the cortex of hypertensive rats, but not in normotensive rats. More detailed studies are required to find out whether the reduction by IGF-I of microglial activation contributes to an impairment IGF-I treatment efficacy. Indeed, we have shown before that microglia in hypertensive rats have different properties compared to those in control rats, as they exhibit a reduced responsiveness to ischemic stroke and lipopolysaccharide. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intravenous grafts of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells induce endogenous cell proliferation and attenuate behavioral deficits in ischemic stroke rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Tajiri

    Full Text Available We recently reported isolation of viable rat amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS cells [1]. Here, we tested the therapeutic benefits of AFS cells in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received a 60-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. Thirty-five days later, animals exhibiting significant motor deficits received intravenous transplants of rat AFS cells or vehicle. At days 60-63 post-MCAo, significant recovery of motor and cognitive function was seen in stroke animals transplanted with AFS cells compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. Infarct volume, as revealed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, was significantly reduced, coupled with significant increments in the cell proliferation marker, Ki67, and the neuronal marker, MAP2, in the dentate gyrus (DG [2] and the subventricular zone (SVZ of AFS cell-transplanted stroke animals compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. A significantly higher number of double-labeled Ki67/MAP2-positive cells and a similar trend towards increased Ki67/MAP2 double-labeling were observed in the DG and SVZ of AFS cell-transplanted stroke animals, respectively, compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. This study reports the therapeutic potential of AFS cell transplantation in stroke animals, possibly via enhancement of endogenous repair mechanisms.

  7. Rat middle cerebral artery occlusion is not a suitable model for the study of stroke-induced spontaneous infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Campos-Martorell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections related to stroke-induced immunodepression are an important complication causing a high rate of death in patients. Several experimental studies in mouse stroke models have described this process but it has never been tested in other species such as rats. METHODS: Our study focused on the appearance of secondary systemic and pulmonary infections in ischemic rats, comparing with sham and naive animals. For that purpose, male Wistar rats were subjected to embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (eMCAO or to transient MCAO (tMCAO inserting a nylon filament. Forty-eight hours after ischemia, blood and lung samples were evaluated. RESULTS: In eMCAO set, ischemic rats showed a significant decrease in blood-peripheral lymphocytes (naive = 58.8±18.1%, ischemic = 22.9±16.4% together with an increase in polymorphonuclears (PMNs (naive = 29.2±14.7%, ischemic = 71.7±19.5%, while no change in monocytes was observed. The increase in PMNs counts was positively correlated with worse neurological outcome 48 hours after eMCAO (r = 0.55, p = 0.043. However, sham animals showed similar changes in peripheral leukocytes as those seen in ischemic rats (lymphocytes: 40.1±19.7%; PMNs: 51.7±19.2%. Analysis of bacteriological lung growth showed clear differences between naive (0±0 CFU/mL; log10 and both sham (3.9±2.5 CFU/mL; log10 and ischemic (4.3±2.9 CFU/mL; log10 groups. Additionally, naive animals presented non-pathological lung histology, while both sham and ischemic showed congestion, edema or hemorrhage. Concordant results were found in the second set of animals submitted to a tMCAO. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory and infection changes in Wistar rats subjected to MCAO models may be attributed not only to the brain ischemic injury but to the surgical aggression and/or anaesthetic stress. Consequently, we suggest that stroke-induced immunodepression in ischemic experimental models should be interpreted with caution

  8. NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF SUBCUTANEOUS INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-I ADMINISTRATION IN NORMOTENSIVE AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS WITH AN ISCHEMIC STROKE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geyter, D.; Stoop, W.; Sarre, S.; de Keyser, J.; Kooijman, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) as a neuroprotective agent in a rat model for ischemic stroke and to compare its neuroprotective effects in conscious normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The effects of subcutaneous IGF-I injection were

  9. Identification of new therapeutic targets by genome-wide analysis of gene expression in the ipsilateral cortex of aged rats after stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Buga

    Full Text Available Because most human stroke victims are elderly, studies of experimental stroke in the aged rather than the young rat model may be optimal for identifying clinically relevant cellular responses, as well for pinpointing beneficial interventions.We employed the Affymetrix platform to analyze the whole-gene transcriptome following temporary ligation of the middle cerebral artery in aged and young rats. The correspondence, heat map, and dendrogram analyses independently suggest a differential, age-group-specific behaviour of major gene clusters after stroke. Overall, the pattern of gene expression strongly suggests that the response of the aged rat brain is qualitatively rather than quantitatively different from the young, i.e. the total number of regulated genes is comparable in the two age groups, but the aged rats had great difficulty in mounting a timely response to stroke. Our study indicates that four genes related to neuropathic syndrome, stress, anxiety disorders and depression (Acvr1c, Cort, Htr2b and Pnoc may have impaired response to stroke in aged rats. New therapeutic options in aged rats may also include Calcrl, Cyp11b1, Prcp, Cebpa, Cfd, Gpnmb, Fcgr2b, Fcgr3a, Tnfrsf26, Adam 17 and Mmp14. An unexpected target is the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A synthase 1 in aged rats, a key enzyme in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Post-stroke axonal growth was compromised in both age groups.We suggest that a multi-stage, multimodal treatment in aged animals may be more likely to produce positive results. Such a therapeutic approach should be focused on tissue restoration but should also address other aspects of patient post-stroke therapy such as neuropathic syndrome, stress, anxiety disorders, depression, neurotransmission and blood pressure.

  10. Automated detection of arterial input function in DSC perfusion MRI in a stroke rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, M-Y; Liu, H-L [Graduate Institute of Medical Physics and Imaging Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, T-H; Yang, S-T; Kuo, H-H [Stroke Section, Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chyi, T-K [Molecular Imaging Center Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hlaliu@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2009-05-15

    Quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) estimation requires deconvolution of the tissue concentration time curves with an arterial input function (AIF). However, image-based determination of AIF in rodent is challenged due to limited spatial resolution. We evaluated the feasibility of quantitative analysis using automated AIF detection and compared the results with commonly applied semi-quantitative analysis. Permanent occlusion of bilateral or unilateral common carotid artery was used to induce cerebral ischemia in rats. The image using dynamic susceptibility contrast method was performed on a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner with a spin-echo echo-planar-image sequence (TR/TE = 700/80 ms, FOV = 41 mm, matrix = 64, 3 slices, SW = 2 mm), starting from 7 s prior to contrast injection (1.2 ml/kg) at four different time points. For quantitative analysis, CBF was calculated by the AIF which was obtained from 10 voxels with greatest contrast enhancement after deconvolution. For semi-quantitative analysis, relative CBF was estimated by the integral divided by the first moment of the relaxivity time curves. We observed if the AIFs obtained in the three different ROIs (whole brain, hemisphere without lesion and hemisphere with lesion) were similar, the CBF ratios (lesion/normal) between quantitative and semi-quantitative analyses might have a similar trend at different operative time points. If the AIFs were different, the CBF ratios might be different. We concluded that using local maximum one can define proper AIF without knowing the anatomical location of arteries in a stroke rat model.

  11. Neuroprotective effect of chondroitinase ABC on primary and secondary brain injury after stroke in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-ran; Liao, Song-jie; Ye, Lan-xiang; Gong, Qiong; Ding, Qiao; Zeng, Jin-sheng; Yu, Jian

    2014-01-16

    Focal cerebral infarction causes secondary damage in the ipsilateral ventroposterior thalamic nucleus (VPN). Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a family of putative inhibitory components, and its degradation by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) promotes post-injury neurogenesis. This study investigated the role of ChABC in the primary and secondary injury post stroke in hypertension. Renovascular hypertensive Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and were subjected to continuous intra-infarct infusion of ChABC (0.12 U/d for 7 days) 24 h later. Neurological function was evaluated by a modified neurologic severity score. Neurons were counted in the peri-infarct region and the ipsilateral VPN 8 and 14 days after MCAO by Nissl staining and NeuN labeling. The expressions of CSPGs, growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and synaptophysin (SYN) were detected with immunofluorescence or Western blotting. The intra-infarct infusion of ChABC, by degrading accumulated CSPGs, rescued neuronal loss and increased the levels of GAP-43 and SYN in both the ipsilateral cortex and VPN, indicating enhancd neuron survival as well as augmented axonal growth and synaptic plasticity, eventually improving overall neurological function. The study demonstrated that intra-infarct ChABC infusion could salvage the brain from both primary and secondary injury by the intervention on the neuroinhibitory environment post focal cerebral infarction. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Ceftriaxone pretreatment reduces the propensity of postpartum depression following stroke during pregnancy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yonghong; Liu, Xianying; Su, Yuetian

    2016-10-06

    Ischemic stroke increases the propensity to develop depression in humans and laboratory animals, and we hypothesized that such an incidence during pregnancy may increase the risk for the development of postpartum depression (PPD). To test this hypothesis, we used bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) to induce transient cerebral ischemia in pregnant rats, and evaluated its effects on subsequent development of PPD in dams. Additionally, we investigated whether ceftriaxone pretreatments before the induction of brain ischemia could alter the propensity of PPD. We found that 15min BCCAO during pregnancy enhanced immobility time and reduced the frequency of swimming or climbing behaviors in the forced swim test, and decreased the sucrose preference in dams at postpartum day 21. Such behavioral alterations were associated with lower level of GLT-1 expression in the medial prefrontal cortical regions (mPFC) of PPD dams. Specifically, mPFC GLT-1 expression levels in dams with ischemia history were correlated with sucrose preference levels at postpartum day 21. Finally, ceftriaxone pretreatment (200mg/kg/day, 5days) before the 15min BCCAO prevented the development of PPD, and prevented the reduction of GLT-1 expression in the mPFC. Taken together, our results suggested that ceftriaxone pretreatment before brain ischemia during pregnancy may reduce the propensity for the development of PPD by preventing the loss of GLT-1 expression in the mPFC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human neural progenitor cell engraftment increases neurogenesis and microglial recruitment in the brain of rats with stroke.

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    Zahra Hassani

    Full Text Available Stem cell transplantation is to date one of the most promising therapies for chronic ischemic stroke. The human conditionally immortalised neural stem cell line, CTX0E03, has demonstrable efficacy in a rodent model of stroke and is currently in clinical trials. Nonetheless, the mechanisms by which it promotes brain repair are not fully characterised. This study investigated the cellular events occurring after CTX0E03 transplantation in the brains of rats that underwent ischemic stroke.We focused on the endogenous proliferative activity of the host brain in response to cell transplantation and determined the identity of the proliferating cells using markers for young neurons (doublecortin, Dcx and microglia (CD11b. So as to determine the chronology of events occurring post-transplantation, we analysed the engrafted brains one week and four weeks post-transplantation.We observed a significantly greater endogenous proliferation in the striatum of ischemic brains receiving a CTX0E03 graft compared to vehicle-treated ischemic brains. A significant proportion of these proliferative cells were found to be Dcx+ striatal neuroblasts. Further, we describe an enhanced immune response after CTX0E03 engraftment, as shown by a significant increase of proliferating CD11b+ microglial cells.Our study demonstrates that few Dcx+ neuroblasts are proliferative in normal conditions, and that this population of proliferative neuroblasts is increased in response to stroke. We further show that CTX0E03 transplantation after stroke leads to the maintenance of this proliferative activity. Interestingly, the preservation of neuronal proliferative activity upon CTX0E03 transplantation is preceded and accompanied by a high rate of proliferating microglia. Our study suggests that microglia might mediate in part the effect of CTX0E03 transplantation on neuronal proliferation in ischemic stroke conditions.

  14. Neuroprotective effects of chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of Nigella sativa seeds in stroke model of rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohammad; Maikiyo, Aliyu Muhammad; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Khanam, Razia; Mujeeb, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Stroke still remains a challenge for the researchers and scientists for developing ideal drug. Several new drugs are being evaluated showing excellent results in preclinical studies but when tested in clinical trials, they failed. Many herbal drugs in different indigenous system of medicine claim to have beneficial effects but not extensively evaluated for stroke (cerebral ischemia). AIM: The present study was undertaken to evaluate chloroform and petroleum ether extract of Nigella sativa seeds administered at a dose of 400 mg/kg, per orally for seven days in middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) rats for its neuroprotective role in cerebral ischemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for two hours followed by reperfusion for 22 hours. After 24 hours, grip strength, locomotor activity tests were performed in different treatment groups of rats. After completing behavioral tests, animals were sacrificed; brains were removed for the measurement of infarct volume followed by the estimation of markers of oxidative stress. RESULTS: Both chloroform and petroleum ether extracts-pretreated rats showed improvement in locomotor activity and grip strength, reduced infarct volume when compared with MCAO rats. MCA occlusion resulted in the elevation of levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), while a reduction in the levels of glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels were observed. Pre-treatment of both extracts of Nigella sativa showed reduction in TBARS, elevation in glutathione, SOD, and catalase levels when compared with MCAO rats. CONCLUSION: The chloroform and petroleum ether extract of Nigella sativa showed the protective effects in cerebral ischemia. The present study confirms the antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and anti-inflammatory properties of Nigella sativa already reported. PMID:23833517

  15. Increased susceptibility to pentetrazol-induced seizures in developing rats after cortical photothrombotic ischemic stroke at P7

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brima, Tufikameni; Otáhal, Jakub; Mareš, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1507, APR 24 (2013), s. 146-153 ISSN 0006-8993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0999; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0971; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GPP304/11/P386 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : perinatal stroke * rat * photothrombosis * pentylentetrazol * seizures * video-EEG Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.828, year: 2013

  16. The Influence Of Personal & Psychological Factors On Prone-Ness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    efficacy and achievement striving behaviour on prone-ness of athletes in Ogun State to abuse drugs. Descriptive survey design was adopted. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 304 participants. The age range of participants ...

  17. Increased Expression of Simple Ganglioside Species GM2 and GM3 Detected by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry in a Combined Rat Model of Aβ Toxicity and Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Caughlin

    Full Text Available The aging brain is often characterized by the presence of multiple comorbidities resulting in synergistic damaging effects in the brain as demonstrated through the interaction of Alzheimer's disease (AD and stroke. Gangliosides, a family of membrane lipids enriched in the central nervous system, may have a mechanistic role in mediating the brain's response to injury as their expression is altered in a number of disease and injury states. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS was used to study the expression of A-series ganglioside species GD1a, GM1, GM2, and GM3 to determine alteration of their expression profiles in the presence of beta-amyloid (Aβ toxicity in addition to ischemic injury. To model a stroke, rats received a unilateral striatal injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1 (stroke alone group. To model Aβ toxicity, rats received intracerebralventricular (i.c.v. injections of the toxic 25-35 fragment of the Aβ peptide (Aβ alone group. To model the combination of Aβ toxicity with stroke, rats received both the unilateral ET-1 injection and the bilateral icv injections of Aβ25-35 (combined Aβ/ET-1 group. By 3 d, a significant increase in the simple ganglioside species GM2 was observed in the ischemic brain region of rats who received a stroke (ET-1, with or without Aβ. By 21 d, GM2 levels only remained elevated in the combined Aβ/ET-1 group. GM3 levels however demonstrated a different pattern of expression. By 3 d GM3 was elevated in the ischemic brain region only in the combined Aβ/ET-1 group. By 21 d, GM3 was elevated in the ischemic brain region in both stroke alone and Aβ/ET-1 groups. Overall, results indicate that the accumulation of simple ganglioside species GM2 and GM3 may be indicative of a mechanism of interaction between AD and stroke.

  18. Early administration of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate extends the therapeutic time window of tissue plasminogen activator in a male rat model of embolic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxing; Shan, Weiran; Cao, Jiangbei; Wintermark, Max; Huang, Wenqi; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2018-03-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is used in fewer than 4% of patients after ischemic stroke because of its narrow therapeutic time window. We tested whether pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a drug with multiple mechanisms to provide neuroprotection, can be used to extend the therapeutic time window of tPA. Three-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to embolic stroke in the area supplied by the right middle cerebral artery. tPA at 10 mg/kg was given intravenously 4 h after the onset of stroke. PDTC at 50 mg/kg was given via gastric gavage at 30 min or 4 h after the onset of stroke. Two days after the stroke, neurological outcome was evaluated and the right frontal cortex area 1 (Fr1), an ischemic penumbral region, was harvested for analysis. PDTC given at 30 min after the stroke reduced infarct volumes and improved neurological functions no matter whether the rats received tPA. PDTC also reduced tPA-increased hemorrhagic volumes. Consistent with these results, PDTC in the presence or absence of tPA treatment attenuated the increase of proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and matrix metalloprotease 2 activity in the right Fr1. However, PDTC given at 4 h after the onset of stroke did not improve the neurological outcome of rats treated with or without tPA. Our results suggest that PDTC given at an early time point but not in a delayed phase provides neuroprotection against embolic stroke and may be used to extend the therapeutic time window of tPA. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Intravenous Administration of Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Protein Extracts Improves Neurological Deficits in a Rat Model of Stroke

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    Kai Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC substantially improves the neurological deficits during stroke by reducing neuronal injury, limiting proinflammatory immune responses, and promoting neuronal repair, which makes ADSC-based therapy an attractive approach for treating stroke. However, the potential risk of tumorigenicity and low survival rate of the implanted cells limit the clinical use of ADSC. Cell-free extracts from ADSC (ADSC-E may be a feasible approach that could overcome these limitations. Here, we aim to explore the potential usage of ADSC-E in treating rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO. We demonstrated that intravenous (IV injection of ADSC-E remarkably reduces the ischemic lesion and number of apoptotic neurons as compared to other control groups. Although ADSC and ADSC-E treatment results in a similar degree of a long-term clinical beneficial outcome, the dynamics between two ADSC-based therapies are different. While the injection of ADSC leads to a relatively mild but prolonged therapeutic effect, the administration of ADSC-E results in a fast and pronounced clinical improvement which was associated with a unique change in the molecular signature suggesting that potential mechanisms underlying different therapeutic approach may be different. Together these data provide translational evidence for using protein extracts from ADSC for treating stroke.

  20. Interplay Between Age, Cerebral Small Vessel Disease, Parenchymal Amyloid-beta, and Tau Pathology: Longitudinal Studies in Hypertensive Stroke-Prone Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiber, S; Drukarch, B.; Garz, C.; Niklass, S.; Stanaszek, L.; Kropf, S.; Bueche, C.; Held, F.; Vielhaber, S.; Attems, J.; Reymann, K.G.; Heinze, H.J.; Carare, R.O.; Wilhelmus, M.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau (ptau) accompany cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) in the aging brain and in Alzheimer's disease. CSVD is characterized by a heterogeneous spectrum of histopathological features possibly initiated by an endothelial dysfunction

  1. Cannabidiol reduces brain damage and improves functional recovery in a neonatal rat model of arterial ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceprián, Maria; Jiménez-Sánchez, Laura; Vargas, Carlos; Barata, Lorena; Hind, Will; Martínez-Orgado, Jose

    2017-04-01

    and purpose: Currently there is no effective treatment for neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Cannabidiol (CBD) is neuroprotective in models of newborn hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and adult stroke. The purpose of this work was to study the protective effect of CBD in a neonatal rat model of AIS. Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) was achieved in neonatal Wistar rats by introducing a nylon filament to the left MCA for 3 h; 15 min after removing the occluder vehicle (MCAO-V) or CBD single dose 5 mg/kg (MCAO-C) were administered i. p. Similarly manipulated but non-occluded rats served as controls (SHM). A set of behavioral tests was then conducted one week (P15) or one month (P38) after MCAO. Brain damage was then assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H + -MRS) and histologic (TUNEL for cell death, immunohistochemistry for neuron, astrocyte and microglia identification) studies. CBD administration improved neurobehavioral function regarding strength, hemiparesis, coordination and sensorimotor performance as assessed at P15 and P38. MRI indicated that CBD did not reduce the volume of infarct but reduced the volume of perilesional gliosis. H + -MRS indicated that CBD reduced metabolic derangement and excitotoxicty, and protected astrocyte function. Histologic studies indicated that CBD reduced neuronal loss and apoptosis, and modulated astrogliosis and microglial proliferation and activation. CBD administration after MCAO led to long-term functional recovery, reducing neuronal loss and astrogliosis, and modulating apoptosis, metabolic derangement, excitotoxicity and neuro-inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Angiogenesis and improved cerebral blood flow in the ischemic boundary area detected by MRI after administration of sildenafil to rats with embolic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian; Jiang, Quan; Zhang, Li; Ding, Guangliang; Gang Zhang, Zheng; Li, Qingjiang; Ewing, James R; Lu, Mei; Panda, Swayamprava; Ledbetter, Karyn A; Whitton, Polly A; Chopp, Michael

    2007-02-09

    To dynamically investigate the long-term response of an ischemic lesion in rat brain to the administration of sildenafil, male Wistar rats subjected to embolic stroke were treated with sildenafil (n=11) or saline (n=10) at a dose of 10 mg/kg administered subcutaneously 24-h after stroke and daily for an additional 6 days. Magnetic resonance images were acquired and functional performance was measured in all animals at 1 day, 2 days and weekly for 6 weeks post-stroke. All rats were sacrificed 6 weeks after stroke and endothelial barrier antigen immunostaining was employed for morphological analysis and quantification of cerebral vessels. Map-ISODATA was computed from T(1), T(2) and T(1sat) maps. ISODATA derived tissue signatures characterize the degree of ischemic injury. Based on the map-ISODATA calculated at 6 weeks, the ischemic lesion for each animal was divided into two specific regions, the ischemic boundary and ischemic core. The temporal profiles of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and tissue signature were retrospectively tracked in these two regions and were compared with histological evaluation and functional outcome. After 1 week of sildenafil treatment, the ischemic lesion exhibited two significantly different regions, with higher CBF level and correspondingly, lower tissue signature value in the boundary region than in the core region. Sildenafil treatment did not significantly reduce the lesion size, but did enhance angiogenesis. Functional performance was significantly increased after sildenafil treatment compared with the control group. Administration of sildenafil to rats with embolic stroke enhances angiogenesis and selectively increases the CBF level in the ischemic boundary, and improves neurological functional recovery compared to saline-treated rats.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of pretreatment with Lavandula officinalis ethanolic extract on blood-brain barrier permeability in a rat stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the protective effect of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) extract against blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and its possible mechanisms in an experimental model of stroke. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1 h in rats. Lavender extract (100, 200 mg/kg i.p.) was injected for 20 consecutive days. BBB permeability and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated using standard methods. The results of this study showed that L. officinalis ethanolic extract significantly reduced the BBB permeability in experimental groups when compared with ischemia group. The lavender extract significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels of plasma and brain tissue in intact group when compared with control group. L. officinalis extract reduced blood brain barrier permeability and alleviated neurological function in rats, and the mechanism may be related to augmentation in endogenous antioxidant defense and inhibition of oxidative stress in the rat brain. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Upregulation of protein phosphatase 2A and NR3A-pleiotropic effect of simvastatin on ischemic stroke rats.

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    Minxia Zhu

    Full Text Available Ca(2+ influxes are regulated by the functional state of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs. Dephosphorylation of NMDARs subunits decreases Ca(2+ influxes. NR3, a novel subunit of NMDARs, also decreases Ca(2+ influxes by forming new NMDARs with NR1 and NR2. It is meaningful to uncover whether protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A and NR3A play a role in the protective effect of Simvastatin on ischemic stroke. In the present study, the Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with Simvastatin for 7 days before middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed to mimic ischemic stroke. The results showed that Simvastatin decreased brain ischemic infarct area significantly while increasing the expression levels of PP2A and NR3A, thus dephosphorylating the serine sites of NR1 (ser896 and ser897 along with increased enzymatic activities of PP2A. The protein levels of NR3A decreased as the enzymatic activities of PP2A were inhibited by okadaic acid. The results indicated that Simvastatin could protect the cerebrum from ischemic injury through a signaling mechanism involving elevated levels of PP2A and NR3A, and that PP2A might involve in the regulatory mechanism of NR3A expression.

  5. AAV-mediated targeting of gene expression to the peri-infarct region in rat cortical stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mätlik, Kert; Abo-Ramadan, Usama; Harvey, Brandon K; Arumäe, Urmas; Airavaara, Mikko

    2014-10-30

    For stroke patients the recovery of cognitive and behavioral functions is often incomplete. Functional recovery is thought to be mediated largely by connectivity rearrangements in the peri-infarct region. A method for manipulating gene expression in this region would be useful for identifying new recovery-enhancing treatments. We have characterized a way of targeting adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to the peri-infarct region of cortical ischemic lesion in rats 2days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to show that the altered properties of post-ischemic brain tissue facilitate the spreading of intrastriatally injected nanoparticles toward the infarct. We show that subcortical injection of green fluorescent protein-encoding dsAAV7-GFP resulted in transduction of cells in and around the white matter tract underlying the lesion, and in the cortex proximal to the lesion. A similar result was achieved with dsAAV7 vector encoding the cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF), a protein with therapeutic potential. Viral vector-mediated intracerebral gene delivery has been used before in rodent models of ischemic injury. However, the method of targeting gene expression to the peri-infarct region, after the initial phase of ischemic cell death, has not been described before. We demonstrate a straightforward and robust way to target AAV vector-mediated over-expression of genes to the peri-infarct region in a rat stroke model. This method will be useful for studying the action of specific proteins in peri-infarct region during the recovery process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Extract of Antrodia camphorata Exerts Neuroprotection against Embolic Stroke in Rats without Causing the Risk of Hemorrhagic Incidence

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    Ye-Ming Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the neuroprotective effect of an extract of Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata, a fungus commonly used in Chinese folk medicine for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer, alone or in combination with aspirin was investigated in a rat embolic stroke model. An ischemic stroke was induced in rats by a selective occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA with whole blood clots and then orally treated with A. camphorata (0.25 and 0.75 g/kg/day alone and combined with aspirin (5 mg/kg/day. Sixty days later, the brains were removed, sectioned, and stained with triphenyltetrazolium chloride and analysed by a commercial image processing software program. Brain infarct volume, neurobehavioral score, cerebral blood perfusion, and subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage incidence were perceived. In addition, potential bleeding side effect of the combinative therapy was assessed by measuring hemoglobin (Hb content during intracerebral hemorrhage and gastric bleeding, prothrombin time (PT, and occlusion time (OT after oral administration. Posttreatment with high dose A. camphorata significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurobehavioral score (P < 0.05. Since A. camphorata alone or with aspirin did not alter the Hb level, this treatment is safe and does not cause hemorrhagic incident. Remarkably, the combination of A. camphorata and aspirin did not show a significant effect on the bleeding time, PT and OT increase suggesting that A. camphorata may have the neuroprotective effect without the prolongation of bleeding time or coagulation time. From these observations, we suggest that combinative therapy of A. camphorata and aspirin might offer enhanced neuroprotective efficacies without increasing side effects.

  7. Systematic Analysis of RNA Regulatory Network in Rat Brain after Ischemic Stroke

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    Juan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although extensive studies have identified large number of microRNAs (miRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs in ischemic stroke, the RNA regulation network response to focal ischemia remains poorly understood. In this study, we simultaneously interrogate the expression profiles of lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs changes during focal ischemia induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. A set of 1924 novel lncRNAs were identified and may involve brain injury and DNA repair as revealed by coexpression network analysis. Furthermore, many short interspersed elements (SINE mediated lncRNA:mRNA duplexes were identified, implying that lncRNAs mediate Staufen1-mediated mRNA decay (SMD which may play a role during focal ischemia. Moreover, based on the competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA hypothesis, a stroke regulatory ceRNA network which reveals functional lncRNA:miRNA:mRNA interactions was revealed in ischemic stroke. In brief, this work reports a large number of novel lncRNAs responding to focal ischemia and constructs a systematic RNA regulation network which highlighted the role of ncRNAs in ischemic stroke.

  8. The Influence Of Personal & Psychological Factors On Prone-Ness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Influence Of Personal & Psychological Factors On Prone-Ness Of Athletes In Ogun State To Abuse Drugs. ... and low self-efficacy. Consequently, it was suggested that measures should be taken to enhance the self-efficacy skills of athletes for better results in the battle against drug abuse among sports men and women.

  9. Constraint-induced movement therapy and rehabilitation exercises lessen motor deficits and volume of brain injury after striatal hemorrhagic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBow, Suzanne B; Davies, Melissa L A; Clarke, Heather L; Colbourne, Frederick

    2003-04-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) promotes motor recovery after occlusive stroke in humans, but its efficacy after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been investigated clinically or in the laboratory. In this study we tested whether CIMT and a rehabilitation exercise program would lessen motor deficits after ICH in rats. Rats were subjected to striatal ICH (via infusion of collagenase) or sham stroke. Seven days later, treatment began with CIMT (8 h/d of ipsilateral forelimb restraint), rehabilitation exercises (eg, reaching, walking; 1 h/d), or both for 7 days. Some rats were not treated. Motor deficits were assessed up to the 60-day survival time, after which the volume of tissue lost was determined. Untreated ICH rats made more limb slips traversing a horizontal ladder and showed an asymmetry toward less use of the contralateral paw in the cylinder test of limb use asymmetry (day 28). These rats were also significantly less successful in the Montoya staircase test (days 55 to 59) of skilled reaching. Neither therapy alone provided much benefit. However, the combination of daily exercises and CIMT substantially and persistently improved recovery. Unexpectedly, this group had a statistically smaller volume of tissue lost than untreated ICH rats. The combination of focused rehabilitation exercises and CIMT effectively promotes functional recovery after ICH, while either therapy alone is less effective. This therapy may work in part by reducing the volume of tissue lost, likely through reducing atrophy while promoting remodeling.

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid signaling modulates cell survival in experimental ischemic stroke penumbra and initiates long-term repair in young and aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany N Eady

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid, a major omega-3 essential fatty acid family member, improves behavioral deficit and reduces infarct volume and edema after experimental focal cerebral ischemia. We hypothesize that DHA elicits neuroprotection by inducing AKT/p70S6K phosphorylation, which in turn leads to cell survival and protects against ischemic stroke in young and aged rats.Rats underwent 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. DHA, neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1 or vehicle (saline was administered 3 h after onset of stroke. Neurological function was evaluated on days 1, 2, 3, and 7. DHA treatment improved functional recovery and reduced cortical, subcortical and total infarct volumes 7 days after stroke. DHA also reduced microglia infiltration and increased the number of astrocytes and neurons when compared to vehicle on days 1 and 7. Increases in p473 AKT and p308 AKT phosphorylation/activation were observed in animals treated with DHA 4 h after MCAo. Activation of other members of the AKT signaling pathway were also observed in DHA treated animals including increases in pS6 at 4 h and pGSK at 24 h. DHA or NPD1 remarkably reduced total and cortical infarct in aged rats. Moreover, we show that in young and aged rats DHA treatment after MCAo potentiates NPD1 biosynthesis. The phosphorylation of p308 AKT or pGSK was not different between groups in aged rats. However, pS6 expression was increased with DHA or NPD1 treatment when compared to vehicle.We suggest that DHA induces cell survival, modulates the neuroinflammatory response and triggers long term restoration of synaptic circuits. Both DHA and NPD1 elicited remarkable protection in aged animals. Accordingly, activation of DHA signaling might provide benefits in the management of ischemic stroke both acutely as well as long term to limit ensuing disabilities.

  11. Electroacupuncture Regulates Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity via miR-134-Mediated LIMK1 Function in Rats with Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weilin; Wu, Jie; Huang, Jia; Zhuo, Peiyuan; Lin, Yunjiao; Wang, Lulu; Lin, Ruhui; Chen, Lidian; Tao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    MircoRNAs (miRs) have been implicated in learning and memory, by regulating LIM domain kinase (LIMK1) to induce synaptic-dendritic plasticity. The study aimed to investigate whether miRNAs/LIMK1 signaling was involved in electroacupuncture- (EA-) mediated synaptic-dendritic plasticity in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion induced cognitive deficit (MICD). Compared to untreatment or non-acupoint-EA treatment, EA at DU20 and DU24 acupoints could shorten escape latency and increase the frequency of crossing platform in Morris water maze test. T2-weighted imaging showed that the MICD rat brain lesions were located in cortex, hippocampus, corpus striatum, and thalamus regions and injured volumes were reduced after EA. Furthermore, we found that the density of dendritic spine and the number of synapses in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells were obviously reduced at Day 14 after MICD. However, synaptic-dendritic loss could be rescued after EA. Moreover, the synaptic-dendritic plasticity was associated with increases of the total LIMK1 and phospho-LIMK1 levels in hippocampal CA1 region, wherein EA decreased the expression of miR-134, negatively regulating LIMK1 to enhance synaptic-dendritic plasticity. Therefore, miR-134-mediated LIMK1 was involved in EA-induced hippocampal synaptic plasticity, which served as a contributor to improving learning and memory during the recovery stage of ischemic stroke.

  12. Protective effects of heat shock protein 70 on the acute lung injury of rats with heat stroke and its mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan GENG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the protective effect of heat shock protein (HSP 70 on the acute lung injury (ALI of rats with heat stroke. Methods Sixty four rats were randomly (by employing a random number table assigned into a sham-heated group (Sham group, heat stress group (HS group, and HS plus gluttamine treatment group (HS+GLN group and HS plus quercet in treatment group (HS+QU group, 16 each. All rats were housed in a artificial climate chamber, with the rats in the sham groups exposed to a temperature of 23℃ and humidity of 55%±5%, while the rats of HS, HS+GLN and HS+QU groups to an ambient temperature of 39℃ and humidity of 65%. During heat stress or sham heating, rectal temperature (Tr, systolic blood pressure (SBP and pulse rate (PR were monitored to observe the difference in heat stress response among the groups. The time point at which the SBP started to drop from the peak level was taken as the point of HS onset. At the onset of HS, heat exposure was terminated, then the rats were immediately removed from the chamber, and returned to room temperature. The rats were scarified 0h and 6h after HS onset respectively. After bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was collected, the lungs of all animals were harvested for pathological examination of lung injury. The concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 in BALF and HSP70 in lung homogenate were measured by using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results Compared with HS and HS+QU groups, the rats in HS+GLN group required significantly greater heat load to induce HS (P<0.001, and had longer survival time span after HS onset. Compared with Sham group, the concentration of HSP70 in lung homogenate in HS group increased in a time-dependent manner (P<0.001. In comparison with HS group, the concentration of HSP70 in lung homogenate from HS+GLN group was significantly elevated at each time point (P<0.001, while the treatment with QU significantly inhibited the expression of HSP70 (P<0

  13. Mutant prourokinase with adjunctive C1-inhibitor is an effective and safer alternative to tPA in rat stroke.

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    Simone Tomasi

    Full Text Available A single-site mutant (M5 of native urokinase plasminogen activator (prouPA induces effective thrombolysis in dogs with venous or arterial thrombosis with a reduction in bleeding complications compared to tPA. This effect, related to inhibition of two-chain M5 (tcM5 by plasma C1-inhibitor (C1I, thereby preventing non-specific plasmin generation, was augmented by the addition of exogenous C1I to plasma in vitro. In the present study, tPA, M5 or placebo +/- C1I were administered in two rat stroke models. In Part-I, permanent MCA occlusion was used to evaluate intracranial hemorrhage (ICH by the thrombolytic regimens. In Part II, thromboembolic occlusion was used with thrombolysis administered 2 h later. Infarct and edema volumes, and ICH were determined at 24 h, and neuroscore pre (2 h and post (24 h treatment. In Part I, fatal ICH occurred in 57% of tPA and 75% of M5 rats. Adjunctive C1I reduced this to 25% and 17% respectively. Similarly, semiquantitation of ICH by neuropathological examination showed significantly less ICH in rats given adjunctive C1I compared with tPA or M5 alone. In Part-II, tPA, M5, and M5+C1I induced comparable ischemic volume reductions (>55% compared with the saline or C1I controls, indicating the three treatments had a similar fibrinolytic effect. ICH was seen in 40% of tPA and 50% of M5 rats, with 1 death in the latter. Only 17% of the M5+C1I rats showed ICH, and the bleeding score in this group was significantly less than that in either the tPA or M5 group. The M5+C1I group had the best Benefit Index, calculated by dividing percent brain salvaged by the ICH visual score in each group. In conclusion, adjunctive C1I inhibited bleeding by M5, induced significant neuroscore improvement and had the best Benefit Index. The C1I did not compromise fibrinolysis by M5 in contrast with tPA, consistent with previous in vitro findings.

  14. Citalopram attenuated neurobehavioral, biochemical, and metabolic alterations in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sangeetha; Upadhayay, Deepti; Sharma, Uma; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2018-04-15

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated as cardinal mechanisms of neuronal death following stroke. In the present study citalopram (Cit) was investigated in a 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) model of stroke in male Wistar rats. Pretreatment, posttreatment (Post Cit) and pre plus posttreatment (Pre + Post Cit) with Cit were evaluated for its neuroprotective effect. In pretreatment protocol, effect of Cit at three doses (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg) administered i.p., 1 h prior to MCAo was evaluated using neurological deficit score (NDS), motor deficit paradigms, and cerebral infarction 24 h post-MCAo. In posttreatment and pre plus posttreatment protocol, the effective dose of Cit (4 mg/kg) was administered i.p., 0.5 h post-reperfusion (Post Cit) only, and 1 h prior to MCAo and again at 0.5 h post-reperfusion (Pre + Post Cit), respectively. These two groups were assessed for NDS and cerebral infarction. Though NDS was significantly reduced in both Post Cit and Pre + Post Cit groups, significant reduction in cerebral infarction was evident only in Pre + Post Cit group. Infarct volume assessed by magnetic resonance imaging was significantly attenuated in Pre + Post Cit group (10.6 ± 1.1%) compared to MCAo control group (18.5 ± 3.0%). Further, Pre + Post Cit treatment significantly altered 17 metabolites along with attenuation of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, matrix metalloproteinases, and apoptotic markers as compared to MCAo control. These results support the neuroprotective effect of Cit, mediated through amelioration of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and altered metabolic profile. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Enriched housing enhances recovery of limb placement ability and reduces aggrecan-containing perineuronal nets in the rat somatosensory cortex after experimental stroke.

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    Alexandre Madinier

    Full Text Available Stroke causes life long disabilities where few therapeutic options are available. Using electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain and physical rehabilitation, recovery of brain function can be enhanced even late after stroke. Animal models support this notion, and housing rodents in an enriched environment (EE several days after experimental stroke stimulates lost brain function by multisensory mechanisms. We studied the dynamics of functional recovery of rats with a lesion to the fore and hind limb motor areas induced by photothrombosis (PT, and with subsequent housing in either standard (STD or EE. In this model, skilled motor function is not significantly enhanced by enriched housing, while the speed of recovery of sensori-motor function substantially improves over the 9-week study period. In particular, this stroke lesion completely obliterates the fore and hind limb placing ability when visual and whisker guidance is prevented, a deficit that persists for up to 9 weeks of recovery, but that is markedly restored within 2 weeks by enriched housing. Enriched housing after stroke also leads to a significant loss of perineuronal net (PNN immunoreactivity; detection of aggrecan protein backbone with AB1031 antibody was decreased by 13-22%, and labelling of a glycan moiety of aggrecan with Cat-315 antibody was reduced by 25-30% in the peri-infarct area and in the somatosensory cortex, respectively. The majority of these cells are parvalbumin/GABA inhibitory interneurons that are important in sensori-information processing. We conclude that damage to the fore and hind limb motor areas provides a model of loss of limb placing response without visual guidance, a deficit also seen in more than 50% of stroke patients. This loss is amenable to recovery induced by multiple sensory stimulation and correlates with a decrease in aggrecan-containing PNNs around inhibitory interneurons. Modulating the PNN structure after ischemic damage may provide new

  16. Effects of microplasmin on recovery in a rat embolic stroke model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, K.; Pakola, S.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of microplasmin on behavioral performance and infarct volume after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Some experiments support that microplasmin may have neuroprotective and thrombolytic properties. METHODS...... bodyweight (pimproved both behavioral rehabilitation and bodyweight compared to 10 mg/kg microplasmin treatment, while saline...

  17. Complexity in differentiating the expression of truncated or matured forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through zymography in rat brain tissues after acute ischaemic stroke.

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    Alam, Mustafa; Shuaib, Ashfaq

    2013-05-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke. In particular, the mature forms of MMPs 2 and 9 have similar sizes and share gelatine as a common substrate. Both MMPs are upregulated in ischaemic stroke and play detrimental roles during stroke pathogenesis. Throughout this study, we demonstrated that pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 from ischaemic rat brain tissue homogenate is detected either through immunoblotting or zymography because of the remarkable size difference between these enzymes (72 versus 95 kDa, respectively). However, the mature MMP-2 and MMP-9 cannot be discriminated through zymography because of the almost identical sizes of these forms (66 and 67 kDa, respectively). The use of gelatine zymography on ischaemic rat brain tissue homogenate revealed a 65-kDa MMP band, corresponding to the heterogeneous band of mature MMP-2 and/or MMP-9. Furthermore, we also detected mature MMPs of 65 kDa generated from both recombinant human MMP-2 and MMP-9. Using a pull down assay in rat brain tissue homogenate with gelatine-agarose beads, we showed increased activities for both the pro and mature forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9. However, we could not determine the origin of the respective mature MMPs from the heterogeneous band. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that the identification and quantification of mature MMP-2 and MMP-9 could not be achieved using zymography alone. Therefore, the development of a reliable technique to identify and measure the respective MMPs is needed to test new stroke therapies targeting MMP-2 and MMP-9. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Stroke Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Month Infographic Stroke Hero F.A.S.T. Quiz Stroke Treatment Stroke used to rank fourth in leading causes of ... type of treatment depends on the type of stroke. Ischemic stroke happens when a clot blocks a ...

  19. GSK-3β inhibitor TWS119 attenuates rtPA-induced hemorrhagic transformation and activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway after acute ischemic stroke in rats.

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    Wang, Wei; Li, Mingchang; Wang, Yuefei; Li, Qian; Deng, Gang; Wan, Jieru; Yang, Qingwu; Chen, Qianxue; Wang, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a devastating complication for patients with acute ischemic stroke who are treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). It is associated with high morbidity and mortality, but no effective treatments are currently available to reduce HT risk. Therefore, methods to prevent HT are urgently needed. In this study, we used TWS119, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), to evaluate the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in recombinant tPA (rtPA)-induced HT. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemic stroke and then were administered rtPA, rtPA combined with TWS119, or vehicle at 4 h. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after infarct induction. Rats treated with rtPA showed evident HT, had more severe neurologic deficit, brain edema, and blood-brain barrier breakdown, and had larger infarction volume than did the vehicle group. Rats treated with TWS119 had significantly improved outcomes compared with those of rats treated with rtPA alone. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that TWS119 increased the protein expression of β-catenin, claudin-3, and ZO-1 while suppressing the expression of GSK-3β. These results suggest that TWS119 reduces rtPA-induced HT and attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption, possibly through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. This study provides a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent tPA-induced HT after acute ischemic stroke.

  20. The effect of ultrasound on thromboembolic model of brain stroke in rat

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    Shabanzadeh A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasound (US has been used in neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia; however, its use is controversial. Application of US in combination with fibrinolytic agents may improve fibrinolytic effects. In this study the effects of US, alone or in combination with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, on brain ischemic injury were examined and we studied whether US is protective in the brain injured by ischemia under normothermic conditions. Methods: We performed two studies. In the first study, rectal and brain temperatures were compared. In the second study, we studied whether US alone or in combination with tPA is neuroprotective in thromboembolic stroke. To induce focal cerebral ischemia, a clot was formed in a catheter. Once the clot had formed, the catheter was advanced 17 mm in the internal carotid artery until its tip was 1-2 mm away from the origin of the middle cerebral artery (MCA. The preformed clot in the catheter was then injected, and the catheter was removed. The wound was then closed and the infarction volume, edema and neurological deficits were measured after MCA occlusion. Results: The temperature in the brain was approximately 0.50 ºC lower than the rectal temperature. In the control, US+low tPA, low tPA, US+high tPA and, high tPA groups, the infarct volume (% was 34.56±4.16, 17.09±6.72, 21.25±7.8, 13.5±10.72 and 20.61±6.17 (mean ±SD at 48 h after MCA occlusion, respectively. The results indicate that US alone reduces the infarct volume by 30% compared to that of the control group (P<0.05. US improved neurological deficits and reduced brain edema significantly (p<0.05. Conclusions: This study indicate that US appears to have a protective effect, alone and in combination with tPA, in an embolic model of stroke.

