WorldWideScience

Sample records for stroke prevention clinic

  1. Preventing stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hemorrhagic Stroke Ischemic Stroke Stroke Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  2. Clinical and Demographic Characteristics Associated With Suboptimal Primary Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Prevention: Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Grace M; Calvert, Melanie; Feltham, Max G; Ryan, Ronan; Finnikin, Samuel; Marshall, Tom

    2018-03-01

    Primary prevention of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) is important to reduce the burden of these conditions; however, prescribing of prevention drugs is suboptimal. We aimed to identify individual clinical and demographic characteristics associated with potential missed opportunities for prevention therapy with lipid-lowering, anticoagulant, or antihypertensive drugs before stroke/TIA. We analyzed anonymized electronic primary care records from a UK primary care database that covers 561 family practices. Patients with first-ever stroke/TIA, ≥18 years, with diagnosis between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013, were included. Missed opportunities for prevention were defined as people with clinical indications for lipid-lowering, anticoagulant, or antihypertensive drugs but not prescribed these drugs before their stroke/TIA. Mixed-effect logistic regression models evaluated the relationship between missed opportunities and individual clinical/demographic characteristics. The inclusion criteria were met by 29 043 people with stroke/TIA. Patients with coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, peripheral arterial disease, or diabetes mellitus were at less risk of a missed opportunity for prescription of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive drugs. However, patients with a 10-year cardiovascular disease risk ≥20% but without these diagnoses had increased risk of having a missed opportunity for prescription of lipid-lowering drugs or antihypertensive drugs. Women were less likely to be prescribed anticoagulants but more likely to be prescribed antihypertensive drugs. The elderly (≥85 years of age) were less likely to be prescribed all 3 prevention drugs, compared with people aged 75 to 79 years. Knowing the patient characteristics predictive of missed opportunities for stroke prevention may help primary care identify and appropriately manage these patients. Improving the management of these groups may reduce their risk and potentially prevent

  3. Prevention Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  4. Clinical neurogenetics: stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Natalia S

    2013-11-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of cerebrovascular disease holds promise of novel stroke prevention strategies and therapeutics that are both safe and effective. Apart from a few single-gene disorders associated with cerebral ischemia or intracerebral hemorrhage, stroke is a complex genetic phenotype that requires careful ascertainment and robust association testing for discovery and validation analyses. The recently uncovered shared genetic contribution between clinically manifest stroke syndromes and closely related intermediate cerebrovascular phenotypes offers effective and efficient approaches to complex trait analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reliability of carotid doppler performed in a dedicated stroke prevention clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, N; Lari, H; Saqqur, M; Amir, N; Khan, K; Mouradian, M; Salam, Abdul; Romanchuk, H; Shuaib, A

    2005-08-01

    Doppler ultrasound (DUS) is used as a screening tool to assess internal carotid artery (ICA) disease. Recent reports suggest that the DUS may be inaccurate in over 28% of patients. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of DUS, when performed in a dedicated stroke prevention clinic (SPC). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients who had a DUS performed in our SPC, followed by conventional cerebral angiography. Three groups of patients were defined. Group 1 had DUS measured ICA stenosis of >50%; Group II had a DUS measured ICA stenosis of 50%--a misclassification rate of 0%. Group III consisted of five patients in whom DUS showed complete ICA occlusion. The angiogram confirmed the occlusion in all five patients--a misclassification rate of 0%. Overall, misclassification rate was 1.45% (95% CI: 0 - 4.3%). Doppler ultrasound when performed in a stroke prevention clinic (SPC), has a high accuracy in measuring ICA stenosis of >50%. Doppler ultrasound is reliable in detecting complete ICA occlusion and finally DUS is a reliable screening tool to rule out clinically significant ICA stenosis.

  6. Stroke prevention: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousser, Marie-Germaine

    2012-03-01

    Stroke is a personal, familial, and social disaster. It is the third cause of death worldwide, the first cause of acquired disability, the second cause of dementia, and its cost is astronomic. The burden of stroke is likely to increase given the aging of the population and the growing incidence of many vascular risk factors. Prevention of stroke includes--as for all other diseases--a "mass approach" aiming at decreasing the risk at the society level and an individual approach, aiming at reducing the risk in a given subject. The mass approach is primarily based on the identification and treatment of vascular risk factors and, if possible, in the implementation of protective factors. These measures are the basis of primary prevention but most of them have now been shown to be also effective in secondary prevention. The individual approach combines a vascular risk factor modification and various treatments addressing the specific subtypes of stroke, such as antiplatelet drugs for the prevention of cerebral infarction in large and small artery diseases of the brain, carotid endarterectomy or stenting for tight carotid artery stenosis, and oral anticoagulants for the prevention of cardiac emboli. There is a growing awareness of the huge evidence-to-practice gap that exists in stroke prevention largely due to socio-economic factors. Recent approaches include low cost intervention packages to reduce blood pressure and cheap "polypills" combining in a single tablet aspirin and several drugs to lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Polypill intake should however not lead to abandon the healthy life-style measures which remain the mainstay of stroke prevention.

  7. Stroke Prevention Trials in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of an International Pediatric Stroke Study launched in 2002, the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP reports a reduction in the number of overt clinical strokes in children with critically high transcranial Doppler velocities (>200 cm/sec who were regularly transfused.

  8. Clinical validation of the nursing outcome falls prevention behavior in people with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Costa, Alice G; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Oliveira Lopes, Marcos V; Oliveira-Kumakura, Ana R de Souza; Chaves Costa, Francisca B

    2017-02-01

    To review the nursing outcome, Fall Prevention Behavior, and clinically validate its indicators in people with stroke. A methodological study performed with 106 patients in two outpatient clinics, from July to September of 2013. Two pairs of trained nurses applied the NOC scale, one with and one without the use of operational definitions. The internal consistency, stability and difference between the medians obtained by nurses were compared within and between pairs. Most participants were men, elderly, with low education and income. Statistically significant differences were noted in twelve indicators. Five indicators had different means that were greater than the least significant difference. The indicators were statistically significant; the internal consistency was similar between the pairs and the intraclass correlation coefficient was more satisfactory in the pair that used the definitions. Thus, the construction of empirical referents and the clinical validation process makes the nursing indicators and outcomes more adequate for specific populations and provides an effective means to better evaluate the nursing actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating clinical effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination in preventing stroke: the CAPAMIS Study, 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Corcoles, Angel; Ochoa-Gondar, Olga; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; de Diego-Cabanes, Cinta; Satue-Gracia, Eva; Vila-Rovira, Angel; Torrente Fraga, Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Cerebrovascular benefits using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) are controversial. This study assessed clinical effectiveness of PPV23 in preventing ischemic stroke in people older than 60 years. We conducted a population-based cohort study involving 27,204 individuals of 60 years or older in Tarragona, Spain, who were prospectively followed from December 01, 2008, until November 30, 2011. Outcomes were neuroimaging-confirmed ischemic stroke, 30-day mortality from stroke, and all-cause death. Pneumococcal vaccination effectiveness was evaluated by Cox regression analyses, estimating hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, and influenza vaccine status. Cohort members were followed for a total of 76,033 person-years, of which 29,065 were for vaccinated subjects. Overall, 343 cases of stroke, 45 deaths from stroke, and 2465 all-cause deaths were observed. Pneumococcal vaccination did not alter the risk of stroke (multivariable HR: 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .83-1.30; P=.752), death from stroke (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: .61-2.13; P=.686), and all-cause death (HR: .97; 95% CI: .89-1.05; P=.448). In analyses focused on people with and without a history of cerebrovascular disease, the PPV23 did not emerge effective in preventing any analyzed event, but influenza vaccine emerged independently associated with a reduced risk of death from stroke (HR: .51; 95% CI: .28-.93; P=.029) and all-cause death (HR: .73; 95% CI: .67-.81; Pvaccine in reducing specific- and all-cause mortality risk in the general population older than 60 years. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dževdet Smajlović Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla, School of Medicine, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract: Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more

  11. The clinical efficacy of dabigatran etexilate for preventing stroke in atrial fibrillation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis CR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Christopher R Ellis, Daniel W KaiserVanderbilt Heart and Vascular Institute, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: The use of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs for stroke and systemic embolism prevention in the setting of specifically non valvular atrial fibrillation has provided clinicians with a realistic treatment alternative to the traditional dose-adjusted, warfarin-based anticoagulation that is targeted to a therapeutic international normalized ratio range of 2.0–3.0. We discuss the use of dabigatran in the setting of mechanical heart valves, atrial fibrillation or left atrial catheter ablation procedures, reversal of the drug in the setting of adverse bleeding events, and background on the molecular biology and development of this novel treatment for stroke reduction.Keywords: NOACs, systemic embolism, atrial fibrillation, stroke, dabigatran etexilate

  12. Calcium-channel blockers for the prevention of stroke: from scientific evidences to the clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Taddei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF THE REVIEW The present review aims to analyze the role of calcium-channel blockers, and particularly newer molecules, as first-line therapy for cerebrovascular disease. BACKGROUND Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the general population. Among traditional cardiovascular risk factors, hypertension has a key role in the genesis of both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke and a direct correlation exists between blood pressure values and the risk of stroke. Moreover, blood pressure reduction has been demonstrated to be the most important route to reduce stroke incidence and recurrence. However, the mere reduction of blood pressure values does not normalize the cardiovascular risk of the hypertensive patient. It is therefore necessary to use drug classes that beyond their blood pressure-lowering effect have also an additional effect in terms of organ protection. Among these, calcium-channel blockers have a crucial profile. Firstly, they are effective in inducing left ventricular hypertrophy regression, with a strength at least equal to that of ACE-inhibitors. Secondly, they have an antithrombotic and an endothelium-protecting effect, mediated by their antioxidant activity. Finally, calcium-channel blockers are the most powerful drugs in preventing vascular remodeling. For these reasons this drug class has probably the strongest antiatherosclerotic effect, and it is the first-choice treatment mainly for cerebrovascular disease. Among different available calcium-channel blockers, the newer ones seem to possess pharmacokinetic characteristics allowing a more homogeneous 24 hours coverage as compared to older molecules, and preliminary data seem to suggest a greater beneficial effect also on left ventricular hypertrophy and lower incidence of side effects. CONCLUSIONS Although blood pressure reduction is the main tool to reduce cerebrovascular risk in hypertensive patients, some drug classes, such as calciumchannel blockers, seem to provide

  13. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Legge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  14. Preventing Stroke Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... die within minutes. Strokes happen more in some populations and geographic areas. Stroke death declines have stalled in 3 out of every 4 states. Blacks have the highest stroke death rates among all ...

  15. Blood Pressure Control: Stroke and Stroke Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christoph Diener

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for primary and secondary stroke prevention.All antihypertensive drugs are effective in primary prevention: the risk reduction for stroke is 30—42%. However, not all classes of drugs have the same effects: there is some indication that angiotensin receptor blockers may be superior to other classes of antihypertensive drugs in stroke prevention.Seventy-five percent of patients who present to hospital with acute stroke have elevated blood pressure within the first 24—48 hours. Extremes of systolic blood pressure (SBP increase the risk of death or dependency. The aim of treatment should be to achieve and maintain the SBP in the range 140—160 mmHg. However, fast and drastic blood pressure lowering can have adverse consequences.The PROGRESS trial of secondary prevention with perindopril + indapamide versus placebo + placebo showed a decrease in numbers of stroke recurrences in patients given both active antihypertensive agents, more impressive for cerebral haemorrhage.There were also indications that active treatment might decrease the development of post-stroke dementia.

  16. Patent Foramen Ovale Closure for Secondary Prevention of Cryptogenic Stroke: Updated Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Qamar, Arman; Gupta, Ankur; Bajaj, Navkaranbir; Golwala, Harsh B; Pandey, Ambarish; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2017-12-08

    Patent foramen ovale closure represents a potential secondary prevention strategy for cryptogenic stroke, but available trials have varied by size, device studied, and follow-up. We conducted a systematic search of published randomized clinical trials evaluating patent foramen ovale closure versus medical therapy in patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack using PubMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane through September 2017. Weighting was by random effects models. Of 480 studies screened, we included 5 randomized clinical trials in the meta-analysis in which 3440 patients were randomized to patent foramen ovale closure (n = 1829) or medical therapy (n = 1611) and followed for an average of 2.0 to 5.9 years. Index stroke/transient ischemic attack occurred within 6 to 9 months of randomization. The primary end point was composite stroke/transient ischemic attack and death (in 3 trials) or stroke alone (in 2 trials). Patent foramen ovale closure reduced the primary end point (0.70 vs 1.48 events per 100 patient-years; risk ratio [RR], 0.52 [0.29-0.91]; I 2  = 55.0%) and stroke/transient ischemic attack (1.04 vs 2.00 events per 100 patient-years; RR, 0.55 [0.37-0.82]; I 2  = 42.2%) with modest heterogeneity compared with medical therapy. Procedural bleeding was not different between study arms (1.8% vs 1.8%; RR, 0.94 [0.49-1.83]; I 2  = 29.2%), but new-onset atrial fibrillation/flutter was increased with patent foramen ovale closure (6.6% vs 0.7%; RR, 4.69 [2.17-10.12]; I 2  = 29.3%). In patients with recent cryptogenic stroke, patent foramen ovale closure reduces recurrent stroke/transient ischemic attack compared with medical therapy, but is associated with a higher risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation/flutter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS): a pragmatic randomised open-label masked endpoint clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, W.F.; Vermeij, J.D.; Zock, E.; Hooijenga, I.J.; Kruyt, N.D.; Bosboom, H.J.; Kwa, V.I.; Weisfelt, M.; Remmers, M.J.; Houten, R. ten; Schreuder, A.H.; Vermeer, S.E.; Dijk, E.J. van; Dippel, D.W.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Spanjaard, L.; Vermeulen, M; Poll, T. van der; Prins, J.M.; Vermeij, F.H.; Roos, Y.B.; Kleyweg, R.P.; Kerkhoff, H.; Brouwer, M.C.T.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Beek, D. van de; Nederkoorn, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adults with acute stroke, infections occur commonly and are associated with an unfavourable functional outcome. In the Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS) we aimed to establish whether or not preventive antimicrobial therapy with a third-generation cephalosporin,

  18. The Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS) : a pragmatic randomised open-label masked endpoint clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Willeke F.; Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Zock, Elles; Hooijenga, Imke J.; Kruyt, Nyika D.; Bosboom, Hans J. L. W.; Kwa, Vincent I. H.; Weisfelt, Martijn; Remmers, Michel J. M.; ten Houten, Robert; Schreuder, A. H. C. M. (Tobien); Vermeer, Sarah E.; van Dijk, Ewout J.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Vermeulen, Marinus; van der Poll, Tom; Prins, Jan M.; Vermeij, Frederique H.; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; Kleyweg, Ruud P.; Kerkhoff, Henk; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Algra, Ale|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07483472X

    2015-01-01

    Background In adults with acute stroke, infections occur commonly and are associated with an unfavourable functional outcome. In the Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS) we aimed to establish whether or not preventive antimicrobial therapy with a third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone,

  19. Primary prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease in the community (PREVENTS): Methodology of a health wellness coaching intervention to reduce stroke and cardiovascular disease risk, a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Susan; Krishnamurthi, Rita; Vandal, Alain; Witt, Emma; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Parmar, Priya; Theadom, Alice; Barber, Alan; Arroll, Bruce; Rush, Elaine; Elder, Hinemoa; Dyer, Jesse; Feigin, Valery

    2018-02-01

    Rationale Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, yet 80% of strokes can be prevented through modifications of risk factors and lifestyle and by medication. While management strategies for primary stroke prevention in high cardiovascular disease risk individuals are well established, they are underutilized and existing practice of primary stroke prevention are inadequate. Behavioral interventions are emerging as highly promising strategies to improve cardiovascular disease risk factor management. Health Wellness Coaching is an innovative, patient-focused and cost-effective, multidimensional psychological intervention designed to motivate participants to adhere to recommended medication and lifestyle changes and has been shown to improve health and enhance well-being. Aims and/or hypothesis To determine the effectiveness of Health Wellness Coaching for primary stroke prevention in an ethnically diverse sample including Māori, Pacific Island, New Zealand European and Asian participants. Design A parallel, prospective, randomized, open-treatment, single-blinded end-point trial. Participants include 320 adults with absolute five-year cardiovascular disease risk ≥ 10%, calculated using the PREDICT web-based clinical tool. Randomization will be to Health Wellness Coaching or usual care groups. Participants randomized to Health Wellness Coaching will receive 15 coaching sessions over nine months. Study outcomes A substantial relative risk reduction of five-year cardiovascular disease risk at nine months post-randomization, which is defined as 10% relative risk reduction among those at moderate five-year cardiovascular disease risk (10-15%) and 25% among those at high risk (>15%). Discussion This clinical trial will determine whether Health Wellness Coaching is an effective intervention for reducing modifiable risk factors, and hence decrease the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease.

  20. The "DOC" screen: Feasible and valid screening for depression, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and cognitive impairment in stroke prevention clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Richard H; Cayley, Megan L; Lanctôt, Krista L; Murray, Brian J; Cohen, Ashley; Thorpe, Kevin E; Sicard, Michelle N; Lien, Karen; Sahlas, Demetrios J; Herrmann, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Cognitive impairment ("DOC") are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool ("DOC" screen) to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment. All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines. 1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes), less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index), had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens. Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may facilitate improved identification and treatment

  1. The "DOC" screen: Feasible and valid screening for depression, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA and cognitive impairment in stroke prevention clinics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H Swartz

    Full Text Available Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and Cognitive impairment ("DOC" are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool ("DOC" screen to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment.All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines.1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes, less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA. 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index, had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens.Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may facilitate improved identification and

  2. [Secondary prevention of ischemic non cardioembolic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Pedro; Pinto, Xavier; Soler, Cristina; Cardona, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Stroke patients are at high risk for recurrence or new occurrence of other cardiovascular events or cardiovascular mortality. It is estimated that a high percentage of non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke can be prevented by a suitable modification of lifestyle (diet and exercise), reducing blood pressure (BP) with antihypertensive medication, platelet aggregation inhibitors, statins and high intake reducing consumption of. Unfortunately the degree of control of the different risk factors in secondary prevention of stroke is low. The clinical practice guidelines show clear recommendations with corresponding levels of evidence, but only if implemented in a general way they will get a better primary and secondary stroke prevention. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel nonpharmacologic approaches for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: results from clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Riccardo; Joza, Jacqueline; Arensi, Andrea; Levi, Michael; Russo, Vincenzo; Tzikas, Apostolos; Danna, Paolo; Sagone, Antonio; Viecca, Maurizio; Essebag, Vidal

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, confers a 5-fold risk of stroke that increases to 17-fold when associated with mitral stenosis. At this time, the most effective long-term solution to protect patients from stroke and thromboembolism is oral anticoagulation, either with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC). Despite the significant benefits they confer, both VKAs and NOACs are underused because of their increased potential for bleeding, and VKAs are underused because of their narrow therapeutic range, need for regular international normalized ratio checks, and interactions with food or medications. In patients with nonvalvular AF, approximately 90% of strokes originate from the left atrial appendage (LAA); in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease, many patients (60%) have strokes that originate from the left atrium itself. Surgical LAA amputation or closure, although widely used to reduce stroke risk in association with cardiac surgery, is not currently performed as a stand-alone operation for stroke risk reduction because of its invasiveness. Percutaneous LAA closure, as an alternative to anticoagulation, has been increasingly used during the last decade in an effort to reduce stroke risk in nonvalvular AF. Several devices have been introduced during this time, of which one has demonstrated noninferiority compared with warfarin in a randomized controlled trial. This review describes the available technologies for percutaneous LAA closure, as well as a summary of the published trials concerning their safety and efficacy in reducing stroke risk in AF.

  4. Clinical trials with direct oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: how representative are they for real life patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmaele, S; Steurbaut, S; Cornu, P; Brouns, R; Dupont, A G

    2016-09-01

    To identify the proportion of real-life patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) eligible for direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) therapy, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria used in the clinical studies and based on the officially approved indications as mentioned in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC). Data for this retrospective cross-sectional study was extracted from the UZ Brussel Stroke Registry, containing anonymized data of 2205 patients with a suspected stroke. Characteristics of patients with documented AF were compared with the patient characteristics in clinical trials and the approved indications in the SmPC. Data of 468 patients with AF was analyzed. Based on the selection criteria of the clinical trials, significantly less patients were eligible for treatment with rivaroxaban compared to dabigatran etexilate (39.3 versus 47.6 %; p = 0.010), but not compared to apixaban (45.5 %; p = 0.055). Based on the indications and contraindications in the SmPC, significantly fewer patients were eligible for apixaban compared to dabigatran etexilate and rivaroxaban (62.0 % for apixaban, 72.9 % for dabigatran etexilate, and 75.6 % for rivaroxaban; p trials (72.9 versus 47.6 %; p trials with DOACs for stroke prevention in AF, less than half of real-life patients are eligible for therapy with one of the DOACs. However, the indications mentioned in the SmPCs of these drugs are less strict.

  5. Novel nonpharmacologic approaches for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: results from clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proietti R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Riccardo Proietti,1,2 Jacqueline Joza,1 Andrea Arensi,2 Michael Levi,1 Vincenzo Russo,3 Apostolos Tzikas,4 Paolo Danna,2 Antonio Sagone,2 Maurizio Viecca,2 Vidal Essebag1,5 1McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Cardiology Department, Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milano, Italy; 3Cardiology Department, Second University of Naples, Monaldi Hospital, Naples, Italy; 4Interbalkan European Medical Centre, Thessaloniki, Greece; 5Hôpital Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF, the most common cardiac arrhythmia, confers a 5-fold risk of stroke that increases to 17-fold when associated with mitral stenosis. At this time, the most effective long-term solution to protect patients from stroke and thromboembolism is oral anticoagulation, either with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs or a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC. Despite the significant benefits they confer, both VKAs and NOACs are underused because of their increased potential for bleeding, and VKAs are underused because of their narrow therapeutic range, need for regular international normalized ratio checks, and interactions with food or medications. In patients with nonvalvular AF, approximately 90% of strokes originate from the left atrial appendage (LAA; in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease, many patients (60% have strokes that originate from the left atrium itself. Surgical LAA amputation or closure, although widely used to reduce stroke risk in association with cardiac surgery, is not currently performed as a stand-alone operation for stroke risk reduction because of its invasiveness. Percutaneous LAA closure, as an alternative to anticoagulation, has been increasingly used during the last decade in an effort to reduce stroke risk in nonvalvular AF. Several devices have been introduced during this time, of which one has demonstrated noninferiority compared with warfarin in a randomized controlled trial. This review describes the

  6. Efficacy of folic acid therapy in primary prevention of stroke among adults with hypertension in China: the CSPPT randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yong; Li, Jianping; Qin, Xianhui; Huang, Yining; Wang, Xiaobin; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Tang, Genfu; Wang, Binyan; Chen, Dafang; He, Mingli; Fu, Jia; Cai, Yefeng; Shi, Xiuli; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Yimin; Sun, Ningling; Li, Xiaoying; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Wang, Jian'an; Yang, Xinchun; Yang, Tianlun; Xiao, Chuanshi; Zhao, Gang; Dong, Qiang; Zhu, Dingliang; Wang, Xian; Ge, Junbo; Zhao, Lianyou; Hu, Dayi; Liu, Lisheng; Hou, Fan Fan

    2015-04-07

    Uncertainty remains about the efficacy of folic acid therapy for the primary prevention of stroke because of limited and inconsistent data. To test the primary hypothesis that therapy with enalapril and folic acid is more effective in reducing first stroke than enalapril alone among Chinese adults with hypertension. The China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, a randomized, double-blind clinical trial conducted from May 19, 2008, to August 24, 2013, in 32 communities in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces in China. A total of 20,702 adults with hypertension without history of stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) participated in the study. Eligible participants, stratified by MTHFR C677T genotypes (CC, CT, and TT), were randomly assigned to receive double-blind daily treatment with a single-pill combination containing enalapril, 10 mg, and folic acid, 0.8 mg (n = 10,348) or a tablet containing enalapril, 10 mg, alone (n = 10,354). The primary outcome was first stroke. Secondary outcomes included first ischemic stroke; first hemorrhagic stroke; MI; a composite of cardiovascular events consisting of cardiovascular death, MI, and stroke; and all-cause death. During a median treatment duration of 4.5 years, compared with the enalapril alone group, the enalapril-folic acid group had a significant risk reduction in first stroke (2.7% of participants in the enalapril-folic acid group vs 3.4% in the enalapril alone group; hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.93), first ischemic stroke (2.2% with enalapril-folic acid vs 2.8% with enalapril alone; HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64-0.91), and composite cardiovascular events consisting of cardiovascular death, MI, and stroke (3.1% with enalapril-folic acid vs 3.9% with enalapril alone; HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69-0.92). The risks of hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.65-1.34), MI (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.60-1.82), and all-cause deaths (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.81-1.10) did not differ significantly between the 2 treatment groups. There were no

  7. Can readmission after stroke be prevented? Results of a randomized clinical study: a postdischarge follow-up service for stroke survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H E; Schultz-Larsen, K; Kreiner, S

    2000-01-01

    the completion of inpatient rehabilitation, were discharged to their homes. The patients were randomized to 1 of 2 follow-up interventions provided in addition to standard care or to standard aftercare. Fifty-four received follow-up home visits by a physician (INT1-HVP), 53 were provided instructions......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: About 50% of stroke survivors are discharged to their homes with lasting disability. Knowledge, however, of the importance of follow-up services that targets these patients is sparse. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate 2 models of follow-up intervention after...... that the effect of intervention was strongest for patients with a prolonged inpatient rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS: Readmission is common among disabled stroke survivors. Follow-up intervention after discharge seems to be a way of preventing readmission, especially for patients with long inpatient rehabilitation....

  8. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  9. Stroke Risk Factors, Genetics, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Amelia K; Esenwa, Charles; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-02-03

    Stroke is a heterogeneous syndrome, and determining risk factors and treatment depends on the specific pathogenesis of stroke. Risk factors for stroke can be categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Age, sex, and race/ethnicity are nonmodifiable risk factors for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, while hypertension, smoking, diet, and physical inactivity are among some of the more commonly reported modifiable risk factors. More recently described risk factors and triggers of stroke include inflammatory disorders, infection, pollution, and cardiac atrial disorders independent of atrial fibrillation. Single-gene disorders may cause rare, hereditary disorders for which stroke is a primary manifestation. Recent research also suggests that common and rare genetic polymorphisms can influence risk of more common causes of stroke, due to both other risk factors and specific stroke mechanisms, such as atrial fibrillation. Genetic factors, particularly those with environmental interactions, may be more modifiable than previously recognized. Stroke prevention has generally focused on modifiable risk factors. Lifestyle and behavioral modification, such as dietary changes or smoking cessation, not only reduces stroke risk, but also reduces the risk of other cardiovascular diseases. Other prevention strategies include identifying and treating medical conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, that increase stroke risk. Recent research into risk factors and genetics of stroke has not only identified those at risk for stroke but also identified ways to target at-risk populations for stroke prevention. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Rivaroxaban in the Prevention of Stroke and Systemic Embolism in Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: Clinical Implications of the ROCKET AF Trial and Its Subanalyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Ryan J; Amerena, John V

    2015-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an increasingly common cause of stroke and systemic embolism. While warfarin has been the mainstay of stroke prevention in patients with AF, newer novel oral anticoagulant medications are now available. Rivaroxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor with a rapid onset and offset after oral administration, offers potential advantages over warfarin, predominantly due to its predictable pharmacokinetics across wide patient populations. It requires no coagulation monitoring, and only two different doses are needed (20 mg daily for patients with normal renal function and 15 mg daily in those with reduced renal function). A large randomized trial (ROCKET AF) has shown non-inferiority to warfarin for preventing stroke or systemic embolism in the per-protocol population and superiority to warfarin in the on-treatment safety population. Several subanalyses confirm that the treatment effect of rivaroxaban is consistent across different patient subgroups, including those with reduced renal function. The tolerability of rivaroxaban appears similar to that of warfarin, with comparable overall bleeding rates in clinical trials. In ROCKET AF, significantly lower rates of fatal and intracranial bleeding were seen with rivaroxaban, while lower rates of gastrointestinal bleeding were seen with warfarin. Important contraindications to rivaroxaban include valvular AF, the presence of a prosthetic valve (mechanical or bioprosthetic) or valve repair, the need for concurrent dual antiplatelet therapy, and creatinine clearance <30 ml/min. Once-daily dosing and the lack of coagulation monitoring may increase utilization and adherence compared with warfarin, potentially decreasing the large burden of care associated with stroke secondary to AF. Overall, rivaroxaban offers a useful alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with AF.

  11. Pleiotropic effects of statins in stroke prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability, and contributes substantially to healthcare budgets. The lipid-lowering drugs, 3-hydroxy-3-methylgulutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor or statins, reducing mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in patients with established cardiovascular disease. Statins therefore have a place in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Recent experimental and clinical studies suggest that statins may exert vascular protective effect beyond cholesterol reduction. The cholesterol-independet or “pleiotropic” effects of statin include the upregulation and activation of endothelial nitric acid synthase (eNOS that can increase nitric oxide (NO production. Augmentation of NO production increases cerebral blood flow, which can lead to neuroprotection during brain ischaemia. By inhibiting mevalonate synthesis, statins prevent the formation of several isoprenoids (including farnesylpyrophosphate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate. Inhibiting geranylgeranylation of RhoA small G proteins increases the stability of eNOS mRNA through the remodeling of endothelial actin microfilamens. Moreover, statins directly increase eNOS activity within minutes by activating the pathway involving phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B. In the secondary prevention of stroke, the use of statins reduces the incidence of either recurrent stroke or other major vascular events and treatment should be initiated soon after the event. The use of statins does not increase hemorrhagic stroke or cancer and may also favor atherosclerotic plaque regression.

  12. Pleiotropic effects of statins in stroke prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Yenny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability, and  contributes substantially to healthcare budgets. The lipid-lowering drugs, 3-hydroxy-3-methylgulutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor or statins, reducing mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in patients with established cardiovascular disease. Statins therefore have a place in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Recent experimental and clinical studies suggest that statins may exert vascular protective effect beyond cholesterol reduction. The cholesterol-independet or “pleiotropic” effects of statin include the upregulation and activation of endothelial nitric acid synthase (eNOS that can increase nitric oxide (NO production. Augmentation of NO production increases cerebral blood flow, which can lead to neuroprotection during brain ischaemia. By inhibiting mevalonate synthesis, statins prevent the formation of several isoprenoids (including farnesylpyrophosphate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate. Inhibiting geranylgeranylation of RhoA small G proteins increases the stability of eNOS mRNA through the remodeling of endothelial actin microfilamens. Moreover, statins directly increase eNOS activity within minutes by activating the pathway involving phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B. In the secondary prevention of stroke, the use of statins reduces the incidence of either recurrent stroke or other major vascular events and treatment should be initiated soon after the event. The use of statins does not increase hemorrhagic stroke or cancer and may also favor atherosclerotic plaque regression.

  13. Guidelines for the Primary Prevention of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschia, James F.; Bushnell, Cheryl; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Braun, Lynne T.; Bravata, Dawn M.; Chaturvedi, Seemant; Creager, Mark A.; Eckel, Robert H.; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Fornage, Myriam; Goldstein, Larry B.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Horvath, Susanna E.; Iadecola, Costantino; Jauch, Edward C.; Moore, Wesley S.; Wilson, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this updated statement is to provide comprehensive and timely evidence-based recommendations on the prevention of stroke among individuals who have not previously experienced a stroke or transient ischemic attack. Evidence-based recommendations are included for the control of risk factors, interventional approaches to atherosclerotic disease of the cervicocephalic circulation, and antithrombotic treatments for preventing thrombotic and thromboembolic stroke. Further recommendations are provided for genetic and pharmacogenetic testing and for the prevention of stroke in a variety of other specific circumstances, including sickle cell disease and patent foramen ovale. PMID:25355838

  14. Patterns of blood pressure response during intensive BP lowering and clinical events: results from the secondary prevention of small subcortical strokes trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Elaine; Scherzer, Rebecca; Odden, Michelle C; Shlipak, Michael; White, Carole L; Field, Thalia S; Benavente, Oscar; Pergola, Pablo E; Peralta, Carmen A

    2018-04-01

    We applied cluster analysis to identify discrete patterns of concomitant responses of systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) during intensive BP lowering; and to evaluate their clinical relevance and association with risk of mortality, major vascular events (MVEs), and stroke. We used an unsupervised cluster procedure to identify distinct patterns of BP change during the first 9 months of anti-hypertensive therapy intensification among 1,331 participants in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes Trial who were previously randomized to lower BP target (SBP < 130 mm Hg) after lacunar stroke. The cluster procedure partitioned participants into three groups in the lower SBP target arm, persons with: 1) mildly elevated baseline SBP and minimal visit-to-visit BP variability (mild reducers); 2) moderately elevated baseline SBP and moderate visit-to-visit BP variability (moderate reducers); and 3) very elevated baseline SBP with very large visit-to-visit BP variability during intensification (large reducers). In the lower SBP target group, moderate reducers had a higher risk of death (adjusted HR 1.6 [95% CI 1.0-2.7]), MVE (adjusted HR 2.1 [95% CI 1.4-3.2]), and stroke (adjusted HR 2.6[95% CI 1.7-4.1]) compared to mild reducers. Large reducers had the highest risk of death (adjusted HR 2.3 [95% CI 1.2-4.4]), but risk of MVE (HR = 1.7 [95%CI 0.9-3.1]) and stroke (HR = 1.6 [95%CI: 0.8-3.5]) were not statistically significantly different compared to mild reducers. Among persons with prior lacunar stroke, baseline BP levels, and BP variability in the setting of intensive BP lowering can identify discrete groups of persons at higher risk of adverse outcomes.

  15. Novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Dobreanu, Dan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to assess clinical practice in relation to stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF), particularly into the use of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for stroke prevention, among members of the EHRA electrophysiology (EP......) research network. In this EP Wire survey, we have provided some insights into current practice in Europe for the use of NOACs for stroke prevention in AF. There were clear practice differences evident, and also the need for greater adherence to the guidelines, especially since guideline adherent management...

  16. Preventable Pediatric Stroke via Vaccination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Press

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from the Vascular Effects of Infection in Pediatric Stroke (VIPS group studied the risk of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS associated with minor infection and routine childhood vaccinations.

  17. Hypertensive patients using thiazide diuretics as primary stroke prevention make better functional outcome after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hong-Mo; Lin, Wei Chun; Wang, Cheng-Hsien; Lin, Leng-Chieh

    2014-10-01

    Thiazides have been used for the control of blood pressure and primary prevention of ischemic stroke. No previous studies have assessed the influence of thiazides on functional prognosis after ischemic stroke. Demographics, prestroke conditions, poststroke National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and clinical and laboratory parameters were prospectively registered in 216 Taiwanese patients. One hundred forty patients who completed follow-up 3 months after experiencing ischemic stroke were assessed with the modified Rankin scale as functional prognoses. Twenty-one patients used thiazide to control hypertension before experiencing ischemic stroke. No differences of stroke subtypes and comorbidities before stroke were observed between the 2 groups. The emergency department National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was lesser among thiazide users (4 [2-7] versus 6 [4-16], P = .02). Among 140 patients who completed follow-up in 90 days, thiazide users had more favorable functional status (modified Rankin scale ≤2: 42.4% versus 26.9%, P = .02, odds ratio 3.34, 95%, confidence interval .130-.862). Hypertensive patients treated with thiazides long term had a lesser severity of stroke and better functional outcomes after ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The “DOC” screen: Feasible and valid screening for depression, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and cognitive impairment in stroke prevention clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Richard H.; Cayley, Megan L.; Lanctôt, Krista L.; Murray, Brian J.; Cohen, Ashley; Thorpe, Kevin E.; Sicard, Michelle N.; Lien, Karen; Sahlas, Demetrios J.; Herrmann, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Background Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Cognitive impairment (“DOC”) are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool (“DOC” screen) to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment. Methods All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines. Findings 1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes), less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index), had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens. Conclusions Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may

  19. Antithrombotic therapy for secondary stroke prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Mark J

    2011-12-01

    : Antithrombotic therapy is a key component of any strategy for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. A better understanding of the various therapeutic options will lead to improved stroke prevention, better medication adherence, and fewer complications. : Antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants are the two major classes of antithrombotic therapy used for stroke prevention. The etiology and mechanism of the stroke must be considered in order to make the best decision regarding which agent(s) to use for secondary stroke prevention. The recent Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) study showed that clopidogrel and aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole had similar event rates in terms of recurrent stroke, but clopidogrel was better tolerated, with fewer bleeding events. Several new anticoagulants are poised to replace warfarin for stroke prevention in the setting of atrial fibrillation. These include dabigatran (a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor) and possibly apixaban (a new oral factor Xa inhibitor). These new medications are much easier to use than warfarin and may be more effective and safer, with fewer drug and food interactions and no need for routine blood monitoring. Thus, these new medications may improve adherence as well as clinicians' inclination to treat with anticoagulation. : Because each antiplatelet agent or anticoagulant has certain advantages and disadvantages, clinicians must choose an agent that the patient can afford and tolerate in terms of side effects and adherence. The hope and expectation is that the proper use of these medications in accordance with current guidelines will reduce the risk of a recurrent stroke.

  20. Identification of stroke mimics among clinically diagnosed acute strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntiyatorn, Lojana; Saksornchai, Pichaya; Tunlayadechanont, Supoch

    2013-09-01

    Stroke is a clinically syndrome of a sudden onset of neurological deficit in a vascular cause. Stroke mimics is the non-vascular disorders with stroke-like clinical symptoms. It is important to distinguish true stroke from mimics since treatment plan may differ To determine the incidence of the stroke mimics and identify their etiologies. All non-contrast head CT of the patients with clinically diagnosed stroke who immediately received imaging upon arrival at the emergency department of the university hospital were retrospectively reviewed in 12-month period between January 1 and December 31, 2008. Medical records, laboratory results, MRI, and 6-month clinical follow-up records were reviewed for final diagnosis. Seven hundred four patients were included in this study, including 363 (51.5%) men and 341 (48.5%) women with range in age from 24 to 108 years. Amongst those, 417 (59.2%) were ischemic stroke, 80 (11.40%) were hemorrhagic stroke, 186 (26.4%) were stroke-mimics, and 21 (3%) were inconclusive. The etiologies among stroke-mimics were metabolic/intoxication (35, 18.8%), sepsis (28, 15.0%), seizure (21, 11.3%), syncope (20, 10.8%), subdural hemorrhage (14, 7.5%), vertigo (11, 6.0%), brain tumor (10, 5.30%), central nervous system infection (5, 2.7%), others (26, 14.0%), and unspecified (16, 8.6%). Incidence rates and etiologies of the stroke mimics were similar to the western reports. However the frequency of each mimic was not.

  1. [Etiologic mechanism and prevention of perioperative stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Ujifuku, Kenta; Hiu, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Naoki; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Nagata, Izumi

    2008-05-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques and improvements in perioperative care, the incidence of perioperative strokes has not decreased, reflecting the aging of the population and the increased number of patients with complication. We investigated the cases who were consulted due to perioperative stroke. From April, 2004 to March, 2007, a total of 102 patients were referred for neurological evaluation because of perioperative stroke. Types of planned or performed surgery, risk factors, types of stroke and timing of the events were analyzed. Sixty-seven cases were consulted preoperatively for history or risk factors of stroke. Forty-seven cases had ischemic risk factors and cerebral vascular recanalization was carried out in four patients who experienced severe cerebral hypoperfusion. The other patients with ischemic risk factors were treated to avoid dehydration or hypotension perioperatively. Nine cases with hemorrhagic risk factors, such as cerebral aneurysm, were treated to avoid significant hypertension during surgery. The types of planned surgery were cardiovascular surgery in 29 cases, abdominal surgery in 13, cervical surgery in 7, and thoracic surgery in 6. Except for one case, who suffered cerebral embolism due to cardiac surgery, those who were consulted preoperatively did not experience stroke. Neurological events had occurred in 35 patients and they were consulted postoperatively. The surgical procedures were cardiovascular surgery in 19 patients, thoracic surgery in 6, abdominal surgery in 6. The types of stroke were cerebral infarction in 20 cases, hypoxic brain in 8, and transient ischemic attack in 5. The cause of the cerebral infarction was considered as cerebral embolism in 19 cases. Those who were consulted preoperatively were treated to prevent intraoperative stroke and did not suffer neurological complication. Most stoke in patients undergoing surgery were not related to hypoperfusion but due to embolism.

  2. Clinical Characteristics of Stroke Occurring while Bathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamasu, Joji; Nakatsukasa, Masashi; Oshima, Takeo; Tomiyasu, Kazuhiro; Mayanagi, Keita; Imai, Akira

    2017-07-01

    Stroke can occur during any human activity. Although cardiac arrests or drowning accidents while bathing have been studied extensively, there are few studies focusing on stroke occurring while bathing. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the clinical characteristics of stroke occurring while bathing and the association between stroke and drowning accidents. Clinical data prospectively acquired between January 2011 and December 2015 on 1939 patients with stroke (1224 cerebral infarctions [CIs], 505 intracerebral hemorrhages [ICHs], and 210 subarachnoid hemorrhages [SAHs]) were reviewed to identify patients who sustained a stroke while bathing. The ratio of bathing-related strokes to strokes occurring during other activities was evaluated. Moreover, the demographics of these 2 groups were compared in each stroke type. Among the 1939 patients, 78 (CI, 32; ICH, 28; and SAH, 18) sustained a stroke while bathing. The ratio of bathing to other activities in the SAH group was the highest (8.6%), followed by the ICH group (5.5%), whereas that in the CI group was the lowest (2.6%). Regardless of stroke type, only a minority of patients were found to have collapsed inside the bathtub. The higher ratio of bathing in hemorrhagic strokes may indicate that there is a small risk of hemorrhagic stroke while bathing in vulnerable subjects. This retrospective study did not establish a causal relationship between bathing and stroke nor identify risk factors, which means that future prospective studies are warranted. The finding that the great majority of bathing-related stroke patients were found to have collapsed outside the bathtub suggests that the involvement of stroke in drowning accidents in the bathtub may be small. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure for stroke prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Loupis, Anastasia M; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    as an alternative option for stroke prevention in AF patients with contraindication(s) for OAC treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 42 patients underwent percutaneous LAA closure. In this report, we describe our experience with this procedure. RESULTS: The patients treated were AF patients with a high stroke...... and bleeding risk. However, long-term follow-up studies are needed before this procedure can be recommended for routine clinical use. FUNDING: Grant funding was received (St Jude Medical) for research, but there are no other competing interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not relevant....

  4. Pediatric Stroke: Clinical Findings and Radiological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lanni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on radiological approach in pediatric stroke including both ischemic stroke (Arterial Ischemic Stroke and Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis and hemorrhagic stroke. Etiopathology and main clinical findings are examined as well. Magnetic Resonance Imaging could be considered as the first-choice diagnostic exam, offering a complete diagnostic set of information both in the discrimination between ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke and in the identification of underlying causes. In addition, Magnetic Resonance vascular techniques supply further information about cerebral arterial and venous circulation. Computed Tomography, for its limits and radiation exposure, should be used only when Magnetic Resonance is not available and on unstable patients.

  5. Development, expansion, and use of a stroke clinical trials resource for novel exploratory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Myzoon; Bath, Philip; Brady, Marian; Davis, Stephen; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Donnan, Geoffrey; Fisher, Marc; Hacke, Werner; Hanley, Daniel F; Luby, Marie; Tsivgoulis, G; Wahlgren, Nils; Warach, Steven; Lees, Kennedy R

    2012-02-01

    Analysis of reliable registry data can direct future research to influence clinical care. Data from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive have been used to test hypotheses and inform trial design. We sought to expand Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive into a broader stroke resource with new opportunities for research and international collaboration. Using procedures initially developed for an acute stroke trial archive, we invited trialists to lodge data on rehabilitation, secondary prevention, intracerebral haemorrhage, imaging, and observational stroke studies. We have extended Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive into six subsections: Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive-Acute (n = 28 190 patients' data), Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive-Rehab (n = 10 194), Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive-intracerebral haemorrhage (n = 1829), Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive-Prevention, Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive-Imaging (n = 1300), and Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive-Plus (n = 6573). Enrollment continues, with commitments for the contribution of six further trials to Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive-Prevention, 13 trials to Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive-Rehab, and one registry to Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive-Plus. Data on age, type of stroke, medical history, outcomes by modified Rankin scale and Barthel Index (BI), mortality, and adverse events are available for analyses. The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive network encourages the development of young investigators and provides opportunities for international peer review and collaboration. Application of the original Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive concepts beyond acute stroke trials can extend the value of clinical research at low cost, without threatening commercial or intellectual property interests. This delivers valuable research output to inform

  6. Preventing Stroke Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Higher opioid prescribing puts patients at risk for addiction and overdose. Learn what can be done about this serious problem.  Created: 9/6/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/6/2017.

  7. A clinical decision aid for the selection of antithrombotic therapy for the prevention of stroke due to atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaHaye, Stephen Andrew; Gibbens, Sabra Lynn; Ball, David Gerald Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The availability of new antithrombotic agents, each with a unique efficacy and bleeding profile, has introduced a considerable amount of clinical uncertainty with physicians. We have developed a clinical decision aid in order to assist clinicians in determining an optimal antithrombotic regime...

  8. Primary stroke prevention in China ? a new approach

    OpenAIRE

    Feigin, Valery L.; Wang, Wenzhi; Fu, Hua; Liu, Liping; Krishnamurthi, Rita; Bhattacharjee, Rohit; Parmar, Priya; Hussein, Tasleem; Barker-Collo, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The growing burden of stroke in China, along with the increasing cost of health care calls for new, more effective strategies for stroke prevention. These strategies should include increasing awareness of stroke symptoms, awareness of risk factors, and provision of easily available information on means of modifying risk factors. The Stroke Riskometer App is exactly such a tool, available in Mandarin, for adult individuals to calculate their risk of stroke over the next 5 and 10?years, and to ...

  9. Management of stroke: a clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kameshwar; Kumar, Amit

    2009-06-01

    Stroke is defined as repidly developing symptoms or signs of loss of cerebral function with no apparent cause other than vascular origin. The issues to be addressed when making diagnosis of stroke are : (1) is it a stroke? (2) What pathological type of stroke? (3) Where is the lesion? (4) What caused it? Differential diagnosis of stroke is chronic subdural haematoma, brain tumour, hypoglycaemic, metabolic encephalopathies, postictal neurological deficit and functional. CT or MRI is important investigation while dealing with a stroke patient. In treating acute stroke one has to go through the objectives eg, optimising the patient's chance of survival, minimising the risk and degree of disability and preventing recurrence. One has to think of genera care required in management of stroke. Control of blood pressure and blood sugar is important. Specific treatment includes aspirin, t-PA, low molecular weight heparin, calcium antagonists though some reservation persists over efficacy. Psychological support, cognitive impairment, motor and sensory impairment are to be addressed. Functional rehabilitation interventions, log-term management and secondary prevention are to be cared for.