  1. Neuroprotective effects of xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), in ischemic stroke of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ting-Lin; Hsu, Chung-King; Lu, Wan-Jung; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Hsiao, George; Chou, Duen-Suey; Wu, Gong-Jhe; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2012-02-29

    Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid in hops (Humulus lupulus L.), an ingredient of beer. Xanthohumol was found to be a potent chemopreventive agent; however, no data are available concerning its neuroprotective effects. In the present study, the neuroprotective activity and mechanisms of xanthohumol in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemia were examined. Treatment with xanthohumol (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg; intraperitoneally) 10 min before MCAO dose-dependently attenuated focal cerebral ischemia and improved neurobehavioral deficits in cerebral ischemic rats. Xanthohumol treatment produced a marked reduction in infarct size compared to that in control rats. MCAO-induced focal cerebral ischemia was associated with increases in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and active caspase-3 protein expressions in ischemic regions. These expressions were obviously inhibited by treatment with xanthohumol. In addition, xanthohumol (3-70 μM) concentration-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen (1 μg/mL) in human platelet-rich plasma. An electron spin resonance (ESR) method was used to examine the scavenging activity of xanthohumol on free radicals which had formed. Xanthohumol (1.5 and 3 μM) markedly reduced the ESR signal intensity of hydroxyl radical (OH•) formation in the H₂O₂/NaOH/DMSO system. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that in addition to its originally being considered an agent preventing tumor growth, xanthohumol possesses potent neuroprotective activity. This activity is mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of inflammatory responses (i.e., HIF-1α, iNOS expression, and free radical formation), apoptosis (i.e., TNF-α, active caspase-3), and platelet activation, resulting in a reduction of infarct volume and improvement in neurobehavior in rats with cerebral ischemia. Therefore, this

  2. Protective effects and potential mechanisms of Pien Tze Huang on cerebral chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke

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    Kwong Wing

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke caused by brain ischemia is the third leading cause of adult disability. Active prevention and early treatment of stroke targeting the causes and risk factors may decrease its incidence, mortality and subsequent disability. Pien Tze Huang (PZH, a Chinese medicine formula, was found to have anti-edema, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects that can prevent brain damage. This study aims to investigate the potential mechanisms of the preventive effects of Pien Tze Huang on brain damage caused by chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke in rats. Methods The effects of Pien Tze Huang on brain protein expression in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR and stroke prone SHR (SHRsp were studied with 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometer and on brain cell death with enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA and immunostaining. Results Pien Tze Huang decreased cell death in hippocampus and cerebellum caused by chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke. Immunostaining of caspase-3 results indicated that Pien Tze Huang prevents brain cells from apoptosis caused by ischemia. Brain protein expression results suggested that Pien Tze Huang downregulated QCR2 in the electron transfer chain of mitochondria preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS damage and possibly subsequent cell death (caspase 3 assay as caused by chronic ischemia or hypertensive stroke to hippocampus and cerebellum. Conclusion Pien Tze Huang showed preventive effects on limiting the damage or injury caused by chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke in rats. The effect of Pien Tze Huang was possibly related to prevention of cell death from apoptosis or ROS/oxidative damage in mitochondria.

  3. Delayed perfusion phenomenon in a rat stroke model at 1.5 T MR: An imaging sign parallel to spontaneous reperfusion and ischemic penumbra?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Feng [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Radiology, Zhong Da Hospital, Southeast University, 87 Ding Jia Qiao Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China); Suzuki, Yasuhiro [Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Pharmacology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, 431-3192 Hamamatsu (Japan); Nagai, Nobuo [Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Sun Xihe [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Radiology, the Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261031, Shandong Province (China); Coudyzer, Walter [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Yu Jie [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Marchal, Guy [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Ni Yicheng [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium)]. E-mail: Yicheng.Ni@med.kuleuven.ac.be

    2007-01-15

    Introduction: Delayed perfusion (DP) sign at MR imaging was reported in stroke patients. We sought to experimentally elucidate its relation to spontaneous reperfusion and ischemic penumbra. Methods: Stroke was induced by photothrombotic occlusion of middle cerebral artery in eight rats and studied up to 72 h using a 1.5 T MR scanner with T2 weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion weighted imaging (DSC-PWI). Relative signal intensity (rSI), relative lesion volume (rLV), relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), PWI{sub rLV}-DWI{sub rLV} mismatch (penumbra) and DP{sub rLV} were quantified and correlated with neurological deficit score (NDS), triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, microangiography (MA) and histopathology. Results: The rSI and rLV characterized this stroke model on different MRI sequences and time points. DSC-PWI reproduced cortical DP in all rats, where rCBF evolved from 88.9% at 1 h through 64.9% at 6 h to 136.3% at 72 h. The PWI{sub rLV}-DWI{sub rLV} mismatch reached 10 {+-} 5.4% at 1 h, remained positive through 12 h and decreased to -3.3 {+-} 4.5% at 72 h. The incidence and rLV of the DP were well correlated with those of the penumbra (p < 0.01, r {sup 2} = 0.85 and p < 0.0001, r {sup 2} = 0.96, respectively). Shorter DP durations and more collateral arterioles occurred in rats without (n = 4) than with (n = 4) cortex involvement (p < 0.05). Rats without cortex involvement tended to earlier reperfusion and a lower NDS. Microscopy confirmed MRI, MA and TTC findings. Conclusions: In this rat stroke model, we reproduced clinically observed DP on DSC-PWI, confirmed spontaneous reperfusion, and identified the penumbra extending to 12 h post-ischemia, which appeared interrelated.

  4. Dieta hiperlipídica com farinha de soja como fonte proteica: utilização na seleção de ratos propensos e resistentes à obesidade High-fat diet using soybean meal as protein source: use for selecting rats prone and resistant to obesity

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    Ludimila Canuto Cabeço

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver uma dieta hiperlipídica de baixo custo, tendo farinha de soja como fonte proteica, que seja eficiente na seleção de ratos propensos e resistentes à obesidade e que permita alcançar fenótipo obeso nos animais propensos. Além desses requisitos, a dieta deve ser palatável e não rejeitada a curto prazo pelo animal. MÉTODOS: A dieta proposta foi obtida misturando-se leite condensado (15,5%, amendoim (18,5%, farinha de soja (20,0%, óleo de milho (6,0%, ração Bio Tec (30,0% e bolacha wafer de chocolate (10,0%. A mistura foi peletizada e submetida à análise bromatológica. A dieta foi ofertada a ratos Wistar durante uma semana; posteriormente, os animais foram divididos em três grupos, de acordo com o ganho de peso. O terço superior foi considerado propenso à obesidade e o terço inferior, resistente à obesidade. Após 80 dias de oferta da dieta, os animais foram sacrificados e foram quantificados o peso corpóreo, consumo alimentar, gorduras retroperitoneal, periepididimal, de carcaça e gorduras totais. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que a dieta apresentava 5,31kcal/g, com a seguinte composição: 22,3% de gordura, 22,2% de proteína, 15,9% de fibra, estimando-se 35,7% de carboidrato. Ratos propensos à obesidade, alimentados por 87 dias com a dieta hipercalórica, apresentaram peso corpóreo, gorduras retroperitoneal, periepididimal e totais significativamente maiores do que animais resistentes à obesidade (pOBJECTIVE: The objective was to develop a high-fat, low cost diet, using soybean meal as protein source. This diet should effectively discriminate between rats prone and resistant to obesity and allow the obese phenotype to be achieved in the animals that are prone to obesity. Furthermore, the diet must be palatable and not be rejected by the animal in the short run. METHODS: The chow was obtained by mixing the following ingredients: condensed milk (15.5%, peanuts (18.5%, soybean meal (20.0%, corn oil (6

  5. The effects of early insulin treatment combined with thrombolysis in rat embolic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meden, Per; Andersen, Martin; Overgaard, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of insulin alone or insulin combined with 30 min delayed thrombolytic therapy was investigated in rats embolized in the right hemisphere with a fibrin clot made from autologous blood. Animals were killed seven days after embolization and the infarct volumes were measured...... in % of the affected hemisphere. Mortality was calculated as the number of animals dying spontaneously before the scheduled euthanasia. The median infarct volume in control animals (n = 12) was 24%. Insulin (3 IU kg(-1)) was given subcutaneously 15 min, 3 h, and 24 h after embolization (n = 12) and reduced median......% (n = 14). The infarct volumes in the treatment groups were not significantly different from controls (p = 0.62, Kruskal Wallis test). Mortality rates increased from 0% among controls to 47% (p = 0.01) in the insulin alone and 38% (p = 0.02) in the combination therapy group. In conclusion, insulin...

  6. Progesterone attenuates hemorrhagic transformation after delayed tPA treatment in an experimental model of stroke in rats: involvement of the VEGF-MMP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Soonmi; Lee, Jin Hwan; Wali, Bushra; Stein, Donald G; Sayeed, Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only FDA-approved treatment for acute stroke, but its use remains limited. Progesterone (PROG) has shown neuroprotection in ischemia, but before clinical testing, we must determine how it affects hemorrhagic transformation in tPA-treated ischemic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion with reperfusion at 4.5 hours and tPA treatment at 4.5 hours, or PROG treatment intraperitoneally at 2 hours followed by subcutaneous injection at 6 hours post occlusion. Rats were killed at 24 hours and brains evaluated for cerebral hemorrhage, swelling, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor level (VEGF), and tight junction (TJ) proteins. We also evaluated PROG's efficacy in preventing tPA-induced impairment of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and TJ proteins under hypoxia/reoxygenation in the endothelial cells. Delayed tPA treatment induced significant hemorrhagic conversion and brain swelling. Treatment with PROG plus tPA ameliorated hemorrhage, hemispheric swelling, BBB permeability, MMP-9 induction, and VEGF levels compared with controls. Progesterone treatment significantly prevented tPA-induced decrease in TEER and expression of occludin and claudin-5, and attenuated VEGF levels in culture media subjected to hypoxia. The study concluded that PROG may extend the time window for tPA administration in ischemic stroke and reduce hemorrhagic conversion.

  7. Neuroprotective efficacy and therapeutic window of curcuma oil: in rat embolic stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohare, Preeti; Garg, Puja; Sharma, Uma; Jagannathan, N R; Ray, Madhur

    2008-09-30

    Among the naturally occurring compounds, turmeric from the dried rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa has long been used extensively as a condiment and a household remedy all over Southeast Asia. Turmeric contains essential oil, yellow pigments (curcuminoids), starch and oleoresin. The present study was designed for investigating the neuroprotective efficacy and the time window for effective therapeutic use of Curcuma oil (C. oil). In the present study, the effect of post ischemic treatment of C.oil after ischemia induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat was observed. C.oil (500 mg/kg body wt) was given 4 hrs post ischemia. The significant effect on lesion size as visualized by using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and neuroscore was still evident when treatment was started 4 hours after insult. Animals were assessed for behavioral deficit scores after 5 and 24 hours of ischemia. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed for evaluation of infarct and edema volumes and other parameters. C.oil ameliorated the ischemia induced neurological functional deficits and the infarct and edema volumes measured after 5 and 24 hrs of ischemia. After 24 hrs, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of iNOS, cytochrome c and Bax/Bcl-2 were altered after the insult, and antagonized by treatment with C.oil. C.oil significantly reduced nitrosative stress, tended to correct the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and also affected caspase-3 activation finally apoptosis. Here we demonstrated that iNOS-derived NO produced during ischemic injury was crucial for the up-regulation of ischemic injury targets. C.oil down-regulates these targets this coincided with an increased survival rate of neurons.

  8. Neuroprotective efficacy and therapeutic window of curcuma oil: in rat embolic stroke model

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    Jagannathan NR

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the naturally occurring compounds, turmeric from the dried rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa has long been used extensively as a condiment and a household remedy all over Southeast Asia. Turmeric contains essential oil, yellow pigments (curcuminoids, starch and oleoresin. The present study was designed for investigating the neuroprotective efficacy and the time window for effective therapeutic use of Curcuma oil (C. oil. Method In the present study, the effect of post ischemic treatment of C.oil after ischemia induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat was observed. C.oil (500 mg/kg body wt was given 4 hrs post ischemia. The significant effect on lesion size as visualized by using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and neuroscore was still evident when treatment was started 4 hours after insult. Animals were assessed for behavioral deficit scores after 5 and 24 hours of ischemia. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed for evaluation of infarct and edema volumes and other parameters. Results C.oil ameliorated the ischemia induced neurological functional deficits and the infarct and edema volumes measured after 5 and 24 hrs of ischemia. After 24 hrs, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of iNOS, cytochrome c and Bax/Bcl-2 were altered after the insult, and antagonized by treatment with C.oil. C.oil significantly reduced nitrosative stress, tended to correct the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and also affected caspase-3 activation finally apoptosis. Conclusion Here we demonstrated that iNOS-derived NO produced during ischemic injury was crucial for the up-regulation of ischemic injury targets. C.oil down-regulates these targets this coincided with an increased survival rate of neurons.

  9. Failure of delayed and prolonged hypothermia to favorably affect hemorrhagic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLellan, Crystal; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Colbourne, Frederick

    2002-12-20

    Prolonged hypothermia reduces global and focal cerebral ischemic injury in rodents even when delayed for hours. However, it is not known whether hypothermia can reduce injury following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Accordingly, we studied striatal injury and concomitant motor deficits after 2 days of hypothermia, induced 1 h after creation of an ICH by infusion of bacterial collagenase. Rats were first trained to retrieve food pellets in the Montoya staircase task. They were then implanted with core temperature telemetry probes and later subjected to normothermic ICH or sham operation (vehicle injection). Half self-regulated temperature after surgery; others were cooled to 33 degrees C (24 h) and then 35 degrees C (24 h). Hypothermia did not affect behavioral scores of sham animals (89.8% of baseline in staircase test) or histology. Untreated (normothermic) ICH rats lost 23.1 mm(3) of tissue at a 1-month survival, which significantly impaired food pellet retrieval (66.0% retrieval) with the contralateral limb (tested on days 21-25). Contrary to our hypothesis, hypothermia failed to lessen either the reaching impairment (62.8%) or the lesion (22.2 mm(3)). While other hemorrhagic insults or complications may be improved with hypothermia, our data suggest that it will not salvage tissue that is quickly lost after ICH. We also assessed walking across a horizontal ladder and spontaneous paw usage in a cylinder test at 1-4 weeks after ICH, but neither test was sufficiently sensitive to this mild insult. This indicates that skilled reaching is more severely disrupted than spontaneous paw usage or walking after a striatal hemorrhage.

  10. Neuroprotective efficacy and therapeutic window of curcuma oil: in rat embolic stroke model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohare, Preeti; Garg, Puja; sharma, Uma; Jagannathan, NR; Ray, Madhur

    2008-01-01

    Background Among the naturally occurring compounds, turmeric from the dried rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa has long been used extensively as a condiment and a household remedy all over Southeast Asia. Turmeric contains essential oil, yellow pigments (curcuminoids), starch and oleoresin. The present study was designed for investigating the neuroprotective efficacy and the time window for effective therapeutic use of Curcuma oil (C. oil). Method In the present study, the effect of post ischemic treatment of C.oil after ischemia induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat was observed. C.oil (500 mg/kg body wt) was given 4 hrs post ischemia. The significant effect on lesion size as visualized by using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and neuroscore was still evident when treatment was started 4 hours after insult. Animals were assessed for behavioral deficit scores after 5 and 24 hours of ischemia. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed for evaluation of infarct and edema volumes and other parameters. Results C.oil ameliorated the ischemia induced neurological functional deficits and the infarct and edema volumes measured after 5 and 24 hrs of ischemia. After 24 hrs, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of iNOS, cytochrome c and Bax/Bcl-2 were altered after the insult, and antagonized by treatment with C.oil. C.oil significantly reduced nitrosative stress, tended to correct the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and also affected caspase-3 activation finally apoptosis. Conclusion Here we demonstrated that iNOS-derived NO produced during ischemic injury was crucial for the up-regulation of ischemic injury targets. C.oil down-regulates these targets this coincided with an increased survival rate of neurons. PMID:18826584

  11. An optimized dosing regimen of cimaglermin (neuregulin 1β3, glial growth factor 2) enhances molecular markers of neuroplasticity and functional recovery after permanent ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaci, Jennifer F; Parry, Tom J; Huang, Zhihong; Pavlopoulos, Elias; Finklestein, Seth P; Ren, Jingmei; Caggiano, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Cimaglermin (neuregulin 1β3, glial growth factor 2) is a neuregulin growth factor family member in clinical development for chronic heart failure. Previously, in a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) rat stroke model, systemic cimaglermin treatment initiated up to 7 days after ischemia onset promoted recovery without reduced lesion volume. Presented here to extend the evidence are two studies that use a rat stroke model to evaluate the effects of cimaglermin dose level and dose frequency initiated 24 hr after pMCAO. Forelimb- and hindlimb-placing scores (proprioceptive behavioral tests), body-swing symmetry, and infarct volume were compared between treatment groups (n = 12/group). Possible mechanisms underlying cimaglermin-mediated neurologic recovery were examined through axonal growth and synapse formation histological markers. Cimaglermin was evaluated over a wider dose range (0.02, 0.1, or 1.0 mg/kg) than doses previously shown to be effective but used the same dosing regimen (2 weeks of daily intravenous administration, then 1 week without treatment). The dose-frequency study used the dose-ranging study's most effective dose (1.0 mg/kg) to compare daily, once per week, and twice per week dosing for 3 weeks (then 1 week without treatment). Dose- and frequency-dependent functional improvements were observed with cimaglermin without reduced lesion volume. Cimaglermin treatment significantly increased growth-associated protein 43 expression in both hemispheres (particularly somatosensory and motor cortices) and also increased synaptophysin expression. These data indicate that cimaglermin enhances recovery after stroke. Immunohistochemical changes were consistent with axonal sprouting and synapse formation but not acute neuroprotection. Cimaglermin represents a potential clinical development candidate for ischemic stroke treatment. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The effect of pre-nutrition of hydroalcoholic extractof Origanum vulgare on brain edema and neurologic deficits in a rat stroke model

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    Meysam Foroozandeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stroke is one of the most important factors of mortality and disability in the world. Free radicals are produced following ischemic stroke and they play a central role in breaking the blood-brain barrier and  causing brain edema formation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of hydro- alcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare on brain edema and neurologic deficit in a rat stroke model. Materials and Methods: In thisexperimental study, 35 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups.  The first  two groups (control and Sham received distilled water, while three treatment groups received oral Origanum vulgare extract for 30days (50,75and 100 mg/kgdaily, respectively.  Two hours after the last dose of Origanum vulgare extract,each main group underwent  a 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion.  Then, the assessment of blood brain edema, and neurologic deficits analysis were done . Brain edema (brain water content was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA using LSD method and neurologic deficits analysis by means of Mann-Whitney U, and P<0.05 was taken as the significant level. Results: Origanum vulgare extract reduced brain edema in the experimental groups of 50 (82.49±0.47, 75 (80.89±0.63 and 100 mg/kg/day (80.80±0.66 compared to the control group (84.46±0.67. The neurologic deficit scores in the experimental groups of 75and 100mg/kg/day, compared with control group, but neurologic deficit scores did not affect the group receiving the dose 50 mg/kg. Conclusion:  The obtained data indicate that Origanum vulgar extract via reduction of brain edema and neurologic deficits scorescan have a protective effect on the stroke model.

  13. Fibroblast Growth Factor Type 1 (FGF1)-Overexpressed Adipose-Derived Mesenchaymal Stem Cells (AD-MSCFGF1) Induce Neuroprotection and Functional Recovery in a Rat Stroke Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazavi, Hamed; Hoseini, Seyed Javad; Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan, Alireza; Mashkani, Baratali; Mehri, Soghra; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadri, Kayvan; Mahdipour, Elahe; Ghasemi, Faezeh; Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Hoseini, Azar; Pasdar, Ali Reza; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2017-10-01

    Stroke, as the second most common cause of death, imposes a great financial burden on both the individual and society. Mesenchymal stem cells from rodents have demonstrated efficacy in experimental animal models of stroke due to enhanced neurological recovery. Since FGF1 (fibroblast growth factor 1) displays neuroprotective properties, for the first time, we investigated the effect of acute intravenous administration of FGF1 gene transfected adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (AD-MSC FGF1 ) on transient experimental ischemic stroke in rats. Stroke induction was made by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). 2 × 10 6  AD-MSC FGF1 was administrated intravenously 30 min after carotid reperfusion. The ability of technetium 99m -hexamethyl propylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO)-labeled AD-MSC FGF1 to enter into ischemic brain was evaluated 2 h post injection. 24 h post operation, the neurological recovery (rotarod and Roger's tests), the infarct volume (2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, TTC assay), apoptosis rate (TUNEL assay), and the expression of FGF1 protein (western blotting) in the ischemic hemisphere were assessed. The 99m Tc-HMPAO-labeled AD-MSC FGF1 could enter into the ischemic brain. Ischemic hemisphere activity was significantly higher than that observed in the contralateral hemisphere (p = 0.002). The administration of AD-MSC FGF1 resulted in significant improvement of neurological function tests and increased density of FGF1 protein in the peri-infarct area, while the infarct volume and the apoptotic index were significantly decreased, in comparison to the other treated groups. In conclusion, acute intravenous administration of AD-MSC FGF1 can be a novel and promising candidate approach for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of blood-brain barrier permeability in ischemic stroke using diffusion-weighted arterial spin labeling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Yash V; Lu, Jianfei; Shen, Qiang; Cerqueira, Bianca; Duong, Timothy Q

    2017-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging has recently been proposed to quantify the rate of water exchange (K w ) across the blood-brain barrier in humans. This study aimed to evaluate the blood-brain barrier disruption in transient (60 min) ischemic stroke using K w magnetic resonance imaging with cross-validation by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue histology in the same rats. The major findings were: (i) at 90 min after stroke (30 min after reperfusion), group K w magnetic resonance imaging data showed no significant blood-brain barrier permeability changes, although a few animals showed slightly abnormal K w . Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed this finding in the same animals. (ii) At two days after stroke, K w magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant blood-brain barrier disruption. Regions with abnormal K w showed substantial overlap with regions of hyperintense T 2 (vasogenic edema) and hyperperfusion. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue histology confirmed these findings in the same animals. The K w values in the normal contralesional hemisphere and the ipsilesional ischemic core two days after stroke were: 363 ± 17 and 261 ± 18 min -1 , respectively (P < 0.05, n = 9). K w magnetic resonance imaging is sensitive to blood-brain barrier permeability changes in stroke, consistent with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue extravasation. K w magnetic resonance imaging offers advantages over existing techniques because contrast agent is not needed and repeated measurements can be made for longitudinal monitoring or averaging.

  15. In vivo evaluation of urokinase-loaded hollow nanogels for sonothrombolysis on suture embolization-induced acute ischemic stroke rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Yuming Teng; Haiqiang Jin; Ding Nan; Mengnan Li; Chenghe Fan; Yuanyuan Liu; Pu Lv; Wei Cui; Yongan Sun; Hongjun Hao; Xiaozhong Qu; Zhenzhong Yang; Yining Huang

    2018-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) loaded hollow nanogels (nUK) were synthesized by a one-step reaction of glycol chitosan and aldehyde capped poly (ethylene oxide). The resultant formulation is sensitive to diagnostic ultrasound (US) of 2 MHz. Herein, we evaluated the in vivo sonothrombolysis performance of the nUK on acute ischemic stroke rat model which was established by suture embolization of middle cerebral artery (MCA). Via intravenous (i.v.) administration, the experimenta...

  16. Roles of electro-acupuncture in glucose metabolism as assessed by 18F-FDG/PET imaging and AMPKα phosphorylation in rats with ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingsong; Lin, Bingbing; Liu, Weilin; Huang, Jia; Shang, Guanhao; Lin, Yunjiao; Wang, Lulu; Chen, Lidian; Tao, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Targeted energy metabolism balance contributes to neural survival during ischemic stroke. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that electro‑acupuncture (EA) can enhance cerebral glucose metabolism assessed by 18F‑fluorodeoxyglucose/positron emission tomography (18F‑FDG/PET) imaging to prevent propagation of tissue damage and improve neurological outcome in rats subjected to ischemia and reperfusion injury. Rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and received EA treatment at the LI11 and ST36 acupoints or non‑acupoint treatment once a day for 7 days. After EA treatment, a significant reduction in the infarct volume was determined by T2‑weighted imaging, accompanied by the functional recovery in CatWalk and Rota-rod performance. Moreover, EA promoted higher glucose metabolism in the caudate putamen (CPu), motor cortex (MCTX), somatosensory cortex (SCTX) regions as assessed by animal 18F‑FDG/PET imaging, suggesting that three‑brain regional neural activity was enhanced by EA. In addition, the AMP‑activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) in the CPu, MCTX and SCTX regions was phosphorylated at threonine 172 (Thr172) after ischemic injury; however, phosphorylation of AMPK was further increased by EA. These results indicate that EA could promote AMPKα phosphorylation of the CPu, MCTX and SCTX regions to enhance neural activity and motor functional recovery after ischemic stroke.

  17. Determination of endogenous inflammation-related lipid mediators in ischemic stroke rats using background subtracting calibration curves by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhong, Qisheng; Mo, Canlong; Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Ting; Tan, Wen

    2017-11-01

    Accurate and reliable quantification of endogenous lipid mediators in complex biological samples is a daunting challenge. In this study, a robust and direct endogenous quantitative method using background subtracting calibration curves by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was first developed for the determination of endogenous lipid mediators in ischemic stroke rats. Absolute quantification without surrogate matrix could be achieved by using background subtracting calibration curves, which were corrected and verified from standard curves constructed on original matrix. The recoveries of this method were in the range of 50.3-98.3%, the precision with the relative standard deviation was less than 13.8%, and the accuracy with the relative error was within ± 15.0%. In addition, background subtracting calibration curves were further verified by validation factors ranging from 90.3 to 110.9%. This validated method has been successfully applied to the analysis of seven endogenous inflammation-related lipid mediators in the brain tissues of ischemic stroke rats. The results indicated that prostaglandins as inflammatory factors and some lipid mediators with neuroprotective effects increased apparently (p endogenous compounds in the complex biological samples. Graphical abstract The analysis procedure of determining endogenous inflammation-related lipid mediators using BSCC by LC-MS/MS.

  18. A rat model of reproducible cerebral infarction using thrombotic blood clot emboli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, K.; Sereghy, T.; Boysen, G.

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, experimental thromboembolism, stroke, blood flow, in vitro thrombotic clotting, cerebral infarction, rat......Neuropathology, experimental thromboembolism, stroke, blood flow, in vitro thrombotic clotting, cerebral infarction, rat...

  19. Transcriptomics of Post-Stroke Angiogenesis in the Aged Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Buga, Ana Maria; Margaritescu, Claudiu; Scholz, Claus Juergen; Radu, Eugen; Zelenak, Christine; Popa-Wagner, Aurel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the obvious clinical significance of post-stroke angiogenesis in aged subjects, a detailed transcriptomic analysis of post-stroke angiogenesis has not yet been undertaken in an aged experimental model. In this study, by combining stroke transcriptomics with immunohistochemistry in aged rats and post-stroke patients, we sought to identify an age-specific gene expression pattern that may characterize the angiogenic process after stroke. We found that both young and old infarcted rats in...

  20. Bipyridine, an iron chelator, does not lessen intracerebral iron-induced damage or improve outcome after intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliaperumal, Jayalakshmi; Wowk, Shannon; Jones, Sarah; Ma, Yonglie; Colbourne, Frederick

    2013-12-01

    Iron chelators, such as the intracellular ferrous chelator 2,2'-bipyridine, are a potential means of ameliorating iron-induced injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We evaluated bipyridine against the collagenase and whole-blood ICH models and a simplified model of iron-induced damage involving a striatal injection of FeCl2 in adult rats. First, we assessed whether bipyridine (25 mg/kg beginning 12 h post-ICH and every 12 h for 3 days) would attenuate non-heme iron levels in the brain and lessen behavioral impairments (neurological deficit scale, corner turn test, and horizontal ladder) 7 days after collagenase-induced ICH. Second, we evaluated bipyridine (20 mg/kg beginning 6 h post-ICH and then every 24 h) on edema 3 days after collagenase infusion. Body temperature was continually recorded in a subset of these rats beginning 24 h prior to ICH until euthanasia. Third, bipyridine was administered (as per experiment 2) after whole-blood infusion to examine tissue loss, neuronal degeneration, and behavioral impairments at 7 days post-stroke, as well as body temperature for 3 days post-stroke. Finally, we evaluated whether bipyridine (25 mg/kg given 2 h prior to surgery and then every 12 h for 3 days) lessens tissue loss, neuronal death, and behavioral deficits after striatal FeCl2 injection. Bipyridine caused a significant hypothermic effect (maximum drop to 34.6 °C for 2-5 h after each injection) in both ICH models; however, in all experiments bipyridine-treated rats were indistinguishable from vehicle controls on all other measures (e.g., tissue loss, behavioral impairments, etc.). These results do not support the use of bipyridine against ICH.

  1. Functional Improvement after Photothrombotic Stroke in Rats Is Associated with Different Patterns of Dendritic Plasticity after G-CSF Treatment and G-CSF Treatment Combined with Concomitant or Sequential Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Frauenknecht

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF treatment alone, or in combination with constraint movement therapy (CIMT either sequentially or concomitantly, results in significantly improved sensorimotor recovery after photothrombotic stroke in rats in comparison to untreated control animals. CIMT alone did not result in any significant differences compared to the control group (Diederich et al., Stroke, 2012;43:185-192. Using a subset of rat brains from this former experiment the present study was designed to evaluate whether dendritic plasticity would parallel improved functional outcomes. Five treatment groups were analyzed (n = 6 each (i ischemic control (saline; (ii CIMT (CIMT between post-stroke days 2 and 11; (iii G-CSF (10 μg/kg G-CSF daily between post-stroke days 2 and 11; (iv combined concurrent group (CIMT plus G-CSF and (v combined sequential group (CIMT between post-stroke days 2 and 11; 10 μg/kg G-CSF daily between post-stroke days 12 and 21, respectively. After impregnation of rat brains with a modified Golgi-Cox protocol layer V pyramidal neurons in the peri-infarct cortex as well as the corresponding contralateral cortex were analyzed. Surprisingly, animals with a similar degree of behavioral recovery exhibited quite different patterns of dendritic plasticity in both peri-lesional and contralesional areas. The cause for these patterns is not easily to explain but puts the simple assumption that increased dendritic complexity after stroke necessarily results in increased functional outcome into perspective.

  2. Cerebrovascular recovery after stroke with individual and combined losartan and captopril treatment of SHRsp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeda, John S; Daneshtalab, Noriko

    2017-09-01

    We assessed whether the superior restoration of cerebrovascular function after hemorrhagic stroke by losartan versus captopril treatment was due to better BP, uremia, uricaemia, or aldosterone control in Kyoto Wistar stroke-prone-hypertensive rats and evaluated whether elevated angiotensin II (A2) levels enhanced the effectiveness of losartan treatment. Constriction was studied in the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) using a pressure myograph. Post-stroke survival increased from 21 to 310 and 189days respectively with losartan and captopril treatment. Neither treatment reduced BP, both reversed uremia and hyperaldosteronism equally after 7days. Plasma uric acid remained low. At stroke, MCA constriction to pressure (PDC), protein kinase C (PKC) activation, depolarization, and sarcoplasmic Ca 2+ were attenuated. Endothelial-dependent-vasodilation by bradykinin and endogenous NO release were lost. Both treatments recovered these functions within 7days. These functions deteriorated after 116days of captopril but not losartan treatment. Inhibiting A2 formation during losartan treatment didn't alter BP or vascular recovery. The superior recovery of PDC by losartan over captopril was not produced by better BP, uremia or aldosterone control or elevated A2. PDC recovery was associated with improved PKC function and enhanced basal NO release. The re-establishment of PDC could reduce cerebrovascular over-perfusion and hematoma expansion after stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of Novel Carbon Nanoparticle Antioxidant Therapy in a Severe Model of Reversible Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke in Acutely Hyperglycemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic H. Fabian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWhile oxidative stress can be measured during transient cerebral ischemia, antioxidant therapies for ischemic stroke have been clinically unsuccessful. Many antioxidants are limited in their range and/or capacity for quenching radicals and can generate toxic intermediates overwhelming depleted endogenous protection. We developed a new antioxidant class, 40 nm × 2 nm carbon nanoparticles, hydrophilic carbon clusters, conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol termed PEG-HCCs. These particles are high-capacity superoxide dismutase mimics, are effective against hydroxyl radical, and restore the balance between nitric oxide and superoxide in the vasculature. Here, we report the effects of PEG-HCCs administered during reperfusion after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO by suture in the rat under hyperglycemic conditions. Hyperglycemia occurs in one-third of stroke patients and worsens clinical outcome. In animal models, this worsening occurs largely by accelerating elaboration of reactive oxygen species (ROS during reperfusion.MethodsPEG-HCCs were studied for their protective ability against hydrogen peroxide in b.End3 brain endothelial cell line and E17 primary cortical neuron cultures. In vivo, hyperglycemia was induced by streptozotocin injection 2 days before tMCAO. 58 Male Sprague-Dawley rats were analyzed. They were injected IV with PBS or PEG-HCCs (4 mg/kg 2× at the time of recanalization after either 90- or 120-min occlusion. Rats were survived for up to 3 days, and infarct volume characteristics and neurological functional outcome (modified Bederson Score were assessed.ResultsPEG-HCCs were protective against hydrogen peroxide in both culture models. In vivo improvement was found after PEG-HCCs with 90-min ischemia with reduction in infarct size (42%, hemisphere swelling (46%, hemorrhage score (53%, and improvement in Bederson score (70% (p = 0.068–0.001. Early high mortality in the 2-h in the PBS

  4. Preventing stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hemorrhagic Stroke Ischemic Stroke Stroke Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  5. Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A stroke can cause lasting brain damage. People who survive a stroke need to relearn skills they lost because of ... them relearn those skills. The effects of a stroke depend on which area of the brain was ...

  6. In vivo evaluation of urokinase-loaded hollow nanogels for sonothrombolysis on suture embolization-induced acute ischemic stroke rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Teng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA loaded hollow nanogels (nUK were synthesized by a one-step reaction of glycol chitosan and aldehyde capped poly (ethylene oxide. The resultant formulation is sensitive to diagnostic ultrasound (US of 2 MHz. Herein, we evaluated the in vivo sonothrombolysis performance of the nUK on acute ischemic stroke rat model which was established by suture embolization of middle cerebral artery (MCA. Via intravenous (i.v. administration, the experimental data prove a controlled release of the therapeutic protein around the clots under ultrasound stimulation, leading to enhanced thrombolysis efficiency of the nUK, evidenced from smaller infarct volume and better clinical scores when compared to the i.v. dose of free uPA no matter with or without US intervention. Meanwhile, the preservation ability of the nanogels not only prolonged the circulation duration of the protein, but also resulted in the better blood-brain barrier protection of the nUK formulation, showing no increased risk on the hemorrhagic transformation than the controls. This work suggests that the nUK is a safe sonothrombolytic formulation for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

  7. Neuro-protective potential of a vesicular system of a standardized extract of a new chemotype of Withania somnifera Dunal (NMITLI118RT+) against cerebral stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hafsa; Khandelwal, Kiran; Samuel, Sheeba Saji; Tripathi, Shivangi; Mitra, Kalyan; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Shukla, Rakesh; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Withania somnifera Dunal is an Indian medicinal plant with significant pharmacological properties, such as adaptogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-platelet, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Several chemotypes of W. somnifera include NMITLI-101, NMITLI-118 and NMITLI-128. The present work elaborates the optimization and development of a liposomal delivery system for efficient delivery of NMITLI118RT+ [a standardized ethanolic extract of a new chemotype of W. somnifera Dunal (NMITLI-118) roots] against cerebral stroke in rats. Liposomal systems were prepared using thin-film hydration method and characterized on the basis of size, zeta potential, physical stability, FT-IR, DSC-TGA analysis and surface morphological studies by TEM. NMITLI118RT+ and its formulations (NMITLI118RT+LF) were evaluated for biological activity utilizing middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats. The Z average of the developed liposomal formulation was about 142.6 ± 0.09 nm with a zeta potential of -31.20 ± 1.0 mV. Results of TEM revealed spherical particles in the range of 200 nm. The entrapment efficiency was found to be 94.603 ± 2%. The formulation was found to be physically stable over a 3-week period. Results were suggestive of the fact that both NMITLI118RT+ and its delivery system possess significant neuroprotective activity in cerebral ischemia. The liposomal system largely exhibits better performance over NMITLI118RT+ precisely in the post-treatment group. The present studies could elucidate the successful development of a delivery system for NMITLI118RT+ and demonstrate their beneficial neuro-protective potential in overcoming and reversing the consequences of I/R injury following stroke.

  8. D-amphetamine improves cognitive deficits and physical therapy promotes fine motor rehabilitation in a rat embolic stroke model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, K; Hildebrandt-Eriksen, E S

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of D-amphetamine (D-amph) and physical therapy separately or combined on fine motor performance, gross motor performance and cognition after middle cerebral artery thromboembolization in rats. METHODS: Seventy-four rats...

  9. Paediatric stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-02

    Apr 2, 2011 ... Ischemic Stroke Registry yielded an incidence of 3.3 cases per 100 000 children per year, of ... Neonatal stroke. The newborn period confers the highest risk period for childhood ischaemic stroke. Focal patterns of ischaemic brain injury to the perinatal brain are .... family history of young stroke/ thrombosis.

  10. In vivo bioimpedance measurement of healthy and ischaemic rat brain: implications for stroke imaging using electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowrick, T; Blochet, C; Holder, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to facilitate the imaging of haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke using frequency difference electrical impedance tomography (EIT), impedance measurements of normal and ischaemic brain, and clotted blood during haemorrhage, were gathered using a four-terminal technique in an in vivo animal model, a first for ischaemic measurements. Differences of 5–10% in impedance were seen between the frequency spectrums of healthy and ischaemic brain, over the frequency range 0–3 kHz, while the spectrum of blood was predominately uniform. The implications of imaging blood/ischaemia in the brain using electrical impedance tomography are discussed, supporting the notion that it will be possible to differentiate stroke from haemorrhage. (paper)

  11. In vivo bioimpedance measurement of healthy and ischaemic rat brain: implications for stroke imaging using electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowrick, T; Blochet, C; Holder, D

    2015-06-01

    In order to facilitate the imaging of haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke using frequency difference electrical impedance tomography (EIT), impedance measurements of normal and ischaemic brain, and clotted blood during haemorrhage, were gathered using a four-terminal technique in an in vivo animal model, a first for ischaemic measurements. Differences of 5-10% in impedance were seen between the frequency spectrums of healthy and ischaemic brain, over the frequency range 0-3 kHz, while the spectrum of blood was predominately uniform. The implications of imaging blood/ischaemia in the brain using electrical impedance tomography are discussed, supporting the notion that it will be possible to differentiate stroke from haemorrhage.

  12. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 3. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India ... Thus classification of TC hazard proneness of the coastal districts is very essential for planning and preparedness aspects of management of TCs. So, an attempt has been made to classify TC hazard ...

  13. Do clinical assessments, steady-state or daily-life gait characteristics predict falls in ambulatory chronic stroke survivors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Michiel; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Wittink, Harriet; van de Port, Ingrid G.; Van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory study investigated to what extent gait characteristics and clinical physical therapy assessments predict falls in chronic stroke survivors. Design: Prospective study. Subjects: Chronic fall-prone and non-fall-prone stroke survivors. Methods: Steady-state gait

  14. Effects of the Treatment with ‍Nigella sativa Oil on Brain Injury and Edema in Experimental Model of Stroke in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Panahpour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Stroke is third leading cause of death and disability in the most of human communities. The use of herbs and medicinal plants in different countries is increasing. Today, herbal medicine is used as alternative or complementary therapies with a fewer side effects. Nigella sativa has a rich medical and religious history. Oxidative stress has important role in the pathophysiology of stroke. As Nigella sativa has antioxidant effects, its administration may produce a protective effect against complications of this disease. We examined the effects of the treatment with Nigella sativa oil on the cerebral infarction and edema. Methods: 48 Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, sham, control ischemic and Nigella sativa oil treated (2 ml/kg ischemic groups. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 90-min-long occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery followed by 24-h-long reperfusion. Neurological deficit score was evaluated at the end of the reperfusion period. Thereafter, the animals were randomly selected and used for two projects: (i Measurement of the infarct volumes and neurological outcome (ii investigation of ischemic brain edema formation using a wet/dry method. Results: Induction of cerebral ischemia in the control group produced considerable brain infarction in conjunction with impaired motor functions and severely brain edema. Treatment with Nigella sativa oil significantly reduced the infarct volume and improved the motor functions. The water content in the left (lesioned hemisphere was considerably elevated in the control ischemic group. Administration of the Nigella sativa oil significantly lowered the water content in the ischemic lesioned hemisphere. Conclusion: Treatment with Nigella sativa oil can noticeably decrease the ischemic brain injury, attenuate edema formation and improve motor disabilities.

  15. Effects of Wuling capsule on learning and memory disorder induced by post-stroke depression in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-chun LI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effects of Wuling capsule on learning and memory disorder induced by post-troke depression(PSD in rats,and examine the relationship between the changes in cognitive function and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF in hippocampus.Methods Forty male adult SD rats were randomly divided into four groups(10 each: untreated control group,model group,escitalopram treatment group and Wuling treatment group.All rats,except those in the untreated control group,underwent a paradigm of 3-week consecutive chronic unpredictable mild stress(CMS followed by selective right middle cerebral artery embolism to induce PSD.The sucrose preference was introduced to evaluate the level of depression and the spatial learning,and memory functions were detected using Morris water maze test.The expression of BDNF was analyzed by Western blotting.Results The cognitive function and hippocampal BDNF expression were significantly lower in model rats than in the untreated control group and the two treatment groups(P < 0.05.When escitalopram was administered once daily to the model rats at a dose of 0.2mg/(kg·d for 21 days along with the procedure of CMS,the depressed behavior was improved with BDNF protein expression rose from 0.41±0.07 to 0.86±0.09.Similar effects were found after treatment with Wuling capsule [100mg/(kg·d],except that the lower BDNF expression was not changed.Conclusion Wuling capsule can improve the learning and memory function in PSD rats,bat this effect is not related to the changes in BDNF expression in hippocampus.

  16. Severe Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption in Cardioembolic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Liu; Feina Shi; Zhicai Chen; Shenqiang Yan; Xinfa Ding; Min Lou

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundPrevious studies demonstrated that cardioembolism (CE) was prone to develop hemorrhagic transformation (HT), whereas hyper-permeability of blood–brain barrier (BBB) might be one reason for the development of HT. We, thus, aimed to investigate whether the BBB permeability (BBBP) was higher in CE stroke than other stroke subtypes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients.MethodsThis study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected clinical and imaging database of AIS patients...

  17. Shame-proneness in attempted suicide patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy controls. Methods The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA), which is the most used measure of shame-proneness, was completed by attempted suicide patients (n = 175: 105 women and 3 men with borderline personality disorder [BPD], 45 women and 22 men without BPD), non-suicidal psychiatric patients (n = 162), and healthy controls (n = 161). The participants were convenience samples, with patients from three clinical research projects and healthy controls from a fourth research project. The relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide was studied with group comparisons and multiple regressions. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results Women were generally more shame-prone than men of the same participant group. Female suicide attempters with BPD were significantly more shame-prone than both female suicide attempters without BPD and female non-suicidal patients and controls. Male suicide attempters without BPD were significantly less shame-prone than non-suicidal male patients. In multiple regressions, shame-proneness was predicted by level of depression and BPD (but not by attempted suicide) in female patients, and level of depression and non-suicidality in male patients. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis and related previous research, there was no general relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide. Shame-proneness was differentially related to attempted suicide in different groups of suicide attempters, with significantly high

  18. Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Giving Fundraise Planned Giving Corporate Giving Cause Marketing Join your team, your way! The Stroke Challenge ... Your Technology Guide High Blood Pressure and Stroke Importance of Physical Activity See More Multimedia Las minorías ...

  19. Stroke - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100218.htm Stroke - series—Part 1 To use the sharing features ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Ischemic Stroke A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  20. An experimental test of stroke recovery by implanting a hyaluronic acid hydrogel carrying a Nogo receptor antibody in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jun [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tian Weiming [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Hou Shaoping [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100054 (China); Xu Qunyuan [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100054 (China); Spector, Myron [Tissue Engineering, VA Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cui Fuzhai [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2007-12-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of a hyaluronic-acid-based (HA-based) hydrogel implant, carrying a polyclonal antibody to the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR), on adult rats that underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Behavioral tests of a forelimb-reaching task suggested that the disabled function of the impaired forelimb in this stroke model was ameliorated by the implant to a certain extent. These behavioral findings were correlated with immunohistochemical results of investigating the distribution of NgR antibody, neurofilaments (NF) and neuron-specific class III {beta}-tubulin (TuJ1) in the brain sections. The porous hydrogel functioned as a scaffold to deliver the NgR antibody, support cell migration and development. In addition, it was found NF-positive and TuJ1-positive expressions were distributed in the implanted hydrogel. Collectively, the results demonstrate the promise of the HA hydrogel as a scaffold material and the delivery vehicle of the NgR antibody for the repair of defects and the support of neural regeneration in the brain.

  1. Interrelations between blood-brain barrier permeability and matrix metalloproteinases are differently affected by tissue plasminogen activator and hyperoxia in a rat model of embolic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In ischemic stroke, blood-brain barrier (BBB regulations, typically involving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and inhibitors (TIMPs as mediators, became interesting since tissue plasminogen activator (tPA-related BBB breakdown with risk of secondary hemorrhage was considered to involve these mediators too. Despite high clinical relevance, detailed interactions are purely understood. After a pilot study addressing hyperoxia as potential neuroprotective co-treatment to tPA, we analyzed interrelations between BBB permeability (BBB-P, MMPs and TIMPs. Findings Rats underwent embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (eMCAO and treatment with normobaric (NBO or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO, tPA, tPA+HBO, or no treatment. BBB-P was assessed by intravenously applied FITC-albumin at 4 or 24 hours. MMP-2/-9 and TIMP-1/-2 serum levels were determined at 5 or 25 hours. Time point-corrected partial correlations were used to explore interrelations of BBB-P in ischemic regions (extra-/intravasal FITC-albumin ratio and related serum markers. BBB-P correlated positively with MMP-2 and MMP-9 in controls, whereas hyperoxia led to an inverse association, most pronounced for HBO/MMP-9 (r = -0.606; P Conclusions HBO was found to reverse the positively directed interrelation of BBB-P and MMPs after eMCAO, but this effect failed to sustain in the expected amount when HBO and tPA were given simultaneously.

  2. Cryptogenic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saadatnia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptogenic stroke is defined as brain infarction that is not attributable to a source of definite embolism, large artery atherosclerosis, or small artery disease despite a thorough vascular, cardiac, and serologic evaluation. Despite many advances in our understanding of ischemic stroke, cryptogenic strokes remain a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The pathophysiology of cryptogenic stroke is likely various. Probable mechanisms include cardiac embolism secondary to occult paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, aortic atheromatous disease or other cardiac sources, paradoxical embolism from atrial septal abnormalities such as patent foramen ovale, hypercoagulable states, and preclinical or subclinical cerebrovascular disease.  Cryptogenic stroke is one-fourth among cerebral infarction, but most of them could be ascribed to embolic stroke. A significant proportion of cryptogenic strokes adhere to embolic infarct topography on brain imaging and improvement in our ability to detect paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with cryptogenic stroke has strengthened the idea that these strokes are embolic in nature. a significant proportion of cryptogenic strokes adhere to embolic infarct topography on brain imaging.embolic stroke of undetermined sources(ESUS was planned for unifying embolic stroke of undetermined source.  The etiologies underlying ESUS included minor-risk potential cardioembolic sources, covert paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, cancer-associated coagulopathy and embolism, arteriogenic emboli, and paroxysmal embolism. Extensive evaluation including transesophageal echocardiography and cardiac monitoring for long time could identify the etiology of these patients. Therefore cryptogenic stroke is a diagnosis of exclusion. Compared with other stroke subtypes, cryptogenic stroke tends to have a better prognosis and lower long-term risk of recurrence.

  3. Self-esteem and delusion proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, Debbie M; Lysaker, Paul H; Luedtke, Brandi; Martin, Joel M

    2010-06-01

    The present study was an examination of global self-esteem and various types of unusual beliefs in a nonclinical population. Individuals with no history of psychotic disorder (N = 121) completed a measure of delusion-proneness and also a measure of self-esteem. Results indicated high delusion prone individuals had lower self-esteem than low delusion prone individuals (p = 0.044). In addition, higher levels of paranoid ideation and suspiciousness were associated with lower self-esteem (p low self-esteem and higher levels of beliefs related to thought disturbances, catastrophic ideation/thought broadcasting, and ideation of reference/influence. The significance of these findings as they relate to theories of delusion formation is discussed.

  4. Ethnic and gender differences in boredom proneness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, G.S.; Morales,

    1996-02-01

    Although boredom may exhibit many shared elements, culturally specific attitudes have also been found to exist. The present paper investigated boredom proneness among African-American college students. Data from 120 participants on the Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale was analyzed and compared to cross-cultural participants. African-American females scored significantly higher than African-American males. Scores were presented from two other studies to show a comparative look at boredom proneness in five other ethnic groups. African-American females are the only female ethnic group to score higher on the BP Scale than their male counterparts. Additionally, overall African-Americans, were found to have higher BP scores than their Western counterparts.

  5. Microglial Cells Prevent Hemorrhage in Neonatal Focal Arterial Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-López, David; Faustino, Joel; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Derugin, Nikita; Blanchard, Elodie; Simon, Franziska; Leib, Stephen L.; Vexler, Zinaida S.

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal stroke leads to significant morbidity and long-term neurological and cognitive deficits. The pathophysiological mechanisms of brain damage depend on brain maturation at the time of stroke. To understand whether microglial cells limit injury after neonatal stroke by preserving neurovascular integrity, we subjected postnatal day 7 (P7) rats depleted of microglial cells, rats with inhibited microglial TGFbr2/ALK5 signaling, and corresponding controls, to transient middle cerebral arter...

  6. Recovering after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroke rehabilitation; Cerebrovascular accident - rehabilitation; Recovery from stroke; Stroke - recovery; CVA - recovery ... LIVE AFTER A STROKE Most people will need stroke rehabilitation (rehab) to help them recover after they leave ...

  7. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    So, an attempt has been made to classify TC hazard proneness of districts by adopting a hazard criteria based on frequency and intensity of cyclone, wind strength, probable maximum precipitation, and probable maximum storm surge. Ninety-six districts including 72 districts touching the coast and 24 districts not touching ...

  8. Suffocated prone: the iatrogenic tragedy of SIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, U; Bergström, E

    2000-04-01

    Epidemiologic research has shown that prone sleeping is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In a public health review from Sweden, we explored the historical background of the SIDS epidemic, starting with the view of the Catholic Church that sudden infant deaths were infanticides and ending with the slowly disseminated recommendation of a prone sleeping position during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. The story of the SIDS epidemic illustrates a pitfall of preventive medicine--the translation of health care routines for patients to general health advice that targets the whole population. False advice, as well as correct advice, may have a profound effect on public health because of the many individuals concerned. Preventive measures must be based on scientific evidence, and systematic supervision and evaluations are necessary to identify the benefits or the harm of the measures. The discovery of the link between prone sleeping and SIDS has been called a success story for epidemiology, but the slow acceptance of the causal relationship between prone sleeping and SIDS illustrates the weak position of epidemiology and public health within the health care system.

  9. Pharmacologically increasing collateral perfusion during acute stroke using a carboxyhemoglobin gas transfer agent (Sanguinate™) in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Marilyn J; Linfante, Italo; Abuchowski, Abe; Jubin, Ronald; Chan, Siu-Lung

    2018-05-01

    Similar to patients with chronic hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) develop fast core progression during middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) resulting in large final infarct volumes. We investigated the effect of Sanguinate™ (SG), a PEGylated carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) gas transfer agent, on changes in collateral and reperfusion cerebral blood flow and brain injury in SHR during 2 h of MCAO. SG (8 mL/kg) or vehicle ( n = 6-8/group) was infused i.v. after 30 or 90 min of ischemia with 2 h reperfusion. Multi-site laser Doppler probes simultaneously measured changes in core MCA and collateral flow during ischemia and reperfusion using a validated method. Brain injury was measured using TTC. Animals were anesthetized with choral hydrate. Collateral flow changed little in vehicle-treated SHR during ischemia (-8 ± 9% vs. prior to infusion) whereas flow increased in SG-treated animals (29 ± 10%; p collateral flow in SHR during MCAO is consistent with small penumbra and large infarction. The ability to increase collateral flow in SHR with SG suggests that this compound may be useful as an adjunct to endovascular therapy and extend the time window for treatment.

  10. Morphologic changes of cerebral veins in hypertensive rats: venous collagenosis is associated with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Mao, Lijuan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Qian; Yang, Zhiyun; Li, Shurong; Li, Ling

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether arterial hypertension could affect the venous system of brain and to find out the consequent pathologic changes of cerebral veins. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: a sham-clipped group and a stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rat group. A 2-kidney 2-clip rat model was used to induce renovascular hypertension in the hypertensive group. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail cuff once each week. Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) was performed at 12, 16, and 20 weeks after surgery. All the rats were sacrificed after the SWI examination at 20 weeks after surgery. The brains were extracted and embedded in paraffin for histologic examination. Masson trichrome staining was performed to identify venous collagenosis. The sham group demonstrated less prominence of cerebral veins compared with hypertensive groups (P veins on SWI as a sign of venous hypertension and the thickened cerebral venous walls (venous collagenosis), which may play a role in cerebral ischemia and/or infarction, are both consequences of long-term hypertension in hypertensive rats. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Frequency of infant stroking reported by mothers moderates the effect of prenatal depression on infant behavioural and physiological outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Sharp

    Full Text Available Animal studies find that prenatal stress is associated with increased physiological and emotional reactivity later in life, mediated via fetal programming of the HPA axis through decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR gene expression. Post-natal behaviours, notably licking and grooming in rats, cause decreased behavioural indices of fear and reduced HPA axis reactivity mediated via increased GR gene expression. Post-natal maternal behaviours may therefore be expected to modify prenatal effects, but this has not previously been examined in humans. We examined whether, according to self-report, maternal stroking over the first weeks of life modified associations between prenatal depression and physiological and behavioral outcomes in infancy, hence mimicking effects of rodent licking and grooming. From a general population sample of 1233 first time mothers recruited at 20 weeks gestation we drew a stratified random sample of 316 for assessment at 32 weeks based on reported inter-partner psychological abuse, a risk to child development. Of these 271 provided data at 5, 9 and 29 weeks post delivery. Mothers reported how often they stroked their babies at 5 and 9 weeks. At 29 weeks vagal withdrawal to a stressor, a measure of physiological adaptability, and maternal reported negative emotionality were assessed. There was a significant interaction between prenatal depression and maternal stroking in the prediction of vagal reactivity to a stressor (p = .01, and maternal reports of infant anger proneness (p = .007 and fear (p = .043. Increasing maternal depression was associated with decreasing physiological adaptability, and with increasing negative emotionality, only in the presence of low maternal stroking. These initial findings in humans indicate that maternal stroking in infancy, as reported by mothers, has effects strongly resembling the effects of observed maternal behaviours in animals, pointing to future studies of the epigenetic

  12. Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unique for each person. Although a majority of functional abilities may be restored soon after a stroke, recovery is an ongoing process. Effects of a Stroke Weakness (hemiparesis) or paralysis (hemiplegia) on one side of the body that may affect the whole ...

  13. Pediatric Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of 3 and 10. In those with SCD, ischemic strokes most often occur in children under the age of 15 and adults over the age of 30, while hemorrhagic strokes most often occur in young adults between the ages of 20 and 30. ...

  14. Effects of angiopoietin-1 on hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema after tissue plasminogen activator treatment for ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Kanazawa, Masato; Igarashi, Hironaka; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Shimohata, Takayoshi

    2014-01-01

    An angiogenesis factor, angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), is associated with the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after focal cerebral ischemia. However, whether hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment are related to the decrease in Ang1 expression in the BBB remains unknown. We hypothesized that administering Ang1 might attenuate hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema after tPA treatment by stabilizing blood vessels and inhibiting hyperpermeability. Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to thromboembolic focal cerebral ischemia were assigned to a permanent ischemia group (permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion; PMCAO) and groups treated with tPA at 1 h or 4 h after ischemia. Endogenous Ang1 expression was observed in pericytes, astrocytes, and neuronal cells. Western blot analyses revealed that Ang1 expression levels on the ischemic side of the cerebral cortex were decreased in the tPA-1h, tPA-4h, and PMCAO groups as compared to those in the control group (P = 0.014, 0.003, and 0.014, respectively). Ang1-positive vessel densities in the tPA-4h and PMCAO groups were less than that in the control group (p = 0.002 and treatment was given after the therapeutic time window (4 h). Administering Ang1 fused with cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP) to supplement this decrease has the potential to suppress hemorrhagic transformation as measured by hemoglobin content in a whole cerebral homogenate (p = 0.007) and cerebral edema due to BBB damage (p = 0.038), as compared to administering COMP protein alone. In conclusion, Ang1 might be a promising target molecule for developing vasoprotective therapies for controlling hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema after tPA treatment.

  15. Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Stroke; Acute Stroke; Acute Brain Injury; Ischemic Stroke; Hemorrhagic Stroke; Transient Ischemic Attack; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; Cerebral Ischemia; Cerebral Infarction; Cerebral Stroke; Venous Sinus Thrombosis, Cranial

  16. Effect of head rotation on cerebral blood velocity in the prone position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Jakob; Sandmand, Marie; Sonne, Morten

    2012-01-01

    for cerebral blood flow. We tested in healthy subjects the hypothesis that rotating the head in the prone position reduces cerebral blood flow. Methods. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), stroke volume (SV), and CO were determined, together with the middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA V......(mean)) and jugular vein diameters bilaterally in 22 healthy subjects in the prone position with the head centered, respectively, rotated sideways, with and without positive pressure breathing (10 cmH(2)O). Results. The prone position reduced SV (by 5.4 ± 1.5%; P ... MAP (from 78 ± 3 to 80 ± 2 mmHg) as well as bilateral jugular vein diameters, leaving MCA V(mean) unchanged. Positive pressure breathing in the prone position increased MAP (by 3.6 ± 0.8 mmHg) but further reduced SV and CO (by 9.3 ± 1.3 % and 7.2 ± 2.4 % below baseline) while MCA V...

  17. Stroke Care 2: Stroke rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langhorne, P.; Bernhardt, J.; Kwakkel, G.

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is a common, serious, and disabling global health-care problem, and rehabilitation is a major part of patient care. There is evidence to support rehabilitation in well coordinated multidisciplinary stroke units or through provision of early supported provision of discharge teams. Potentially

  18. Laterality, spatial abilities, and accident proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.

  19. Covariation bias in panic-prone individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, P; Montoya, P; Martz, G E

    1996-11-01

    Covariation estimates between fear-relevant (FR; emergency situations) or fear-irrelevant (FI; mushrooms and nudes) stimuli and an aversive outcome (electrical shock) were examined in 10 high-fear (panic-prone) and 10 low-fear respondents. When the relation between slide category and outcome was random (illusory correlation), only high-fear participants markedly overestimated the contingency between FR slides and shocks. However, when there was a high contingency of shocks following FR stimuli (83%) and a low contingency of shocks following FI stimuli (17%), the group difference vanished. Reversal of contingencies back to random induced a covariation bias for FR slides in high- and low-fear respondents. Results indicate that panic-prone respondents show a covariation bias for FR stimuli and that the experience of a high contingency between FR slides and aversive outcomes may foster such a covariation bias even in low-fear respondents.

  20. Intravenous HOE-642 reduces brain edema and Na uptake in the rat permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke: evidence for participation of the blood-brain barrier Na/H exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martha E; Chen, Yi-Je; Lam, Tina I; Taylor, Kelleen C; Walton, Jeffrey H; Anderson, Steven E

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral edema forms in the early hours of ischemic stroke by processes involving increased transport of Na and Cl from blood into brain across an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB). Our previous studies provided evidence that the BBB Na-K-Cl cotransporter is stimulated by the ischemic factors hypoxia, aglycemia, and arginine vasopressin (AVP), and that inhibition of the cotransporter by intravenous bumetanide greatly reduces edema and infarct in rats subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). More recently, we showed that BBB Na/H exchanger activity is also stimulated by hypoxia, aglycemia, and AVP. The present study was conducted to further investigate the possibility that a BBB Na/H exchanger also participates in edema formation during ischemic stroke. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to pMCAO and then brain edema and Na content assessed by magnetic resonance imaging diffusion-weighed imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy Na spectroscopy, respectively, for up to 210 minutes. We found that intravenous administration of the specific Na/H exchange inhibitor HOE-642 significantly decreased brain Na uptake and reduced cerebral edema, brain swelling, and infarct volume. These findings support the hypothesis that edema formation and brain Na uptake during the early hours of cerebral ischemia involve BBB Na/H exchanger activity as well as Na-K-Cl cotransporter activity.

  1. Ischemic stroke destabilizes circadian rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borjigin Jimo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central circadian pacemaker is a remarkably robust regulator of daily rhythmic variations of cardiovascular, endocrine, and neural physiology. Environmental lighting conditions are powerful modulators of circadian rhythms, but regulation of circadian rhythms by disease states is less clear. Here, we examine the effect of ischemic stroke on circadian rhythms in rats using high-resolution pineal microdialysis. Methods Rats were housed in LD 12:12 h conditions and monitored by pineal microdialysis to determine baseline melatonin timing profiles. After demonstration that the circadian expression of melatonin was at steady state, rats were subjected to experimental stroke using two-hour intralumenal filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. The animals were returned to their cages, and melatonin monitoring was resumed. The timing of onset, offset, and duration of melatonin secretion were calculated before and after stroke to determine changes in circadian rhythms of melatonin secretion. At the end of the monitoring period, brains were analyzed to determine infarct volume. Results Rats demonstrated immediate shifts in melatonin timing after stroke. We observed a broad range of perturbations in melatonin timing in subsequent days, with rats exhibiting onset/offset patterns which included: advance/advance, advance/delay, delay/advance, and delay/delay. Melatonin rhythms displayed prolonged instability several days after stroke, with a majority of rats showing a day-to-day alternation between advance and delay in melatonin onset and duration. Duration of melatonin secretion changed in response to stroke, and this change was strongly determined by the shift in melatonin onset time. There was no correlation between infarct size and the direction or amplitude of melatonin phase shifting. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that stroke induces immediate changes in the timing of pineal melatonin secretion, indicating

  2. Baicalin Attenuates Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Hemorrhagic Transformation and Improves Neurological Outcome in Ischemic Stroke Rats with Delayed t-PA Treatment: Involvement of ONOO--MMP-9 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hansen; Guan, Binghe; Chen, Xi; Chen, Xingmiao; Li, Caiming; Qiu, Jinhua; Yang, Dan; Liu, Ke Jian; Qi, Suhua; Shen, Jiangang

    2017-12-23

    Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) has a restrictive therapeutic window within 4.5 h after ischemic stroke with the risk of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) and neurotoxicity when it is used beyond the time window. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that baicalin, an active compound of medicinal plant, could attenuate HT in cerebral ischemia stroke with delayed t-PA treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 4.5 h and then continuously received t-PA infusion (10 mg/kg) for 0.5 h and followed by 19-h reperfusion. Baicalin (50, 100, 150 mg/kg) was administrated via femoral vein at 4.5 h after MCAO cerebral ischemia. Delayed t-PA infusion significantly increased the mortality rate, induced HT, blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage, and apoptotic cell death in the ischemic brains and exacerbated neurological outcomes in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats at 24 h after MCAO cerebral ischemia. Co-treatment of baicalin significantly reduced the mortality rates, ameliorated the t-PA-mediated BBB disruption and HT. Furthermore, baicalin showed to directly scavenge peroxynitrite and inhibit MMP-9 expression and activity in the ischemic brains with the delayed t-PA treatment. Baicalin had no effect on the t-PA fibrinolytic function indicated by t-PA activity assay. Taken together, baicalin could attenuate t-PA-mediated HT and improve the outcomes of ischemic stroke treatment possibly via inhibiting peroxynitrite-mediated MMP-9 activation.

  3. Andrographolide stimulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2-heme oxygenase 1 signaling in primary cerebral endothelial cells for definite protection against ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ting-Lin; Chen, Ray-Jade; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Lu, Wan-Jung; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Yang, Chih-Hao; Chang, Chao-Chien; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Stroke pathogenesis involves complex oxidative stress-related pathways. The nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) pathways have been considered molecular targets in pharmacologic intervention for ischemic diseases. Andrographolide, a labdane diterpene, has received increasing attention in recent years because of its various pharmacologic activities. We determined that andrographolide modulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-Nrf2-HO-1 signaling cascade in primary cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) to provide positive protection against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic stroke in rats. In the present study, andrographolide (10 μM) increased HO-1 protein and messenger RNA expressions, Nrf2 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation in CECs, and these activities were disrupted by a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, but not by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor PD98059 or c-Jun amino-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125. Similar results were observed in confocal microscopy analysis. Moreover, andrographolide-induced Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expressions were significantly inhibited by Nrf2 small interfering RNA. Moreover, HO-1 knockdown attenuated the protective effect of andrographolide against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced CEC death. Andrographolide (0.1 mg/kg) significantly suppressed free radical formation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and brain infarction in MCAO-insulted rats, and these effects were reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX. The mechanism is attributable to HO-1 activation, as directly evidenced by andrographolide-induced pronounced HO-1 expression in brain tissues, which was highly localized in the cerebral capillary. In conclusion, andrographolide increased Nrf2-HO-1 expression through p38 MAPK regulation, confirming that it provides protection against MCAO-induced brain injury. These findings provide strong evidence that andrographolide could

  4. Effects of prone and supine position on oxygenation and inflammatory mediator in a hydrochloric acid-induced lung dysfunction in rats Efeitos da posição prona e supina na oxigenação e mediador inflamatório na disfunção pulmonar induzida por ácido clorídrico em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Rogério Souza de Oliveira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of mechanical ventilation of supine versus prone position in hydrochloric acid (HCl-induced lung dysfunction. METHODS: Twenty, adult, male, Wistar-EPM-1 rats were anesthetized and randomly grouped (n=5 animals per group as follows: CS-MV (mechanical ventilation in supine position; CP-MV (mechanical ventilation in prone position; bilateral instillation of HCl and mechanical ventilation in supine position (HCl+S; and bilateral instillation of HCl and mechanical ventilation in prone position (HCl+P. All groups were ventilated for 180 minutes. The blood partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide were measured in the time points 0 (zero; 10 minutes before lung injury for stabilization, and at the end of times acid injury, 60, 120 and 180 minutes of mechanical ventilation. At the end of experiment the animals were euthanized, and bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs were taken to determine the contents of total proteins, inflammatory mediators, and lungs wet-to-dry ratios. RESULTS: In the HCl+P group the partial pressure of oxygen increased when compared with HCl+S (128.0±2.9 mmHg and 111.0±6.7 mmHg, respectively within 60 minutes. TNF-α levels in BAL do not differ significantly in the HCl+P group (516.0±5.9 pg/mL, and the HCl+S (513.0±10.6 pg/mL. CONCLUSION: The use of prone position improved oxygenation, but did not reduce TNF-α in BAL upon lung dysfunction induced by HCl.OBJETIVO: Comparar os efeitos da ventilação mecânica em posição prona versus supina na disfunção pulmonar induzida por ácido clorídrico (HCl. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos, adultos, Wistar-EPM-1 foram anestesiados e distribuídos aleatoriamente em grupos (n=5 animais por grupo: CS-MV (controle, ventilado mecanicamente em posição supina; CP-MV (controle, ventilado mecanicamente em posição prona; instilação bilateral de HCl e ventilação mecânica em posição supina (HCl+S ou ventilação em posição prona (HCl+P. Todos os grupos

  5. Chromium supplementation improved post-stroke brain infarction and hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ying; Mao, Frank Chiahung; Liu, Chia-Hsin; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang; Lai, Nai-Wei; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is common after acute stroke and is associated with a worse outcome of stroke. Thus, a better understanding of stress hyperglycemia is helpful to the prevention and therapeutic treatment of stroke. Chromium is an essential nutrient required for optimal insulin activity and normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Beyond its nutritional effects, dietary supplement of chromium causes beneficial outcomes against several diseases, in particular diabetes-associated complications. In this study, we investigated whether post-stroke hyperglycemia involved chromium dynamic mobilization in a rat model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia and whether dietary supplement of chromium improved post-stroke injury and alterations. Stroke rats developed brain infarction, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Post-stroke hyperglycemia was accompanied by elevated secretion of counter-regulatory hormones including glucagon, corticosterone, and norepinephrine, decreased insulin signaling in skeletal muscles, and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Correlation studies revealed that counter-regulatory hormone secretion showed a positive correlation with chromium loss and blood glucose increased together with chromium loss. Daily chromium supplementation increased tissue chromium levels, attenuated brain infarction, improved hyperglycemia, and decreased plasma levels of glucagon and corticosterone in stroke rats. Our findings suggest that stroke rats show disturbance of tissue chromium homeostasis with a net loss through urinary excretion and chromium mobilization and loss might be an alternative mechanism responsible for post-stroke hyperglycemia.

  6. tDCS and Robotics on Upper Limb Stroke Rehabilitation: Effect Modification by Stroke Duration and Type of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Straudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this exploratory pilot study is to test the effects of bilateral tDCS combined with upper extremity robot-assisted therapy (RAT on stroke survivors. Methods. We enrolled 23 subjects who were allocated to 2 groups: RAT + real tDCS and RAT + sham-tDCS. Each patient underwent 10 sessions (5 sessions/week over two weeks. Outcome measures were collected before and after treatment: (i Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity (FMA-UE, (ii Box and Block Test (BBT, and (iii Motor Activity Log (MAL. Results. Both groups reported a significant improvement in FMA-UE score after treatment (p<0.01. No significant between-groups differences were found in motor function. However, when the analysis was adjusted for stroke type and duration, a significant interaction effect (p<0.05 was detected, showing that stroke duration (acute versus chronic and type (cortical versus subcortical modify the effect of tDCS and robotics on motor function. Patients with chronic and subcortical stroke benefited more from the treatments than patients with acute and cortical stroke, who presented very small changes. Conclusion. The additional use of bilateral tDCS to RAT seems to have a significant beneficial effect depending on the duration and type of stroke. These results should be verified by additional confirmatory studies.

  7. Pediatric stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermann, M.

    2008-01-01

    Stroke in childhood has gained increasingly more attention and is accepted as an important disease in childhood. The reasons for this severe event and the consequences for the rest of the life are totally different than for adults. This is also true for the diagnosis and therapy. This paper gives a comprehensive overview on the characteristics of pediatric stroke to assist radiologists in making a rapid and safe diagnosis in order to identify the underlying disease. (orig.) [de

  8. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis within the ipsilateral thalamus with secondary damage after focal cortical infarction in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Li; Zeng, Jinsheng; Pei, Zhong; Cheung, Raymond T F; Hou, Qinghua; Xing, Shihui; Zhang, Suping

    2009-09-01

    Neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the subventricular zone and peri-infarct region have been confirmed. However, newly formed neuronal cells and blood vessels that appear in the nonischemic ipsilateral ventroposterior nucleus (VPN) of the thalamus with secondary damage after stroke has not been previously studied. Twenty-four stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats were subjected to distal right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham operation. 5'-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label cell proliferation. Rats were killed at 7 or 14 days after the operation. Neuronal nuclei (NeuN), OX-42, BrdU, nestin, laminin(+), BrdU(+)/nestin(+), BrdU(+)/NeuN(+), nestin(+)/GFAP(+)(glial fibrillary acidic protein), and BrdU(+)/laminin(+) immunoreactive cells were detected within the ipsilateral VPN. The primary infarction was confined to the right somatosensory cortex. Within the ipsilateral VPN of the ischemic rats, the number of NeuN(+) neurons decreased, the OX-42(+) microglia cells were activated, and BrdU(+) and nestin(+) cells were detected at day 7 after MCAO and increased in number at day 14. Moreover, BrdU(+)/nestin(+) cells and BrdU(+)/NeuN(+) cells were detected at day 14 after MCAO. In addition, the ischemic rats showed a significant increase in vascular density in the ipsilateral VPN compared with the sham-operated rats. These results suggest that secondary damage with neurogenesis and angiogenesis of the ipsilateral VPN of the thalamus occurs after focal cortical infarction.

  9. Current Suicide Proneness and Past Suicidal Behavior in Adjudicated Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2008-01-01

    Youth recently assigned to probation (n = 233) were assessed for current suicide proneness, depression, and hopelessness, as well as for recent suicide ideation, previous suicide ideation, or suicide attempt(s). The Life Attitudes Schedule-Short Form (LAS-SF) was used to assess suicide proneness. As per the LAS-SF, suicide proneness was defined…

  10. Driving After a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Association.org Professionals for Stroke Association.org Shop for Stroke Association.org Support for Stroke Association. ... a wheelchair accessible or modified van, truck or car can provide the assurance you need to feel ...

  11. Action simulation in hallucination-prone adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahoun, Tarik; Eliez, Stephan; Chen, Fei; Badoud, Deborah; Schneider, Maude; Larøi, Frank; Debbane, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical accounts suggest that impairments in self-other discrimination processes are likely to promote the expression of hallucinations. Studies using a variety of paradigms involving self-performed actions argue in favor of perspective taking confusion in hallucination-prone subjects. However, our understanding of such processes during adolescence is still at an early stage. The present study thus aims (1) to delineate the neural correlates sustaining mental simulation of actions involving self-performed actions (first-person perspective; 1PP) and other-performed actions (third-person perspective; 3PP) during adolescence (2) to identify atypical activation patterns during 1PP/3PP mental simulation of actions in hallucination-prone adolescents (3) to examine whether differential risk for schizophrenia (clinical vs. genetic) is also associated with differential impairments in the 1PP/3PP mental simulation of actions during adolescence. Twenty-two typically developing controls (Control group; 6 females), 12 hallucination-prone adolescents [auditory hallucination (AH) group; 7 females] and 13 adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS group; 4 females) were included in the study. During the fMRI task, subjects were presented with a cue (self-other priming cues) indicating to perform the task using either a first person perspective ("you"-1PP) or a third person perspective ("best friend"-3PP) and then they were asked to mentally simulate actions based on the type of cue. Hallucination-proneness was assessed using a self-report questionnaire [Cardiff Anomalous Perception Scale (CAPS)]. Our results indicated that atypical patterns of cerebral activation, particularly in the key areas of self-other distinction, were found in both groups at risk for auditory hallucinations (AHs and 22q11.2DS). More precisely, adolescents in the AH group presented decreased activations in the right middle occipital gyrus BA19, left cingulate gyrus BA31, and

  12. The effects of poststroke captopril and losartan treatment on cerebral blood flow autoregulation in SHRsp with hemorrhagic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeda, John S; Daneshtalab, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    The ability of captopril and losartan treatment to restore cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation after intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke (HS) was assessed in Kyoto–Wistar stroke-prone hypertensive rats (SHRsp). Laser Doppler techniques assessed CBF autoregulation in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) perfusion domain and a pressure myograph was used to measure pressure-dependent constriction (PDC) in isolated MCAs before and after stroke and after 13, 33, and 63 days of poststroke captopril or losartan treatment. The treatments did not lower blood pressure (BP) and equally suppressed plasma aldosterone after HS. The HS development was associated with the loss of CBF autoregulation, high CBF, increased CBF conductance to elevations in BP, and the loss of PDC in the MCAs. Both treatments restored these functions to prestroke levels within 13 days. The PDC and CBF autoregulation subsequently deteriorated after 63 days of captopril treatment while being maintained at prestroke levels over all durations of losartan treatment. The SHRsp subjected to 35 days of poststroke losartan treatment exhibited less blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption and brain herniation than captopril-treated SHRsp. The superior ability of losartan to restore CBF autoregulation and myogenic function may have contributed to the more effective attenuation of cerebral damage after HS. PMID:20648036

  13. Action simulation in hallucination-prone adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik eDahoun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical accounts suggest that impairments in self-other discrimination processes are likely to promote the expression of hallucinations. However, our understanding of such processes during adolescence is still at an early stage. The present study thus aims 1 to delineate the neural correlates sustaining mental simulation of actions involving self-performed actions (first-person perspective; 1PP and other-performed actions (third-person perspective; 3PP during adolescence 2 to identify atypical activation patterns during 1PP/3PP mental simulation of actions in hallucination-prone adolescents 3 to examine whether differential risk for schizophrenia (clinical vs genetic is also associated with differential impairments in the 1PP/3PP mental simulation of actions during adolescence. Twenty-two typically developing controls (Control group; 6 females, twelve hallucination-prone adolescents (AH group; 7 females and thirteen adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS group; 4 females were included in the study. During the fMRI task, subjects were presented with a cue (self-other priming cues indicating to perform the task using either a first person perspective (you-1PP or a third person perspective (friend-3PP and then they were asked to mentally simulate actions based on the type of cue. Our results indicated that atypical patterns of cerebral activation, particularly in the key areas of self-other distinction, were found in both groups at risk for auditory hallucinations (AH and 22q11.2DS. More precisely, adolescents in the AH and 22q11.2DS groups presented decreased activations in the parieto-occipital region BA19 during 3PP. This study characterizes the neural correlates of mental imagery for actions during adolescence, and suggests that a differential risk for hallucination-proneness (clinical vs. genetic is associated to similar patterns of atypical activations in key areas sustaining self-other discrimination

  14. Predicting sales promotion contest proneness and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Thompson, Peter; Mavondo, Felix

    is a purchase incentive offering a chance to win one or more, generally uncertain, rewards. Interest has been driven by changing economic and competitive environments including a battle for supermarket shelf space, the penetration of store brands, increased manufacturer brand price discounting and improved...... promotional delivery mechanisms including the internet. Despite growing use of such promotions by manufacturers and retailers there is still limited knowledge of the factors that cause a consumer to be prone to such offers (Prendergast, Poon, Tsang, and Fan, 2008)....

  15. Heat Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Sofie Søndergaard; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren; Bestle, Morten Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    and mortality. This case report describes two Danish patients diagnosed with heat stroke syndrome during a heat wave in the summer of 2014. Both patients were morbidly obese and had several predisposing illnesses. However since heat stroke is a rare condition in areas with temperate climate, they were...... not diagnosed until several days after admittance; hence treatment with cooling was delayed. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, where they were treated with an external cooling device and received treatment for complications. Both cases ended fatally. As global warming continues, more heat...

  16. Modulation of the major histocompatibility complex by neural stem cell-derived neurotrophic factors used for regenerative therapy in a rat model of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Chongran

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between functional improvements in ischemic rats given a neural stem cell (NSC transplant and the modulation of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC mediated by NSC-derived neurotrophins was investigated. Methods The levels of gene expression of nerve growth factor (NGF, brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 were assayed from cultures of cortical NSC from Sprague-Dawley rat E16 embryos. The levels of translated NGF in spent culture media from NSC cultures and the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF of rats with and without NGF injection or NSC transplant were also measured. Results We found a significant increase of NGF, BDNF and NT-3 transcripts and NGF proteins in both the NSC cultures and the CSF of the rats. The immunochemical staining for MHC in brain sections and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of CSF were carried out in sham-operated rats and rats with surgically induced focal cerebral ischemia. These groups were further divided into animals that did and did not receive NGF administration or NSC transplant into the cisterna magna. Our results show an up-regulation of class I MHC in the ischemic rats with NGF and NSC administration. The extent of caspase-III immunoreactivity was comparable among three arms in the ischemic rats. Conclusion Readouts of somatosensory evoked potential and the trap channel test illustrated improvements in the neurological function of ischemic rats treated with NGF administration and NSC transplant.

  17. Creation of a head and face protection device for children undergoing procedures in prone position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Manuel; Pöpping, Daniel; Henning, Martin; Wenk, Melanie; Liljenqvist, Ulf; Möllmann, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Positioning the head of patients undergoing procedures in lateral or prone position remains a difficult task for the anesthesiologists. Associated risks have attracted increasing attention because they range from minor facial soft tissue injuries to catastrophic complications such as stroke or postoperative blindness. Earlier, we reported on the use of a boxing sports helmet for simple and easy positioning of the head. However, as available helmets are limited in sizes and materials, that system is not easily transferable to children. Therefore, we sought to create a face and head protection device for children undergoing procedures in prone position. We re-engineered a standard boxing sports helmet making it suitable as an on-head support cushion. By using WHO standard growth charts, various sizes were calculated and prototypes of different foam materials produced. Facial surface pressures were measured in 15 volunteers. A lightweight foam-based face mask was created. Minimum necessary foam thickness was 2.5 cm. Different materials were tested and pressure in different facial zones never exceeded 30 mmHg. Bringing a face protection device onto the patient's face instead of placing the face into support cushions is an elegant way of keeping control over airway devices and providing support for facial structures in various positions simultaneously. Skin surface pressure on facial structures remained low due to the specific mask design and choice of foam materials, which could lead to decreased incidences of undesired sequelae of prone position such as skin damage or even more devastating complications.

  18. Production of prone-to-aggregate proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebendiker, Mario; Danieli, Tsafi

    2014-01-21

    Expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli (E. coli) remains the most popular and cost-effective method for producing proteins in basic research and for pharmaceutical applications. Despite accumulating experience and methodologies developed over the years, production of recombinant proteins prone to aggregate in E. coli-based systems poses a major challenge in most research applications. The challenge of manufacturing these proteins for pharmaceutical applications is even greater. This review will discuss effective methods to reduce and even prevent the formation of aggregates in the course of recombinant protein production. We will focus on important steps along the production path, which include cloning, expression, purification, concentration, and storage. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vivo experimental stroke and in vitro organ culture induce similar changes in vasoconstrictor receptors and intracellular calcium handling in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Waldsee, Roya; Ahnstedt, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral arteries subjected to different types of experimental stroke upregulate their expression of certain G-protein-coupled vasoconstrictor receptors, a phenomenon that worsens the ischemic brain damage. Upregulation of contractile endothelin B (ET(B)) and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B (5-HT(1B)) rec...

  20. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  1. Comparison of supine, upright, and prone positions for liver scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harolds, J.A.; Brill, A.B.; Patton, J.A.; Touya, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    We compared liver scan interpretations based on anterior images obtained in the upright, prone, and supine positions. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were generated for three well trained observers. Results showed that reading the three different views together was more accurate than the reading of any individual image. Furthermore, interpretations based on either the prone or upright view were superior to those using the supine view alone. The prone and upright views should be used more often in liver scanning

  2. Stroke awareness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Krarup, Lars-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the awareness of major stroke symptoms and stroke risk factors among the general population in Denmark. Early recognition of stroke warning signs and means of reducing stroke occurrence could improve the treatment and prevention of stroke....

  3. Psychosis-proneness and the rubber hand illusion of body ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germine, Laura; Benson, Taylor Leigh; Cohen, Francesca; Hooker, Christine I'lee

    2013-05-15

    Psychosis and psychosis-proneness are associated with abnormalities in subjective experience of the self, including distortions in bodily experience that are difficult to study experimentally due to lack of structured methods. In 55 healthy adults, we assessed the relationship between self-reported psychosis-like characteristics and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion of body ownership. In this illusion, a participant sees a rubber hand being stroked by a brush at the same time that they feel a brush stroking their own hand. In some individuals, this creates the bodily sense that the rubber hand is their own hand. Individual differences in positive (but not negative) psychosis-like characteristics predicted differences in susceptibility to experiencing the rubber hand illusion. This relationship was specific to the subjective experience of rubber hand ownership, and not other unusual experiences or sensations, and absent when a small delay was introduced between seeing and feeling the brush stroke. This indicates that individual differences in susceptibility are related to visual-tactile integration and cannot be explained by differences in the tendency to endorse unusual experiences. Our findings suggest that susceptibility to body representation distortion by sensory information may be related or contribute to the development of psychosis and positive psychosis-like characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, and internalizing tendencies on nonsuicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerhei, Susan; Rojahn, Johannes; Stuewig, Jeffrey; McKnight, Patrick E

    2014-06-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury is especially common in adolescents and young adults. Self-injury may be related to shame or guilt--two moral emotions--as these differentially predict other maladaptive behaviors. Using a college sample, we examined not only how shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, and internalizing emotional tendencies related to self-injury, but also whether these moral emotions moderate the relation between internalizing tendencies and self-injury. High shame-proneness was associated with higher frequencies of self-injury. High guilt-proneness was associated with less self-injury, although this effect was mitigated at higher levels of internalizing tendencies. These results suggest shame-proneness is a risk factor for self-injury, while guilt-proneness is protective. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  5. Stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorne, Peter; Bernhardt, Julie; Kwakkel, Gert

    2011-05-14

    Stroke is a common, serious, and disabling global health-care problem, and rehabilitation is a major part of patient care. There is evidence to support rehabilitation in well coordinated multidisciplinary stroke units or through provision of early supported provision of discharge teams. Potentially beneficial treatment options for motor recovery of the arm include constraint-induced movement therapy and robotics. Promising interventions that could be beneficial to improve aspects of gait include fitness training, high-intensity therapy, and repetitive-task training. Repetitive-task training might also improve transfer functions. Occupational therapy can improve activities of daily living; however, information about the clinical effect of various strategies of cognitive rehabilitation and strategies for aphasia and dysarthria is scarce. Several large trials of rehabilitation practice and of novel therapies (eg, stem-cell therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, virtual reality, robotic therapies, and drug augmentation) are underway to inform future practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Secondary Release of Exosomes From Astrocytes Contributes to the Increase in Neural Plasticity and Improvement of Functional Recovery After Stroke in Rats Treated With Exosomes Harvested From MicroRNA 133b-Overexpressing Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hongqi; Wang, Fengjie; Li, Yanfeng; Lu, Qing-E; Cheung, Wing Lee; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Chopp, Michael

    2017-02-16

    We previously demonstrated that multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) that overexpress microRNA 133b (miR-133b) significantly improve functional recovery in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) compared with naive MSCs and that exosomes generated from naive MSCs mediate the therapeutic benefits of MSC therapy for stroke. Here we investigated whether exosomes isolated from miR-133b-overexpressing MSCs (Ex-miR-133b+) exert amplified therapeutic effects. Rats subjected to 2 h of MCAO were intra-arterially injected with Ex-miR-133b+, exosomes from MSCs infected by blank vector (Ex-Con), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and were sacrificed 28 days after MCAO. Compared with the PBS treatment, both exosome treatment groups exhibited significant improvement of functional recovery. Ex-miR-133b+ treatment significantly increased functional improvement and neurite remodeling/brain plasticity in the ischemic boundary area compared with the Ex-Con treatment. Treatment with Ex-miR-133b+ also significantly increased brain exosome content compared with Ex-Con treatment. To elucidate mechanisms underlying the enhanced therapeutic effects of Ex-miR-133b+, astrocytes cultured under oxygen- and glucose-deprived (OGD) conditions were incubated with exosomes harvested from naive MSCs (Ex-Naive), miR-133b downregulated MSCs (Ex-miR-133b-), and Ex-miR-133b+. Compared with the Ex-Naive treatment, Ex-miR-133b+ significantly increased exosomes released by OGD astrocytes, whereas Ex-miR-133b- significantly decreased the release. Also, exosomes harvested from OGD astrocytes treated with Ex-miR-133b+ significantly increased neurite branching and elongation of cultured cortical embryonic rat neurons compared with the exosomes from OGD astrocytes subjected to Ex-Con. Our data suggest that exosomes harvested from miR-133b-overexpressing MSCs improve neural plasticity and functional recovery after stroke with a contribution from a stimulated secondary release of

  7. Multiple Strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obododimma Oha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This poem playfully addresses the slippery nature of linguistic signification, employing humour and sarcasm in presenting a wide range of human experience. It ironical twists -- and "strokes" (read ambiguously as both a giving a punishment and erotic pleasuring -- move from the naming of location through international discourse of capital to the crumbling relationships between nation states. It reading of the signs of language is tied to the unease and fracture in cultural and political experience.

  8. Are Muslim countries more prone to violence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Petter Gleditsch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, most armed conflicts have taken place in Muslim countries. Are Muslim countries more war-prone? Not necessarily, if we look at data for the whole period after World War II. But in the post-Cold War era, most wars are civil wars and Muslim countries have a disproportionate share of these. This is not mainly because conflicts among Muslims have increased, but because other conflicts have declined. Muslim countries are also overrepresented among countries with high levels of other forms of internal violence, including non-state conflict, one-sided violence, highly repressive human rights policies, and countries that practice capital punishment. They also have a higher than average participation in interstate conflicts. This is not a “clash of civilizations”—most of the victims are Muslims. We list several hypotheses, apart from religion itself, for why this pattern has emerged, including colonial history, interventions from major powers, and economic and political development. Finally, on a more optimistic note, while many Muslims are exposed to violence, four of the five countries with the largest Muslim populations do not currently experience civil war.

  9. Preventing Stroke Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... die within minutes. Strokes happen more in some populations and geographic areas. Stroke death declines have stalled in 3 out of every 4 states. Blacks have the highest stroke death rates among all ...

  10. Two Kinds of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Two Kinds of Stroke Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... are often a warning sign for future strokes. Stroke Can Affect Anyone Award-winning actress Julie Harris ...

  11. Healthy Living after Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce ... the hospital. Thank goodness, she did. Subscribe to Stroke Connection Get quarterly digital issues plus our monthly ...

  12. Understanding Life After Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelmblink, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Stroke is an acute, neurological dysfunction of vascular origin with sudden occurrence and it influences physical, cognitive and psychological functions. Initial treatment aims at eliminating or reducing the brain damage. Soon, however, the influence of the stroke on the entire life of stroke survivors has to be considered. This thesis explores the meaning of life after stroke to 19 elderly stroke survivors during the first year post stroke. Survivors were interviewed twice and the interviews...