  10. Frequent inaccuracies in ABCD(2) scoring in non-stroke specialists' referrals to a daily Rapid Access Stroke Prevention service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bradley, David

    2013-09-15

    The \\'accuracy\\' of age, blood pressure, clinical features, duration and diabetes (ABCD(2)) scoring by non-stroke specialists referring patients to a daily Rapid Access Stroke Prevention (RASP) service is unclear, as is the accuracy of ABCD(2) scoring by trainee residents. In this prospective study, referrals were classified as \\'confirmed TIAs\\' if the stroke specialist confirmed a clinical diagnosis of possible, probable or definite TIA, and \\'non-TIAs\\' if patients had a TIA mimic or completed stroke. ABCD(2) scores from referring physicians were compared with scores by experienced stroke specialists and neurology\\/geriatric medicine residents at a daily RASP clinic; inter-observer agreement was examined. Data from 101 referrals were analysed (mean age=60.0years, 58% male). The median interval between referral and clinic assessment was 1day. Of 101 referrals, 52 (52%) were \\'non-TIAs\\': 45 (86%) of 52 were \\'TIA mimics\\' and 7 (14%) of 52 were completed strokes. There was only \\'fair\\' agreement in total ABCD(2) scoring between referring physicians and stroke specialists (κ=0.37). Agreement was \\'excellent\\' between residents and stroke specialists (κ=0.91). Twenty of 29 patients scored as \\'moderate to high risk\\' (score 4-6) by stroke specialists were scored \\'low risk\\' (score 0-3) by referring physicians. ABCD(2) scoring by referring doctors is frequently inaccurate, with a tendency to underestimate stroke risk. These findings emphasise the importance of urgent specialist assessment of suspected TIA patients, and that ABCD(2) scores by non-stroke specialists cannot be relied upon in isolation to risk-stratify patients. Inter-observer agreement in ABCD(2) scoring was \\'excellent\\' between residents and stroke specialists, indicating short-term training may improve accuracy.

  11. Post-stroke seizures are clinically underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentes, Carla; Martins, Hugo; Peralta, Ana Rita; Casimiro, Carlos; Morgado, Carlos; Franco, Ana Catarina; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Geraldes, Ruth; Canhão, Patrícia; Pinho E Melo, Teresa; Paiva, Teresa; Ferro, José M

    2017-09-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is the leading cause of epilepsy in adults, although post-stroke seizures reported frequency is variable and few studies used EEG in their identification. To describe and compare EEG and clinical epileptic manifestations frequency in patients with an anterior circulation ischaemic stroke. Prospective study of acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients, consecutively admitted to a Stroke Unit over 24 months and followed-up for 1 year. All patients underwent standardized clinical and diagnostic assessment. Seizure occurrence was clinically evaluated during hospitalization and by a telephone interview at 6 months and a clinical appointment at 12 months after stroke. Video-EEG was performed in the first 72 h (1st EEG), daily after the 1st EEG for the first 7 days after the stroke, or later if neurological worsening, at discharge, and at 12 months. 151 patients were included (112 men) with a mean age of 67.4 (11.9) years. In the 1st year after stroke, 38 patients (25.2%) had an epileptic seizure. During hospitalization, 27 patients (17.9%) had epileptiform activity (interictal or ictal) in the EEG, 7 (25.9%) of them electrographic seizures. During the first week after stroke, 22 (14.6%) patients had a seizure and 4 (2.6%) non-convulsive status epilepticus criteria. Five (22.7%) acute symptomatic seizures were exclusively electrographic. At least one remote symptomatic seizure occurred in 23 (16%) patients. In the first 7 days after stroke, more than one-fifth of patients with seizures had exclusively electrographic seizures. Without a systematic neurophysiological evaluation the frequency of post-stroke seizures are clinically underestimated.

  12. Pericyte: Potential Target for Hemorrhagic Stroke Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Liu, Xin; Ruan, Huaizhen; Chen, Yujie; Feng, Hua

    2017-09-06

    Despite long-standing and worldwide efforts, hemorrhagic stroke remains a critical clinical syndrome that exerts a heavy toll on affected individuals and their families due to the lack of preventive and therapeutic targets. To clarify the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic stroke and to identify novel therapeutic targets. Targeting pericytes, the typical mural cells of microvessels, could serve as a way to modulate microvascular permeability, development, and maturation by regulating endothelial cell functions and modulating tissue fibrosis and inflammatory responses. Pericytes in hemorrhagic stroke may exert the following functions: before bleeding, the morphological aberration and dysfunction of pericytes may lead to aneurysm formation, angiopsathyrosis, and hemodynamic disturbances, ultimately causing vasculature rupture. In the acute phase after hemorrhage, pericytes are faced with a complicated bleeding environment, which results in the death of pericytes, blood-brain barrier damage, pericyte-mediated inflammatory cascades, white matter impairment, and ultimately aggravated neural injury. In the recovery period post-hemorrhage, in situ pericytes are activated and differentiate into neurons, glia and endothelial cells to repair the neural vascular network. Moreover, many pericytes are recruited to the lesion and contribute to blood-brain barrier remodeling, thus facilitating neurovascular functional recovery after stroke. Due to the multiple functions of pericytes in the development of vascular rupture and hemorrhagic stroke pathophysiology, additional drugs and trials targeting pericytes and evaluations of their effectiveness are required in future investigations to develop new strategies for the prevention and treatment of hemorrhagic stroke. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Aspirin for Stroke Prevention in Elderly Patients With Vascular Risk Factors: Japanese Primary Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Ishizuka, Naoki; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Teramoto, Tamio; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Oikawa, Shinichi; Sugawara, Masahiro; Ando, Katsuyuki; Murata, Mitsuru; Yokoyama, Kenji; Minematsu, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Ikeda, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    The effect of aspirin in primary prevention of stroke is controversial among clinical trials conducted in Western countries, and no data are available for Asian populations with a high risk of intracranial hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of aspirin on the risk of stroke and intracranial hemorrhage in the Japanese Primary Prevention Project (JPPP). A total of 14 464 patients (age, 60-85 years) with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus participated and were randomized into 2 treatment groups: 100 mg of aspirin or no aspirin. The median follow-up period was 5.02 years. The cumulative rate of fatal or nonfatal stroke was similar for the aspirin (2.068%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.750-2.443) and no aspirin (2.299%; 95% CI, 1.963-2.692) groups at 5 years; the estimated hazard ratio was 0.927 (95% CI, 0.741-1.160; P=0.509). Aspirin nonsignificantly reduced the risk of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (hazard ratio, 0.783; 95% CI, 0.606-1.012; P=0.061) and nonsignificantly increased the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 1.463; 95% CI; 0.956-2.237; P=0.078). A Cox regression adjusted by the risk factors for all stroke, which were age >70 years, smoking, and diabetes mellitus, supported the above result. Aspirin did not show any net benefit for the primary prevention of stroke in elderly Japanese patients with risk factors for stroke, whereas age >70 years, smoking, and diabetes mellitus were risk factors for stroke regardless of aspirin treatment. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00225849. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Does Diagnosis of Hypertension Prevent Stroke? A Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The present study was designed to determine the relative frequency of previously diagnosed and undiagnosed hypertension in first stroke in order to evaluate if previous diagnosis of hypertension can prevent stroke. Patients and Methods: One hundred and twenty nine first stroke patients presenting at the ...

  15. A CLINICAL STUDY OF STROKE IN YOUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbha Thulasi Ram

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available NTRIDUCTION : Stroke is one of the important causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Incidence of stroke steadily increases with age. Experts are concerned of the emerging stroke epidemic in India. Stroke affecting the young has potentially devastating consequence son the individual and his family. Certain risk factors are unique to the young. I t needs more studies for identification and modification of risk factors. The study aims to evaluate clinical features, risk factors, etiology and mortality of stroke in young patients. METHODS : 74 young patients satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in this study. A detailed history was taken from young stroke patients, systemic examination and required investigations were done. Data was collected in standardized proforma and analysed. RESULTS: Stroke in young accounts for 7.95% of stroke cases of all age groups. The mean age of the patients was 34.66 ± 7.48 years. Among 74 patients, 47(63.51% were male and 27(36.49% were female. Seizures, decreased consciousness, speech involvement and motor deficit were observed in 33.78%, 44.59%, 22.97% and 100% of cases respectively. 82.43% patients had ischemic and 17.57% patients had hemorrhagic stroke. Among ischemic stroke, large artery atherosclerosis was 16.21%, tuberculous meningoencephalitis with vasculitis was 16.21%, lacunar stroke was 10.81%, CVT was 10.81% and cardio embolic stroke was 6.76%. Smoking (59.45%, alcoholism (58.10%, hypertension (43.24%, coronary artery disease (8.10%, diabetes mellitus (10.81%, elevated total cholesterol (25.67%, elevated low density lipo proteins (22.97%, elevated triglycerides (27.02% and low HDL (22.97% were important risk factors. Carotid doppler was abnormal in 9.45% of patients. 6.76% patients had mitral stenosis in echocardiogram. Low protein C and protein S were found in 1.35% of patients. Eight (10.81% patients died during the hospital stay. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The major risk

  16. Efficacy and safety of carotid artery stenting for stroke prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Elserwi, Ahmed; Amer, Talal; Soliman, Nermin; Gaballa, Ghada M.; Elmokadem, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Extracranial carotid artery stenosis is a leading cause of ischemic stroke. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the gold-standard management for secondary stroke prevention yet carotid artery stenting (CAS) has emerged in the last decade as an alternative for high surgical risk patients. Purpose: To assess the effectiveness, safety and outcomes of CAS in extra-cranial carotid artery stenosis patients in terms of stroke prevention. Methodology: Twenty patients with symptomatic an...

  17. Antiplatelet agents in secondary prevention of stroke: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John W

    2005-09-01

    Antiplatelet agents are widely used in the secondary prevention of stroke and other vascular events. The purpose of this review is to give a perspective of the factors involved in clinical practice for selecting antiplatelet drugs appropriate to the patient population. Aspirin remains the most popular drug, because it is modestly effective (approximately 25% risk reduction); however, it has undesirable side effects that are sometimes serious. The nonaspirin compounds are marginally more effective but are much more expensive and subject to commercial pressures from industry. A completely new look at these compounds is necessary, rather than spending more precious resources on "drug wars" that are expensive in time and money. A "polypill" has been previously proposed, and possibly a combination of drugs targeted at the major vascular risk factors that is given to patients within 24 hours of initial stroke symptoms and to clearly defined patient populations may prove a solution.

  18. Preventing Heart Attacks and Strokes: Increasing Awareness ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary: Chronic cardiovascular disease imposes a significant health and economic burden on individuals and communities. Despite decades of improvement in cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular disease and stroke remain the leading cause of death in the U.S. and disparities in health outcomes persist. Moreover, the continuous improvement in cardiovascular mortality typical of the last four decades has ended motivating new and innovative approaches to improve population health and wellbeing. Apart from continued focus on traditional risk factor modification such as identification and treatment of high blood pressure and cholesterol, cessation of smoking, and appropriate use of evidence-based pharmacological prevention measures and disease management, other factors should be considered such as increasing physical activity, dietary sodium reduction and modification of social and environmental determinants known to cause heart attacks and stroke and exacerbate vascular disease. Such an approach will require greater cooperation among public health, environmental health, the broader public and private healthcare delivery and payment systems, and federal agencies. To introduce this concept the U.S. EPA held a workshop in September 2016 bringing together representatives of local and state public health officials, the healthcare system, educators, data analytics, and federal partners (CMS, CDC, Dept. of State and EPA) for the purpose of exploring the idea of prom

  19. Proteinuria and clinical outcomes after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumai, Y; Kamouchi, M; Hata, J; Ago, T; Kitayama, J; Nakane, H; Sugimori, H; Kitazono, T

    2012-06-12

    The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke is still not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to elucidate how CKD and its components, proteinuria and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), affect the clinical outcomes after ischemic stroke. The study subjects consisted of 3,778 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke within 24 hours of onset from the Fukuoka Stroke Registry. CKD was defined as proteinuria or low eGFR (Stroke Scale during hospitalization), in-hospital mortality, and poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score at discharge of 2 to 6). The effects of CKD, proteinuria, and eGFR on these outcomes were evaluated using a multiple logistic regression analysis. CKD was diagnosed in 1,320 patients (34.9%). In the multivariate analyses after adjusting for confounding factors, patients with CKD had significantly higher risks of neurologic deterioration, in-hospital mortality, and poor functional outcome (p relationship between the eGFR level and each outcome was found. CKD is an important predictor of poor clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke. Proteinuria independently contributes to the increased risks of neurologic deterioration, mortality, and poor functional outcome, but the eGFR may not be relevant to these outcomes.

  20. Diagnosis, management and prevention of ischemic stroke for non-neurologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavian Ghandehari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke is the third common cause of disability and death. Diagnosis of stroke is based on its clinical manifestations and/or observation of infarct in the neuroimaging. Standard battery of diagnostic investigations and classification criteria is required for detection of stroke etiology. Materials and Method: This review article deals with the diagnosis and management of brain infarction particularly in our country and is provided for non-neurologists. Using online scientific search engines and in some parts referring to laboratory archives constituted base of this review article.Results: Acute stroke management is almost similar in its various etiologies. Neuroprotective drugs have little value in acute stroke management. At present time, a few Iranian medical centers have infrastructure of thrombolysis therapy. Prevention of stroke is based on the detection and control of its risk factors. Aspirin, 80 mg per day is the most common drug for stroke prevention. Co-administration of aspirin 80 mg/d and Dipyridamole 200-400 mg/d increases the preventive effects of aspirin. Clopidogrel 75 mg/d is the stroke preventive drug of choice in patients with peptic ulcer and coronary artery disease. Co-administration of aspirin and clopidogrel is more effective in stroke prevention but has more hemorrhagic complications. Using warfarin for stroke prevention is suggested only in patients who have facilities for repetitive coagulation tests. Carotid endarterectomy is indicated in symptomatic patients with more than 70% stenosis of extracranial internal carotid artery, if performed only by vascular surgeons experienced in carotid surgery.Conclusion: Many stroke patients are managed by general practitioners and non-neurologists, e.g. internists, cardiologists and neurosurgeons. This review article provides continuous medical education according to Iranian medical curriculum

  1. Preventive Ceftriaxone in Patients with Stroke Treated with Intravenous Thrombolysis: Post Hoc Analysis of the Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Westendorp, Willeke F.; Roos, Yvo B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS), a randomized open-label masked endpoint trial, showed that preventive ceftriaxone did not improve functional outcome at 3 months in patients with acute stroke (adjusted common OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.82-1.09). Post-hoc analyses showed that among patients

  2. CDC Vital Signs–Preventing Stroke Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-06

    This podcast is based on the September 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Each year, more than 140,000 people die and many survivors face disability. Eighty percent of strokes are preventable. Learn the signs of stroke and how to prevent them.  Created: 9/6/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/6/2017.

  3. Stroke Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-29

    Worldwide, strokes are the second leading cause of death among people over 60, and they are among the leading causes of disability. In the U.S., nearly 800,000 people suffer a stroke each year. In this podcast, Dr. Sallyann King discusses ways to prevent strokes.  Created: 10/29/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/29/2014.

  4. Antibiotic therapy for preventing infections in people with acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Westendorp, Willeke F; Dippel, Diederik Wj; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J

    2018-01-22

    Stroke is the main cause of disability in high-income countries and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Infections occur frequently after stroke and may adversely affect outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of stroke may reduce the incidence of infections and improve outcome. In the previous version of this Cochrane Review, published in 2012, we found that antibiotics did reduce the risk of infection but did not reduce the number of dependent or deceased patients. However, included studies were small and heterogeneous. In 2015, two large clinical trials were published, warranting an update of this Review. To assess the effectiveness and safety of preventive antibiotic therapy in people with ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. We wished to determine whether preventive antibiotic therapy in people with acute stroke:• reduces the risk of a poor functional outcome (dependency and/or death) at follow-up;• reduces the occurrence of infections in the acute phase of stroke;• reduces the occurrence of elevated body temperature (temperature ≥ 38° C) in the acute phase of stroke;• reduces length of hospital stay; or• leads to an increased rate of serious adverse events, such as anaphylactic shock, skin rash, or colonisation with antibiotic-resistant micro-organisms. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (25 June 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 5; 25 June 2017) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE Ovid (1950 to 11 May 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 11 May 2017). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished, and ongoing trials, we searched trials and research registers, scanned reference lists, and contacted trial authors, colleagues, and researchers in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of preventive antibiotic therapy versus control (placebo or open control) in people with acute ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. Two review authors independently selected

  5. Prevention and management of stroke in sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kilinç

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sickle Cell Disease(SCD is one of the most common hemoglobinopathies in the world which causes stroke. The management of stroke depends on the manifestations and the age of the patient. Especially in childhood, anatomic and physiological abnormalities of CNS may be a predisposing factors. Stroke mostly affects the distal segments of the Internal Carotid Artery, but also middle and anterior segments of the cerebral arteries are involved. The most important predisposing factors are the arterial malformations, stenosis and obstructions in cranial arteries, generally involving Internal Carotid Artery, frequently Proximal Middle Cerebral or Anterior Cerebral Arteries. After infarcts at brain vessels, most frequent clinical findings are hemiparesis or hemiplegia, impaired speech, focal seizures, gait disturbances. Risk factors for predisposing stroke are prior transient ischemia, baseline Hb decrease, acute chest sydrome within previous two weeks, systolic blood pressure rises, leucocyte increases. The patient with silent stroke or transient ischemic attacks may be asymptomatic or without neurological symptoms. Neuroimaging abnormalities may be seen without significant clinical findings in children with SCD. We talk about silent stroke if there are neuroradiological abnormalities without clinical findings. Children with silent strokes are more prone to new strokes. If there is a significant stroke a ischemic stroke often present with focal neurological signs and symptoms. If patient is asymptomatic or have suspected stroke, first step may be performance of Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography (TCD. Children with time-averaged mean velocity (TAMV, measured in Middle Carotid Artery or in distal internal carotid Artery abnormally elevated, defined as TAMV≥200cm/sec, have sixfold increase for stroke than those with normal TAMV≤170cm/sec. For these patients under the risk of stroke, chronic blood transfusion is recommended for prevention of primary

  6. Stroke survivors' endorsement of a "stress belief model" of stroke prevention predicts control of risk factors for recurrent stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Alison; Tuhrim, Stanley; Kronish, Ian M; Horowitz, Carol R

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions that stress causes and stress-reduction controls hypertension have been associated with poorer blood pressure (BP) control in hypertension populations. The current study investigated these "stress-model perceptions" in stroke survivors regarding prevention of recurrent stroke and the influence of these perceptions on patients' stroke risk factor control. Stroke and transient ischemic attack survivors (N=600) participated in an in-person interview in which they were asked about their beliefs regarding control of future stroke; BP and cholesterol were measured directly after the interview. Counter to expectations, patients who endorsed a "stress-model" but not a "medication-model" of stroke prevention were in better control of their stroke risk factors (BP and cholesterol) than those who endorsed a medication-model but not a stress-model of stroke prevention (OR for poor control=.54, Wald statistic=6.07, p=.01). This result was not explained by between group differences in patients' reported medication adherence. The results have implications for theory and practice, regarding the role of stress belief models and acute cardiac events, compared to chronic hypertension.

  7. Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention: Data Trends & Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention's Data Trends & Maps online tool allows searching for and view of health indicators related to Heart...

  8. Association of Osteopontin, Neopterin, and Myeloperoxidase With Stroke Risk in Patients With Prior Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attacks: Results of an Analysis of 13 Biomarkers From the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Peter; Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Sillesen, Henrik; Bao, Weihang; Preston, Gregory M; Welch, K Michael A

    2017-12-01

    Established risk factors do not fully identify patients at risk for recurrent stroke. The SPARCL trial (Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels) evaluated the effect of atorvastatin on stroke risk in patients with a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease. This analysis explored the relationships between 13 plasma biomarkers assessed at trial enrollment and the occurrence of outcome strokes. We conducted a case-cohort study of 2176 participants; 562 had outcome strokes and 1614 were selected randomly from those without outcome strokes. Time to stroke was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models. There was no association between time to stroke and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 , monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, resistin, matrix metalloproteinase-9, N-terminal fragment of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, or soluble CD40 ligand. In adjusted analyses, osteopontin (hazard ratio per SD change, 1.362; P strokes. After adjustment for the Stroke Prognostic Instrument-II and treatment, osteopontin, neopterin, and myeloperoxidase remained independently associated with outcome strokes. The addition of these 3 biomarkers to Stroke Prognostic Instrument-II increased the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve by 0.023 ( P =0.015) and yielded a continuous net reclassification improvement (29.1%; P stroke and improved risk classification when added to a clinical risk algorithm. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT00147602. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Dabigatran in the secondary prevention of stroke: an evidence-based evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng CHEN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the efficiency, safety and indications of dabigatran for the secondary prevention of stroke.  Methods Taking dabigatran, stroke, ischemia, hemorrhagic, TIA, transient ischemic attack, prevention, secondary prevention, treatment as search terms, retrieve in databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library, assisted by manual searching, in order to collect relevant literatures including clinical guidelines, systematic reviews (including Meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials (RCTs, retrospective case analyses, case-observation studies and reviews. Jadad Scale was applied for scoring clinical researches while PRISMA statement was for evaluating the quality of systematic reviews (including Meta-analyses and reviews.  Results A total of 23 articles were selected out of 1067 search results, in which 2 clinical guidelines, 6 systematic reviews (including Meta-analyses and reviews, 8 RCTs, 3 retrospective case analyses, and 4 case-observation studies were enrolled. According to the Jadad Scale, 8 clinical studies were evaluated as high-quality literature (score ≥ 4, and the remaining 7 were low-quality literature (score < 4. All of systematic reviews (including Meta-analyses and reviews were of high quality. The results were as follows: 1 the use of dabigatran in stroke patients, especially Asian patients, with non-valvular atrial fibrillation showed no inferior efficiency and lower risk for major bleeding for the secondary prevention of stroke than warfarin, while the elder should be given lower dosage and blood concentration of drug might be in need of monitoring. 2 Applying dabigatran for the secondary prevention of stroke in patients with mechanical valve replacement must be cautious. Insufficient evidence had shown its inferiority in both efficiency and safety when compared to warfarin. 3 Large-scale clinical trials are needed to provide evidence for the application of dabigatran in valvular heart

  10. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: findings from Tuscan FADOI Stroke Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Masotti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite vitamin K antagonists (VKAs are considered the first choice treatment for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF, literature shows their underuse in this context. Since data about VKAs use prior and after acute stroke lack, the aim of this study was to focus on management of anticoagulation with VKAs in this context. Data were retrieved from Tuscan FADOI Stroke Registry, an online data bank aimed to report on characteristics of stroke patients consecutively admitted in Internal Medicine wards in 2010 and 2011. In this period 819 patients with mean age 76.5±12.3 years were enrolled. Data on etiology were available for 715 of them (88.1%, 87% being ischemic and 13% hemorrhagic strokes. AF was present in 238 patients (33%, 165 (69.3% having a known AF before hospitalization, whereas 73 patients (31.7% received a new diagnosis of AF. A percentage of 89% of strokes in patients with known AF were ischemic and 11% hemorrhagic. A percentage of 86.7% of patients with known AF had a CHADS2 ≥2, but only 28.3% were on VKAs before hospitalization. A percentage of 78.8% of patients treated with VKAs before stroke had an international normalized ratio (INR ≤2.0; 68.7% of patients with VKAs-related hemorrhagic strokes had INR ≤3.0. Combined endpoint mortality or severe disability in patients with ischemic stroke associated with AF was present in 47%, while it was present in 19.30% and 19.20% of atherothrombotic and lacunar strokes, respectively. At hospital discharge, VKAs were prescribed in 25.9% of AF related ischemic stroke patients. AF related strokes are burdened by severe outcome but VKAs are dramatically underused in patients with AF, even in higher risk patients. Efforts to improve anticoagulation in this stroke subtype are warranted.

  11. Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes complications - heart; Coronary artery disease - diabetes; CAD - diabetes; Cerebrovascular disease - diabetes ... People with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure and high ...

  12. Dietary Polyphenols in the Prevention of Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Tressera-Rimbau, A.; Arranz, S.; Eder, M.; Vallverdú-Queralt, A.

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols have an important protective role against a number of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, brain dysfunction, stroke, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death worldwide: more people die annually from cardiovascular diseases than from any other cause. The most important behavioural risk factors of heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excess alcohol intake. The dietary consumption of po...

  13. A combined role of calcium channel blockers and angiotensin receptor blockers in stroke prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Guang Wang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Guang WangCentre for Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The importance of lowering blood pressure for reducing the risk of stroke is well established. However, not all the benefits of antihypertensive treatments in stroke can be accounted for by reductions in BP and there may be differences between antihypertensive classes as to which provides optimal protection. Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, such as amlodipine, and angiotensin receptor blockers, such as valsartan, represent the two antihypertensive drug classes with the strongest supportive data for the prevention of stroke. Therefore, when combination therapy is required, a combination of these two antihypertensive classes represents a logical approach.Keywords: stroke, angiotensin, calcium channel, cerebrovascular, hypertension, blood pressure

  14. A New Model for Secondary Prevention of Stroke: TRAnsition Coaching for Stroke (TRACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl eBushnell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-adherence to stroke prevention medications is a risk factor for first-ever and recurrent stroke. As of yet, there are no guidelines for processes to recognize and address medication non-adherence in stroke patients. We developed a new model of post-discharge prevention care that measures and addresses medication-taking (TRAnsition Coaching for Stroke or TRACS. TRACS includes personalized education about risk factors and medications prior to discharge, follow-up telephone calls, and appointments with a stroke nurse practitioner (NP. The stroke NP asks about medication use (persistence and whether doses are missed (adherence, and helps to solve problems with access to medications or side effects. In an analysis of 142 patients enrolled in TRACS from October 2012 to February 2014, medication persistence (use of medications from discharge to the time of measurement was about 80%. Medication persistence at NP visit was higher in those patients with a first-ever stroke (78.9 % vs those with recurrent stroke (60.7 %; p=0.045. Concerted efforts with 2-day RN follow-up calls and earlier NP appointments to improve medication-taking behaviors are underway.

  15. Comparison of antiplatelet regimens in secondary stroke prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christine Benn; Pallisgaard, Jannik; Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with ischemic stroke of non-cardioembolic origin, acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel, or a combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole are recommended for the prevention of a recurrent stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of bleeding or recurrent...... were calculated for each antiplatelet regimen. RESULTS: Among patients discharged after first-time ischemic stroke, 3043 patients were treated with acetylsalicylic acid, 12,295 with a combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole, and 3885 with clopidogrel. Adjusted HRs for clopidogrel versus...... the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole were 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89-1.17) for ischemic stroke and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.83-1.35) for bleeding. Adjusted HRs for acetylsalicylic acid versus the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole were 1.48 (95% CI: 1.31-1.67) for stroke...

  16. Microalgae for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Maria Filomena de Jesus; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo

    2015-03-15

    This review focuses on and discusses the primary phytochemicals present in microalgal biomass - carotenoids, phenolic compounds, antioxidant vitamins, sterols, and polyunsaturated fatty acids - and also on the exopolysaccharides, which are produced by some types of microalgae and may play a significant role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and strokes. We have listed several preclinical trials and clinical studies supporting the health benefits that most of these compounds may provide. Microalgae are very easy to grow and are not vulnerable to contaminants when grown under controlled conditions. Proper handling and growth conditions may improve the production of phytochemicals. Therefore, they may represent an excellent source of nutraceuticals and food supplements once their safety as a food supplement has been confirmed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary Polyphenols in the Prevention of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tressera-Rimbau

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols have an important protective role against a number of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, brain dysfunction, stroke, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death worldwide: more people die annually from cardiovascular diseases than from any other cause. The most important behavioural risk factors of heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excess alcohol intake. The dietary consumption of polyphenols has shown to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality by cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. It is well-known that the protective effects of polyphenols in vivo depend on the grade how they are extracted from food and on their intestinal absorption, metabolism, and biological action with target tissues. The aim of this review was to summarise the relation between polyphenols of different plant sources and stroke in human intervention studies, animal models, and in vitro studies.

  18. Dietary Polyphenols in the Prevention of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, M.

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols have an important protective role against a number of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, brain dysfunction, stroke, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death worldwide: more people die annually from cardiovascular diseases than from any other cause. The most important behavioural risk factors of heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excess alcohol intake. The dietary consumption of polyphenols has shown to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality by cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. It is well-known that the protective effects of polyphenols in vivo depend on the grade how they are extracted from food and on their intestinal absorption, metabolism, and biological action with target tissues. The aim of this review was to summarise the relation between polyphenols of different plant sources and stroke in human intervention studies, animal models, and in vitro studies. PMID:29204249

  19. New possibilities in the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Anatolyevich Parfenov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the data available in the literature on the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF. Until recently, mainly warfarin was noted to be used to prevent stroke in AF, which required regulatory laboratory (hematological control. The authors give the results of the RE-LY trial that compared the efficacy of the new thrombin inhibitor dabigatran (pradax in a dose of 150 or 110 mg twice daily and warfarin. The trial has indicated that the use of dabigatran in a dose of 150 mg twice daily results in a reduction in the rate of stroke and systemic embolism as compared to that with warfarin treatment. The administration of dabigatran in a dose of 150 or 110 mg twice daily decreases the rate of deaths from all cases, life-threatening hemorrhages, and hemorrhagic stroke as compared to that of warfarin. The prospects for using different doses of dabigatran in AF patients with prior ischemic stroke (IS or transient ischemic attack (TIA are discussed. In our country, most patients with prior IS or TIA in the presence of AF do not take warfarin due to the difficulty of regulatory laboratory control, the introduction of dabigatran into neurological care may increase the number of patients receiving effective anticoagulant therapy to prevent re-stroke.

  20. Evidence-based evaluation of the primary prevention of stroke in migraineurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan LIN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the evidence of migraine increasing the risk of stroke, so as to provide evidence-based foundation for primary prevention of stroke in patients with migraine.  Methods Taking migraine or migraine with aura, prevention and control, ischemia, hemorrhagic stroke, treatment or therapy as search terms, retrieve in databases such as PubMed and ScienceDirect, assisted by manual searching, in order to collect relevant literatures including clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, Meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, retrospective case analysis, case-observation studies and reviews. Jadad Scale was used to evaluate the quality of literature.  Results Twenty-four related articles were finally selected, including 5 clinical guidelines, 2 systematic reviews, 4 Meta-analyses, 2 randomized controlled trials, 10 case-observation studies and 1 review. Among them 20 were of high quality, while 4 were of low quality. The results were as follows: 1 migraine, particularly migraine with aura, significantly increased the risk of ischemic stroke, and the risk of women was higher than men. Smoking and oral contraceptives further increased the risk of stroke. 2 The risk of hemorrhagic stroke in migraine with aura patients was higher than that in general population. Migraine without aura did not appear to increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke, and migraine was an independent risk factor for aneurysm rupture. 3 Frequency of migraine attacks, especially migraine with aura, and risk of ischemic stroke was positively correlated. 4 Patent foramen ovale (PFO was more common in young patients with cryptogenic stroke and migraineurs. However, closure of PFO was not indicated for preventing stroke in migraineurs. 5 Triptans, which was used to treat acute migraine, with a vasoconstrictor effect, may increase the risk of stroke, therefore prophylactic treatment of migraine was very important.  Conclusions Smoking

  1. Effects of a Stroke Primary Prevention Program on Risk Factors for At-Home Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Mi Yang; Jeong, HyeonCheol

    2015-01-01

    Background To prevent stroke from occurring, stroke risk factors in at-risk subjects should be controlled and the diseases causing stroke should be managed. This study evaluated a nursing intervention to prevent stroke in at-risk elderly living at home. The program consisted of stroke and nutrition education as well as exercise guidance. Material/Methods This study targeted 93 elderly people living at home residing in E province with 1 or more stroke risk factors, including high blood pressur...

  2. Ethnic differences in ischemic stroke subtypes in young-onset stroke: the Stroke Prevention in Young Adults Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Megh M; Ryan, Kathleen A; Cole, John W

    2015-10-29

    Prior studies indicate that young African-Americans (AA) have a greater frequency of ischemic stroke than similarly aged European-Americans (EA). We hypothesized that differences in stroke subtype frequency mediated through sex and differing risk factor profiles may play a role in ethnicity-specific stroke. Utilizing our biracial young-onset stroke population, we explored these relationships. Fifty nine hospitals in the Baltimore-Washington area participated in a population-based study of young-onset stroke in men (218-AA, 291-EA) and women (219-AA, 222-EA) aged 16-49. Data on age, sex, ethnicity and stroke risk factors (hypertension (HTN) and smoking) were gathered through standardized interview. A pair of vascular neurologists adjudicated each case to determine TOAST subtype. Logistic regression analyses evaluating for differences in stroke risk factors by TOAST subtype were performed. Analyses controlling for age and sex demonstrated that AA were more likely to have a lacunar stroke than EA (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.12-2.32; p = 0.011) when utilizing the other TOAST subtypes as the reference group. This effect was mediated by HTN, which increases the risk of lacunar stroke (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.38-2.98; p = 0.0003) and large artery stroke (OR = 1.70; 95% CI = 1.01-2.88; p = 0.048) when controlling for sex, ethnicity, and age. Cases below age 40 were more likely to have a cardioembolic stroke than those above age 40 (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.15-2.27; p = 0.006), controlling for sex and ethnicity. Lastly, current smokers were more likely to have a large artery stroke than non-smokers (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.08-2.98; p = 0.024). Our population-based data demonstrate ethnic differences in ischemic stroke subtypes. These findings may help clarify mechanisms of stroke in young adults which may in part be driven by ethnic-specific differences in early-onset traditional risk factors, thereby indicating differing emphasis on workup and prevention.

  3. Imaging findings and referral outcomes of rapid assessment stroke clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, E.; Manuel, D.; Hodgson, T.J.; Connolly, D.J.A.; Coley, S.C.; Romanowski, C.A.J.; Gaines, P.; Cleveland, T.; Thomas, S.; Griffiths, P.D.; Doyle, C.; Venables, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: A rapid assessment stroke clinic (RASC) was established to provide a rapid diagnostic service to individuals with suspected transient cerebral or ocular ischaemia or recovered non-hospitalized strokes. In this report we review imaging findings and clinical outcomes of patients proceeding to the carotid surgery programme. METHODS: Between October 2000 and December 2002, 1339 people attended the RASC. The findings of head CT and carotid Doppler ultrasound of the 1320 patients who underwent brain and carotid imaging were reviewed, and the number subsequently proceeding to carotid angiography and intervention was reported. RESULTS: CT head scans were normal in 57% of cases; 38% demonstrated ischaemia or infarction; and 3% yielded incidental or other significant findings not related to ischaemia. On screening with carotid Doppler ultrasound, 7.5% showed greater than 50% stenosis on the symptomatic side. A total of 83 patients (6.2%) proceeded to cerebral angiography and 65 (4.8%) underwent carotid endarterectomy or endovascular repair. CONCLUSION: Rapid-access neurovascular clinics are efficient in selecting patients for carotid intervention, but this is at a cost and the number of potential strokes prevented is small. Alternative management pathways based on immediate medical treatment need to be evaluated

  4. Benefits of clinical facilitators on improving stroke care in acute hospitals: a new programme for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Tara; Moss, Karen; Francis, Linda; Borschmann, Karen; Kilkenny, Monique F; Denisenko, Sonia; Bladin, Christopher F; Cadilhac, Dominique A

    2017-07-01

    Care gaps for stroke lead to preventable disability and deaths. The Victorian State Government implemented a programme of employing clinical Facilitators on a fixed-term basis for up to 3 years (2008-2011) in eight hospitals to improve stroke care. The Facilitators were to establish stroke units where absent, implement evidence-based management protocols and provide staff education within an agreed work plan. To determine if the Facilitator role was associated with improved stroke care and to describe factors supporting or mitigating enhancements to care. A mixed methods design was employed with historical control using patient-level audit data (pre-Facilitator: n = 600; post-Facilitator: n = 387) and qualitative data from independently conducted semistructured interviews with hospital staff, including clinicians, executives and facilitators (n = 10 focus groups; 75 respondents). Stroke units, clinical pathways and outpatient clinics for managing transient ischaemic attacks (TIA) were established. Compared with the pre-Facilitator period, significant increases in patient access to stroke unit care (53% vs 86%, P team motivation and cohesiveness and increasing interest in stroke care. Ongoing barriers included limited resources to operate TIA clinics effectively, staff turnover requiring ongoing education, inconsistency in compliance with protocols and, in some hospitals, the need for formalised medical leadership. Fixed-term employment of Facilitators was effective in positively influencing stroke care in hospitals through a range of change management strategies where stroke-specific expertise had been previously limited. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Research progress of primary prevention for stroke: reports from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-dan TU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese researchers have published some studies in English journals in the past 2 years. These studies focused on status and costs of primary prevention for stroke, warfarin for atrial fibrillation (AF, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI and angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blocker (ARB for diabetes mellitus, vitamin B supplementation for reducing plasm homocysteine level and the risk of cerebrovascular disease, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C levels and asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis, and Qigong exercises for the prevention of stroke. In this review, we outline the data on primary prevention for stroke and review the risk factors and their management. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.01.004

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea as an Independent Stroke Risk Factor: A Review of the Evidence, Stroke Prevention Guidelines, and Implications for Neuroscience Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sharon; Cuellar, Norma

    2016-06-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability affecting nearly 800,000 people in the United States every year. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is found in over 60% of patients with stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) and identified as an independent stroke risk factor in large epidemiology studies and Canadian Stroke Prevention Guidelines (SPG) but not in the United States. The 2014 Secondary SPG recommend OSA screening and treatment as a consideration only, not a requirement. The twofold purpose of this article is, first, to present the evidence supporting OSA as an independent stroke risk factor in national SPG with mandatory recommendations and, second, to engage neuroscience nurses to incorporate OSA assessment and interventions into the nursing process and thereby promote excellence in stroke/TIA patient care. A systematic literature search was conducted in Medline, CINAHL, and PubMed to identify research from 2003 through 2013 on the independent risk, mortality, and prevalence relationship between OSA and stroke/TIA including recurrence and recovery outcomes with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Twenty-eight research articles were reviewed: 14 observational cohorts, five case-control studies, four cross-sectional studies, and four randomized control trials representing 12 countries and 10,671 subjects. OSA is highly prevalent in patients with stroke/TIA independently increasing stroke risk. CPAP studies revealed reduced stroke recurrence and improved recovery with feasible initiation in stroke units. Patients with stroke/TIA have less OSA-associated daytime sleepiness and obesity, making the usual screening tools insufficient and CPAP adherence challenging. Treating OSA decreases stroke prevalence and mortality. OSA initiatives empower neuroscience nurses to integrate this OSA evidence into clinical practice and improve stroke/TIA patient outcomes.

  7. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Focus on Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Ayrton R.; Lippp, Gregory Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, with an estimated prevalence of 1-2% in North America and Europe. The increased prevalence of AF in Latin America is associated with an ageing general population, along with poor control of key risk factors, including hypertension. As a result, stroke prevalence and associated mortality have increased dramatically in the region. Therefore, the need for effective anticoagulation strategies in Latin America is clear. The aim of this review is to provide a contemporary overview of anticoagulants for stroke prevention. The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs, eg, warfarin) and aspirin in the prevention of stroke in patients with AF in Latin America remains common, although around one fifth of all AF patients receive no anticoagulation. Warfarin use is complicated by a lack of access to effective monitoring services coupled with an unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile. The overuse of aspirin is associated with significant bleeding risks and reduced efficacy for stroke prevention in this patient group. The non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACbs) represent a potential means of overcoming many limitations associated with VKA and aspirin use, including a reduction in the need for monitoring and a reduced risk of hemorrhagic events. The ultimate decision of which anticoagulant drug to utilize in AF patients depends on a multitude of factors. More research is needed to appreciate the impact of these factors in the Latin American population and thereby reduce the burden of AF-associated stroke in this region. PMID:28558081

  8. Reducing recurrent stroke: methodology of the motivational interviewing in stroke (MIST) randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthi, Rita; Witt, Emma; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn; Davis-Martin, Kelly; Bennett, Derrick; Rush, Elaine; Suh, Flora; Starkey, Nicola; Parag, Varsha; Rathnasabapathy, Yogini; Jones, Amy; Brown, Paul; Te Ao, Braden; Feigin, Valery L

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent stroke is prevalent in both developed and developing countries, contributing significantly to disability and death. Recurrent stroke rates can be reduced by adequate risk factor management. However, adherence to prescribed medications and lifestyle changes recommended by physicians at discharge after stroke is poor, leading to a large number of preventable recurrent strokes. Using behavior change methods such as Motivational Interviewing early after stroke occurrence has the potential to prevent recurrent stroke. The overall aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of motivational interviewing in improving adherence to medication and lifestyle changes recommended by treating physicians at and after hospital discharge in stroke patients 12 months poststroke to reduce risk factors for recurrent stroke. Recruitment of 430 first-ever stroke participants will occur in the Auckland and Waikato regions. Randomization will be to intervention or usual care groups. Participants randomized to intervention will receive four motivational interviews and five follow-up assessments over 12 months. Nonintervention participants will be assessed at the same time points. Primary outcome measures are changes in systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein levels 12 months poststroke. Secondary outcomes include self-reported adherence and barriers to prescribed medications, new cardiovascular events (including stroke), changes in quality of life, and mood. The results of the motivational interviewing in stroke trial will add to our understanding of whether motivational interviewing may be potentially beneficial in the management of stroke and other diseases where similar lifestyle factors or medication adherence are relevant. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  9. Stroke Risk Perception in Atrial Fibrillation Patients is not Associated with Clinical Stroke Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournaise, Anders; Skov, Jane; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Leppin, Anja

    2015-11-01

    Clinical risk stratification models, such as the CHA2DS2-VASc, are used to assess stroke risk in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. No study has yet investigated whether and to which extent these patients have a realistic perception of their personal stroke risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the association between AF patients' stroke risk perception and clinical stroke risk. In an observational cross-sectional study design, we surveyed 178 AF patients with a mean age of 70.6 years (SD 8.3) in stable anticoagulant treatment (65% treatment duration >12 months). Clinical stroke risk was scored through the CHA2DS2-VASc, and patients rated their perceived personal stroke risk on a 7-point Likert scale. There was no significant association between clinical stroke risk assessment and patients' stroke risk perception (rho = .025; P = .741). Approximately 60% of the high-risk patients had an unrealistic perception of their own stroke risk, and there was no significant increase in risk perception from those with a lower compared with a higher risk factor load (χ(2) = .010; P = .522). Considering possible negative implications in terms of lack of motivation for lifestyle behavior change and adequate adherence to the treatment and monitoring of vitamin K antagonist, the apparent underestimation of risk by large subgroups warrants attention and needs further investigation with regard to possible behavioral consequences. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Weight reduction for primary prevention of stroke in adults with overweight or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioni, C; André, C; Veras, R

    2006-10-18

    Obesity is seen as a worldwide chronic disease with high prevalence that has been associated with increased morbidity from many conditions including stroke, which is the third leading cause of death in developed countries and a leading cause of severe long-term disability. The causal association between overweight or obesity and stroke is unclear and there is no definite study clarifying the role of obesity treatment in the prevention of a first stroke (primary prevention). Given the prevalence of stroke and the enormous health and economic cost of the disease, it is important to establish the possible impact of weight reduction per se on stroke incidence. To assess the effects of weight reduction in people with overweight or obesity on stroke incidence. MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, LILACS, databases of ongoing trials and reference lists were used to identify relevant trials. The last search was conducted in April 2006. Randomised controlled trials comparing any intervention for weight reduction (single or combined) with placebo or no intervention in overweight or obese people. No trials were found in the literature for inclusion in this review. There are currently no results to be reported. Obesity seems to be associated with an increased risk of stroke and it has been suggested that weight loss may lead to a reduction of stroke occurrence. However, this hypothesis is not based on strong scientific evidence resulting from randomised controlled clinical trials. This systematic review identified the urgent need for well-designed, adequately-powered, multi centre randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of weight reduction in persons with overweight or obesity on stroke occurrence.

  11. New oral anticoagulants in the prevention of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Jarząbek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is associated with a few folds higher risk of stroke. Traditional vitamin K antagonists used in the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation are often not efficient enough due to their interactions with a broad range of substances including medicines or food ingridients and problems with monitoring the treatment. New oral anticoagulants pose an alternative for the vitamin K antagonists. They are equally efficient in the prevention of stroke, but are safer and have no requirement for routine coagulation monitoring. We present a case of a patient with atrial fibrillation, high risk of tromboembolism and recurring episodes of hemorrhages. Considering the possible complications, rivaroxaban was administered.

  12. Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-03

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. More than 800,000 Americans die each year from heart disease and stroke. Learn how to manage all the major risk factors.  Created: 9/3/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/3/2013.

  13. Quality of stroke prevention in general practice: relationship with practice organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, Johan S.; Klazinga, Niek; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Prins, A. D.; Borsboom, Gerard J. J. M.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between elements of practice organization related to stroke prevention in general practice, and suboptimal preventive care preceding the occurrence of stroke. Design. This study was conducted among 69 Dutch general practitioners in the Rotterdam region.

  14. Quality of stroke prevention in general practice: relationship with practice organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. de Koning (Johan); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); A. Prins (Ad); G.J.J.M. Borsboom (Gerard); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between elements of practice organization related to stroke prevention in general practice, and suboptimal preventive care preceding the occurrence of stroke. DESIGN: This study was conducted among 69 Dutch general practitioners in the

  15. Neuromuscular stimulation after stroke: from technology to clinical deployment.

    OpenAIRE

    IJzerman, M.J.; Renzenbrink, G.J.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, electrical or neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used to support the rehabilitation of stroke patients. One of the earliest applications of NMES included the use of external muscle stimulation to correct drop-foot after stroke. During the last few decades various clinical applications have been used for the upper and lower limb. Despite a growing body of literature on the use of NMES, its application in stroke is still limited to a few clinical groups ...

  16. Beyond Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Exploring Further Unmet Needs with Rivaroxaban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C M; Hankey, G J; Nafee, T; Welsh, R C

    2018-03-22

    With improved life expectancy and the aging population, the global burden of atrial fibrillation (AF) continues to increase, and with AF comes an estimated fivefold increased risk of ischaemic stroke. Prophylactic anticoagulant therapy is more effective in reducing the risk of ischaemic stroke in AF patients than acetylsalicylic acid or dual-antiplatelet therapy combining ASA with clopidogrel. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are the standard of care for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular AF. The optimal anticoagulant strategy to prevent thromboembolism in AF patients who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and stenting, those who have undergone successful transcatheter aortic valve replacement and those with embolic stroke of undetermined source are areas of ongoing research. This article provides an update on three randomized controlled trials of rivaroxaban, a direct, oral factor Xa inhibitor, that are complete or are ongoing, in these unmet areas of stroke prevention: oPen-label, randomized, controlled, multicentre study explorIng twO treatmeNt stratEgiEs of Rivaroxaban and a dose-adjusted oral vitamin K antagonist treatment strategy in patients with Atrial Fibrillation who undergo Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PIONEER AF-PCI) trial; the New Approach riVaroxaban Inhibition of factor Xa in a Global trial vs Aspirin to prevenT Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (NAVIGATE ESUS) trial and the Global study comparing a rivAroxaban-based antithrombotic strategy to an antipLatelet-based strategy after transcatheter aortIc vaLve rEplacement to Optimize clinical outcomes (GALILEO) trial. The data from these studies are anticipated to help address continuing challenges for a range of patients at risk of stroke. Schattauer.

  17. High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Giordano, Nunzia; Rapisarda, Valentina; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    This research was aimed at clarifying whether high dietary fiber intake has an impact on incidence and risk of stroke at a population level. In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study, using other dietary variables, anagraphics, biometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, uricaemia, fibrinogenaemia, erytrosedimentation rate, diabetes, insulin resistance, smoking, pulmonary disease and left ventricular hypertrophy as covariables. In adjusted Cox models, high DFI reduced the risk of stroke. In analysis based on quintiles of fiber intake adjusted for confounders, HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively). Higher dietary DFI is inversely and independently associated to incidence and risk of stroke in general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Which Patent Foramen Ovales Need Closure to Prevent Cryptogenic Strokes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, James E; Alpert, Joseph S

    2018-03-01

    Patients with cryptogenic strokes are more likely to have a patent foremen ovale than in the general population. It is speculated that these strokes are due to paradoxical embolism, that is, passage of a venous thrombus across the patent foremen ovale to enter the arterial circulation, resulting in an embolic stroke. Venous thromboembolism is rarely present in these cases of cryptogenic stroke. Thousands of patients with cryptogenic strokes have undergone transcatheter closure of their patent foremen ovale via a variety of devices. The first 3 randomized clinical trials comparing patent foremen ovale closure with medical therapy failed to show a significant advantage of patent foremen ovale closure. Three additional trials reported in 2017 had longer years of follow-up and demonstrated an advantage of patent foremen ovale closure versus medical therapy. Analysis of their data indicated that patent foremen ovale closure in patients with an atrial septal aneurysm in addition to a patent foremen ovale had a very significant decrease in cryptogenic strokes (P patent foremen ovale closure (P = .37). Aneurysms of the atrial septum are easily recognized by echocardiography and are present in approximately one-third of patients with patent foremen ovales. These data suggest that closure of patent foremen ovales in patients with an atrial septal aneurysm is indicated. In patients with a patent foremen ovale without an aneurysm of the atrial septum, patent foremen ovale closure is not indicated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stroke outreach in an inner city market: A platform for identifying African American males for stroke prevention interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjail Zarinah Sharrief

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: There are significant racial disparities in stroke incidence and mortality. Health fairs and outreach programs can be used to increase stroke literacy, but they often fail to reach those at highest risk, including African American males. Methods: We conducted a stroke outreach and screening program at an inner city market in order to attract a high-risk group for a stroke education intervention. A modified Framingham risk tool was used to estimate stroke risk and a 10-item quiz was developed to assess stroke literacy among 80 participants. We report results of the demographic and stroke risk analyses and stroke knowledge assessment. Results: The program attracted a majority male (70% and African American (95% group of participants. Self-reported hypertension (57.5%, tobacco use (40%, and diabetes (23.8% were prevalent. Knowledge of stroke warning signs, risk factors, and appropriate action to take for stroke symptoms was not poor when compared to the literature. Conclusions: Stroke outreach and screening in an inner city public market may be an effective way to target a high-risk population for stroke prevention interventions. Stroke risk among participants was high despite adequate stroke knowledge.

  20. Stroke Outreach in an Inner City Market: A Platform for Identifying African American Males for Stroke Prevention Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrief, Anjail Zarinah; Johnson, Brenda; Urrutia, Victor Cruz

    2015-01-01

    There are significant racial disparities in stroke incidence and mortality. Health fairs and outreach programs can be used to increase stroke literacy, but they often fail to reach those at highest risk, including African American males. We conducted a stroke outreach and screening program at an inner city market in order to attract a high-risk group for a stroke education intervention. A modified Framingham risk tool was used to estimate stroke risk and a 10-item quiz was developed to assess stroke literacy among 80 participants. We report results of the demographic and stroke risk analyses and stroke knowledge assessment. The program attracted a majority male (70%) and African American (95%) group of participants. Self-reported hypertension (57.5%), tobacco use (40%), and diabetes (23.8%) were prevalent. Knowledge of stroke warning signs, risk factors, and appropriate action to take for stroke symptoms was not poor when compared to the literature. Stroke outreach and screening in an inner city public market may be an effective way to target a high-risk population for stroke prevention interventions. Stroke risk among participants was high despite adequate stroke knowledge.

  1. Short-duration hypothermia after ischemic stroke prevents delayed intracranial pressure rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, L A; McLeod, D D; McCann, S K; Pepperall, D; Chung, S; Levi, C R; Calford, M B; Spratt, N J

    2014-07-01

    Intracranial pressure elevation, peaking three to seven post-stroke is well recognized following large strokes. Data following small-moderate stroke are limited. Therapeutic hypothermia improves outcome after cardiac arrest, is strongly neuroprotective in experimental stroke, and is under clinical trial in stroke. Hypothermia lowers elevated intracranial pressure; however, rebound intracranial pressure elevation and neurological deterioration may occur during rewarming. (1) Intracranial pressure increases 24 h after moderate and small strokes. (2) Short-duration hypothermia-rewarming, instituted before intracranial pressure elevation, prevents this 24 h intracranial pressure elevation. Long-Evans rats with two hour middle cerebral artery occlusion or outbred Wistar rats with three hour middle cerebral artery occlusion had intracranial pressure measured at baseline and 24 h. Wistars were randomized to 2·5 h hypothermia (32·5°C) or normothermia, commencing 1 h after stroke. In Long-Evans rats (n = 5), intracranial pressure increased from 10·9 ± 4·6 mmHg at baseline to 32·4 ± 11·4 mmHg at 24 h, infarct volume was 84·3 ± 15·9 mm(3) . In normothermic Wistars (n = 10), intracranial pressure increased from 6·7 ± 2·3 mmHg to 31·6 ± 9·3 mmHg, infarct volume was 31·3 ± 18·4 mm(3) . In hypothermia-treated Wistars (n = 10), 24 h intracranial pressure did not increase (7·0 ± 2·8 mmHg, P intracranial pressure elevation 24 h after stroke in two rat strains, even after small strokes. Short-duration hypothermia prevented the intracranial pressure rise, an effect sustained for at least 18 h after rewarming. The findings have potentially important implications for design of future clinical trials. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of percutaneous patent foramen ovale closure as secondary stroke prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirschwell, David L; Turner, Mark; Thaler, David; Choulerton, James; Marks, David; Carroll, John; MacDonald, Lee; Smalling, Richard W; Koullick, Maria; Gu, Ning Yan; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2018-04-13

    Compared to medical therapy alone, percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) further reduces risk of recurrent ischemic strokes in carefully selected young to middle-aged patients with a recent cryptogenic ischemic stroke. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this therapy in the context of the United Kingdom (UK) healthcare system. A Markov cohort model consisting of four health states (Stable after index stroke, Post-Minor Recurrent Stroke, Post-Moderate Recurrent Stroke, and Death) was developed to simulate the economic outcomes of device-based PFO closure compared to medical therapy. Recurrent stroke event rates were extracted from a randomized clinical trial (RESPECT) with a median of 5.9-year follow-up. Health utilities and costs were obtained from published sources. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) were performed to assess robustness. The model was discounted at 3.5% and reported in 2016 Pounds Sterling. Compared with medical therapy alone and using a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of £20,000, PFO closure reached cost-effectiveness at 4.2 years. Cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) at 4, 10, and 20 years were ₤20,951, ₤6,887, and ₤2,158, respectively. PFO closure was cost-effective for 89% of PSA iterations at year 10. Sensitivity analyses showed that the model was robust. Considering the UK healthcare system perspective, percutaneous PFO closure in cryptogenic ischemic stroke patients is a cost-effective stroke prevention strategy compared to medical therapy alone. Its cost-effectiveness was driven by substantial reduction in recurrent strokes and patients' improved health-related quality-of-life.

  3. Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Silent Cerebrovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric E; Saposnik, Gustavo; Biessels, Geert Jan; Doubal, Fergus N; Fornage, Myriam; Gorelick, Philip B; Greenberg, Steven M; Higashida, Randall T; Kasner, Scott E; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-02-01

    Two decades of epidemiological research shows that silent cerebrovascular disease is common and is associated with future risk for stroke and dementia. It is the most common incidental finding on brain scans. To summarize evidence on the diagnosis and management of silent cerebrovascular disease to prevent stroke, the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association convened a writing committee to evaluate existing evidence, to discuss clinical considerations, and to offer suggestions for future research on stroke prevention in patients with 3 cardinal manifestations of silent cerebrovascular disease: silent brain infarcts, magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, and cerebral microbleeds. The writing committee found strong evidence that silent cerebrovascular disease is a common problem of aging and that silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities are associated with future symptomatic stroke risk independently of other vascular risk factors. In patients with cerebral microbleeds, there was evidence of a modestly increased risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients treated with thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke but little prospective evidence on the risk of symptomatic hemorrhage in patients on anticoagulation. There were no randomized controlled trials targeted specifically to participants with silent cerebrovascular disease to prevent stroke. Primary stroke prevention is indicated in patients with silent brain infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, or microbleeds. Adoption of standard terms and definitions for silent cerebrovascular disease, as provided by prior American Heart Association/American Stroke Association statements and by a consensus group, may facilitate diagnosis and communication of findings from radiologists to clinicians. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in East Asian patients from the ROCKET AF trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Sing Lawrence; Hu, Dai Yi; Oomman, Abraham; Tan, Ru-San; Patel, Manesh R; Singer, Daniel E; Breithardt, Günter; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Becker, Richard C; Califf, Robert; Fox, Keith A A; Berkowitz, Scott D; Hacke, Werner; Hankey, Graeme J

    2014-06-01

    In Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibitor Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial, rivaroxaban was noninferior to dose-adjusted warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at moderate to high stroke risk. Because of differences in patient demographics, epidemiology, and stroke risk management in East Asia, outcomes and relative effects of rivaroxaban versus warfarin were assessed to determine consistency among East Asians versus other ROCKET AF participants. Baseline demographics and interaction of treatment effects of rivaroxaban and warfarin among patients within East Asia and outside were assessed. A total of 932 (6.5%) ROCKET AF participants resided in East Asia. At baseline, East Asians had lower weight, creatinine clearance, and prior vitamin K antagonist use; higher prevalence of prior stroke; and less congestive heart failure and prior myocardial infarction than other participants. Despite higher absolute event rates for efficacy and safety outcomes in East Asians, the relative efficacy of rivaroxaban (20 mg once daily; 15 mg once daily for creatinine clearance of 30-49 mL/min) versus warfarin with respect to the primary efficacy end point (stroke/systemic embolism) was consistent among East Asians and non-East Asians (interaction P=0.666). Relative event rates for the major or nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding in patients treated with rivaroxaban and warfarin were consistent among East Asians and non-East Asians (interaction P=0.867). Observed relative efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin were similar among patients within and outside East Asia. Rivaroxaban, 20 mg once daily, is an alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in East Asians with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. B vitamins in stroke prevention: time to reconsider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J David; Yi, Qilong; Hankey, Graeme J

    2017-09-01

    B vitamin therapy lowers plasma total homocysteine concentrations, and might be a beneficial intervention for stroke prevention; however, cyanocobalamin (a form of vitamin B12) can accelerate decline in renal function and increase the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with impaired renal function. Although early trials did not show benefit in reduction of stroke, these results might have been due to harm in participants with impaired renal function. In patients with diabetic nephropathy, cyanocobalamin is harmful, whereas B vitamins appear to reduce cardiovascular events in study participants with normal renal function. Our meta-analysis of individual patient data from two large trials of B vitamin therapy (VISP and VITATOPS) indicates that patients with impaired renal function who are exposed to high-dose cyanocobalamin do not benefit from therapy with B vitamins for the prevention of stroke (risk ratio 1·04, 95% CI 0·84-1·27), however, patients with normal renal function who are not exposed to high-dose cyanocobalamin benefit significantly from this treatment (0.78, 0·67-0·90; interaction p=0·03). The potential benefits of B vitamin therapy with folic acid and methylcobalamin or hydroxycobalamin, instead of cyanocobalamin, to lower homocysteine concentrations in people at high risk of stroke warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical Cancer Genetics and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufunmilayo F. Olopade MD, FACP, Professor of Medicine and Human Genetics and Director of the Cancer Risk Clinic Department of Medicine, BSD Section of Hematology/Oncology University of Chicago, presented "Clinical Cancer Genetics and Prevention".

  7. Drug treatments in the secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Ursula G

    2013-11-01

    Stroke is an important cause of death and disability. However, about two thirds of cerebrovascular events are initially minor. They carry a high risk of potentially severe recurrent events, but they also offer an opportunity for secondary prevention to avoid such recurrences. As most recurrent events occur within a short time after the initial presentation, secondary prevention has to be started as soon as possible. Dramatic risk reduction can be achieved with well-established drugs if used in a timely manner. A standard secondary preventive regimen will address multiple vascular risk factors and will usually consist of an antiplatelet agent, a lipid lowering drug, and an antihypertensive agent. Depending on the risk factor profile of each patient, this will have to be adjusted individually, for example, taking into account the presence of cardioembolism or of stenotic disease of the brain-supplying arteries. In recent years, the approach to treating these risk factors has evolved. In addition to absolute blood pressure, blood pressure variability has emerged as an important contributing factor to stroke risk, which is affected differently by different antihypertensive agents. New oral anticoagulants reduce the risk of cerebral haemorrhage and the need for regular blood checks. The best antiplatelet regimen for stroke prevention is still uncertain, and treatment of dyslipidaemia may change if trials with cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors, which increase levels of HDL-cholesterol, are successful. This article reviews the current evidence for drug treatments in the secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thirty-day stroke mortality and associated clinical and laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although stroke mortality in developing countries is more than 85%, the case fatality in Uganda is not known. Objective We determined 30 day case fatality, associated clinical and laboratory presentations among adult stroke patients admitted to Mulago Hospital. Design Prospective descriptive study. Setting Mulago national ...

  9. Efficacy of a clinical stroke score in monitoring complications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of a clinical stroke score in monitoring complications in acute ischaemic stroke patients could be used as an independent prognostic factor. ... Onset and types of complications were documented within the duration of the study period, using a questionnaire and laboratory investigations. Results: Fifty-nine [67.8%] ...

  10. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with stroke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Epidemiological data on stroke in Zimbabwe are scarce and few clinical studies have been performed to date. Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of patients admitted for stroke during the year 2012 was performed at three tertiary hospitals. Sociodemographic data were recorded alongside ...

  11. Efficacy of Tai Chi and qigong for the prevention of stroke and stroke risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Peng, Wenbo; Ferguson, Caleb; Cramer, Holger; Frawley, Jane; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This review aims to summarize the evidence of Tai Chi and qigong interventions for the primary prevention of stroke, including the effects on populations with major stroke risk factors. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on January 16, 2017 using the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases. Randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of Tai Chi or qigong for stroke prevention and stroke risk factors were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Results: Twenty-one trials with n = 1604 patients with hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, overweight or obesity, or metabolic syndrome were included. No trials were found that examined the effects of Tai Chi/qigong on stroke incidence. Meta-analyses revealed significant, but not robust, benefits of Tai Chi/qigong over no interventions for hypertension (systolic blood pressure: −15.55 mm Hg (95% CI: −21.16; −9.95); diastolic blood pressure: −10.66 mm Hg (95% CI: −14.90, −6.43); the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index (−2.86%; 95% CI: −5.35, −0.38) and fasting blood glucose (−9.6 mg/dL; 95% CI: −17.28, −1.91), and for the body mass index compared with exercise controls (−1.65 kg/m2; 95% CI: −3.11, −0.20). Risk of bias was unclear or high for the majority of trials and domains, and heterogeneity between trials was high. Only 6 trials adequately reported safety. No recommendation for the use of Tai Chi/qigong for the prevention of stroke can be given. Conclusion: Although Tai Chi and qigong show some potential more robust studies are required to provide conclusive evidence on the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi and qigong for reducing major stroke risk factors. PMID:29137055

  12. Community-based prevention of stroke: nutritional improvement in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Y; Horie, R

    1994-01-01

    (1) To demonstrate the importance of nutrition, especially sodium restriction and increased potassium and protein intakes, in the prevention of hypertension and stroke in a pilot study involving senior citizens. (2) To design a population-based intervention in the Shimane Prefecture of Japan concerning dietary factors such as low sodium and high potassium, protein, magnesium, calcium and dietary fibre in the prevention of stroke. The intervention study was carried out at a senior citizens' residence and included general health education along with a reduction of dietary salt intake and increases in vegetable and protein, especially from seafood. Sixty-three healthy senior citizens (average age: 74.8 +/- 7.7 years) had their daily meals modified to a low sodium/potassium ratio for four weeks without their knowledge by the use of a potassium chloride substitute for salt, soy sauce and bean paste, which contains much less sodium and more potassium. Monosodium L-glutamate monohydrate used for cooking was changed to monopotassium L-glutamate monohydrate. Blood pressure was measured with the patient in the sitting position. Daily dietary sodium and potassium intakes were assessed by flame photometry from 24-hour urine specimens. Extensive intervention programs were introduced into the Shimane Prefecture, which has a population of 750,000, through health education classes for housewives, home visits by health nurses and an educational TV program for dietary improvement. The mortality from stroke was monitored for 10 years and compared with the average in Japan. The blood pressure lowering effect of reducing the dietary sodium/potassium ratio was confirmed through a pilot intervention study at the senior citizens' residence. The mortality rates for stroke in the middle-aged population from the Shimane Prefecture during the 10 years after the introduction of dietary improvement had a steeper decline in hemorrhagic, ischemic and all strokes than the average for Japan.

  13. The role of clinical pathway on the outcomes of ischemic stroke patients at Bethesda Hospital Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Diana Alexandra, Iwan Dwiprahasto, Rizaldy Pinzon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stroke becomes world health problem all over the world because it is the causal factor of high mortality and disability. Good and well-organized process of healthcare service will improve the outcome of the patients with stroke. Clinical pathway may be used as clear standard to help reduce unnecessary variations of medical treatment and measure. The study aimed at finding out the correlation between the use of clinical pathway and the outcome of the patients with ischemic stroke in Bethesda Hospital Yogyakarta. It was an observational and analytic study with cohort restorative study design. The author compared the outcomes of acute ischemic stroke between the group with clinical pathway and the group without the clinical pathway. Data was collected using consecutive sampling from the electronic registry and medical record data of the patients from January 1st, 2011 to December 31st, 2011. It was conducted to 124 patients with ischemic stroke assigned to two groups (the first groups of 62 patients with clinical pathway and the second groups of 62 patients without clinical pathway. The basic characteristics of the two groups were the same. The results of the analysis showed that there was a significant decrease in the incidence of complication and a significant increase in the use of antiplatelete drugs, antidiabetic drugs and statin as secondary preventive measure of the recurrent stroke. There was not any significant difference in the duration of the hospitalized healthcare, the financing and the mortality between the two observation groups. The study indicated that the use of the clinical pathway in the stroke treatment improved the outcome of the patients with stroke. It was necessary to conduct further study to evaluate the effectiveness of the clinical pathway in improving the outcome of the patients with bigger number of the subjects and the longer period of time.

  14. Basic and clinical research advances in ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan MA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the most common cerebrovascular disease worldwide, which seriously affects life quality of survivals and results in huge economic burden of families and society. In terms of clinical treatment for ischemic stroke, apart from thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA, the occurrence and successful application of endovascular thrombectomy in patients of ischemic stroke is a major breakthrough. Meanwhile, many novel clinical drugs for ischemic stroke therapy have entered into clinical trials. Most of basic and clinical researches have showed promising results in ischemic stroke therapy. This review mainly summarizes the progress of research during the period of Twelfth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development on treatment of ischemic stroke, including omics technologies, gene therapy, microRNA (miRNA interference and stem cell therapy. Stem cell therapy has shown great potential since many clinical trials have been completed or are ongoing. The development and mutual transformation of basic and clinical research will provide valuable and comprehensive information for the precise treatment of ischemic stroke.

  15. Stroke outcome in clinical trial patients deriving from different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Myzoon; Atula, Sari; Bath, Philip M W; Grotta, James; Hacke, Werner; Lyden, Patrick; Marler, John R; Sacco, Ralph L; Lees, Kennedy R

    2009-01-01

    Stroke incidence and outcome vary widely within and across geographical locations. We examined whether differences in index stroke severity, stroke risk factors, mortality, and stroke outcome across geographical locations remain after adjusting for case mix. We analyzed 3284 patients from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). We used logistic regression to examine the incidence of mild index stroke, functional, and neurological outcomes after accounting for age, medical history, year of trial recruitment, and initial stroke severity in the functional and neurological outcome analyses. We examined mortality between geographical regions using a Cox proportional hazards model, accounting for age, initial stroke severity, medical history, and year of trial recruitment. Patients enrolled in the USA and Canada had the most severe index strokes. Those recruited in Austria and Switzerland had the best functional and neurological outcomes at 90 days (P<0.05), whereas those enrolled in Germany had the worst functional outcome at 90 days (P=0.013). Patients enrolled in Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Finland, Germany, Greece, Israel, Spain, and Portugal had a significantly better survival rate when compared with those enrolled in USA and Canada. Patients enrolled in trials after 1998 had more severe index strokes, with no significant difference in outcome compared with those enrolled before 1998. We identified regional variations in index stroke severity, outcome, and mortality for patients enrolled in ischemic stroke clinical trials over the past 13 years that were not fully explained by case mix. Index stroke severity was greater in patients enrolled after 1998, with no significant improvement in outcomes compared to those enrolled before 1998.

  16. Real-World Use of Apixaban for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Marco; Romanazzi, Imma; Romiti, Giulio Francesco

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The use of oral anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation has been transformed by the availability of the nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants. Real-world studies on the use of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants would help elucidate...... their effectiveness and safety in daily clinical practice. Apixaban was the third nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants introduced to clinical practice, and increasing real-world studies have been published. Our aim was to summarize current evidence about real-world studies on apixaban for stroke prevention...... in atrial fibrillation. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all observational real-world studies comparing apixaban with other available oral anticoagulant drugs. RESULTS: From the original 9680 results retrieved, 16 studies have been included in the final meta-analysis. Compared...

  17. Stroke care: Experiences and clinical research in stroke units in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobindram Arjundas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: S troke is the second commonest cause of death in India with crude overall prevalence rate of 220 per 100,000. With an increasing aging population at risk, the stroke burden in India can be expected to reach epidemic proportions. Materials and Methods: The first protocol-based prospective studies, funded by private agencies was conducted in Madras Institute of Neurology in 1984-86. The results led to establishment of the first stroke unit in Tamil Nadu state, in the institute. The first all-India hospital-based studies in acute stroke was completed as INDIAN COOPERATIVE ACUTE STROKE STUDIES (ICASS I and ICASS II with WHO STEP ONE by members of the Indian Stroke Association between 2000-2005. This has generated very useful data for our country. Results: Mortality in 1984-86 was 40%. Stroke unit in the institute dropped it to 12%. About 10 years later, ICASS studies showed a further fall of mortality to 8%, which is the current international figure in the west. Morbidity pattern showed about half return to their original activities. But about one third are left totally disabled needing prolonged care, for which fiscal, social and rehab provisions have to be done on a national basis. Conclusions: The progress and success of care of Stroke in the last three decades, from treatment in medical and neurology wards to specialized stroke units is presented. The main risk factors are hypertension, diabetes and ischemic heart disease across the country. Hypertension alone or with the other two diseases was present in 72% of cases. Prevention and treatment of these factors will reduce the stroke burden, mortality and morbidity of strokes. The Stroke-team concept can be extended to the smallest hospitals in our country.

  18. Clinically significant change in stroke volume in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wolferen, Serge A; van de Veerdonk, Marielle C; Mauritz, Gert-Jan; Jacobs, Wouter; Marcus, J Tim; Marques, Koen M J; Bronzwaer, Jean G F; Heymans, Martijn W; Boonstra, Anco; Postmus, Pieter E; Westerhof, Nico; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton

    2011-05-01

    Stroke volume is probably the best hemodynamic parameter because it reflects therapeutic changes and contains prognostic information in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Stroke volume directly reflects right ventricular function in response to its load, without the correction of compensatory increased heart rate as is the case for cardiac output. For this reason, stroke volume, which can be measured noninvasively, is an important hemodynamic parameter to monitor during treatment. However, the extent of change in stroke volume that constitutes a clinically significant change is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the minimal important difference (MID) in stroke volume in PH. One hundred eleven patients were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up with a 6-min walk test (6MWT) and cardiac MRI. Using the anchor-based method with 6MWT as the anchor, and the distribution-based method, the MID of stroke volume change could be determined. After 1 year of treatment, there was, on average, a significant increase in stroke volume and 6MWT. The change in stroke volume was related to the change in 6MWT. Using the anchor-based method, an MID of 10 mL in stroke volume was calculated. The distribution-based method resulted in an MID of 8 to 12 mL. Both methods showed that a 10-mL change in stroke volume during follow-up should be considered as clinically relevant. This value can be used to interpret changes in stroke volume during clinical follow-up in PH.

  19. Statin treatment and stroke outcome in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, L.B.; Amarenco, P.; Zivin, J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Laboratory experiments suggest statins reduce stroke severity and improve outcomes. The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial was a placebo-controlled, randomized trial designed to determine whether treatment with atorvastatin reduces...... strokes in subjects with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (n=4731). We analyzed SPARCL trial data to determine whether treatment favorably shifts the distribution of severities of ischemic cerebrovascular outcomes. METHODS: Severity was assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke...... Scale, Barthel Index, and modified Rankin Scale score at enrollment (1 to 6 months after the index event) and 90 days poststroke in subjects having a stroke during the trial. RESULTS: Over 4.9 years, strokes occurred in 576 subjects. There were reductions in fatal, severe (modified Rankin Scale score 5...

  20. Antidiabetic drugs for stroke prevention in patients with type-2 diabetes. The neurologist's point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Blanca

    2018-04-13

    To date, stroke prevention in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) has been based on the control of other risk factors and comorbidities, as clinical trials aimed at intensive glycemic control have failed to prove the existence of any sort of benefit in reducing macrovascular complications. However, thanks to the FDA's requirement to evaluate the vascular risk of antidiabetic drugs, there has been significant progress in the knowledge of their benefits on the risk of vascular death, acute myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke in patients with type 2 DM and high vascular risk. This implies the need to incorporate these drugs into the overall vascular prevention strategy in patients with DM who have already suffered a stroke. This manuscript is a critical, non-systematic review on the oral antidiabetics that have demonstrated any sort of effect on stroke risk, interpreting the results of the main clinical trials from the neurologist's point of view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [Preditive clinical factors for epileptic seizures after ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukujima, M M; Cardeal, J O; Lima, J G

    1996-06-01

    Preditive clinical factors for epileptic seizures after ischemic stroke. Clinical features of 35 patients with ischemic stroke who developed epilepsy (Group 1) were compared with those of 35 patients with ischemic stroke without epilepsy (Group 2). The age of the patients did not differ between the groups. There were more men than women and more white than other races in both groups. Diabetes melitus, hypertension, transient ischemic attack, previous stroke, migraine, Chagas disease, cerebral embolism of cardiac origin and use of oral contraceptive did not differ between the groups. Smokers and alcohol users were more frequent in Group 1 (p < 0.05). Most patients of Group 1 presented with hemiparesis; none presented cerebellar or brainstem involvement. Perhaps strokes in smokers have some different aspects, that let them more epileptogenic than in non smokers.

  2. Remote Ischemic Conditioning: A Novel Non-Invasive Approach to Prevent Post-Stroke Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-stroke depression (PSD is a common neuropsychiatric complication of stroke. However, due to the high expense and side effects of pharmacotherapy and the difficult-to-achieve of psychotherapy, the prevention and treatment of PSD are still far from satisfaction. Inflammation hypothesis is now playing an essential role in the pathophysiological mechanism of PSD, and it may be a new preventive and therapeutic target. Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC is a non-invasive and easy-to-use physical strategy, which has been used to protect brain (including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, heart and many other organs in clinical trials. The underlying mechanisms of RIC include anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, immune system regulation and other potential pathways. Our hypothesis is that RIC is a novel approach to prevent PSD. The important implications of this hypothesis are that: (1 RIC could be widely used in clinical practice to prevent PSD if our hypothesis were verified; and (2 RIC would be thoroughly explored to test its effects on other neurobehavioral disorders (e.g., cognitive impairment.

  3. Statins and clinical outcome of acute ischemic stroke: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhan Shaheen E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statin therapy is considered an effective measure for the prevention of ischemic stroke. Several recent studies have indicated that treatment with statins, prior to the onset of acute ischemic stroke, may also substantially reduce the severity of stroke and the degree of patient disability. The purpose of the present review is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of statin pretreatment on functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke and to assess potential adverse events associated with statin use. Methods Relevant articles on the role of statins in acute ischemic stroke were identified via MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and by manual searches of the references of identified papers. Clinical studies (most were prospective cohort studies assessing statin therapy for acute ischemic stroke were selected for the review. Only two randomized controlled clinical trials met the criteria to be included in the analysis. Clinical outcome was assessed based on the degree of disability determined with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS and Barthel index (BI. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS was used to measure stroke severity. Recurrence of stroke in patients who had suffered from a previous stroke was analyzed with and without statin therapy. Incidence and severity of adverse reactions was reviewed. Because there were too many differences in study outcome measures, a quantitative analysis of data was deemed inappropriate. A qualitative summary of the data was consequently completed. Results Thirteen reports were systematically reviewed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of statins in the pretreatment of acute ischemic stroke. Pretreatment with statins was found to reduce the recurrence of stroke and to result in more favorable outcomes for patients. The beneficial effects of prior statin therapy in acute ischemic stroke were shown to be especially profound in whites, diabetics, elderly patients with

  4. Stroke prevention-surgical and interventional approaches to carotid stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajamani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra cranial carotid artery stenosis is an important cause of stroke, which often needs treatment with carotid revascularization. To prevent stroke recurrence, carotid endarterectomy (CEA has been well-established for several decades for symptomatic high and moderate grade stenosis. Carotid stenting is a less invasive alternative to CEA and several recent trials have compared the efficacy of the 2 procedures in patients with carotid stenosis. Carotid artery stenting has emerged as a potential mode of therapy for high surgical risk patients with symptomatic high-grade stenosis. This review focuses on the current data available that will enable the clinician to decide optimal treatment strategies for patients with carotid stenosis.

  5. Assessing Cardiovascular Health Using Life′s Simple 7 in a Chinese Population Undergoing Stroke Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Few Chinese patients undergoing stroke prevention had optimal CVH (determined using LS7. Additionally, fewer patients undergoing secondary prevention had optimal CVH than those undergoing primary prevention. In particular, physical activity and diet status in this population require improvement.

  6. Assessment scales in stroke: clinimetric and clinical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison JK

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer K Harrison,1 Katherine S McArthur,2 Terence J Quinn21Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK; 2Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UKAbstract: As stroke care has developed, there has been a need to robustly assess the efficacy of interventions both at the level of the individual stroke survivor and in the context of clinical trials. To describe stroke-survivor recovery meaningfully, more sophisticated measures are required than simple dichotomous end points, such as mortality or stroke recurrence. As stroke is an exemplar disabling long-term condition, measures of function are well suited as outcome assessment. In this review, we will describe functional assessment scales in stroke, concentrating on three of the more commonly used tools: the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, the modified Rankin Scale, and the Barthel Index. We will discuss the strengths, limitations, and application of these scales and use the scales to highlight important properties that are relevant to all assessment tools. We will frame much of this discussion in the context of "clinimetric" analysis. As they are increasingly used to inform stroke-survivor assessments, we will also discuss some of the commonly used quality-of-life measures. A recurring theme when considering functional assessment is that no tool suits all situations. Clinicians and researchers should chose their assessment tool based on the question of interest and the evidence base around clinimetric properties.Keywords: Barthel Index, clinimetrics, clinical trial, disability, methodology, modified Rankin Scale, National Institutes Health Stroke Scale, scales, stroke, outcomes

  7. Prevention, management, and rehabilitation of stroke in low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijing L. Yan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although stroke incidence in high-income countries (HICs decreased over the past four decades, it increased dramatically in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. In this review, we describe the current status of primary prevention, treatment, and management of acute stroke and secondary prevention of and rehabilitation after stroke in LMICs. Although surveillance, screening, and accurate diagnosis are important for stroke prevention, LMICs face challenges in these areas due to lack of resources, awareness, and technical capacity. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, such as no tobacco use, healthful diet, and physical activity are important strategies for both primary and secondary prevention of stroke. Controlling high blood pressure is also critically important in the general population and in the acute stage of hemorrhagic stroke. Additional primary prevention strategies include community-based education programs, polypill, prevention and management of atrial fibrillation, and digital health technology. For treatment of stroke during the acute stage, specific surgical procedures and medications are recommended, and inpatient stroke care units have been proven to provide high quality care. Patients with a chronic condition like stroke may require lifelong pharmaceutical treatment, lifestyle maintenance and self-management skills, and caregiver and family support, in order to achieve optimal health outcomes. Rehabilitation improves physical, speech, and cognitive functioning of disabled stroke patients. It is expected that home- or community-based services and tele-rehabilitation may hold special promise for stroke patients in LMICs.

  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in stroke: Ready for clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie-Claire; Stinear, Cathy M

    2016-09-01

    The use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in stroke research has increased dramatically over the last decade with two emerging and potentially useful functions identified. Firstly, the use of single pulse TMS as a tool for predicting recovery of motor function after stroke, and secondly, the use of repetitive TMS (rTMS) as a treatment adjunct aimed at modifying the excitability of the motor cortex in preparation for rehabilitation. This review discusses recent advances in the use of TMS in both prediction and treatment after stroke. Prediction of recovery after stroke is a complex process and the use of TMS alone is not sufficient to provide accurate prediction for an individual after stroke. However, when applied in conjunction with other tools such as clinical assessment and MRI, accuracy of prediction using TMS is increased. rTMS temporarily modulates cortical excitability after stroke. Very few rTMS studies are completed in the acute or sub-acute stages after stroke and the translation of altered cortical excitability into gains in motor function are modest, with little evidence of long term effects. Although gains have been made in both of these areas, further investigation is needed before these techniques can be applied in routine clinical care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interventions for improving modifiable risk factor control in the secondary prevention of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Kate E; Mistri, Amit K; Khunti, Kamlesh; Haunton, Victoria J; Sett, Aung K; Wilson, Andrew D

    2014-05-02

    People with stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) are at increased risk of future stroke and other cardiovascular events. Evidence-based strategies for secondary stroke prevention have been established. However, the implementation of prevention strategies could be improved. To assess the effects of stroke service interventions for implementing secondary stroke prevention strategies on modifiable risk factor control, including patient adherence to prescribed medications, and the occurrence of secondary cardiovascular events. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (April 2013), the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group Trials Register (April 2013), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (1981 to April 2013) and 10 additional databases. We located further studies by searching reference lists of articles and contacting authors of included studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of organisational or educational and behavioural interventions (compared with usual care) on modifiable risk factor control for secondary stroke prevention. Two review authors selected studies for inclusion and independently extracted data. One review author assessed the risk of bias for the included studies. We sought missing data from trialists. This review included 26 studies involving 8021 participants. Overall the studies were of reasonable quality, but one study was considered at high risk of bias. Fifteen studies evaluated predominantly organisational interventions and 11 studies evaluated educational and behavioural interventions for patients. Results were pooled where appropriate, although some clinical and methodological heterogeneity was present. The estimated effects of organisational interventions were compatible with improvements and no differences in the modifiable risk factors mean systolic blood pressure (mean difference (MD) -2.57 mmHg; 95% confidence

  10. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  11. Preventive Ceftriaxone in Patients with Stroke Treated with Intravenous Thrombolysis: Post Hoc Analysis of the Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Westendorp, Willeke F; Roos, Yvo B; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    The Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS), a randomized open-label masked endpoint trial, showed that preventive ceftriaxone did not improve functional outcome at 3 months in patients with acute stroke (adjusted common OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.82-1.09). Post-hoc analyses showed that among patients who received intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), patients who received ceftriaxone had a significantly better outcome as compared with the control group. This study aimed to gain more insight into the characteristics of these patients. In PASS, 2,550 patients were randomly assigned to preventive antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxone or standard care. In current post-hoc analysis, 836 patients who received IVT were included. Primary outcome included functional status on the modified Rankin Scale, analyzed with adjusted ordinal regression. Secondary outcomes included infection rate and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) rate. For all patients in PASS, the p value for the interaction between IVT and preventive ceftriaxone regarding functional outcome was 0.03. Of the 836 IVT-treated patients, 437 were administered ceftriaxone and 399 were allocated to the control group. Baseline characteristics were similar. In the IVT subgroup, preventive ceftriaxone was associated with a significant reduction in unfavorable outcome (adjusted common OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.61-0.99; p = 0.04). Mortality at 3 months was similar (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.48-1.18). Preventive ceftriaxone was associated with a reduction in infections (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.28-0.66), and a trend towards an increased risk for sICH (OR 3.09; 95% CI 0.85-11.31). Timing of ceftriaxone administration did not influence the outcome (aOR 1.00; 95% CI 0.98-1.03; p = 0.85). According to the post-hoc analysis of PASS, preventive ceftriaxone may improve the functional outcome in IVT-treated patients with acute stroke, despite a trend towards an increased rate of post-IVT-sICH. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. close: Closure of patent foramen ovale, oral anticoagulants or antiplatelet therapy to prevent stroke recurrence: Study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Jean-Louis; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Amarenco, Pierre; Arquizan, Caroline; Aubry, Pierre; Barthelet, Martine; Bertrand, Bernard; Brochet, Eric; Cabanes, Laure; Donal, Erwan; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Ernande, Laura; Finet, Gérard; Fraisse, Alain; Giroud, Maurice; Guérin, Patrice; Habib, Gilbert; Juliard, Jean-Michel; Leys, Didier; Lièvre, Michel; Lusson, Jean-René; Marcon, François; Michel, Patrick; Moulin, Thierry; Mounier-Vehier, François; Pierard, Luc; Piot, Christophe; Rey, Christian; Rodier, Gilles; Roudaut, Raymond; Schleich, Jean-Marc; Teiger, Emmanuel; Turc, Guillaume; Vuillier, Fabrice; Weimar, Christian; Woimant, France; Chatellier, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    Currently available data do not provide definitive evidence on the comparative benefits of closure of patent foramen ovale, oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet therapy in patients with patent foramen ovale-associated cryptogenic stroke To assess whether transcatheter patent foramen ovale closure plus antiplatelet therapy is superior to antiplatelet therapy alone and whether oral anticoagulant therapy is superior to antiplatelet therapy, for secondary stroke prevention in patients aged 16 to 60 years with a large patent foramen ovale or a patent foramen ovale associated with an atrial septal aneurysm, and an otherwise unexplained ischaemic stroke or retinal ischaemia. Six hundred and sixty-four patients were included in the study. CLOSE is an academic-driven, multicentre, randomized, open-label, three-group, superiority trial with blinded adjudication of outcome events. The trial has been registered with Clinical Trials Register (Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00562289). Patient recruitment started in December 2007. Patient follow-up will continue until December 2016. Expected mean follow-up = 5.6 years. The primary efficacy outcome is the occurrence of fatal or nonfatal stroke. Safety outcomes include fatal, life-threatening or major procedure- or device-related complications and fatal, life-threatening or major haemorrhagic complications. CLOSE is the first specifically designed trial to assess the superiority of patent foramen ovale closure over antiplatelet therapy alone and the superiority of oral anticoagulants over antiplatelet therapy to prevent stroke recurrence in patients with patent foramen ovale-associated cryptogenic stroke. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  13. Review of economics and cost-effectiveness analyses of anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schéele, Birgitta; Fernandez, Maria; Hogue, Susan Lynn; Kwong, Winghan Jacqueline

    2013-05-01

    To summarize the available evidence on the issues in health economics related to oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) in the US. A literature review was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, as well as the websites of professional organizations. The search was conducted according to a prespecified protocol, limiting articles to those published in English from 2001 to October 2012 and focused on the economics associated with AF and AF-related stroke in the US. Data from 27 studies were extracted and included in the review. Strokes in patients with AF are more debilitating and have higher recurrence rates and mortality compared with strokes unrelated to AF. However, data describing the long-term cost of AF-related stroke and stroke subtypes remain limited. The costs of major gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and intracranial bleeding related to warfarin are significant, whereas the costs of the more frequent minor GI bleeding are relatively low. Overall, the cost-effectiveness of warfarin versus aspirin or no treatment in patients with at least 1 risk factor for stroke is well established. Economic evaluations based on results from randomized controlled clinical trials generally found that new anticoagulants were a cost-effective alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in AF. However, these cost-effectiveness results are highly sensitive to how well optimal international normalized ratio control is maintained (within target of 2.0-3.0) for warfarin and the time horizon used for analysis. Time in therapeutic range for warfarin in routine clinical practice was lower than in clinical trials, as shown by previous studies. This review identified several areas of uncertainty regarding the economic benefit of anticoagulants. The generalizability of cost-effectiveness results of anticoagulant therapy in AF based on clinical trial data must be confirmed by comparative effectiveness

  14. [Economic evaluation of dabigatran for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Miguel, Luís; Rocha, Evangelista; Ferreira, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of dabigatran in the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in Portugal. A Markov model was used to simulate patients' clinical course, estimating the occurrence of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, transient ischemic attack, systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, and intra- and extracranial hemorrhage. The clinical parameters are based on the results of the RE-LY trial, which compared dabigatran with warfarin, and on a meta-analysis that estimated the risk of each event in patients treated with aspirin or with no antithrombotic therapy. Dabigatran provides an increase of 0.331 life years and 0.354 quality-adjusted life years for each patient. From a societal perspective, these clinical gains entail an additional expenditure of 2978 euros. Thus, the incremental cost is 9006 euros per life year gained and 8409 euros per quality-adjusted life year. The results show that dabigatran reduces the number of events, especially the most severe such as ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, as well as their long-term sequelae. The expense of dabigatran is partially offset by lower event-related costs and by the fact that INR monitoring is unnecessary. It can thus be concluded that the use of dabigatran in clinical practice in Portugal is cost-effective. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Current clinical practices in stroke rehabilitation: regional pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Pradeep; Oelschlager, Ashley; Agah, Arvin; Pohl, Patricia S; Ahmad, S Omar; Liu, Wen

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at understanding the current physical and occupational therapy practices in stroke rehabilitation in the Midwest. The insights gained from this pilot study will be used in a future study aimed at understanding stroke rehabilitation practices across the nation. Researchers and clinicians in the field of stroke rehabilitation were interviewed, and past studies in the literature were analyzed. Through these activities, we developed a 37-item questionnaire that was sent to occupational and physical therapists practicing in Kansas and Missouri who focus on the care of people who have had a stroke (n = 320). A total of 107 respondents returned a com pleted questionnaire, which gives a response rate of about 36%. The majority of respondents had more than 12 years of experience treating patients with stroke. Consensus of 70% or more was found for 80% of the items. The preferred approaches for the rehabilitation of people who have had a stroke are the Bobath and Brunnstrom methods, which are being used by 93% and 85% of the physical and occupational therapists, respectively. Even though some variability existed in certain parts of the survey, in general clinicians agreed on different treatment approaches in issues dealing with muscle tone, weakness, and limited range of motion in stroke rehabilitation. Some newer treatment approaches that have been proven to be effective are practiced only by a minority of clinicians. The uncertainty among clinicians in some sections of the survey reveals that more evidence on clinical approaches is needed to ensure efficacious treatments.

  16. Risk factors and strategies for stroke prevention in low to middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Л. Фейгин

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A recent meta-analysis of the population-based stroke incidence studies showed a significant trend towards almost 2-fold increasing of stroke incidence rates in low to middle-income countries over the last 4 decades. The study also demonstrated that stroke incidence rates in low to middle-income countries currently exceed the level of stroke incidence in the developed (high income countries by 20%. Compared with people in high-income countries, people in low to middle-income countries also experience a higher stroke mortality rate and greater proportions of hemorrhagic strokes. Should the current trends in stroke incidence and aging of the population continue, deaths from stroke in the developing countries will increase over the next decade by 20% and the overall burden of stroke may soon become unbearable for the economy of these countries. The way to stop the stroke pandemic and reduce stroke incidence is effective stroke prevention. In this review, we summarize current evidence for stroke risk factors and prevention in low to middle-income countries and outline possible promising strategies for tackling the problem.

  17. Developing a culturally tailored stroke prevention walking programme for Korean immigrant seniors: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sarah E; Kwon, Ivy; Chang, Emiley; Araiza, Daniel; Thorpe, Carol Lee; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2016-12-01

    To gain better understanding of (i) beliefs and knowledge about stroke; (ii) attitudes about walking for stroke prevention; and (iii) barriers and facilitators to walking among Korean seniors for the cultural tailoring of a stroke prevention walking programme. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for stroke. Korean immigrant seniors are one of the most sedentary ethnic groups in the United States. An explorative study using focus group data. Twenty-nine Korean immigrant seniors (64-90 years of age) who had been told by a doctor at least once that their blood pressure was elevated participated in 3 focus groups. Each focus group consisted of 8-11 participants. Focus group audiotapes were transcribed and analysed using standard content analysis methods. Participants identified physical and psychological imbalances (e.g. too much work and stress) as the primary causes of stroke. Restoring 'balance' was identified as a powerful means of stroke prevention. A subset of participants expressed that prevention may be beyond human control. Overall, participants acknowledged the importance of walking for stroke prevention, but described barriers such as lack of personal motivation and unsafe environment. Many participants believed that providing opportunities for socialisation while walking and combining walking with health information sessions would facilitate participation in and maintenance of a walking programme. Korean immigrant seniors believe strongly that imbalance is a primary cause of stroke. Restoring balance as a way to prevent stroke is culturally special among Koreans and provides a conceptual base in culturally tailoring our stroke prevention walking intervention for Korean immigrant seniors. A stroke prevention walking programme for Korean immigrant seniors may have greater impact by addressing beliefs about stroke causes and prevention such as physical and psychological imbalances and the importance of maintaining emotional well-being. © 2016 John

  18. Supporting Treatment decision making to Optimise the Prevention of STROKE in Atrial Fibrillation: The STOP STROKE in AF study. Protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattellari Melina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal uptake of anticoagulation for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation has persisted for over 20 years, despite high-level evidence demonstrating its effectiveness in reducing the risk of fatal and disabling stroke. Methods The STOP STROKE in AF study is a national, cluster randomised controlled trial designed to improve the uptake of anticoagulation in primary care. General practitioners from around Australia enrolling in this ‘distance education’ program are mailed written educational materials, followed by an academic detailing session delivered via telephone by a medical peer, during which participants discuss patient de-identified cases. General practitioners are then randomised to receive written specialist feedback about the patient de-identified cases either before or after completing a three-month posttest audit. Specialist feedback is designed to provide participants with support and confidence to prescribe anticoagulation. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients with atrial fibrillation receiving oral anticoagulation at the time of the posttest audit. Discussion The STOP STROKE in AF study aims to evaluate a feasible intervention via distance education to prevent avoidable stroke due to atrial fibrillation. It provides a systematic test of augmenting academic detailing with expert feedback about patient management. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trials Registry Registration Number: ACTRN12611000076976.