  13. Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Simple Techniques Can Help Memory after a Stroke Self-Esteem after Stroke Cognitive Challenges After Stroke Depression Trumps ... spasticity), fatigue and more. Let's Talk About Stroke Fact Sheets Our stroke fact sheets cover treatments, recovery, ...

  14. tDCS and Robotics on Upper Limb Stroke Rehabilitation: Effect Modification by Stroke Duration and Type of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straudi, Sofia; Fregni, Felipe; Martinuzzi, Carlotta; Pavarelli, Claudia; Salvioli, Stefano; Basaglia, Nino

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this exploratory pilot study is to test the effects of bilateral tDCS combined with upper extremity robot-assisted therapy (RAT) on stroke survivors. Methods. We enrolled 23 subjects who were allocated to 2 groups: RAT + real tDCS and RAT + sham-tDCS. Each patient underwent 10 sessions (5 sessions/week) over two weeks. Outcome measures were collected before and after treatment: (i) Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity (FMA-UE), (ii) Box and Block Test (BBT), and (iii) Motor Activity Log (MAL). Results. Both groups reported a significant improvement in FMA-UE score after treatment (p robotics on motor function. Patients with chronic and subcortical stroke benefited more from the treatments than patients with acute and cortical stroke, who presented very small changes. Conclusion. The additional use of bilateral tDCS to RAT seems to have a significant beneficial effect depending on the duration and type of stroke. These results should be verified by additional confirmatory studies.

  15. Beyond Prone Position in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Comprehensive Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Tsakiris, Peter; Ferrandino, Michael N.; Elsakka, Ahmed M.; Rioja, Jorge; Preminger, Glenn M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is traditionally performed with the patient in the prone position. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of the prone and supine positions, particularly in obese patients and in those with staghorn calculi. Evidence acquisition: A Medline search was

  16. Beyond prone position in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Tsakiris, Peter; Ferrandino, Michael N; Elsakka, Ahmed M; Rioja, Jorge; Preminger, Glenn M

    2008-12-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is traditionally performed with the patient in the prone position. To assess the efficacy and safety of the prone and supine positions, particularly in obese patients and in those with staghorn calculi. A Medline search was conducted for articles published during the last 10 yr related to PNL in the prone and supine positions. This search revealed 9 published studies for supine and 25 for prone PNL. None of the supine PNL studies reported visceral injuries, while transfusion rates were 0.0-9.4% and stone-free rates were 69.6-95.0%. One study of supine PNL evaluated a significant proportion of obese patients. Prone PNL studies in obese patients report transfusion rates of 3.2-8.8% and stone-free rates of 79.0-89.2%. In the only randomized study, excluding obese patients and staghorn calculi, operative time favors the supine position. A nonrandomized comparative study demonstrated similar complication rates with insignificant improvement in treatment success for supine PNL; however, when comparing series with similar proportions of staghorn calculi cases, there are slightly improved outcomes for prone PNL. Moreover, comparison of weighted means favors prone PNL. For obese patients and staghorn calculi, prone PNL appears to be associated with decreased operative times with similar bleeding rates and slightly better stone-free rates than supine PNL.

  17. Evidence-based nursing interventions and guidelines for prone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the prone positioning of a critically ill patient poses a challenge to nursing interventions, it remains the responsibility of nurses to develop a way to provide the same basic and intensive care to those patients lying prone as to those lying supine. The purpose of this study was firstly to conduct a systematic review of ...

  18. Understanding Student Drinking Patterns: Does Shame Proneness Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkeljohn Black, Stephanie; Pössel, Patrick; Dietz, Alyssa

    2016-01-01

    This study (N = 202; mean age = 19.52 years, SD = 1.36 years; 66.5% female) analyzed three structural equation models to determine whether ruminative brooding and negative affect, moderated by shame proneness, explained college student drinking behaviors more than a model without shame proneness. Results indicated a model including shame proneness…

  19. Parent Proneness to Shame and the Use of Psychological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Freeman, Wendy S.; Clara, Ian P.; Elgar, Frank J.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Mak, Leanne

    2007-01-01

    We examined the link between parent proneness to shame and two forms of psychological control, overprotection and critical/rejecting behavior, in parents of preschoolers. Because shame is self-condemning, proneness to shame affects intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning. We hypothesized that parents' emotion-regulatory responses to shame…

  20. Individual Differences in Boredom Proneness amongst Truck Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    esteem and locus of control individually and jointly predicted boredom proneness amongst truck drivers. The same variables jointly accounted for 67% of the proportion of the variance in boredom proneness. Results of the 2 x 2 x 2 ANOVA also ...

  1. High lipid levels in very low density lipoprotein and intermediate density lipoprotein may cause proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in aging female analbuminemic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joles, JA; vanGoor, H; vanderHorst, MLC; vanTol, A; Elema, JD; Koomans, HA

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Male rats are generally more prone to developing renal disease than female rats. However, female Nagase analbuminemic rats (NAR) are profoundly hyperlipidemic and develop proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis after uninephrectomy. Male NAR are less hyperlipidemic and are resistant to

  2. Studies on the diagnosis of Tyzzer's disease in laboratory rat colonies with antibodies against Bacillus piliformis (Clostridium piliforme).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A K; Andersen, H V; Svendsen, O

    1994-10-01

    To develop a system to be used for confirming diagnosis of Tyzzer's disease in seropositive rat colonies, 38 Mol:SPRD, BB/Wor/Mol-BB, and Stroke-Prone rats suffering from megaloileitis were examined. All affected rats had been found by a systematic examination of 5-week-old male rats from barrier-protected colonies, sero-positive to Bacillus piliformis, the agent of Tyzzer's disease. The rats were evaluated by serologic testing, histologic examination of the ileum, liver, and heart (hematoxylin and eosin and Warthin-Starry staining), and immunofluorescence staining of tissue smears of the ileum and liver. The presence of B. piliformis was verified in 24 of the rats. All animals that had the agent in the liver or heart also had it in the ileum. The sensitivity of immunofluorescence staining for identification of the agent was higher than that for Warthin-Starry staining. Thirty-seven rats had histologic changes indicative of Tyzzer's disease in the liver, and 23 had histologic changes in the myocardium. All rats had a high titer of antibodies against B. piliformis. Having verified the presence of the agent, germ-free sentinels were placed in one of the colonies. These also became infected, as did germ-free sentinels caged with the infected rats outside the barrier unit. The number of sentinels infected increased with the age of the sentinels at introduction. To prove the absence of Tyzzer's disease in a seropositive colony, it is considered necessary to examine approximately 3,000 5-week-old rats for abdominal distension and demonstrate negative staining of the ileum for B. piliformis.

  3. Prevention Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  4. Suggestibility and signal detection performance in hallucination-prone students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alganami, Fatimah; Varese, Filippo; Wagstaff, Graham F; Bentall, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    Auditory hallucinations are associated with signal detection biases. We examine the extent to which suggestions influence performance on a signal detection task (SDT) in highly hallucination-prone and low hallucination-prone students. We also explore the relationship between trait suggestibility, dissociation and hallucination proneness. In two experiments, students completed on-line measures of hallucination proneness (the revised Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale; LSHS-R), trait suggestibility (Inventory of Suggestibility) and dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale-II). Students in the upper and lower tertiles of the LSHS-R performed an auditory SDT. Prior to the task, suggestions were made pertaining to the number of expected targets (Experiment 1, N = 60: high vs. low suggestions; Experiment 2, N = 62, no suggestion vs. high suggestion vs. no voice suggestion). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that trait suggestibility and dissociation predicted hallucination proneness. Highly hallucination-prone students showed a higher SDT bias in both studies. In Experiment 1, both bias scores were significantly affected by suggestions to the same degree. In Experiment 2, highly hallucination-prone students were more reactive to the high suggestion condition than the controls. Suggestions may affect source-monitoring judgments, and this effect may be greater in those who have a predisposition towards hallucinatory experiences.

  5. Leukocytosis in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H

    1999-01-01

    Leukocytosis is a common finding in the acute phase of stroke. A detrimental effect of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has been suggested, and trials aiming at reducing the leukocyte response in acute stroke are currently being conducted. However, the influence of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has...

  6. Stroke: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when blood flow to your ... cells start dying. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...

  7. Adapting the Home After a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis Stroke ... after a Stroke Adapting the Home after a Stroke Caregiver Introduction What is Aphasia? Stroke Recovery Guides ...

  8. Managing flood prone ecosystem for rice production in Bihar plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.

    2002-06-01

    A large area of the eastern region especially Bihar (0.5 million hectare) faces flood submergence and/or drought every year which creates an unfavorable environment for crop production. In this ecosystem only flood prone rice is grown whose cultivation is entirely different than normal rice crop. Managing the flood prone ecosystem for rice production needs to evaluate the reasons and a comprehensive appropriate technology through research efforts for better rice production under such harsh ecology. An attempt was made to develop a suitable agronomic package for rice cultivation during and after flooding in flood prone plains of Bihar. (author)

  9. Effect of reducing abdominal compression during prone CT colonography on ascending colonic rotation during supine-to-prone positional change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jong eon; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Hyun Jin; KIm, Ah Young; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of reduced abdominal compression in prone position on ascending colonic movement during supine-to-prone positional change during CT colonography (CTC). Eighteen consecutive patients who had undergone prone CTC scanning with cushion blocks placed under the chest and hip/thigh to reduce abdominal compression and had confirmed sessile polyps ≥ 6 mm in the well-distended, straight, mid-ascending colon, were included. Radial location along the ascending colonic luminal circumference (°) was measured for 24 polyps and 54 colonic teniae on supine and prone CTC images. The supine-to-prone change ranging between -180° and +180° (- and + for internal and external colonic rotations, respectively), was determined. In addition, possible causes of any ascending colonic rotations were explored. Abdominal compression during prone CTC scanning completely disappeared with the use of cushion blocks in 17 of 18 patients. However, some degrees of ascending colonic rotation were still observed, with the radial location changes of -22° to 61° (median, 13.9°) for the polyps and similar degrees for teniae. Fifty-four percent and 56% of polyps and teniae, respectively, showed changes > 10°. The radial location change of the polyps was significantly associated with the degree of anterior shift of the small bowel and mesentery (r = 0.722, p < 0.001) and the degree of posterior displacement of the ascending colon (r = 0.566, p = 0.004) during supine-to-prone positional change. Ascending colonic rotation upon supine-to-prone positional change during CTC, mostly in the form of external rotation, is not eliminated by removing abdominal compression in prone position

  10. LC-MS/MS Analysis and Pharmacokinetics of Sodium (±-5-Bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl Benzoate (BZP, an Innovative Potent Anti-Ischemic Stroke Agent in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of sodium (±-5-Bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl benzoate (BZP and its active metabolite 3-butyl-6-bromo-1(3H-isobenzofuranone (Br-NBP in rat plasma using potassium 2-(1-hydroxypentyl-benzoate (PHPB and l-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP as internal standards (IS. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hypersil GOLD C18 column using a gradient elution of ammonium acetate and methanol at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Good linearity was achieved within the wide concentration range of 5–10,000 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision was less than 8.71% and the accuracy was within −8.53% and 6.38% in quality control and the lower limit of quantitation samples. BZP and Br-NBP were stable during the analysis and the storage period. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of BZP in Sprague-Dawley rats for the first time. After a single intravenous administration of BZP at the dose of 0.75 mg/kg, the plasma concentration of BZP and Br-NBP declined rapidly and the AUC0-t of BZP was significantly greater in female rats compared to male rats (p < 0.05. The data presented in this study serve as a firm basis for further investigation of BZP in both preclinical and clinical phases.

  11. The retrorenal colon in the supine and prone patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, K.D.; Sherman, J.L.; Luethke, J.M.; Ghaed, N.

    1986-01-01

    Ninety patients underwent CT in both supine and prone positions so that the orientation of the retroperitoneal colon about the kidneys could be determined. Particular attention was given to bowel found posterior to the kidneys, the so-called retrorenal colon. The frequency of retrorenal colon increased from 1.9% on supine studies to 10.7% on prone studies. Since most invasive renal procedures performed with the patient prone would miss retrorenal colon located behind the lateral one third of the kidney, the data were reevaluated, excluding these patients. The resulting frequency of significant retrorenal colon found on prone studies was 4.7%. Significant retrorenal colon was found exclusively at the level of the lower renal poles, and the involved colon in these patients was extensively distended with gas. Particular attention should be given, under fluoroscopic guidance, to detecting this unusual posteriorly positioned, air-filled colon before one undertakes any invasive renal procedure

  12. Ventilatory sensitivity to mild asphyxia: prone versus supine sleep position

    OpenAIRE

    Galland, B; Bolton, D; Taylor, B; Sayers, R; Williams, S

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To compare the effects of prone and supine sleep position on the main physiological responses to mild asphyxia: increase in ventilation and arousal.
METHODS—Ventilatory and arousal responses to mild asphyxia (hypercapnia/hypoxia) were measured in 53 healthy infants at newborn and 3 months of age, during quiet sleep (QS) and active sleep (AS), and in supine and prone sleep positions. The asphyxial test mimicked face down rebreathing by slowly altering the inspired air: C...

  13. Development and validation of the Adolescent Shame-Proneness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Laura M; John, Mary; Fife-Schaw, Chris; Willis, Susie; Taylor, Helen; Hand, Heidi; Rahim, Masuma; Winstanley, Harriet; Winton, Holly

    2016-05-01

    Like other self-conscious emotions, shame takes on particular significance during late childhood and adolescence because of a developing capacity for self-reflection, self-other comparisons, and sensitivity to the views of others. Shame is a potentially important variable in adolescent well-being given its established associations with depression, reduced feelings of self-worth, and problematic anger. Three studies are reported that describe the development and validation of the Adolescent Shame-Proneness Scale (ASPS), a novel semi-idiographic measure of shame-proneness. The ASPS is a 19-item measure assessing 3 components of shame-proneness-negative self-evaluation, externalization, and emotional discomfort. Taken together, the studies support the reliability and validity of the ASPS as a semi-idiographic measure of shame-proneness in adolescents aged 11 to 18 years. ASPS scores correlate as expected with scores on existing measure of shame-proneness and with measures of anger, negative affect, and self-esteem. More important, the data suggest that ASPS scores are related to, but distinct from, guilt. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the ASPS factor structure (RMSEA = .08, SRMR = .05, CFI = .97, NNFI = .97). The ASPS represents a unique contribution to existing options for measuring shame-proneness in research and clinical contexts. Further work is required to assess the ASPS' temporal stability and its viability and psychometric properties in more culturally diverse samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Economic antecedents of prone infant sleep placement among black mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Tim A

    2008-09-01

    Black infants die from sudden infant death syndrome at twice the incidence observed among non-Hispanic white infants. Explanations for this disparity include a two-fold greater prevalence of prone (i.e., stomach) infant sleep placement among black caregivers. I test the hypothesis that the contraction of state economies may contribute to this disparity by increasing the risk of prone infant sleep placement among black mothers. I retrieved data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics employment series and 33,518 black mothers in 26 states participating in the 1996-2002 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. I use weighted multivariable analyses to control for individual characteristics and state and time trends. Black mothers exhibit an elevated risk of reporting prone placement one month following statewide declines in employment (adjusted odds ratio for a one percent decline = 1.11, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.22). This risk remains elevated after control for individual variables. In contrast, I find no association between the economy and prone placement among white mothers. Statewide economic decline may reduce adherence to the recommended non-prone infant sleep position among black, but not white, mothers. Additional research among black caregivers should determine which mechanisms connect economic downturns to prone infant sleep placement.

  15. Blood-brain barrier and cerebral blood flow: Age differences in hemorrhagic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya Oxana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal stroke is similar to the stroke that occurs in adults and produces a significant morbidity and long-term neurologic and cognitive deficits. There are important differences in the factors, clinical events and outcomes associated with the stroke in infants and adults. However, mechanisms underlying age differences in the stroke development remain largely unknown. Therefore, treatment guidelines for neonatal stroke must extrapolate from the adult data that is often not suitable for children. The new information about differences between neonatal and adult stroke is essential for identification of significant areas for future treatment and effective prevention of neonatal stroke. Here, we studied the development of stress-induced hemorrhagic stroke and possible mechanisms underlying these processes in newborn and adult rats. Using histological methods and magnetic resonance imaging, we found age differences in the type of intracranial hemorrhages. Newborn rats demonstrated small superficial bleedings in the cortex while adult rats had more severe deep bleedings in the cerebellum. Using Doppler optical coherent tomography, we found higher stress-reactivity of the sagittal sinus to deleterious effects of stress in newborn vs. adult rats suggesting that the cerebral veins are more vulnerable to negative stress factors in neonatal vs. adult brain in rats. However, adult but not newborn rats demonstrated the stroke-induced breakdown of blood brain barrier (BBB permeability. The one of possible mechanisms underlying the higher resistance to stress-related stroke injures of cerebral vessels in newborn rats compared with adult animals is the greater expression of two main tight junction proteins of BBB (occludin and claudin-5 in neonatal vs. mature brain in rats.

  16. Airplane stroke syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humaidan, Hani; Yassi, Nawaf; Weir, Louise; Davis, Stephen M; Meretoja, Atte

    2016-07-01

    Only 37 cases of stroke during or soon after long-haul flights have been published to our knowledge. In this retrospective observational study, we searched the Royal Melbourne Hospital prospective stroke database and all discharge summaries from 1 September 2003 to 30 September 2014 for flight-related strokes, defined as patients presenting with stroke within 14days of air travel. We hypothesised that a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an important, but not the only mechanism, of flight-related stroke. We describe the patient, stroke, and flight characteristics. Over the study period, 131 million passengers arrived at Melbourne airport. Our centre admitted 5727 stroke patients, of whom 42 (0.73%) had flight-related strokes. Flight-related stroke patients were younger (median age 65 versus 73, p<0.001), had similar stroke severity, and received intravenous thrombolysis more often than non-flight-related stroke patients. Seven patients had flight-related intracerebral haemorrhage. The aetiology of the ischaemic strokes was cardioembolic in 14/35 (40%), including seven patients with confirmed PFO, one with atrial septal defect, four with atrial fibrillation, one with endocarditis, and one with aortic arch atheroma. Paradoxical embolism was confirmed in six patients. Stroke related to air travel is a rare occurrence, less than one in a million. Although 20% of patients had a PFO, distribution of stroke aetiologies was diverse and was not limited to PFO and paradoxical embolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Similar changes in clinical and pathological parameters in Wistar Kyoto rats after a 13-week dietary intake of canola oil or a fatty acid composition-based interesterified canola oil mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Naoki; Naito, Yukiko; Kasama, Kikuko; Shindo, Tomoko; Yoshida, Hiromichi; Nagata, Tomoko; Okuyama, Harumi

    2009-01-01

    Canola oil (CO) given as a dietary fat deteriorates hypertension-related condition and shortens the life of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Although substances other than fatty acids have been presumed as causatives, CO mimics consisting of oils other than CO also shorten the life. In this study we intended to examine whether or not fatty acid composition unique to CO participates in the adverse effect. CO or an interesterified CO mimic (ICOM) consisting of safflower oil, flaxseed oil and erucic acid was fed as a dietary fat for 13 weeks to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, and clinical and pathological signs were compared. WKY rats were used to avoid the difficulty in evaluating the results in SHRSP due to irregular deterioration in conditions by stroke. Compared to a standard diet, both diets containing CO or ICOM similarly elevated blood pressure, increased plasma lipids, activated hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, decreased platelets, shortened blood coagulation times and induced abnormalities in the kidney. Thus, CO-specific fatty acid composition appeared to affect the pathophysiology of the rat and produce consequent aggravation of pathological status, especially in SHRSP. However, the existence of causative factors other than fatty acids was suggested by increased neutrophil count exclusively induced by CO.

  18. Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke About 1.5 million heart attacks and strokes ... the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Cholesterol Salt Video: Know Your ...

  19. Three-dimensional conformal breast irradiation in the prone position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kurtman

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The prone position can be used for the planning of adjuvant radiotherapy after conservative breast surgery in order to deliver less irradiation to lung and cardiac tissue. In the present study, we compared the results of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy planning for five patients irradiated in the supine and prone position. Tumor stage was T1N0M0 in four patients and T1N1M0 in one. All patients had been previously submitted to conservative breast surgery. Breast size was large in three patients and moderate in the other two. Irradiation in the prone position was performed using an immobilization foam pad with a hole cut into it to accommodate the breast so that it would hang down away from the chest wall. Dose-volume histograms showed that mean irradiation doses reaching the ipsilateral lung were 8.3 ± 3.6 Gy with the patient in the supine position and 1.4 ± 1.0 Gy with the patient in the prone position (P = 0.043. The values for the contralateral lung were 1.3 ± 0.7 and 0.3 ± 0.1 Gy (P = 0.043 and the values for cardiac tissue were 4.6 ± 1.6 and 3.0 ± 1.7 Gy (P = 0.079, respectively. Thus, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that lung tissue irradiation was significantly lower with the patient in the prone position than in the supine position. Large-breasted women appeared to benefit most from irradiation in the prone position. Prone position breast irradiation appears to be a simple and effective alternative to the conventional supine position for patients with large breasts, since they are subjected to lower pulmonary doses which may cause less pulmonary side effects in the future.

  20. Perlecan domain V therapy for stroke: a beacon of hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bix, Gregory J

    2013-03-20

    The sad reality is that in the year 2012, people are still dying or suffering from the extreme morbidity of ischemic stroke. This tragedy is only compounded by the graveyard full of once promising new therapies. While it is indeed true that the overall mortality from stroke has declined in the United States, perhaps due to increased awareness of stroke symptoms by both the lay public and physicians, it is clear that better therapies are needed. In this regard, progress has been tremendously slowed by the simple fact that experimental models of stroke and the animals that they typically employ, rats and mice, do not adequately represent human stroke. Furthermore, the neuroprotective therapeutic approach, in which potential treatments are administered with the hope of preventing the spread of dying neurons that accompanies a stroke, typically fail for a number of reasons such as there is simply more brain matter to protect in a human than there is in a rodent! For this reason, there has been somewhat of a shift in stroke research away from neuroprotection and toward a neurorepair approach. This too may be problematic in that agents that might foster brain repair could be acutely deleterious or neurotoxic and vice versa, making the timing of treatment administration after stroke critical. Therefore, in our efforts to discover a new stroke therapy, we decided to focus on identifying brain repair elements that were (1) endogenously and actively generated in response to stroke in both human and experimental animal brains, (2) present acutely and chronically after ischemic stroke, suggesting that they could have a role in acute neuroprotection and chronic neurorepair, and (3) able to be administered peripherally and reach the site of stroke brain injury. In this review, I will discuss the evidence that suggests that perlecan domain V may be just that substance, a potential beacon of hope for stroke patients.

  1. Test Your Stroke Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9-1-1. Which of the following are risk factors for stroke? High blood pressure Heart disease Smoking High cholesterol Diabetes Show Answer All of these are risk factors for stroke. If you smoke - quit. If you have high ...

  2. Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More The Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia Click a letter below to get a brief ... of cardiovascular terms from our Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia and get links to in-depth information. A ...

  3. Stroke Connection Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Submit A Story Edit Module Show Tags Stroke Rehabilitation Two-Part Series Making the Best Decisions at ... first part of a two-part series on stroke rehab, we offer guidance for the decision-making process ...

  4. Stroke (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your friend. Being around friends can help with healing. Preventing Strokes Some strokes can be prevented in ... Why Does Hair Turn Gray? What Are Wrinkles? Alzheimer Disease Your Brain & Nervous System Why Exercise Is ...

  5. Stroke Trials Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Trials Registry Clinical Trials Interventions Conditions Sponsors ... a clinical trial near you Welcome to the Stroke Trials Registry Our registry of clinical trials in ...

  6. Costimulation and autoimmune diabetes in BB rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaudette-Zlatanova, BC; Whalen, B; Zipris, D; Yagita, H; Rozing, J; Groen, H; Benjamin, CD; Hunig, T; Drexhage, HA; Ansari, MJ; Leif, J; Mordes, JP; Greiner, DL; Sayegh, MH; Rossini, AA

    Costimulatory signals regulate T-cell activation. To investigate the role of costimulation in autoimmunity and transplantation, we studied the BB rat model of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-prone BB (BBDP) rats spontaneously develop disease when 55-120 days of age. We observed that two anti-CD28

  7. [Genetics of ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendtner, A; Dichgans, M

    2013-02-01

    Stroke is one of the most widespread causes of mortality und disability worldwide. Around 80 % of strokes are ischemic and different forms of intracranial bleeding account for the remaining cases. Monogenic stroke disorders are rare but the diagnosis may lead to specific therapeutic consequences for the affected patients who are predominantly young. In common sporadic stroke, genetic factors play a role in the form of susceptibility genes. Their discovery may give rise to new therapeutic options in the future.

  8. Hemorrhagic Stroke in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan M.D., Lori C.; Hillis M.D., Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately half of stroke in childhood. Unlike arterial ischemic stroke, there are no consensus guidelines to assist in the evaluation and treatment of these children. We review the literature on the evaluation, treatment, etiology and neurologic outcome of hemorrhagic stroke in children. Important differences between pediatric and adult hemorrhage are highlighted, as treatment guidelines for adults may not be applicable in all cases. Needed future research ...

  9. Right-frontal cortical asymmetry predicts increased proneness to nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullett, Alexa M; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Nostalgia is often triggered by feelings-such as sadness, loneliness, or meaninglessness-that are typically associated with withdrawal motivation. Here, we examined whether a trait tendency to experience withdrawal motivation is associated with nostalgia proneness. Past work indicates that baseline right-frontal cortical asymmetry is a neural correlate of withdrawal-related motivation. We therefore hypothesized that higher baseline levels of right-frontal asymmetry would predict increased proneness to nostalgia. We assessed participants' baseline levels of frontal cortical activity using EEG. Results supported the hypothesis and demonstrated that the association between relative right-frontal asymmetry and increased nostalgia remained significant when controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Overall, these findings indicate that individuals with a stronger dispositional tendency to experience withdrawal-related motivation are more prone to nostalgia. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. The preliminary study on the inductory signal triggering the error-prone DNA repair function in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zaozhong; Luo Zuyu

    1989-01-01

    The nature of the signal triggering error-prone DNA repair function in mammalian cells was studied from two notions: (1) Does the inducing signal result from the direct hitting the cellular targets by DNA-damaging agents? (2) Is inhibition of DNA replication a prerequisite condition for the triggering effect? Thus, the ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated exogenous DNAs were introduced into human and rat cells by transfection. The results showed that this transfection was able to induce the error-prone repair as efficient as direct UV-irradiation to cells. Moreover, the two inductory treaetments expressed similar kinetics and dose-responses. No matter whether the introduced DNAs initiated replication, they exhibited the incuctory activity. Therefore, it can be considered that DNA lesions itself, not the direct interaction of DNA-damaging agents with specific cellular targets, serve as a triggering signal for the inductory process. Inhibition of DNA replication is not a prerequisite for the inductory signal

  11. Increased risk of posterior circulation infarcts among ischemic stroke patients with cervical spondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chi; Chung, Chia-Ying; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Chang, Wei-Han; Tang, Simon FT; Pei, Yu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical spondylosis is one of the extrinsic factors causing vertebral artery stenosis. Several case studies have reported compression of the vertebral artery induced by cervical osteophytes that has resulted in posterior circulation infarcts (POCI). However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have yet analyzed differences in the risk factors and stroke subtypes between ischemic stroke patients with cervical spondylosis and those without. Purpose In the case-controlled study reported here, we analyzed the risk factors and stroke subtypes in ischemic stroke patients with and without cervical spondylosis. Characteristics in all the recruited patients with POCI and non-POCI were further compared to extract other risk factors that could predict the occurrence of POCI. Methods and patients We filtered out ischemic stroke patients with cervical spondylosis (“Stroke+C” group) by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. We analyzed the data of 38 subjects in the Stroke+C group and 152 sex- and age-comparable ischemic stroke patients without cervical spondylosis (“Stroke−C” group). We recorded the demographic characteristics including sex and age, and stroke risk factors, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, and smoking habits. The stroke classifications were defined by the Oxford Community Stroke Project classification. All subjects were further categorized into POCI or non-POCI groups. The ultrasound findings of the vertebral arteries (extracranial and intracranial) in the Stroke+C group were also recorded. Results More patients in the Stroke+C group tended to have POCI (34.2%) than patients in the Stroke−C group (17.5%) (odds ratio [OR] =2.41, Pspondylosis (OR=2.41, Pspondylosis are more prone to POCI than those without cervical spondylosis. Hypertension is another identified risk factor for POCI in ischemic stroke patients. The occurrence of POCI should be highlighted for patients

  12. 44 CFR 60.24 - Planning considerations for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.24 Section 60.24 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL..., Mudslide (i.e., Mudflow)-Prone and Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.24 Planning considerations for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The planning process for communities identified under part 65 of this...

  13. Leukocytes as markers of hemorrhagic stroke inflammatory nature

    OpenAIRE

    Yabluchanskiy, A.

    2012-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke in response to intracerebral hemorrhage is considered an aseptic form of inflammation. With this in mind the dynamics of leukocytes changes in blood and in the hemorrhagic stroke zone as main factors of inflammation are examined. Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 24) underwent surgical procedures and were divided into two groups — control group and a hemorrhagic stroke group — an injection of 2 µL of sterile saline and 2 µL of 0,2U of Collagenase-IV (S) respectively. White blood cel...

  14. Sex Disparities in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2015-01-01

    between 2003 and 2012 (N=79 617), and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. Information was available on age, sex, marital status, stroke severity, stroke subtype, socioeconomic status, and cardiovascular risk profile. We studied only deaths due to the index stroke, with the assumption that death.......5%) or 1 month (6.9%), respectively. After the age of 60 years, women had more severe strokes than men. Up to ages in the mid-60s, no difference in the risk of death from stroke was seen between the 2 sexes. For people aged >65 years, however, the risk gradually became greater in men than in women...

  15. Does acupuncture ameliorate motor impairment after stroke? An assessment using the CatWalk gait system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Sun, Ning; Yang, Jing-Wen; Zheng, Yang; Zhu, Wen; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Xue-Rui; Shi, Guang-Xia; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2017-07-01

    The effect of acupuncture on gait deficits after stroke is uncertain. This animal study was designed to determine whether acupuncture improves gait impairment following experimentally induced ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. After 7 days' of acupuncture treatment, assessment of gait changes using the CatWalk automated gait analysis system was performed. Comparison of the CatWalk gait parameters among the groups showed that gait function was impaired after ischemic stroke and acupuncture treatment was effective in improving a variety of gait parameters including intensity, stance and swing time, swing speed and stride length at postoperative day 8. This study demonstrates a beneficial effect of acupuncture on gait impairment in rats following ischemic stroke. Further studies aimed to investigate the effects of acupuncture at different stages during stroke using the CatWalk system are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  17. Registration of acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Mehnert, Frank; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The validity of the registration of patients in stroke-specific registries has seldom been investigated, nor compared with administrative hospital discharge registries. The objective of this study was to examine the validity of the registration of patients in a stroke-specific registry...... (The Danish Stroke Registry [DSR]) and a hospital discharge registry (The Danish National Patient Registry [DNRP]). METHODS: Assuming that all patients with stroke were registered in either the DSR, DNRP or both, we first identified a sample of 75 patients registered with stroke in 2009; 25 patients...... in the DSR, 25 patients in the DNRP, and 25 patients registered in both data sources. Using the medical record as a gold standard, we then estimated the sensitivity and positive predictive value of a stroke diagnosis in the DSR and the DNRP. Secondly, we reviewed 160 medical records for all potential stroke...

  18. Sleep and Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Padma Srivastav

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian variations in conjunction with sleep-related heart rhythm changes and sleepdisordered breathing (SDB are contributing risk factors for stroke. Strong scientificevidence now exists indicating that SDB contributes to systemic hypertension, aprominent risk factor for stroke, and compelling circumstantial evidence is presentsuggesting that SDB raises the risk for development of stroke through other circulatorymechanisms as well. Preliminary evidence indicates that post-stroke patients have ahigher prevalence of SDB, which is likely to compromise their rehabilitation outcomes.Since SDB is modifiable with the application of CPAP and other treatment modalities,there is practical value in investigating patients at risk of stroke or post stroke forpresence of SDB. Successful application of CPAP or BiPAP therapy may improve theoutcome in both instances.Key words : Sleep, Stroke, SDB, CPAP

  19. [Changes in DNA repair enzymes in rat ventroposterior nucleus of the thalamus after cerebral cortex infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mei-Xia; Zeng, Jin-Sheng; Hua, Hai-Ying; Xing, Shi-Hui; Ba, Yun-Peng

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the damage within the ventroposterior nucleus (VPN) of the thalamus after focal cortical infarction and its mechanism, and explore the effect of ebselen on the oxidative damage after cerebral cortex infarction in hypertensive rats. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRSP), and the rats were divided into four groups by table of random number: sham operation group, model group, vehicle group and ebselen group, each group consisted of 8 rats. In animals subjected to sham surgery the middle cerebral artery was exposed only. Ebselen (5 ml/kg) or vehicle (a mixed solvent consisting of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose and 0.02% Tween 20, 5 ml/kg) was given by gastric gavage starting 24 hours after cerebral cortical infarction. Two weeks after the MCAO, the rats were sacrificed, and VPN from each group was sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE), and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) and Escherichia coli MutY DNA glycosylase (MYH) were determined by immunohistochemistry. HE staining showed that ebselen ameliorated the VPN damage induced by ischemia. Immunohistochemical imaging analysis revealed a distinct nuclear staining of APE and nuclear and cytoplasm distribution of MYH in the entire region of the VPN. Compared with sham operation group, the number of APE and MYH positive cells decreased in model group and vehicle group (APE: 57.0±14.7, 49.4±12.5 vs. 101.0±13.6, MYH: 15.0±4.7, 10.4±2.5 vs. 56.0±13.2, all PVPN; ebselen can obviously increase the level of APE and MYH, and ebselen may protect the VPN of the thalamus from damage after focal cortical infarction in rats.

  20. Prone position in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setten, Mariano; Plotnikow, Gustavo Adrián; Accoce, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome occupies a great deal of attention in intensive care units. Despite ample knowledge of the physiopathology of this syndrome, the focus in intensive care units consists mostly of life-supporting treatment and avoidance of the side effects of invasive treatments. Although great advances in mechanical ventilation have occurred in the past 20 years, with a significant impact on mortality, the incidence continues to be high. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, especially the most severe cases, often present with refractory hypoxemia due to shunt, which can require additional treatments beyond mechanical ventilation, among which is mechanical ventilation in the prone position. This method, first recommended to improve oxygenation in 1974, can be easily implemented in any intensive care unit with trained personnel. Prone position has extremely robust bibliographic support. Various randomized clinical studies have demonstrated the effect of prone decubitus on the oxygenation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome measured in terms of the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, including its effects on increasing patient survival. The members of the Respiratory Therapists Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva performed a narrative review with the objective of discovering the available evidence related to the implementation of prone position, changes produced in the respiratory system due to the application of this maneuver, and its impact on mortality. Finally, guidelines are suggested for decision-making. PMID:27925054

  1. Hepatitis C virus infection among transmission-prone medical personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Appelman, P.; Frijstein, G.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected physicians have been reported to infect some of their patients during exposure-prone procedures (EPPs). There is no European consensus on the policy for the prevention of this transmission. To help define an appropriate preventive policy, we determined the prevalence

  2. Determinants of Household Food Security in Drought Prone Areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper documents the determinants of household-level food security based on the data collected in 2003 from 954 randomly-selected households in major drought-prone areas of Ethiopia; namely from the West and East Haraghe zones of Oromiya and South Gonder zone of Amhara. The food security is assessed using ...

  3. Setup accuracy for prone and supine whole breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulliez, Thomas; Vercauteren, Tom; Greveling, Annick van; Speleers, Bruno; Neve, Wilfried de; Veldeman, Liv; Gulyban, Akos

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) based setup accuracy and margins for prone and supine whole breast irradiation (WBI). Setup accuracy was evaluated on 3559 CBCT scans of 242 patients treated with WBI and uncertainty margins were calculated using the van Herk formula. Uni- and multivariate analysis on individual margins was performed for age, body mass index (BMI) and cup size. The population-based margin in vertical (VE), lateral (LA) and longitudinal (LO) directions was 10.4/9.4/9.4 mm for the 103 supine and 10.5/22.4/13.7 mm for the 139 prone treated patients, being significantly (p < 0.01) different for the LA and LO directions. Multivariate analysis identified a significant (p < 0.05) correlation between BMI and the LO margin in supine position and the VE/LA margin in prone position. In this series, setup accuracy is significantly worse in prone compared to supine position for the LA and LO directions. However, without proper image-guidance, uncertainty margins of about 1 cm are also necessary for supine WBI. For patients with a higher BMI, larger margins are required. (orig.) [de

  4. Prone position in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setten, Mariano; Plotnikow, Gustavo Adrián; Accoce, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome occupies a great deal of attention in intensive care units. Despite ample knowledge of the physiopathology of this syndrome, the focus in intensive care units consists mostly of life-supporting treatment and avoidance of the side effects of invasive treatments. Although great advances in mechanical ventilation have occurred in the past 20 years, with a significant impact on mortality, the incidence continues to be high. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, especially the most severe cases, often present with refractory hypoxemia due to shunt, which can require additional treatments beyond mechanical ventilation, among which is mechanical ventilation in the prone position. This method, first recommended to improve oxygenation in 1974, can be easily implemented in any intensive care unit with trained personnel. Prone position has extremely robust bibliographic support. Various randomized clinical studies have demonstrated the effect of prone decubitus on the oxygenation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome measured in terms of the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, including its effects on increasing patient survival. The members of the Respiratory Therapists Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva performed a narrative review with the objective of discovering the available evidence related to the implementation of prone position, changes produced in the respiratory system due to the application of this maneuver, and its impact on mortality. Finally, guidelines are suggested for decision-making.

  5. Pathogenesis of A-beta+ ketosis-prone diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A-beta+ ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is an emerging syndrome of obesity, unprovoked ketoacidosis, reversible beta-cell dysfunction, and near-normoglycemic remission. We combined metabolomics with targeted kinetic measurements to investigate its pathophysiology. Fasting plasma fatty acids, acylcarnit...

  6. Prone surgery and laryngeal mask airways: an overview of recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-17

    Aug 17, 2013 ... patient trauma. • Effective laryngeal mask airway (LMA) placement in the prone position may suggest a rescue airway in the event of endotracheal .... Facet infiltrations. • Rhizotomy. • Spinal decompression. • Spinal fusion. • Pilonidal sinus. • Melanoma excision on the back. • Bone marrow aspiration.

  7. Mindfulness, emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, and stress proneness among hypersexual patients

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, RC; Bramen, JE; Anderson, A; Cohen, MS

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study explores relationships between mindfulness, emotional regulation, impulsivity, and stress proneness in a sample of participants recruited in a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder Fifth Edition Field Trial for Hypersexual Disorder and healthy controls to assess whether mindfulness attenuates symptoms of hypersexuality. Method: Hierarchal regression analysis was used to assess whether significant relationships between mindfulness and hypersexuality ...

  8. Coping Strategies and Household Food Security in Drought-Prone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-term responses to meet the shortfall of consumption needs, such as selling charcoal and fuel wood, taking loans/credits and borrowing in kind or cash from friends were the major ex-post coping strategies practised by the poor and vulnerable households. In drought-prone areas such as Lay Gayint district, a serious ...

  9. Coping Strategies and Household Food Security in Drought-Prone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    issues affect households' involvement in long-term strategies for positive livelihood outcomes. ... consumption needs, such as selling charcoal and fuel wood, taking loans/credits and borrowing in kind or ... Coping Strategies and Household Food Security in Drought-Prone Areas in Ethiopia: The Case of Lay Gayint District.

  10. Prone surgery and laryngeal mask airways: an overview of recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinicians tend to avoid the use of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in the prone position, but several trials demonstrate its low rate of complication if patient selection is performed properly. Obesity is also demonstrated not to be a contraindication to this anaesthetic technique. Patients are more haemodynamically stable if ...

  11. Mental imagery and perception in hallucination-prone individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, André M.A.; Nieuwenstein, Mark R.M.A.; Böcker, Koen B. E.; de Haan, Edward H.F.

    2000-01-01

    College students screened for hallucination-proneness using the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS) were compared on measures of self-report vividness of imagery and on behavioral measures of imagery and perception (visual and auditory). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis whether

  12. Drug-induced Hypothermia by 5HT1A Agonists Provide Neuroprotection in Experimental Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Hasseldam, Henrik; Nybro Smith, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug-induced hypothermia reduces brain damage in animal stroke models and is an undiscovered potential in human stroke treatment. We studied hypothermia induced by the serotonergic agonists S14671 (1-[2-(2-thenoylamino)ethyl]-4[1-(7- methoxynaphtyl)]piperazine) and ipsapirone in a rat...

  13. Prediction of hemorrhagic transformation after experimental ischemic stroke using MRI-based algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouts, Mark. J. R. J.; Tiebosch, Ivo A.C.W.; Rudrapatna, Umesh S; van der Toorn, Annette; Wu, Ona; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) risk is crucial for treatment decision–making after acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to determine the accuracy of multiparametric MRI-based predictive algorithms in calculating probability of HT after stroke. Spontaneously, hypertensive rats were

  14. Fetal-adult cardiac transcriptome analysis in rats with contrasting left ventricular mass reveals new candidates for cardiac hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Grabowski

    Full Text Available Reactivation of fetal gene expression patterns has been implicated in common cardiac diseases in adult life including left ventricular (LV hypertrophy (LVH in arterial hypertension. Thus, increased wall stress and neurohumoral activation are discussed to induce the return to expression of fetal genes after birth in LVH. We therefore aimed to identify novel potential candidates for LVH by analyzing fetal-adult cardiac gene expression in a genetic rat model of hypertension, i.e. the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP. To this end we performed genome-wide transcriptome analysis in SHRSP to identify differences in expression patterns between day 20 of fetal development (E20 and adult animals in week 14 in comparison to a normotensive rat strain with contrasting low LV mass, i.e. Fischer (F344. 15232 probes were detected as expressed in LV tissue obtained from rats at E20 and week 14 (p < 0.05 and subsequently screened for differential expression. We identified 24 genes with SHRSP specific up-regulation and 21 genes with down-regulation as compared to F344. Further bioinformatic analysis presented Efcab6 as a new candidate for LVH that showed only in the hypertensive SHRSP rat differential expression during development (logFC = 2.41, p < 0.001 and was significantly higher expressed in adult SHRSP rats compared with adult F344 (+ 76% and adult normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (+ 82%. Thus, it represents an interesting new target for further functional analyses and the elucidation of mechanisms leading to LVH. Here we report a new approach to identify candidate genes for cardiac hypertrophy by combining the analysis of gene expression differences between strains with a contrasting cardiac phenotype with a comparison of fetal-adult cardiac expression patterns.