  19. Enhancing the Alignment of the Preclinical and Clinical Stroke Recovery Research Pipeline: Consensus-Based Core Recommendations From the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable Translational Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Dale; Carmichael, S Thomas; Murphy, Timothy H; Jones, Theresa A; Schwab, Martin E; Jolkkonen, Jukka; Clarkson, Andrew N; Dancause, Numa; Weiloch, Tadeusz; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Nilsson, Michael; McCullough, Louise D; Joy, Mary T

    2017-08-01

    Stroke recovery research involves distinct biological and clinical targets compared to the study of acute stroke. Guidelines are proposed for the pre-clinical modeling of stroke recovery and for the alignment of pre-clinical studies to clinical trials in stroke recovery.

  20. Comparison of Efficacy Compressive Stockings with Heparin in Prevention of Deep Vein Thrombosis in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Majdi-Nasab

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study is carried out to make a comparison between two pharmacological (heparin and physical (compression stockings in the prevention of deep vein thrombosis in lower limb of the patients suffered from acute stroke. Materials and Methods: In this investigation as a clinical trial, the effectiveness of the above methods on 100 patients with the stroke was compared in two groups of 50 persons. Results: Three patients in physical group and two patients in pharmacological group got deep vein thrombosis that showed no significant difference between two groups.Conclusion: In spite of no significant relationship and due to less incurrence of thrombosis in heparin group, it is more reasonable to use pharmacological methods.

  1. A STUDY ON THE CLINICAL CORRELATION OF THE GLYCAEMIC STATUS AND STROKE EVENTS AMONG STROKE PATIENTS ADMITTED IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ghanachandra Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Stroke is a common cause of chronic debilitating disease as a result of the vascular related effect of certain part of the brain. Also the mortality due to the nature of stroke either Intracerebral Haemorrhage (ICH or Cerebral Infarction (Ischaemic stroke vary, the earlier causing more fatality. The risk factors of the ICH or the Ischaemic stroke vary to certain degree. Glycaemic state of stroke patients affects the outcome of them. It is of importance to establish clinical correlation of the glycaemic status of the stroke patients with the type and extent of the lesion documented by Computerised Tomography (CT scan of brain for development of preventive measures and clinical management of such patients for better outcome. Hence, this study was conducted among stroke patients who were admitted in Medicine wards, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences (JNIMS, Porompat, Manipur. DATA AND METHODS A study of stroke cases was undertaken in patients who were admitted to Medicine wards, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences (JNIMS, Porompat, Manipur from January 2011 till December 2014. All the patients were investigated with CT scan brain, Blood sugar along with Glycosylated Haemoglobin (HbA1C besides other routine tests and recorded. RESULT Out of the 200 stroke patients registered in 48 months, 120 patients were having hyperglycaemia. All the patients with stress hyperglycaemia were haemorrhagic. 85.71% of the cases among known diabetes were also haemorrhagic. CONCLUSION Glycaemic state of patients presented in stroke gives a picture of clinical difference. The size of the lesion measured by CT scan of brain also varies among different types of hyperglycaemia and the prognosis of the patients and showed that those patients with higher glucose level had haemorrhagic lesions with bigger size and had higher mortality rate. The deteriorating glucose tolerance with age also contributes to the increased incidence

  2. Help seeking behavior and onset-to-alarm time in patients with acute stroke: sub-study of the preventive antibiotics in stroke study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, E.; Kerkhoff, H.; Kleyweg, R. P.; van Bavel-Ta, T. B. V.; Scott, S.; Kruyt, N. D.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; van de Beek, D.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with acute stroke often do not seek immediate medical help, which is assumed to be driven by lack of knowledge of stroke symptoms. We explored the process of help seeking behavior in patients with acute stroke, evaluating knowledge about stroke symptoms, socio-demographic and clinical

  3. Oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoo, Keitaro; Lane, Deirdre A; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2014-09-01

    The availability of 4 non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs), that is, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, has changed the landscape of stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. This review article provides an overview of the 4 phase III studies that have compared these NOACs, examining major outcomes of efficacy and safety. A range of practical questions relating to the NOACs have emerged, including topics such as patient selection, treating patients with renal impairment, treating elderly patients, and combining anticoagulant therapy with antiplatelet drugs. We also address the interaction of various patient characteristics with the treatments and suggest the features can assist the physician in the choice of a particular NOAC for a particular patient(s). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Survival and clinical outcome of dogs with ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Toft, Nils; Westrup, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate survival time, possible predictors of survival and clinical outcome in dogs with ischaemic stroke. A retrospective study of dogs with a previous diagnosis of ischaemic stroke diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed....... The association between survival and the hypothesised risk factors was examined using univariable exact logistic regression. Survival was examined using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Twenty-two dogs were identified. Five dogs (23%) died within the first 30days of the stroke event. Median survival in 30-day...... survivors was 505days. Four dogs (18%) were still alive by the end of the study. Right-sided lesions posed a significantly increased risk of mortality with a median survival time in dogs with right-sided lesions of 24days vs. 602days in dogs with left sided lesions (P=0.006). Clinical outcome was considered...

  5. Gingival Inflammation Associates with Stroke--A Role for Oral Health Personnel in Prevention: A Database Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Söder

    Full Text Available Gingival inflammation is the physiological response to poor oral hygiene. If gingivitis is not resolved the response will become an established lesion.We studied whether gingivitis associates with elevated risk for stroke. The hypothesis was based on the periodontitis-atherosclerosis paradigm.In our prospective cohort study from Sweden 1676 randomly selected subjects were followed up from 1985 to 2012. All subjects underwent clinical oral examination and answered a questionnaire assessing background variables such as socio-economic status and pack-years of smoking. Cases with stroke were recorded from the Center of Epidemiology, Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden, and classified according to the WHO International Classification of Diseases. Unpaired t-test, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used.Of the 1676 participants, 39 subjects (2.3% had been diagnosed with stroke. There were significant differences between the patients with stroke and subjects without in pack-years of smoking (p = 0.01, prevalence of gingival inflammation (GI (p = 0.03, and dental calculus (p = 0.017. In a multiple regression analysis the association between GI, confounders and stroke, GI showed odds ratio 2.20 (95% confidence interval 1.02-4.74 for stroke.Our present findings showed that gingival inflammation clearly associated with stroke in this 26-year cohort study. The results emphasize the role of oral health personnel in prevention.

  6. Gingival Inflammation Associates with Stroke--A Role for Oral Health Personnel in Prevention: A Database Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söder, Birgitta; Meurman, Jukka H; Söder, Per-Östen

    2015-01-01

    Gingival inflammation is the physiological response to poor oral hygiene. If gingivitis is not resolved the response will become an established lesion.We studied whether gingivitis associates with elevated risk for stroke. The hypothesis was based on the periodontitis-atherosclerosis paradigm. In our prospective cohort study from Sweden 1676 randomly selected subjects were followed up from 1985 to 2012. All subjects underwent clinical oral examination and answered a questionnaire assessing background variables such as socio-economic status and pack-years of smoking. Cases with stroke were recorded from the Center of Epidemiology, Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden, and classified according to the WHO International Classification of Diseases. Unpaired t-test, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Of the 1676 participants, 39 subjects (2.3%) had been diagnosed with stroke. There were significant differences between the patients with stroke and subjects without in pack-years of smoking (p = 0.01), prevalence of gingival inflammation (GI) (p = 0.03), and dental calculus (p = 0.017). In a multiple regression analysis the association between GI, confounders and stroke, GI showed odds ratio 2.20 (95% confidence interval 1.02-4.74) for stroke. Our present findings showed that gingival inflammation clearly associated with stroke in this 26-year cohort study. The results emphasize the role of oral health personnel in prevention.

  7. Gingival Inflammation Associates with Stroke – A Role for Oral Health Personnel in Prevention: A Database Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Gingival inflammation is the physiological response to poor oral hygiene. If gingivitis is not resolved the response will become an established lesion.We studied whether gingivitis associates with elevated risk for stroke. The hypothesis was based on the periodontitis–atherosclerosis paradigm. Methods In our prospective cohort study from Sweden 1676 randomly selected subjects were followed up from 1985 to 2012. All subjects underwent clinical oral examination and answered a questionnaire assessing background variables such as socio-economic status and pack-years of smoking. Cases with stroke were recorded from the Center of Epidemiology, Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden, and classified according to the WHO International Classification of Diseases. Unpaired t-test, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Results Of the 1676 participants, 39 subjects (2.3%) had been diagnosed with stroke. There were significant differences between the patients with stroke and subjects without in pack-years of smoking (p = 0.01), prevalence of gingival inflammation (GI) (p = 0.03), and dental calculus (p = 0.017). In a multiple regression analysis the association between GI, confounders and stroke, GI showed odds ratio 2.20 (95% confidence interval 1.02–4.74) for stroke. Conclusion Our present findings showed that gingival inflammation clearly associated with stroke in this 26-year cohort study. The results emphasize the role of oral health personnel in prevention. PMID:26405803

  8. Stroke care challenges in rural India: Awareness of causes, preventive measures and treatment options of stroke among the rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaga Lakshmi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Management of stroke in the remote rural areas in India faces major challenges because of lack of awareness. Stroke care services can be optimally implemented only if the communities have an understanding of the disease. Method: A population based, cross sectional survey of an adult general population sample between the ages of 31-60 years in a rural block in Tamil Nadu, India was carried out to study their knowledge, attitude, beliefs about cause, signs and symptoms, preventive measures and treatment options of stroke. Results: Of the 174 subjects studied only 69% were aware of the term stroke and 63% were able to list the symptoms. Only a little more than half the participants (58% were aware that diabetes, smoking and hypertension are risk factors for stroke. None of the participants were aware of the endovascular thrombolysis injection for better recovery from stroke. About quarter (23% of the participants did not think that the stroke is an emergency condition and they need to take the patient urgently to the hospital. Only 56% of the participants had checked their blood pressure and 49% for diabetes. A history of having either hypertension or diabetes and stroke in the family was the only factor that was significantly associated with better awareness (p=<0.001 independent of other potential facilitating factors including age, occupation, education and gender. Conclusion: There is a need to educate the rural communities about the risk factors, how to recognize the onset, the preventive measures and optimum care of stroke to reduce the burden.

  9. Telmisartan to prevent recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yusuf, Salim; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Sacco, Ralph L.; Cotton, Daniel; Ounpuu, Stephanie; Lawton, William A.; Palesch, Yuko; Martin, Renee H.; Albers, Gregory W.; Bath, Philip; Bornstein, Natan; Chan, Bernard P. L.; Chen, Sien-Tsong; Cunha, Luis; Dahlof, Bjorn; de Keyser, Jacques; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Estol, Conrado; Gorelick, Philip; Gu, Vivian; Hermansson, Karin; Hilbrich, Lutz; Kaste, Markku; Lu, Chuanzhen; Machnig, Thomas; Pais, Prem; Roberts, Robin; Skvortsova, Veronika; Teal, Philip; Toni, Danilo; VanderMaelen, Cam; Voigt, Thor; Weber, Michael; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prolonged lowering of blood pressure after a stroke reduces the risk of recurrent stroke. In addition, inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system in high-risk patients reduces the rate of subsequent cardiovascular events, including stroke. However, the effect of lowering of blood

  10. Could Stroke Trigger Be Prevented by Healthy Family Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Annie; Gaulin, Philippe; Tellier, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Although major stroke risk factors are well documented, little is known about which life circumstances are perceived to be related to the actual triggering of a first stroke. The purpose was to explore self-perceived spontaneously related life circumstances surrounding the trigger of a first stroke. A qualitative design with a phenomenological…

  11. Homocysteine lowering for stroke prevention: Unravelling the complexity of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J David

    2016-10-01

    Elevated levels of total homocysteine impair endothelial dysfunction and increase thrombosis. Homocysteine is causal in animal models, and in human studies, elevated total homocysteine is significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis, lacunar infarction, and markedly increased risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation. Because two of the early large trials of B vitamin therapy (Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention and the Norwegian Vitamin Study) did not show any reduction of stroke, and the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation 2 trial was mistakenly interpreted as not showing a reduction of stroke (because the authors could not think of a biological difference between stroke and myocardial infarction), there has been widespread pessimism regarding treatment to lower total homocysteine for stroke prevention. However, the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation 2 trial, the French trial of folic acid and omega three oils, the Vitamins to Prevent Stroke subgroup excluding antiplatelet therapy all showed a significant reduction of stroke. Reasons why the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention trial were negative included folate fortification in North America, provision of injections of B12 to patients with low baseline serum B12, and as it turns out, harm from cyanide in cyanocobalamin among participants with impaired renal function. In the Diabetic Intervention with Vitamins in Nephropathy trial, B vitamins including cyanocobalamin were harmful, and in a Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention subgroup excluding participants who received B12 injections and those with impaired renal function, there was a statistically significant reduction of stroke/myocardial infarction/vascular death. In 2015, the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT), in over 20,000 participants followed for 5 years, showed a significant reduction of stroke with folic acid in a setting where folate fortification has not been implemented. In the setting of folate fortification

  12. Developing a community-based stroke prevention intervention course in minority communities: the DC Angels Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Carolyn Frances; King, Joyce A; Fennell, Irnise; Jones, Chanel; Hutchinson, Charmaine; Evans, Annette

    2010-06-01

    Despite advances in stroke treatment in the United States, stroke remains the third leading cause of death among Americans and the leading cause of serious, long-term disability in the United States. About 780,000 Americans will have a new or recurrent stroke this year. Each year, about 60,000 more women than men have a stroke. African Americans have almost twice the risk of first-ever strokes compared with Whites. Minority populations are less likely to know all stroke symptoms and far less likely to know all heart attack symptoms. There are many benefits of early treatment of stroke, yet most minorities do not get this treatment because they do not recognize the warning signs, risk factors, and prevention of stroke. The objective of this intervention course was to increase the students' knowledge and awareness of stroke, warning signs, risk factors, and prevention. Developing community-based stroke prevention intervention courses in minority communities is a good strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality and help to eliminate health disparities in minority communities.

  13. MRI white Matter Lesions in a Stroke Clinic Population: Correlation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cerebral white matter lesions (WML) on MRI have been related not only to age but also to cerebrovascular disorders. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of WML in a population of patients attending a stroke clinic and relate it to the presence of carotid atherosclerosis as determined by increased carotid ...

  14. Prevention of epilepsy: Should we be avoiding clinical trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Pavel; Tyrlikova, Ivana

    2017-07-01

    Epilepsy prevention is one of the great unmet needs in epilepsy. Approximately 15% of all epilepsy is caused by an acute acquired CNS insult such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke or encephalitis. There is a latent period between the insult and epilepsy onset that presents an opportunity to intervene with preventive treatment that is unique in neurology. Yet no phase 3 epilepsy prevention studies, and only 2 phase 2 studies have been initiated in the last 16years. Current prevailing opinion is that the research community is not ready for clinical preventive epilepsy studies, and that animal models should first be refined and biomarkers of epileptogenesis and of epilepsy discovered before clinical studies are embarked upon. We review data to suggest that there is basis to do epilepsy prevention studies now with the current knowledge and available drugs, and that those studies are feasible with currently available tools. We suggest that a different approach is needed from the past in order to maximize chances of success, minimize the cost, and set up platform for future preventive treatment development. That approach should include close coordination of preclinical and clinical development programs in a combined PTE prevention strategy, consideration of polytherapy, and simultaneous, combined clinical development of preventive treatment and of biomarker discovery. We argue that the currently favored approach of eschewing clinical studies until biomarkers are available will delay the discovery of epilepsy prevention treatment by at least 10 years and significantly increase the cost of such discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Survival and clinical outcome of dogs with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredal, H; Toft, N; Westrup, U; Motta, L; Gideon, P; Arlien-Søborg, P; Skerritt, G C; Berendt, M

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate survival time, possible predictors of survival and clinical outcome in dogs with ischaemic stroke. A retrospective study of dogs with a previous diagnosis of ischaemic stroke diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. The association between survival and the hypothesised risk factors was examined using univariable exact logistic regression. Survival was examined using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Twenty-two dogs were identified. Five dogs (23%) died within the first 30days of the stroke event. Median survival in 30-day survivors was 505days. Four dogs (18%) were still alive by the end of the study. Right-sided lesions posed a significantly increased risk of mortality with a median survival time in dogs with right-sided lesions of 24days vs. 602days in dogs with left sided lesions (P=0.006). Clinical outcome was considered excellent in seven of 17 (41%) 30-day survivors. Another seven 30-day survivors experienced new acute neurological signs within 6-17months of the initial stroke event; in two of those cases a new ischaemic stroke was confirmed by MRI. In conclusion, dogs with ischaemic stroke have a fair to good prognosis in terms of survival and clinical outcome. However, owners should be informed of the risk of acute death within 30days and of the possibility of new neurological events in survivors. Mortality was increased in dogs with right-sided lesions in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Results of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial by stroke subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Benavente, Oscar; Goldstein, Larry B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The SPARCL trial showed that atorvastatin 80 mg/d reduces the risk of stroke and other cardiovascular events in patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We tested the hypothesis that the benefit of treatment varies according to index event stroke sub...

  17. Critical Periods after Stroke Study: Translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W Dromerick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: 795,000 Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 hours of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2-3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test at one year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial.

  18. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  19. Intracranial Pressure Elevation 24 Hours after Ischemic Stroke in Aged Rats is Prevented by Early, Short Hypothermia Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Anne Murtha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is predominantly a senescent disease, yet most preclinical studies investigate treatment in young animals. We recently demonstrated that short-duration hypothermia-treatment completely prevented the dramatic intracranial pressure (ICP rise seen post-stroke in young rats. Here, our aim was to investigate whether a similar ICP rise occurs in aged rats and to determine whether short-duration hypothermia is an effective treatment in aged animals. Experimental Middle Cerebral Artery occlusion (MCAo - 3 hour occlusion was performed on male Wistar rats aged 19-20 months. At one hour after stroke-onset, rats were randomized to 2.5 hours hypothermia-treatment (32.5 °C or normothermia (37 °C. ICP was monitored at baseline, for 3.5 hours post-occlusion, and at 24 hours post-stroke. Infarct and edema volumes were calculated from histology. Baseline pre-stroke ICP was 11.2 ± 3.3 mmHg across all animals. Twenty-four hours post-stroke, ICP was significantly higher in normothermic animals compared to hypothermia-treated animals (27.4 ± 18.2 mmHg vs. 8.0 ± 5.0 mmHg, p = 0.03. Infarct and edema volumes were not significantly different between groups. These data demonstrate ICP may also increase 24 hours post-stroke in aged rats, and that short-duration hypothermia treatment has a profound and sustained preventative effect. These findings may have important implications for the use of hypothermia in clinical trials of aged stroke patients.

  20. Oral Anticoagulants to Prevent Stroke in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With CKD Stage 5D: An NKF-KDOQI Controversies Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vinod K; Herzog, Charles A; Sarnak, Mark J; Choi, Michael J; Mehta, Ravindra; Jaar, Bernard G; Rocco, Michael V; Kramer, Holly

    2017-12-01

    Stroke risk may be more than 3-fold higher among patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5D (CKD-5D) compared to the general population, with the highest stroke rates noted among those 85 years and older. Atrial fibrillation (AF), a strong risk factor for stroke, is the most common arrhythmia and affects >7% of the population with CKD-5D. Warfarin use is widely acknowledged as an important intervention for stroke prevention with nonvalvular AF in the general population. However, use of oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in patients with CKD-5D and nonvalvular AF continues to be debated by the nephrology community. In this National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) controversies report, we discuss the existing observational studies that examine warfarin use and associated stroke and bleeding risks in adults with CKD-5D and AF. Non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants and their potential use for stroke prevention in patients with CKD-5D and nonvalvular AF are also discussed. Data from randomized clinical trials are urgently needed to determine the benefits and risks of oral anticoagulant use for stroke prevention in the setting of AF among patients with CKD-5D. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise intervention to prevent falls and enhance mobility in community dwellers after stroke: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Ruth N

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is the most common disabling neurological condition in adults. Falls and poor mobility are major contributors to stroke-related disability. Falls are more frequent and more likely to result in injury among stroke survivors than among the general older population. Currently there is good evidence that exercise can enhance mobility after stroke, yet ongoing exercise programs for general community-based stroke survivors are not routinely available. This randomised controlled trial will investigate whether exercise can reduce fall rates and increase mobility and physical activity levels in stroke survivors. Methods and design Three hundred and fifty community dwelling stroke survivors will be recruited. Participants will have no medical contradictions to exercise and be cognitively and physically able to complete the assessments and exercise program. After the completion of the pre-test assessment, participants will be randomly allocated to one of two intervention groups. Both intervention groups will participate in weekly group-based exercises and a home program for twelve months. In the lower limb intervention group, individualised programs of weight-bearing balance and strengthening exercises will be prescribed. The upper limb/cognition group will receive exercises aimed at management and improvement of function of the affected upper limb and cognition carried out in the seated position. The primary outcome measures will be falls (measured with 12 month calendars and mobility. Secondary outcome measures will be risk of falling, physical activity levels, community participation, quality of life, health service utilisation, upper limb function and cognition. Discussion This study aims to establish and evaluate community-based sustainable exercise programs for stroke survivors. We will determine the effects of the exercise programs in preventing falls and enhancing mobility among people following stroke. This program, if

  2. Exercise intervention to prevent falls and enhance mobility in community dwellers after stroke: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Catherine M; Rissel, Chris; Sharkey, Michelle; Sherrington, Catherine; Cumming, Robert G; Barker, Ruth N; Lord, Stephen R; O'Rourke, Sandra D; Kirkham, Catherine

    2009-07-22

    Stroke is the most common disabling neurological condition in adults. Falls and poor mobility are major contributors to stroke-related disability. Falls are more frequent and more likely to result in injury among stroke survivors than among the general older population. Currently there is good evidence that exercise can enhance mobility after stroke, yet ongoing exercise programs for general community-based stroke survivors are not routinely available. This randomised controlled trial will investigate whether exercise can reduce fall rates and increase mobility and physical activity levels in stroke survivors. Three hundred and fifty community dwelling stroke survivors will be recruited. Participants will have no medical contradictions to exercise and be cognitively and physically able to complete the assessments and exercise program. After the completion of the pre-test assessment, participants will be randomly allocated to one of two intervention groups. Both intervention groups will participate in weekly group-based exercises and a home program for twelve months. In the lower limb intervention group, individualised programs of weight-bearing balance and strengthening exercises will be prescribed. The upper limb/cognition group will receive exercises aimed at management and improvement of function of the affected upper limb and cognition carried out in the seated position. The primary outcome measures will be falls (measured with 12 month calendars) and mobility. Secondary outcome measures will be risk of falling, physical activity levels, community participation, quality of life, health service utilisation, upper limb function and cognition. This study aims to establish and evaluate community-based sustainable exercise programs for stroke survivors. We will determine the effects of the exercise programs in preventing falls and enhancing mobility among people following stroke. This program, if found to be effective, has the potential to be implemented within

  3. Point-of-care cluster randomized trial in stroke secondary prevention using electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dregan, Alex; van Staa, Tjeerd P; McDermott, Lisa; McCann, Gerard; Ashworth, Mark; Charlton, Judith; Wolfe, Charles D A; Rudd, Anthony; Yardley, Lucy; Gulliford, Martin C; Trial Steering Committee

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the remote introduction of electronic decision support tools into family practices improves risk factor control after first stroke. This study also aimed to develop methods to implement cluster randomized trials in stroke using electronic health records. Family practices were recruited from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and allocated to intervention and control trial arms by minimization. Remotely installed, electronic decision support tools promoted intensified secondary prevention for 12 months with last measure of systolic blood pressure as the primary outcome. Outcome data from electronic health records were analyzed using marginal models. There were 106 Clinical Practice Research Datalink family practices allocated (intervention, 53; control, 53), with 11 391 (control, 5516; intervention, 5875) participants with acute stroke ever diagnosed. Participants at trial practices had similar characteristics as 47,887 patients with stroke at nontrial practices. During the intervention period, blood pressure values were recorded in the electronic health records for 90% and cholesterol values for 84% of participants. After intervention, the latest mean systolic blood pressure was 131.7 (SD, 16.8) mm Hg in the control trial arm and 131.4 (16.7) mm Hg in the intervention trial arm, and adjusted mean difference was -0.56 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -1.38 to 0.26; P=0.183). The financial cost of the trial was approximately US $22 per participant, or US $2400 per family practice allocated. Large pragmatic intervention studies may be implemented at low cost by using electronic health records. The intervention used in this trial was not found to be effective, and further research is needed to develop more effective intervention strategies. http://www.controlled-trials.com. Current Controlled Trials identifier: ISRCTN35701810. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. SECONDARY PREVENTION OF STROKE IN PATIENTS WITH NON-VALVULAR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION: THE CLINICIANS’ VIEWPOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Drozdova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is one of the main risk factor of ischemic stroke. Current problems of the management of patients with stroke due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation and secondary stroke prevention in these patients are considered. Data of own author’s observation for patients of this type during 6 months after discharge from the hospital are presented. The problems which patients faced with are analyzed. Comparative assessment of warfarin and dabigatran therapies is given.

  5. Telmisartan to prevent recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusuf, Salim; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Sacco, Ralph L

    2008-01-01

    pressure with a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor soon after a stroke has not been clearly established. We evaluated the effects of therapy with an angiotensin-receptor blocker, telmisartan, initiated early after a stroke. METHODS: In a multicenter trial involving 20,332 patients who recently had...... an ischemic stroke, we randomly assigned 10,146 to receive telmisartan (80 mg daily) and 10,186 to receive placebo. The primary outcome was recurrent stroke. Secondary outcomes were major cardiovascular events (death from cardiovascular causes, recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, or new or worsening...... heart failure) and new-onset diabetes. RESULTS: The median interval from stroke to randomization was 15 days. During a mean follow-up of 2.5 years, the mean blood pressure was 3.8/2.0 mm Hg lower in the telmisartan group than in the placebo group. A total of 880 patients (8.7%) in the telmisartan group...

  6. Barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary stroke prevention medications after stroke: analysis of survivors and caregivers views from an online stroke forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, James; Sutton, Stephen; Mant, Jonathan; De Simoni, Anna

    2017-07-16

    To identify barriers and facilitators of medication adherence in patients with stroke along with their caregivers. Qualitative thematic analysis of posts about secondary prevention medications, informed by Perceptions and Practicalities Approach. Posts written by the UK stroke survivors and their family members taking part in the online forum of the Stroke Association, between 2004 and 2011. 84 participants: 49 stroke survivors, 33 caregivers, 2 not stated, identified using the keywords 'taking medication', 'pills', 'size', 'side-effects', 'routine', 'blister' as well as secondary prevention medication terms. Perceptions reducing the motivation to adhere included dealing with medication side effects, questioning doctors' prescribing practices and negative publicity about medications, especially in regard to statins. Caregivers faced difficulties with ensuring medications were taken while respecting the patient's decisions not to take tablets. They struggled in their role as advocates of patient's needs with healthcare professionals. Not experiencing side effects, attributing importance to medications, positive personal experiences of taking tablets and obtaining modification of treatment to manage side effects were facilitators of adherence. Key practical barriers included difficulties with swallowing tablets, dealing with the burden of treatment and drug cost. Using medication storage devices, following routines and getting help with medications from caregivers were important facilitators of adherence. An online stroke forum is a novel and valuable resource to investigate use of secondary prevention medications. Analysis of this forum highlighted significant barriers and facilitators of medication adherence faced by stroke survivors and their caregivers. Addressing perceptual and practical barriers highlighted here can inform the development of future interventions aimed at improving adherence to secondary prevention medication after stroke. © Article author

  7. Preventing Strokes (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-05

    Strokes are the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S., and they don’t just occur in older adults. Anyone can have a stroke at any age. In this podcast, Dr. Mary George discusses ways to decrease your chances of having a stroke.  Created: 6/5/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/5/2014.

  8. Microglial Cells Prevent Hemorrhage in Neonatal Focal Arterial Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-López, David; Faustino, Joel; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Derugin, Nikita; Blanchard, Elodie; Simon, Franziska; Leib, Stephen L.; Vexler, Zinaida S.

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal stroke leads to significant morbidity and long-term neurological and cognitive deficits. The pathophysiological mechanisms of brain damage depend on brain maturation at the time of stroke. To understand whether microglial cells limit injury after neonatal stroke by preserving neurovascular integrity, we subjected postnatal day 7 (P7) rats depleted of microglial cells, rats with inhibited microglial TGFbr2/ALK5 signaling, and corresponding controls, to transient middle cerebral arter...

  9. Design and Rationale of the Intima-Medial Thickness Sub-Study of the PreventIon of CArdiovascular Events in iSchemic Stroke Patients with High Risk of Cerebral hemOrrhage (PICASSO-IMT) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Woo-Keun; Kim, Yong Jae; Lee, Juneyoung; Kwon, Sun U

    2017-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the main mechanisms of stroke and cardiovascular diseases and is associated with increased risk of recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events. Intima-medial thickness (IMT) is a well-known surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and has been used to predict stroke and cardiovascular events. However, the clinical significance of IMT and IMT change in stroke has not been investigated in well-designed studies. The PreventIon of CArdiovascular events in iSchemic Stroke patients with high risk of cerebral hemOrrhage-Intima-Media Thickness (PICASSO-IMT) sub-study is designed to investigate the effects of cilostazol, probucol, or both on IMT in patients with stroke. PICASSO-IMT is a prospective sub-study of the PICASSO study designed to measure IMT and plaque score at 1, 13, 25, 37, and 49 months after randomization. The primary outcome is the change in mean carotid IMT, which is defined as the mean of the far-wall IMTs of the right and left common carotid arteries, between baseline and 13 months after randomization. PICASSO-IMT will provide the largest IMT data set in a stroke population and will provide valuable information about the clinical significance of IMT in patients with ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuromuscular stimulation after stroke: from technology to clinical deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Maarten J; Renzenbrink, Gerbert J; Geurts, Alexander C H

    2009-04-01

    Since the early 1960s, electrical or neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used to support the rehabilitation of stroke patients. One of the earliest applications of NMES included the use of external muscle stimulation to correct drop-foot after stroke. During the last few decades various clinical applications have been used for the upper and lower limb. Despite a growing body of literature on the use of NMES, its application in stroke is still limited to a few clinical groups that provide dedicated clinical services. Some explanations for the limited use are the sometimes conflicting clinical evidence, the size of the effects or the complicated use of the technology itself. This review points out three directions for future research. First, we need to expand our knowledge on brain plasticity and the use of different electrical stimulation strategies to modulate the neural system. Second, we foresee an increase in therapies combining different training principles, for example, the combination of NMES and robotics or neuromodulating drugs. Finally, with the ever-increasing pressure on healthcare budgets, it is expected that clinical and economic evidence will become more relevant in transferring these interventions to a wider community.

  11. Deep learning guided stroke management: a review of clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui; Badgeley, Marcus; Mocco, J; Oermann, Eric K

    2018-04-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability, and outcome is directly related to timely intervention. Not all patients benefit from rapid intervention, however. Thus a significant amount of attention has been paid to using neuroimaging to assess potential benefit by identifying areas of ischemia that have not yet experienced cellular death. The perfusion-diffusion mismatch, is used as a simple metric for potential benefit with timely intervention, yet penumbral patterns provide an inaccurate predictor of clinical outcome. Machine learning research in the form of deep learning (artificial intelligence) techniques using deep neural networks (DNNs) excel at working with complex inputs. The key areas where deep learning may be imminently applied to stroke management are image segmentation, automated featurization (radiomics), and multimodal prognostication. The application of convolutional neural networks, the family of DNN architectures designed to work with images, to stroke imaging data is a perfect match between a mature deep learning technique and a data type that is naturally suited to benefit from deep learning's strengths. These powerful tools have opened up exciting opportunities for data-driven stroke management for acute intervention and for guiding prognosis. Deep learning techniques are useful for the speed and power of results they can deliver and will become an increasingly standard tool in the modern stroke specialist's arsenal for delivering personalized medicine to patients with ischemic stroke. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. High blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kono, Syoichiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Narai, Hisashi; Omori, Nobuhiko

    2009-11-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of acute phase blood pressure in patients with acute ischemic stroke by determining whether or not it contributes to clinical outcome. We studied 515 consecutive patients admitted within the first 48 hours after the onset of ischemic strokes, employing systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements recorded within 36 hours after admission. High blood pressure was defined when the mean of at least 2 blood pressure measurements was ≥200 mmHg systolic and/or ≥110 mmHg diastolic at 6 to 24 hours after admission or ≥180 mmHg systolic and/or ≥105 mmHg diastolic at 24 to 36 hours after admission. The high blood pressure group was found to include 16% of the patients. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, carotid artery stenosis, leukoaraiosis, NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and mortality were not significantly correlated with either the high blood pressure or non-high blood pressure group. High blood pressure on admission was significantly associated with a past history of hypertension, kidney disease, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on discharge and the length of stay. On logistic regression analysis, with no previous history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and kidney disease were independent risk factors associated with the presence of high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR), 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-3.22), 1.89 (95% CI: 1.11-3.22), and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.36-8.04), respectively]. Multi-organ injury may be presented in acute stroke patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had a poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

  13. CLINICAL AND GENETIC ASPECTS OF ABNORMAL TORTUOSITY OF PRECEREBRAL ARTERIES IN ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Poplavskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inherited connective tissue pathology is the most frequent genetic abnormality. Weakness of connective tissue in this group of disorders is manifested not only by excessive joint mobility, but also by abnormalities in other organs and systems, including vessels. In inherited connective tissue disorders brain artery aneurysms and abnormal vascular tortuosity is found that can be a risk factor for stroke.Aim: To study frequency of abnormal tortuosities of brachiocephalic vessels in post-ischemic stroke patients, as well as efficacy of secondary stroke prevention in such patients.Materials and methods: One hundred and seventy two adult patients with ischemic stroke were examined. Neurological deficiency was assessed with the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS and with the modified Rankin scale. Abnormalities of precerebral arteries were found by ultrasound dopplerography and duplex scanning. To diagnose any abnormalities of connective tissue, clinical and genetic analysis, dermatoglyphic assessment and scoring of excessive joint mobility (Beyton scale were used.Results: Abnormal tortuosity of precerebral arteries is found in 47% of patients with ischemic stroke. The screening performed in 25 of such patients showed connective tissue disorders in one third of them (in 2 patients, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, in 2 patients, connective tissue dysplasia, in 4 patients, mild symptoms of abnormal connective tissue, such as excessive joint mobility scoring to 1–2. In patients without inherited syndromes, some dermatoglyphic traits were found, i.e., distal shift of the axial palmar triradius, higher frequency of patterns on the skin of the thenar, lower pattern frequency on the skin of the hypothenar, higher frequency of simple digital patterns (A and T, lower frequency of complex patterns, such as whorls (W, lower palmar and digital ridgecounts. The results of secondary stroke prevention with antiplatelet agents, antihypertensives

  14. Coronary heart disease risk in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease: findings from the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Sillesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Noncoronary forms of atherosclerosis (including transient ischemic attacks or stroke of carotid origin or >50% stenosis of the carotid artery) are associated with a 10-year vascular risk of >20% and are considered as a coronary heart disease (CHD) -risk equivalent from the standpoint of lipid...... management. The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial included patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known CHD regardless of the presence of carotid atherosclerosis. We evaluated the risk of developing clinically recognized CHD in SPARCL patients....

  15. Preventing Strokes (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-05

    Strokes are the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S., and they don’t just occur in older adults. This podcast discusses ways to lessen your chances of having a stroke.  Created: 6/5/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/5/2014.

  16. Heart healthy and stroke free: successful business strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson Koffman, Dyann M; Goetzel, Ron Z; Anwuri, Victoria V; Shore, Karen K; Orenstein, Diane; LaPier, Timothy

    2005-12-01

    Heart disease and stroke, the principal components of cardiovascular disease (CVD), are the first and third leading causes of death in the United States. In 2002, employers representing 88 companies in the United States paid an average of 18,618 dollars per employee for health and productivity-related costs. A sizable portion of these costs are related to CVD. Employers can yield a 3 dollar to 6 dollar return on investment for each dollar invested over a 2 to 5 year period and improve employee cardiovascular health by investing in comprehensive worksite health-promotion programs, and by choosing health plans that provide adequate coverage and support for essential preventive services. The most effective interventions in worksites are those that provide sustained individual follow-up risk factor education and counseling and other interventions within the context of a comprehensive health-promotion program: (1) screening, health risk assessments, and referrals; (2) environmental supports for behavior change (e.g., access to healthy food choices); (3) financial and other incentives; and (4) corporate policies that support healthy lifestyles (e.g., tobacco-free policies). The most effective practices in healthcare settings include systems that use (1) standardized treatment and prevention protocols consistent with national guidelines, (2) multidisciplinary clinical care teams to deliver quality patient care, (3) clinics that specialize in treating/preventing risk factors, (4) physician and patient reminders, and (5) electronic medical records. Comprehensive worksite health-promotion programs, health plans that cover preventive benefits, and effective healthcare systems will have the greatest impact on heart disease and stroke and are likely to reduce employers' health and productivity-related costs.

  17. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of intensive-dose and standard-dose statin treatment for stroke prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Chen, Dan; Li, Da-Bing; Yu, Xin; Shi, Guo-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous study indicated that high-dose statin treatment might increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke and adverse reactions. We aim to compare the efficacy and safety of intensive-dose and standard-dose statin treatment for preventing stroke in high-risk patients. Methods: A thorough search was performed of multiple databases for publications from 1990 to June 2015. We selected the randomized clinical trials comparing standard-dose statin with placebo and intensive-dose statin with standard-dose statin or placebo for the prevention of stroke events in patients. Duplicate independent data extraction and bias assessments were performed. Data were pooled using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model if significant heterogeneity was present. Results: For the all stroke incidences, intensive-dose statin treatment compared with placebo treatment and standard-dose statin treatment compared with placebo treatment showed a significant 21% reduction in relative risk (RR) (RR 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.71, 0.87], P statin treatment compared with standard dose or placebo was effective reducing fatal stroke (RR 0.61, 95% CI [0.39, 0.96], P = 0.03) and the RR was 1.01 (95% CI [0.85, 1.20], P = 0.90) in standard-dose statin treatment compared with placebo. Conclusion: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that intensive-dose statin treatment might be more favorable for reducing the incidences of all strokes than standard-dose statin treatment, especially for patients older than 65 years in reducing the incidences of all stroke incidences. PMID:27684837

  18. Ischemic Posterior Circulation Stroke: A Review of Anatomy, Clinical Presentations, Diagnosis and Current Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amre eNouh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Posterior circulation (PC strokes represent approximately 20% of all ischemic strokes. In contrast to the anterior circulation (AC several differences in presenting symptoms, clinical evaluation, diagnostic testing and management strategy exist which may present a challenge to the treating physician. This review will discuss the anatomical, etiological and clinical classification of PC strokes, identify diagnostic pitfalls and overview current therapeutic regimens.

  19. Neuroserpin polymorphisms and stroke risk in a biracial population: the stroke prevention in young women study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern Barney J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroserpin, primarily localized to CNS neurons, inhibits the adverse effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA on the neurovascular unit and has neuroprotective effects in animal models of ischemic stroke. We sought to evaluate the association of neuroserpin polymorphisms with risk for ischemic stroke among young women. Methods A population-based case-control study of stroke among women aged 15–49 identified 224 cases of first ischemic stroke (47.3% African-American and 211 age-matched control subjects (43.1% African-American. Neuroserpin single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs chosen through HapMap were genotyped in the study population and assessed for association with stroke. Results Of the five SNPs analyzed, the A allele (frequency; Caucasian = 0.56, African-American = 0.42 of SNP rs6797312 located in intron 1 was associated with stroke in an age-adjusted dominant model (AA and AT vs. TT among Caucasians (OR = 2.05, p = 0.023 but not African-Americans (OR = 0.71, p = 0.387. Models adjusting for other risk factors strengthened the association. Race-specific haplotype analyses, inclusive of SNP rs6797312, again demonstrated significant associations with stroke among Caucasians only. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence that neuroserpin is associated with early-onset ischemic stroke among Caucasian women.

  20. Blood transfusion for preventing primary and secondary stroke in people with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Fortin, Patricia M; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Wang, Winfred C

    2017-01-01

    hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide) and phlebotomy to long-term transfusions and iron chelation therapy: one in primary prevention (children); and one in secondary prevention (children and adolescents). The quality of the evidence was very low to moderate across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology. This was due to the trials being at a high risk of bias due to lack of blinding, indirectness and imprecise outcome estimates. Red cell transfusions versus standard care Children with no previous long-term transfusions Long-term transfusions probably reduce the incidence of clinical stroke in children with a higher risk of stroke (abnormal transcranial doppler velocities or previous history of silent cerebral infarct), risk ratio 0.12 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.49) (two trials, 326 participants), moderate quality evidence. Long-term transfusions may: reduce the incidence of other sickle cell disease-related complications (acute chest syndrome, risk ratio 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.48)) (two trials, 326 participants); increase quality of life (difference estimate -0.54, 95% confidence interval -0.92 to -0.17) (one trial, 166 participants); but make little or no difference to IQ scores (least square mean: 1.7, standard error 95% confidence interval -1.1 to 4.4) (one trial, 166 participants), low quality evidence. We are very uncertain whether long-term transfusions: reduce the risk of transient ischaemic attacks, Peto odds ratio 0.13 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 2.11) (two trials, 323 participants); have any effect on all-cause mortality, no deaths reported (two trials, 326 participants); or increase the risk of alloimmunisation, risk ratio 3.16 (95% confidence interval 0.18 to 57.17) (one trial, 121 participants), very low quality evidence. Children and adolescents with previous long-term transfusions (one trial, 79 participants) We are very uncertain whether continuing long-term transfusions reduces the incidence of: stroke, risk ratio 0.22 (95

  1. Hemorrhagic stroke in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, L.B.; Amarenco, P.; Szarek, M.

    2008-01-01

    hemorrhagic stroke (n = 55 for active treatment vs n = 33 for placebo). METHODS: We explored the relationships between hemorrhage risk and treatment, baseline patient characteristics, most recent blood pressure, and most recent low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels prior to the hemorrhage. RESULTS......: Of 4,731 patients, 67% had ischemic strokes, 31% TIAs, and 2% hemorrhagic strokes as entry events. In addition to atorvastatin treatment (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.59, p = 0.02), Cox multivariable regression including baseline variables significant in univariable analyses showed that hemorrhagic stroke...... and treatment. Multivariable analyses also found that having Stage 2 (JNC-7) hypertension at the last study visit before a hemorrhagic stroke increased risk (HR 6.19, 95% CI 1.47 to 26.11, p = 0.01), but there was no effect of most recent LDL-cholesterol level in those treated with atorvastatin. CONCLUSIONS...

  2. Systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses of novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João; Mirco, Ana

    2015-03-01

    Novel oral anticoagulants are emerging options for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases. They are increasingly used in clinical practice due to their simplicity of use and clinical benefits, but an important step is to evaluate their cost-effectiveness. The aim of the AFFORD study (A Review of Cost EFFectiveness of Novel ORal Anticoagulant Drugs) was to perform a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies of novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). A systematic review of the literature was conducted by searching the PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane and Web of Knowledge databases to identify all cost-effectiveness studies of novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in AF. The search identified 27 studies, 18 with dabigatran, three with apixaban, two with rivaroxaban and four with at least two of these drugs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were 30 405 ± 16 101 euros per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for dabigatran 110 mg, 17 566 ± 16 902 euros/QALY for dabigatran 150 mg, 8102 ± 3252 euros/QALY for age-adjusted dabigatran, 11 897 ± 3341 euros/QALY for apixaban and 17 960 ± 12 005 euros/QALY for rivaroxaban. The present systematic review demonstrates that novel oral anticoagulants are cost-effective for stroke prevention in AF. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Stroke prevention strategies in North American patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntyre, William F; Conen, David; Olshansky, Brian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antithrombotic prophylaxis with oral anticoagulation (OAC) substantially reduces stroke and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). HYPOTHESIS: Analysis of data in GLORIA-AF, an international, observational registry of patients with newly-diagnosed AF, can identify factor...

  4. Carotenoids as potential antioxidant agents in stroke prevention: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Bahonar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases are among the most common causes of death worldwide. Prevention of modifiable risk factors is a cost-effective approach to decrease the risk of stroke. Oxidative stress is regarded as the major flexible operative agent in ischemic brain damage. This review presents recent scientific advances in understanding the role of carotenoids as antioxidants in lowering stroke risk based on observational studies. We searched Medline using the following terms: (Carotenoids [MeSH] OR Carotenes [tiab] OR Carotene [tiab] OR “lycopene [Supplementary Concept]” [MeSH] OR lycopene [tiab] OR beta-Carotene [tiab] AND (stroke [MeSH] OR stroke [tiab] OR “Cerebrovascular Accident” [tiab] OR “Cerebrovascular Apoplexy” [tiab] OR “Brain Vascular Accident” [tiab] OR “Cerebrovascular Stroke” [tiab] AND (“oxidative stress” [MeSH] OR “oxidative stress”[tiab]. This search considered papers that had been published between 2000 and 2017. Recent studies indicated that high dietary intake of six main carotenoids (i.e., lycopene, <- and ®-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and astaxanthin was associated with reduced risk of stroke and other cardiovascular outcomes. However, the main mechanism of the action of these nutrients was not identified, and multiple mechanisms except antioxidant activity were suggested to be involved in the observed beneficial effects. The dietary intake of six major carotenoids should be promoted as this may have a substantial positive effect on stroke prevention and stroke mortality reduction.

  5. Clinical predictors of hemorrhagic transformation in non lacunar ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia R. Balian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic transformation is a complex phenomenon where brain tissue bleeds, which could be associated or not to an increase in the neurological deficit after the acute ischemic stroke. The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical predictors of hemorrhagic transformation in patients with non-lacunar ischemic stroke. We performed a prospective analysis of the clinical records and images of patients with non-lacunar ischemic stroke. Demographics, vascular risk factors, previous medications and the information of the event in patients with and without hemorrhagic transformation were here compared. We included in this study 747 patients with non-lacunar stroke, the mean age was 77 ± 11 years and 61% were females. In the univariate analysis, the age, a history of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease and the previous use of oral anticoagulation resulted statistically significant. In the multivariate analysis of logistic regression adjusted by age and vascular risk factors: the age > 80 years (OR 3.6, CI 95% 1.8-7.6, the pulse pressure > 60 mmHg at admission (OR 5.3, CI 95% 3.2-9.1, the chronic kidney disease (OR 3, CI 95% 2.5-3.8 and the presence of previous atrial fibrillation (OR 3.5, CI 95% 2.1-6.1 were associated with and increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation. The predictors of hemorrhagic transformation in our cohort showed a relationship with severe vascular illness. The identification of these patients could influence therapeutic decisions that could increase the risk of hemorrhagic transformation

  6. Risk of stroke and cardiovascular events after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in patients with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome: secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callahan, Alfred; Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B

    2011-01-01

    To perform a secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial, which tested the effect of treatment with atorvastatin in reducing stroke in subjects with a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack, to explore the effects of treatment...

  7. Coronary heart disease risk in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease: findings from the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Sillesen, Henrik; Benavente, Oscar; Zweifler, Richard M; Callahan, Alfred; Hennerici, Michael G; Zivin, Justin A; Welch, K Michael A

    2010-03-01

    Noncoronary forms of atherosclerosis (including transient ischemic attacks or stroke of carotid origin or >50% stenosis of the carotid artery) are associated with a 10-year vascular risk of >20% and are considered as a coronary heart disease (CHD) -risk equivalent from the standpoint of lipid management. The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial included patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known CHD regardless of the presence of carotid atherosclerosis. We evaluated the risk of developing clinically recognized CHD in SPARCL patients. A total of 4731 patients (mean age, 63 years) was randomized to 80 mg/day atorvastatin placebo. The rates of major coronary event, any CHD event, and any revascularization procedure were evaluated. After 4.9 years of follow-up, the risks of a major coronary event and of any CHD end point in the placebo group were 5.1% and 8.6%, respectively. The rate of outcome of stroke decreased over time, whereas the major coronary event rate was stable. Relative to those having a large vessel-related stroke at baseline, those having a transient ischemic attack, hemorrhagic stroke, small vessel stroke, or a stroke of unknown cause had similar absolute rates for a first major coronary event and for any CHD event; transient ischemic attack, small vessel, and unknown cause groups had lower absolute revascularization procedure rates. Major coronary event, any CHD event, and any revascularization procedure rates were similarly reduced in all baseline stroke subtypes in the atorvastatin arm compared with placebo with no heterogeneity between groups. CHD risk can be substantially reduced by atorvastatin therapy in patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack regardless of stroke subtype.

  8. Effect of age on stroke prevention therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation: the atrial fibrillation investigators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Walraven, Carl; Hart, Robert G; Connolly, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    . Outcomes included ischemic stroke, serious bleeding (intracranial hemorrhage or systemic bleeding requiring hospitalization, transfusion, or surgery), and cardiovascular events (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, or vascular death). RESULTS: The analysis included 8932 patients......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke risk increases with age in patients who have nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. It is uncertain whether the efficacy of stroke prevention therapies in atrial fibrillation changes as patients age. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age...... on the relative efficacy of oral anticoagulants (OAC) and antiplatelet (AP) therapy (including acetylsalicylic acid and triflusal) on ischemic stroke, serious bleeding, and vascular events in patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS: This is an analysis of the Atrial Fibrillation Investigators database, which...

  9. Antithrombotic therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and mechanical heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikelboom, John W; Hart, Robert G

    2012-05-01

    Cardioembolic strokes account for one-sixth of all strokes and are an important potentially preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Vitamin K antagonists (e.g., warfarin) are effective for the prevention of cardioembolic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and in those with mechanical heart valves but because of their inherent limitations are underutilized and often suboptimally managed. Antiplatelet therapies have been the only alternatives to warfarin for stroke prevention in AF but although they are safer and more convenient they are much less efficacious. The advent of new oral anticoagulant drugs offers the potential to reduce the burden of cardioembolic stroke by providing access to effective, safe, and more convenient therapies. New oral anticoagulants have begun to replace warfarin for stroke prevention in some patients with AF, based on the favorable results of recently completed phase III randomized controlled trials, and provide for the first time an alternative to antiplatelet therapy for patients deemed unsuitable for warfarin. The promise of the new oral anticoagulants in patients with mechanical heart valves is currently being tested in a phase II trial. If efficacy and safety are demonstrated, the new oral anticoagulants will provide an alternative to warfarin for patients with mechanical heart valves and may also lead to increased use of mechanical valves for patients who would not have received them in the past because of the requirement for long term warfarin therapy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Clinical characteristics of stroke occurring in the toilet: Are older adults more vulnerable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamasu, Joji; Tomiyasu, Kazuhiro; Miyatake, Satoru; Mayanagi, Keita; Yoshii, Masami; Nakatsukasa, Masashi

    2018-02-01

    While autonomic imbalance during defecation/micturition can cause hemodynamic instability, stroke occurring in the toilet has rarely been investigated. The objective of the present study was to clarify the frequency and clinical characteristics of toilet-related stroke. Clinical data prospectively acquired between January 2011 and December 2015 on 1939 patients with acute stroke (1224 cerebral infarctions [CI], 505 intracerebral hemorrhages [ICH] and 210 subarachnoid hemorrhages [SAH]) were reviewed to identify patients with a toilet-related stroke. For each stroke type, the ratios of stroke occurring during defecation/micturition to those occurring during other activities were calculated. Subsequently, how patients with toilet-related stroke were brought to medical attention was investigated. Whether older patients (aged >65 years) had an elevated ratio of toilet-related stroke was investigated in each stroke type. A total of 108 patients (41 CI, 37 ICH and 30 subarachnoid hemorrhages) sustained a stroke in the toilet. The ratio of toilet-related stroke was highest in subarachnoid hemorrhages (14.3%), followed by ICH (7.3%). Circadian differences existed among the three stroke types: toilet-related CI were more likely to occur in the night-time than ICH. Patients with toilet-related CI were significantly more likely to sustain cardioembolic stroke. In all three stroke types, toilet-related stroke in CI, but not in hemorrhagic strokes. The toilet is a closed space where stroke occurs disproportionately frequently. Effort to reduce the incidence of toilet-related strokes is warranted, as early patient detection is not always feasible. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 250-255. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. [Compliance with recommendations in secondary prevention of stroke in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Ojeda, Carmen; Parellada-Esquius, Neus; Salvador-González, Betlem; Oriol-Torón, Pilar Ángeles; Rodríguez-Garrido, M Dolores; Muñoz-Segura, Dolores

    Knowing compliance with secondary prevention recommendations of stroke in primary care and to identify factors associated with compliance. Multi-centre cross-sectional. Health primary care centres in a metropolitan area (944,280 inhabitants). Patients aged 18years and over with ischemic brain disease diagnosis prior to 6months before the study. Clinical history records of demographic variables, risk factors and cardiovascular comorbidity, drugs, blood pressure values (BP), LDL-cholesterol and medical visits by doctor and nurses after the event. Good adherence was considered when BP <140/90 mmHg, LDL-cholesterol <100 mg/dL, smoking abstention and preventive drugs prescription (anti-platelet/anticoagulants, statins and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor-antagonists or diuretics) during the last 18months. A total of 21,976 patients, mean age 73.12 years (SD: 12.13), 48% women, 72.7% with stroke. Co-morbidity: hypertension 70.8%, dyslipidemia 55.1%, DM 30.9%, atrial fibrillation 14.1%, ischemic heart disease 13.5%, chronic renal failure 12.5%, heart failure 8.8%, peripheral arterial disease 6.2%, dementia 7.8%. No record was found for smoking in 3.7%, for BP in 3.5% and for LDL in 6.5%. Optimal control: abstention smoking in 3.7%, BP <140/90 in 65.7% and LDL <100 mg/dL in 41.0%. 86.2% anti-platelet/anticoagulants, 61.3% statins and 61.8% angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor-antagonists or diuretic. Registration and risk factors control was higher in 66-79years aged and lower in 18-40years aged. The implementation of clinical guidelines recommendations for stroke prevention in primary care must be improved, especially among younger population. Organizational changes and more active involvement by professionals and strategies against therapeutic inertia must be taken. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Blood transfusion for preventing primary and secondary stroke in people with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Winfred C; Dwan, Kerry

    2013-11-14

    In sickle cell disease, a common inherited haemoglobin disorder, abnormal haemoglobin distorts red blood cells, causing anaemia, vaso-occlusion and dysfunction in most body organs. Without intervention, stroke affects around 10% of children with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) and recurrence is likely. Chronic blood transfusion dilutes the sickled red blood cells, reducing the risk of vaso-occlusion and stroke. However, side effects can be severe. To assess risks and benefits of chronic blood transfusion regimens in people with sickle cell disease to prevent first stroke or recurrences. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register, comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and conference proceedings.Date of the latest search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 28 January 2013. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing blood transfusion as prophylaxis for stroke in people with sickle cell disease to alternative or no treatment. Both authors independently assessed the risk of bias of the included trials and extracted data. Searches identified three eligible randomised trials (n = 342). The first two trials addressed the use of chronic transfusion to prevent primary stroke; the third utilized the drug hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea) and phlebotomy to prevent both recurrent (secondary) stroke and iron overload in patients who had already experienced an initial stroke. In the first trial (STOP) a chronic transfusion regimen for maintaining sickle haemoglobin lower than 30% was compared with standard care in 130 children with sickle cell disease judged (through transcranial Doppler ultrasonography) as high-risk for first stroke. During the trial, 11 children in the standard care group suffered a stroke compared to one in the transfusion group, odds ratio 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.66). This meant the trial was

  13. Potential of the Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) Telmisartan, Irbesartan, and Candesartan for Inhibiting the HMGB1/RAGE Axis in Prevention and Acute Treatment of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Tancharoen, Salunya; Ito, Takashi; Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Miura, Naoki; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Maruyama, Ikuro; Murai, Yoshinaka; Tanaka, Eiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. The main cause of stroke is atherosclerosis, and the most common risk factor for atherosclerosis is hypertension. Therefore, antihypertensive treatments are recommended for the prevention of stroke. Three angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), telmisartan, irbesartan and candesartan, inhibit the expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), which is one of the pleiotropic effects of these drugs. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is the ligand of RAGE, and has been recently identified as a lethal mediator of severe sepsis. HMGB1 is an intracellular protein, which acts as an inflammatory cytokine when released into the extracellular milieu. Extracellular HMGB1 causes multiple organ failure and contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and stroke. This is the first review of the literature evaluating the potential of three ARBs for the HMGB1-RAGE axis on stroke therapy, including prevention and acute treatment. This review covers clinical and experimental studies conducted between 1976 and 2013. We propose that ARBs, which inhibit the HMGB1/RAGE axis, may offer a novel option for prevention and acute treatment of stroke. However, additional clinical studies are necessary to verify the efficacy of ARBs. PMID:24065095

  14. A review of apixaban for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: insights from ARISTOTLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Connie N; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Granger, Christopher B; Lopes, Renato

    2013-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with significant mortality and morbidity, and stroke represents the most-feared complication. Consequently, AF treatment has focused on thromboprophylaxis, with warfarin as the mainstay of therapy. However, concerns over ease of use and safety have limited its use. Three novel oral anticoagulants have been approved for use in stroke prevention in AF based on randomized data: 1) dabigatran, studied in Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY); 2) rivaroxaban, studied in Rivaroxaban Once-daily, Oral, Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF); and 3) apixaban, studied in Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE). In this review, we focus on apixaban and discuss subgroup analyses that have been performed in the three trials comparing novel oral anticoagulants with warfarin. We conclude with recommendations regarding further investigations.

  15. Arterial hypertension and stroke: cardiac and neurological aspects of secondary prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Geraskina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the pathogenetic mechanisms of stroke in arterial hypertension (AH with special emphasis on comorbid neurological and cardiac disorders. It presents the cardiac and neurological aspects of the current strategy of medical therapy within the secondary prevention of poststroke cardiovascular events. The secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients who have sustained ischemic stroke in the presence of AH involves the use of not only antihypertensive drugs, but also adequate antiplatelet therapy and statins. The most important part is assigned to the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments, which also promotes increased patient treatment adherence and improved poststroke prognosis, including longer survival and better quality of life.

  16. Carotid Artery Stenting Successfully Prevents Progressive Stroke Due to Mobile Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Oomura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of progressive ischemic stroke due to a mobile plaque, in which carotid artery stenting successfully prevented further infarctions. A 78-year-old man developed acute multiple infarcts in the right hemisphere, and a duplex ultrasound showed a mobile plaque involving the bifurcation of the left common carotid artery. Maximal medical therapy failed to prevent further infarcts, and the number of infarcts increased with his neurological deterioration. Our present case suggests that the deployment of a closed-cell stent is effective to prevent the progression of the ischemic stroke due to the mobile plaque.

  17. Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Fibrates for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires da Rosa, Gilberto; Libânio, Diogo; Filipe Azevedo, Luís

    2017-01-01

    The influence of fibrates on cardiovascular risk has been the focus of several clinical trials. This Cochrane Collaboration Systematic Review evaluated the efficacy of fibrates for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and stroke, analyzing 13 randomized controlled trials, in a total of 16 112 participants with a history of cardiovascular disease. Fibrates showed a protective effect for the composite outcome of non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and vascular death, mainly due to reduction in the risk of non-fatal or fatal MI. Nonetheless, these results largely relied on studies including clofibrate, a drug withdrawn from the market in 2002. No statistically significant differences regarding adverse events were found between fibrates and placebo. Although insufficient to support the routine prescription of fibrates in this setting, this evidence should be taken into account when deciding on lipid-modifying therapy in dyslipidemic patients with a history of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Utility of electronic patient records in primary care for stroke secondary prevention trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashworth Mark

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to inform the design of a pragmatic trial of stroke prevention in primary care by evaluating data recorded in electronic patient records (EPRs as potential outcome measures. The study also evaluated achievement of recommended standards of care; variation between family practices; and changes in risk factor values from before to after stroke. Methods Data from the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD were analysed for 22,730 participants with an index first stroke between 2003 and 2006 from 414 family practices. For each subject, the EPR was evaluated for the 12 months before and after stroke. Measures relevant to stroke secondary prevention were analysed including blood pressure (BP, cholesterol, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index (BMI, atrial fibrillation, utilisation of antihypertensive, antiplatelet and cholesterol lowering drugs. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were estimated by family practice. Random effects models were fitted to evaluate changes in risk factor values over time. Results In the 12 months following stroke, BP was recorded for 90%, cholesterol for 70% and body mass index (BMI for 47%. ICCs by family practice ranged from 0.02 for BP and BMI to 0.05 for LDL and HDL cholesterol. For subjects with records available both before and after stroke, the mean reductions from before to after stroke were: mean systolic BP, 6.02 mm Hg; diastolic BP, 2.78 mm Hg; total cholesterol, 0.60 mmol/l; BMI, 0.34 Kg/m2. There was an absolute reduction in smokers of 5% and heavy drinkers of 4%. The proportion of stroke patients within the recommended guidelines varied from less than a third (29% for systolic BP, just over half for BMI (54%, and over 90% (92% on alcohol consumption. Conclusions Electronic patient records have potential for evaluation of outcomes in pragmatic trials of stroke secondary prevention. Stroke prevention interventions in primary care remain suboptimal but important

  19. Real-World Use of Apixaban for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Marco; Romanazzi, Imma; Romiti, Giulio Francesco; Farcomeni, Alessio; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2018-01-01

    The use of oral anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation has been transformed by the availability of the nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants. Real-world studies on the use of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants would help elucidate their effectiveness and safety in daily clinical practice. Apixaban was the third nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants introduced to clinical practice, and increasing real-world studies have been published. Our aim was to summarize current evidence about real-world studies on apixaban for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all observational real-world studies comparing apixaban with other available oral anticoagulant drugs. From the original 9680 results retrieved, 16 studies have been included in the final meta-analysis. Compared with warfarin, apixaban regular dose was more effective in reducing any thromboembolic event (odds ratio: 0.77; 95% confidence interval: 0.64-0.93), but no significant difference was found for stroke risk. Apixaban was as effective as dabigatran and rivaroxaban in reducing thromboembolic events and stroke. The risk of major bleeding was significantly lower for apixaban compared with warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban (relative risk reduction, 38%, 35%, and 46%, respectively). Similarly, the risk for intracranial hemorrhage was significantly lower for apixaban than warfarin and rivaroxaban (46% and 54%, respectively) but not dabigatran. The risk of gastrointestinal bleeding was lower with apixaban when compared with all oral anticoagulant agents ( P stroke and any thromboembolic events when compared with warfarin. A better safety profile was found with apixaban compared with warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. The site of embolization related to infarct size, oedema and clinical outcome in a rat stroke model - further translational stroke research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Karsten; Rasmussen, Rune S; Johansen, Flemming F

    2010-01-01

    Reliable models are essential for translational stroke research to study the pathophysiology of ischaemic stroke in an effort to find therapies that may ultimately reduce oedema, infarction and mortality in the clinic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between the site...... of arterial embolization and the subsequent oedema, infarction and clinical outcome in a rat embolic stroke model....

  1. Perinatal stroke in Saudi children: clinical features and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Anal Y.; Al-Nasser, Mohammad N.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2006-01-01

    To describe the clinical features and presentations of perinatal stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the risk factors. Patients with perinatal stroke were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Neuroimaging for suspected cases of stroke consisted of cranial CT, MRI, or both. During the study period, 23 (22%) of 104 children (aged one months to 12 years) were diagnosed to have had perinatal stroke. The male: female ratio was 1.6:1. Ten (67%) of the 15 children who had unilateral ischemic involvement had their lesion in the left hemisphere. The presentation of the ischemic result was within 24-72 hours of life in 13 (57%) patients, and in 6 children (26%), motor impairment was recognized at or after the age of 4 months. Nine children (39%) had seizures at presentation. Pregnancy, labor, and delivery risk factors were ascertained in 18 (78%) cases. The most common of these included emergency cesarean section in 5 cases, and instrumental delivery in other 5. Screening for prothrombotic risk factors detected abnormalities in 6 (26%) patients on at least one test carried out between 2 months and 9 years of age. Four children (17%) had low protein C, which was associated low protein S and raised anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) in one patient, and low antithrombin III in another. Low proteins S was detected in a 42-month-old boy. The abnormality in the sixth child was confined to raised ACA. The present study highlights the non-specific features by which stroke presents during the neonatal period. The data are in keeping with the potential role for inherited and acquired thrombophilia as being the underlying cause. However, the high prevalence of

  2. Risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates for stroke: evidence from the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry (AuSCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Kilkenny, Monique F; Levi, Christopher R; Lannin, Natasha A; Thrift, Amanda G; Kim, Joosup; Grabsch, Brenda; Churilov, Leonid; Dewey, Helen M; Hill, Kelvin; Faux, Steven G; Grimley, Rohan; Castley, Helen; Hand, Peter J; Wong, Andrew; Herkes, Geoffrey K; Gill, Melissa; Crompton, Douglas; Middleton, Sandy; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Anderson, Craig S

    2017-05-01

    Hospital data used to assess regional variability in disease management and outcomes, including mortality, lack information on disease severity. We describe variance between hospitals in 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rates (RAMRs) for stroke, comparing models that include or exclude stroke severity as a covariate. Cohort design linking Australian Stroke Clinical Registry data with national death registrations. Multivariable models using recommended statistical methods for calculating 30-day RAMRs for hospitals, adjusted for demographic factors, ability to walk on admission, stroke type, and stroke recurrence. Australian hospitals providing at least 200 episodes of acute stroke care, 2009-2014. Hospital RAMRs estimated by different models. Changes in hospital rank order and funnel plots were used to explore variation in hospital-specific 30-day RAMRs; that is, RAMRs more than three standard deviations from the mean. In the 28 hospitals reporting at least 200 episodes of care, there were 16 218 episodes (15 951 patients; median age, 77 years; women, 46%; ischaemic strokes, 79%). RAMRs from models not including stroke severity as a variable ranged between 8% and 20%; RAMRs from models with the best fit, which included ability to walk and stroke recurrence as variables, ranged between 9% and 21%. The rank order of hospitals changed according to the covariates included in the models, particularly for those hospitals with the highest RAMRs. Funnel plots identified significant deviation from the mean overall RAMR for two hospitals, including one with borderline excess mortality. Hospital stroke mortality rates and hospital performance ranking may vary widely according to the covariates included in the statistical analysis.

  3. Acupuncture treatment for ischaemic stroke in young adults: protocol for a randomised, sham-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifang; Fang, Jianqiao; Jin, Xiaoming; Keeler, Crystal Lynn; Gao, Hong; Fang, Zhen; Chen, Qin

    2016-01-06

    Stroke in young adults is not uncommon. Although the overall incidence of stroke has been recently declining, the incidence of stroke in young adults is increasing. Traditional vascular risk factors are the main cause of young ischaemic stroke. Acupuncture has been shown to benefit stroke rehabilitation and ameliorate the risk factors for stroke. The aims of this study were to determine whether acupuncture treatment will be effective in improving the activities of daily living (ADL), motor function and quality of life (QOL) in patients of young ischaemic stroke, and in preventing stroke recurrence by controlling blood pressure, lipids and body weight. In this randomised, sham-controlled, participant-blinded and assessor-blinded clinical trial, 120 patients between 18 and 45 years of age with a recent (within 1 month) ischaemic stroke will be randomised for an 8-week acupuncture or sham acupuncture treatment. The primary outcome will be the Barthel Index for ADL. The secondary outcomes will include the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for motor function; the World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) for QOL; and risk factors that are measured by ambulatory blood pressure, the fasting serum lipid, body mass index and waist circumference. Incidence of adverse events and long-term mortality and recurrence rate during a 10-year and 30-year follow-up will also be investigated. Ethics approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University. Protocol V.3 was approved in June 2013. The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. The results will also be disseminated to patients by telephone during follow-up calls enquiring on the patient's post-study health status. ChiCTR-TRC- 13003317; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Accuracy of Emergency Medical Services Dispatcher and Crew Diagnosis of Stroke in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Judy; Band, Roger; Abboud, Michael E; Pajerowski, William; Guo, Michelle; David, Guy; Mechem, C Crawford; Messé, Steven R; Carr, Brendan G; Mullen, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    Accurate recognition of stroke symptoms by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is necessary for timely care of acute stroke patients. We assessed the accuracy of stroke diagnosis by EMS in clinical practice in a major US city. Philadelphia Fire Department data were merged with data from a single comprehensive stroke center to identify patients diagnosed with stroke or TIA from 9/2009 to 10/2012. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression identified variables associated with correct EMS diagnosis. There were 709 total cases, with 400 having a discharge diagnosis of stroke or TIA. EMS crew sensitivity was 57.5% and PPV was 69.1%. EMS crew identified 80.2% of strokes with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≥5 and symptom duration 270 min (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.25-0.68). EMS dispatchers identified 90 stroke cases that the EMS crew missed. EMS dispatcher or crew identified stroke with sensitivity of 80% and PPV of 50.9%, and EMS dispatcher or crew identified 90.5% of patients with NIHSS ≥5 and symptom duration <6 h. Prehospital diagnosis of stroke has limited sensitivity, resulting in a high proportion of missed stroke cases. Dispatchers identified many strokes that EMS crews did not. Incorporating EMS dispatcher impression into regional protocols may maximize the effectiveness of hospital destination selection and pre-notification.

  5. Risk factors, clinical presentation, and neuroimaging findings of neonatal perforator stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; Raets, Marlou M A; Lequin, Maarten; Feijen-Roon, Monique; Govaert, Paul; Dudink, Jeroen

    2013-08-01

    To date, studies on neonatal stroke have mainly focused on cortical stroke. We have focused on perforator strokes, noncortical strokes in the arterial vascular perforator area. We sought to identify risk factors and evaluate clinical presentation and neuroimaging findings for neonatal perforator stroke, which seems to be under-recognized. All infants admitted to our tertiary intensive care unit in ≈12 years, whose perforator stroke was diagnosed with postnatal brain imaging, were enrolled in this study. Demographic, perinatal, and postnatal data were evaluated. Seventy-nine perforator strokes were detected in 55 patients (28 boys), with a median gestational age of 37 1/7 weeks (range 24 1/7 to 42 1/7 weeks, 25 preterm). Perforator stroke was asymptomatic in most patients (58%). Initial diagnosis was predominantly made with cranial ultrasound (80%) in the first week of life (60%). Risk factors for stroke were present in all cases: maternal, fetal, and perinatal. Likely pathogenic mechanisms were prolonged birth asphyxia (16%), hypoxia or hypotension (15%), embolism (15%), infection (15%), acute blood loss (9%), and birth trauma (9%). Previously described risk factors for developing neonatal main artery stroke are probably also associated with neonatal perforator stroke. Perforator stroke is often asymptomatic, but cranial ultrasound is a reliable diagnostic tool in diagnosing perforator stroke.

  6. Patent foramen ovale closure with GORE HELEX or CARDIOFORM Septal Occluder vs. antiplatelet therapy for reduction of recurrent stroke or new brain infarct in patients with prior cryptogenic stroke: Design of the randomized Gore REDUCE Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasner, Scott E; Thomassen, Lars; Søndergaard, Lars; Rhodes, John F; Larsen, Coby C; Jacobson, Joth

    2017-12-01

    Rationale The utility of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure for secondary prevention in patients with prior cryptogenic stroke is uncertain despite multiple randomized trials completed to date. Aims The Gore REDUCE Clinical Study (REDUCE) aims to establish superiority of patent foramen ovale closure in conjunction with antiplatelet therapy over antiplatelet therapy alone in reducing the risk of recurrent clinical ischemic stroke or new silent brain infarct in patients who have had a cryptogenic stroke. Methods and design This controlled, open-label trial randomized 664 subjects with cryptogenic stroke at 63 multinational sites in a 2:1 ratio to either antiplatelet therapy plus patent foramen ovale closure (with GORE® HELEX® Septal Occluder or GORE® CARDIOFORM Septal Occluder) or antiplatelet therapy alone. Subjects will be prospectively followed for up to five years. Neuroimaging is required for all subjects at baseline and at two years or study exit. Study outcomes The two co-primary endpoints for the study are freedom from recurrent clinical ischemic stroke through at least 24 months post-randomization and incidence of new brain infarct (defined as clinical ischemic stroke or silent brain infarct) through 24 months. The primary analyses are an unadjusted log-rank test and a binomial test of subject-based proportions, respectively, both on the intent-to-treat population, with adjustment for testing multiplicity. Discussion The REDUCE trial aims to target a patient population with truly cryptogenic strokes. Medical therapy is limited to antiplatelet agents in both arms thereby reducing confounding. The trial should determine whether patent foramen ovale closure with the Gore septal occluders is safe and more effective than medical therapy alone for the prevention of recurrent clinical ischemic stroke or new silent brain infarct; the neuroimaging data will provide an opportunity to further support the proof of concept. The main results are anticipated in 2017

  7. Nursing interventions in stroke care delivery: An evidence-based clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofanidis, Dimitrios; Gibbon, Bernard

    2016-12-01

    Generally, nursing interventions during the acute stages following a stroke aim at preventing secondary brain injury (intracranial hypertension), maintaining the airways (due to paralysis of the pharynx muscles), providing general body support (vital signs, fluid and electrolyte balance), and anticipating the occurrence of complications (atelectasis and pneumonia). This literature review is to prioritize nursing interventions for acute stroke and to update nursing roles and input considering recommended levels of evidence of care to date. A systematic review was undertaken, and databases searched were Electronic Library Information Navigator (ELIN), Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature from 1990 to 2015, using the OVID interface. The search originally yielded 400 articles of which 65 were selected for analysis and 12 of these included evidence synthesis (class I-IV, level A-Good Clinical Practice [GCP]). To facilitate early patient recovery, advanced nursing care should include the routine practice of a wide range of specific nursing interventions such as continence management, pressure area care, swallowing management, and early mobilization. Other important nursing interventions include the prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism and early antiplatelet therapy. For over 20 years, it has been established that specialized stroke care save lives, reduce disability, shorten length of stay, and generally have been associated with improved patient outcomes. Highly specialized nursing input is of paramount importance in achieving optimum patient outcomes and high quality of interdisciplinary care, providing a comprehensive, interactive, and holistic approach for both acute stroke and rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cervical artery dissection: early recognition and stroke prevention [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Rhonda; Kim, Jeremy

    2016-07-22

    Cervical artery dissections involve the carotid or vertebral arteries. Although the overall incidence is low, they remain a common cause of stroke in children, young adults, and trauma patients. Symptoms such as headache, neck pain, and dizziness are commonly seen in the emergency department, but may not be apparent in the obtunded trauma patient. A missed diagnosis of cervical artery dissection can result in devastating neurological sequelae, so emergency clinicians must act quickly to recognize this event and begin treatment as soon as possible while neurological consultation is obtained. This issue reviews the evidence in applying advanced screening criteria and choosing imaging and antithrombotic treatment strategies for patients with cervical artery dissections to reduce the occurrence of ischemic stroke. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice].

  9. Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure for stroke prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Loupis, Anastasia M; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    risk (CHADS-VASc 4.5±1.4) and contra-indication(s) for OAC and/or a high bleeding risk (HAS-BLED 3.7±0.9). A history of intracerebral bleeding was the most common reason for LAA closure. Successful implantation was obtained in 41 of 42 patients. One major peri-procedural complication occurred; a major...... gastrointestinal bleeding immediately after the procedure. The mean duration of follow-up was 12.6 months. Both ischaemic stroke and bleeding occurred in one patient, resulting in an observed annual stroke and bleeding rate of 2.3%. This rate was lower than expected based on the CHADS-VASc (5.6%/year) and HAS...

  10. Microglial Cells Prevent Hemorrhage in Neonatal Focal Arterial Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, David; Faustino, Joel; Klibanov, Alexander L; Derugin, Nikita; Blanchard, Elodie; Simon, Franziska; Leib, Stephen L; Vexler, Zinaida S

    2016-03-09

    Perinatal stroke leads to significant morbidity and long-term neurological and cognitive deficits. The pathophysiological mechanisms of brain damage depend on brain maturation at the time of stroke. To understand whether microglial cells limit injury after neonatal stroke by preserving neurovascular integrity, we subjected postnatal day 7 (P7) rats depleted of microglial cells, rats with inhibited microglial TGFbr2/ALK5 signaling, and corresponding controls, to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Microglial depletion by intracerebral injection of liposome-encapsulated clodronate at P5 significantly reduced vessel coverage and triggered hemorrhages in injured regions 24 h after tMCAO. Lack of microglia did not alter expression or intracellular redistribution of several tight junction proteins, did not affect degradation of collagen IV induced by the tMCAO, but altered cell types producing TGFβ1 and the phosphorylation and intracellular distribution of SMAD2/3. Selective inhibition of TGFbr2/ALK5 signaling in microglia via intracerebral liposome-encapsulated SB-431542 delivery triggered hemorrhages after tMCAO, demonstrating that TGFβ1/TGFbr2/ALK5 signaling in microglia protects from hemorrhages. Consistent with observations in neonatal rats, depletion of microglia before tMCAO in P9 Cx3cr1(GFP/+)/Ccr2(RFP/+) mice exacerbated injury and induced hemorrhages at 24 h. The effects were independent of infiltration of Ccr2(RFP/+) monocytes into injured regions. Cumulatively, in two species, we show that microglial cells protect neonatal brain from hemorrhage after acute ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362881-13$15.00/0.

  11. Nursing care for stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulek, Zeliha; Poulsen, Ingrid; Gillis, Katrin

    2018-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To conduct a survey of the clinical nursing practice in European countries in accordance with the European Stroke Strategies (ESS) 2006, and to examine to what extent the ESS have been implemented in stroke care nursing in Europe. BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death...... comprising 61 questions based on the ESS and scientific evidence in nursing practice was distributed to representatives of the European Association of Neuroscience Nurses, who sent the questionnaire to nurses active in stroke care. The questionnaire covered the following areas of stroke care: Organization...... of stroke services, Management of acute stroke and prevention including basic care and nursing, and Secondary prevention. RESULTS: Ninety-two nurses in stroke care in 11 European countries participated in the survey. Within the first 48 hours after stroke onset, 95% monitor patients regularly, 94% start...

  12. A new era of anticoagulant therapy in the prevention of stroke in non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Viktorovich Fonyakin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation (AF is one of the most common types of cardiac arrhythmia and a common cause of cardiogenic cerebral embolism. Oral anticoagulant therapy is a leader in the prevention of thromboembolic events in AF. More than 60 years, only warfarin and other vitamin K antagonists (VKA were used as oral therapy due to their extraordinary efficacy in preventing stroke and other thromboembolic events after myocardial infarction in AF and prosthetic heart valves. In addition, there are numerous problems associated with treatment with VKA, which significantly limits their widespread use. New anticoagulants, such as the oral direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatrana etexilate and the direct factor Xa antagonists rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, have been recently designed, clinically tested, and put into practice. The initiation of clinical use of these agents has opened up a new page of oral anticoagulant therapy in the prevention of thromboembolic events in AF.

  13. Use of escitalopram to prevent depression and cognitive impairments in the acute phase of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Rustemovna Khasanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to comparatively analyze the rate of post-stroke depression and cognitive impairments in escitalopram (cipralex-treated and untreated (control patients. Emotional and affective cognitive symptoms, neurological deficit, and day-to-day activity were evaluated over time 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. The results of the study indicated that escitalopram used to prevent depression in the acute phase of stroke provided a good effect. This drug caused a prompter recovery of cognitive impairments and reduced the pace of development of neurodegenerative disorders underlying the post-stroke 2D (depression and dementia syndrome. The study group was recorded to have more favorable functional outcomes of stroke and patient mobility indicators associated with lower disability rates.

  14. Developing a falls prevention program for community-dwelling stroke survivors in Singapore: client and caregiver perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianma; O'Loughlin, Kate; Clemson, Lindy; Lannin, Natasha A; Dean, Catherine; Koh, Gerald

    2017-12-25

    Drawing on the perspectives of stroke survivors, family members and domestic helpers, this study explores participants' experiences of self-perceived fall risk factors after stroke, common fall prevention strategies used, and challenges to community participation after a fall. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Singapore with community-dwelling stroke survivors with a previous fall (n = 9), family caregivers (n = 4), and domestic helpers (n = 4) who have cared for a stroke survivor with a previous fall. Purposive sampling was used for recruitment; all interviews were audio-recorded with permission and transcribed. Thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo (v10) software. All participants shared their self-perceived intrinsic and extrinsic fall risk factors and main challenges after a fall. For stroke participants and family caregivers, motivational factors in developing safety strategies after a previous fall(s) include social connectedness, independent living and community participation. For family caregivers and domestic helpers, the stroke survivor's safety is their top priority, however this can also lead to over-protective behavior outside of the rehabilitation process. Reducing the risk of falls in community-dwelling stroke survivors seems to be more important than promoting community participation among caregivers. The study findings highlight that a structured and client-centered fall prevention program targeting stroke survivors and caregivers is needed in Singapore. Implications for rehabilitation Falls after stroke can lead to functional decline in gait and mobility and restricted self-care activities. Community-dwelling stroke survivors develop adaptive safety strategies after a fall and want to be socially connected. However, caregivers see the safety of the stroke survivors as their top priority and demonstrate over-protective behaviors. Fall prevention programs for community-dwelling stroke survivors should target both stroke

  15. Efficacy of Supplementation with B Vitamins for Stroke Prevention: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongli; Pi, Fuhua; Ding, Zan; Chen, Wei; Pang, Shaojie; Dong, Wenya; Zhang, Qingying

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with B vitamins for stroke prevention has been evaluated over the years, but which combination of B vitamins is optimal for stroke prevention is unclear. We performed a network meta-analysis to assess the impact of different combinations of B vitamins on risk of stroke. A total of 17 trials (86 393 patients) comparing 7 treatment strategies and placebo were included. A network meta-analysis combined all available direct and indirect treatment comparisons to evaluate the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation for all interventions. B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. The risk of stroke was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 as compared with folic acid plus vitamin B12 and was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 as compared with placebo or folic acid plus vitamin B12. The treatments ranked in order of efficacy for stroke, from higher to lower, were folic acid plus vitamin B6 > folic acid > folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > niacin > vitamin B6 > placebo > folic acid plus vitamin B12. B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke; different B vitamins and their combined treatments had different efficacy on stroke prevention. Folic acid plus vitamin B6 might be the optimal therapy for stroke prevention. Folic acid and vitamin B6 were both valuable for stroke prevention. The efficacy of vitamin B12 remains to be studied.

  16. Clinically significant change in stroke volume in pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wolferen, S.A.; van de Veerdonk, M.C.; Mauritz, G.J.; Jacobs, W.; Marcus, J.T.; Marques, K.M.J.; Bronzwaer, J.G.F.; Heijmans, M.W.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Westerhof, N.; Noordegraaf, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Stroke volume is probably the best hemodynamic parameter because it reflects therapeutic changes and contains prognostic information in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Stroke volume directly reflects right ventricular function in response to its load, without the correction of compensatory

  17. Blood pressure reduction combining baroreflex restoration for stroke prevention in hypertension in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wei Song

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure reduction is an important and effective strategy in stroke prevention in hypertensives. Recently, we found that baroreflex restoration was also crucial in stroke prevention. The present work was designed to test the hypothesis that a combination of blood pressure reduction and baroreflex restoration may be a new strategy for stroke prevention. In Experiment 1, the effects of ketanserin (0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg, amlodipine (0.3, 1, 2, 3 mg/kg and their combination (1+0.3, 1+1, 1+2, 1+3 mg/kg on blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP were determined under conscious state. It was found that both amlodipine and ketanserin decreased blood pressure dose-dependently. Ketanserin enfanced BRS from a very small dose but amlodipine enfanced BRS only at largest dose used. At the dose of 1 + 2 mg/kg (ketanserin + amlodipine, the combination possessed the largest synergism on blood pressure reduction. In Experiments 2 and 3, SHR-SP and two-kidney, two-clip (2K2C renovascular hypertensive rats received life-long treatments with ketanserin (1 mg/kg and amlodipine (2 mg/kg or their combination (0.5+1, 1+2, 2+4 mg/kg. The survival time was recorded and the brain lesion was examined. It was found that all kinds of treatments prolonged the survival time of SHR-SP and 2K2C rats. The combination possessed a significantly better effect on stroke prevention than mono-therapies. In conclusion, combination of blood pressure reduction and baroreflex restoration may be a new strategy for the prevention of stroke in hypertension.

  18. [Edoxaban for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and treatment of venous thromboembolism: an expert position paper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Thomas W; Rohla, Miklos; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Domanovits, Hans; Fries, Dietmar; Vosko, Milan R; Gary, Thomas; Ay, Cihan

    2018-04-01

    Edoxaban is the most recent available representative of the Non-Vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC). The approval was based on the largest phase III trials of NOACs for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF, ENGAGE-AF), and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE, HOKUSAI-VTE). In both trials, edoxaban was associated with similar efficacy and a significant reduction in bleeding events with respect to the pre-defined primary safety endpoints, as compared to warfarin.Additionally, the once daily dosing of edoxaban, the clinically investigated strategy for dose-reduction based on clearly defined criteria and the favorable pharmacokinetic profile might further support the clinical applicability of the substance.In the light of recent data, this expert consensus document aims to summarize the latest clinical trial results while providing a concise overview of current guideline recommendations on the management of patients with non-valvular AF and VTE.

  19. Apathy among institutionalized stroke patients: prevalence and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Almenkerk, Suzanne; Smalbrugge, Martin; Depla, Marja F I A; Eefsting, Jan A; Hertogh, Cees M P M

    2015-02-01

    Apathy is a frequent neuropsychiatric consequence of stroke. In the under-researched population of institutionalized stroke patients, we aimed to explore the prevalence of apathy, its clinical correlates, and the relation to the amount of stimulating activities in the nursing home (NH). A cross-sectional, observational study. Dutch NHs. 274 chronic stroke patients. Data were collected through observation lists that were filled out in structured interviews with qualified nurse assistants who knew the residents well. The lists comprised the NH-version of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES10), the Barthel Index, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, and sections of the Resident Assessment Instrument for Long-Term Care Facilities. Attending physicians and therapists provided additional information. Apathy (AES10 score ≥30) was present in 28% of residents. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that this apathy was independently related to (moderate, severe) cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] 11.30 [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.96-25.74], OR 5.54 [95% CI: 2.48-12.40]), very severe ADL-dependency (OR 12.10 [95% CI: 1.35-108.66]), and being >12 hours per day in bed (OR 2.10 [95% CI: 1.07-4.13]). It was not related to depressive mood symptoms (OR 1.75 [95% CI: 0.91-3.37]). Only in residents aged less than 80 years were a higher amount of activities independently related to a lower AES10 score (-0.70 [95% CI: -1.18 to -0.20] points per four extra activities in a 4-week period). Apathy is prevalent in largely one-quarter of institutionalized stroke patients, and that is most strongly related to cognitive impairment in this explorative study. We discuss the need for research on the relation with distinct dimensions of depression and fatigue as partly overlapping constructs, and on (individualized) stimulating activities as a possible intervention method. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Venous thromboses and thromboembolism in acute stroke: risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Viktorovich Fonyakin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke patients among all patients with somatic diseases are at one of the highest risks for venous thromboembolism (VTE. The proven risk factors for venous thrombosis in stroke are prolonged immobilization, elderly age, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and inherited coagulopathies. If no drug prevention is done, the course of stroke is complicated by deep vein thrombosis (DVT in 75% of the immobilized patients and pulmonary thromboembolism develops in 20%. At present there are mechanical, pharmacological, and combined DVT prevention strategies that may considerably lower the rate of pulmonary embolism. In stroke patients, the use of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH reduces therisk of DVT, without increasing the risk of hemorrhagic complications. Novel oral anticoagulants used to treat venous thrombosis and VTE in stroke patients are an equivalent alternative to LMWH therapy. Treatment with novel oral anticoagulants to prevent recurrent VTE is effective and safe and may be continued up to 1–2 years.

  1. The cost of first-ever stroke in Valle d’Aosta, Italy: linking clinical registries and administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottacchi Edo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is one of the most relevant reasons of death and disability worldwide. Many cost of illness studies have been performed to evaluate direct and indirect costs of ischaemic stroke, especially within the first year after the acute episode, using different methodologies. Methods We conducted a longitudinal, retrospective, bottom-up cost of illness study, to evaluate clinical and economic outcomes of a cohort of patients affected by a first cerebrovascular event, including subjects with ischaemic, haemorrhagic or transient episodes. The analysis intended to detect direct costs, within 1, 2 and 3 years from the index event. Clinical patient data collected in regional disease registry were integrated and linked to regional administrative databases to perform the analysis. Results The analysis of costs within the first year from the index event included 800 patients. The majority of patients (71.5% were affected by ischaemic stroke. Overall, per patient costs were €7,079. Overall costs significantly differ according to the type of stroke, with costs for haemorrhagic stroke and ischaemic stroke amounting to €9,044 and €7,289. Hospital costs, including inpatient rehabilitation, were driver of expenditure, accounting for 89.5% of total costs. The multiple regression model showed that sex, level of physical disability and level of neurological deficit predict direct healthcare costs within 1 year. The analysis at 2 and 3 years (per patient costs: €7,901 and €8,874, respectively showed that majority of costs are concentrated in the first months after the acute event. Conclusions This cost analysis highlights the importance to set up significant prevention programs to reduce the economic burden of stroke, which is mostly attributable to hospital and inpatient rehabilitation costs immediately after the acute episode. Although some limitation typical of retrospective analyses the approach of linking clinical and

  2. Prevention of cerebral stroke by arotinolol in salt-loaded SHRSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagishi, A; Maniwa, T; Noguchi, T; Hara, Y

    1991-01-01

    The preventive effects of long-term treatment with arotinolol on the development of cerebral stroke were examined in SHRSP fed a high salt diet. Arotinolol (4.87 mg/kg per day for 20 weeks) prevented cerebral lesions, reduced signs of stroke and delayed early mortality but did not alter blood pressure from control SHRSP, when the administration of the drug was started before the onset of hypertension. At dosage levels similar to arotinolol, both pindolol and labetalol were less effective in preventing cerebral lesions despite lower blood pressure. Propranolol produced no detectable effect on blood pressure or frequency of cerebral lesions. Furthermore, arotinolol (4.27 mg/kg per day) markedly inhibited the development of stroke without blood pressure reduction, when the administration was started after the onset of severe hypertension. These results suggest that arotinolol is more effective in preventing cerebral stroke than pindolol, labetalol and propranolol, and that factors other than blood pressure reduction may be involved in this preventive effect.

  3. Predicting activities after stroke : what is clinically relevant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, G.; Kollen, B. J.

    Knowledge about factors that determine the final outcome after stroke is important for early stroke management, rehabilitation goals, and discharge planning. This narrative review provides an overview of current knowledge about the prediction of activities after stroke. We reviewed the pattern of

  4. STANDARDIZING THE STRUCTURE OF STROKE CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC RESEARCH DATA: THE NINDS STROKE COMMON DATA ELEMENT (CDE) PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saver, Jeffrey L.; Warach, Steven; Janis, Scott; Odenkirchen, Joanne; Becker, Kyra; Benavente, Oscar; Broderick, Joseph; Dromerick, Alexander W.; Duncan, Pamela; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Johnston, Karen; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Meschia, James F.; Schwamm, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke initiated development of stroke-specific Common Data Elements (CDEs) as part of a project to develop data standards for funded clinical research in all fields of neuroscience. Standardizing data elements in translational, clinical and population research in cerebrovascular disease could decrease study start-up time, facilitate data sharing, and promote well-informed clinical practice guidelines. Methods A Working Group of diverse experts in cerebrovascular clinical trials, epidemiology, and biostatistics met regularly to develop a set of Stroke CDEs, selecting among, refining, and adding to existing, field-tested data elements from national registries and funded trials and studies. Candidate elements were revised based on comments from leading national and international neurovascular research organizations and the public. Results The first iteration of the NINDS stroke-specific CDEs comprises 980 data elements spanning nine content areas: 1) Biospecimens and Biomarkers; 2) Hospital Course and Acute Therapies; 3) Imaging; 4) Laboratory Tests and Vital Signs; 5) Long Term Therapies; 6) Medical History and Prior Health Status; 7) Outcomes and Endpoints; 8) Stroke Presentation; 9) Stroke Types and Subtypes. A CDE website provides uniform names and structures for each element, a data dictionary, and template case report forms (CRFs) using the CDEs. Conclusion Stroke-specific CDEs are now available as standardized, scientifically-vetted variable structures to facilitate data collection and data sharing in cerebrovascular patient-oriented research. The CDEs are an evolving resource that will be iteratively improved based on investigator use, new technologies, and emerging concepts and research findings. PMID:22308239

  5. Calculation of numbers-needed-to-treat in parallel group trials assessing ordinal outcomes: case examples from acute stroke and stroke prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Philip; Hogg, Cheryl; Tracy, Michael; Pocock, Stuart

    2011-12-01

    Number-needed-to-treat describes the magnitude of the effect of an intervention, underpins health economic analyses, and is typically calculated for binary events. Ordered categorical outcomes provide more clinical information and their analysis using ordinal approaches is usually more efficient statistically. However, to date, techniques to calculate number-needed-to-treat based on ordinal outcomes for parallel group trials have had important limitations. Aims Numbers-needed-to-treat may be calculated for ordinal data from parallel group trials by using an unmatched comparison of all subjects or by generating matched pairs of patients nested within the study. The above approaches were assessed and compared with numbers-needed-to-treat calculated for binary outcomes using individual patient data from acute and prevention stroke trials testing the effect of interventions of varying utility and efficacy. Numbers-needed-to-treat were generally lower numerically for ordinal vs. binary, and matched vs. unmatched analyses, and the lowest in highly efficacious interventions: hemicraniectomy, ordinal matched 2.4 vs. ordinal unmatched 2.5 vs. binary matched 12 vs. binary unmatched 9 (one trial, 12 month outcome); alteplase, 4.5 vs. 6.6 vs. 8.4 vs. 8.4 (one trial with two parts, three-months); aspirin, 42 vs. 58 vs. 76 vs. 80 (one trial, six-months); and stroke units, 3.6-5.3 vs. 6.2 vs. 4.7-5.9 vs. 6.3-7.0 (two trials, three- to 60 months). Similar trends were seen for aspirin/dipyridamole vs. aspirin in secondary prevention, 22 vs. 20 vs. 31 vs. 31 (one trial, 24 months). Number-needed-to-treat may be calculated for ordinal outcome data derived from parallel group stroke trials; such numbers-needed-to-treat are lower than those calculated for binary outcomes. Their use complements the use of ordinal statistical approaches in the analysis of ordered categorical data. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.