  15. Fetal-Adult Cardiac Transcriptome Analysis in Rats with Contrasting Left Ventricular Mass Reveals New Candidates for Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Katja; Riemenschneider, Mona; Schulte, Leonard; Witten, Anika; Schulz, Angela; Stoll, Monika; Kreutz, Reinhold

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of fetal gene expression patterns has been implicated in common cardiac diseases in adult life including left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) in arterial hypertension. Thus, increased wall stress and neurohumoral activation are discussed to induce the return to expression of fetal genes after birth in LVH. We therefore aimed to identify novel potential candidates for LVH by analyzing fetal-adult cardiac gene expression in a genetic rat model of hypertension, i.e. the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP). To this end we performed genome-wide transcriptome analysis in SHRSP to identify differences in expression patterns between day 20 of fetal development (E20) and adult animals in week 14 in comparison to a normotensive rat strain with contrasting low LV mass, i.e. Fischer (F344). 15232 probes were detected as expressed in LV tissue obtained from rats at E20 and week 14 (p < 0.05) and subsequently screened for differential expression. We identified 24 genes with SHRSP specific up-regulation and 21 genes with down-regulation as compared to F344. Further bioinformatic analysis presented Efcab6 as a new candidate for LVH that showed only in the hypertensive SHRSP rat differential expression during development (logFC = 2.41, p < 0.001) and was significantly higher expressed in adult SHRSP rats compared with adult F344 (+ 76%) and adult normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (+ 82%). Thus, it represents an interesting new target for further functional analyses and the elucidation of mechanisms leading to LVH. Here we report a new approach to identify candidate genes for cardiac hypertrophy by combining the analysis of gene expression differences between strains with a contrasting cardiac phenotype with a comparison of fetal-adult cardiac expression patterns. PMID:25646840

  16. Stroke in Commercial Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Velasco, Rodrigo; Masjuan, Jaime; DeFelipe, Alicia; Corral, Iñigo; Estévez-Fraga, Carlos; Crespo, Leticia; Alonso-Cánovas, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Stroke on board aircraft has been reported in retrospective case series, mainly focusing on economy class stroke syndrome. Data on the actual incidence, pathogenesis, and prognosis of stroke in commercial flights are lacking. A prospective registry was designed to include all consecutive patients referred from an international airport (40 million passengers a year) to our hospital with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and onset of symptoms during a flight or immediately after landing. Forty-four patients (32 ischemic strokes and 12 transient ischemic attacks) were included over a 76-month period (January 2008 to April 2014). The estimated incidence of stroke was 1 stroke in 35 000 flights. Pathogeneses of stroke or transient ischemic attack were atherothrombotic in 16 (36%), economy class stroke syndrome in 8 (18%), cardioembolic in 7 (16%), arterial dissection in 4 (9%), lacunar stroke in 4 (9%), and undetermined in 5 (12%) patients. Carotid stenosis >70% was found in 12 (27%) of the patients. Overall prognosis was good, and thrombolysis was applied in 44% of the cases. The most common reason for not treating patients who had experienced stroke onset midflight was the delay in reaching the hospital. Only 1 patient with symptom onset during the flight prompted a flight diversion. We found a low incidence of stroke in the setting of air travel. Economy class stroke syndrome and arterial dissection were well represented in our sample. However, the main pathogenesis was atherothrombosis with a high proportion of patients with high carotid stenosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Chitsaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injectors are at risk of infections endocarditis, which carries risk for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage usually occurs after rupture of a septic (mycotic aneurysm. Heroine users can are also at risk for hemorrhagic stroke secondary to liver failure with deranged clotting and to heroin nephropathy with uremia or malignant hypertension. In some heroin users the drug it self is directly causal due to vasculitis, hypersensitivity and immunologic changes. Embolization of foreign material to brain due to mixed of heroine with quinine can cause cerebral embolism. AMPHETAMINE AND other psychostimulants: In abuser of amphetamine hemorrhagic stroke can occur, oral, intravenous, nasal, and inhalational routes of administration have been reported. Most were chronic user, but in several patients, stroke followed a first exposure. Some of amphetamine induced intracranial hemorrhages are secondary to acute hypertension, some to cerebral vacuities, and some to a combination of two. Decongestants and diet pills: Phenylpropanolamine (PPA, an amphetamine – like drug, in decongestants and diet pills, induce acute hypertension, sever headache, psychiatric symptoms, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Ephedrine and pseudo ephedrine are present in decongestants and bronchodilators and induce headache, tachyarrhythmia, hypertensive emergency, and hemorrhagic and occlusive stroke. Ecstasy, 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamin (MDMA with amphetamine like can

  18. A prospective international observational prevalence study on prone positioning of ARDS patients: the APRONET (ARDS Prone Position Network) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guérin, C.; Beuret, P.; Constantin, J. M.; Bellani, G.; Garcia-Olivares, P.; Roca, O.; Meertens, J. H.; Maia, P. Azevedo; Becher, T.; Peterson, J.; Larsson, A.; Gurjar, M.; Hajjej, Z.; Kovari, F.; Assiri, A. H.; Mainas, E.; Hasan, M. S.; Morocho-Tutillo, D. R.; Baboi, L.; Chrétien, J. M.; François, G.; Ayzac, L.; Chen, L.; Brochard, L.; Mercat, A.; Hajjej, Zied; Sellami, Walid; Ferjani, M.; Gurjar, Mohan; Assiri, Amer; Al Bshabshe, Ali; Almekhlafi, Ghaleb; Mandourah, Yasser; Hasan, Mohd Shahnaz; Rai, Vineya; Marzida, M.; Corcoles Gonzalez, Virgilio; Sanchez Iniesta, Rafael; Garcia, Pablo; Garcia-Montesinos de La Peña, Manuel; Garcia Herrera, Adriana; Roca, Oriol; Garcia-de-Acilu, Marina; Masclans Enviz, Joan Ramon; Mancebo, Jordi; Heili, Sarah; Artigas Raventos, Antonio; Blanch Torra, Lluís; Roche-Campo, Ferran; Rialp, Gemma; Forteza, Catalina; Berrazueta, Ana; Martinez, Esther; Penuelas, Oscar; Jara-Rubio, Ruben; Mallat, Jihad; Thevenin, D.; Zogheib, Elie; Mercat, Alain; Levrat, Albrice; Porot, Veronique; Bedock, B.; Grech, Ludovic; Plantefeve, Gaetan; Badie, Julio; Besch, Guillaume; Pili-Floury, Sébastien; Guisset, Olivier; Robine, Adrien; Prat, Gwenael; Doise, Jean-Marc; Badet, Michel; Thouret, J. M.; Just, Bernard; Perbet, Sébastien; Lautrette, Alexandre; Souweine, B.; Chabanne, Russell; Danguy des Déserts, Marc; Rigaud, Jean-Philippe; Marchalot, Antoine; Rigaud, J. P.; Bele, Nicolas; Beague, Sébastien; Hours, Sandrine; Marque, Sophie; Durand, Michel; Payen, J. F.; Stoclin, Annabelle; Gaffinel, Alain; Winer, Arnaud; Chudeau, Nicolas; Tirot, Patrice; Thyrault, Martial; Paulet, Rémi; Thyrault, M.; Aubrun, Frederic; Guerin, Claude; Floccard, Bernard; Rimmele, T.; Argaud, Laurent; Hernu, Romain; Crozon Clauzel, Jullien; Wey, Pierre-François; Bourdin, Gael; Pommier, C.; Cueuille, Nadège; de Varax, N. N.; Marchi, Elisa; Papazian, L.; Jochmans, Sebastien; Monchi, M.; Jaber, Samir; de Jong, Audrey; Moulaire, Valerie; Capron, Matthieu; Jarrige, L.; Barberet, Guillaume; Lakhal, Karim; Rozec, B.; Dellamonica, Jean; Robert, Alexandre; Bernardin, G.; Danin, Pierre-Eric; Raucoules, M.; Runge, Isabelle; Foucrier, Arnaud; Hamada, Sophie; Tesniere, Antoine; Fromentin, Mélanie; Samama, C. M.; Mira, Jean-Paul; Diehl, Jean-Luc; Mekontso Dessap, Armand; Arbelot, Charlotte; Demoule, Alexandre; Roche, Anne; Similowski, T.; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Gaudry, Stéphane; Dreyfuss, D.; de Montmolin, Etienne; Da Silva, Daniel; Verdiere, B.; Ardisson, Fanny; Lemiale, Virginie; Azoulay, Elie; Bruel, Cédric; Tiercelet, Kelly; Fartoukh, Muriel; Voiriot, Guillaume; Hoffmann, Clement; Leclerc, T.; Thille, Arnaud; Robert, Réné; Beuret, Pascal; Beduneau, Gaëtan; Beuzelin, Marion; Tamion, F.; Morel, Jérôme; Tremblay, Aymeric; Molliex, S.; Amal, Jean-Michel; Meaudre, Eric; Goutorbe, Philippe; Laffon, Marc; Gros, Antoine; Nica, Alexandru; Barjon, Genevieve; Dahyot-Fizelier, Claire; Imzi, Nadia; Gally, Josette; Real, N. N.; Sauneuf, Bertrand; Souloy, Xavier; Girbes, Armand; Tuinman, Pieter Roel; Schultz, Marcus; Winters, Tineke; Mijzen, Lisa; Roekaerts, P. M. H. J.; Vermeijden, Wytze; Beishuizen, Albertus; Trof, R.; Corsten, Stijn; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Meertens, John; Dieperink, Wim; Pickers, Peter; Roovers, Noortje; Maia, Paulo; Duque, Melanie; Rua, Fernando; Pereira de Figueired, António Manuel; Ramos, Armindo; Fragoso, Elsa; Azevedo, Pilar; Gouveia, Joao; Costa E Silva, Zélia; Silva, Goncalo; Chaves, Susana; Nobrega, J. J.; Lopes, Luís; Valerio, Bernardino; Araujo, Ana Carolina; de Freitas, Paulo Telles; Bouw, Maria Jose; Melao, Maria; Granja, C.; Marcal, Paulo; Fernandes, Antero; Joao, Gonçalves Pereira; Maia, Dionísio Faria; Spadaro, Savino; Volta, Carlo Alberto; Bellani, Giacomo; Citerio, G.; Mauri, Tommaso; Alban, Laura; Pesenti, A.; Mistraletti, Giovanni; Formenti, Paolo; Tommasino, C.; Tardini, Francesca; Fumagalli, R.; Colombo, Riccardo; Fossali, Tommaso; Catena, E.; Todeschini, Manuel; Gnesin, Paolo; Cracchiolo, Andrea Neville; Palma, Daniela; Tetamo, R.; Albiero, Daniela; Costantini, Elena; Raimondi, F.; Coppadoro, Andrea; Vascotto, Ettore; Lusenti, F.; Becher, Tobias; Schädler, Dirk; Weiler, N.; Karagiannidis, Christian; Petersson, Johan; Konrad, D.; Kawati, Rafael; Wessbergh, Joanna; Valtysson, J.; Rockstroh, Matthias; Borgstrom, Sten; Larsson, Niklas; Thunberg, J.; Camsooksai, Julie; Briggs, N. N.; Kovari, Ferenc; Cuesta, J.; Anwar, Sibs; O'Brien, B.; Barberis, Luigi; Sturman, J.; Mainas, Efstratios; Karatzas, S.; Piza, Petr; Sottiaux, Thierry; Adam, J. F.; Gawda, Ryszard; Gawor, Maen; Alqdah, M.; Cohen, D.; Brochard, Laurent; Baker, A.; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio Antonio; Garcia-Guillen, Francisco Javier; Morocho Tutillo, Diego Rolando; Jibaja Vega, Manuel; Zakalik, Graciela; Pagella, Gonzalo; Marengo, J.

    2018-01-01

    While prone positioning (PP) has been shown to improve patient survival in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients, the rate of application of PP in clinical practice still appears low. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of use of PP in ARDS patients (primary

  19. Sequential strokes in a hyperacute stroke unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesalingam, Jeban; Buddha, Sandeep; Carlton-Jones, Anoma L; Nicholas, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Vasculitis is a rare, but treatable condition that can present to hyperacute stroke units. Thrombolysis does not treat the underlying pathology, and a rapidly evolving clinical picture drives clinical decision often before all the investigation results are available.

  20. RNA Expression Profiles from Blood for the Diagnosis of Stroke and its Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Frank R; Jickling, Glen C; Stamova, Boryana; Tian, Yingfang; Zhan, Xinhua; Ander, Bradley P; Cox, Christopher; Kuczynski, Beth; Liu, DaZhi

    2013-01-01

    A blood test to detect stroke and its causes would be particularly useful in babies, young children, and patients in intensive care units, and for emergencies when imaging is difficult to obtain or unavailable. Using whole genome microarrays, we first showed specific gene expression profiles in rats 24 hours after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, hypoxia, and hypoglycemia. These proof-of-principle studies revealed that groups of genes (called gene profiles) can distinguish ischemic stroke patients from controls 3 hours to 24 hours after the strokes. In addition, gene expression profiles have been developed that distinguish stroke due to large-vessel atherosclerosis from cardioembolic stroke. These profiles will be useful for predicting the causes of cryptogenic stroke. Our results in adults suggest similar diagnostic tools could be developed for children. PMID:21636778

  1. Severe Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption in Cardioembolic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious studies demonstrated that cardioembolism (CE was prone to develop hemorrhagic transformation (HT, whereas hyper-permeability of blood–brain barrier (BBB might be one reason for the development of HT. We, thus, aimed to investigate whether the BBB permeability (BBBP was higher in CE stroke than other stroke subtypes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS patients.MethodsThis study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected clinical and imaging database of AIS patients who underwent CT perfusion. Hypoperfusion was defined as Tmax >6 s. The average relative permeability-surface area product (rPS, reflecting the BBBP, was calculated within the hypoperfusion region (rPShypo. CE was diagnosed according to the international Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis was used to determine predictive value of rPShypo for CE. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors for CE.ResultsA total of 187 patients were included in the final analysis [median age, 73 (61–80 years; 75 (40.1% females; median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 12 (7–16]. Median rPShypo was 65.5 (35.8–110.1%. Ninety-seven (51.9% patients were diagnosed as CE. ROC analysis revealed that the optimal rPShypo threshold for CE was 86.71%. The value of rPShypo and the rate of rPShypo>86.71% were significantly higher in patients with CE than other stroke subtypes (p < 0.05, after adjusting for the potential confounds.ConclusionThe extent of BBB disruption is more severe in CE stroke than other stroke subtypes during the hyperacute stage.

  2. Blood Pressure Control: Stroke and Stroke Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christoph Diener

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for primary and secondary stroke prevention.All antihypertensive drugs are effective in primary prevention: the risk reduction for stroke is 30—42%. However, not all classes of drugs have the same effects: there is some indication that angiotensin receptor blockers may be superior to other classes of antihypertensive drugs in stroke prevention.Seventy-five percent of patients who present to hospital with acute stroke have elevated blood pressure within the first 24—48 hours. Extremes of systolic blood pressure (SBP increase the risk of death or dependency. The aim of treatment should be to achieve and maintain the SBP in the range 140—160 mmHg. However, fast and drastic blood pressure lowering can have adverse consequences.The PROGRESS trial of secondary prevention with perindopril + indapamide versus placebo + placebo showed a decrease in numbers of stroke recurrences in patients given both active antihypertensive agents, more impressive for cerebral haemorrhage.There were also indications that active treatment might decrease the development of post-stroke dementia.

  3. Knowledge of Stroke Risk Factors among Stroke Survivors in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Vincent-Onabajo; Taritei Moses

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of stroke risk factors is expected to reduce the incidence of stroke?whether first-ever or recurrent. This study examined knowledge of stroke risk factors and its determinants among stroke survivors. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of consenting stroke survivors at two physiotherapy facilities in Nigeria was carried out. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained and knowledge of stroke risk factors (defined as the ability to mention at least one correct risk fac...

  4. European Stroke Science Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattle, Heinrich P.; Brainin, Michael; Chamorro, Angel; Diener, Hans Christoph; Hacke, Werner; Leys, Didier; Norrving, Bo; Ward, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The European Stroke Organisation (ESO) held its first European Stroke Science Workshop in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (15-17 December 2011). Stroke experts based in Europe were invited to present and discuss their current research. The scope of the workshop was to review the most recent findings of selected topics in stroke, to exchange ideas, to stimulate new research and to enhance collaboration between European stroke research groups. Seven scientific sessions were held, each starting with a keynote lecture to review the state of the art of the given topic, followed by 4 or 5 short presentations by experts. They were asked to limit their presentations to 10 slides containing only recent information. The meeting was organized by the executive committee of the ESO (Heinrich Mattle, chairman, Michael Brainin, Angel Chamorro, Werner Hacke, Didier Leys) and supported by the European Stroke Conference (Michael Hennerici). In this article we summarize the main contents of this successful workshop. PMID:22836350

  5. Stroke-related stigma among West Africans: Patterns and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Nichols, Michelle; Qanungo, Suparna; Teklehaimanot, Abeba; Singh, Arti; Mensah, Nathaniel; Saulson, Raelle; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Ezinne, Uvere; Owolabi, Mayowa; Jenkins, Carolyn; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2017-04-15

    Disability-adjusted life-years lost after stroke in Low & Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) is almost seven times those lost in High-income countries. Although individuals living with chronic neurological and mental disorders are prone to stigma, there is a striking paucity of literature on stroke-related stigma particularly from LMICs. To assess the prevalence, severity, determinants and psycho-social consequences of stigma among LMIC stroke survivors. Between November 2015 and February 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 200 consecutive stroke survivors attending a neurology clinic in a tertiary medical center in Ghana. The validated 8-Item Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness (SSCI-8) questionnaire was administered to study participants to assess internalized and enacted domains of stigma at the personal dimension with further adaptation to capture family and community stigma experienced by stroke participants. Responses on the SSCI-8 were scored from 1 to 5 for each item, where 1=never, 2=rarely, 3=sometimes, 4=often and 5=always with a score range of 8-40. Demographic and clinical data on stroke type and severity as well as depression and Health-Related Quality of Life indicators were also collected. Predictors of stroke-related stigma were assessed using Linear Models (GLM) via Proc GENMOD in SAS 9.4. 105 (52.5%) subjects recruited were males and the mean±SD age of stroke survivors in this survey was 62.0±14.4years. Mean SSCI-8 score was highest for personal stigma (13.7±5.7), which was significantly higher than family stigma (11.9±4.6; p=0.0005) and social/community stigma (11.4±4.4; pstigma. A graded increase in scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale and Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale was observed across the three categories. Living in an urban setting was associated with higher SSCI-8 scores. Moreover, stroke subjects with more severe post-stroke residual symptom deficits reported a significantly higher frequency of stigma

  6. Acute stroke imaging research roadmap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.; Hacke, Werner; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kloska, Stephan P.; Koehrmann, Martin; Koroshetz, Walter; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lees, Kennedy R.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Ostergaard, Leif; Powers, William J.; Provenzale, James; Schellinger, Peter; Silbergleit, Robert; Sorensen, Alma Gregory; Wardlaw, Joanna; Warach, Steven

    The recent "Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment" meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  7. Antecedents of Truck Drivers’ Job Satisfaction and Retention Proneness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Teller, Christoph; Kotzab, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) explore the antecedents of truck drivers’ job satisfaction, (2) identify the impact of financial and nonfinancial job properties on satisfaction with the job and with one's employer, and (3) the drivers’ proneness to retaining their jobs. Based on the extant...... literature, we develop a conceptual model that is tested using survey data for 164 truck drivers. Multiple linear and ordinal logistic regressions were used to estimate the proposed effects. The results reveal that nonfinancial job properties and satisfaction with one's employer affect job satisfaction...... is statistically significant. Financial and nonfinancial job properties affect satisfaction with one's employer whereas the former shows a lower impact compared to the latter. Satisfaction with the job and one's employer impacts retention proneness. The contribution of this study was to (1) add...

  8. Body Mass Index and Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with excess mortality and morbidity, mortality is lower in obese than in normal weight stroke patients (the obesity paradox). Studies now indicate that obesity is not associated with increased risk of recurrent stroke in the years after first stroke. We studied the ...... the association between body mass index (BMI) and stroke patient's risk of having a history of previous stroke (recurrent stroke)....

  9. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  10. Mismatch-mediated error prone repair at the immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahwan, Richard; Edelmann, Winfried; Scharff, Matthew D; Roa, Sergio

    2011-12-01

    The generation of effective antibodies depends upon somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) of antibody genes by activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and the subsequent recruitment of error prone base excision and mismatch repair. While AID initiates and is required for SHM, more than half of the base changes that accumulate in V regions are not due to the direct deamination of dC to dU by AID, but rather arise through the recruitment of the mismatch repair complex (MMR) to the U:G mismatch created by AID and the subsequent perversion of mismatch repair from a high fidelity process to one that is very error prone. In addition, the generation of double-strand breaks (DSBs) is essential during CSR, and the resolution of AID-generated mismatches by MMR to promote such DSBs is critical for the efficiency of the process. While a great deal has been learned about how AID and MMR cause hypermutations and DSBs, it is still unclear how the error prone aspect of these processes is largely restricted to antibody genes. The use of knockout models and mice expressing mismatch repair proteins with separation-of-function point mutations have been decisive in gaining a better understanding of the roles of each of the major MMR proteins and providing further insight into how mutation and repair are coordinated. Here, we review the cascade of MMR factors and repair signals that are diverted from their canonical error free role and hijacked by B cells to promote genetic diversification of the Ig locus. This error prone process involves AID as the inducer of enzymatically-mediated DNA mismatches, and a plethora of downstream MMR factors acting as sensors, adaptors and effectors of a complex and tightly regulated process from much of which is not yet well understood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-esteem in delinquent-prone adolescents in Gauteng

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    D.Ed. Delinquent-prone behaviour amongst the adolescent school population has become a serious problem in South Africa. From the reports in the media, it would seem that many adolescents cannot conform to the demands of society and, consequently, become involved in acts, which may be punishable by law. These acts include illegal substance abuse, stealing, fighting, aggravated assault and bullying of both educators and learners. In this respect, it must be noted that, although society at la...

  12. Development of Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dongil; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Juyoung; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Chung, Yeoju

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and ...

  13. Evaluating fatigue in lupus-prone mice: preliminary assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Allison; Larson, Susan J

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is a debilitating condition suffered by many as the result of chronic disease, yet relatively little is known about its biological basis or how to effectively manage its effects. This study sought to evaluate chronic fatigue by using lupus-prone mice and testing them at three different time periods. Lupus-prone mice were chosen because fatigue affects over half of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Eleven MLR⁺/(+) (genetic controls) and twelve MLR/MpJ-Fas/J (MRL/lpr; lupus-prone) mice were tested three times: once at 12, 16 and 20 weeks of age. All mice were subjected to a variety of behavioral tests including: forced swim, post-swim grooming, running wheel, and sucrose consumption; five of the MLR⁺/(+) and five of the MLR/lpr mice were also tested on a fixed ratio-25 operant conditioning task. MRL/lpr mice showed more peripheral symptoms of lupus than controls, particularly lymphadenopathy and proteinuria. Lupus mice spent more time floating during the forced swim test and traveled less distance in the running wheel at each testing period. There were no differences between groups in post-swim grooming or in number of reinforcers earned in the operant conditioning task indicating the behavioral changes were not likely due simply to muscle weakness or motivation. Correlations between performance in the running wheel, forced swim test and sucrose consumption were conducted and distance traveled in the running wheel was consistently negatively correlated with time spent floating. Based on these data, we conclude that the lupus-prone mice were experiencing chronic fatigue and that running wheel activity and floating during a forced swim test can be used to evaluate fatigue, although these data cannot rule out the possibility that both fatigue and a depressive-like state were mediating these effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Livelihood Analysis in Merapi Prone Area After 2010 Eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Nofrita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As stated in Regent Regulation No. 20 Year 2011 about Merapi Volcano Disaster-Prone Area, Merapi eruption in 2010 affected larger area than before included Kalitengah Lor, Kalitengah Kidul and Srunen hamlet which was now categorized as prone area zone III or the most dangerous area related to Merapi volcano hazard and was forbidden to live at. But its local people agreed to oppose the regulation and this area had been 100% reoccupied. This research examined about the existing livelihood condition in Kalitengah Lor, Kalitengah Kidul and Srunen that had been changed and degraded after 2010 great eruption. The grounded based information found that 80% of households sample were at the middle level of welfare status, meanwhile the high and low were at 13% and 7% respectively. Each status represented different livelihood strategy in facing the life in prone area with no one considered the Merapi hazard, but more economic motivation and assets preservation. The diversity in strategy was found in diversification of livelihood resources which were dominated by sand mining, farming and dairy farming.

  15. Challenging pancreatic cancer-prone pedigrees: a nosologic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Henry T; Deters, Carolyn A; Lynch, Jane F; Brand, Randall A

    2002-12-01

    Our objective is to describe 11 pancreatic cancer (PC)-prone families, none of which are consonant with known hereditary cancer syndromes, in an attempt to portray familial aggregations of this disease that might be encountered in a clinical practice setting. We selected 11 families containing two or more first- and/or second-degree relatives affected with PC from a registry of 200 PC-prone kindreds. Each proband and/or key relative(s) was interviewed and completed a detailed family history questionnaire (after providing informed consent) that allowed us to extend the pedigree as far as possible with retrieval of primary medical and pathology documents, whenever available. All of the 11 families show PC features that merit clinical attention and raise questions as to whether this familial clustering could be due to "chance" alone, exposure to certain common environmental factors, such as cigarette smoking, and/or polygenic, multifactorial, or Mendelian inherited factors. It is estimated that about 5% of PC may have a primary hereditary etiology. Because of early death, reduced penetrance, and often profuse phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity, particularly with respect to variable age of onset and association with diverse patterns of cancer at different anatomic sites, the pedigrees require extension for ultimate diagnosis. Physician knowledge about PC's natural history and syndrome delineation should ultimately foster earlier diagnoses and possibly prevention of this disease. These high-risk patients may provide a source of DNA for formal linkage analysis in the search for culprit cancer-prone susceptibility loci.

  16. Augmented agonist-induced Ca(2+)-sensitization of coronary artery contraction in genetically hypertensive rats. Evidence for altered signal transduction in the coronary smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, S; Kreutz, R; Wilm, C; Ganten, D; Pfitzer, G

    1994-01-01

    The Ca2+ responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle myofilaments is not unique: it is increased during neuro-humoral activation and decreased during beta-adrenergic stimulation. In this study we tested whether an augmented Ca2+ responsiveness of smooth muscle myofilaments may contribute to the increased coronary tone observed in hypertension using beta-escin-permeabilized coronary arteries from 3-mo-old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and their age matched normotensive reference strain (WKY rats). In intact coronary arteries, the response to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) but not to KCl was larger in SHRSP than in WKY rats. In beta-escin permeabilized coronary arteries in which the receptor effector coupling is still intact, 5-HT enhanced force at constant submaximal (Ca2+) (pCa 6.38) to a greater extent in SHRSP. The Ca2+ sensitizing effect of 5-HT was mimicked by GTP gamma S (0.01-10 microM); again this effect was larger in SHRSP. In the absence of 5-HT or GTP gamma S the Ca2+ force relation was similar in both groups. Forskolin induced relaxation at constant submaximal (Ca2+). This desensitizing effect was smaller in SHRSP than in WKY rats. In conclusion, this study shows that intracellular signalling pathways involved in modulating the Ca2+ responsiveness of coronary smooth muscle myofilaments are altered in the genetically hypertensive animals favoring a hypercontractile state in the coronary circulation. PMID:7929815

  17. Heart dose reduction by prone deep inspiration breath hold in left-sided breast irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliez, Thomas; Veldeman, Liv; Speleers, Bruno; Mahjoubi, Khalil; Remouchamps, Vincent; Van Greveling, Annick; Gilsoul, Monique; Berwouts, Dieter; Lievens, Yolande; Van den Broecke, Rudy; De Neve, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac disease has been related to heart dose after left-sided breast radiotherapy. This trial evaluates the heart sparing ability and feasibility of deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) in the prone position for left-sided whole breast irradiation (WBI). Twelve patients underwent CT-simulation in supine shallow breathing (SB), supine DIBH, prone SB and prone DIBH. A validation cohort of 38 patients received prone SB and prone DIBH CT-scans; the last 30 patients were accepted for prone DIBH treatment. WBI was planned with a prescription dose of 40.05 Gy. DIBH was able to reduce (p<0.001) heart dose in both positions, with results for prone DIBH at least as favorable as for supine DIBH. Mean heart dose was lowered from 2.2 Gy for prone SB to 1.3 Gy for prone DIBH (p<0.001), while preserving the lung sparing ability of prone positioning. Moreover prone DIBH nearly consistently reduced mean heart dose to less then 2 Gy, regardless of breast volume. All patients were able to perform the simulation procedure, 28/30 patients were treated with prone DIBH. This trial demonstrates the ability and feasibility of prone DIBH to acquire optimal heart and lung sparing for left-sided WBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prone position for acute respiratory failure in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Roxanna; Noble, David W; Sudlow, Alexis

    2015-11-13

    Acute hypoxaemia de novo or on a background of chronic hypoxaemia is a common reason for admission to intensive care and for provision of mechanical ventilation. Various refinements of mechanical ventilation or adjuncts are employed to improve patient outcomes. Mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome, one of the main contributors to the need for mechanical ventilation for hypoxaemia, remains approximately 40%. Ventilation in the prone position may improve lung mechanics and gas exchange and could improve outcomes. The objectives of this review are (1) to ascertain whether prone ventilation offers a mortality advantage when compared with traditional supine or semi recumbent ventilation in patients with severe acute respiratory failure requiring conventional invasive artificial ventilation, and (2) to supplement previous systematic reviews on prone ventilation for hypoxaemic respiratory failure in an adult population. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to 31 January 2014), EMBASE (1980 to 31 January 2014), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 31 January 2014) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1992 to 31 January 2014) in Ovid MEDLINE for eligible randomized controlled trials. We also searched for studies by handsearching reference lists of relevant articles, by contacting colleagues and by handsearching published proceedings of relevant journals. We applied no language constraints, and we reran the searches in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and LILACS in June 2015. We added five new studies of potential interest to the list of "Studies awaiting classification" and will incorporate them into formal review findings during the review update. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effects of prone position versus supine/semi recumbent position during conventional mechanical ventilation in

  19. Trans-sodium crocetinate improves outcomes in rodent models of occlusive and hemorrhagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Yoshimura, Ryo; Manabe, Hiroaki; Schretter, Catherine; Clarke, Ryon; Cai, Yu; Fitzgerald, Mark; Lee, Kevin S

    2014-10-02

    Trans-sodium crocetinate (TSC) is a novel carotenoid compound capable of enhancing the diffusion of small molecules in aqueous solutions. TSC improves the diffusion of oxygen and glucose, and increases oxygenation in ischemic brain tissue. TSC also dampens the intensity of an ischemic challenge during an ongoing ischemic event. The current study examined the impact of TSC in rat models of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Rat three vessel occlusion (3VO), and combined 3VO and one vessel occlusion (3VO/1VO) models of ischemic stroke were evaluated for structural and behavioral outcomes. The effects of TSC were also tested in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Delayed treatment with TSC reduced infarct volume in a rodent model of transient focal ischemia involving either 2 or 6h of ischemia. Neurological outcomes, based on a multi-scale assessment and automated gait analysis, also were improved by TSC treatment. Additionally, TSC reduced edema and hemorrhagic volume in a rat model of ICH. An optimal therapeutic candidate for early intervention in ischemic stroke should be effective when administered on a delayed basis and should not aggravate outcomes associated with hemorrhagic stroke. The current findings demonstrate that delayed TSC treatment improves outcomes in experimental models of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Together, these findings suggest that TSC may be a safe and beneficial therapeutic modality for early stroke intervention, irrespective of the type of stroke involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Immune interventions in stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Liu, Qiang; Anrather, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory and immune responses in the brain can shape the clinical presentation and outcome of stroke. Approaches for effective management of acute stroke are sparse and many measures for brain protection fail, but our ability to modulate the immune system and modify the disease progression of multiple sclerosis is increasing. As a result, immune interventions are currently being explored as therapeutic interventions in acute stroke. In this Review, we compare the immunological features of acute stroke with those of multiple sclerosis, identify unique immunological features of stroke, and consider the evidence for immune interventions. In acute stroke, microglia activation and cell death products trigger an inflammatory cascade that damages vessels and the parenchyma within minutes to hours of the ischaemia or haemorrhage. Immune interventions that restrict brain inflammation, vascular permeability and tissue oedema must be administered rapidly to reduce acute immune-mediated destruction and to avoid subsequent immunosuppression. Preliminary results suggest that the use of drugs that modify disease in multiple sclerosis might accomplish these goals in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Further elucidation of the immune mechanisms involved in stroke is likely to lead to successful immune interventions. PMID:26303850

  1. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  2. National Stroke Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Event Join a Stroke Challenge Team Comeback Trail Tell Your Story Community Presentations Faces of Stroke Volunteer With Us ... in a video presentation. Watch Video ... to feel the right side of her body. Kathryn’s friends performed the FAST exam and soon ...

  3. Diagnostic neuroimaging in stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarenwattananon, A.; Khandji, A.; Brust, J.C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Since the development of cerebral angiography 60 years ago, there has been a proliferation of increasingly sophisticated, expensive, and, fortunately, safe imaging techniques for patients with cerebrovascular disease. In addition, occlusive and hemorrhagic stroke are now recognized as having a wide variety of possible causes. This chapter addresses the different imaging options available for particular kinds of stroke

  4. The Optimal Golf Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchinger, Mikael; Durigen, Susan; Dahl, Johan Rambech

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a preliminary investigation into aspects of the game of golf. A series of models is proposed for the golf stroke, the momentum transfer between club and ball and the flight of the ball.Numerical and asymptotic solutions are presented reproducing many of the features observed...... in the golf stroke of a professional golfer....

  5. Acute ischemic stroke update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kathleen; Orr, Sean; Briand, Mary; Piazza, Carolyn; Veydt, Annita; McCoy, Stacey

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States and is the number one cause of long-term disability. Legislative mandates, largely the result of the American Heart Association, American Stroke Association, and Brain Attack Coalition working cooperatively, have resulted in nationwide standardization of care for patients who experience a stroke. Transport to a skilled facility that can provide optimal care, including immediate treatment to halt or reverse the damage caused by stroke, must occur swiftly. Admission to a certified stroke center is recommended for improving outcomes. Most strokes are ischemic in nature. Acute ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous group of vascular diseases, which makes targeted treatment challenging. To provide a thorough review of the literature since the 2007 acute ischemic stroke guidelines were developed, we performed a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1, 2004-July 1, 2009) for relevant English-language studies. Results (through July 1, 2009) from clinical trials included in the Internet Stroke Center registry were also accessed. Results from several pivotal studies have contributed to our knowledge of stroke. Additional data support the efficacy and safety of intravenous alteplase, the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke since 1995. Due to these study results, the American Stroke Association changed its recommendation to extend the time window for administration of intravenous alteplase from within 3 hours to 4.5 hours of symptom onset; this recommendation enables many more patients to receive the drug. Other findings included clinically useful biomarkers, the role of inflammation and infection, an expanded role for placement of intracranial stents, a reduced role for urgent carotid endarterectomy, alternative treatments for large-vessel disease, identification of nontraditional risk factors, including risk factors for women, and newly published pediatric stroke guidelines. In addition, new devices for

  6. The Danish Stroke Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Ingeman, Annette; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Stroke Registry is to monitor and improve the quality of care among all patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) treated at Danish hospitals. STUDY POPULATION: All patients with acute stroke (from 2003) or TIA (from 2013) treated...... at Danish hospitals. Reporting is mandatory by law for all hospital departments treating these patients. The registry included >130,000 events by the end of 2014, including 10,822 strokes and 4,227 TIAs registered in 2014. MAIN VARIABLES: The registry holds prospectively collected data on key processes...... of care, mainly covering the early phase after stroke, including data on time of delivery of the processes and the eligibility of the individual patients for each process. The data are used for assessing 18 process indicators reflecting recommendations in the national clinical guidelines for patients...

  7. The effects of supraphysiological supplementation of b-carotene in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and SHR-sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stênio Karlos Alvim Fiorelli

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the effect of administration of supraphysiological âcaroteno on biological parameters (ectoscopy and blood pressure, laboratory (malondialdehyde and histological (liver and carotid arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats prone to stroke (SHR-sp.Methods: we used 36 male rats were divided into three groups, each containing 12 rats Wistar, SHR and SHR-sp, subdivided into six control animals and six animals treated with supraphysiological doses of âcaroteno for two periods of ten weeks interspersed with one week interruption. In the experiment were assessed daily physical examination and blood pressure (plethysmography. At sacrifice, blood was collected for measurement of serum malondialdehyde, liver and carotid arteries for histological examination.Results: temporary change in color of the fur, decreased significantly (p<0.0001 blood pressure (20mg supplementation âcaroteno and serum levels of malondialdehyde (p<0.05 and increased amount of elastic fibers in the carotid wall of SHR and SHR-sp.Conclusion: supplementation of supraphysiological âcaroteno caused no toxic effects, showed positive response in the modulation of blood pressure and lower serum malondialdehyde. No significant morphological changes were found in both groups, except an increase in the number of elastic fibers in the muscle layer carotid suggesting elastosis in SHR and SHR-sp.

  8. Stroke mimic diagnoses presenting to a hyperacute stroke unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ang; Cloud, Geoffrey C; Pereira, Anthony C; Moynihan, Barry J

    2016-10-01

    Stroke services have been centralised in several countries in recent years. Diagnosing acute stroke is challenging and a high proportion of patients admitted to stroke units are diagnosed as a non-stroke condition (stroke mimics). This study aims to describe the stroke mimic patient group, including their impact on stroke services. We analysed routine clinical data from 2,305 consecutive admissions to a stroke unit at St George's Hospital, London. Mimic groupings were derived from 335 individual codes into 17 groupings. From 2,305 admissions, 555 stroke mimic diagnoses were identified (24.2%) and 72% of stroke mimics had at least one stroke risk factor. Common mimic diagnoses were headache, seizure and syncope. Medically unexplained symptoms and decompensation of underlying conditions were also common. Median length of stay was 1 day; a diagnosis of dementia (p=0.028) or needing MRI (p=0.006) was associated with a longer stay. Despite emergency department assessment by specialist clinicians and computed tomography brain, one in four suspected stroke patients admitted to hospital had a non-stroke diagnosis. Stroke mimics represent a heterogeneous patient group with significant impacts on stroke services. Co-location of stroke and acute neurology services may offer advantages where service reorganisation is being considered. © Royal College of Physicians 2016. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-stroke depression among stroke survivors attending two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The burden of stroke worldwide is increasing rapidly. There is paucity of data on post-stroke depression (PSD) among stroke survivors in Uganda, despite the high prevalence of PSD reported elsewhere. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we assessed adult participants with confirmed first stroke with a ...

  10. Perception of stroke among patients with stroke | Ajayi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perception of patients to stroke is variable. The aim of this study was to determine the perception of stroke among stroke patients. The study was carried out between January 2004 - December 2004 on all the patients presenting with features of stroke at the Federal Medical Center Ido, Nigeria. Data were collected by ...

  11. Serum Antibody Response to Five Streptococcus pneumoniae Proteins during Acute Otitis Media in Otitis Prone and Non-Otitis Prone Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravinder; Casey, Janet R.; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is one of the common bacteria responsible for episodic acute otitis media (AOM; non-otitis prone), recurrent AOM (otitis-prone) and AOM treatment failure (AOMTF) in children. Objective From a population of 268 children we sought to compare the serum IgG antibody titers to five different Spn proteins (PhtD, LytB, PcpA, PhtE and Ply) that are vaccine candidates in children with episodic AOM (n=34), who were otitis prone (n=35), and who had AOMTF (n=25) caused by Spn. Methods Antibody was quantitated by ELISA. Results At their acute AOM visit, anti-PhtD, -LytB, -PhtE and −Ply IgG antibody titers in otitis-prone children were significantly lower compared to non-otitis prone children (p children with AOMTF (p otitis-prone, AOMTF and non-otitis prone children had no significant change in geometric mean IgG antibody titers against the five proteins (except for PhtE in children with AOMTF), but detailed analysis showed that about one-third of the children in each cohort had a 2-fold rise in antibody to the studied antigens. While non-otitis prone children had significant increases (p otitis-prone children either failed to show rises or the rises were significantly less than the non-otitis prone children. Conclusion Otitis-prone and AOMTF children mount less of an IgG serum antibody response than non-otitis prone children to Spn proteins following AOM and nasopharyngeal colonization. PMID:21487325

  12. Cerebrorenal interaction and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Beyond the original meaning of chronic kidney disease (CKD) as high-risk state for future dialysis, CKD is now known as an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Stroke is a major player of cardiovascular disease and has deep two-way relationships with CKD. CKD is an evident risk factor for stroke. Meta-analyses of cohort studies and trials indicate that proteinuria/albuminuria increases the risk of stroke by 71-92%, and reduced glomerular filtration rate increases the risk by 43%. In addition, CKD has a strong relationship with subclinical brain damage including white matter changes, microbleeds, cognitive impairment, and carotid atherosclerosis. CKD is prevalent in acute stroke patients; patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate stroke patients and 39% of total intracerebral hemorrhage patients in our institute. Acute and chronic management of stroke are influenced by CKD. Therapeutic effects of several antithrombotic and thrombolytic agents, including recently-developed novel oral anticoagulants, are affected by renal function. Moreover, reduced glomerular filtration rate is independently associated with increased 1- and 10-year mortalities in the end. Stroke also has deep relationships with end-stage kidney disease. Stroke occurs much more commonly in dialysis patients than general population or CKD patients without need for dialysis. The triggers of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in patients with end-stage kidney disease include special characteristics unique to dialysis, such as drastic hemodynamic change, dialysate and anticoagulants, and vascular calcification. As cohorts of dialysis patients become older, more hypertensive, and more diabetic than before, stroke become more prevalent and more serious events in dialysis clinics. Now, clinicians should have much interest in the association between CKD and cerebrovascular diseases, so-called the cerebro-renal interaction. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers of Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugunavathi Sepramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been identified as key regulators of gene expression and thus their potential in disease diagnostics, prognosis and therapy is being actively pursued. Deregulation of microRNAs in cerebral pathogenesis has been reported to a limited extent in both animal models and human. Due to the complexity of the pathology, identifying stroke specific microRNAs has been a challenge. This study shows that microRNA profiles reflect not only the temporal progression of stroke but also the specific etiologies. A panel of 32 microRNAs, which could differentiate stroke etiologies during acute phase was identified and verified using a customized TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA. Furthermore we also found 5 microRNAs, miR-125b-2*, -27a*, -422a, -488 and -627 to be consistently altered in acute stroke irrespective of age or severity or confounding metabolic complications. Differential expression of these 5 microRNAs was also observed in rat stroke models. Hence, their specificity to the stroke pathology emphasizes the possibility of developing these microRNAs into accurate and useful tools for diagnosis of stroke.

  14. Third European Stroke Science Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dichgans, Martin; Planas, Anna M.; Biessels, Geert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165576367; van der Worp, Bart|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189855010; Sudlow, Cathie; Norrving, B.; Lees, Kennedy; Mattle, Heinrich P.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Eibsee, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, November 19 to 21, 2015: The European Stroke Organization convened >120 stroke experts from 27 countries to discuss latest results and hot topics in clinical, translational, and basic stroke research. Since its inception in 2011, the European Stroke Science

  15. Setup accuracy for prone and supine whole breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulliez, Thomas; Vercauteren, Tom; Greveling, Annick van; Speleers, Bruno; Neve, Wilfried de; Veldeman, Liv [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); Gulyban, Akos [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); University Hospital Liege, Department of Radiotherapy, Liege (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) based setup accuracy and margins for prone and supine whole breast irradiation (WBI). Setup accuracy was evaluated on 3559 CBCT scans of 242 patients treated with WBI and uncertainty margins were calculated using the van Herk formula. Uni- and multivariate analysis on individual margins was performed for age, body mass index (BMI) and cup size. The population-based margin in vertical (VE), lateral (LA) and longitudinal (LO) directions was 10.4/9.4/9.4 mm for the 103 supine and 10.5/22.4/13.7 mm for the 139 prone treated patients, being significantly (p < 0.01) different for the LA and LO directions. Multivariate analysis identified a significant (p < 0.05) correlation between BMI and the LO margin in supine position and the VE/LA margin in prone position. In this series, setup accuracy is significantly worse in prone compared to supine position for the LA and LO directions. However, without proper image-guidance, uncertainty margins of about 1 cm are also necessary for supine WBI. For patients with a higher BMI, larger margins are required. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war es, die interfraktionelle Repositionierungsgenauigkeit in Bauchlage (BL) versus Rueckenlage (RL) bei Ganzbrustbestrahlung (GBB) mittels Cone-Beam-CT (CBCT) zu bestimmen, um die notwendigen PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende zu definieren. Die Repositionierungsgenauigkeit wurde basierend an 3559 CBCT-Scans von 242 mit GBB behandelten Patienten ausgewertet. Die PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende wurden unter Verwendung der ''van-Herk''-Formel berechnet. Uni- und multivariable Analysen wurden fuer Sicherheitsabstaende in jede Richtung auf Basis von Alter, Body-Mass-Index (BMI) und Koerbchengroesse durchgefuehrt. Die basierend auf den taeglichen CBCT-Verschiebungen berechneten PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende betrugen in anteroposteriorer (AP), lateraler (LT oder links-rechts) und kraniokaudaler (CC) Richtung 10,4/9,4/9,4 mm fuer die RL (103 Patienten) und

  16. Muscle recruitment patterns during the prone leg extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayfield Ben

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prone leg extension (PLE is a clinical test used to evaluate the function of the lumbopelvis. It has been theorized that a normal and consistent pattern of muscle activation exists. Previous research has found two contradictory patterns of muscle activation during PLE in normal individuals. One study shows an almost simultaneous activation of the lower erector spinae and hamstring muscle group with a delayed activation of the gluteus maximus, while the second describes the order of activation being ipsilateral erector spinae (to the leg being extended, hamstrings, contralateral erector spinae and gluteus maximus. Due to the different conclusions from these two studies and the lack of quantified muscle onset times, expressed in absolute time this study attempted to quantify the muscle onset times (in milliseconds during the prone leg extension, while noting if a consistent order of activation exists and whether a timing relationship also exists between the gluteus maximus and contralateral latissimus dorsi. Methods 10 asymptomatic males (Average height: 175.2 cm (SD 6.5, Average Weight 75.9 kg (SD 6.5, Average Age: 27.1(SD 1.28 and 4 asymptomatic females (Average height 164.5 (SD 2.9, weight: 56.2 (SD 8.9, Average Age: 25 (SD 1 performed the prone leg extension task while the myoelectric signal was recorded from the bilateral lower erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring muscle groups. Activation onsets were determined from the rectified EMG signal relative to the onset of the hamstrings muscle group. Results No consistent recruitment patterns were detected for prone leg extension among the hamstring muscle group and the erector spinae. However, a consistent delay in the Gluteus Maximus firing of approximately 370 ms after the first muscle activated was found. Five out of 14 asymptomatic subjects showed a delay in gluteus maximus firing exceeding the average delay found in previous research of subjects considered to

  17. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Roses, Daniel [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Speyer, James [Department of Medical Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Fenton Kerimian, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Goldberg, Judith D. [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: Silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  18. Dizziness in stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zamergrad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential diagnosis of new-onset acute vestibular vertigo is chiefly made between vestibular neuronitis and stroke. Dizziness in stroke is usually accompanied by other focal neurological symptoms of brainstem and cerebellar involvement. However, stroke may appear as isolated vestibular vertigo in some cases. An analysis of history data and the results of neurovestibular examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging allows stroke to be diagnosed in patients with acute isolated dizziness. The treatment of patients with stroke-induced dizziness involves a wide range of medications for the reduction of the degree of dizziness and unsteadiness and for the secondary prevention of stroke. Vestibular rehabilitation is an important component of treatment. The paper describes an observation of a patient with poorly controlled hypertension, who developed new-onset acute systemic dizziness. Vestibular neuronitis might be presumed to be a peripheral cause of vestibular disorders, by taking into account the absence of additional obvious neurological symptoms (such as pareses, defective sensation, diplopia, etc. and the nature of nystagmus. However, intention tremor in fingernose and heel-knee tests on the left side, a negative Halmagyi test, and results of Romberg’s test could suggest that stroke was a cause ofdizziness.