  6. Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adjust your treatment as needed. Rehabilitation After a stroke, you may need rehabilitation (rehab) to help you recover. Rehab may include working with speech, physical, and occupational therapists. Language, ... may have trouble communicating after a stroke. You may not be able to find the ...

  7. Economic evaluation of apixaban for the prevention of stroke in non-valvular atrial fibrillation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevanovic, Jelena; Pompen, Marjolein; Le, Hoa H.; Rozenbaum, Mark H.; Tieleman, Robert G.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke prevention is the main goal of treating patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs) present an effective treatment in stroke prevention, however, the risk of bleeding and the requirement for regular coagulation monitoring are limiting their use. Apixaban

  8. Evaluation of the modifying effects of unfavourable genotypes on classical clinical risk factors for ischaemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Szolnoki, Z; Somogyvari, F; Kondacs, A; Szabo, M; Fodor, L; Bene, J; Melegh, B

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Ischaemic stroke is a frequent heterogeneous multifactorial disease that is affected by a number of genetic mutations and environmental factors. We hypothesised the clinical importance of the interactions between common, unfavourable genetic mutations and clinical risk factors in the development of ischaemic stroke.

  9. Clinical diagnosis of stroke: need for audit | Imam | Annals of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stroke is a common disease and in developing countries its diagnosis relies heavily on clinical features because of the dearth of radiological facilities. To ensure that the diagnosis of stroke is as accurate as possible, it is imperative that clinical skills are kept at the optimum. One such method of doing this is by ...

  10. Ultrasonographic and clinical study of post-stroke painful hemiplegic shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania E. Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasonography is an essential method in evaluation of post-stroke PHS. However, the U/S grades were not correlated with the stages of motor recovery. Avoiding overuse of the unaffected shoulder will be helpful for prevention of shoulder injuries following hemiplegic stroke.

  11. What is next after transfer of care from hospital to home for stroke patients? Evaluation of a community stroke care service based in a primary care clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aznida Firzah Abdul Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Poststroke care in developing countries is inundated with poor concordance and scarce specialist stroke care providers. A primary care-driven health service is an option to ensure optimal care to poststroke patients residing at home in the community. Aims: We assessed outcomes of a pilot long-term stroke care clinic which combined secondary prevention and rehabilitation at community level. Settings and Design: A prospective observational study of stroke patients treated between 2008 and 2010 at a primary care teaching facility. Subjects and Methods: Analysis of patients was done at initial contact and at 1-year post treatment. Clinical outcomes included stroke risk factor(s control, depression according to Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9, and level of independence using Barthel Index (BI. Statistical Analysis Used: Differences in means between baseline and post treatment were compared using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon-signed rank test. Significance level was set at 0.05. Results: Ninety-one patients were analyzed. Their mean age was 62.9 [standard deviation (SD 10.9] years, mean stroke episodes were 1.30 (SD 0.5. The median interval between acute stroke and first contact with the clinic 4.0 (interquartile range 9.0 months. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased by 9.7 mmHg (t = 2.79, P = 0.007, while mean diastolic blood pressure remained unchanged at 80mmHg (z = 1.87, P = 0.06. Neurorehabilitation treatment was given to 84.6% of the patients. Median BI increased from 81 (range: 2−100 to 90.5 (range: 27−100 (Z = 2.34, P = 0.01. Median PHQ9 scores decreased from 4.0 (range: 0−22 to 3.0 (range: 0−19 though the change was not significant (Z= −0.744, P = 0.457. Conclusions: Primary care-driven long-term stroke care services yield favorable outcomes for blood pressure control and functional level.

  12. Vital Signs – Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-03

    This podcast is based on the September 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. More than 800,000 Americans die each year from heart disease and stroke. Learn how to manage all the major risk factors.  Created: 9/3/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/3/2013.

  13. Economic evaluation of apixaban for the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevanovic, J.; Pompen, M.; Le, H.H.; Rozenbaum, M.H.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Stroke prevention is the main goal in treating patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Treatment with anticoagulants, such as vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs; e.g. warfarin and cumarines), was demonstrated to be an effective strategy. However, even though VKAs are the current standard

  14. [Novel anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumhäkel, M; Schirmer, S H; Böhm, M

    2010-11-01

    The most frequent cardiac arrhythmia and main cause for cardio-embolic stroke is atrial fibrillation. Prophylaxis for thrombembolic events is performed regarding individual risk of patients with either ASS or vitamin-K-antagonists. Efficacy and safety of oral anticoagulation is limited by a narrow therapeutical range as well as by inter- and intraindividual variability of INR-values due to genetic disposition, differences in alimentation, dosage errors, rare control of INR-levels and drug-interactions. New oral anticoagulants with different mechanisms of action may be a promising therapeutic option in future. This review addresses the new anticoagulants Apixaban, Rivaroxban and Dabigatranetexilat with the design and as available the results of the corresponding phase-III-trials in atrial fibrillation (ARISTOTLE, ROCKET-AF, RE-LY). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. The polypill and the prevention of heart attacks and strokes by Caroline Telfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, David S

    2013-07-01

    David S Wald speaks to Caroline Telfer, Assistant Commissioning Editor. David S Wald is a Consultant Cardiologist and Reader in Preventive Cardiology. He trained at Oxford University (UK) and Imperial College of Science and Technology, London (UK). His work combines interventional and preventive approaches to cardiovascular disease. He is currently leading a multicenter randomized trial assessing the value of preventive angioplasty in patients with acute myocardial infarction and a UK trial of a polypill for people over the age of 50 years for the prevention of ischemic heart disease and stroke.

  16. Clinical review: Therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension in ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüttler, Eric; Schellinger, Peter D; Aschoff, Alfred; Zweckberger, Klaus; Unterberg, Andreas; Hacke, Werner

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of patients with large hemispheric ischaemic stroke accompanied by massive space-occupying oedema represents one of the major unsolved problems in neurocritical care medicine. Despite maximum intensive care, the prognosis of these patients is poor, with case fatality rates as high as 80%. Therefore, the term 'malignant brain infarction' was coined. Because conservative treatment strategies to limit brain tissue shift almost consistently fail, these massive infarctions often are regarded as an untreatable disease. The introduction of decompressive surgery (hemicraniectomy) has completely changed this point of view, suggesting that mortality rates may be reduced to approximately 20%. However, critics have always argued that the reduction in mortality may be outweighed by an accompanying increase in severe disability. Due to the lack of conclusive evidence of efficacy from randomised trials, controversy over the benefit of these treatment strategies remained, leading to large regional differences in the application of this procedure. Meanwhile, data from randomised trials confirm the results of former observational studies, demonstrating that hemicraniectomy not only significantly reduces mortality but also significantly improves clinical outcome without increasing the number of completely dependent patients. Hypothermia is another promising treatment option but still needs evidence of efficacy from randomised controlled trials before it may be recommended for clinical routine use. This review gives the reader an integrated view of the current status of treatment options in massive hemispheric brain infarction, based on the available data of clinical trials, including the most recent data from randomised trials published in 2007.

  17. Assessment of Web-based education resources informing patients about stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, E; Bajorek, B V

    2016-12-01

    The importance of 'shared decision-making' is much emphasized in recent clinical guidelines regarding stroke management in atrial fibrillation (AF), more so following the inclusion of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) among the treatment options. It is important that patients are navigated through balanced and unbiased information about the available treatment options, so as to understand the risk and benefits associated with the therapies, and to enable them to accordingly communicate their concerns and views with their clinicians prior to therapy selection. Given the increasing popularity of the Internet as a source of health information, the specific objectives of this study were to identify what aspects of thromboprophylaxis (antithrombotic treatment options) were most commonly described in these resources, both in terms of content, that is to report the information provided (quantitative) and the underlying themes underpinning this content, and in terms of how this information might guide patient preferences (qualitative). Resources for patients were identified via online search engines (Google, Yahoo, Ask, Bing), using the terms 'atrial fibrillation' and 'stroke' combined with patient/consumer information, patient/consumer resources and patient/consumer education. The researchers employed pragmatic (mix-method) approach to analyse the information presented within the resources using manual inductive coding, at two levels of analysis: manifest (reported surface theme or codes that are obvious and are countable) and latent (thematic, interpretative presentation of the content in the data set). In total, 33 resources were reviewed. The 'manifest-level' analysis found that warfarin was the most frequently mentioned thromboprophylactic option among the anticoagulants, being cited in all resources, followed by the NOACs - dabigatran (82·3% of resources), rivaroxaban (73·5%) and apixaban (67·6%). Only one-third of resources discussed the role of stroke

  18. Clinical application of a modular ankle robot for stroke rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Larry W.; Roy, Anindo; Goodman, Ronald N.; Rietschel, Jeremy; Barton, Joseph E.; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Macko, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advances in our understanding of neuroplasticity and motor learning post-stroke are now being leveraged with the use of robotics technology to enhance physical rehabilitation strategies. Major advances have been made with upper extremity robotics, which have been tested for efficacy in multi-site trials across the subacute and chronic phases of stroke. In contrast, use of lower extremity robotics to promote locomotor re-learning has been more recent and presents unique challenges by virtue of the complex multi-segmental mechanics of gait. Objectives Here we review a programmatic effort to develop and apply the concept of joint-specific modular robotics to the paretic ankle as a means to improve underlying impairments in distal motor control that may have a significant impact on gait biomechanics and balance. Methods An impedance controlled ankle robot module (anklebot) is described as a platform to test the idea that a modular approach can be used to modify training and measure the time profile of treatment response. Results Pilot studies using seated visuomotor anklebot training with chronic patients are reviewed, along with results from initial efforts to evaluate the anklebot's utility as a clinical tool for assessing intrinsic ankle stiffness. The review includes a brief discussion of future directions for using the seated anklebot training in the earliest phases of sub-acute therapy, and to incorporate neurophysiological measures of cerebro-cortical activity as a means to reveal underlying mechanistic processes of motor learning and brain plasticity associated with robotic training. Conclusions Finally we conclude with an initial control systems strategy for utilizing the anklebot as a gait training tool that includes integrating an Internal Model-based adaptive controller to both accommodate individual deficit severities and adapt to changes in patient performance. PMID:23949045

  19. [Heat stroke related to the use of topiramate. The importance of prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosich Del Cacho, M; Pareja Grande, J; Martínez Jiménez, M D; Latorre Latorre, J F; Bejarano Ramírez, N; López-Menchero Oliva, C

    2014-09-01

    Heat stroke is the most severe pathology related to heat. It is defined as an increase in core body temperature accompanied by signs of neurological dysfunction. In the absence of an early treatment, it has a very high mortality rate. Topiramate is a well known drug widely used in epilepsy treatment and migraine prevention. Oligohydrosis has been described amongst topiramate side effects, favouring the risk of hyperthermia and heatstroke. We present the case of a patient who developed heat stroke due to physical exercise while under topiramate treatment. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding the Value of Real-World Evidence: Focus on Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation with Rivaroxaban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camm, A John; Coleman, Craig I; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Nielsen, Peter Brønnum; Tamayo, Capt Sally

    2018-03-22

    Real-world data are a well-recognized component within the drug lifecycle, and such data are generated from a range of sources and study designs, including claims databases, electronic health records, non-interventional studies (NIS) and registries. While this information can be of vital clinical importance, there may be challenges in understanding the relevance of the differing study designs, endpoints and populations. Here, we summarize the value of real-world evidence and considerations pertinent to their use in clinical research. Owing to the variety of analyses being conducted using real-world data, it is important for researchers and clinicians to have a clear understanding of the nature and origin of those data, and to ensure they are valid, reliable and robust in terms of extrapolating meaningful findings. There are crucial questions to address when evaluating real-world studies, and we introduce a checklist to meet these objectives. In addition to advice for appraising data quality and study designs, several updates will be covered from real-world studies of rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF): the nationwide Danish cohort study, U.S. Department of Defense Military Health System database, retrospective claim database study REAFFIRM and a pooled analysis from the global NIS XArelto on preveNtion of sTroke and non-central nervoUS system systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (XANTUS). Real-world studies consistently show that rivaroxaban is an effective treatment option with acceptable safety when used for stroke prevention in a large number of patients with AF across the globe. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  1. Impact of preventable risk factors on stroke in the EPICOR study: does gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkova, Slavica; d'Errico, Angelo; Ricceri, Fulvio; Fasanelli, Francesca; Pala, Valeria; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero; Chiodini, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore

    2017-09-01

    The effect of modifiable stroke risk factors in terms of prevented cases remains unclear due to sex-specific disease rate and risk factors prevalence. Our aim was to estimate their impact on stroke by gender through population-attributable fraction (PAF), preventive fraction (PF) and their combination in EPIC-Italian cohort. 43,976 participants, age 34-75, and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (1993-1998) were followed up for almost 11 years. Adjusted hazard ratios and PAF were estimated using Cox models. We identified 386 cases. In males, the burden for stroke was 17% (95% CI 4-28%) for smoking and 14% (95% CI 5-22%) for alcohol consumption. In females, hypertension was carrying the biggest burden with 18% (95% CI 9-26%) followed by smoking 15% (95% CI 7-22%). Their combination was 46% (95% CI 32-58%) in males and 48% (95% CI 35-59%) in females. PF for current smokers was gender unequal [males 21% (95% CI 15-27%) females 9% (95% CI 1-17%)]. Half of strokes are attributable to potentially modifiable factors. The proportion of prevented cases is gender unbalanced, encouraging sex-specific intervention.

  2. Evaluation of stroke services in Anglia stroke clinical network to examine the variation in acute services and stroke outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Abraham

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is the third leading cause of death in developed countries and the leading cause of long-term disability worldwide. A series of national stroke audits in the UK highlighted the differences in stroke care between hospitals. The study aims to describe variation in outcomes following stroke and to identify the characteristics of services that are associated with better outcomes, after accounting for case mix differences and individual prognostic factors. Methods/Design We will conduct a cohort study in eight acute NHS trusts within East of England, with at least one year of follow-up after stroke. The study population will be a systematically selected representative sample of patients admitted with stroke during the study period, recruited within each hospital. We will collect individual patient data on prognostic characteristics, health care received, outcomes and costs of care and we will also record relevant characteristics of each provider organisation. The determinants of one year outcome including patient reported outcome will be assessed statistically with proportional hazards regression models. Self (or proxy completed EuroQol (EQ-5D questionnaires will measure quality of life at baseline and follow-up for cost utility analyses. Discussion This study will provide observational data about health service factors associated with variations in patient outcomes and health care costs following hospital admission for acute stroke. This will form the basis for future RCTs by identifying promising health service interventions, assessing the feasibility of recruiting and following up trial patients, and provide evidence about frequency and variances in outcomes, and intra-cluster correlation of outcomes, for sample size calculations. The results will inform clinicians, public, service providers, commissioners and policy makers to drive further improvement in health services which will bring direct benefit to the patients.

  3. Spontaneous swallow frequency compared with clinical screening in the identification of dysphagia in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare spontaneous swallow frequency analysis (SFA) with clinical screening protocols for identification of dysphagia in acute stroke. In all, 62 patients with acute stroke were evaluated for spontaneous swallow frequency rates using a validated acoustic analysis technique. Independent of SFA, these same patients received a routine nurse-administered clinical dysphagia screening as part of standard stroke care. Both screening tools were compared against a validated clinical assessment of dysphagia for acute stroke. In addition, psychometric properties of SFA were compared against published, validated clinical screening protocols. Spontaneous SFA differentiates patients with versus without dysphagia after acute stroke. Using a previously identified cut point based on swallows per minute, spontaneous SFA demonstrated superior ability to identify dysphagia cases compared with a nurse-administered clinical screening tool. In addition, spontaneous SFA demonstrated equal or superior psychometric properties to 4 validated, published clinical dysphagia screening tools. Spontaneous SFA has high potential to identify dysphagia in acute stroke with psychometric properties equal or superior to clinical screening protocols. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Variability in Clinical Presentation of Neonatal Stroke: Report of Four Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Sonia; Angelis, Dimitrios; Bennett, Robert; Kola, Bhargavi; Hughes, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal stroke can be a cause of long term neurodevelopmental disability, seizures, and impaired cognitive function. We present four cases of neonatal stroke, associated with different risk factors and clinical presentations. Two of these newborns were born to mothers with no prenatal care.

  5. CORRELATION C-REACTIVE PROTEIN LEVELS WITH CLINICAL OUTCOME INTRACEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE STROKE PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Catur Arisetianto; Hari Purnomo; Eko Arisetijono Marhendraputro; Widodo Mardi Santoso

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Intracerebral hemorrhage stroke remains a major health problem and disability. Increased levels of markers of inflammatory factors after hemorrhage stroke was able to predict poor clinical outcome. Until now, the role of C Reactive Protein (CRP) in the local inflammatory response and clinical determinants output remains unclear. Aims to investigate the correlation of CRP level with poor clinical outcome as measured by Barthel Index. Methods and material. This study was...

  6. Neuromuscular stimulation after stroke: from technology to clinical deployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Renzenbrink, Gerbert J.; Geurts, Alexander C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, electrical or neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used to support the rehabilitation of stroke patients. One of the earliest applications of NMES included the use of external muscle stimulation to correct drop-foot after stroke. During the last few decades

  7. Neuromuscular stimulation after stroke: from technology to clinical deployment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, M.J.; Renzenbrink, G.J.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, electrical or neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used to support the rehabilitation of stroke patients. One of the earliest applications of NMES included the use of external muscle stimulation to correct drop-foot after stroke. During the last few decades

  8. Systems pharmacology dissection of multi-scale mechanisms of action for herbal medicines in stroke treatment and prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiao Zhang

    Full Text Available Annually, tens of millions of first-ever strokes occur in the world; however, currently there is lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for stroke patients. Herbal medicines, characterized as multi-constituent, multi-target and multi-effect, have been acknowledged with conspicuous effects in treating stroke, and attract extensive interest of researchers although the mechanism of action is yet unclear. In this work, we introduce an innovative systems-pharmacology method that combines pharmacokinetic prescreening, target fishing and network analysis to decipher the mechanisms of action of 10 herbal medicines like Salvia miltiorrhizae, Ginkgo biloba and Ephedrae herba which are efficient in stroke treatment and prevention. Our systematic analysis results display that, in these anti-stroke herbal medicines, 168 out of 1285 constituents with the favorable pharmacokinetic profiles might be implicated in stroke therapy, and the systematic use of these compounds probably acts through multiple mechanisms to synergistically benefit patients with stroke, which can roughly be classified as preventing ischemic inflammatory response, scavenging free radicals and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis against ischemic cerebral damage, as well as exhibiting lipid-lowering, anti-diabetic, anti-thrombotic and antiplatelet effects to decrease recurrent strokes. Relying on systems biology-based analysis, we speculate that herbal medicines, being characterized as the classical combination therapies, might be not only engaged in multiple mechanisms of action to synergistically improve the stroke outcomes, but also might be participated in reducing the risk factors for recurrent strokes.

  9. Accuracy of Emergency Medical Services Dispatcher and Crew Diagnosis of Stroke in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Jia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAccurate recognition of stroke symptoms by Emergency Medical Services (EMS is necessary for timely care of acute stroke patients. We assessed the accuracy of stroke diagnosis by EMS in clinical practice in a major US city.Methods and resultsPhiladelphia Fire Department data were merged with data from a single comprehensive stroke center to identify patients diagnosed with stroke or TIA from 9/2009 to 10/2012. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression identified variables associated with correct EMS diagnosis. There were 709 total cases, with 400 having a discharge diagnosis of stroke or TIA. EMS crew sensitivity was 57.5% and PPV was 69.1%. EMS crew identified 80.2% of strokes with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS ≥5 and symptom duration <6 h. In a multivariable model, correct EMS crew diagnosis was positively associated with NIHSS (NIHSS 5–9, OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.41–4.89; NIHSS ≥10, OR 4.56, 95% CI 2.29–9.09 and weakness (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.35–3.85, and negatively associated with symptom duration >270 min (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.25–0.68. EMS dispatchers identified 90 stroke cases that the EMS crew missed. EMS dispatcher or crew identified stroke with sensitivity of 80% and PPV of 50.9%, and EMS dispatcher or crew identified 90.5% of patients with NIHSS ≥5 and symptom duration <6 h.ConclusionPrehospital diagnosis of stroke has limited sensitivity, resulting in a high proportion of missed stroke cases. Dispatchers identified many strokes that EMS crews did not. Incorporating EMS dispatcher impression into regional protocols may maximize the effectiveness of hospital destination selection and pre-notification.

  10. Stroke Mortality, Clinical Presentation and Day of Arrival: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C. O'Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies report that acute stroke patients who present to the hospital on weekends have higher rates of 28-day mortality than similar patients who arrive during the week. However, how this association is related to clinical presentation and stroke type has not been systematically investigated. Methods and Results. We examined the association between day of arrival and 28-day mortality in 929 validated stroke events in the ARIC cohort from 1987–2004. Weekend arrival was defined as any arrival time from midnight Friday until midnight Sunday. Mortality was defined as all-cause fatal events from the day of arrival through the 28th day of followup. The presence or absence of thirteen stroke signs and symptoms were obtained through medical record review for each event. Binomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR; 95% CI for the association between weekend arrival and 28-day mortality for all stroke events and for stroke subtypes. The overall risk of 28-day mortality was 9.6% for weekday strokes and 10.1% for weekend strokes. In models controlling for patient demographics, clinical risk factors, and event year, weekend arrival was not associated with 28-day mortality (0.87; 0.51, 1.50. When stratified by stroke type, weekend arrival was not associated with increased odds of mortality for ischemic (1.17, 0.62, 2.23 or hemorrhagic (0.37; 0.11, 1.26 stroke patients. Conclusions. Presence or absence of thirteen signs and symptoms was similar for weekday patients and weekend patients when stratified by stroke type. Weekend arrival was not associated with 28-day all-cause mortality or differences in symptom presentation for strokes in this cohort.

  11. Unilateral versus bilateral upper limb training after stroke: the ULTRA-Stroke clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, A.E.Q.; Peper, C.E.; Nienhuys, K.; Zijp, N.I.; Beek, P.J.; Kwakkel, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Unilateral and bilateral training protocols for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke represent conceptually contrasting approaches with the same ultimate goal. In a randomized controlled trial, we compared the merits of modified constraint-induced movement therapy,

  12. Stroke treatment in Stroke Unit: from scientific evidences to clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Stornello

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In themanagement of stroke disease, evidences fromthe literature demonstrate that the introduction of stroke units, hospital wards with dedicated beds providing intensive care within 48 hours of symptoms’ onset, produced a real improvement in the outcome, reducing in-hospital fatality cases and increasing the proportion of patients independently living in long term follow-up. Discussion: The article focuses on stroke disease-management, suggesting a stroke integrated approach for the admission of patients on dedicated beds, in order to extend the ‘‘stroke care’’ approach outcomes to as many hospitals as possible in Italy. This approach implies the set up of a stroke network for an effective patients’ stratification according to the severity of the illness at debut; the set up of an integrated team of specialists in hospital management of the acute phase (first 48 hours and a timely rehabilitation treatment. Ultimately the hospital should be organized according to department’s semi-intensive areas in order to assure to the patients, in the early stage of the disease, a timely high intensity care aimed to improve the long term outcome.

  13. Stroke prevention by direct revascularization for patients with adult-onset moyamoya disease presenting with ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tackeun; Oh, Chang Wan; Kwon, O-Ki; Hwang, Gyojun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Won-Sang; Bang, Jae Seung

    2016-06-01

    . CONCLUSIONS Direct or combined revascularization for patients with adult-onset moyamoya disease presenting with ischemia can prevent further stroke.

  14. Concise Arm and Hand Rehabilitation Approach in Stroke (CARAS: A practical and evidence-based framework for clinical rehabilitation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan A. Franck

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The volume of information on new treatment techniques supporting the restoration of arm-hand function (AHF and arm-hand skill performance (ASHP in stroke survivors overwhelms therapists in everyday clinical practice when choosing the appropriate therapy. The Concise Arm and Hand Rehabilitation Approach in Stroke (CARAS is designed for paramedical staff to structure and implement training of AHF and AHSP in stroke survivors. The CARAS is based on four constructs: (a stratification according to the severity of arm–hand impairment (using the Utrecht Arm/Hand -Test [UAT], (b the individual’s rehabilitation goals and concomitant potential rehabilitation outcomes, (c principles of self-efficacy, and (d possibilities to systematically incorporate (new technology and new evidence-based training elements swiftly. The framework encompasses three programs aimed at treating either the severely (UAT 0-1, moderately (UAT 2-3, or mildly (UAT 4-7 impaired arm-hand. Program themes are: taking care of the limb and prevention of complications (Program 1, task-oriented gross motor grip performance (Program 2, and functional AHSP training (Program 3. Each program is preceded and followed by an assessment. Training modularity facilitates rapid interchange/adaptation of sub-elements. Proof-of-principle in clinical rehabilitation has been established. The CARAS facilitates rapid structured design and provision of state-of-the-art AHF and ASHP treatment in stroke patients.

  15. From the stroke unit to the stroke competence center: corresponding beneficial clinical and financial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzikonstantinou, A; Förster, A; Hennerici, M G; Bäzner, H

    2011-11-01

    The introduction of the diagnosis related groups (DRG) system in Germany has radically influenced the organization of in-hospital patient treatment. Case-mix-index and duration of treatment in a stroke unit (SU) play a central role. Our SU started in 1998 and was gradually extended to the current "Stroke Competence Center" (SCC), with a total capacity of 29 patients. The SCC combines acute treatment, work-up and post-stroke management by the same specialized team. We aimed primarily at demonstrating the financial effects of this concept. Data from stroke patients treated in our SU/SCC between 2004 and 2009 were analyzed. We analyzed the number of treated stroke patients, number of thrombolytic treatments, the number of cases coded with procedure codes OPS 8-981.x and the ratio of OPS 8-981.0 (24-72 h on SU) to the higher remunerated OPS 8-981.1 (>72 h on SU). The number of treated patients increased by 118.3% (from 469 in 2004 to 1024 in 2009). The number of thrombolyses per year has more than quadrupled (2004: 46, 2009: 253, i.e. 25% of SU patients). The introduction of the stroke center concept lead to a great increase in the ratio of the higher rewarded OPS 8-981.1 to OPS 8-981.0 (from 1.5 in 2005 to 5.21 in 2009). Our data demonstrates that the SCC concept leads to a greater financial potential, while offering considerable medical advantages concerning more effective stroke treatment and work-up as well as improved flow of information and enhanced individual patient-physician relationship.

  16. Prevention of post-stroke generalized anxiety disorder, using escitalopram or problem-solving therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Katsunaka; Jorge, Ricardo E; Moser, David J; Arndt, Stephan; Jang, Mijin; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Hegel, Mark T; Robinson, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of antidepressant treatment for preventing the onset of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among patients with recent stroke. Of 799 patients assessed, 176 were randomized, and 149 patients without evidence of GAD at the initial visit were included in this double-blind treatment with escitalopram (N=47) or placebo (N=49) or non-blinded problem-solving therapy (PST; 12 total sessions; N=53). Participants given placebo over 12 months were 4.95 times more likely to develop GAD than patients given escitalopram and 4.00 times more likely to develop GAD than patients given PST. Although these results should be considered preliminary, the authors found that both escitalopram and PST were effective in preventing new onset of post-stroke GAD.

  17. Ethnic Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Ischemic Stroke Subtypes Among Young Adult Patients With Stroke in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; Ito, Cherisse S; King, Sage L

    2017-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) with ischemic stroke have younger age of stroke onset compared with whites. However, ethnic differences in stroke subtypes in this population have been inadequately studied. Consecutive young adult patients (aged ≤55 years) who were hospitalized for ischemic stroke between 2006 and 2012 at a tertiary center in Honolulu were studied. Clinical characteristics and stroke subtypes based on pathophysiological TOAST classification (Trial of Org 10172) of NHOPI and Asians were compared with whites. A total of 427 consecutive young adult (mean age, 46.7±7.8 years) patients (NHOPI 45%, Asians 38%, and whites 17%) were studied. NHOPI had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, prosthetic valve, higher body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, and lower high-density lipoprotein than whites (all PStroke subtype distribution was not different between the ethnic groups. Specifically, the prevalence of small-vessel disease was similar between NHOPI (26.6%), whites (28.4%), and Asians (24.8%). In the univariate analyses, the use of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator was lower among NHOPI (4.7%; P=0.01) and Asians (3.1%; P=0.002) than among whites (12.5%). In the multivariable model, NHOPI (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.98) and Asians (odds ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.74) were less likely to be treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator than whites. NHOPI have greater cardiovascular risk factors than whites, but there were no differences in stroke subtypes between the ethnic groups. Furthermore, NHOPI and Asians may be less likely to be treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator than whites. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Clinical Trials of Adult Stem Cell Therapy in Patients with Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Oh Young

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is considered a potential regenerative strategy for patients with neurologic deficits. Studies involving animal models of ischemic stroke have shown that stem cells transplanted into the brain can lead to functional improvement. With current advances in the understanding regarding the effects of introducing stem cells and their mechanisms of action, several clinical trials of stem cell therapy have been conducted in patients with stroke since 2005, including studies using mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow mononuclear cells, and neural stem/progenitor cells. In addition, several clinical trials of the use of adult stem cells to treat ischemic stroke are ongoing. This review presents the status of our understanding of adult stem cells and results from clinical trials, and introduces ongoing clinical studies of adult stem cell therapy in the field of stroke.

  19. Left atrial appendage occlusion for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Dagres, Nikolaos; Proclemer, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    was 10.6 per year and most (73%) centres performed ≤10 procedures per year. We found that LAAO was being performed for stroke prevention in AF, for the most common indication being 'the patient has absolute contraindication to long term oral anticoagulants'. Among survey respondents, LAAO procedures...... are most often performed by interventional cardiologists. Experience varied widely, and this was reflected in the wide range of thromboembolic and procedural (tamponade, bleeding) complications reported by the respondents to this EP wire survey....

  20. Efficacy of Supplementation with B Vitamins for Stroke Prevention: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Dong

    Full Text Available Supplementation with B vitamins for stroke prevention has been evaluated over the years, but which combination of B vitamins is optimal for stroke prevention is unclear. We performed a network meta-analysis to assess the impact of different combinations of B vitamins on risk of stroke.A total of 17 trials (86 393 patients comparing 7 treatment strategies and placebo were included. A network meta-analysis combined all available direct and indirect treatment comparisons to evaluate the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation for all interventions.B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. The risk of stroke was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 as compared with folic acid plus vitamin B12 and was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 as compared with placebo or folic acid plus vitamin B12. The treatments ranked in order of efficacy for stroke, from higher to lower, were folic acid plus vitamin B6 > folic acid > folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > niacin > vitamin B6 > placebo > folic acid plus vitamin B12.B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke; different B vitamins and their combined treatments had different efficacy on stroke prevention. Folic acid plus vitamin B6 might be the optimal therapy for stroke prevention. Folic acid and vitamin B6 were both valuable for stroke prevention. The efficacy of vitamin B12 remains to be studied.

  1. Correction: PAIS: paracetamol (acetaminophen in stroke; protocol for a randomized, double blind clinical trial. [ISCRTN74418480

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappelle L Jaap

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Paracetamol (Acetaminophen In Stroke (PAIS study is a phase III multicenter, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of high-dose acetaminophen in patients with acute stroke. The trial compares treatment with a daily dose of 6 g acetaminophen, started within 12 hours after the onset of symptoms, with matched placebo. The purpose of this study is to assess whether treatment with acetaminophen for 3 days will result in improved functional outcome through a modest reduction in body temperature and prevention of fever. The previously planned statistical analysis based on a dichotomization of the scores on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS may not make the most efficient use of the available baseline information. Therefore, the planned primary analysis of the PAIS study has been changed from fixed dichotomization of the mRS to a sliding dichotomy analysis. Methods Instead of taking a single definition of good outcome for all patients, the definition is tailored to each individual patient's baseline prognosis on entry into the trial. Conclusion The protocol change was initiated because of both advances in statistical approaches and to increase the efficiency of the trial by improving statistical power. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials [ISCRTN74418480

  2. Metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency: a missed opportunity to prevent dementia and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J David

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this narrative review is to highlight insights into the importance and frequency of metabolic vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency, reasons why it is commonly missed, and reasons for the widespread but mistaken belief that treatment of B12 deficiency does not prevent stroke or improve cognitive function. Metabolic B12 deficiency is common, being present in 10%-40% of the population; is frequently missed; is easily treated; and contributes importantly to cognitive decline and stroke in older people. Measuring serum B12 alone is not sufficient for diagnosis; it is necessary to measure holotranscobalamin or functional markers of B12 adequacy such as methylmalonic acid or plasma total homocysteine. B-vitamin therapy with cyanocobalamin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with normal renal function but is harmful (perhaps because of thiocyanate accumulation from cyanide in cyanocobalamin) in patients with renal impairment. Methylcobalamin may be preferable in renal impairment. B12 therapy slowed gray matter atrophy and cognitive decline in the Homocysteine and B Vitamins in Cognitive Impairment Trial. Undiagnosed metabolic B12 deficiency may be an important missed opportunity for prevention of dementia and stroke; in patients with metabolic B12 deficiency, it would be prudent to offer inexpensive and nontoxic supplements of oral B12, preferably methylcobalamin or hydroxycobalamin. Future research is needed to distinguish the effects of thiocyanate from cyanocobalamin on hydrogen sulfide, and effects of treatment with methylcobalamin on cognitive function and stroke, particularly in patients with renal failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Variations in Kinematics during Clinical Gait Analysis in Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Bonnyaud, C?line; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    In addition to changes in spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters, patients with stroke exhibit fear of falling as well as fatigability during gait. These changes could compromise interpretation of data from gait analysis. The aim of this study was to determine if the gait of hemiplegic patients changes significantly over successive gait trials. Forty two stroke patients and twenty healthy subjects performed 9 gait trials during a gait analysis session. The mean and variability of spatio-tem...

  4. Adherence to oral anticoagulant therapy in secondary stroke prevention – impact of the novel oral anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luger S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sebastian Luger,1 Carina Hohmann,2 Daniela Niemann,1 Peter Kraft,3 Ignaz Gunreben,3 Tobias Neumann-Haefelin,2 Christoph Kleinschnitz,3 Helmuth Steinmetz,1 Christian Foerch,1 Waltraud Pfeilschifter1 1Department of Neurology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, 2Department of Neurology, Klinikum Fulda gAG, Fulda, 3Department of Neurology, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany Background: Oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT potently prevents strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation. Vitamin K antagonists (VKA have been the standard of care for long-term OAT for decades, but non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOAC have recently been approved for this indication, and raised many questions, among them their influence on medication adherence. We assessed adherence to VKA and NOAC in secondary stroke prevention. Methods: All patients treated from October 2011 to September 2012 for ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack with a subsequent indication for OAT, at three academic hospitals were entered into a prospective registry, and baseline data and antithrombotic treatment at discharge were recorded. At the 1-year follow-up, we assessed the adherence to different OAT strategies and patients’ adherence to their respective OAT. We noted OAT changes, reasons to change treatment, and factors that influence persistence to the prescribed OAT. Results: In patients discharged on OAT, we achieved a fatality corrected response rate of 73.3% (n=209. A total of 92% of these patients received OAT at the 1-year follow-up. We observed good adherence to both VKA and NOAC (VKA, 80.9%; NOAC, 74.8%; P=0.243 with a statistically nonsignificant tendency toward a weaker adherence to dabigatran. Disability at 1-year follow-up was an independent predictor of lower adherence to any OAT after multivariate analysis, whereas the choice of OAT did not have a relevant influence. Conclusion: One-year adherence to OAT after stroke is strong (>90% and patients

  5. Feasibility trial for primary stroke prevention in children with sickle cell anemia in Nigeria (SPIN trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galadanci, Najibah A; Umar Abdullahi, Shehu; Vance, Leah D; Musa Tabari, Abdulkadir; Ali, Shehi; Belonwu, Raymond; Salihu, Auwal; Amal Galadanci, Aisha; Wudil Jibir, Binta; Bello-Manga, Halima; Neville, Kathleen; Kirkham, Fenella J; Shyr, Yu; Phillips, Sharon; Covert, Brittany V; Kassim, Adetola A; Jordan, Lori C; Aliyu, Muktar H; DeBaun, Michael R

    2017-08-01

    The vast majority of children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) live in Africa, where evidence-based guidelines for primary stroke prevention are lacking. In Kano, Nigeria, we conducted a feasibility trial to determine the acceptability of hydroxyurea therapy for primary stroke prevention in children with abnormal transcranial Doppler (TCD) measurements. Children with SCA and abnormal non-imaging TCD measurements (≥200 cm/s) received moderate fixed-dose hydroxyurea therapy (∼20 mg/kg/day). A comparison group of children with TCD measurements hydroxyurea. The comparison group consisted of initially 210 children, of which four developed abnormal TCD measurements, and were started on hydroxyurea. None of the monthly research visits were missed (n = total 603 visits). Two and 10 deaths occurred in the treatment and comparison groups, with mortality rates of 2.69 and 1.81 per 100 patient-years, respectively (P = .67). Our results provide strong evidence, for high family recruitment, retention, and adherence rates, to undertake the first randomized controlled trial with hydroxyurea therapy for primary stroke prevention in children with SCA living in Africa. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in stroke patients: a cross-sectional, clinical survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Gard, Gunvor; Klarskov, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were primarily to investigate the prevalence, severity and impact on daily life of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) in a clinical sample of stroke patients and secondly to identify factors associated with LUTS.......The aims of this study were primarily to investigate the prevalence, severity and impact on daily life of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) in a clinical sample of stroke patients and secondly to identify factors associated with LUTS....

  7. Stroke in Latin America: Burden of Disease and Opportunities for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avezum, Álvaro; Costa-Filho, Francisco F; Pieri, Alexandre; Martins, Sheila O; Marin-Neto, José A

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiological transition in Latin America toward older urban dwelling adults has led to the rise in cardiovascular risk factors and an increase in morbidity and mortality rates related to both stroke and myocardial infarction. As a result, there is an immediate need for effective actions resulting in better detection and control of cardiovascular risk factors that will ultimately reduce cardiovascular disease burden. Data from case-control studies have identified the following risk factors associated with stroke: hypertension; smoking; abdominal obesity; diet; physical activity; diabetes; alcohol intake; psychosocial factors; cardiac causes; and dyslipidemia. In addition to its high mortality, patients who survive after a stroke present quite frequently with marked physical and functional disability. Because stroke is the leading cause of death in most Latin American countries and also because it is a clearly preventable cause of death and disability, simple, affordable, and efficient strategies must be urgently implemented in Latin America. Copyright © 2015 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of clinical and imaging characters and prognosis in patients with epilepsy after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yongguang; Zeng Huiliang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between clinical, imaging characters and prognosis in patients with epilepsy after stroke. Methods: In total 78 cases of post-stroke epilepsy were studied retrospectively out of 840 cases. Results: The incidence of post-stroke epilepsy was 9.29%. The early-stage epilepsy (less than 2 weeks) accounted for 61.54%. The major type of seizure were partial seizure and general tonic-clonic seizure. The incidence was higher in patients with cerebral hemorrhage or with lesions involving the cortex. Symptomatolytic medication was effective. Compared with non-epilepsy group, the mortality of epilepsy was higher. Conclusion: Post-stroke epilepsy is usually accompanied with cortical focus, which is more often seen in patients with cerebral hemorrhage than in patients with cerebral infarction. Post-stroke epilepsy responses well to the medication but indicates a poor prognosis

  9. Clinical and laboratory predictors of deep vein thrombosis after acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Ibrahim O; Roberts, Lara N; Patel, Raj; Pathansali, Rohan; Kalra, Lalit; Arya, Roopen

    2016-06-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common complication of acute stroke, but the new incidence in the era of improved specialist input in stroke care is yet unknown. The models for VTE diagnosis is well established, but prediction models to target at-risk patients for pharmacological prophylaxis is lacking and requires further research, particularly in the aftermath of acute stroke. To predict DVT after acute stroke using markers of haemostatic activation and stroke severity scores. We examined the clinical utility of laboratory factors such as thrombin generation, D-dimer, fibrinogen alongside clinical factors (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and Barthel Index) in the prediction of asymptomatic DVT, among 92 consecutively admitted patients. One in five patients (19.6%) had objectively confirmed DVT (6 proximal, 12 distal). Thrombolytic therapy did not protect against DVT, with 21% (6/29) of patients treated with r-tPA went on to develop DVT. Thrombin generation and fibrinogen had no clinical utility, but D-dimer at baseline and week 2 had high clinical potential in the prediction of asymptomatic DVT (2425ng/mL versus 1010ng/mL; p=0.001) and (2240 Vs 970ng/mL; pstroke severity, and are functionally less able, with lower Barthel index (p=0.05), and high National Institute of Health Stroke Score (p=0.07). Thrombolytic therapy and specialist stroke intervention does not protect against DVT risk. D-dimer concentration within 48h of acute stroke is independently associated with development of DVT. This observation would require confirmation in a large study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevention and intervention studies with telmisartan, ramipril and their combination in different rat stroke models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Thoene-Reineke

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The effects of AT1 receptor blocker, telmisartan, and the ACE inhibitor, ramipril, were tested head-to head and in combination on stroke prevention in hypertensive rats and on potential neuroprotection in acute cerebral ischemia in normotensive rats. METHODS: Prevention study: Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP were subjected to high salt and randomly assigned to 4 groups: (1 untreated (NaCl, n = 24, (2 telmisartan (T; n = 27, (3 ramipril (R; n = 27 and (4 telmisartan + ramipril (T+R; n = 26. Drug doses were selected to keep blood pressure (BP at 150 mmHg in all groups. Neurological signs and stroke incidence at 50% mortality of untreated SHR-SP were investigated. Intervention study: Normotensive Wistar rats were treated s.c. 5 days prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO for 90 min with reperfusion. Groups (n = 10 each: (1 sham, (2 vehicle (V; 0.9% NaCl, (3 T (0.5 mg/kg once daily, (4 R (0.01 mg/kg twice daily, (5 R (0.1 mg/kg twice daily or (6 T (0.5 mg/kg once daily plus R (0.01 mg/kg twice daily. Twenty-four and 48 h after MCAO, neurological outcome (NO was determined. Forty-eight h after MCAO, infarct volume by MRI, neuronal survival, inflammation factors and neurotrophin receptor (TrkB were analysed. RESULTS: Stroke incidence was reduced, survival was prolonged and neurological outcome was improved in all treated SHR-SP with no differences between treated groups. In the acute intervention study, T and T+R, but not R alone, improved NO, reduced infarct volume, inflammation (TNFα, and induced TrkB receptor and neuronal survival in comparison to V. CONCLUSIONS: T, R or T+R had similar beneficial effects on stroke incidence and NO in hypertensive rats, confirming BP reduction as determinant factor in stroke prevention. In contrast, T and T+R provided superior neuroprotection in comparison to R alone in normotensive rats with induced cerebral ischemia.

  11. The effect of electrical stimulation in combination with Bobath techniques in the prevention of shoulder subluxation in acute stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fil, Ayla; Armutlu, Kadriye; Atay, Ahmet Ozgur; Kerimoglu, Ulku; Elibol, Bulent

    2011-01-01

    To examine the efficiency of electrical stimulation in combination with Bobath techniques in the prevention of inferior and anterior shoulder subluxation in acute stroke patients. A prospective randomized controlled trial. Intensive care unit and inpatient clinics of neurology in a university hospital. Forty-eight patients with acute stroke, divided equally into control and study groups. Subjects in both groups were treated in accordance with the Bobath concept during the early hospitalization period. In addition to Bobath techniques, electrical stimulation was also applied to the supraspinatus muscle, mid and posterior portions of the deltoid muscle of patients in the study group. Two radiological methods were used to measure the horizontal, vertical and total asymmetry and vertical distance values of the shoulder joint. Motor functions of the arm were evaluated with the Motor Assessment Scale. The hospitalization period was 12.62 ± 2.24 days for the control group and 11.66 ± 1.88 days for the study group. Shoulder subluxation occurred in 9 (37.5%) subjects in the control group, whereas it was not observed in the study group. All shoulder joint displacement values were higher in the control group than in the study group (horizontal asymmetry P = 0.0001, vertical asymmetry P = 0.0001, total asymmetry P = 0.0001, vertical range P = 0.002). Application of electrical stimulation combined with the Bobath approach proved to be efficient in preventing inferior and anterior shoulder subluxation in the acute stages of stroke.

  12. Effects of aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole versus clopidogrel and telmisartan on disability and cognitive function after recurrent stroke in patients with ischaemic stroke in the Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Sacco, Ralph L; Yusuf, Salim

    2008-01-01

    telmisartan were investigated in the Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) trial. METHODS: Patients who had had an ischaemic stroke were randomly assigned in a two by two factorial design to receive either 25 mg aspirin (ASA) and 200 mg extended-release dipyridamole (ER......-DP) twice a day or 75 mg clopidogrel once a day, and either 80 mg telmisartan or placebo once per day. The predefined endpoints for this substudy were disability after a recurrent stroke, assessed with the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and Barthel index at 3 months, and cognitive function, assessed...... of 2.4 years. Recurrent strokes occurred in 916 (9%) patients randomly assigned to ASA with ER-DP and 898 (9%) patients randomly assigned to clopidogrel; 880 (9%) patients randomly assigned to telmisartan and 934 (9%) patients given placebo had recurrent strokes. mRS scores were not statistically...

  13. Infratentorial posterior circulation stroke in a Nigerian population: Clinical characteristics, risk factors, and predictors of outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Femi Owolabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posterior circulation stroke (PCS, though less common, differs from stroke in anterior circulation in many aspects. Relatively, it portends a poorer prognosis. However, there is a paucity of data from African countries, in particular, where stroke is a menace. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the etiology, clinical characteristics, outcome, and predictors of outcome in a cohort of patients with IPCS in Northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Out of 595 patients with stroke, we prospectively analyzed 57 patients with PCS in a Tertiary Care Center in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria. Patients were analyzed for demographic data, risk factors, clinical characteristics, stroke subtypes, mortality, and predictors of mortality. Results: Posterior circulation ischemic stroke accounted for 57 (9.6% of 595 of all strokes seen in the study period. They comprised 44 males (mean age 47.8 ± 17.7 and 13 females (mean age 46.3 ± 13.7. Overall, their age ranged between 24 and 90 (mean age 47.4 ± 16.7. However, 52.7% of the patients were < 45 years of age. The most common site affected was the cerebellum seen in 33 (57.9% patients. Hypertension was the most common risk factor (86%. Headache and vertigo were the most common features accounting for 83.6% and 86.3%, respectively. Thirty-eight (66.7% patients had an ischemic stroke. Twenty-one (36.8% of the patients died during the 1-month period of follow-up. Independent predictors of death in the study were hyperglycemia on admission and hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusions: IPCS occurred in a relatively younger age group. Headache and vertigo were the most common symptoms. The independent predictors of death in the study were hyperglycemia at presentation and hemorrhagic stroke.

  14. Efficacy of Tai Chi and qigong for the prevention of stroke and stroke risk factors: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Peng, Wenbo; Ferguson, Caleb; Cramer, Holger; Frawley, Jane; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David

    2017-11-01

    This review aims to summarize the evidence of Tai Chi and qigong interventions for the primary prevention of stroke, including the effects on populations with major stroke risk factors. A systematic literature search was conducted on January 16, 2017 using the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases. Randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of Tai Chi or qigong for stroke prevention and stroke risk factors were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Twenty-one trials with n = 1604 patients with hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, overweight or obesity, or metabolic syndrome were included. No trials were found that examined the effects of Tai Chi/qigong on stroke incidence. Meta-analyses revealed significant, but not robust, benefits of Tai Chi/qigong over no interventions for hypertension (systolic blood pressure: -15.55 mm Hg (95% CI: -21.16; -9.95); diastolic blood pressure: -10.66 mm Hg (95% CI: -14.90, -6.43); the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index (-2.86%; 95% CI: -5.35, -0.38) and fasting blood glucose (-9.6 mg/dL; 95% CI: -17.28, -1.91), and for the body mass index compared with exercise controls (-1.65 kg/m; 95% CI: -3.11, -0.20). Risk of bias was unclear or high for the majority of trials and domains, and heterogeneity between trials was high. Only 6 trials adequately reported safety. No recommendation for the use of Tai Chi/qigong for the prevention of stroke can be given. Although Tai Chi and qigong show some potential more robust studies are required to provide conclusive evidence on the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi and qigong for reducing major stroke risk factors.

  15. Clinical investigations of receptive and expressive musical functions after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosslau, Ken; Steinwede, Daniel; Schröder, C.; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Lappe, Claudia; Dobel, Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions) or expression (music production abilities), and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a left-sided stroke, patients with a right-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits. PMID:26124731

  16. Clinical investigations of receptive and expressive musical functions after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosslau, Ken; Steinwede, Daniel; Schröder, C; Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Dobel, Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions) or expression (music production abilities), and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a left-sided stroke, patients with a right-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits.

  17. Clinical investigations of receptive and expressive musical functions after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eRosslau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions or expression (music production abilities, and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a right-sided stroke, patients with a left-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits.

  18. Stroke subtypes and factors associated with ischemic stroke in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Better understanding and controlling factors associated will improve the prevention of the disease. This study reviews records of patients with ischemic stroke in Central Africa. Material and methods: Patients of Bantu ethnicity with clinical ...

  19. The Indian consensus guidance on stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: An emphasis on practical use of nonvitamin K oral anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshed Dalal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The last ten years have seen rapid strides in the evolution of nonvitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF. For the preparation of this consensus, a comprehensive literature search was performed and data on available trials, subpopulation analyses, and case reports were analyzed. This Indian consensus document intends to provide guidance on selecting the right NOAC for the right patients by formulating expert opinions based on the available trials and Asian/Indian subpopulation analyses of these trials. A section has been dedicated to the current evidence of NOACs in the Asian population. Practical suggestions have been formulated in the following clinical situations: (i Dose recommendations of the NOACs in different clinical scenarios; (ii NOACs in patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD; (iii Monitoring anticoagulant effect of the NOACs; (iv Overdose of NOACs; (v Antidotes to NOACs; (vi Treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM with AF using NOACs; (vii NOACs dose in elderly, (viii Switching between NOACs and vitamin K antagonists (VKA; (ix Cardioversion or ablation in NOAC-treated patients; (x Planned/emergency surgical interventions in patients currently on NOACs; (xi Management of bleeding complications of NOACs; (xii Management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS in AF with NOACs; (xiii Management of acute ischemic stroke while on NOACs.

  20. Issues in recruiting community-dwelling stroke survivors to clinical trials: the AMBULATE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Gemma; Dean, Catherine M; Ada, Louise

    2010-07-01

    Recruitment to clinical trials is often slow and difficult, with a growing body of research examining this issue. However there is very little work related to stroke. The aim of this study was to examine the success and efficiency of recruitment of community-dwelling stroke survivors over the first two years of a clinical trial aiming to improve community ambulation. Recruitment strategies fell into 2 broad categories: (i) advertisement (such as newspaper advertising and media releases), and (ii) referral (via hospital and community physiotherapists, a stroke liaison officer and other researchers). Records were kept of the number of people who were screened, were eligible and were recruited for each strategy. The recruitment target of 60 in the first two years was not met. 111 stroke survivors were screened and 57 were recruited (i.e., a recruitment rate of 51%). The most successful strategy was referral via hospital-based physiotherapists (47% of recruited participants) and the least successful were media release and local newspaper advertising. The referral strategies were all more efficient than any of the advertisement strategies. In general, recruitment was inefficient and costly in terms of human resources. Given that stroke research is underfunded, it is important to find efficient ways of recruiting stroke survivors to clinical trials. An Australian national database similar to other disease-specific data bases (such as the National Cancer Database) is under development. In the interim, recruiting for several clinical trials at once may increase efficiency.

  1. Contemporary stroke prevention strategies in 11 096 European patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boriani, Giuseppe; Proietti, Marco; Laroche, Cécile

    2017-01-01

    % of patients, while no antithrombotic treatment was prescribed in 6.4%. On multivariable analysis, age, hypertension, previous ischaemic stroke, symptomatic AF and planned cardioversion or ablation were independent predictors of OAC use, whereas lone AF, previous haemorrhagic events, chronic kidney disease......Aims: Contemporary data regarding atrial fibrillation (AF) management and current use of oral anticoagulants (OACs) for stroke prevention are needed. Methods and results: The EURObservational Research Programme on AF (EORP-AF) Long-Term General Registry analysed consecutive AF patients presenting...... and admission for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or non-cardiovascular causes independently predicted OAC non-use. Regarding the OAC type, coronary artery disease, history of heart failure, or valvular heart disease, planned cardioversion and non-AF reasons for admission independently predicted the use...

  2. Choosing a particular oral anticoagulant and dose for stroke prevention in individual patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Aisenberg, James; Ansell, Jack; Atar, Dan; Breithardt, Günter; Eikelboom, John; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Granger, Christopher B; Halperin, Jonathan L; Hohnloser, Stefan H; Hylek, Elaine M; Kirchhof, Paulus; Lane, Deirdre A; Verheugt, Freek W A; Veltkamp, Roland; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2017-03-21

    Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have a high risk of stroke and mortality, which can be considerably reduced by oral anticoagulants (OAC). Recently, four non-vitamin-K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were compared with warfarin in large randomized trials for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism. Today's clinician is faced with the difficult task of selecting a suitable OAC for a patient with a particular clinical profile or a particular pattern of risk factors and concomitant diseases. We reviewed analyses of subgroups of patients from trials of vitamin K antagonists vs. NOACs for stroke prevention in AF with the aim to identify patient groups who might benefit from a particular OAC more than from another. In the first of a two-part review, we discuss the choice of NOAC for stroke prevention in the following subgroups of patients with AF: (i) stable coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease, including percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting and triple therapy; (ii) cardioversion, ablation and anti-arrhythmic drug therapy; (iii) mechanical valves and rheumatic valve disease, (iv) patients with time in therapeutic range of >70% on warfarin; (v) patients with a single stroke risk factor (CHA2DS2VASc score of 1 in males, 2 in females); and (vi) patients with a single first episode of paroxysmal AF. Although there are no major differences in terms of efficacy and safety between the NOACs for some clinical scenarios, in others we are able to suggest that particular drugs and/or doses be prioritized for anticoagulation. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Does Perturbation Training Prevent Falls after Discharge from Stroke Rehabilitation? A Prospective Cohort Study with Historical Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Avril; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Danells, Cynthia J; Aqui, Anthony; Aryan, Raabeae; Biasin, Louis; DePaul, Vincent G; Inness, Elizabeth L

    2017-10-01

    Individuals with stroke fall frequently, and no exercise intervention has been shown to prevent falls post stroke. Perturbation-based balance training (PBT), which involves practicing reactions to instability, shows promise for preventing falls in older adults and individuals with Parkinson's disease. This study aimed to determine if PBT during inpatient stroke rehabilitation can prevent falls after discharge into the community. Individuals with subacute stroke completed PBT as part of routine inpatient rehabilitation (n = 31). Participants reported falls experienced in daily life for up to 6 months post discharge. Fall rates were compared to a matched historical control group (HIS) who did not complete PBT during inpatient rehabilitation. Five of 31 PBT participants, compared to 15 of 31 HIS participants, reported at least 1 fall. PBT participants reported 10 falls (.84 falls per person per year) whereas HIS participants reported 31 falls (2.0 falls per person per year). When controlled for follow-up duration and motor impairment, fall rates were lower in the PBT group than the HIS group (rate ratio: .36 [.15, .79]; P = .016). These findings suggest that PBT is promising for reducing falls post stroke. While this was not a randomized controlled trial, this study may provide sufficient evidence for implementing PBT in stroke rehabilitation practice. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical presentation and diffusion weighted MRI of acute cerebral infarction. The Bergen Stroke Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waje-Andreassen Ulrike

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No large study has compared the yield of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI with clinical examination in order to differentiate lacunar stroke from other stroke subtypes. This differentiation is important for guiding further investigations and treatment. Methods Consecutive patients admitted with cerebral infarction were classified according to the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project scale. Based on DWI and CT stroke was classified as lacunar (LI and non-lacunar (NLI. Acute ischemic lesion Results DWI was performed in 419 (69% patients. Among patients with lacunar syndrome (LACS 45 (40.5% had NLI on DWI. All patients with total anterior syndrome (TACS and 144 (88.3% with partial anterior syndrome (PACS had NLI on DWI. Conclusion DWI is important among patients presenting with clinical symptoms suggestive of lacunar syndrome to differentiate between LI and NLI. On the other hand, there is good correspondence between TACS or PACS and NLI on DWI.

  5. Mechanism of Action and Clinical Potential of Fingolimod for the Treatment of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fingolimod (FTY720 is an orally bio-available immunomodulatory drug currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Currently, there is a significant interest in the potential benefits of FTY720 on stroke outcomes. FTY720 and the sphingolipid signaling pathway it modulates has a ubiquitous presence in the central nervous system and both rodent models and pilot clinical trials seem to indicate that the drug may improve overall functional recovery in different stroke subtypes. Although the precise mechanisms behind these beneficial effects are yet unclear, there is evidence that FTY720 has a role in regulating cerebrovascular responses, blood brain barrier permeability, and cell survival in the event of cerebrovascular insult. In this article, we critically review the data obtained from the latest laboratory findings and clinical trials involving both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and attempt to form a cohesive picture of FTY720’s mechanisms of action in stroke

  6. Lifestyle interventions for secondary disease prevention in stroke and transient ischaemic attack: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Olive; Galvin, Rose; Smith, Kathryn; Doody, Catherine; Blake, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    Secondary prevention in ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is dominated by pharmacological interventions with evidence for non-pharmacological interventions being less robust. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the impact of lifestyle interventions on secondary prevention in stroke or TIA. A systematic literature search was performed. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of intervention packages incorporating any key component of health education/promotion/counselling on lifestyle and/or aerobic exercise compared to usual care ± a sham intervention in participants with ischaemic stroke or TIA were included. Outcomes of interest were mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) event rates, cardiovascular risk factors including blood pressure, lipid profiles and physical activity participation. Methodological quality was assessed. Statistical analyses determining treatment effect were conducted using Cochrane Review Manager Software. Seventeen RCTs were included. Data pooled from eight studies with a total of 2478 patients, demonstrated no effect in favour of lifestyle interventions compared to routine or sham interventions on mortality (risk ratio (RR) = 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.52), I(2) = 0%). Data relating to CVD events were pooled from four studies (1013 patients), demonstrated non-significant findings (RR = 1.16 (95% CI, 0.80--1.71), I(2) = 0%). Similar results were reported for total cholesterol. Physical activity participation demonstrated significant improvement [SMD 0.24 (95% CI, 0.08-0.41), l (2) = 47%]. Blood pressure reductions were noted but were non-significant when corrected for multimodal packages including enhanced pharmacotherapy compliance. There is currently insufficient high quality research to support lifestyle interventions post-stroke or TIA on mortality, CVD event rates and cardio-metabolic risk factor profiles. Promising blood pressure reductions were noted in

  7. Unilateral versus bilateral upper limb training after stroke: The upper limb training after stroke clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    van Delden, AL; Peper, CE; Nienhuys, KN; Zijp, NI; Beek, PJ; Kwakkel, G

    2013-01-01

    This article is available open access through the publisher’s website at the link below. Copyright © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Background and Purpose — Unilateral and bilateral training protocols for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke represent conceptually contrasting approaches with the same ultimate goal. In a randomized controlled trial, we compared the merits of modified constraint-induced movement therapy, modified bilateral arm training with rhythmic auditory cueing,...

  8. Profile Of Stroke In Nigerians: A Prospective Clinical Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CT scan is recommended for all cases of stroke for definitive diagnosis and timely as well as accurate management. Introduction Les accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) causent une mortalité et un handicap importants dans la population adulte entraînant également une forte charge émotionnelle au sein des familles et ...

  9. Effects of aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole versus clopidogrel and telmisartan on disability and cognitive function after recurrent stroke in patients with ischaemic stroke in the Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) trial: a double-blind, active and placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Sacco, Ralph L; Yusuf, Salim; Cotton, Daniel; Ounpuu, Stephanie; Lawton, William A; Palesch, Yuko; Martin, Reneé H; Albers, Gregory W; Bath, Philip; Bornstein, Natan; Chan, Bernard P L; Chen, Sien-Tsong; Cunha, Luis; Dahlöf, Björn; De Keyser, Jacques; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Estol, Conrado; Gorelick, Philip; Gu, Vivian; Hermansson, Karin; Hilbrich, Lutz; Kaste, Markku; Lu, Chuanzhen; Machnig, Thomas; Pais, Prem; Roberts, Robin; Skvortsova, Veronika; Teal, Philip; Toni, Danilo; VanderMaelen, Cam; Voigt, Thor; Weber, Michael; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2008-10-01

    The treatment of ischaemic stroke with neuroprotective drugs has been unsuccessful, and whether these compounds can be used to reduce disability after recurrent stroke is unknown. The putative neuroprotective effects of antiplatelet compounds and the angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan were investigated in the Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) trial. Patients who had had an ischaemic stroke were randomly assigned in a two by two factorial design to receive either 25 mg aspirin (ASA) and 200 mg extended-release dipyridamole (ER-DP) twice a day or 75 mg clopidogrel once a day, and either 80 mg telmisartan or placebo once per day. The predefined endpoints for this substudy were disability after a recurrent stroke, assessed with the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and Barthel index at 3 months, and cognitive function, assessed with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score at 4 weeks after randomisation and at the penultimate visit. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00153062. 20,332 patients (mean age 66 years) were randomised and followed-up for a median of 2.4 years. Recurrent strokes occurred in 916 (9%) patients randomly assigned to ASA with ER-DP and 898 (9%) patients randomly assigned to clopidogrel; 880 (9%) patients randomly assigned to telmisartan and 934 (9%) patients given placebo had recurrent strokes. mRS scores were not statistically different in patients with recurrent stroke who were treated with ASA and ER-DP versus clopidogrel (p=0.38), or with telmisartan versus placebo (p=0.61). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with recurrent stroke with a good outcome, as measured with the Barthel index, across all treatment groups. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the median MMSE scores, the percentage of patients with an MMSE score of 24 points or less, the percentage of patients with a drop in MMSE

  10. CT and Clinical Predictors of Fatigue at One Month after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur A. Kutlubaev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is a common and distressing consequence of stroke, and the aetiology of post-stroke fatigue (PSF is poorly understood. It is unclear whether chronic brain changes [cerebral atrophy and white matter lesions (WML], stroke lesion location or certain clinical features are related to its development. The aim of this study was to identify, in patients with acute stroke, whether features in different brain regions on routine CT imaging or routinely collected clinical features predicted PSF at 1 month. Methods: In total, 107 patients (62% male with acute ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke were assessed for fatigue (Fatigue Assessment Scale, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at 1 month. Admission brain CT was rated using a structured scoring system for (i severity of atrophy and (ii severity of WML in different regions of the brain, and (iii site of acute and previous vascular lesions. Results: Cerebral atrophy of mild or greater severity was present in 84 patients (77.5% and WML of mild or greater severity was present in 54 patients (50.5% in at least one of the evaluated brain regions. There was no association between PSF and severity of atrophy or WML, or presence of acute or previous vascular lesions. We used the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP classification to explore the possible influence of lesion location because a minority of the patients (37.4% had visible acute lesions. Fatigue scores were higher in patients with clinically diagnosed posterior strokes (p = 0.046, in females (p = 0.05 and in those with higher depression and anxiety scores (ρ = 0.52; p 2 = 0.254. Stroke subtype (according to the OCSP classification was marginally predictive (β = 0.17; p = 0.05 and sex was not statistically significant (β = 0.15; p = 0.08. Conclusions: Features on routine post-stroke CT do not appear to associate with fatigue at 1 month. However, clinically diagnosed posterior strokes as well as female

  11. Usefulness of diffusion-weighted images in the evolving stroke: correlation with clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Sook; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Dong Ik; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Lee, Seung Ik; Lee, Byung In; Suh, Bum Chun

    2000-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of repeat diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) during the acute ischemic stroke stage for the prediction of evolving stroke and clinical course. Fifteen patients with acute ischemic stroke in MCA territory (less than 24 hours, 5 patients; greater than 24 hours, 10 patients; M:F =3D (:6; age 28-75 (mean, 61) years) were involved in this prospective study. All patients underwent initial DWI, follow-up DWI (within two weeks of the first attack) and T2WI (2-5 months later to assess final infarction territory). The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was used for clinical evaluation. 'Evolving stroke' was defined as progression NIHSS after admission. For statistical analysis, Fisher's exact test was used and a p value less than 0.05 was considered significant.In six patients (40%), the diagnosis was evolving stroke. In four of these (67%), follow-up DWI showed that the infarction territory was more extensive. Evolving stroke occurred 24-72 hours after the onset of symptoms. DWI obtained 72 hours after onset showed that one patient had developed new infarction. Patients in whom enlarged infarction territory was seen on follow-up DWI showed progression of NIHSS within three days of onset, while those in whom follow-up DWI demonstrated no change showed an improved NIHSS (p less than 0.05). Those who underwent initial DWI within 24 hours of onset showed larger infarction territory on follow-up DWI than those who underwent initial DWI later than this (p greater than 0.05). Repeat DWI during the acute ischemic stroke stage might be useful for the evaluation of evolving stroke. (author)

  12. Clinical Pregenetic Screening for Stroke Monogenic Diseases: Results From Lombardia GENS Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersano, Anna; Markus, Hugh Stephen; Quaglini, Silvana; Arbustini, Eloisa; Lanfranconi, Silvia; Micieli, Giuseppe; Boncoraglio, Giorgio B; Taroni, Franco; Gellera, Cinzia; Baratta, Silvia; Penco, Silvana; Mosca, Lorena; Grasso, Maurizia; Carrera, Paola; Ferrari, Maurizio; Cereda, Cristina; Grieco, Gaetano; Corti, Stefania; Ronchi, Dario; Bassi, Maria Teresa; Obici, Laura; Parati, Eugenio A; Pezzini, Alessando; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Verrengia, Elena P; Bono, Giorgio; Mazucchelli, Francesca; Zarcone, Davide; Calloni, Maria Vittoria; Perrone, Patrizia; Bordo, Bianca Maria; Colombo, Antonio; Padovani, Alessandro; Cavallini, Anna; Beretta, Simone; Ferrarese, Carlo; Motto, Cristina; Agostoni, Elio; Molini, Graziella; Sasanelli, Francesco; Corato, Manuel; Marcheselli, Simona; Sessa, Maria; Comi, Giancarlo; Checcarelli, Nicoletta; Guidotti, Mario; Uccellini, Davide; Capitani, Erminio; Tancredi, Lucia; Arnaboldi, Marco; Incorvaia, Barbara; Tadeo, Carlo Sebastiano; Fusi, Laura; Grampa, Giampiero; Merlini, Giampaolo; Trobia, Nadia; Comi, Giacomo Pietro; Braga, Massimiliano; Vitali, Paolo; Baron, Pierluigi; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Candelise, Livia

    2016-07-01

    Lombardia GENS is a multicentre prospective study aimed at diagnosing 5 single-gene disorders associated with stroke (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, Fabry disease, MELAS [mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes], hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and Marfan syndrome) by applying diagnostic algorithms specific for each clinically suspected disease We enrolled a consecutive series of patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke or transient ischemic attack admitted in stroke units in the Lombardia region participating in the project. Patients were defined as probable when presenting with stroke or transient ischemic attack of unknown etiopathogenic causes, or in the presence of young age at onset, or positive familial history or of specific clinical features. Patients fulfilling diagnostic algorithms specific for each monogenic disease (suspected) were referred for genetic analysis. In 209 patients (57.4±14.7 years), the application of the disease-specific algorithm identified 227 patients with possible monogenic disease. Genetic testing identified pathogenic mutations in 7% of these cases. Familial history of stroke was the only significant specific feature that distinguished mutated patients from nonmutated ones. The presence of cerebrovascular risk factors did not exclude a genetic disease. In patients prescreened using a clinical algorithm for monogenic disorders, we identified monogenic causes of events in 7% of patients in comparison to the 1% to 5% prevalence reported in previous series. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and early clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sungwook; Arima, Hisatomi; Bertmar, Carin; Clarke, Stephen; Herkes, Geoffrey; Krause, Martin

    2018-04-15

    The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is closely linked to mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether NLR is associated with early clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We collated data from a tertiary hospital's stroke registry including admitted patients with a first-ever acute ischemic stroke within 72 h of onset. White blood cell counts and peripheral differential counts were measured on admission. Early clinical outcomes were in-hospital mortality and disability at discharge assessed by the modified Rankin scale (mRS). Among 1131 stroke patients, 454 patients were included and classified into tertile groups based on NLR on admission. Patients in higher tertiles of NLR were likely to have severe neurologic deficit at discharge. Higher NLR tertiles were associated with an unfavourable shift of mRS score (p < .0001). This association remained significant after adjustment for clinical and laboratory variables including age, sex, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, stroke severity, and glucose level (p = .032 for trend). However, risk of death or major disability (score of 3-6 on mRS) and in-hospital mortality were not significantly different across NLR tertile groups. In patients with acute ischemic stroke, NLR was predictive of short-term functional outcome. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Weber, Uno Jakob; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    Experimental evidence and clinical experience show that hypothermia protects the brain from damage during ischaemia. There is a growing hope that the prevention of fever in stroke will improve outcome and that hypothermia may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of stroke. Body temperature i...

  15. Randomized controlled trial of a coordinated care intervention to improve risk factor control after stroke or transient ischemic attack in the safety net: Secondary stroke prevention by Uniting Community and Chronic care model teams Early to End Disparities (SUCCEED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towfighi, Amytis; Cheng, Eric M; Ayala-Rivera, Monica; McCreath, Heather; Sanossian, Nerses; Dutta, Tara; Mehta, Bijal; Bryg, Robert; Rao, Neal; Song, Shlee; Razmara, Ali; Ramirez, Magaly; Sivers-Teixeira, Theresa; Tran, Jamie; Mojarro-Huang, Elizabeth; Montoya, Ana; Corrales, Marilyn; Martinez, Beatrice; Willis, Phyllis; Macias, Mireya; Ibrahim, Nancy; Wu, Shinyi; Wacksman, Jeremy; Haber, Hilary; Richards, Adam; Barry, Frances; Hill, Valerie; Mittman, Brian; Cunningham, William; Liu, Honghu; Ganz, David A; Factor, Diane; Vickrey, Barbara G

    2017-02-06

    Recurrent strokes are preventable through awareness and control of risk factors such as hypertension, and through lifestyle changes such as healthier diets, greater physical activity, and smoking cessation. However, vascular risk factor control is frequently poor among stroke survivors, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged blacks, Latinos and other people of color. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an effective framework for multi-component interventions aimed at improving care processes and outcomes for individuals with chronic disease. In addition, community health workers (CHWs) have played an integral role in reducing health disparities; however, their effectiveness in reducing vascular risk among stroke survivors remains unknown. Our objectives are to develop, test, and assess the economic value of a CCM-based intervention using an Advanced Practice Clinician (APC)-CHW team to improve risk factor control after stroke in an under-resourced, racially/ethnically diverse population. In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 516 adults (≥40 years) with an ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack or intracerebral hemorrhage within the prior 90 days are being enrolled at five sites within the Los Angeles County safety-net setting and randomized 1:1 to intervention vs usual care. Participants are excluded if they do not speak English, Spanish, Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean or if they are unable to consent. The intervention includes a minimum of three clinic visits in the healthcare setting, three home visits, and Chronic Disease Self-Management Program group workshops in community venues. The primary outcome is blood pressure (BP) control (systolic BP control of other vascular risk factors including lipids and hemoglobin A1c, (3) inflammation (C reactive protein [CRP]), (4) medication adherence, (5) lifestyle factors (smoking, diet, and physical activity), (6) estimated relative reduction in risk for recurrent stroke or myocardial

  16. The Dysphagia in Stroke Protocol Reduces Aspiration Pneumonia in Patients with Dysphagia Following Acute Stroke: a Clinical Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sarah E; Miles, Anna; Fink, John N; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2018-03-30

    Cough reflex testing has been evaluated as a component of the clinical swallowing assessment as a means of identifying patients at risk of aspiration during swallowing. A previous study by our research group found good sensitivity and specificity of the cough reflex test for identifying patients at risk of aspiration post-stroke, yet its use did not decrease pneumonia rates, contrary to previous reports. The aim of this study was to expand on our earlier work by implementing a clinical management protocol incorporating cough reflex testing within the same healthcare setting and compare patient outcomes to those from the original study and to evaluate clinical outcomes in patients with acute stroke who were managed using the Dysphagia in Stroke Protocol (DiSP). Secondarily, to compare those outcomes to historical data prior to implementation of the DiSP. This clinical audit measured outcomes from 284 patients with acute stroke managed per the DiSP, which guides use of videofluoroscopic swallowing study and patient management based on clinical exam with cough reflex testing. Data from our previous trial were included for comparison of pre- and post-DiSP patient outcomes. Data collection took place between November 2012 and April 2016 at four urban hospitals within New Zealand. Following implementation of the DiSP, the rate of aspiration pneumonia (10%) was substantially lower than the pre-DiSP rate (28%), with no pneumonia readmissions within 3 months. Pneumonia-related mortality was unchanged. By 3 months, 81% of the patients were on a normal diet and 67% had returned home, compared to pre-DiSP outcomes of 55% and 55% respectively. Previous work has suggested that simply implementing cough reflex testing in dysphagia management may not be sufficient to improve patient outcomes. The present study adds to this picture by suggesting that the true variable of influence may be the way in which the results of the test are applied to patient care. There is a strong case

  17. Magnesium Sulfate in Acute Stroke: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Mousavi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Administration of magnesium sulfate has neuroprotective effects and reduces infarct volume in animal models of stroke. Previous small clinical trials have reported beneficial effect of magnesium on the outcome in patients with stroke. This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study , investigated the benefit of magnesium sulfate the administration given intravenously as a neuroprotective. Methods: Patients who had cortical infarction in the middle cerebral artery territory (superior or inferior division with moderate neurologic deficits (Orgogozo scale score greater than 30 and less than 70 and onset less than 24 hours were included. The patients were treated with magnesium sulfate (4gr stat and 1gr/hr or placebo for 4 days and examined by a blind investigator. NIH Stroke Scale was obtained on admission and fifth day after stroke. Results: Eighteen patients were given treatment and nineteen patients were given placebo who demonstrated significant beneficial effects on the difference between NIH Stroke Scales on the day of admission and day 5 (3.16 ± 0.98 vs. 1.84 ± 1.06; p = 0.000 respectively. Conclusion: Intravenous magnesium sulfate had significant beneficial effect on acute phase of stroke patients and, as a result, may reduce duration of admission. Keywords: Stroke, Magnesium sulfate, Neuroprotective.

  18. The taxonomy statistic uncovers novel clinical patterns in a population of ischemic stroke patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tukiendorf

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a simple taxonomic approach for clinical data mining elaborated by Marczewski and Steinhaus (M-S, whose performance equals the advanced statistical methodology known as the expectation-maximization (E-M algorithm. We tested these two methods on a cohort of ischemic stroke patients. The comparison of both methods revealed strong agreement. Direct agreement between M-S and E-M classifications reached 83%, while Cohen's coefficient of agreement was κ = 0.766(P < 0.0001. The statistical analysis conducted and the outcomes obtained in this paper revealed novel clinical patterns in ischemic stroke patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of Marczewski-Steinhaus' taxonomic approach as a tool for the detection of novel patterns of data in ischemic stroke patients and the prediction of disease outcome. In terms of the identification of fairly frequent types of stroke patients using their age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, and diabetes mellitus (DM status, when dealing with rough characteristics of patients, four particular types of patients are recognized, which cannot be identified by means of routine clinical methods. Following the obtained taxonomical outcomes, the strong correlation between the health status at moment of admission to emergency department (ED and the subsequent recovery of patients is established. Moreover, popularization and simplification of the ideas of advanced mathematicians may provide an unconventional explorative platform for clinical problems.

  19. Dabigatran for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in atrial fibrillation: A NICE single technology appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Rita; Spackman, Eldon; Burch, Jane; Corbacho, Belen; Todd, Derick; Pepper, Chris; Woolacott, Nerys; Palmer, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of dabigatran etexilate (Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd, UK) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost-effectiveness of this drug for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) as part of the NICE single technology appraisal process. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and the Centre for Health Economics at the University of York were commissioned to act as the evidence review group (ERG). This article presents a summary of the manufacturer's submission, the ERG report and the subsequent development of NICE guidance for the use of dabigatran within the UK National Health Service. Dabigatran was granted marketing authorisation by the European Medicines Agency for a sequential dosing regimen (DBG sequential), in which patients under 80 years are treated with dabigatran 150 mg twice daily (DBG150) and patients 80 years and over are given dabigatran 110 mg twice daily (DBG110). NICE decisions are bound by the marketing authorisation; therefore, the decision problem faced by the committee was whether the DBG sequential regimen was effective and cost-effective compared with warfarin or aspirin for patients with non-valvular AF and one or more risk factors. The RE-LY trial, a large multi-centre non-inferiority randomised clinical trial, was the primary source of clinical evidence. DBG150 was shown to be non-inferior, and subsequently superior to warfarin, for the primary outcome of all stroke/systemic embolism. DBG110 was found to be non-inferior to warfarin. Results were presented for a post hoc subgroup analysis for patients under and over 80 years of age, where DBG110 showed a statistically significant reduction of haemorrhagic stroke and intracranial haemorrhage in comparison to warfarin in patients over 80 years of age. This post hoc subgroup analysis by age was the basis for the licensed DBG sequential regimen

  20. Preliminary Reliability and Validity of an Exercise Benefits and Barriers for Stroke Prevention Scale in an African American Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycock, Dawn M; Clark, Patricia C

    2015-01-01

    African Americans are at heightened risk of first stroke, and regular exercise can reduce stroke risk. Benefits and barriers to exercise subscales from 2 instruments were combined to create the Exercise Benefits and Barriers for Stroke Prevention (EBBSP) scale. Reliability and validity of the EBBSP scale were examined in a nonrandom sample of 66 African Americans who were primarily female, average age 43.3 ± 9.4 years, and high school graduates. Both subscales had adequate internal consistency reliability. Factor analysis revealed two factors for each subscale. More benefits and fewer perceived barriers were significantly related to current exercise and future intentions to exercise. The EBBSP scale may be useful in research focused on understanding, predicting, and promoting exercise for stroke prevention in adults.

  1. Controlled Education of patients after Stroke (CEOPS)- nurse-led multimodal and long-term interventional program involving a patient's caregiver to optimize secondary prevention of stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendyk, Anne-Marie; Duhamel, Alain; Bejot, Yannick; Leys, Didier; Derex, Laurent; Dereeper, Olivier; Detante, Olivier; Garcia, Pierre-Yves; Godefroy, Olivier; Montoro, Francisco Macian; Neau, Jean-Philippe; Richard, Sébastien; Rosolacci, Thierry; Sibon, Igor; Sablot, Denis; Timsit, Serge; Zuber, Mathieu; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Bordet, Régis

    2018-02-22

    Setting up a follow-up secondary prevention program after stroke is difficult due to motor and cognitive impairment, but necessary to prevent recurrence and improve patients' quality of life. To involve a referent nurse and a caregiver from the patient's social circle in nurse-led multimodal and long-term management of risk factors after stroke could be an advantage due to their easier access to the patient and family. The aim of this study is to compare the benefit of optimized follow up by nursing personnel from the vascular neurology department including therapeutic follow up, and an interventional program directed to the patient and a caregiving member of their social circle, as compared with typical follow up in order to develop a specific follow-up program of secondary prevention of stroke. The design is a randomized, controlled, clinical trial conducted in the French Stroke Unit of the Strokavenir network. In total, 410 patients will be recruited and randomized in optimized follow up or usual follow up for 2 years. In both group, patients will be seen by a neurologist at 6, 12 and 24 months. The optimized follow up will include follow up by a nurse from the vascular neurology department, including therapeutic follow up, and a training program on secondary prevention directed to the patient and a caregiving member of their social circle. After discharge, a monthly telephone interview, in the first year and every 3 months in the second year, will be performed by the nurse. At 6, 12 and 24 month, the nurse will give the patient and caregiver another training session. Usual follow up is only done by the patient's general practitioner, after classical information on secondary prevention of risk factors during hospitalization. The primary outcome measure is blood pressure measured after the first year of follow up. Blood pressure will be measured by nursing personnel who do not know the group into which the patient has been randomized. Secondary endpoints are

  2. Guidelines for the preventive treatment of ischaemic stroke and TIA (I). Update on risk factors and life style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, B; Gállego, J; Gil-Nuñez, A; Morales, A; Purroy, F; Roquer, J; Segura, T; Tejada, J; Lago, A; Díez-Tejedor, E; Alonso de Leciñana, M; Alvarez-Sabin, J; Arenillas, J; Calleja, S; Casado, I; Castellanos, M; Castillo, J; Dávalos, A; Díaz-Otero, F; Egido, J A; López-Fernández, J C; Freijo, M; García Pastor, A; Gilo, F; Irimia, P; Maestre, J; Masjuan, J; Martí-Fábregas, J; Martínez-Sánchez, P; Martínez-Vila, E; Molina, C; Nombela, F; Ribó, M; Rodríguez-Yañez, M; Rubio, F; Serena, J; Simal, P; Vivancos, J

    2012-01-01

    To update the ad hoc Committee of the Cerebrovascular Diseases Study Group of The Spanish Neurological Society guidelines on prevention of ischaemic stroke (IS) and transient ischaemic attack (TIA). We reviewed available evidence on risk factors and means of modifying them to prevent ischaemic stroke and TIA. Levels of evidence and recommendation grades are based on the classification of the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. This first section summarises the recommendations for action on the following factors: blood pressure, diabetes, lipids, tobacco and alcohol consumption, diet and physical activity, cardio-embolic diseases, asymptomatic carotid stenosis, hormone replacement therapy and contraceptives, hyperhomocysteinemia, prothrombotic states and sleep apnea syndrome. Changes in lifestyle and pharmacological treatment for hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, according to criteria of primary and secondary prevention, are recommended for preventing ischemic stroke. © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as independent as possible. It may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and swallowing therapy. Your doctor will ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational ... Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and Toddlers Kids ...

  4. Dysphagia in Acute Stroke: Incidence, Burden and Impact on Clinical Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeg-Morvay, Anne; Meisterernst, Julia; Schlager, Markus; Mono, Marie-Luise; El-Koussy, Marwan; Kägi, Georg; Jung, Simon; Sarikaya, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Background Reported frequency of post-stroke dysphagia in the literature is highly variable. In view of progress in stroke management, we aimed to assess the current burden of dysphagia in acute ischemic stroke. Methods We studied 570 consecutive patients treated in a tertiary stroke center. Dysphagia was evaluated by using the Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS). We investigated the relationship of dysphagia with pneumonia, length of hospital stay and discharge destination and compared rates of favourable clinical outcome and mortality at 3 months between dysphagic patients and those without dysphagia. Results Dysphagia was diagnosed in 118 of 570 (20.7%) patients and persisted in 60 (50.9%) at hospital discharge. Thirty-six (30.5%) patients needed nasogastric tube because of severe dysphagia. Stroke severity rather than infarct location was associated with dysphagia. Dysphagic patients suffered more frequently from pneumonia (23.1% vs. 1.1%, pdysphagia. At 3 months, dysphagic patients less often had a favourable outcome (35.7% vs. 69.7%; pdysphagia to be an independent predictor of discharge destination and institutionalization at 3 months, while severe dysphagia requiring tube placement was strongly associated with mortality. Conclusion Dysphagia still affects a substantial portion of stroke patients and may have a large impact on clinical outcome, mortality and institutionalization. PMID:26863627

  5. Variations in Kinematics during Clinical Gait Analysis in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Bonnyaud, Céline; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    In addition to changes in spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters, patients with stroke exhibit fear of falling as well as fatigability during gait. These changes could compromise interpretation of data from gait analysis. The aim of this study was to determine if the gait of hemiplegic patients changes significantly over successive gait trials. Forty two stroke patients and twenty healthy subjects performed 9 gait trials during a gait analysis session. The mean and variability of spatio-temporal and kinematic joint parameters were analyzed during 3 groups of consecutive gait trials (1–3, 4–6 and 7–9). Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of variables from the joint kinematic waveforms and to identify the parts of the gait cycle which changed during the gait analysis session. The results showed that i) spontaneous gait velocity and the other spatio-temporal parameters significantly increased, and ii) gait variability decreased, over the last 6 gait trials compared to the first 3, for hemiplegic patients but not healthy subjects. Principal component analysis revealed changes in the sagittal waveforms of the hip, knee and ankle for hemiplegic patients after the first 3 gait trials. These results suggest that at the beginning of the gait analysis session, stroke patients exhibited phase of adaptation,characterized by a “cautious gait” but no fatigue was observed. PMID:23799100

  6. Secondary prevention after minor stroke and TIA - usual care and development of a support program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Leistner

    Full Text Available Effective methods of secondary prevention after stroke or TIA are available but adherence to recommended evidence-based treatments is often poor. The study aimed to determine the quality of secondary prevention in usual care and to develop a stepwise modeled support program.Two consecutive cohorts of patients with acute minor stroke or TIA undergoing usual outpatient care versus a secondary prevention program were compared. Risk factor control and medication adherence were assessed in 6-month follow-ups (6M-FU. Usual care consisted of detailed information concerning vascular risk factor targets given at discharge and regular outpatient care by primary care physicians. The stepwise modeled support program additionally employed up to four outpatient appointments. A combination of educational and behavioral strategies was employed.168 patients in the observational cohort who stated their openness to participate in a prevention program (mean age 64.7 y, admission blood pressure (BP: 155/84 mmHg and 173 patients participating in the support program (mean age 67.6 y, BP: 161/84 mmHg were assessed at 6 months. Proportions of patients with BP according to guidelines were 50% in usual-care and 77% in the support program (p<0.01. LDL<100 mg/dl was measured in 62 versus 71% (p = 0.12. Proportions of patients who stopped smoking were 50 versus 79% (p<0.01. 72 versus 89% of patients with atrial fibrillation were on oral anticoagulation (p = 0.09.Risk factor control remains unsatisfactory in usual care. Targets of secondary prevention were met more often within the supported cohort. Effects on (cerebro-vascular recurrence rates are going to be assessed in a multicenter randomized trial.

  7. Clinical course of brain stroke in the persons exposed to ionizing radiation under the production conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchmanov, A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose was to study the risk factors and clinical course of brain strokes in professionally exposed workers being employed in plutonium production in comparison with a control group. The method and materials of study -clinical supervision and clinical database creation on 162 cases of brain stroke (128 males and 34 females) developed among professionally exposed workers. Age of patient varied from 21 to 68 years (in average -51.6 y.). The control group consisted of patients with the same diagnosis, worked on the same enterprise, but non-exposed to radiation. Data on the totally accumulated dose of external gamma radiation were received on the base of the individual dosimeters (from 0.1 cSv to 52 cSv, in average about 13 cSv); the plutonium-239 body content was estimated accordingly to the level of urine radionuclide excretion (from 0.4 kBq to 1.6 kBq, in average about 0.33 kBq). Muscle's hypertinsion and pathological great-toe reflexes in paretic legs and hands, hemianopsia, impressive and ataxic aphasia prevailed in the patients with ischemic brain strokes in system of internal carotid artery, exposed to radiation. The changes of muscle's tension, ataxia and nystagmus were marked more often in the professionals with ischemic brain strokes in system of vertebrobasilar artery. The illness proceeded more easy and with smaller frequency of frustration of consciousness and algesthesia, irrespective of a type ischemic brain strokes in the people exposed to ionizing radiation, than in patients of non-irradiated group. It was found that the arterial hypertension appeared to be the main risk factor for the brain stroke in both groups of patients (in 81.48% and 91.15% of cases). There was no marked differences in significance of risk factors and in main clinical parameters of various types of ischemic brain strokes among the patients professionally exposed to radiation in comparison with a control group. (author)

  8. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of stroke in Upper Egypt (desert area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Tallawy HN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy N El Tallawy,1 Wafaa M Farghaly,1 Reda Badry,1 Nermin A Hamdy,2 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Nabil A Metwally,3 Enas M Hassan,2 Sayed S Elsayed,2 Mohamed A Yehia,2 Wael T Soliman2 1Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Assiut University, Assiut, 2Department of Neurology, El Minia University, El-Minia City, 3Department of Neurology, Al-Azhar University (Assuit Branch, Assiut, Egypt Background: Stroke is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Four out of five strokes occur in the low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to find lifetime prevalence of stroke in Upper Egypt and to identify clinical presentations and possible risk factors of stroke in this population.Methods: This is a door-to-door (every door study conducted on all inhabitants in Al Kharga district (representative of western desert and Al Quseir city (representative of eastern desert. The study was conducted in two stages, and every stage consisted of three phases (screening, diagnostic, and investigatory.Results: The total lifetime prevalence of stroke was 8.5/1,000 in the population aged 20 years and more. It increased with advancing age and was higher among males than females among all age groups except in the childbearing period (20 years to <40 years of age. Lifetime prevalence of ischemic stroke (7.2/1,000 was higher than hemorrhagic stroke (1.1/1,000. Hemiparesis and hemiplegia were the commonest presentation of stroke. Headache, vomiting, and vertigo were found to be significantly more common accompaniments of hemorrhagic stroke. The most common risk factor was hypertension, followed by hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus.Conclusion: The total lifetime prevalence of stroke in the population aged 20 years and more in Upper Egypt (desert area lies within the range that is recorded in developing countries. Clinical presentation and risk factors are similar to those recorded from developing and developed countries. Keywords: stroke

  9. Effect of Smoking and Folate Levels on the Efficacy of Folic Acid Therapy in Prevention of Stroke in Hypertensive Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ziyi; Li, Jianping; Yu, Yaren; Li, Youbao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Lishun; Song, Yun; Zhao, Min; Wang, Yu; Tang, Genfu; He, Mingli; Xu, Xiping; Cai, Yefeng; Dong, Qiang; Yin, Delu; Huang, Xiao; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Wang, Binyan; Hou, Fan Fan; Wang, Xiaobin; Qin, Xianhui; Huo, Yong

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether the efficacy of folic acid therapy in the primary prevention of stroke is jointly affected by smoking status and baseline folate levels in a male population in a post hoc analysis of the CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial). Eligible participants of the CSPPT were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment of a combined enalapril 10-mg and folic acid 0.8-mg tablet or an enalapril 10-mg tablet alone. In total, 8384 male participants of the CSPPT were included in the current analyses. The primary outcome was first stroke. The median treatment duration was 4.5 years. In the enalapril-alone group, the first stroke risk varied by baseline folate levels and smoking status (never versus ever). Specifically, there was an inverse association between folate levels and first stroke in never smokers ( P for linear trend=0.043). However, no such association was found in ever smokers. A test for interaction between baseline folate levels and smoking status on first stroke was significant ( P =0.045). In the total sample, folic acid therapy significantly reduced the risk of first stroke in never smokers with folate deficiency (hazard risk, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.83) and in ever smokers with normal folate levels (hazard risk, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.99). Baseline folate levels and smoking status can interactively affect the risk of first stroke. Our data suggest that compared with never smokers, ever smokers may require a higher dosage of folic acid to achieve a greater beneficial effect on stroke. Our findings need to be confirmed by future randomized trials. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Rationale for ischemic conditioning to prevent stroke in patients with intracranial arterial stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Al Kasab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial atherosclerotic arterial stenosis (ICAS is one of the most common causes of stroke worldwide and is associated with particularly a high risk of recurrent stroke. Although aggressive medical management, consisting of dual antiplatelet therapy and intensive control of vascular risk factors, has improved the prognosis of patients with ICAS, subgroups of patients remain at very high risk of stroke. More effective therapies for these high-risk patients are urgently needed. One promising treatment is remote limb ischemic conditioning, which involves producing repetitive, transient ischemia of a limb by inflating a blood pressure cuff with the intention of protecting the brain from subsequent ischemia. In this study, we review the limitations of currently available treatments, discuss the potential mechanisms of action of ischemic conditioning, describe the preclinical and clinical data suggesting a possible role of ischemic conditioning in treating patients with ICAS, and outline the questions that still need to be answered in future studies of ischemic conditioning in subjects with ICAS.

  11. Stroke in systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome: risk factors, clinical manifestations, neuroimaging, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Amorim, L C D; Maia, F M; Rodrigues, C E M

    2017-04-01

    Neurologic disorders are among the most common and important clinical manifestations associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), mainly those that affect the central nervous system (CNS). Risk of cerebrovascular events in both conditions is increased, and stroke represents one of the most severe complications, with an incidence rate between 3% and 20%, especially in the first five years of diagnosis. This article updates the data regarding the risk factors, clinical manifestations, neuroimaging, and treatment of stroke in SLE and APS.