  19. Clinical neurogenetics: stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Natalia S

    2013-11-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of cerebrovascular disease holds promise of novel stroke prevention strategies and therapeutics that are both safe and effective. Apart from a few single-gene disorders associated with cerebral ischemia or intracerebral hemorrhage, stroke is a complex genetic phenotype that requires careful ascertainment and robust association testing for discovery and validation analyses. The recently uncovered shared genetic contribution between clinically manifest stroke syndromes and closely related intermediate cerebrovascular phenotypes offers effective and efficient approaches to complex trait analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Iversen, Helle K; Ibsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    . The attributable cost of direct net health care costs after the stroke (general practitioner services, hospital services, and medication) and indirect costs (loss of labor market income) were €10,720, €8,205 and €7,377 for patients, and €989, €1,544 and €1.645 for their partners, over and above that of controls......BACKGROUND: To estimate the direct and indirect costs of stroke in patients and their partners. DESCRIPTION: Direct and indirect costs were calculated using records from the Danish National Patient Registry from 93,047 ischemic, 26,012 hemorrhagic and 128,824 unspecified stroke patients...

  1. Determinan Penyakit Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit stroke merupakan penyebab kematian dan kecacatan kronik yang paling tinggi pada kelompok umur diatas usia 45 tahun terbanyak di Indonesia. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengidentifikasi determinan utama yang berhubungan dengan penyakit stroke pada masyarakat di kelurahan Kebon Kalapa Bogor. Analisis lanjut terhadap 1.912 responden subset baseline data penelitian “Studi Kohort Faktor Risiko Penyakit Tidak Menular” Data dikumpulkan dengan metode wawancara pada penduduk tetap di kelurahan Kebon Kalapa, Kecamatan Bogor Tengah, Bogor tahun 2012. Diagnosis stroke berdasarkan anamnesis dan pemeriksaan dokter spesialis syaraf. Variabel independen meliputi karakteristik sosiodemografi, status kesehatan dan perilaku berisiko. Data dianalisis dengan uji regresi logistik ganda. Penyakit stroke ditemukan pada 49 (2,6% orang. Determinan utama stroke meliputi hipertensi (OR = 4,20; IK 95% = 2,20 – 8,03, penyakit jantung koroner (OR = 2,74; IK 95% = 1,51 – 4,99, diabetes melitus (OR = 2,89; IK 95% = 1,47 – 5,64, dan status ekonomi miskin (OR = 1,83 ; IK 95% = 1,03 – 3,33. Pencegahan penyakit stroke dilakukan dengan peningkatan edukasi (kampanye/penyuluhan melalui pengendalian faktor risiko utama yaitu hipertensi dan pencegahan terjadinya penyakit degeneratif lain yaitu penyakit jantung koroner dan diabetes melitus. Stroke disease is the leading cause of death and chronic disabi lity in most over the age of 45 years in Indonesia. The aim of study was to identify the major determinants of stroke disease in Kebon Kalapa community in Bogor. A deep analyze was conducted in 1.912 respondents based on the subset of baseline data “Risk Factors Cohort Study of Non Communicable Diseases.” Data was collected by interviews on Kebon Kalapa community, Bogor in 2012. Stroke diagnosis was determined by anamnesis and neu-rological examination with specialist. Independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, health status and risk behavior

  2. The Migraine?Stroke Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Mi Ji; Lee, Chungbin; Chung, Chin-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Migraine and stroke are common neurovascular disorders which share underlying physiological processes. Increased risks of ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and subclinical ischemic lesions have been consistently found in migraineurs. Three possible associations are suggested. One is that underlying pathophysiology of migraine can lead to ischemic stroke. Second, common comorbidities between migraine and stroke can be present. Lastly, some syndromes can manifest with both migraine-like head...

  3. Unearthing belowground bud banks in fire-prone ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausas, Juli G; Lamont, Byron B; Paula, Susana; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Fidelis, Alessandra

    2018-03-01

    Despite long-time awareness of the importance of the location of buds in plant biology, research on belowground bud banks has been scant. Terms such as lignotuber, xylopodium and sobole, all referring to belowground bud-bearing structures, are used inconsistently in the literature. Because soil efficiently insulates meristems from the heat of fire, concealing buds below ground provides fitness benefits in fire-prone ecosystems. Thus, in these ecosystems, there is a remarkable diversity of bud-bearing structures. There are at least six locations where belowground buds are stored: roots, root crown, rhizomes, woody burls, fleshy swellings and belowground caudexes. These support many morphologically distinct organs. Given their history and function, these organs may be divided into three groups: those that originated in the early history of plants and that currently are widespread (bud-bearing roots and root crowns); those that also originated early and have spread mainly among ferns and monocots (nonwoody rhizomes and a wide range of fleshy underground swellings); and those that originated later in history and are strictly tied to fire-prone ecosystems (woody rhizomes, lignotubers and xylopodia). Recognizing the diversity of belowground bud banks is the starting point for understanding the many evolutionary pathways available for responding to severe recurrent disturbances. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Coping mechanisms for crop plants in drought-prone environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter M

    2008-05-01

    Drought is a major limitation to plant productivity. Various options are available for increasing water availability and sustaining growth of crop plants in drought-prone environments. After a general introduction to the problems of water availability, this review focuses on a critical evaluation of recent progress in unravelling mechanisms for modifying plant growth responses to drought. Investigations of key regulatory mechanisms integrating plant growth responses to water deficits at the whole-organism, cellular and genomic levels continue to provide novel and exiting research findings. For example, recent reports contradict the widespread conception that root-derived abscisic acid is necessarily involved in signalling for stomatal and shoot-growth responses to soil water deficits. The findings bring into question the theoretical basis for alternate-side root-irrigation techniques. Similarly, recent reports indicate that increased ABA production or increased aquaporin expression did not lead to improved drought resistance. Other reports have concerned key genes and proteins involved in regulation of flowering (FT), vegetative growth (DELLA), leaf senescence (IPT) and desiccation tolerance (LEA). Introgression of such genes, with suitable promoters, can greatly impact on whole-plant responses to drought. Further developments could facilitate the introduction by breeders of new crop varieties with growth physiologies tailored to improved field performance under drought. Parallel efforts to encourage the introduction of supplementary irrigation with water made available by improved conservation measures and by sea- or brackish-water desalination, will probably provide comprehensive solutions to coping with drought-prone environments.

  5. Ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization in prone position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofi Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheterization (CVC is a commonly performed intraoperative procedure. Traditionally, CVC placement is performed blindly using anatomic landmarks as a guide to vessel position. Real-time ultrasound provides the operator the benefit of visualizing the target vein and the surrounding anatomic structures prior to and during the catheter insertion, thereby minimizing complications and increasing speed of placement. A 22-year-old male underwent open reduction and internal fixation of acetabulum fracture in prone position. Excessive continuous bleeding intraoperatively warranted placement of CVC in right internal jugular vein (IJV, which was not possible in prone position without the help of ultrasound. Best view of right IJV was obtained and CVC was placed using real-time ultrasound without complications. Ultrasound-guided CVC placement can be done in atypical patient positions where traditional anatomic landmark technique has no role. Use of ultrasound not only increases the speed of placement but also reduces complications known with the traditional blind technique.

  6. Thoraco-laparoscopic esophagectomy: thoracic stage in prone position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bernardo Cola

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the National Cancer Institute Abdominopelvic Division (INCA / MS/HC I initial experience with thoraco-laparoscopic esophagectomy with thoracic stage in prone position. Methods: we studied 19 consecutive thoraco-laparoscopic esophagectomies from may 2012 to august 2014, including ten patients with squamous cells carcinoma (five of the middle third and five of the lower third and nine cases of gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (six Siewert I and three Siewert II. All procedures were initiated by the prone thoracic stage. Results: There were minimal blood loss, optimal mediastinal visualization, oncological radicality and no conversions. Surgical morbidity was 42 %, most being minor complications (58% Clavien I or II, with few related to the technique. The most common complication was cervical anastomotic leak (37%, with a low anastomotic stricture rate (two stenosis: 10.53%. We had one (5.3% surgical related death, due to a gastric tube`s mediastinal leak, treated by open reoperation and neck diversion. The median Intensive Care Unit stay and hospital stay were two and 12 days, respectively. The mean thoracoscopic stage duration was 77 min. Thirteen patients received neoadjuvant treatment (five squamous cells carcinoma and eight gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas. The average lymph node sample had 16.4 lymph nodes per patient and 22.67 when separately analyzing patients without neoadjuvant treatment. Conclusion: the thoraco-laparoscopic approach was a safe technique in the surgical treatment of esophageal cancer, with a good lymph node sampling.

  7. Thoraco-laparoscopic esophagectomy: thoracic stage in prone position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cola, Carlos Bernardo; Sabino, Flávio Duarte; Pinto, Carlos Eduardo; Morard, Maria Ribeiro; Portari, Pedro; Guedes, Tereza

    2017-01-01

    to analyze the National Cancer Institute Abdominopelvic Division (INCA / MS/HC I) initial experience with thoraco-laparoscopic esophagectomy with thoracic stage in prone position. we studied 19 consecutive thoraco-laparoscopic esophagectomies from may 2012 to august 2014, including ten patients with squamous cells carcinoma (five of the middle third and five of the lower third) and nine cases of gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (six Siewert I and three Siewert II). All procedures were initiated by the prone thoracic stage. There were minimal blood loss, optimal mediastinal visualization, oncological radicality and no conversions. Surgical morbidity was 42 %, most being minor complications (58% Clavien I or II), with few related to the technique. The most common complication was cervical anastomotic leak (37%), with a low anastomotic stricture rate (two stenosis: 10.53%). We had one (5.3%) surgical related death, due to a gastric tube`s mediastinal leak, treated by open reoperation and neck diversion. The median Intensive Care Unit stay and hospital stay were two and 12 days, respectively. The mean thoracoscopic stage duration was 77 min. Thirteen patients received neoadjuvant treatment (five squamous cells carcinoma and eight gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas). The average lymph node sample had 16.4 lymph nodes per patient and 22.67 when separately analyzing patients without neoadjuvant treatment. the thoraco-laparoscopic approach was a safe technique in the surgical treatment of esophageal cancer, with a good lymph node sampling.

  8. Predicting Fault-Prone Modules: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hao; Shu, Fengdi; Yang, Ye; Wang, Qing

    Offshore and outsourced software development is a rapidly increasing trend in global software business environment. Predicting fault-prone modules in outsourced software product may allow both parties to establish mutually satisfactory, cost-effective testing strategies and product acceptance criteria, especially in iterative transitions. In this paper, based on industrial software releases data, we conduct an empirical study to compare ten classifiers over eight sets of code attributes, and provide recommendations to aid both the client and vendor to assess the products’ quality through defect prediction. Overall, a generally high accuracy is observed, which confirms the usefulness of the metric-based classification. Furthermore, two classification techniques, Random Forest and Bayesian Belief Network, outperform the others in terms of predictive accuracy; in more detail, the former is the most cost-effective and the latter is of the lowest fault-prone module escaping rate. Our study also concludes that code metrics including size, traditional complexity, and object-oriented complexity perform fairly well.

  9. Stroke - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain cells can die, causing lasting damage. Risk factors are things that increase your chance of getting ... disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do to ...

  10. Post-Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... negotiate the provision of reasonable accommodations in the workplace. When can a stroke patient begin rehabilitation? Rehabilitation ... at home gives people the advantage of practicing skills and developing compensatory strategies in the context of ...

  11. A Stroke of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, Bob

    2011-01-01

    The author reflects on foreign-language learning by his EFL students as well as his own foreign-language learning. He concludes by musing on the possible and fantastical devastation on language-ability wrought by strokes.

  12. Epilepsy after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Høgenhaven, H; Thage, O

    1987-01-01

    Development of epilepsy was studied prospectively in a group of 77 consecutive stroke patients. Included were stroke patients less than 75 years old admitted within the first 3 days after the stroke. Excluded were patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, vertebrobasilar stroke, and patients...... with other severe diseases. Cerebral angiography, CT, and EEG were performed in all patients. The patients were followed clinically for 2 to 4 years. Seven patients (9%) developed epilepsy. Of 23 patients with lesions involving the cortex, 6 (26%) developed epilepsy. Of 54 patients in whom the cortex...... was not involved, only 1 (2%) developed epilepsy. Patients with persisting paresis and cortical involvement seem to be at particularly high risk of developing epilepsy, as 50% of such patients (6 of 12) developed the disease....

  13. The "Know Stroke" Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section The "Know Stroke" Campaign Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Javascript on. NINDS is conducting a public awareness campaign across the United States to educate people about ...

  14. Pulmonary Transcriptional Response to Ozone in Healthy and Cardiovascular Compromised Rat Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated metabolic impairments can influence the lung injury from inhaled pollutants. We hypothesized that comparative assessment of global pulmonary expression profile of healthy and CVD-prone rat models will provide mechanistic ins...

  15. Coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction are associated with stroke in patients affected by persistent non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Pasquale; Maiello, Maria; Passantino, Andrea

    2009-06-30

    Persistent non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as stroke, and its rate is expected to rise because of the ageing population. The absolute rate of stroke depends on age and comorbidity. Risk stratification for stroke in patients with NVAF derives from populations enrolled in randomized clinical trials. However, participants in clinical trials are often not representative of the general population. Many stroke risk stratification scores have been used, but they do not include transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE), pulsate wave Doppler (PWD) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), simple and non- invasive diagnostic tools. The role of TTE, PWD and TDI findings has not been previously determined. Our study goal was to determine the association between TTE and PWD findings and stroke prevalence in a population of NVAF prone outpatients.PATIENTS WERE DIVIDED INTO TWO GROUPS: P for stroke prone and F for stroke free. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups concerning cardiovascular risk factors, age (p=0.2), sex (p=0.2), smoking (p=0.3), diabetes (p=0.1) and hypercholesterolemia (p=0.2); hypertension was statistically significant (pdisease, previous acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (pdisease, with and without AMI, LVH and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, but not left atrial dilatation. M-B mode echocardiography and PWD examination help to identify high-risk stroke patients among NVAF subjects; therefore, they may help in the selection of appropriate therapy for each patient.

  16. Telestroke in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Jacques; Joubert, Lynette B; de Bustos, Elizabeth Medeiros; Ware, Dallas; Jackson, David; Harrison, Terrence; Cadilhac, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Stroke is a high-frequency disorder placing a significant burden on the health care systems, being the foremost cause of complex chronic disability in adults. Devising systems that can enhance the prevention of stroke recurrence is an important priority and challenge in both the developed and the developing world. The potential for recurrent stroke can be substantially reduced by effective management of vascular risk factors. Telestroke is a tool with potential application to improve risk management of stroke survivors. Lack of acknowledgment of existing practices as well as lack of awareness of potential financial barriers to diffusion of telestroke can lead to limited implementation. Telestroke offers service providers the opportunity to access large numbers of stroke survivors targeting secondary prevention. The ideal 'telestroke model' provides service support, education for the patient and caregiver, as well as integration of specialist and primary care services. Effective use of technological advances, with adequate recognition of the importance of human interaction in the long-term management of a largely elderly population of stroke survivors is challenging but possible. Telestroke should be systems- and not technology-driven. Barriers in the implementation of telestroke have been identified as insufficient planning of IT infrastructure, lack of long-term vision for sustainability, a lack of contextual perspective as well as poor communication across domains. Future telestroke models should provide effective action in an integrated model of care recognizing and involving all existing players and practices. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Autopsy approach to stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Seth

    2011-02-01

    Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality but the brain and other relevant tissues are often examined only cursorily when stroke patients come to autopsy. The pathological findings and clinical implications vary according to the type of stroke and its location and cause. Large ischaemic strokes are usually associated with atherosclerosis of extracranial or major intracranial arteries but can be caused by dissection. Most small cerebral infarcts are caused by arteriosclerosis or, in the elderly, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). However, vasculitides and coagulopathies can cause a range of different patterns of ischaemic (and, occasionally, haemorrhagic) stroke. Global brain ischaemia, caused by severe hypotension or raised intracranial pressure, produces damage that is accentuated in certain regions and neuronal populations and may be confused with hypoglycaemic injury. The main cause of subarachnoid haemorrhage is a ruptured berry aneurysm but CAA, arteriovenous malformations and infective aneurysms are occasionally responsible. These can also cause parenchymal brain haemorrhage, although this most often complicates hypertensive small vessel disease. Sometimes the haemorrhage arises from a neoplasm. Performing an adequate autopsy in stroke requires proper preparation, awareness of the likely pathological processes, familiarity with intracranial vascular anatomy, careful gross examination and dissection, and appropriate use of histology. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  18. Post-stroke dyskinesias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakawah MO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Obadah Nakawah, Eugene C Lai Stanely H. Appel Department of Neurology, Houston Methodist Neurological Institute, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Strokes, whether ischemic or hemorrhagic, are among the most common causes of secondary movement disorders in elderly patients. Stroke-related (vascular movement disorders, however, are uncommon complications of this relatively common disease. The spectrum of post-stroke movement disorders is broad and includes both hypo- and hyperkinetic syndromes. Post-stroke dyskinesias are involuntary hyperkinetic movements arising from cerebrovascular insults and often present with mixed phenotypes of hyperkinesia which can sometimes be difficult to classify. Nevertheless, identification of the most relevant motor phenotype, whenever possible, allows for a more specific phenomenological categorization of the dyskinesia and thus helps guide its treatment. Fortunately, post-stroke dyskinesias are usually self-limiting and resolve within 6 to 12 months of onset, but a short-term pharmacotherapy might sometimes be required for symptom control. Functional neurosurgical interventions targeting the motor thalamus or globus pallidus interna might be considered for patients with severe, disabling, and persistent dyskinesias (arbitrarily defined as duration longer than 12 months. Keywords: vascular dyskinesia, stroke, movement disorders

  19. Nursing care for stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulek, Zeliha; Poulsen, Ingrid; Gillis, Katrin

    2018-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To conduct a survey of the clinical nursing practice in European countries in accordance with the European Stroke Strategies (ESS) 2006, and to examine to what extent the ESS have been implemented in stroke care nursing in Europe. BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death...... comprising 61 questions based on the ESS and scientific evidence in nursing practice was distributed to representatives of the European Association of Neuroscience Nurses, who sent the questionnaire to nurses active in stroke care. The questionnaire covered the following areas of stroke care: Organization...... of stroke services, Management of acute stroke and prevention including basic care and nursing, and Secondary prevention. RESULTS: Ninety-two nurses in stroke care in 11 European countries participated in the survey. Within the first 48 hours after stroke onset, 95% monitor patients regularly, 94% start...

  20. Improving public education about stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Mark J

    2012-09-01

    Stroke is a common and serious disease. Most studies have shown that basic public knowledge about what a stroke is, symptoms of a stroke, and the proper reaction to a stroke is quite deficient. The fact that a stroke affects cognitive, communicative, and motor functions may partially explain the poor reaction to acute stroke symptoms. Several educational studies, using diverse formats and messaging paradigms, have been shown to positively affect public knowledge of stroke symptoms. Such efforts have often used mass media public education campaigns with an emphasis on recognizing symptoms of an acute stroke. Some have been able to demonstrate an increase in the chance of patients (or by-standers) calling 911 and seeking emergency care. However, many programs were of brief duration, and their long-term benefits are uncertain. Continual educational efforts will be needed to improve stroke knowledge and increase the percentage of patients who seek emergency care. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Specific cardiac disorders in 402 consecutive patients with ischaemic cardioembolic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujadas Capmany, Ramón; Arboix, Adrià; Casañas-Muñoz, Roser; Anguera-Ferrando, Nuria

    2004-06-01

    To determine the cardiological substrate in acute stroke patients presenting with a cardioembolic stroke subtype. Data of 402 consecutive patients with cardioembolic stroke (cerebral infarction, n=347; transient ischaemic attack, n=55) were collected from a prospective hospital-based stroke registry in which data on 2000 stroke patients over a 10-year period were included. In all patients, specific cardiac disorders were identified by physical examination and results of electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography. Holter monitoring and more sensitive techniques of cardiac imaging were used in selected cases. Cardioembolic cerebral ischaemia accounted for 20% of all acute strokes (25% of ischaemic cerebrovascular events). Cardiac sources of embolism included the following: (a) structural cardiac disorders associated with arrhythmia (n=232), the most frequent being left ventricular hypertrophic hypertensive disease (n=120) and rheumatic mitral valve disease (n=49); (b) structural cardiac disease with sustained sinus rhythm (n=81), the most frequent being systolic left ventricular dysfunction of both ischaemic (n=35) or non-ischaemic (n=24) aetiology; and (c) isolated atrial dysrhythmia (atrial fibrillation, n=88 and atrial flutter, n=1). Hypertrophic hypertensive cardiac disease complicated with atrial fibrillation was the most frequent cardiac source of emboli in cardioembolic stroke. Other important cardiac sources were isolated atrial fibrillation, rheumatic mitral valve disease, and systolic left ventricular dysfunction of ischaemic and non-ischaemic cause. The incidence of traditional emboligenous-prone cardiac disorders, such as mitral valve prolapse and mitral annular calcification was low.

  2. Mapping radon-prone areas - a geophysical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirav, M.; Vulkan, U.

    1997-01-01

    Radon-prone areas in Israel were mapped on the basis of direct measurements of radon ( 222 Rn) in the soil/rock gas of all exposed geological units, supported by the accumulated knowledge of local stratigraphy and sub-surface geology. Measurements were carried out by a modified alpha-track detection system, resulting in high radon levels mainly in rocks of the Senonian-Paleocene-aged Mount Scopus Group, comprised of chert-bearing marly chalks, rich in phosphorite which acts as the major uranium source. Issues of source depth, seasonal variations and comparison with indoor radon levels are addressed as well. This approach could be applied to other similar terrains, especially the Mediterranean Phosphate Belt. (orig.)

  3. Jerky driving--An indicator of accident proneness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdadi, Omar; Várhelyi, András

    2011-07-01

    This study uses continuously logged driving data from 166 private cars to derive the level of jerks caused by the drivers during everyday driving. The number of critical jerks found in the data is analysed and compared with the self-reported accident involvement of the drivers. The results show that the expected number of accidents for a driver increases with the number of critical jerks caused by the driver. Jerk analyses make it possible to identify safety critical driving behaviour or "accident prone" drivers. They also facilitate the development of safety measures such as active safety systems or advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, which could be adapted for specific groups of drivers or specific risky driving behaviour. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inducible error-prone repair in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgwick, S.G.

    1975-01-01

    A hypothesis that ultraviolet-induced mutagenesis arises from the induction of an error-prone mode of postreplication repair that requires the exrA + recA + genotype has been tested with alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation coupled with assays of fixation determined by loss of photoreversibility. The inhibitor of protein synthesis, chloramphenicol, added before irradiation, prevented a small amount of postreplication repair and completely eliminated mutation fixation in E. coli WP2/sub s/ uvrA. However, chloramphenicol did not affect strand joining: in uvrA bacteria allowed 20 min of growth between irradiation and antibiotic treatment; in nonmutable uvrA exrA bacteria; and in urvA tif bacteria grown at 42 0 for 70 min before irradiation. These observations indicate that an inducible product is involved in a fraction of postreplication repair and is responsible for induced mutagenesis. (auth)

  5. Boredom proneness and emotion regulation predict emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Amanda C; Myhre, Samantha K; Rokke, Paul D

    2015-05-01

    Emotional eating is considered a risk factor for eating disorders and an important contributor to obesity and its associated health problems. It has been suggested that boredom may be an important contributor to overeating, but has received relatively little attention. A sample of 552 college students was surveyed. Linear regression analyses found that proneness to boredom and difficulties in emotion regulation simultaneously predicted inappropriate eating behavior, including eating in response to boredom, other negative emotions, and external cues. The unique contributions of these variables to emotional eating were discussed. These findings help to further identify which individuals could be at risk for emotional eating and potentially for unhealthy weight gain. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Relearning the Basics: Rehabilitation after a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Stroke Rehabilitation Relearning the Basics: Rehabilitation After a Stroke Past ... to help them recover successfully. What is post-stroke rehabilitation? Rehab helps stroke survivors relearn skills lost to ...

  7. Prone position and reduced thoracoabdominal asynchrony in preterm newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Trícia G; Rego, Maria A S; Pereira, Nadja C; Vaz, Lorena O; França, Danielle C; Vieira, Danielle S R; Parreira, Verônica F

    2009-01-01

    To assess the effect of prone and supine positions on breathing pattern variables, thoracoabdominal motion and peripheral oxygen saturation of hemoglobin of premature newborn infants recovering from respiratory distress syndrome, while breathing spontaneously and in rapid eye movement sleep. This was a quasi-experimental study. Twelve preterms weighing > 1,000 g at enrollment were studied in both positions, in random order. Respiratory inductive plethysmography was used to analyze breathing pattern (tidal volume, respiratory rate, minute ventilation, mean inspiratory flow) and thoracoabdominal motion (labored breathing index, phase relation in inspiration, phase relation in expiration, phase relation in total breath and phase angle). Pulse oximetry was used to evaluate peripheral oxygen saturation. Student's t test for paired samples or the Wilcoxon test were used for statistical analysis. Significance was set at p position was associated with significant reductions in labored breathing index (-0.84+/-0.69; p = 0.001; 95%CI -1.29 to -0.40), phase relation in inspiration (-27.36+/-17.55; p = 0.000; 95%CI -38.51 to -16.20), phase relation in expiration (-32.36+/-16.20; p = 0.000; 95%CI -42.65 to -22.06) and phase relation in total breath (-30.20+/-14.76; p = 0.000; 95%CI -39.59 to -20.82). There were no significant differences between the two positions in any of the other variables analyzed. The prone position resulted in a significant reduction in thoracoabdominal asynchrony, without affecting breathing pattern or peripheral oxygen saturation.

  8. Single night postoperative prone posturing in idiopathic macular hole surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the role of postoperative prone posturing for a single night in the outcome of trans pars plana vitrectomy (TPPV) with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peel and 20% perfluoroethane (C2F6) internal tamponade for idiopathic macular hole. Methods. This prospective trial enrolled 14 eyes in 14 consecutive patients with idiopathic macular hole. All eyes underwent TPPV with vision blue assisted ILM peeling with and without phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) for macular hole. Intraocular gas tamponade (20% C2F6) was used in all cases with postoperative face-down posturing overnight and without specific posturing afterwards. LogMAR visual acuity, appearance by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and ocular coherence tomography (OCT) scans were compared preoperatively and postoperatively to assess outcome. Results. Among 14 eyes recruited, all eyes were phakic; 50% of patients underwent concurrent phacoemulsification with IOL. The macular holes were categorized preoperatively by OCT appearance, 4 (28.57%) were stage 2, 7 (50%) were stage 3, and 3 (21.43%) were stage 4. Mean macular hole size was 0.35 disk diameters. Symptoms of macular hole had been present for an average of 6.5 months. All holes (100%) were closed 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Mean visual acuity (logMAR) was improved to 0.61 at 3 months and was stable at 6 months after the surgery. None of the eyes had worse vision postoperatively. Conclusions. Vitrectomy with ILM peeling and 20% C2F6 gas with a brief postoperative 1 night prone posturing regimen is a reasonable approach to achieve anatomic closure in idiopathic macular hole. Concurrent cataract extraction did not alter outcomes and was not associated with any additional complications.

  9. Indoor radon concentration in some earthquake prone areas of Haryana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Krishan

    2005-01-01

    The problem of radon is an important global problem and the radon and its progeny are a major source of natural radiation exposure and contribute to more than 50% of the dose equivalent received by general population from all sources of radiation, both naturally occurring and man-made. In view of the above fact, the measurement of radon concentration levels in dwellings is of fundamental importance from health and hygiene point of view. Keeping this in view, alpha active pollutant (radon, thoron and their progeny) concentration inside the dwellings in earthquake prone districts of Haryana was measured using LR-115, Type II Plastic track detectors. Radon concentration and inhalation dose rates to the inhabitants in this area have been calculated. Results of various measurements on the radon and its progeny concentration, annual exposure and annual inhalation dose received by the workers have been reported. The calculated values of potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), radon levels (EEC), annual exposure and annual inhalation dose in the dwellings of earthquake prone districts of Haryana varied from 2.76 mWL to 13.41 mWL with an average of 5.60 ± 0.76 mWL, 25.5 Bq m -3 to 124 Bq m -3 with an average of 51.78 ± 7.04 Bq m -3 , 0.11 WLM to 0.56 WLM with an average of 0.23 ± 0.03 WLM and 0.44 mSv to 2.13 mSv with an average of 0.88 ± 0.12 mSv respectively. The radon concentrations were found to be higher in these areas as compared to the studies carried out earlier in other parts of the state. (author)

  10. Relevance of Post-Stroke Circulating BDNF Levels as a Prognostic Biomarker of Stroke Outcome. Impact of rt-PA Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Marion; Quirié, Aurore; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Béjot, Yannick; Jacquin, Agnès; Mossiat, Claude; Marie, Christine; Garnier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The recombinant form of tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the only curative treatment for ischemic stroke. Recently, t-PA has been linked to the metabolism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a major neurotrophin involved in post-stroke neuroplasticity. Thus, the objective of our study was to investigate the impact of rt-PA treatment on post-stroke circulating BDNF levels in humans and in animals. Serum BDNF levels and t-PA/plasmin activity were measured at hospital admission and at up to 90 days in stroke patients receiving (n = 24) or not (n = 14) rt-PA perfusion. We investigated the relationships between serum BDNF with concurrent t-PA/plasmin activity, neurological outcomes and cardiovascular scores at admission. In parallel, serum BDNF levels and t-PA/plasmin activity were assessed before and after (1, 4 and 24h) the induction of ischemic stroke in rats. Our study revealed higher serum BDNF levels and better neurological outcome in rt-PA-treated than non-treated patients. However, serum BDNF levels did not predict stroke outcome when the whole cohort of stroke patients was analyzed. By contrast, serum BDNF levels when measured at admission and at day 90 correlated with cardiovascular scores, and those at day 1 correlated with serum t-PA/plasmin activity in the whole cohort of patients whereas no association could be found in the rt-PA-treated group. In rats devoid of cardiovascular risk, no difference in post-stroke serum BDNF levels was detected between rt-PA- and vehicle-treated animals and no correlation was found between serum BDNF levels and t-PA/plasmin activity. Overall, the data suggest that serum BDNF levels may not be useful as a prognostic biomarker of stroke outcome and that endothelial dysfunction could be a confounding factor when serum BDNF levels after stroke are used to reflect of brain BDNF levels.

  11. Mini-Stroke vs. Regular Stroke: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How is a ministroke different from a regular stroke? Answers from Jerry W. Swanson, M.D. When ... brain, spinal cord or retina, which may cause stroke-like symptoms but does not damage brain cells ...

  12. A novel animal model of dysphagia following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Naoto; Nishiyama, Eiji; Nishikawa, Yukitoshi; Sasamura, Takashi; Nakade, Shinji; Okawa, Katsumasa; Nagasawa, Tadashi; Yuki, Akane

    2014-02-01

    Patients who have an ischemic stroke are at high risk of swallowing disorders. Aspiration due to swallowing disorders, specifically delayed trigger of the pharyngeal stage of swallowing, predisposes such patients to pneumonia. In the present study, we evaluated swallowing reflex in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), which is one of the most common experimental animal models of cerebral ischemia, in order to develop a novel animal model of dysphagia following ischemic stroke. A swallowing reflex was elicited by a 10-s infusion of distilled water (DW) to the pharyngolaryngeal region in the tMCAO rat model. Swallowing reflex was estimated using the electromyographic activity of the mylohyoid muscle from 1 to 3 weeks after surgery. Two weeks after tMCAO, the number of swallows significantly decreased and the onset latency of the first swallow was prolonged compared with that of the sham group. The number of swallows in rats significantly increased by infusions of 10 mM citric acid and 0.6 μM capsaicin to the pharyngolaryngeal region compared with the number from infusion of DW. It has been reported that sensory stimulation of the pharyngolaryngeal region with citric acid, capsaicin, and L-menthol ameliorates hypofunction of pharyngeal-stage swallowing in dysphagia patients. Therefore, the tMCAO rat model may show some of the symptoms of pharyngeal-stage swallowing disorders, similar to those in patients with ischemic stroke. This rat tMCAO model has the potential to become a novel animal model of dysphagia following stroke that is useful for development of therapeutic methods and drugs.

  13. Risk Factors and Stroke Characteristic in Patients with Postoperative Strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Cao, Wenjie; Cheng, Xin; Fang, Kun; Zhang, Xiaolong; Gu, Yuxiang; Leng, Bing; Dong, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis and intra-arterial thrombectomy are now the standard therapies for patients with acute ischemic stroke. In-house strokes have often been overlooked even at stroke centers and there is no consensus on how they should be managed. Perioperative stroke happens rather frequently but treatment protocol is lacking, In China, the issue of in-house strokes has not been explored. The aim of this study is to explore the current management of in-house stroke and identify the common risk factors associated with perioperative strokes. Altogether, 51,841 patients were admitted to a tertiary hospital in Shanghai and the records of those who had a neurological consult for stroke were reviewed. Their demographics, clinical characteristics, in-hospital complications and operations, and management plans were prospectively studied. Routine laboratory test results and risk factors of these patients were analyzed by multiple logistic regression model. From January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015, over 1800 patients had neurological consultations. Among these patients, 37 had an in-house stroke and 20 had more severe stroke during the postoperative period. Compared to in-house stroke patients without a procedure or operation, leukocytosis and elevated fasting glucose levels were more common in perioperative strokes. In multiple logistic regression model, perioperative strokes were more likely related to large vessel occlusion. Patients with perioperative strokes had different risk factors and severity from other in-house strokes. For these patients, obtaining a neurological consultation prior to surgery may be appropriate in order to evaluate the risk of perioperative stroke. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Stroke risk perception among participants of a stroke awareness campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Kraywinkel, Klaus; Heidrich, Jan; Heuschmann, Peter U; Wagner, Markus; Berger, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Subjective risk factor perception is an important component of the motivation to change unhealthy life styles. While prior studies assessed cardiovascular risk factor knowledge, little is known about determinants of the individual perception of stroke risk. Methods Survey by mailed questionnaire among 1483 participants of a prior public stroke campaign in Germany. Participants had been informed about their individual stroke risk based on the Framingham stroke risk score. S...

  15. Child-Mediated Stroke Communication: findings from Hip Hop Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Noble, James; Gerin, William

    2012-01-01

    Low thrombolysis rates for acute ischemic stroke are linked to delays in seeking immediate treatment due to low public stroke awareness. We aimed to assess whether "Child-Mediated Stroke Communication" could improve stroke literacy of parents of children enrolled in a school-based stroke literacy program called Hip Hop Stroke. Parents of children aged 9 to 12 years from 2 public schools in Harlem, New York City, were recruited to participate in stroke literacy questionnaires before and after their child's participation in Hip Hop Stroke, a novel Child-Mediated Stroke Communication intervention delivered in school auditoriums. Parental recall of stroke information communicated through their child was assessed 1-week after the intervention. Fifth and sixth grade students (n=182) were enrolled into Hip Hop Stroke. One hundred two parents were approached in person to participate; 75 opted to participate and 71 completed both the pretest and post-test (74% response rate and 95% retention rate). Parental stroke literacy improved after the program; before the program, 3 parents of 75 (3.9%) were able to identify the 5 cardinal stroke symptoms, distracting symptom (chest pains), and had an urgent action plan (calling 911) compared with 21 of 71 parents (29.6%) postintervention (P<0.001). The FAST mnemonic was known by 2 (2.7%) of participants before the program versus 29 (41%) after program completion (P<0.001). Knowledge of stroke signs and symptoms remains low among residents of this high-risk population. The use of Child-Mediated Stroke Communication suggests that school children aged 9 to 12 years may be effective conduits of critical stroke knowledge to their parents.

  16. World Stroke Organization Global Stroke Services Guidelines and Action Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, Patrice; Furie, Karen L.; Davis, Stephen M.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Norrving, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Every two seconds, someone across the globe suffers a symptomatic stroke. 'Silent' cerebrovascular disease insidiously contributes to worldwide disability by causing cognitive impairment in the elderly. The risk of cerebrovascular disease is disproportionately higher in low to middle income countries where there may be barriers to stroke care. The last two decades have seen a major transformation in the stroke field with the emergence of evidence-based approaches to stroke prevention,...

  17. Comparison of quantitative estimation of intracerebral hemorrhage and infarct volumes after thromboembolism in an embolic stroke model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Nina; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strokes have both ischemic and hemorrhagic components, but most studies of experimental stroke only address the ischemic component. This is likely because investigations of hemorrhagic transformation are hindered by the lack of methods based on unbiased principles for volume estimation....... AIMS: We evaluated different methods for estimating the volume of infarcts, hemorrhages, after embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion with or without thrombolysis. METHODS: An experimental thromboembolytic rat model was used in this study. The rats underwent surgery and were placed in two groups...... of measuring both the ischemic and the hemorrhagic components of stroke, two parameters that may be differentially regulated when therapeutic regimens are tested....

  18. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is associated with nostalgia proneness: The role of neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu L L; Welker, Keith M; Way, Baldwin; DeWall, Nathan; Bushman, Brad J; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine

    2017-12-12

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for the past, is a self-relevant and social emotion. Nostalgia proneness is associated with alleviation of distress or instability (e.g., neuroticism). Although nostalgia proneness is heritable, the specific molecular contributors to this heritability are unknown. We focused on a polymorphism in the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) as a possible biological basis of nostalgia proneness, because the serotonin system has been associated with sensitivity to negative experience. Participants (N = 397 adults) who had reported levels of nostalgia proneness were genotyped. A subsample also completed a measure of neuroticism. Participants with the 5-HTTLPR short allele were higher on nostalgia proneness than those without this allele. Neuroticism mediated the relation between 5-HTTLPR and nostalgia proneness. These findings enrich our understanding of the genetic and personality underpinnings of nostalgia.

  19. [Reduction of pressure sores during prone positioning of ventilated intensive care patients by the prone-head support system: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebio, Michael; Katz-Papatheophilou, Elfriede; Heindl, Werner; Gelbmann, Herbert; Burghuber, Otto C

    2005-02-01

    Prone positioning in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome is a well-known method to improve oxygenation. The aim of our study was to evaluate a new device for prone positioning, the prone-head support system (PHS system), with regard to reduction of cutaneous pressure sores. In a pilot study we randomized 8 patients with ARDS in two groups: 180 degrees standard prone positioning (group without mask) and prone positioning with the PHS system (group with mask). The PHS system consists of a facemask support, which is connected to an adapted air suspension bed. The patients of both groups were intermittently proned for several days. We evaluated the pressure sores on head and neck before turning the patients prone for the first time and after each period of prone positioning. We documented the quantity, the size, the type and the localization of the pressure sores. There was no significant difference in the mean duration of prone positioning (27.1+/-14.7 hours in the group with mask versus 24.5+/-18.7 h in the group without mask). In the group with mask there were 1.5+/-0.8 new pressure sores by each proning, whereas in the group without mask there were 2.37+/-1.6 new pressure sores, which was lower, but not significantly. The overall area of pressure sores (798 mm2 versus 3184 mm2, p=0.004), the area of pressure sores per patient (199.5+/-104.7 mm2 versus 796+/-478 mm2, p=0.03) and the increase of the area of pressure sores per proning (79.8+/-52.0 mm2 versus 398.0+/-214.3 mm2, p=0.004) were significantly lower in the group with mask in comparison to the group without mask. The lips were the most effected localization in both groups. The pressure sores in the group with mask were less severe and showed a homogenous distribution in comparison to the group without mask. Blisters dominated in the group with mask in comparison to erosions, necrosis and ulcers in the group without mask. The PHS system with its face mask is able to reduce the extent and the

  20. Child-Mediated Stroke Communication: Findings from Hip Hop Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Noble, James; Gerin, William

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Low thrombolysis rates for acute ischemic stroke is linked to delays in seeking immediate treatment due to low public stroke awareness. We aimed to assess whether “Child-Mediated Stroke Communication” (CMSC) could improve stroke literacy parents of children enrolled in a school-based stroke literacy program called Hip Hop Stroke (HHS). Methods Parents of children aged 9 to 12 years from two public schools in Harlem, NYC, were recruited to participate in stroke literacy questionnaires before and after their child’s participation in HHS, a novel CMSC intervention delivered in school auditoriums. Parental recall of stroke information communicated through their child was assessed 1-week following the intervention. Results Fifth and Sixth grade students (n =182) were enrolled into HHS. 102 parents were approached in person to participate; 75 opted to participate and 71 completed both pretest and post-test (74% response rate and 95% retention rate). Parental stroke literacy improved after the program: before the program, 3 parents of 75 (3.9%) were able to identify the five cardinal stroke symptoms, distracting symptom (chest pains), and had an urgent action plan (calling 911), compared to 21 of 71 parents (29.6%) post-intervention (pstroke signs and symptoms remains low among residents of this high-risk population. The use of Child-Mediated Stroke Communication suggests that schoolchildren aged 9-12 may be effective conduits of critical stroke knowledge to their Parents. PMID:22033995

  1. From stroke unit care to stroke care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Sulter, G.

    1999-01-01

    In some stroke units continuous monitoring of blood pressure, electrocardiogram, body temperature, and oxygen saturation has become an integral part of the management of acute stroke. In addition, regular measurements of blood glucose are performed. Stroke units equipped with such monitoring

  2. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Having diabetes means that ... help to stop. What is the link between diabetes, heart disease, and stroke? Over time, high blood ...

  3. The obesity paradox in stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2015-01-01

    . Data include age, gender, civil status, stroke severity, computed tomography, and cardiovascular risk factors. Patients were followed up to 9·8 years (median 2·6 years). We used Cox regression models to compare risk of death and readmission for recurrent stroke in the four body mass index groups......BACKGROUND: Although associated with excess mortality and morbidity, obesity is associated with lower mortality after stroke. The association between obesity and risk of recurrent stroke is unclear. AIMS: The study aims to investigate the association in stroke patients between body mass index...... and risk of death and readmission for recurrent stroke. METHODS: An administrative Danish quality-control registry designed to collect a predefined dataset on all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark 2000–2010 includes 45 615 acute first-ever stroke patients with information on body mass index in 29 326...

  4. Preventable Pediatric Stroke via Vaccination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Press

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from the Vascular Effects of Infection in Pediatric Stroke (VIPS group studied the risk of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS associated with minor infection and routine childhood vaccinations.

  5. ACUTE STROKE: FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME PREDICTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha; Ramalingam; Vinodkumar; Vasumathi; Valarmathi; Anu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ischemic strokes account for >80% of total stroke events. Biochemical modalities like serum uric acid, ESR, CRP, Serum Fibrinogen will be a low cost and useful way to predict functional outcome after ischemic stroke. The Barthel ADL index it is an ordinal scale helping us to measure performances in ADL-activities in daily living. The present study aims to study the Biochemical parameters Uric Acid, CRP, ESR and Fibrinogen in Ischemic Stroke patients and to assess fu...

  6. Overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus protects against post-stroke depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-hao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-stroke depression is associated with reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. In this study, we evaluated whether BDNF overexpression affects depression-like behavior in a rat model of post-stroke depression. The middle cerebral artery was occluded to produce a model of focal cerebral ischemia. These rats were then subjected to isolation-housing combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress to generate a model of post-stroke depression. A BDNF gene lentiviral vector was injected into the hippocampus. At 7 days after injection, western blot assay and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that BDNF expression in the hippocampus was increased in depressive rats injected with BDNF lentivirus compared with depressive rats injected with control vector. Furthermore, sucrose solution consumption was higher, and horizontal and vertical movement scores were increased in the open field test in these rats as well. These findings suggest that BDNF overexpression in the hippocampus of post-stroke depressive rats alleviates depression-like behaviors.

  7. Procrastination and suicide proneness: A moderated-mediation model for cognitive schemas and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibert, Jeffrey; LeLeux-LaBarge, Kayla; Tarantino, Nicholas; Yancey, Thresa; Lamis, Dorian A

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect paths between procrastination and suicide proneness while considering gender differences. Participants included 547 undergraduates from a southeastern university. Procrastination was positively related to suicide proneness for both genders, although this relation was stronger for women. Moderated-mediation analyses with bootstrapping highlighted insufficient self-control schemas as a mediator in the relation between procrastination and suicide proneness. However, indirect pathways did not vary by gender. Results represent an extension of the Procrastination-Health Model by highlighting the contribution of cognitive factors in explaining the relation between procrastination and suicide proneness.

  8. 44 CFR 60.23 - Planning considerations for mudslide (i.e., mudflow)-prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... standards for schools, hospitals, nursing homes, orphanages, correctional and other residential institutions...)-prone areas; (j) Deterring the nonessential installation of public utilities and public facilities in...

  9. Cross-Cultural Differences and Similarities in Proneness to Shame: An Adaptationist and Ecological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kosuke; Delton, Andrew W.; Sato, Kosuke; Robertson, Theresa; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2013-01-01

    People vary in how easily they feel ashamed, that is, in their shame proneness. According to the information threat theory of shame, variation in shame proneness should, in part, be regulated by features of a person’s social ecology. On this view, shame is an emotion program that evolved to mitigate the likelihood or costs of reputation-damaging information spreading to others. In social environments where there are fewer possibilities to form new relationships (i.e., low relational mobility), there are higher costs to damaging or losing existing ones. Therefore, shame proneness toward current relationship partners should increase as perceived relational mobility decreases. In contrast, individuals with whom one has little or no relationship history are easy to replace, and so shame-proneness towards them should not be modulated by relational mobility. We tested these predictions cross-culturally by measuring relational mobility and shame proneness towards friends and strangers in Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Japanese subjects were more shame-prone than their British and American counterparts. Critically, lower relational mobility was associated with greater shame proneness towards friends (but not strangers), and this relationship partially mediated the cultural differences in shame proneness. Shame proneness appears tailored to respond to relevant features of one’s social ecology. PMID:22947644

  10. Cross-Cultural Differences and Similarities in Proneness to Shame: An Adaptationist and Ecological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sznycer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available People vary in how easily they feel ashamed, that is, in their shame proneness. According to the information threat theory of shame, variation in shame proneness should, in part, be regulated by features of a person's social ecology. On this view, shame is an emotion program that evolved to mitigate the likelihood or costs of reputation-damaging information spreading to others. In social environments where there are fewer possibilities to form new relationships (i.e., low relational mobility, there are higher costs to damaging or losing existing ones. Therefore, shame proneness toward current relationship partners should increase as perceived relational mobility decreases. In contrast, individuals with whom one has little or no relationship history are easy to replace, and so shame-proneness towards them should not be modulated by relational mobility. We tested these predictions cross-culturally by measuring relational mobility and shame proneness towards friends and strangers in Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Japanese subjects were more shame-prone than their British and American counterparts. Critically, lower relational mobility was associated with greater shame proneness towards friends (but not strangers, and this relationship partially mediated the cultural differences in shame proneness. Shame proneness appears tailored to respond to relevant features of one's social ecology.

  11. Dissociative and metacognitive factors in hallucination-proneness when controlling for comorbid symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varese, Filippo; Barkus, Emma; Bentall, Richard P

    2011-05-01

    Recent studies have linked hallucination-proneness to dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs, dissociation, and disrupted capacity to discriminate between internal and external cognitive events (reality discrimination). This study addressed a number of methodological limitations of previous research by investigating the relationship between hallucination-proneness and the aforementioned variables while controlling for comorbid symptoms. A large sample of nonclinical participants was screened on measures of hallucination-proneness, cognitive intrusions, paranoid ideation, metacognitive beliefs, and dispositional mindfulness (including measures of dissociation-like experiences). In addition, a signal detection task was used to investigate reality discrimination in four subgroups of participants selected on the basis of their scores on hallucination-proneness and intrusions. Regression analyses for the self-report data were conducted to investigate the predictors of hallucination-proneness and paranoia when controlling for comorbid symptoms. Also, between-group differences on the behavioural data were tested to determine whether perturbed reality discrimination is specifically associated with hallucination-proneness rather than cognitive intrusions. Results revealed that metacognitive beliefs are more strongly associated with intrusions and paranoia than hallucination-proneness, whereas hallucination-proneness is related to perturbed reality discrimination and dissociation. These results clarify previous research on metacognitive dysfunction in hallucination-proneness, and highlight the importance of controlling for the covariation among symptoms when investigating the cognitive processes underlying psychotic experiences.

  12. SAR: Stroke Authorship Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2015-10-15

    Are simple strokes unique to the artist or designer who renders them? If so, can this idea be used to identify authorship or to classify artistic drawings? Also, could training methods be devised to develop particular styles? To answer these questions, we propose the Stroke Authorship Recognition (SAR) approach, a novel method that distinguishes the authorship of 2D digitized drawings. SAR converts a drawing into a histogram of stroke attributes that is discriminative of authorship. We provide extensive classification experiments on a large variety of data sets, which validate SAR\\'s ability to distinguish unique authorship of artists and designers. We also demonstrate the usefulness of SAR in several applications including the detection of fraudulent sketches, the training and monitoring of artists in learning a particular new style and the first quantitative way to measure the quality of automatic sketch synthesis tools. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Protein-Energy Malnutrition Exacerbates Stroke-Induced Forelimb Abnormalities and Dampens Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Caine, Sally; Li, Xue; Hackett, Mark J; Bradley, Michael P; Nichol, Helen; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2018-02-03

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) pre-existing at stroke onset is believed to worsen functional outcome, yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Since brain inflammation is an important modulator of neurological recovery after stroke, we explored the impact of PEM on neuroinflammation in the acute period in relation to stroke-initiated sensori-motor abnormalities. Adult rats were fed a low-protein (LP) or normal protein (NP) diet for 28 days before inducing photothrombotic stroke (St) in the forelimb region of the motor cortex or sham surgery; the diets continued for 3 days after the stroke. Protein-energy status was assessed by a combination of body weight, food intake, serum acute phase proteins and corticosterone, and liver lipid content. Deficits in motor function were evaluated in the horizontal ladder walking and cylinder tasks at 3 days after stroke. The glial response and brain elemental signature were investigated by immunohistochemistry and micro-X-ray fluorescence imaging, respectively. The LP-fed rats reduced food intake, resulting in PEM. Pre-existing PEM augmented stroke-induced abnormalities in forelimb placement accuracy on the ladder; LP-St rats made more errors (29 ± 8%) than the NP-St rats (15 ± 3%; P < 0.05). This was accompanied by attenuated astrogliosis in the peri-infarct area by 18% and reduced microglia activation by up to 41 and 21% in the peri-infarct area and the infarct rim, respectively (P < 0.05). The LP diet altered the cortical Zn, Ca, and Cl signatures (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that proactive treatment of pre-existing PEM could be essential for optimal post-stroke recovery.

  14. Personal accounts of stroke experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachters-Kaufmann, CSM

    2000-01-01

    As there appeared to be a need for personal accounts of stroke experiences, a book called "Speaking about Stroke" was written for stroke patients and their caregivers. For the past two years, a questionnaire was sent to the people who had ordered the book, to gain an insight into the characteristics

  15. Questions and Answers about Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke. High blood pressure increases your risk of stroke four to six times. Heart disease, especially a condition ... leading cause of serious, long-term adult disability. Four million Americans are living with the effects of stroke. The length of time to recover from a ...

  16. Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

  17. Stroke prevention: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousser, Marie-Germaine

    2012-03-01

    Stroke is a personal, familial, and social disaster. It is the third cause of death worldwide, the first cause of acquired disability, the second cause of dementia, and its cost is astronomic. The burden of stroke is likely to increase given the aging of the population and the growing incidence of many vascular risk factors. Prevention of stroke includes--as for all other diseases--a "mass approach" aiming at decreasing the risk at the society level and an individual approach, aiming at reducing the risk in a given subject. The mass approach is primarily based on the identification and treatment of vascular risk factors and, if possible, in the implementation of protective factors. These measures are the basis of primary prevention but most of them have now been shown to be also effective in secondary prevention. The individual approach combines a vascular risk factor modification and various treatments addressing the specific subtypes of stroke, such as antiplatelet drugs for the prevention of cerebral infarction in large and small artery diseases of the brain, carotid endarterectomy or stenting for tight carotid artery stenosis, and oral anticoagulants for the prevention of cardiac emboli. There is a growing awareness of the huge evidence-to-practice gap that exists in stroke prevention largely due to socio-economic factors. Recent approaches include low cost intervention packages to reduce blood pressure and cheap "polypills" combining in a single tablet aspirin and several drugs to lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Polypill intake should however not lead to abandon the healthy life-style measures which remain the mainstay of stroke prevention.

  18. Site-specific activation of dopamine and serotonin transmission by aniracetam in the mesocorticolimbic pathway of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Shirane, M; Koshikawa, N

    2001-04-06

    The effects of aniracetam on extracellular levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites were examined in five brain regions in freely moving stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) using in vivo microdialysis. Basal DA release in SHRSP was uniformly lower in all regions tested than that in age-matched control Wistar Kyoto rats. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid levels were altered in the basolateral amygdala, dorsal hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of SHRSP. While basal 5-HT release decreased in the striatum and increased in the basolateral amygdala, there was no associated change in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels. Systemic administration of aniracetam to SHRSP enhanced both DA and 5-HT release with partly associated change in their metabolite levels in the prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala and dorsal hippocampus, but not in the striatum and nucleus accumbens shell, in a dose-dependent manner (30 and/or 100 mg/kg p.o.). Microinjection (1 and 10 ng) of aniracetam or its metabolites (N-anisoyl-GABA and 2-pyrrolidinone) into the nucleus accumbens shell produced no turning behavior. These findings indicate that SHRSP have a dopaminergic hypofunction throughout the brain and that aniracetam elicits a site-specific activation in mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways in SHRSP, possibly via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the ventral tegmental area and raphe nuclei. The physiological roles in the aniracetam-sensitive brain regions may closely link with their clinical efficacy towards emotional disturbances appearing after cerebral infarction.

  19. Novel genetic linkage of rat Sp6 mutation to Amelogenesis imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muto Taro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI is an inherited disorder characterized by abnormal formation of tooth enamel. Although several genes responsible for AI have been reported, not all causative genes for human AI have been identified to date. AMI rat has been reported as an autosomal recessive mutant with hypoplastic AI isolated from a colony of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat strain, but the causative gene has not yet been clarified. Through a genetic screen, we identified the causative gene of autosomal recessive AI in AMI and analyzed its role in amelogenesis. Methods cDNA sequencing of possible AI-candidate genes so far identified using total RNA of day 6 AMI rat molars identified a novel responsible mutation in specificity protein 6 (Sp6. Genetic linkage analysis was performed between Sp6 and AI phenotype in AMI. To understand a role of SP6 in AI, we generated the transgenic rats harboring Sp6 transgene in AMI (Ami/Ami + Tg. Histological analyses were performed using the thin sections of control rats, AMI, and Ami/Ami + Tg incisors in maxillae, respectively. Results We found the novel genetic linkage between a 2-bp insertional mutation of Sp6 gene and the AI phenotype in AMI rats. The position of mutation was located in the coding region of Sp6, which caused frameshift mutation and disruption of the third zinc finger domain of SP6 with 11 cryptic amino acid residues and a stop codon. Transfection studies showed that the mutant protein can be translated and localized in the nucleus in the same manner as the wild-type SP6 protein. When we introduced the CMV promoter-driven wild-type Sp6 transgene into AMI rats, the SP6 protein was ectopically expressed in the maturation stage of ameloblasts associated with the extended maturation stage and the shortened reduced stage without any other phenotypical changes. Conclusion We propose the addition of Sp6 mutation as a new molecular diagnostic criterion for the

  20. Vitamin E and Vitamin C supplementation does not prevent glucose intolerance in obese-prone rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity-induced glucose intolerance affects over 70 million Americans. Elevated oxidative stress is associated with development of glucose intolerance. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that supplementation with the anti-oxidants vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol acetate; 0.4 g/kg diet) and vitamin...

  1. Ischemic Stroke and Cancer: Stroke Severely Impacts Cancer Patients, While Cancer Increases the Number of Strokes

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Oh Young; Seok, Jin Myoung; Kim, Seon Gyeong; Hong, Ji Man; Kim, Hahn Young; Lee, Jun; Chung, Pil-Wook; Park, Kwang-Yeol; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer and ischemic stroke are two of the most common causes of death among the elderly, and associations between them have been reported. However, the main pathomechanisms of stroke in cancer patients are not well known, and can only be established based on accurate knowledge of the characteristics of cancer-related strokes. We review herein recent studies concerning the clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of patients with cancer-related stroke. Main Contents This revi...

  2. Error-prone polymerase activity causes multinucleotide mutations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kelley; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-09-01

    About 2% of human genetic polymorphisms have been hypothesized to arise via multinucleotide mutations (MNMs), complex events that generate SNPs at multiple sites in a single generation. MNMs have the potential to accelerate the pace at which single genes evolve and to confound studies of demography and selection that assume all SNPs arise independently. In this paper, we examine clustered mutations that are segregating in a set of 1092 human genomes, demonstrating that the signature of MNM becomes enriched as large numbers of individuals are sampled. We estimate the percentage of linked SNP pairs that were generated by simultaneous mutation as a function of the distance between affected sites and show that MNMs exhibit a high percentage of transversions relative to transitions, findings that are reproducible in data from multiple sequencing platforms and cannot be attributed to sequencing error. Among tandem mutations that occur simultaneously at adjacent sites, we find an especially skewed distribution of ancestral and derived alleles, with GC → AA, GA → TT, and their reverse complements making up 27% of the total. These mutations have been previously shown to dominate the spectrum of the error-prone polymerase Pol ζ, suggesting that low-fidelity DNA replication by Pol ζ is at least partly responsible for the MNMs that are segregating in the human population. We develop statistical estimates of MNM prevalence that can be used to correct phylogenetic and population genetic inferences for the presence of complex mutations. © 2014 Harris and Nielsen; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. Development of Korean Smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongil Kim

    Full Text Available This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1 disturbance of adaptive functions, (2 virtual life orientation, (3 withdrawal, and (4 tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49. For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034. Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed.

  4. Development of Korean Smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongil; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Juyoung; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Chung, Yeoju

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1) disturbance of adaptive functions, (2) virtual life orientation, (3) withdrawal, and (4) tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49). For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034). Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed.

  5. Preliminary results for prone-position breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahe, Marc-Andre; Classe, Jean-Marc; Dravet, Francois; Cussac, Agnes; Cuilliere, Jean-Claude

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate an alternative prone-position technique for breast irradiation after conservative surgery. Methods and materials: A plexiglas platform with a circular opening for the breast and a double 30 deg. craniocaudal and 10 deg. transverse (left-right for the right breast and right-left for the left breast) slope was evaluated for positioning, the possible use of CT, and dosimetric study in 35 patients with large pendulous breasts who were likely to benefit from irradiation of the breast alone after conservative surgery. Results: The positioning was excellent for all but 3 obese patients who could not achieve adequate prolonged immobilization. The platform height and position made it possible to obtain CT in the other 32 patients. Three-dimensional dosimetry revealed that 85 deg. and 265 deg. angles of the tangential fields for the right breast and 275 deg. and 95 deg. angles for the left breast were adequate for all patients. The use of 4 or 6 MV photon energy and a variety of wedges made it possible to treat the whole breast and the chest wall. The high-dose regions of the base and the top of the breast did not exceed 105%. No interruption was necessary during treatment, and only grade I-II acute skin reactions were observed. Conclusion: The results of this study have demonstrated the feasibility of the technique, which has the great advantage of using a similar position for CT scanning and treatment

  6. "Jumping to conclusions" in delusion-prone participants: an experimental economics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Leer, Leslie; McKay, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    That delusional and delusion-prone individuals "jump to conclusions" on probabilistic reasoning tasks is a key finding in cognitive neuropsychiatry. Here we focused on a less frequently investigated aspect of "jumping to conclusions" (JTC): certainty judgments. We incorporated rigorous procedures from experimental economics to eliminate potential confounds of miscomprehension and motivation and systematically investigated the effect of incentives on task performance. Low- and high-delusion-prone participants (n = 109) completed a series of computerised trials; on each trial, they were shown a black or a white fish, caught from one of the two lakes containing fish of both colours in complementary ratios. In the betting condition, participants were given £4 to distribute over the two lakes as they wished; in the control condition, participants simply provided an estimate of how probable each lake was. Deviations from Bayesian probabilities were investigated. Whereas high-delusion-prone participants in both the control and betting conditions underestimated the Bayesian probabilities (i.e. were conservative), low-delusion-prone participants in the control condition underestimated but those in the betting condition provided accurate estimates. In the control condition, there was a trend for high-delusion-prone participants to give higher estimates than low-delusion-prone participants, which is consistent with previous reports of "jumping to conclusions" in delusion-prone participants. However, our findings in the betting condition, where high-delusion-prone participants provided lower estimates than low-delusion-prone participants (who were accurate), are inconsistent with the jumping-to-conclusions effect in both a relative and an absolute sense. Our findings highlight the key role of task incentives and underscore the importance of comparing the responses of delusion-prone participants to an objective rational standard as well as to the responses of non-delusion-prone

  7. Ketosis-prone atypical diabetes in Cameroonian people with hyperglycaemic crisis: frequency, clinical and metabolic phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lontchi-Yimagou, E; Nguewa, J L; Assah, F; Noubiap, J J; Boudou, P; Djahmeni, E; Balti, E V; Atogho-Tiedeu, B; Gautier, J F; Mbanya, J C; Sobngwi, E

    2017-03-01

    It is unclear whether ketosis-prone diabetes is a specific type or a subtype of Type 2 diabetes. We aimed to describe the clinical and metabolic features of ketosis-prone diabetes in a sub-Saharan population. We consecutively enrolled and characterized 173 people with non-autoimmune diabetes admitted for hyperglycaemic crisis at the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon. Blood samples were collected for fasting glucose, HbA 1c , lipid profile and C-peptide assays with insulin resistance and secretion estimation by homeostasis model assessment. People were classified as having Type 2 diabetes (n = 124) or ketosis-prone diabetes (n = 49). Ketosis-prone diabetes was sub-classified as new-onset ketotic phase (n = 34) or non-ketotic phase (n = 15). Ketosis-prone diabetes was found in 28.3% of the hyperglycaemic crises. Age at diabetes diagnosis was comparable in Type 2 and ketosis-prone diabetes [48 ± 14 vs 47 ± 11 years; P = 0.13] with a similar sex distribution. Overall BMI was 27.7 ± 13.4 kg/m 2 and was ≥ 25 kg/m 2 in 55.8% of those taking part, however, 73.5% of those with ketosis-prone diabetes reported weight loss of > 5% at diagnosis. Blood pressure and lipid profile were comparable in both types. Ketosis-prone diabetes in the ketotic phase was characterized by lower insulin secretion and higher serum triglycerides compared with non-ketotic ketosis prone and Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 and ketosis prone diabetes in the non-ketotic phase were comparable in terms of lipid profile, blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio, BMI and fat mass, insulin secretion and insulin resistance indices. Ketosis-prone diabetes is likely to be a subtype of Type 2 diabetes with the potential to develop acute insulinopenic episodes. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  8. Family History in Young Patients With Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Vincent; Grittner, Ulrike; Dichgans, Martin; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Kessler, Christof; Kolodny, Edwin; Kropp, Peter; Martus, Peter; Norrving, Bo; Ringelstein, Erich Bernd; Rothwell, Peter M; Schmidt, Reinhold; Tanislav, Christian; Tatlisumak, Turgut; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Rolfs, Arndt

    2015-07-01

    Family history of stroke is an established risk factor for stroke. We evaluated whether family history of stroke predisposed to certain stroke subtypes and whether it differed by sex in young patients with stroke. We used data from the Stroke in Fabry Patients study, a large prospective, hospital-based, screening study for Fabry disease in young patients (aged stroke in whom cardiovascular risk factors and family history of stroke were obtained and detailed stroke subtyping was performed. A family history of stroke was present in 1578 of 4232 transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients (37.3%). Female patients more often had a history of stroke in the maternal lineage (P=0.027) than in the paternal lineage. There was no association with stroke subtype according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment nor with the presence of white matter disease on brain imaging. Patients with dissection less frequently reported a family history of stroke (30.4% versus 36.3%; P=0.018). Patients with a parental history of stroke more commonly had siblings with stroke (3.6% versus 2.6%; P=0.047). Although present in about a third of patients, a family history of stroke is not specifically related to stroke pathogenic subtypes in patients with young stroke. Young women with stroke more often report stroke in the maternal lineage. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Non-Pharmaceutical Ischemic Stroke Therapy in Aged Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Raluca Elena; Dumbrava, Danut; Surugiu, Roxana; Glavan, Daniela-Gabriela; Gresita, Andrei; Petcu, Eugen Bogdan

    2017-12-29

    The incidence of ischemic stroke in humans increases exponentially above 70 years both in men and women. Comorbidities like diabetes, arterial hypertension or co-morbidity factors such as hypercholesterolemia, obesity and body fat distribution as well as fat-rich diet and physical inactivity are common in elderly persons and are associated with higher risk of stroke, increased mortality and disability. Obesity could represent a state of chronic inflammation that can be prevented to some extent by non-pharmaceutical interventions such as calorie restriction and hypothermia. Indeed, recent results suggest that H₂S-induced hypothermia in aged, overweight rats could have a higher probability of success in treating stroke as compared to other monotherapies, by reducing post-stroke brain inflammation. Likewise, it was recently reported that weight reduction prior to stroke, in aged, overweight rats induced by caloric restriction, led to an early re-gain of weight and a significant improvement in recovery of complex sensorimotor skills, cutaneous sensitivity, or spatial memory. animal models of stroke done in young animals ignore age-associated comorbidities and may explain, at least in part, the unsuccessful bench-to-bedside translation of neuroprotective strategies for ischemic stroke in aged subjects.

  10. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Non-Pharmaceutical Ischemic Stroke Therapy in Aged Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Elena Sandu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of ischemic stroke in humans increases exponentially above 70 years both in men and women. Comorbidities like diabetes, arterial hypertension or co-morbidity factors such as hypercholesterolemia, obesity and body fat distribution as well as fat-rich diet and physical inactivity are common in elderly persons and are associated with higher risk of stroke, increased mortality and disability. Obesity could represent a state of chronic inflammation that can be prevented to some extent by non-pharmaceutical interventions such as calorie restriction and hypothermia. Indeed, recent results suggest that H2S-induced hypothermia in aged, overweight rats could have a higher probability of success in treating stroke as compared to other monotherapies, by reducing post-stroke brain inflammation. Likewise, it was recently reported that weight reduction prior to stroke, in aged, overweight rats induced by caloric restriction, led to an early re-gain of weight and a significant improvement in recovery of complex sensorimotor skills, cutaneous sensitivity, or spatial memory. Conclusion: animal models of stroke done in young animals ignore age-associated comorbidities and may explain, at least in part, the unsuccessful bench-to-bedside translation of neuroprotective strategies for ischemic stroke in aged subjects.

  11. Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowski Paul

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components.

  12. Ageism in stroke rehabilitation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, Eva Joan; Geoghegan, Sheena Elizabeth; O'Neill, Desmond

    2014-05-01

    stroke is predominantly a disease of older people. While age bias has been demonstrated in studies of pharmacological therapeutic interventions in stroke, the extent of discrimination by age in stroke rehabilitation studies is unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to assess the extent of ageism in stroke rehabilitation studies. all randomised control trials (RCT) on stroke rehabilitation entered in the Cochrane database which reported mean age were included. Patient gender and exclusion criteria were also recorded. of 241 RCT's identified, 182 were eligible for inclusion. The mean age of all patients was 64.3, almost a decade younger than those seen by stroke physicians in daily practice in global terms, and 11-12 years younger than encountered in hospital practice in the British Isles. Almost half (46%) of trials excluded patients with cognitive impairment, almost one-quarter (23%) patients with dysphasia and one-eighth (13%) excluded patients with multiple strokes. we have identified a clear difference in the mean age of those included in stroke rehabilitation studies compared with the international mean age of stroke. In addition, a quarter of trials excluded dysphasic patients which may indicate omission of more severe strokes. This means that the evidence base for stroke rehabilitation is deficient in terms of matching the characteristics of patients encountered in clinical practice, and a more representative sample of older people and those with significant disability must be included in future trials.

  13. Stroke? Localized, otogenic meningitis!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsdottir, Harpa Maria; Thomasen, Per Caye

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a patient admitted with aphasia, treated for a stroke. Subsequently, it was revealed that the symptoms were caused by complicated otitis media with localized meningitis. This case draws attention to the possible intracranial spread of infection when neurological symptoms occur...

  14. Ischemic strokes and migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousser, M.G.; Baron, J.C.; Chiras, J.

    1985-01-01

    Lasting neurological deficits, though most infrequent, do occur in migrainous subjects and are well documented by clinical angiographic computed tomographic (CT scan) and even pathological studies. However the mechanism of cerebral ischemia in migraine remains widely unknown and the precise role of migraine in the pathogenesis of ischemic strokes is still debated. (orig./MG)

  15. Stroke while jogging.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, W. F.; Roussak, J.

    1980-01-01

    Jogging is a form of physical exercise that has stimulated the imagination of the public as shown by recent appearance of its own journal (Jogging Magazine, Editor J. Bryant). We wish to report the unusual complication of an acute stroke sustained during jogging.

  16. Stroke while jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, W. F.; Roussak, J.

    1980-01-01

    Jogging is a form of physical exercise that has stimulated the imagination of the public as shown by recent appearance of its own journal (Jogging Magazine, Editor J. Bryant). We wish to report the unusual complication of an acute stroke sustained during jogging. Images p229-a Fig. 1 PMID:7448490

  17. Sex differences in stroke.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haast, R.A.M.; Gustafson, D.R.; Kiliaan, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in stroke are observed across epidemiologic studies, pathophysiology, treatments, and outcomes. These sex differences have profound implications for effective prevention and treatment and are the focus of this review. Epidemiologic studies reveal a clear age-by-sex interaction in

  18. Self-reported pleasure experience and motivation in individuals with schizotypal personality disorders proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Liu, Wen Hhua; Cao, Yuan; Chan, Raymond C K

    2011-09-01

    In our current research, 2 studies were conducted to investigate self-reported pleasure and approach motivation in individuals with schizotypal personality disorders (SPD) proneness. In Study 1, 20 individuals with SPD proneness and 20 non-SPD-prone persons were included in the investigation. In Study 2, 24 SPD-prone and 24 non-SPD-prone individuals took part in our research. In all these individuals, memory and perceptual probabilistic reward tasks, and self-report scales were administered to capture their approach motivation and pleasure experience, respectively. In both of the 2 studies, individuals with SPD proneness demonstrated more problems with self-reported deficits in pleasure experience than those without SPD proneness. However, there was no difference in approach motivation performance between the groups in Study 1; in Study 2, those with higher levels of anhedonia demonstrated a tendency to even more motivated behaviour. Approach motivation might be intact in schizotypal-proneness persons, although they had more complaints about their hedonic capacity.

  19. Accident proneness, does it exist? A review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Ellen; Pijl, Ysbrand J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    Accident related health problems have been suggested to cluster within persons. This phenomenon became known as accident proneness and has been a subject of many discussions. This study provides an overview of accident proneness. Therefore, 79 articles with empirical data on accident rates were

  20. Comparison of supine and prone positions for percutaneous nephrolithotomy in treatment of staghorn stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökce, Mehmet İlker; Ibiş, Arif; Sancı, Adem; Akıncı, Aykut; Bağcı, Uygar; Ağaoğlu, Eylül Asya; Süer, Evren; Gülpınar, Ömer

    2017-12-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the primary treatment modality for management of staghorn stones. PNL in supine position has important advantages over prone positon. However, studies comparing prone and supine positions for PNL in staghorn stone patients have conflicting results, and the aim of the current study was to compare prone and supine positions for PNL in staghorn stone cases. Data of patients underwent PNL for staghorn stones in supine or prone position by a single urologist were collected prospectively. The supine and prone position groups were compared for stone free rate (SFR) and complication rates. All patients were evaluated with NCCT for evaluation of SFR. Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables and Student t test was applied for continuous variables of the treatment groups. The groups were similar for demographic and stone-related characteristics. Multi-caliceal and intercostal access was more common in prone position. Operation duration was significantly shorter and hemoglobin drop was significantly less in supine group. SFR was 64.1 and 60.4% in the supine and prone groups, respectively (p = 0.72). Complication rates were similar in the two groups but Clavien III complications were observed in two patients in the prone group. PNL in supine position is an effective treatment for management of staghorn stones. The need for multi-caliceal and intercostal puncture is less when combined with retrograde intrarenal surgery. PNL in supine position should be considered as primary treatment option in staghorn stone cases.

  1. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Depression-Proneness: Closing the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaulay, Marci; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examines gender differences in body image and its relationship to depression-proneness and self-esteem. Findings indicate a preoccupation with body weight and appearance for both men and women, and a relationship between body satisfaction and depression-proneness. (FMW)

  2. Effects of prone and supine position on cerebral blood flow in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembich, Stefano; Oretti, Chiara; Travan, Laura; Clarici, Andrea; Massaccesi, Stefano; Demarini, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of prone and supine position on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in stable preterm infants. CBF, PO(2), and PCO(2) were measured in the two positions. Peripheral oxygenation increased and CBF decreased in prone position. We speculate that CBF autoregulation may compensate for increased peripheral oxygenation, by decreasing CBF. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Suicide Proneness in College Students: Relationships with Gender, Procrastination, and Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was…

  4. SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging with prone-only acquisitions: correlation with coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, John H; Pokharna, Hemlata K; Williams, Kim A; Mehta, Rupa; Ward, R Parker

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that combining supine and prone acquisitions during stress-gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPS) improves detection of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), though the additional imaging time required may not be feasible in routine clinical practice. MPS with prone-only acquisitions is occasionally performed in many laboratories, though little is known about the ability of modern MPS with prone-only acquisitions to detect obstructive CAD. Our goal was to assess the ability of MPS with prone-only acquisitions to detect obstructive CAD as determined by coronary angiography. We studied 386 patients referred for MPS with either recent coronary angiography or a low pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease. All rest and stress images were obtained exclusively in the prone position. The sensitivity of prone-only MPS was 88% for detecting > or =50% coronary artery stenosis and 92% for detecting > or =70% coronary artery stenosis as determined by coronary angiography. Normalcy rate for prone-only MPS in patients with low probability for CAD was 95%, and normalcy rates did not significantly differ among coronary artery distributions. The findings of this study suggest that MPS using prone-only acquisitions is a reasonable diagnostic option for the detection of ischemia due to obstructive coronary artery disease.

  5. Ketosis-Onset Diabetes and Ketosis-Prone Diabetes: Same or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Beiyan; Yu, Changhua; Li, Qiang; Li, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare clinical characteristics, immunological markers, and β-cell functions of 4 subgroups (“Aβ” classification system) of ketosis-onset diabetes and ketosis prone diabetes patients without known diabetes, presenting with ketosis or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and admitted to our department from March 2011 to December 2011 in China, with 50 healthy persons as control group. Results. β-cell functional reserve was preserved in 63.52% of patients. In almost each subgroup (except A−  β− subgroup of ketosis prone group), male patients were more than female ones. The age of the majority of patients in ketosis prone group was older than that of ketosis-onset group, except A−  β− subgroup of ketosis prone group. The durations from the patient first time ketosis or DKA onset to admitting to the hospital have significant difference, which were much longer for the ketosis prone group except the A+ β+ subgroup. BMI has no significant difference among subgroups. FPG of ketosis prone group was lower than that of A−  β+ subgroup and A+ β+ subgroup in ketosis-onset group. A−  β− subgroup and A+ β+ subgroup of ketosis prone group have lower HbA1c than ketosis-onset group. Conclusions. Ketosis-onset diabetes and ketosis prone diabetes do not absolutely have the same clinical characteristics. Each subgroup shows different specialty. PMID:23710177

  6. Effect of head rotation on cerebral blood velocity in the prone position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Højlund, Jakob; Sandmand, Marie; Sonne, Morten; Mantoni, Teit; Jørgensen, Henrik L.; Belhage, Bo; van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Pott, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The prone position is applied to facilitate surgery of the back and to improve oxygenation in the respirator-treated patient. In particular, with positive pressure ventilation the prone position reduces venous return to the heart and in turn cardiac output (CO) with consequences for

  7. Carbohydrate intake improves cognitive performance of stress-prone individuals under controllable laboratory stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, C.R.; Panhuysen, G.; Jonkman, L.M.; Bachman, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cognitive performance has been found to decline after exposure to stress, particularly in stress-prone subjects. The present study investigated whether a carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor (CR/PP) diet, which may enhance cerebral serotonin function in stress-prone subjects due to increases in the

  8. Thrombolysis in Postoperative Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Nicolas; Hubert, Nikolai Dominik; Backhaus, Roland; Haberl, Roman Ludwig; Hubert, Gordian Jan

    2017-11-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is beneficial in reducing disability in selected patients with acute ischemic stroke. There are numerous contraindications to IVT. One is recent surgery. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety of IVT in patients with postoperative stroke. Data of consecutive IVT patients from the Telemedical Project for Integrative Stroke Care thrombolysis registry (February 2003 to October 2014; n=4848) were retrospectively searched for keywords indicating preceding surgery. Patients were included if surgery was performed within the last 90 days before stroke. The primary outcome was defined as surgical site hemorrhage. Subgroups with major/minor surgery and recent/nonrecent surgery (within 10 days before IVT) were analyzed separately. One hundred thirty-four patients underwent surgical intervention before IVT. Surgery had been performed recently (days 1-10) in 49 (37%) and nonrecently (days 11-90) in 85 patients (63%). In 86 patients (64%), surgery was classified as major, and in 48 (36%) as minor. Nine patients (7%) developed surgical site hemorrhage after IVT, of whom 4 (3%) were serious, but none was fatal. One fatal bleeding occurred remotely from surgical area. Rate of surgical site hemorrhage was significantly higher in recent than in nonrecent surgery (14.3% versus 2.4%, respectively, odds ratio adjusted 10.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.88-61.27). Difference between patients with major and minor surgeries was less distinct (8.1% and 4.2%, respectively; odds ratio adjusted 4.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-25.04). Overall in-hospital mortality was 8.2%. Intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 9.7% and was asymptomatic in all cases. IVT may be administered safely in postoperative patients as off-label use after appropriate risk-benefit assessment. However, bleeding risk in surgical area should be taken into account particularly in patients who have undergone surgery shortly before stroke onset. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Imaging of Hemorrhagic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Ryan; Garg, Ankur

    2016-10-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke comprises approximately 15% to 20% of all strokes. This article provides readers with an understanding of the indications and significance of various neuroimaging techniques available for patients presenting with hemorrhagic strokes of distinct causes. The most common initial neuroimaging study is a noncontrast head CT, which allows for the identification of hemorrhage. Once an intracranial hemorrhage has been identified, the pattern of blood and the patient's medical history, neurologic examination, and laboratory studies lead the practitioner to pursue further neuroimaging studies to guide the medical, surgical, and interventional management. Given that hemorrhagic stroke constitutes a heterogeneous collection of diagnoses, the subsequent neuroimaging pathway necessary to better evaluate and care for these patients is variable based on the etiology.With an increasing incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation associated with the aging population and the introduction of three new direct factor Xa inhibitors and one direct thrombin inhibitor to complement vitamin K antagonists, oral anticoagulant use continues to increase. Patients on oral anticoagulants have a sevenfold to tenfold increased risk for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Furthermore, patients who have an ICH associated with oral anticoagulant use have a higher mortality rate than those with primary ICH. Despite the reduced incidence of hypertension-related ICH over the past decade, it is expected that the incidence of ICH will continue to increase. Neuroimaging studies are integral to the identification of hemorrhagic stroke, determination of the underlying etiology, prevention of hematoma expansion, treatment of acute complications, and treatment of the underlying etiology, if indicated. Neuroimaging is essential for prognostication and thus directly impacts patient care.

  10. Rehabilitating the Stroke Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Grimmond

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this project was to complete an analysis of monograph and audiovisual items held in the Central Coast Health Service (CCHS Libraries and containing information relevant to the treatment of acute stroke. Acute stroke is treated by multidisciplinary teams of clinicians based at two hospitals within the CCHS. The adequacy of the library collection was measured by subject coverage and age. Methods The methodology used consisted of three main steps: a literature review; design, administration, and analysis of a questionnaire to members of the CCHS Acute Stroke Team; and an analysis of the libraries’ collections. The research project utilised project management methodology and an evidence based librarianship framework. Results The questionnaire revealed that electronic resources were by far the most frequently used by participants, followed in order by print journals, books, interlibrary loan articles, and audiovisual items. Collection analysis demonstrated that the monograph and audiovisual collections were adequate in both scope and currency to support the information needs of Acute Stroke Team members, with the exception of resources to support patient education. Conclusion The researchers developed recommendations for future collection development in the area of acute stroke resources. Conducting this project within the evidence based librarianship framework helped to develop library staff members’ confidence in their ability to make future collection development decisions, informed by the target group’s information needs and preferences. The collection analysis methodology was designed to be replicated, and new specialist groups within the client base of the library will be targeted to repeat the collection analysis process.

  11. Muscle Activation Among Supine, Prone, and Side Position Exercises With and Without a Swiss Ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Lewis, Clare; Pecson, Amanda; Imamura, Rodney; Andrews, James R

    2016-07-01

    Prone, supine, and side position exercises are employed to enhance core stability. Overall core muscle activity would be greater in prone position exercises compared with supine and side position exercises. Controlled laboratory study. Eighteen men and women between 23 and 45 years of age served as subjects. Surface electrodes were positioned over the upper and lower rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, rectus femoris, latissimus dorsi, and lumbar paraspinals. Electromyography data were collected during 5 repetitions of 10 exercises, then normalized by maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC). Differences in muscle activity were assessed using 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance, while t tests with a Bonferroni correction were employed to assess pairwise comparisons. Upper and lower rectus abdominis activity was generally significantly greater in the crunch, bent-knee sit-up, and prone position exercises compared with side position exercises. External oblique activity was significantly greater in the prone on ball with right hip extension, side crunch on ball, and side bridge (plank) on toes compared with the prone and side bridge (plank) on knees, the crunch, or the bent-knee sit-up positions. Internal oblique activity was significantly greater in the prone bridge (plank) on ball and prone on ball with left and right hip extension compared with the side crunch on ball and prone and side bridge (plank) on knees positions. Lumbar paraspinal activity was significantly greater in the 3 side position exercises compared with all remaining exercises. Latissimus dorsi activity was significantly greater in the prone on ball with left and right hip extension and prone bridge (plank) on ball and on toes compared with the crunch, bent-knee sit-up, and prone and side bridge (plank) on knees positions. Rectus femoris activity was significantly greater in the prone on ball with left hip extension, bent-knee sit-up, or prone bridge (plank) on toes

  12. Stroke treatment outcomes in hospitals with and without Stroke Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjuan, J; Gállego Culleré, J; Ignacio García, E; Mira Solves, J J; Ollero Ortiz, A; Vidal de Francisco, D; López-Mesonero, L; Bestué, M; Albertí, O; Acebrón, F; Navarro Soler, I M

    2017-10-23

    Organisational capacity in terms of resources and care circuits to shorten response times in new stroke cases is key to obtaining positive outcomes. This study compares therapeutic approaches and treatment outcomes between traditional care centres (with stroke teams and no stroke unit) and centres with stroke units. We conducted a prospective, quasi-experimental study (without randomisation of the units analysed) to draw comparisons between 2 centres with stroke units and 4 centres providing traditional care through the neurology department, analysing a selection of agreed indicators for monitoring quality of stroke care. A total of 225 patients participated in the study. In addition, self-administered questionnaires were used to collect patients' evaluations of the service and healthcare received. Centres with stroke units showed shorter response times after symptom onset, both in the time taken to arrive at the centre and in the time elapsed from patient's arrival at the hospital to diagnostic imaging. Hospitals with stroke units had greater capacity to respond through the application of intravenous thrombolysis than centres delivering traditional neurological care. Centres with stroke units showed a better fit to the reference standards for stroke response time, as calculated in the Quick study, than centres providing traditional care through the neurology department. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Secular trends in ischemic stroke subtypes and stroke risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiatzi, Chrysi; Hackam, Daniel G; McLeod, A Ian; Spence, J David

    2014-11-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of a stroke improves patient outcomes, and knowledge of the cause of the initial event is crucial to identification of the appropriate therapy to maximally reduce risk of recurrence. Assumptions based on historical frequency of ischemic subtypes may need revision if stroke subtypes are changing as a result of recent changes in therapy, such as increased use of statins. We analyzed secular trends in stroke risk factors and ischemic stroke subtypes among patients with transient ischemic attack or minor or moderate stroke referred to an urgent transient ischemic attack clinic from 2002 to 2012. There was a significant decline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure, associated with a significant decline in large artery stroke and small vessel stroke. The proportion of cardioembolic stroke increased from 26% in 2002 to 56% in 2012 (Prisk factors was observed, with a significant decline in stroke/transient ischemic attack caused by large artery atherosclerosis and small vessel disease. As a result, cardioembolic stroke/transient ischemic attack has increased significantly. Our findings suggest that more intensive investigation for cardiac sources of embolism and greater use of anticoagulation may be warranted. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Outcome Determinants of Stroke in a Brazilian Primary Stroke Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo W. Kuster

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stroke mortality in Brazil is one of the highest among Western countries. Nonetheless, stroke outcome determinants are still poorly known in this country. In this study we evaluate outcome determinants of stroke in a primary stroke center in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods. We evaluated demographic, clinical, and outcome data of patients with ischemic stroke (IS, transient ischemic attack (TIA, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH admitted at “Hospital Paulistano,” São Paulo, Brazil. In-hospital mortality and functional outcome determinants were assessed. Univariate and binary logistic regression analysis were performed. Results. Three hundred forty-one patients were included in the study, 52.2% being male with 66.8±15.7 years. The stroke type distribution was IS: 59.2%, TIA: 29.6%, and ICH: 11.1%. ICH was associated with greater severity and poorer functional outcome. The determinants of poorer functional outcome were higher NIHSS, lower Glasgow score, and lower oxygen saturation level. The most important mortality determinant was the presence of visual symptoms. Conclusions. The stroke mortality and stroke outcome determinants found in the present study do not remarkably differ from studies carried out in developed countries. Stroke prognosis studies are crucial to better understand the high burden of stroke in Brazil.

  15. Relationship between C-reactive protein and stroke: a large prospective community based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Liu

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that C-reactive protein (CRP was associated with risk of stroke. There were few studies in Asian population, or on stroke subtypes other than ischemic stroke. We thus investigated the relationship between CRP and the risks of all stroke and its subtypes in a Chinese adult population.In the current study, we included 90,517 Chinese adults free of stroke and myocardial infarction at baseline (June 2006 to October 2007 in analyses. Strokes were classified as ischemic stroke (IS, intracranial heamorrhage (ICH and subarachnoid heamorrhage (SAH. High-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP were categorized into three groups: 3 mg/L. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the association between hs-CRP concentrations and all stroke, as well as its subtypes.During a median follow-up time of 49 months, we documented 1,472 incident stroke cases. Of which 1,049 (71.3% were IS, 383 (26.0% were ICH, and 40 (2.7% were SAH. After multivariate adjustment, hs-CRP concentrations ≥1 mg/L were associated with increased risks of all stroke (hs-CRP 1-3 mg/L: hazard ratio (HR 1.17, 95% confidential interval (CI 1.03-1.33; hs-CRP>3 mg/L: HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.46 and IS (hs-CRP 1-3 mg/L: HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.36; hs-CRP>3 mg/L: HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.60, but not with ICH and SAH. Subgroup analyses showed that higher hs-CRP concentration was more prone to be a risk factor for all stroke and IS in non-fatal stroke, male and hypertensive participants.We found that higher hs-CRP concentrations were associated with a higher risk of IS, particularly for non-fatal stroke, male and hypertensive subjects. In contrast, we did not observe significant associations between hs-CRP and ICH/SAH.

  16. Shame proneness and eating disorders: a comparison between clinical and non-clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesare, Cavalera; Francesco, Pagnini; Valentino, Zurloni; Barbara, Diana; Olivia, Realdon; Gianluca, Castelnuovo; Patrizia, Todisco; Enrico, Molinari

    2016-12-01

    To explore the relationship between shame proneness, eating disorders outcomes and psychological aspects of patients with eating disorders (ED). Sixty-six girls applying for inpatient treatment for ED and 110 female undergraduate students were assessed using the Eating Disorder Inventory-3 and the Shame Proneness Scale of the Test of Self-Conscious Affect. Shame proneness showed significant correlations with several ED components and psychological scales of EDI-3, with some variations across the subgroups. Shame proneness levels were significantly higher in the clinical group than in controls. Shame proneness can be an important component for the development and the maintenance of ED due to a strong correlation not only with ED symptoms but also with psychological aspects of this disease, in both clinical and non-clinical samples.

  17. Elementary students' engagement in failure-prone engineering design tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Chelsea Joy

    Although engineering education has been practiced at the undergraduate level for over a century, only fairly recently has the field broadened to include the elementary level; the pre-college division of the American Society of Engineering Education was established in 2003. As a result, while recent education standards require engineering in elementary schools, current studies are still filling in basic research on how best to design and implement elementary engineering activities. One area in need of investigation is how students engage with physical failure in design tasks. In this dissertation, I explore how upper elementary students engage in failure-prone engineering design tasks in an out-of-school environment. In a series of three empirical case studies, I look closely at how students evaluate failed tests and decide on changes to their design constructions, how their reasoning evolves as they repeatedly encounter physical failure, and how students and facilitators co-construct testing norms where repetitive failure is manageable. I also briefly investigate how students' engagement differs in a task that features near-immediate success. By closely examining student groups' discourse and their interactions with their design constructions, I found that these students: are able to engage in iteration and see failure-as-feedback with minimal externally-imposed structure; seem to be designing in a more sophisticated manner, attending to multiple causal factors, after experiencing repetitive failure; and are able to manage the stress and frustration of repetitive failure, provided the co-constructed testing norms of the workshop environment are supportive of failure management. These results have both pedagogical implications, in terms of how to create and facilitate design tasks, and methodological implications--namely, I highlight the particular insights afforded by a case study approach for analyzing engagement in design tasks.

  18. Understanding Stroke - Know Stroke • Know the Signs • Act in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Understanding Stroke Know Stroke • Know the Signs • Act in Time Past Issues / ... Julie Harris, and motivational speaker David Layton. Preventing Stroke "Until I had my stroke, I didn't ...

  19. Exercise rehabilitation immediately following ischemic stroke exacerbates inflammatory injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengwu; Pendy, John T; Ding, Jessie N; Peng, Changya; Li, Xiaorong; Shen, Jiamei; Wang, Sainan; Geng, Xiaokun

    2017-06-01

    The rehabilitative benefits of physical exercise after stroke appear to be contingent upon exercise initiation timing. The present study assessed the hypothesis that very early post-stroke exercise would amplify cellular stress and increases expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, while exercise initiated later would limit the inflammation associated with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Adult rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and subsequently assigned to one of seven groups: one sham injury control group, three stroke groups subjected to exercise initiated after 6, 24 hours, or 3 days of reperfusion, and three stroke groups not subjected to exercise. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were examined 3 and 24 hours after completion of exercise regimens (and at corresponding time points in non-exercise controls). Heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70) and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression levels were also compared between exercise and non-exercise groups. Early post-stroke exercise was associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, TNF-α, and IL-1β) and increased expression of cell stress markers (Hsp70 and HIF-1α). Exercise initiated after 3 days of reperfusion was associated with decreased expression of these molecules. Post-stroke exercise, if too early, may result in elevated levels of cell stress and increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may amplify the tissue damage associated with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The results shed light on the manner in which exercise initiation timing may affect post-stroke rehabilitation.

  20. SU-F-T-536: Contra-Lateral Breast Study for Prone Versus Supine Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, M; Joseph, K; Klein, E [Northwell Health, Lake Success, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: There are several advantages to utilizing the prone technique for intact breast cancer patients. However, as the topography changes, accompanied by the influence of a supporting breast board and patient treatment couch, the question that arises is to whether there is a concern for contralateral breast dose for intact breast cancer patients being treated with this technique. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom with breast mounds to duplicate intact breast cancer treatment was planned in prone and supine position. Two tangential beams were executed in the similar manner for as the radiotherapy planning system. For the prone setup, a breast dense foam board was used to support the phantom. A grid of 24 OSL nanodots was placed at 6cm, 4cm, and 2cm apart from the medial border for both prone and supine setups. The phantom was set up using megavoltage imaging and treated as per plan. Additional, a similar study was performed on a patient treated in prone position. Results: Overall, the contralateral breast dose was generally higher for prone setups at all locations especially when close to the medial border. The average mean dose was found to be 1.8%, 2.5% of the prescribed dose for supine respectively prone position. The average of the standard deviation is 1.04%, 1.38% for supine respectively prone position. As for patient treated in prone position average mean dose was found to be 1.165% of the prescribed dose and average of the standard deviation is 9.456%. Conclusion: There is minimal influence of scatter from the breast board. It appears that the volatility of the setup could lead to higher doses than expected from the planning system to the contralateral breast when the patient is in the prone position.

  1. Down-regulation of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression after weaning is associated with hyperphagia-induced obesity in JCR rats overexpressing neuropeptide Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diané, Abdoulaye; Pierce, W David; Russell, James C; Heth, C Donald; Vine, Donna F; Richard, Denis; Proctor, Spencer D

    2014-03-14

    We hypothesised that hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides are differentially expressed in obese-prone and lean-prone rats and trigger overeating-induced obesity. To test this hypothesis, in the present study, we measured energy balance and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expressions in male JCR:LA-cp rats. We compared, in independent cohorts, free-feeding obese-prone (Obese-FF) and lean-prone (Lean-FF) rats at pre-weaning (10 d old), weaning (21-25 d old) and early adulthood (8-12 weeks). A group of Obese-pair-feeding (PF) rats pair-fed to the Lean-FF rats was included in the adult cohort. The body weights of 10-d-old Obese-FF and Lean-FF pups were not significantly different. However, when the pups were shifted from dams' milk to solid food (weaning), the obese-prone rats exhibited more energy intake over the days than the lean-prone rats and higher body and fat pad weights and fasting plasma glucose, leptin, insulin and lipid levels. These differences were consistent with higher energy consumption and lower energy expenditure. In the young adult cohort, the differences between the Obese-FF and Lean-FF rats became more pronounced, yielding significant age effects on most of the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, which were reduced in the Obese-PF rats. The obese-prone rats displayed higher NPY expression than the lean-prone rats at pre-weaning and weaning, and the expression levels did not differ by age. In contrast, POMC expression exhibited significant age-by-genotype differences. At pre-weaning, there was no genotype difference in POMC expression, but in the weanling cohort, obese-prone pups exhibited lower POMC expression than the lean-prone rats. This genotype difference became more pronounced at adulthood. Overall, the development of hyperphagia-induced obesity in obese-prone JCR rats is related to POMC expression down-regulation in the presence of established NPY overexpression.

  2. Challenging comparison of stroke scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavian Ghandehari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke scales can be classified as clinicometric scales and functional impairment, handicap scales. All studies describing stroke scales were reviewed by internet searching engines with the final search performed on January 1, 2013. The following string of keywords was entered into search engines; stroke, scale, score and disability. Despite advantages of modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and Scandinavian stroke scale comparing to the NIHSS, including their simplification and less inter-rater variability; most of the stroke neurologists around the world continue using the NIHSS. The modified Rankin scale (mRS and Barthel index (BI are widely used functional impairment and disability scales. Distinction between grades of mRS is poorly defined. The Asian stroke disability scale is a simplified functional impairment, handicap scale which is as valid as mRS and BI. At the present time, the NIHSS, mRS and BI are routine stroke scales because physicians have used to work with these scales for more than two decades, although it could not be an acceptable reason. On the other side, results of previous stroke trials, which are the basis of stroke management guidelines are driven using these scales.

  3. Post-stroke urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Z; Birns, J; Bhalla, A

    2013-11-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of the current evidence on post-stroke urinary incontinence. An electronic database search was performed to identify relevant studies and review articles related to Urinary Incontinence (UI) in the stroke population between the years 1966 and 2012. Urinary incontinence following stroke is a common problem affecting more than one-third of acute stroke patients and persisting in up to a quarter at 1 year. It is well established that this condition is a strong marker of stroke severity and is associated with poorer functional outcomes and increased institutionalisation and mortality rates compared with those who remain continent. Despite evidence linking better outcomes to those patients who regain continence, the results of national audits have demonstrated that the management of UI following stroke is suboptimal, with less than two-thirds of stroke units having a documented plan to promote continence. Current evidence supports a thorough assessment to categorise the type and severity of post-stroke urinary incontinence. An individually tailored, structured management strategy to promote continence should be employed. This has been associated with better stroke outcomes and should be the aim of all stroke health professionals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Short-duration hypothermia after ischemic stroke prevents delayed intracranial pressure rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, L A; McLeod, D D; McCann, S K; Pepperall, D; Chung, S; Levi, C R; Calford, M B; Spratt, N J

    2014-07-01

    Intracranial pressure elevation, peaking three to seven post-stroke is well recognized following large strokes. Data following small-moderate stroke are limited. Therapeutic hypothermia improves outcome after cardiac arrest, is strongly neuroprotective in experimental stroke, and is under clinical trial in stroke. Hypothermia lowers elevated intracranial pressure; however, rebound intracranial pressure elevation and neurological deterioration may occur during rewarming. (1) Intracranial pressure increases 24 h after moderate and small strokes. (2) Short-duration hypothermia-rewarming, instituted before intracranial pressure elevation, prevents this 24 h intracranial pressure elevation. Long-Evans rats with two hour middle cerebral artery occlusion or outbred Wistar rats with three hour middle cerebral artery occlusion had intracranial pressure measured at baseline and 24 h. Wistars were randomized to 2·5 h hypothermia (32·5°C) or normothermia, commencing 1 h after stroke. In Long-Evans rats (n = 5), intracranial pressure increased from 10·9 ± 4·6 mmHg at baseline to 32·4 ± 11·4 mmHg at 24 h, infarct volume was 84·3 ± 15·9 mm(3) . In normothermic Wistars (n = 10), intracranial pressure increased from 6·7 ± 2·3 mmHg to 31·6 ± 9·3 mmHg, infarct volume was 31·3 ± 18·4 mm(3) . In hypothermia-treated Wistars (n = 10), 24 h intracranial pressure did not increase (7·0 ± 2·8 mmHg, P intracranial pressure elevation 24 h after stroke in two rat strains, even after small strokes. Short-duration hypothermia prevented the intracranial pressure rise, an effect sustained for at least 18 h after rewarming. The findings have potentially important implications for design of future clinical trials. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  5. Post-ischemic stroke rehabilitation is associated with a higher risk of fractures in older women: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huei Kai; Lin, Shu Man; Yang, Clement Shih Hsien; Liang, Chung Chao; Cheng, Hung Yu

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation can improve physical activity after stroke. However, patients may be more prone to falls and fractures because of balance and gait deficits. Few reports have studied the relationship between rehabilitation and subsequent fractures after ischemic stroke. To investigate whether post-stroke rehabilitation affects fracture risk. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with a newly diagnosed ischemic stroke between 2000 and 2012 were included. After propensity score matching, a total of 8,384 patients were enrolled. Half of the patients (4,192) received post-stroke rehabilitation within 1 month; the other half did not receive any post-stroke rehabilitation. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for fractures among patients with and without rehabilitation within 1 year after ischemic stroke. Patients were further stratified by sex and age (20-64 and ≥65 years). Patients receiving post-stroke rehabilitation had a higher incidence of fracture (6.2 per 100 person-years) than those who did not (4.1 per 100 person-years) after adjustment for sociodemographic and coexisting medical conditions [HR = 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-1.87, p rehabilitation had a significantly higher risk of fracture (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.21-2.17, p = 0.001). Rehabilitation after ischemic stroke is associated with an increased fracture risk in older women.

  6. [Study on relationship between constitution and syndrome of MMP-9, IL-6 and MTHFR gene in patients with ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuai-Ling; Xie, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Yin; Wang, Zhi-Fei; Yang, Jing; Wang, Dan-Qiao; Jiao, Yue; Chen, Jun; Tao, Yan-Hui

    2017-09-01

    By studying the relationship between syndromes, physique and MMP-9, IL-6 and MTHFR gene polymorphisms in patients with ischemic stroke,The relationship between MMP-9, IL-6 and MTHFR gene polymorphism was analyzed in patients with ischemic stroke.The data were collected by collecting the data of patients with ischemic stroke, and the statistical analysis was carried out. Syndrome:61 cases of ischemic stroke patients with stroke phlegm stasis syndrome in patients with the highest frequency, a total of 30 cases; Physical constitution: phlegm is ischemic stroke patients prone to physical, a total of 20 cases; The analysis of the relationship between constitution and syndrome shows that the patients with qi deficiency constitution tend to show qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome after onset, The analysis of the relationship between constitution and syndrome shows that the patients with qi deficiency constitution tend to show qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome after onset, Phlegm constitution and physical condition after the onset of symptoms tend to wind phlegm stasis syndrome; Syndrome and MMP-9, IL-6 relationship:The distribution of MMP-9 and IL-6 in patients with qi and phlegm stasis syndrome and qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome was significantly different from that in Z test (Prelationship between syndromes and physique in patients with ischemic stroke,Phlegm and dampness, flat quality patients after the onset of easy to show the wind phlegm stasis syndrome; Qi deficiency after the onset of symptoms in patients with Qi and blood stasis. Suggesting that before the onset of such as for the partial physical conditioning, may be on the prevention of ischemic stroke have a certain effect; Analysis of the relationship between syndromes and MMP-9 and IL-6 in patients with ischemic stroke, Wind phlegm stasis syndrome and IL-6 levels are related, Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome and MMP-9 levels are related. Analysis of the relationship between

  7. Guidelines for acute ischemic stroke treatment: part II: stroke treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cristina Ouriques Martins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The second part of these Guidelines covers the topics of antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and statin therapy in acute ischemic stroke, reperfusion therapy, and classification of Stroke Centers. Information on the classes and levels of evidence used in this guideline is provided in Part I. A translated version of the Guidelines is available from the Brazilian Stroke Society website (www.sbdcv.com.br.

  8. For whom the desert bell tolls: heat stroke or stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bolatkale

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat stroke is the most complicated and dangerous amongst heat injuries that can lead to irreversible injury and even death with itself or with creating predisposibility to different diseases. The following case report depicts a patient who presented primarily with impairment of consciousness after walking 45 km in the summer heat to cross the Syria-Turkey border and later syncope. This case report aims to highlight the possibility of higher co-incidence with heat stroke and stroke.

  9. British Association of Stroke Physicians: benchmarking survey of stroke services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Helen; Dennis, Martin; Cohen, David; Rudd, Anthony

    2003-03-01

    the National Service Framework for Older People requires every general hospital which cares for stroke patients to introduce a specialist stroke service by 2004. to describe the organisation and staffing of specialist hospital-based stroke services in the UK. a national postal survey of consultant members of the British Association of Stroke Physicians (BASP) seeking details of the provision of neurovascular clinics, acute stroke units (ASUs), stroke rehabilitation units (SRUs), and the organisation and staffing of these services. the response rate was 91/126 (72%). Fifty-four neurovascular clinics, 40 ASUs and 68 SRUs were identified. Neurovascular clinics used a number of strategies to maintain rapid access and 30 (56%) were run by a single consultant. Only 50% ASUs usually admitted patients within 24 h of stroke. As the number of beds available on ASUs and SRUs did not reflect the total number of stroke in-patients, 21 (53%) ASUs and 45 (79%) SRUs had admission criteria. Training opportunities were limited: 37% ASUs and 82% SRUs had no specialist registrar. The therapy sessions (1 session=half a day) available per bed per week on a SRU were: physiotherapy 0.8; occupational therapy 0.6; speech and language therapy 0.25. significant development is needed to achieve the NSF target for hospital-based stroke services as few Trusts currently have all components in place and even when available not all stroke patients have access to specialist care. Stroke specialists will be required to run these services but training opportunities are currently limited. Stroke unit therapy staffing levels were lower than was available in randomised controlled trials.

  10. Structure of the vitreoretinal border region in spontaneously diabetic BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, S

    1993-01-01

    The morphology of the vitreoretinal border region, also termed the inner limiting membrane, was examined in spontaneously diabetic rats (BB rats), in non-diabetes-prone rats (WB rats) and in Buffalo rats (BUF rats) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM......). This was performed in order to visualize a possible increase in thickness of the lamina densa or in the whole vitreoretinal border region complex with duration of diabetes. The median thickness of the lamina densa in the three groups varied between 34 and 68 nm. In BB rats the thickness decreased with age...... and duration of diabetes. In WB rats the lamina densa thickened up to the 9th month and then decreased to the level of the young rats. In BUF rats the lamina densa decreased in thickness with age. The median thickness of the whole vitreoretinal border region varied between: BB rats: 84 and 126 nm (SEM) and 68...

  11. Molecular markers and mechanisms of stroke: RNA studies of blood in animals and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Frank R; Jickling, Glen C; Stamova, Boryana; Tian, Yingfang; Zhan, Xinhua; Liu, DaZhi; Kuczynski, Beth; Cox, Christopher D; Ander, Bradley P

    2011-01-01

    Whole genome expression microarrays can be used to study gene expression in blood, which comes in part from leukocytes, immature platelets, and red blood cells. Since these cells are important in the pathogenesis of stroke, RNA provides an index of these cellular responses to stroke. Our studies in rats have shown specific gene expression changes 24 hours after ischemic stroke, hemorrhage, status epilepticus, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, global ischemia, and following brief focal ischemia that simulated transient ischemic attacks in humans. Human studies show gene expression changes following ischemic stroke. These gene profiles predict a second cohort with >90% sensitivity and specificity. Gene profiles for ischemic stroke caused by large-vessel atherosclerosis and cardioembolism have been described that predict a second cohort with >85% sensitivity and specificity. Atherosclerotic genes were associated with clotting, platelets, and monocytes, and cardioembolic genes were associated with inflammation, infection, and neutrophils. These gene profiles predicted the cause of stroke in 58% of cryptogenic patients. These studies will provide diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic markers, and will advance our understanding of stroke in humans. New techniques to measure all coding and noncoding RNAs along with alternatively spliced transcripts will markedly advance molecular studies of human stroke. PMID:21505474

  12. Hemichorea after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadullah Saglam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of the balance between direct and indirect ways in the basal ganglia causes chorea. The lesions of contralateral basal ganglia, thalamus or the connection of them all together are responsible for this. Chorea can be observed during the course of metabolic and vascular diseases, neurodegenerative or hereditary diseases. Hyperkinetic movement disorders after acute ischemic stroke are reported as rare; however, hemichorea is the most frequent developing disorder of hyperkinetic movement as a result of cerebrovascular disease. In this case report, we presented two case who applied us with choreiform movements in his left half of the body after acute thalamic stroke. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(0.100: 29-32

  13. [Smoking and stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoichiro

    2011-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the brain infarction (lacunar and atherothrombotic brain infarction) and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Not only active smoking but also passive smoking and smokeless tobacco products pose a risk. The risk after smoking cessation for 5-10 years is equal to that faced by a non-smoker. Many patients continue smoking even after an attack of stroke; therefore, support measures to enforce nonsmoking are required in this high-risk population. We offer nonsmoking support using the 5A approach, and assess the nonsmoking stage (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance). We also administer medical therapy for smoking cessation when the patients find it difficult to quit smoking on their own accord. Nicotine dependency needs a follow-up like that required for other risk factors in the primary and secondary prevention of the stroke because smoking is a chronic disease that tends to recur.

  14. Comparison of prone and supine positions in myocardial perfusion SPECT on diaphragmatic attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres Mosalla, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Tissue attenuation effect, especially breast and diaphragm can produce artifactual defects in the myocardial perfusion SPECT. Several ways are suggested to minimize such an effect. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effect of supine and prone position on the anterior and inferior left ventricular walls during myocardial perfusion SPECT. 48 patients, 30 men and 18 women, with age of 42-73 years without typical chest pain, <15% probability of coronary artery disease, significant abdominal fat pad, and hypo activity of the inferior wall in supine position were selected. SPECT was repeated in the prone position. 22(73%) male patients and 8(44%) of female patients showed more activity of the anterior wall in the prone position (p<0.01). The anterior wall became hypoactive in 7(23%) of male patients (p<0.01) in the prone position. The anterior wall showed lesser activity in the supine position in 6(33%) of female patients (p<0.01). Although breast attenuation is more common in female, diaphragmatic attenuation can also be troublesome. In these selected women prone position minimized both effects. Prone position in the male patients decreases the attenuation effect of diaphragm significantly but may cause false defect in the anterior wall. Myocardial perfusion SPECT is preferred to be performed in prone position in both sexes, however possibility of anterior wall false defect should be considered

  15. Body Investment, Depression, and Alcohol Use as Risk Factors for Suicide Proneness in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Ellis, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among three risk factors – body investment, depression, and alcohol use – and suicide proneness as measured by the Life Attitudes Schedule – Short Form (LAS-SF) in college students (n = 318). Path analysis was used to construct a causal model of suicide proneness. The Body Investment Scale (BIS) subscales were assumed to be causally prior to depression, which was in turn modeled as occurring prior to alcohol use, which was in turn modeled as prior to suicide proneness. Results revealed that, as expected suicide proneness was positively predicted by alcohol use, alcohol use was positively predicted by depression, and depression was negatively predicted by the body image component of the BIS. Additionally, the body image-suicide proneness link was significantly mediated by depression and its direct effect on suicide proneness as well as by the two-mediator path of body image on depression on drinking on suicide proneness. Implications are offered for the improved identification and treatment of young adults at risk for suicidal and health-diminishing behaviors. PMID:20573605

  16. Comparison of supine and prone craniospinal irradiation in children with medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jonathan; Mazloom, Ali; Teh, Bin S; South, Michael; Butler, E Brian; Paulino, Arnold C

    2015-01-01

    To compare port film rejection and treatment outcome according to craniospinal irradiation (CSI) position for medulloblastoma. We retrospectively searched for patients ≤19 years treated with CSI for medulloblastoma at 1 department. We collected the following data: age; sex; risk group; need for general anesthesia; radiation therapy (RT) dose and fractionation; and the acceptance or rejection of weekly port films during treatment. We also collected data on outcomes, including neuraxis recurrence and possible complications such as myelitis. Of 46 children identified, 23 were treated prone (median age, 8.1 years) and 23 supine (median age, 7.2 years). High-risk disease was seen in 26% of prone and 35% of supine patients (P = .25). There was no difference in use of general anesthesia between those treated prone versus supine (57% vs 61%). The rejection rate of cranial port films in the prone position was 35%, which was significantly higher than the rate of 8% in patients treated supine (P < .0001). The 5-year progression-free (P = .37) and overall survival (P = .18) rates were 62% and 67% for prone and 76% and 84% for supine patients. There were no isolated junctional failures or radiation myelitis in either CSI position. The supine position for CSI was found to have similar survival outcomes compared with the prone position. A higher proportion of rejected cranial port films was seen in children treated in the prone position. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impairment in flexible emotion-based learning in hallucination- and delusion-prone individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Matteo; Dymond, Simon; Cooper, Andrew

    2009-11-30

    Deficits in emotion-based learning are implicated in many psychiatric disorders. Research conducted with patients with schizophrenia using one of the most popular tasks for the investigation of emotion-based learning, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), has largely been inconclusive. The present study employed a novel, contingency-shifting variant IGT with hallucination- and delusion-prone university students to determine whether previous findings were due merely to the presence of psychosis. Following initial screening of a sample of 253 students (mean age = 20.13 years, S.D. = 3.27), 28 high (10 male, 18 female) and 27 low (12 male, 15 female) hallucination-prone and 27 high (7 male, 20 female) and 26 low (11 male, 15 female) delusion-prone individuals completed the contingency-shifting variant IGT. Results showed no significant differences between the performances of high and low hallucination- and delusion-prone individuals during the original phase of the task. Differences only emerged following the onset of the contingency-shift phases, with individuals high in hallucination- and delusion-proneness having impaired performance compared with low hallucination- and delusion-prone individuals. Overall, the present findings demonstrate that impairments associated with hallucination- and delusion-proneness are specific to the shift phase of the contingency-shifting variant IGT, which supports previous findings with patients with schizophrenia.

  18. Detrusor Hyperreflexia in Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    AYBEK, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    In this study detrusor hyperreflexia was investigated by urodynamic study during the acute phase of stroke in patients who became incontinent after a cerebrovascular accident. Urodynamic studies reveal physiopathological findings of incontinence while the acute period of cerebrovascular accident do not cover neurogenic bladder features. In our study it was observed that most of the patients (60%) had normal bladder functions and detrusor hyperreflexia was a rare rindings. This res...

  19. Stroke Management: Nursing Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Esmaeili

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The subacute and long-term assessment and management of patients who have suffered a stroke includes physical therapy and testing to determine the precise etiology of the event so as to prevent recurrence. The acute management differs. Immediate goals include minimizing brain injury, treating medical complications, and moving toward uncovering the pathophysiologic basis of the patient's symptoms. Methods: This is a review paper that report up to date finding with review some...

  20. Genetic heterogenicity in the major histocompatibility complex of various BB rat sublines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Dyrberg, T.; Kastern, W.

    1986-01-01

    Fragments of cloned rat class I transplantation antigen genes were used to define the polymorphism detected between two lines of closely related BB rats. One line, BB-Hagedorn (BB/H), is prone to diabetes, and the other (BB control) is resistant. A cDNA probe representing part of the second extra...

  1. Early rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Julie; Godecke, Erin; Johnson, Liam; Langhorne, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Early rehabilitation is recommended in many guidelines, with limited evidence to guide practice. Brain neurobiology suggests that early training, at the right dose, will aid recovery. In this review, we highlight recent trials of early mobilization, aphasia, dysphagia and upper limb treatment in which intervention is commenced within 7 days of stroke and discuss future research directions. Trials in this early time window are few. Although the seminal AVERT trial suggests that a cautious approach is necessary immediately (stroke, early mobility training and mobilization appear well tolerated, with few reasons to delay initiating some rehabilitation within the first week. The results of large clinical trials of early aphasia therapy are on the horizon, and examples of targeted upper limb treatments with better patient selection are emerging. Early rehabilitation trials are complex, particularly those that intervene across acute and rehabilitation care settings, but these trials are important if we are to optimize recovery potential in the critical window for repair. Concerted efforts to standardize 'early' recruitment, appropriately stratify participants and implement longer term follow-up is needed. Trial standards are improving. New recommendations from a recent Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable will help drive new research.

  2. Individual Differences in Emotion Regulation, Childhood Trauma and Proneness to Shame and Guilt in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora; Miu, Andrei C

    2016-01-01

    Dispositional shame and guilt have been associated with psychopathology and an increasing number of studies have traced this relation back to adolescence. This developmental period is thought to be characterized by maturational changes in emotion regulation, which also play an important role in vulnerability to psychopathology, but little is known about the links between emotion regulation and dispositional shame and guilt. The current study investigated the relations between individual differences in the habitual use of a wide range of emotion regulation strategies and proneness to shame and guilt in a large sample of adolescents (N = 706), aged 13 to 17 years. History of childhood trauma was also assessed. Our results showed that emotion regulation independently explained about 20% of the variance of shame-proneness and guilt-proneness. Higher use of maladaptive (e.g., Self-Blaming, Catastrophizing) and lower use of adaptive (e.g., Refocus on Planning, Positive Reappraisal) emotion regulation strategies were positively associated with shame-proneness. In contrast, lower use of maladaptive (e.g., Catastrophizing, Blaming Others) and higher use of adaptive (e.g., Refocus on Planning, Positive Reappraisal) emotion regulation strategies were associated with guilt-proneness, independent of the influence of childhood trauma, which also explained a relatively minor portion of guilt-proneness. Although there were age differences (i.e., rumination was used more by older adolescents) and sex differences (i.e., girls reported higher use of Putting into Perspective and lower use of Other Blaming compared to boys) in emotion regulation, age and sex were not significantly associated with proneness to shame and guilt. The positive relations with maladaptive emotion regulation underscore the dysfunctional nature of shame-proneness. Future studies could use longitudinal measures to establish that emotion regulation drives dispositional shame and guilt, and also investigate

  3. Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms and risk factors with otitis media proneness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljanović, Olivera; Cikota-Aleksić, Bojana; Likić, Dragan; Vojvodić, Danilo; Jovićević, Ognjen; Magić, Zvonko

    2016-06-01

    In order to assess the association between gene polymorphisms and otitis media (OM) proneness, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) -308, interleukin (IL) 10-1082 and -3575, IL6 -597, IL2 -330, and CD14 -159 genotyping was performed in 58 OM-prone children and 85 controls who were exposed to similar number and frequency of environmental and host risk factors. The frequencies of genotypes (wild type vs. genotypes containing at least one polymorphic allele) were not significantly different between groups, except for IL10 -1082. Polymorphic genotypes IL10 -1082 GA and GG were more frequent in OM-prone children than in control group (RR 1.145, 95 % CI 1.011-1.298; p = 0.047). However, logistic regression did not confirm IL10 -1082 polymorphic genotypes as an independent risk factor for OM proneness. The present study indicates that high-producing IL10 -1082 GA/GG genotypes may increase the risk for OM proneness in its carriers when exposed to other environmental/host risk factors (day care attendance, passive smoking, male sex, respiratory infections, and atopic manifestations). This study revealed no significant independent genetic association, but the lack of breastfeeding in infancy was found to be the only independent risk factor for development of OM-prone phenotype, implying that breastfeeding had a protective role in development of susceptibility to OM. • The pathogenesis of OM is of multifactorial nature, dependent on infection, environmental factors, and immune response of the child. • Cytokines and CD14 play an important role in the presentation and clinical course of otitis media, but a clear link with otitis media proneness was not established. What is new: • This is the first clinical and genetic study on Montenegrin children with the otitis media-prone phenotype. • The study revealed that high-producing IL10 -1082 genotypes may influence otitis media proneness in children exposed to other environmental/host risk factors.

  4. Stress-Induced Stroke and Stomach Cancer: Sex Differences in Oxygen Saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanova, Maria; Gekalyuk, Artem; Agranovich, Ilana; Khorovodov, Alexander; Rezunbaeva, Victoria; Borisova, Ekaterina; Sharif, Aly Esmat; Navolokin, Nikita; Shuvalova, Ekaterina; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress-related diseases such as stroke and stomach cancer are well established, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unknown. Despite the fact that sexual hormones play an important role in the high resistance of females to harmful effects of stress compared with males, the regulation of oxygenation status can be a potential factor, which might explain sex differences in stress-induced cerebrovascular catastrophes in newborn rats and in mutagens activation in adult rats with stomach cancer.

  5. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation...... to the risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  6. Acute Stroke Imaging Research Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.

    2008-01-01

    The recent “Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment” meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), industry representatives, and members of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the role of advanced n...

  7. Problematising risk in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Mary Y; Kessler, Dorothy; Ceci, Christine; Laliberté-Rudman, Debbie; McGrath, Colleen; Sikora, Lindsey; Gardner, Paula

    2016-11-01

    Following stroke, re-engagement in personally valued activities requires some experience of risk. Risk, therefore, must be seen as having positive as well as negative aspects in rehabilitation. Our aim was to identify the dominant understanding of risk in stroke rehabilitation and the assumptions underpinning these understandings, determine how these understandings affect research and practise, and if necessary, propose alternate ways to conceptualise risk in research and practise. Alvesson and Sandberg's method of problematisation was used. We began with a historical overview of stroke rehabilitation, and proceeded through five steps undertaken in an iterative fashion: literature search and selection; data extraction; syntheses across texts; identification of assumptions informing the literature and; generation of alternatives. Discussion of risk in stroke rehabilitation is largely implicit. However, two prominent conceptualisations of risk underpin both knowledge development and clinical practise: the risk to the individual stroke survivor of remaining dependent in activities of daily living and the risk that the health care system will be overwhelmed by the costs of providing stroke rehabilitation. Conceptualisation of risk in stroke rehabilitation, while implicit, drives both research and practise in ways that reinforce a focus on impairment and a generic, decontextualised approach to rehabilitation. Implications for rehabilitation Much of stroke rehabilitation practise and research seems to centre implicitly on two risks: risk to the patient of remaining dependent in ADL and risk to the health care system of bankruptcy due to the provision of stroke rehabilitation. The implicit focus on ADL dependence limits the ability of clinicians and researchers to address other goals supportive of a good life following stroke. The implicit focus on financial risk to the health care system may limit access to rehabilitation for people who have experienced either milder or

  8. Arousal from sleep pathways are affected by the prone sleeping position and preterm birth: preterm birth, prone sleeping and arousal from sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Heidi L; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2013-09-01

    Preterm infants exhibit depressed arousability from sleep when compared with term infants. As the final cortical element of the arousal process may be the most critical for survival, we hypothesized that the increased vulnerability of preterm infants to the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) could be explained by depressed cortical arousal (CA) responses. We evaluated the effects of preterm birth on stimulus-induced arousal processes in both the prone and supine sleeping positions. 10 healthy preterm infants were studied with daytime polysomnography, in both supine and prone sleeping positions, at 36 weeks gestational age, 2-4 weeks, 2-3 months and 5-6 months post-term corrected age. Sub-cortical activations and cortical arousals (CA) were expressed as proportions of total arousal responses. Preterm data were compared with data from 13 healthy term infants studied at the same corrected ages. In preterm infants increased CAs were observed in the prone position at all ages studied. Compared to term infants, preterm infants had significantly fewer CAs in QS when prone at 2-3 months of age and more CAs when prone at 2-4 weeks in AS. There were no differences in either sleep state when infants slept supine. Prone sleeping promoted CA responses in healthy preterm infants throughout the first six months of post-term age. We have previously suggested that in term infants enhanced CA represents a critical protection against a potentially harmful situation; we speculate that for preterm-born infants the need for this protection is greater than in term infants. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Guide to Choosing Stroke Rehabilitation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Stroke Association’s Guide to Choosing Stroke Rehabilitation Services Rehabilitation, often referred to as rehab, is an important part of stroke recovery. Through rehab, you:  Re-learn basic skills such ...

  10. What You Need to Know about Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain. The other kind of stroke, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused by a blood vessel that breaks ... are very common among African Americans. The best treatment for stroke is prevention. You can reduce your ...

  11. Epidermoid Causing Ischemic Stroke in the Brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra Ramdasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial tumors may rarely cause stroke. We report an epidermoid cyst causing stroke in a pediatric patient. We have also reviewed the literature and pathogenesis of stroke caused by intracranial tumors.

  12. What Are the Warning Signs of Stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cardiovascular Conditions What Are the Warning Signs of Stroke? Brain tissue affected by blockage Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in ... over 55 years old have more chance of stroke, and the risk gets greater as you get ...

  13. Microglial Cells Prevent Hemorrhage in Neonatal Focal Arterial Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, David; Faustino, Joel; Klibanov, Alexander L; Derugin, Nikita; Blanchard, Elodie; Simon, Franziska; Leib, Stephen L; Vexler, Zinaida S

    2016-03-09

    Perinatal stroke leads to significant morbidity and long-term neurological and cognitive deficits. The pathophysiological mechanisms of brain damage depend on brain maturation at the time of stroke. To understand whether microglial cells limit injury after neonatal stroke by preserving neurovascular integrity, we subjected postnatal day 7 (P7) rats depleted of microglial cells, rats with inhibited microglial TGFbr2/ALK5 signaling, and corresponding controls, to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Microglial depletion by intracerebral injection of liposome-encapsulated clodronate at P5 significantly reduced vessel coverage and triggered hemorrhages in injured regions 24 h after tMCAO. Lack of microglia did not alter expression or intracellular redistribution of several tight junction proteins, did not affect degradation of collagen IV induced by the tMCAO, but altered cell types producing TGFβ1 and the phosphorylation and intracellular distribution of SMAD2/3. Selective inhibition of TGFbr2/ALK5 signaling in microglia via intracerebral liposome-encapsulated SB-431542 delivery triggered hemorrhages after tMCAO, demonstrating that TGFβ1/TGFbr2/ALK5 signaling in microglia protects from hemorrhages. Consistent with observations in neonatal rats, depletion of microglia before tMCAO in P9 Cx3cr1(GFP/+)/Ccr2(RFP/+) mice exacerbated injury and induced hemorrhages at 24 h. The effects were independent of infiltration of Ccr2(RFP/+) monocytes into injured regions. Cumulatively, in two species, we show that microglial cells protect neonatal brain from hemorrhage after acute ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362881-13$15.00/0.

  14. Burden of stroke in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Keat Wei; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-08-01

    In Cambodia, stroke is not ranked among the top 10 leading causes of death, but infectious disease are among the top three leading causes of death. This finding could be attributed to a lack of awareness among Cambodians of the signs and symptoms of stroke or to poor reporting, incomplete data, lack of neurologists and neurosurgeons, or low accessibility to the hospitals. The only study of stroke in Cambodia is the Prevalence of Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors in Cambodia survey, which identified several stroke-related risk factors in the population. Tobacco chewing or smoking is the main risk factor for stroke in Cambodia. Traditional therapies, such as oyt pleung (moxibustion) and jup (cupping), are widely practiced for stroke rehabilitation. In Cambodia, there are few neurologists and few important equipment, such as magnetic resonance imaging machines and computed tomography scanners. The Cambodian government should cooperate with the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund to attract foreign expertise and technologies to treat stroke patients. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  15. Infections and Ischemic Stroke Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Grabska, Katarzyna; Gromadzka, Grażyna; Członkowska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Background. Infections increase the risk of ischemic stroke (IS) and may worsen IS prognosis. Adverse effects of in-hospital infections on stroke outcome were also reported. We aimed to study the prevalence of pre- and poststroke infections and their impact on IS outcome. Methods. We analysed clinical data of 2066 IS patients to assess the effect of pre-stroke and post-stroke infections on IS severity, as well as short-term (up to 30 days) and long-term (90 days) outcome. The independent i...

  16. Ferric Carboxymaltose-Mediated Attenuation of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in an Iron Deficiency Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Toblli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC, a complication of anthracycline-based chemotherapies, is thought to involve iron, concerns exist about using iron for anaemia treatment in anthracycline-receiving cancer patients. This study evaluated how intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM modulates the influence of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA and doxorubicin (3–5 mg per kg body weight [BW] on oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cardiorenal function in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHR-SP rats. FCM was given as repeated small or single total dose (15 mg iron per kg BW, either concurrent with or three days after doxorubicin. IDA (after dietary iron restriction induced cardiac and renal oxidative stress (markers included malondialdehyde, catalase, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, nitrosative stress (inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine, inflammation (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, and functional/morphological abnormalities (left ventricle end-diastolic and end-systolic diameter, fractional shortening, density of cardiomyocytes and capillaries, caveolin-1 expression, creatinine clearance, and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin that were aggravated by doxorubicin. Notably, iron treatment with FCM did not exacerbate but attenuated the cardiorenal effects of IDA and doxorubicin independent of the iron dosing regimen. The results of this model suggest that intravenous FCM can be used concomitantly with an anthracycline-based chemotherapy without increasing signs of AIC.

  17. Stroke scale score and early prediction of outcome after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.; Zuberi, F.Z.; Afsar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score as a predictor of functional outcome after ischemic stroke. Subjects and Methods: The study included 50 patients who presented to Civil Hospital, Karachi, during the study period with acute stroke and were evaluated with CT scan of brain. Only those patients were enrolled in the study that had acute ischemic stroke. The enrolled subjects were then evaluated for the neurological impairment using National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The subjects were followed-up and their functional outcome was assessed using Barthel index (BI) on the 7th day of their admission. Results: Of the fifty patients enrolled in the study, 31 (62%) were males and 19 (38%) were females, with age ranging from 45 years to 95 years and a mean age of 59.9 years. Neurological impairment at presentation was assessed by NIHSS. The score ranged between 2 and 28. The functional outcome was evaluated on the 7th day using Barthel index (BI), which ranged from 0 to 80. NIHSS score was found to be a good predictor of functional outcome in patients with ischemic stroke (p<0.001). Other factors like gender, hypertension and heart disease did not affect the functional recovery in such patients. Various factors were found to be significant for early prediction of stroke recovery. The NIHSS score was the strongest predictor of outcome after ischemic stroke. Age at the time of the event was also found to be an important predictor for stroke recovery. Conclusion: The NIHSS score is a good predictor of patient's recovery after stroke. Assessing the patient's neurological impairment at first presentation of ischemic stroke can guide the physician regarding the prognosis and management plan. (author)

  18. Identification of stroke mimics among clinically diagnosed acute strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntiyatorn, Lojana; Saksornchai, Pichaya; Tunlayadechanont, Supoch

    2013-09-01

    Stroke is a clinically syndrome of a sudden onset of neurological deficit in a vascular cause. Stroke mimics is the non-vascular disorders with stroke-like clinical symptoms. It is important to distinguish true stroke from mimics since treatment plan may differ To determine the incidence of the stroke mimics and identify their etiologies. All non-contrast head CT of the patients with clinically diagnosed stroke who immediately received imaging upon arrival at the emergency department of the university hospital were retrospectively reviewed in 12-month period between January 1 and December 31, 2008. Medical records, laboratory results, MRI, and 6-month clinical follow-up records were reviewed for final diagnosis. Seven hundred four patients were included in this study, including 363 (51.5%) men and 341 (48.5%) women with range in age from 24 to 108 years. Amongst those, 417 (59.2%) were ischemic stroke, 80 (11.40%) were hemorrhagic stroke, 186 (26.4%) were stroke-mimics, and 21 (3%) were inconclusive. The etiologies among stroke-mimics were metabolic/intoxication (35, 18.8%), sepsis (28, 15.0%), seizure (21, 11.3%), syncope (20, 10.8%), subdural hemorrhage (14, 7.5%), vertigo (11, 6.0%), brain tumor (10, 5.30%), central nervous system infection (5, 2.7%), others (26, 14.0%), and unspecified (16, 8.6%). Incidence rates and etiologies of the stroke mimics were similar to the western reports. However the frequency of each mimic was not.

  19. Is disgust proneness sensitive to treatment for OCD among youth?: Examination of diagnostic specificity and symptom correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Kelly A; Viar-Paxton, Megan A; Riemann, Bradley C; Jacobi, David M; Olatunji, Bunmi O

    2016-12-01

    Although disgust proneness has been implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there is a paucity of research examining change in disgust proneness during treatment as well as the correlates of such change, especially in children. This study examined the relationship between changes in disgust proneness and disorder-specific symptoms during residential treatment among youth with OCD, anxiety, and mood disorders. Youth ages 12-18 (n=472) completed pre- and post-outcome measures of OCD, anxiety, and mood symptoms and disgust proneness. Results indicate that although disgust proneness decreases during treatment for youth with OCD, anxiety, and mood disorders, youth with primary OCD experienced the greatest decrease in disgust proneness over the course of treatment. Reductions in disgust proneness during treatment were significantly correlated with reductions in multiple symptom measures, with the strongest correlations between reductions in disgust proneness and OCD symptoms. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bile acid detoxifying enzymes limit susceptibility to liver fibrosis in female SHRSP5/Dmcr rats fed with a high-fat-cholesterol diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husna Yetti

    Full Text Available During middle age, women are less susceptible to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH than men. Thus, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these sexual differences using an established rat model of NASH. Mature female and male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats were fed control or high-fat-cholesterol (HFC diets for 2, 8, and 14 weeks. Although HFC-induced hepatic fibrosis was markedly less severe in females than in males, only minor gender differences were observed in expression levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP7A1, CYP8B1 CYP27A1, and CYP7B1, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, and bile salt export pump, which are involved in fibrosis-related bile acid (BA kinetics. However, the BA detoxification-related enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT and sulfotransferase (SULT 2A1, and the nuclear receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR and pregnane X receptor (PXR, were strongly suppressed in HFC-fed males, and were only slightly changed in HFC-diet fed females. Expression levels of the farnesoid X receptor and its small heterodimer partner were similarly regulated in a gender-dependent fashion following HFC feeding. Hence, the pronounced female resistance to HFC-induced liver damage likely reflects sustained expression of the nuclear receptors CAR and PXR and the BA detoxification enzymes UGT and SULT.