  12. Statin treatment and stroke outcome in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, L.B.; Amarenco, P.; Zivin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Scale, Barthel Index, and modified Rankin Scale score at enrollment (1 to 6 months after the index event) and 90 days poststroke in subjects having a stroke during the trial. RESULTS: Over 4.9 years, strokes occurred in 576 subjects. There were reductions in fatal, severe (modified Rankin Scale score 5...... or no event), there was only a trend toward lesser severity with treatment based on the modified Rankin Scale score (P=0.0647) with no difference based on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale or Barthel Index. CONCLUSIONS: The present exploratory analysis suggests that the outcome of recurrent...... or 4), moderate (modified Rankin Scale score 3 or 2), and mild (modified Rankin Scale score 1 or 0) outcome ischemic strokes and transient ischemic attacks and an increase in the proportion of event-free subjects randomized to atorvastatin (P

  13. Ischemic stroke risk, smoking, and the genetics of inflammation in a biracial population: the stroke prevention in young women study

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, John W; Brown, David W; Giles, Wayne H; Stine, Oscar C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Sorkin, John D; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Sparks, Mary J; Dobbins, Mark T; Shoffner, Latasha T; Zappala, Nancy K; Reinhart, Laurie J; Kittner, Steven J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for vascular disease, the genetic mechanisms that link cigarette smoking to an increased incidence of stroke are not well understood. Genetic variations within the genes of the inflammatory pathways are thought to partially mediate this risk. Here we evaluate the association of several inflammatory gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with ischemic stroke risk among young women, further stratified by curre...

  14. Comprehensive Cardiac Rehabilitation for Secondary Prevention After Transient Ischemic Attack or Mild Stroke: PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE AND OUTCOMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Peter L; Hachinski, Vladimir; Chan, Richard; Unsworth, Karen; Mytka, Sharon; Harnadek, Michael; OʼCallaghan, Christina; Suskin, Neville

    2017-11-01

    Having previously reported that comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CCR) is effective for secondary prevention post-transient ischemic attack (TIA)/mild nondisabling stroke (MNDS), we present psychometric findings for the same sample that elucidate subacute TIA/MNDS psychological outcomes and test whether CCR would be independently associated with psychological improvements. In this prospective cohort trial patients with ≥1 risk factor, recruited from a stroke prevention clinic within 12 months (mean = 11.5 weeks) post-TIA/MNDS, entered CCR. Of the 110 recruited patients, 100 (mean age = 65.4 years; 46 females) entered CCR and 80 completed CCR (mean duration = 7.6 months). At CCR entry, 16.5% and 39.2% screened positively for depression and anxiety, decreasing nonsignificantly at exit to 4.2%, and significantly to 16.9% (P = .008), respectively. Age-corrected deficits occurred more frequently than expected (P ≤ .03); at entry, mental health status (13.3%), clock-drawing (31.6%), oral-verbal fluency (16.9%), word-list learning (11.2%), and recall (12.6%); at exit, clock-drawing (30.0%). Entry-to-exit, mean depression, anxiety, mental and physical health status, word-list learning, memory, digit-symbol coding, and oral-verbal fluency scores improved significantly (P ≤ .031). No reliable change indices were significant. Psychological service recipients improved significantly more than nonrecipients in depression (P = .049). Baseline North American Adult Reading Test score predicted exercise attendance (R = 0.275; P = .044); New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and depression score predicted exit physical health status (R = 0.770, P psychological improvements. CCR psychological treatment may benefit depression. Subacute NYHA class and depression may later affect quality of life.

  15. Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Outcomes Associated With Neonatal Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lauran; Dewey, Deborah; Letourneau, Nicole; Kaplan, Bonnie J; Chaput, Kathleen; Gallagher, Clare; Hodge, Jacquie; Floer, Amalia; Kirton, Adam

    2017-03-01

    primary cause was evident in 19 of the 51 cases of non-hemorrhagic transformation NHS (37%). Idiopathic NHS was independently associated with lower maternal age (odds ratio [OR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78-0.94), primiparity (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.18-7.50), prior spontaneous abortion (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02-0.53), difficult fetal transition (bradycardia [OR, 15.0; 95% CI, 2.19-101.9] and low Apgar [OR, 14.3; 95% CI, 2.77-73.5]), and small for gestational age (OR, 14.3; 95% CI, 1.62-126.1). Follow-up of 50 cases at a median of 37 months demonstrated poor neurological outcomes in 21 patients (44%). Neonatal hemorrhagic stroke is more common than previously reported, occurring in at least 1 in 6300 live births. Etiologies are approximately equally distributed between idiopathic, secondary, and hemorrhagic transformation. Clinical associations do not suggest a common mechanism or predictability of NHS. Recurrence is rare. Outcomes are often poor, mandating attention to prevention and rehabilitation.

  16. Overcoming practical challenges to conducting clinical research in the inpatient stroke rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Grace B; Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Whyte, Ellen M; Matthews, Judith T

    2015-10-01

    There is a shortage of published empirical studies conducted in acute inpatient stroke rehabilitation, though such studies are greatly needed in order to shed light on the most efficacious inpatient stroke rehabilitation interventions. The inherent challenges of inpatient research may dissuade researchers from undertaking this important work. This paper describes our institution's experience devising practical solutions to research barriers in this setting. Through concentrated efforts to overcome research barriers, such as by cultivating collaborative relationships and capitalizing on unanticipated benefits, we successfully facilitated conduct of five simultaneous inpatient stroke studies. Tangible benefits realized include increased effectiveness of research participant identification and enrollment, novel collaborative projects, innovative clinical care initiatives, and enhanced emotional and practical support for patients and their families. We provide recommendations based on lessons learned during our experience, and discuss benefits of this collaboration for our research participants, clinical staff, and the research team.

  17. Tai Chi Chuan for the Primary Prevention of Stroke in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stroke is a major healthcare problem with serious long-term disability and is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Prevention of stroke is considered an important strategy. Methods. Seven electronic databases were searched. Results. 36 eligible studies with a total of 2393 participants were identified. Primary outcome measures, TCC exercise combined with other intervention had a significant effect on decreasing the incidence of nonfatal stroke (n=185, RR = 0.11, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.85, P=0.03 and CCD (n=125, RR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.96, P=0.04. For the risk factors of stroke, pooled analysis demonstrated that TCC exercise was associated with lower body weight, BMI, FBG level, and decreasing SBP, DBP, plasma TC, and LDL-C level regardless of the intervention period less than half a year or more than one year and significantly raised HDL-C level in comparison to nonintervention. Compared with other treatments, TCC intervention on the basis of the same other treatments in patients with chronic disease also showed the beneficial effect on lowering blood pressure. Conclusion. The present systematic review indicates that TCC exercise is beneficially associated with the primary prevention of stroke in middle-aged and elderly adults by inversing the high risk factors of stroke.

  18. Using the ICF to clarify team roles and demonstrate clinical reasoning in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempest, Stephanie; McIntyre, Anne

    2006-05-30

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is advocated as a tool to structure rehabilitation and a universal language to aid communication, within the multi-disciplinary team (MDT). The ICF may also facilitate clarification of team roles and clinical reasoning for intervention. This article aims to explore both factors in stroke rehabilitation. Following a review of the literature, a summary was presented and discussed with clinicians working within stroke rehabilitation, to gather expert opinions. The discussions were informal, being part of service development and on-going education. The clinicians summarised key themes for the potential use of the ICF within clinical practice. Two key themes emerged from the literature and expert opinion for the potential use of the ICF in stroke rehabilitation: (i) to aid communication and structure service provision, (ii) to clarify team roles and aid clinical reasoning. Expert opinion was that clarification of team roles needs to occur at a local level due to the skill mix, particular interests, setting and staffing levels within individual teams. The ICF has the potential to demonstrate/facilitate clinical reasoning, especially when different MDT members are working on the same intervention. There is potential for the ICF to be used to clarify team roles and demonstrate clinical reasoning within stroke rehabilitation. Further experiential research is required to substantiate this view.

  19. The H2 robotic exoskeleton for gait rehabilitation after stroke: early findings from a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortole, Magdo; Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Zhu, Fangshi; Moreno, Juan C; Francisco, Gerard E; Pons, Jose L; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2015-06-17

    Stroke significantly affects thousands of individuals annually, leading to considerable physical impairment and functional disability. Gait is one of the most important activities of daily living affected in stroke survivors. Recent technological developments in powered robotics exoskeletons can create powerful adjunctive tools for rehabilitation and potentially accelerate functional recovery. Here, we present the development and evaluation of a novel lower limb robotic exoskeleton, namely H2 (Technaid S.L., Spain), for gait rehabilitation in stroke survivors. H2 has six actuated joints and is designed to allow intensive overground gait training. An assistive gait control algorithm was developed to create a force field along a desired trajectory, only applying torque when patients deviate from the prescribed movement pattern. The device was evaluated in 3 hemiparetic stroke patients across 4 weeks of training per individual (approximately 12 sessions). The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Houston. The main objective of this initial pre-clinical study was to evaluate the safety and usability of the exoskeleton. A Likert scale was used to measure patient's perception about the easy of use of the device. Three stroke patients completed the study. The training was well tolerated and no adverse events occurred. Early findings demonstrate that H2 appears to be safe and easy to use in the participants of this study. The overground training environment employed as a means to enhance active patient engagement proved to be challenging and exciting for patients. These results are promising and encourage future rehabilitation training with a larger cohort of patients. The developed exoskeleton enables longitudinal overground training of walking in hemiparetic patients after stroke. The system is robust and safe when applied to assist a stroke patient performing an overground walking task. Such device opens the opportunity to study means

  20. [Pathogenetic justification of statin use in ischaemic stroke prevention according to inflammatory theory in development of atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlęga, Dariusz; Ciećwież, Sylwester; Turowska-Kowalska, Jolanta; Nowacki, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    There is an inflammatory component in the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke, which plays an important role in inducing atherothrombotic and embolic stroke. Statins, HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A) reductase inhibitors are widely used in the primary and secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke. It has been proved that beyond their main effect on inhibition of endogenous cholesterol, they also modify the inflammatory process. Additional benefits from the use of statins result from their effect on the immune system. Increased risk of recurrent vascular episodes and risk of death after statin withdrawal in patients with vascular disorders is connected with termination of the anti-inflammatory effect of these drugs. The authors highlight that because of the anti-inflammatory effect of statins it is reasonable to use them in all patients at risk of ischaemic stroke, including those with atrial fibrillation.

  1. Effects of Normobaric Hyperoxia in Severe Acute Stroke: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazdeh, Mehrdokht; Taher, Abbas; Torabian, Saadat; Seifirad, Soroush

    2015-11-01

    Oxygen therapy might increase damaged tissue oxygenation, turn on the aerobic pathway, and save neurons from death and could improve clinical outcome of the patients with stroke and head trauma. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is accompanied by some unfavorable effects. Results of normobaric oxygen therapy on clinical outcomes of patients with stroke were controversial up till now.  This study was therefore designed to evaluate effects of normobaric hyperoxia on clinical outcomes of patients with severe acute stroke. A total of 52 consecutive patients with stroke who meet the inclusion criteria of the study were entered into this randomized controlled clinical trial. The patients in the case group underwent oxygen therapy with Venturi mask for first 12 hours of admission. The patients were examined for neurologic defects at the time of discharge and after six months using both Barthel and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) neurologic disability scoring systems. There was no significant sex difference between the two groups (P=0.5). There was no statistically significant difference between ischemic-hemorrhagic stroke constitutions of two groups (P=0.2). There were no significant difference in Barthel index scores of both groups at the time of discharge as well as the follow-up examination (P=0.7) According to the mRS scoring system, there was no difference between the patients of both groups at the time of admission (P= 0.8), however after treatment there was a significant difference between mRS scores of the treated group compared to the controls (P=0.04). According to the results of this study, normobaric oxygen therapy in the first 12 hours of accident could improve long time outcome of the patients with either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke.

  2. Large-Scale Phase Synchrony Reflects Clinical Status After Stroke: An EEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Teiji; Hattori, Noriaki; Uno, Yutaka; Kitajo, Keiichi; Hatakenaka, Megumi; Yagura, Hajime; Fujimoto, Hiroaki; Yoshioka, Tomomi; Nagasako, Michiko; Otomune, Hironori; Miyai, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    Stroke-induced focal brain lesions often exert remote effects via residual neural network activity. Electroencephalographic (EEG) techniques can assess neural network modifications after brain damage. Recently, EEG phase synchrony analyses have shown associations between the level of large-scale phase synchrony of brain activity and clinical symptoms; however, few reports have assessed such associations in stroke patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of hemispheric phase synchrony in stroke patients by calculating its correlation with clinical status. This cross-sectional study included 19 patients with post-acute ischemic stroke admitted for inpatient rehabilitation. Interhemispheric phase synchrony indices (IH-PSIs) were computed in 2 frequency bands (alpha [α], and beta [β]), and associations between indices and scores of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMA) were analyzed. For further assessments of IH-PSIs, ipsilesional intrahemispheric PSIs (IntraH-PSIs) as well as IH- and IntraH-phase lag indices (PLIs) were also evaluated. IH-PSIs correlated significantly with FIM scores and NIHSS scores. In contrast, IH-PSIs did not correlate with FMA scores. IntraH-PSIs correlate with FIM scores after removal of the outlier. The results of analysis with PLIs were consistent with IH-PSIs. The PSIs correlated with performance on the activities of daily living scale but not with scores on a pure motor impairment scale. These results suggest that large-scale phase synchrony represented by IH-PSIs provides a novel surrogate marker for clinical status after stroke.

  3. Clinical evaluation of patients with migraine induced stroke in mashhad, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandehari, Kavian; Sharifi, Atena; Nikbin, Zeynab; Fadaei, Sahar; Meybodi, Meysam Aghaei; Moshfegh, Mehdi; Hosseini, Mohammad Reza; Sarabi, Mohammad Reza Gerami; Maarufi, Parham

    2010-01-01

    Migraine Induced Stroke (MIS) is an important cause of brain infarction in the young people. Consecutive patients with MIS admitted in Ghaem hospital, Mashhad during 2006-2010 enrolled a prospective clinical study. All of the patients suspected to MIS had brain MRI with a 0.5 Tesla generation, Philips NT Intra, Netherland. All of the MIS patients underwent a standard battery of diagnostic investigations for detecting etiology of stroke. Disability of MIS patients was detected based on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days post stroke. 32 MIS patients (18 females, 14 males) with mean age 37.2 ± 3.8 years ranged 15-58 years were evaluated. Hypodense area of infarction corresponding to clinical manifestations was detected in MRI in 32% of our MIS patients. The mean disability score in our MIS patients was 1.09 ± 0.32, which is significantly lower than other stroke patients (z = 2.55, P = 0.007) MIS is an important cause of stroke in Persian young adults which have good prognosis.

  4. Apixaban 5 and 2.5 mg twice-daily versus warfarin for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Keshishian, Allison; Hamilton, Melissa

    2018-01-01

    Prior real-world studies have shown that apixaban is associated with a reduced risk of stroke/systemic embolism (stroke/SE) and major bleeding versus warfarin. However, few studies evaluated the effectiveness and safety of apixaban according to its dosage, and most studies contained limited numbe...... population for which it is being prescribed in United States clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier: NCT03087487....

  5. Are activity limitations associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in stroke patients? A cross-sectional, clinical survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Gard, Gunvor; Klarskov, Peter

    2009-01-01

    stroke patients were invited to complete four activity limitations measurements: Barthel Index, mobility velocity, mobility distance, mobility aids and one LUTS measurement: the Danish Prostatic Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) questionnaire. Of 519 stroke patients, 482 subjects were eligible. Results......Objective. To assess self-reported activity limitations in a clinical sample of stroke patients and to identify their association with prevalence, severity and impact on daily life of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Material and methods. A cross-sectional, clinical survey was initiated whereby...... time that activity limitations are closely related to LUTS in stroke patients and that rehabilitation should also be directed towards the treatment of LUTS....

  6. Minimal Clinically Important Difference for Safe and Simple Novel Acute Ischemic Stroke Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Jessica S; Kaplan, Brett D; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2017-11-01

    Determining the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is essential for evaluating novel therapies. For acute ischemic stroke, expert surveys have yielded MCIDs that are substantially higher than the MCIDs observed in actual expert behavior in guideline writing and clinical practice, potentially because of anchoring bias. We administered a structured, internet-based survey to a cross-section of academic stroke neurologists in the United States. Survey responses assessed demographic and clinical experience, and expert judgment of the MCID of the absolute increase needed in the proportion of patients achieving functional independence at 3 months to consider a novel, safe neuroprotective agent as clinically worthwhile. To mitigate anchoring bias, the survey response framework used a base 1000 rather than base 100 patient framework. Survey responses were received from 122 of 333 academic stroke neurologists, there were 23% women, 72.8% had ≥6 years of practice experience, and neurovascular disease accounted for more than half of practice time in >70%. Responder-nonresponder and continuum of resistance tests indicated that responders were representative of the full expert population. Among respondents, the median MCID was 1.3% (interquartile range, 0.8% to >2%). Stroke expert responses to MCID surveys are affected by anchoring and centrality bias. When survey design takes these into account, the expert-derived MCID for a safe acute ischemic stroke treatment is 1.1% to 1.5%, in accord with actual physician behavior in guideline writing and clinical practice. This revised MCID value can guide clinical trial design and grant-funding and regulatory agency decisions. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a 'map of stroke'.

  8. The gap between clinical gaze and systematic assessment of movement disorders after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, H.J.M.; Meskers, C.G.M.; De Groot, J.H.; Klomp, A.; Arendzen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Movement disorders after stroke are still captured by clinical gaze and translated to ordinal scores of low resolution. There is a clear need for objective quantification, with outcome measures related to pathophysiological background. Neural and non-neural contributors to joint behavior

  9. Are clinical characteristics associated with upper-extremity hypertonia in severe ischaemic supratentorial stroke?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, A. van; Hendricks, H.T.; Pasman, J.W.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of this study was to identify clinical risk factors, in addition to muscle weakness, for upper-extremity hypertonia in patients with severe ischaemic supratentorial stroke. The secondary goal was to investigate the time course of upper-extremity hypertonia in these

  10. Review of Self-Awareness and Its Clinical Application in Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Daniel P. K.; Liu, Karen P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to explore, following a literature review, the concepts of self-awareness, its assessment, and intervention for self-awareness deficits, as well as its clinical significance in stroke rehabilitation; and (ii) to apply the concepts of self-awareness in the context of a rehabilitation program. The search was…

  11. A post hoc evaluation of a sample size re-estimation in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Leslie A; Szychowski, Jeff M; Benavente, Oscar; Hart, Robert G; Coffey, Christopher S

    2016-10-01

    The use of adaptive designs has been increasing in randomized clinical trials. Sample size re-estimation is a type of adaptation in which nuisance parameters are estimated at an interim point in the trial and the sample size re-computed based on these estimates. The Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes study was a randomized clinical trial assessing the impact of single- versus dual-antiplatelet therapy and control of systolic blood pressure to a higher (130-149 mmHg) versus lower (size re-estimation was performed during the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes study resulting in an increase from the planned sample size of 2500-3020, and we sought to determine the impact of the sample size re-estimation on the study results. We assessed the results of the primary efficacy and safety analyses with the full 3020 patients and compared them to the results that would have been observed had randomization ended with 2500 patients. The primary efficacy outcome considered was recurrent stroke, and the primary safety outcomes were major bleeds and death. We computed incidence rates for the efficacy and safety outcomes and used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the hazard ratios for each of the two treatment interventions (i.e. the antiplatelet and blood pressure interventions). In the antiplatelet intervention, the hazard ratio was not materially modified by increasing the sample size, nor did the conclusions regarding the efficacy of mono versus dual-therapy change: there was no difference in the effect of dual- versus monotherapy on the risk of recurrent stroke hazard ratios (n = 3020 HR (95% confidence interval): 0.92 (0.72, 1.2), p = 0.48; n = 2500 HR (95% confidence interval): 1.0 (0.78, 1.3), p = 0.85). With respect to the blood pressure intervention, increasing the sample size resulted in less certainty in the results, as the hazard ratio for higher versus lower systolic blood pressure target approached, but did not

  12. Stroke prevention in hospitalized patients with atrial fibrillation: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Seema; Anderson, David; Putnam, Wayne; Flowerdew, Gordon; Gardner, Martin; Cox, Jafna

    2003-01-01

    Oral anticoagulants reduce the incidence of stroke by 68%, yet suboptimal use has been documented in surveys of patients with atrial fibrillation. The present study examined current patterns of anticoagulant use for patients hospitalized with atrial fibrillation across an entire health care system. Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS) is a prospective cohort study involving all patients hospitalized in Nova Scotia with atrial fibrillation, among other conditions. Consecutive inpatients with atrial fibrillation from October 15, 1997 to October 14, 1998 were studied. Detailed demographic and clinical data were collected and the proportion of patients using antithrombotic therapy was tabulated by risk category. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship of various demographic and clinical factors with the use of antithrombotic agents. There were 2202 patients hospitalized with atrial fibrillation; 644 admitted specifically for this condition. Only 21% of patients admitted with atrial fibrillation were on warfarin sodium at admission and this increased by time of discharge. Diabetes was negatively correlated with warfarin sodium use. Histories of prosthetic valve replacement, stroke/transient ischemic attack, and heart failure were positively associated with anticoagulant use on admission. Patients with prosthetic valve replacement, heart failure, or hyperlipidemia were most likely to receive anticoagulants at discharge. Antithrombotic agents remain underused by patients with atrial fibrillation. While higher risk patients are generally targeted, this is not invariably the case; thus, diabetics remain under treated. Further work is needed to explain such anomalous practice and promote optimal antithrombotic therapy use.

  13. EuroHYP-1: European multicenter, randomized, phase III clinical trial of therapeutic hypothermia plus best medical treatment vs. best medical treatment alone for acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Worp, H Bart; Macleod, Malcolm R; Bath, Philip M W; Demotes, Jacques; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Gebhardt, Bernd; Gluud, Christian; Kollmar, Rainer; Krieger, Derk W; Lees, Kennedy R; Molina, Carlos; Montaner, Joan; Roine, Risto O; Petersson, Jesper; Staykov, Dimitre; Szabo, Istvan; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Schwab, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    Cooling reduced infarct size and improved neurological outcomes in animal studies modeling ischemic stroke, and also improved outcome in randomized clinical trials in patients with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury after cardiac arrest. Cooling awake patients with ischemic stroke has been shown feasible in phase II clinical trials. To determine whether systemic cooling to a target body temperature between 34·0 and 35·0°C, started within six-hours of symptom onset and maintained for 24 h, improves functional outcome at three-months in patients with acute ischemic stroke. International, multicenter, phase III, randomized, open-label clinical trial with blinded outcome assessment in 1500 patients aged 18 years or older with acute ischemic stroke and a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 6 up to and including 18. In patients randomized to hypothermia, cooling to a target body temperature of 34-35°C will be started within six-hours after symptom onset with rapid intravenous infusion of refrigerated normal saline or a surface cooling technique and maintained for 24 h with a surface or endovascular technique. Patients randomized to hypothermia will receive pethidine and buspirone to prevent shivering and discomfort. Score on the modified Rankin Scale at 91 days, as analyzed with ordinal logistic regression and expressed as a common odds ratio. With 750 patients per intervention group, this trial has 90% power to detect 7% absolute improvement at the 5% significance level. The full trial protocol is available at http://www.eurohyp1.eu. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01833312. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  14. Ischemic stroke risk, smoking, and the genetics of inflammation in a biracial population: the stroke prevention in young women study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorkin John D

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for vascular disease, the genetic mechanisms that link cigarette smoking to an increased incidence of stroke are not well understood. Genetic variations within the genes of the inflammatory pathways are thought to partially mediate this risk. Here we evaluate the association of several inflammatory gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with ischemic stroke risk among young women, further stratified by current cigarette smoking status. Methods A population-based case-control study of stroke among women aged 15–49 identified 224 cases of first ischemic stroke (47.3% African-American and 211 age-comparable control subjects (43.1% African-American. Several inflammatory candidate gene SNPs chosen through literature review were genotyped in the study population and assessed for association with stroke and interaction with smoking status. Results Of the 8 SNPs (across 6 genes analyzed, only IL6 SNP rs2069832 (allele C, African-American frequency = 92%, Caucasian frequency = 55% was found to be significantly associated with stroke using an additive model, and this was only among African-Americans (age-adjusted: OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0–5.0, p = 0.049; risk factor adjusted: OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.0–6.5, p = 0.05. When stratified by smoking status, two SNPs demonstrated statistically significant gene-environment interactions. First, the T allele (frequency = 5% of IL6 SNP rs2069830 was found to be protective among non-smokers (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.11–.082, p = 0.02, but not among smokers (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 0.48–5.58, p = 0.43; genotype by smoking interaction (p = 0.036. Second, the C allele (frequency = 39% of CD14 SNP rs2569190 was found to increase risk among smokers (OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.09–3.86, p = 0.03, but not among non-smokers (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.62–1.39, p = 0.72; genotype by smoking interaction (p = 0.039. Conclusion This study demonstrates

  15. Design of Randomized, double-blind, Evaluation in secondary Stroke Prevention comparing the EfficaCy and safety of the oral Thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate vs. acetylsalicylic acid in patients with Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (RE-SPECT ESUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Easton, J Donald; Granger, Christopher B; Cronin, Lisa; Duffy, Christine; Cotton, Daniel; Brueckmann, Martina; Sacco, Ralph L

    2015-12-01

    Cryptogenic ischemic strokes constitute 20-30% of ischemic strokes, the majority of which are embolic strokes of undetermined source. The standard preventive treatment in these patients is usually acetylsalicylic acid. The Randomized, double-blind, Evaluation in secondary Stroke Prevention comparing the EfficaCy and safety of the oral Thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate vs. acetylsalicylic acid in patients with Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (RE-SPECT ESUS) is designed to determine whether the oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran, taken within three-months after embolic stroke of undetermined source, is superior to acetylsalicylic acid for prevention of recurrent stroke and to characterize the safety of dabigatran in this setting. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial in approximately 6000 patients and 550 centers with embolic stroke of undetermined source. Subjects are randomized to dabigatran or acetylsalicylic acid and treated for an expected minimum of six-months and up to approximately three-years. It is an event-driven trial aiming for 353 adjudicated primary outcome events. The primary efficacy outcome is time to first recurrent stroke (ischemic, hemorrhagic, or unspecified). Key secondary outcomes are time to first ischemic stroke and time to first occurrence in the composite outcome of nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death. The primary safety outcome is major hemorrhage, including symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. Acetylsalicylic acid is the most common antithrombotic given to patients with embolic strokes of undetermined source to reduce recurrence risk. This trial will determine whether anticoagulation with dabigatran is more effective than acetylsalicylic acid, and acceptably safe. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  16. Clinical and imaging features associated with intracranial internal carotid artery calcifications in patients with ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Arda [Mersin University, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin (Turkey); Akpinar, Erhan [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Topcuoglu, Mehmet Akif; Arsava, Ethem Murat [Hacettepe University, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-05-01

    Intracranial internal carotid artery calcifications (ICAC), a frequent finding on imaging studies, are predictive of future stroke risk in population-based studies. The clinical significance of this observation among ischemic stroke patients is however less clear. In this study, we analyzed ICAC burden in relation to vascular risk factor profile, stroke etiology, and extent of craniocervical vascular calcifications in a consecutive series of ischemic stroke patients. The burden of ICAC was determined both on non-contrast CT and CT-angiography source images by semiquantitative scoring algorithms. The distribution of vascular risk factors, etiologic stroke subtype, and calcification burden in other craniocervical arteries was assessed among patients with no ICAC, mild-moderate ICAC, and severe ICAC. Of 319 patients included into the study, 28 % had no ICAC, 35 % had mild-moderate ICAC, and 37 % had severe ICAC on CT angiography. Independent factors associated with ICAC burden in multivariate analysis included age (p < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.006), and coronary artery disease (p < 0.001). Furthermore, a stroke etiology of large artery atherosclerosis or cardioaortic embolism was significantly related to higher ICAC burden (p = 0.006). Patients with severe ICAC were more likely to harbor calcifications in other vascular beds (p < 0.001). All of these findings persisted when analyses were repeated with CT-based ICAC burden assessments. ICAC burden reflects a continuum of atherosclerotic disease involving carotid arteries together with other craniocervical vascular beds. ICAC is significantly associated with stroke of large vessel or cardioembolic origin. This information might help the clinician in prioritizing etiologic work-up in the acute period. (orig.)

  17. Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Strokes Based on Variant Vascular Anatomy of the Posterior Circulation: Clinical Deficits and Imaging Territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Melissa M; Chen, Stephen R; Diaz-Marchan, Pedro; Schomer, Donald; Kumar, Vinodh A

    2018-04-01

    We report imaging findings of 3 patients with anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) infarcts who presented with atypical clinical findings of cerebellar strokes. AICA strokes are rare, and diagnosis can be difficult because of the high variability of the posterior circulation vascular anatomy. We describe the embryology and variant anatomy of AICA so that clinicians can understand and recognize the patterns of these infarcts. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. What is Clinical Efficacy of Transesophageal Echocardiography in Patients With Cryptogenic Stroke?: A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Michael E; Van Woerkom, Ryan C; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Wingerchuk, Dean M; O'Carroll, Cumara B

    2018-01-01

    Adults with cryptogenic stroke often undergo transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) because this is the gold-standard for evaluation of potential proximal sources of emboli. The risks of performing this invasive test must be weighed against its clinical efficacy and limitations, determined by the rate of positive findings, and the impact on clinical outcome for the patient. To critically appraise current evidence regarding the rate of positive TEE findings in cryptogenic stroke patients, and analyze the implications of these findings on management decisions and outcomes. The objective was addressed through the development of a structured, critically appraised topic. We incorporated a clinical scenario, background information, a structured question, literature search strategy, critical appraisal, results, evidence summary, commentary, and bottom line conclusions. Participants included consultant and resident neurologists, a medical librarian, and vascular neurology and cardiology content experts. TEE commonly identifies abnormalities, including aorta atherosclerosis in 51%, patent foramen ovale in 43%, and atrial septal aneurysm in 13% of patients. Findings such as left-sided chamber thrombus or intracardiac tumor that definitively warrant a change in management by guideline-supported use of anticoagulation are less common, occurring in ∼3% of patients. TEE identifies potential causal sources of embolus in patients with cryptogenic stroke that leads to changes in management and outcomes at least 3% of the time. Other findings, particularly aorta atherosclerosis, are identified much more commonly but the causal link to stroke is uncertain, thus changes in management in these cases is variable and data describing resulting outcomes are lacking.

  19. Clinical Approach to the Standardization of Oriental Medical Diagnostic Pattern Identification in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jung Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, many stroke patients receive oriental medical care, in which pattern-identification plays a major role. Pattern-identification is Oriental Medicine's unique diagnostic system. This study attempted to standardize oriental medical pattern-identification for stroke patients. This was a community-based multicenter study that enrolled stroke patients within 30 days after their ictus. We assessed the patients' general characteristics and symptoms related to pattern-identification. Each patient's pattern was determined when two doctors had the same opinion. To determine which variables affect the pattern-identification, binary logistic regression analysis was used with the backward method. A total of 806 stroke patients were enrolled. Among 480 patients who were identified as having a certain pattern, 100 patients exhibited the Fire Heat Pattern, 210 patients the Phlegm Dampness Pattern, nine patients the Blood Stasis Pattern, 110 patients the Qi Deficiency Pattern, and 51 patients the Yin Deficiency Pattern. After the regression analysis, the predictive logistic equations for the Fire Heat, Phlegm Dampness, Qi Deficiency, and Yin Deficiency patterns were determined. The Blood Stasis Pattern was omitted because the sample size was too small. Predictive logistic equations were suggested for four of the patterns. These criteria would be useful in determining each stroke patient's pattern in clinics. However, further studies with large samples are necessary to validate and confirm these criteria.

  20. The feasibility and validity of the comprehensive ICF core set for stroke in Chinese clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Li, Huagang; Guo, Yi; Xie, Yuxiao; Ge, Ruidong; Qiu, Zhuoying

    2014-02-01

    To inspect the feasibility and content validity of the comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) core set for stroke by describing relevant aspects of functioning, disability and environmental factors affected in Chinese patients post stroke. Multicentre, cross-sectional study. Department of rehabilitation medicine. The content validity was evaluated using frequency and percentage of 208 patients with a mean age of 60 years post stroke in China. Aspects of body function and structure, activity and participation, and environmental factors in the comprehensive ICF core set for stroke. Six ICF categories of body function were identified as a problem in over 90% (n = 187) of the patients (functions of the cardiovascular system and neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions). Impairments of brain, upper and lower extremity were identified as a problem in over 50% (n = 104) of the patients. Four ICF categories of activities and participation were documented as a problem in 100% (n = 208) of the patients (domestic and civic life). In environmental factors, nine ICF categories were documented as barriers by more than 10% (n = 20) and fewer than 50% (n = 104) of the patients (products and technology, physical geography, societal attitudes, services, systems and polices). Six ICF categories were identified as facilitators in over 90% (n = 187) of the patients (support and relationships and attitudes). The findings suggest that it is feasible to apply the comprehensive ICF core set for stroke in the Chinese clinical setting, after the appropriate reduction of some categories according to Chinese patients' characteristics and culture.

  1. Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke About 1.5 million heart attacks and strokes ... the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Cholesterol Salt Video: Know Your ...

  2. Characterizing stroke lesions using digital templates and lesion quantification tools in a web-based imaging informatics system for a large-scale stroke rehabilitation clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ximing; Edwardson, Matthew; Dromerick, Alexander; Winstein, Carolee; Wang, Jing; Liu, Brent

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we presented an Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE) imaging informatics system that supports a large-scale phase III stroke rehabilitation trial. The ePR system is capable of displaying anonymized patient imaging studies and reports, and the system is accessible to multiple clinical trial sites and users across the United States via the web. However, the prior multicenter stroke rehabilitation trials lack any significant neuroimaging analysis infrastructure. In stroke related clinical trials, identification of the stroke lesion characteristics can be meaningful as recent research shows that lesion characteristics are related to stroke scale and functional recovery after stroke. To facilitate the stroke clinical trials, we hope to gain insight into specific lesion characteristics, such as vascular territory, for patients enrolled into large stroke rehabilitation trials. To enhance the system's capability for data analysis and data reporting, we have integrated new features with the system: a digital brain template display, a lesion quantification tool and a digital case report form. The digital brain templates are compiled from published vascular territory templates at each of 5 angles of incidence. These templates were updated to include territories in the brainstem using a vascular territory atlas and the Medical Image Processing, Analysis and Visualization (MIPAV) tool. The digital templates are displayed for side-by-side comparisons and transparent template overlay onto patients' images in the image viewer. The lesion quantification tool quantifies planimetric lesion area from user-defined contour. The digital case report form stores user input into a database, then displays contents in the interface to allow for reviewing, editing, and new inputs. In sum, the newly integrated system features provide the user with readily-accessible web-based tools to identify the vascular territory involved, estimate lesion area

  3. Ultrasonographic and clinical study of post-stroke painful hemiplegic shoulder

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Rania E.; Amin, Mohamed A.; Aboelsafa, Ashraf A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the work: To describe the structural abnormalities of the painful hemiplegic shoulder (PHS) by ultrasound (U/S) and their relationship with some clinical variables. Materials and methods: Eighty consecutive patients with post-stroke PHS were subjected to both clinical assessment and ultrasonographic examination of both shoulders. Ultrasonographic imaging data were classified into five grades. Results: The biceps tendon sheath effusion (51.25%) and the SA–SD bursitis (43.75%) were...

  4. Baseline prescription and one-year persistence of secondary prevention drugs after an index stroke in Central Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Stephen Sarfo

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Persistence of secondary preventive medications among stroke survivors in this resource-limited setting is excellent and comparable to those in resource-replete countries. There is however the need to investigate the causes of high attrition rates from care.

  5. Population-based effectiveness and safety of different antiplatelet regimens as secondary prevention for ischemic stroke/Transient ischemic attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorsyahdy, Alfi; De Boer, Anthonius; Deneer, Vera H.M.; Ten Berg, Jurrien M.; Souverein, Patrick C.; Klungel, Olaf H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different antiplatelet regimens are used for secondary prevention after ischemic stroke (IS)/transient ischemic attack (TIA), but studies on the relative effectiveness and safety of each regimen in daily practice are lacking. Objectives: To assess the relative effectiveness and safety of

  6. [THE CLINICAL LABORATORY MARKERS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN PATIENTS WITH ATHEROTHROMBOTIC STROKE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyeva, L N; Shmonin, A A; Emanuel, Yu V; Stolyarov, M S; Bondareva, E A; Mazing A V; Lazareva, N M; Kholopova, I V; Blinova, T V; Kharitonova, T V; Lapin, S V; Emanuel, V L; Melnikova, E V

    2015-10-01

    The laboratory biomarkers can effect on choice of tactics of treatment in patients with atherosclerotic stenosis ofcarotids and high risk of stroke. However, nowadays there is no established laboratory criteria of significant atherosclerotic affection of internal carotid. The purpose of study was to investigate informativeness of biomarkers of atherosclerosis in clinical molecuIar panel of expertise system of determining risk of stroke in patients with significant stenosis of carotid. The study included patients with 50-90% atherosclerotic stenosis of internal carotid in acute period of atherothrombotic stroke or transitory ischemic attack (group 1), patients with stable 50-90% atherosclerotic stenosis of inner carotid having no vascular events during 30 days before engaging into study (group II) and group of healthy volunteers without atherosclerosis of inner carotid. The examination of patients included anamnesis collection, evaluation of neurological status, analysis of serum level of biomarkers of atherosclerosis (lipoprotein-associatedphospholipase A2 (LP-PL A2), serum protein A associated with pregnancy (PA PP-A), lipoprotein (a) (LP(a)), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), C-reactive protein detected by highly sensitive technique (hsCRP) and lipid spectrum of blood) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, duplex ultrasound scanning of brachiocephalic arteries. The stroke risk factors of other etiology were chosen as exclusion criteria except atherothrombotic one. The Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to establish group differences. The Data Mining techniques were applied to establish patterns of analyzing sample. Out of 356 examined patients, 30 patients of group 1, 51 patients of group II and 16 healthy volunteers were included in the study. All patients were comparable by gender and age (50-80 years). The serum level of hsCRP and ADMA in the group of patients of acutest period of ischemic stroke was significantly higher than in groups of

  7. Effectiveness of surgical revascularization for stroke prevention in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease and moyamoya syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuyang; Xu, Risheng; Porras, Jose L; Takemoto, Clifford M; Khalid, Syed; Garzon-Muvdi, Tomas; Caplan, Justin M; Colby, Geoffrey P; Coon, Alexander L; Tamargo, Rafael J; Huang, Judy; Ahn, Edward S

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Sickle cell disease (SCD) in combination with moyamoya syndrome (MMS) represents a rare complication of SCD, with potentially devastating neurological outcomes. The effectiveness of surgical revascularization in this patient population is currently unclear. The authors' aim was to determine the effectiveness of surgical intervention in their series of SCD-MMS patients by comparing stroke recurrence in those undergoing revascularization and those undergoing conservative transfusion therapy. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective chart review of patients with MMS who were seen at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institution between 1990 and 2013. Pediatric patients (age < 18 years) with confirmed diagnoses of SCD and MMS were included. Intracranial stroke occurrence during the follow-up period was compared between surgically and conservatively managed patients. RESULTS A total of 15 pediatric SCD-MMS patients (28 affected hemispheres) were included in this study, and all were African American. Seven patients (12 hemispheres) were treated with indirect surgical revascularization. The average age at MMS diagnosis was 9.0 ± 4.0 years, and 9 patients (60.0%) were female. Fourteen patients (93.3%) had strokes before diagnosis of MMS, with an average age at first stroke of 6.6 ± 3.9 years. During an average follow-up period of 11.6 years, 4 patients in the conservative treatment group experienced strokes in 5 hemispheres, whereas no patient undergoing the revascularization procedure had any strokes at follow-up (p = 0.029). Three patients experienced immediate postoperative transient ischemic attacks, but all recovered without subsequent strokes. CONCLUSIONS Indirect revascularization is suggested as a safe and effective alternative to the best medical therapy alone in patients with SCD-MMS. High-risk patients managed on a regimen of chronic transfusion should be considered for indirect revascularization to maximize the effect of stroke prevention.

  8. Access to Rehabilitation at Six Months Post Stroke: A Profile from the Action on Secondary Prevention Interventions and Rehabilitation in Stroke (ASPIRE-S) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Patricia; Williams, David; Hickey, Anne; Brewer, Linda; Mellon, Lisa; Dolan, Eamon; Kelly, Peter J; Shelley, Emer; Horgan, N Frances

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death and disability. Few studies have assessed the profile and adequacy of access to rehabilitation services after ischaemic stroke both in the inpatient and community setting. The objectives of the Action on Secondary Prevention Interventions and Rehabilitation in Stroke (ASPIRE-S) study were to assess the disability and rehabilitation profile, adherence with rehabilitation recommendations and needs of patients 6 months following hospital admission for stroke. A rehabilitation prescription was completed before hospital discharge for each participant, and adherence to this prescription was assessed at 6 months to determine whether patients received their recommended rehabilitation needs. Two hundred and fifty six patients were recruited to ASPIRE-S. The average age was 69 (SD 12.8). A majority (n = 221, 86%) were referred to the hospital multidisciplinary team, 59% (n = 132) were referred to all services (physiotherapy (PT), occupational therapy (OT), speech and language therapy (SLT)). Fifty-four percent (n = 119) of patients (seen by the multidisciplinary team) were referred for further rehabilitation in the community on discharge. Of these 119 patients, 112 (95%) recalled receiving community rehabilitation services. However, while most (68%) patients were referred for several disciplines (PT, OT, SLT), the most commonly recalled therapy (55%) was from a single discipline. The most commonly recommended frequency of therapy required was on a weekly basis. Sixty-one patients (51%) reported a delay in services, with some still awaiting services at 6 months. Results from this prospective study revealed that a significant number of patients (57%) did not receive the therapy recommended on discharge. Future initiatives should include the development of policies, which support more effective, equitable multidisciplinary rehabilitation for stroke patients in the community. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Comparison of statistical and clinical predictions of functional outcome after ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas D Thompson

    Full Text Available To determine whether the predictions of functional outcome after ischemic stroke made at the bedside using a doctor's clinical experience were more or less accurate than the predictions made by clinical prediction models (CPMs.A prospective cohort study of nine hundred and thirty one ischemic stroke patients recruited consecutively at the outpatient, inpatient and emergency departments of the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh between 2002 and 2005. Doctors made informal predictions of six month functional outcome on the Oxford Handicap Scale (OHS. Patients were followed up at six months with a validated postal questionnaire. For each patient we calculated the absolute predicted risk of death or dependence (OHS≥3 using five previously described CPMs. The specificity of a doctor's informal predictions of OHS≥3 at six months was good 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94 to 0.97 and similar to CPMs (range 0.94 to 0.96; however the sensitivity of both informal clinical predictions 0.44 (95% CI: 0.39 to 0.49 and clinical prediction models (range 0.38 to 0.45 was poor. The prediction of the level of disability after stroke was similar for informal clinical predictions (ordinal c-statistic 0.74 with 95% CI 0.72 to 0.76 and CPMs (range 0.69 to 0.75. No patient or clinician characteristic affected the accuracy of informal predictions, though predictions were more accurate in outpatients.CPMs are at least as good as informal clinical predictions in discriminating between good and bad functional outcome after ischemic stroke. The place of these models in clinical practice has yet to be determined.

  10. Primary prevention of stroke by a healthy lifestyle in a high-risk group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Åkesson, Agneta; Wolk, Alicja

    2015-06-02

    To examine the impact of a healthy lifestyle on stroke risk in men at higher risk of stroke because of other cardiovascular diseases or conditions. Our study population comprised 11,450 men in the Cohort of Swedish Men who had a history of hypertension, high cholesterol levels, diabetes, heart failure, or atrial fibrillation. Participants had completed a questionnaire about diet and lifestyle and were free from stroke and ischemic heart disease at baseline (January 1, 1998). We defined a healthy lifestyle as a low-risk diet (≥5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables and 0 to ≤30 g/d). Ascertainment of stroke cases was accomplished through linkage with the National Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. During a mean follow-up of 9.8 years, we ascertained 1,062 incident stroke cases. The risk of total stroke and stroke types decreased with increasing number of healthy lifestyle factors. The multivariable relative risk of total stroke for men who achieved all 5 healthy lifestyle factors compared with men who achieved 0 or 1 factor was 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.14-0.55). The corresponding relative risks (95% confidence interval) were 0.31 (0.15-0.66) for ischemic stroke and 0.32 (0.04-2.51) for hemorrhagic stroke. A healthy lifestyle is associated with a substantially reduced risk of stroke in men at higher risk of stroke. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Association Between Onset-to-Door Time and Clinical Outcomes After Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Ryu; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Matsushita, Tomonaga; Hata, Jun; Kiyuna, Fumi; Fukuda, Kenji; Wakisaka, Yoshinobu; Kuroda, Junya; Ago, Tetsuro; Kitazono, Takanari; Kamouchi, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    The role of early hospital arrival in improving poststroke clinical outcomes in patients without reperfusion treatment remains unclear. This study aimed to determine whether early hospital arrival was associated with favorable outcomes in patients without reperfusion treatment or with minor stroke. This multicenter, hospital-based study included 6780 consecutive patients (aged, 69.9±12.2 years; 63.9% men) with ischemic stroke who were prospectively registered in Fukuoka, Japan, between July 2007 and December 2014. Onset-to-door time was categorized as T 0-1 , ≤1 hour; T 1-2 , >1 and ≤2 hours; T 2-3 , >2 and ≤3 hours; T 3-6 , >3 and ≤6 hours; T 6-12 , >6 and ≤12 hours; T 12-24 , >12 and ≤24 hours; and T 24- , >24 hours. The main outcomes were neurological improvement (decrease in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of ≥4 during hospitalization or 0 at discharge) and good functional outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale score of 0-1). Associations between onset-to-door time and main outcomes were evaluated after adjusting for potential confounders using logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) increased significantly with shorter onset-to-door times within 6 hours, for both neurological improvement ( T 0- 1 , 2.79 [2.28-3.42]; T 1-2 , 2.49 [2.02-3.07]; T 2-3 , 1.52 [1.21-1.92]; T 3-6 , 1.72 [1.44-2.05], with reference to T 24- ) and good functional outcome ( T 0-1 , 2.68 [2.05-3.49], T 1-2 2.10 [1.60-2.77], T 2-3 1.53 [1.15-2.03], T 3-6 1.31 [1.05-1.64], with reference to T 24- ), even after adjusting for potential confounding factors including reperfusion treatment and basal National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. These associations were maintained in 6216 patients without reperfusion treatment and in 4793 patients with minor stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≤4 on hospital arrival). Early hospital arrival within 6 hours after stroke onset is associated with favorable outcomes after

  12. Clinical course of brain stroke in the persons exposed to ionizing radiation under the production conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchmanov, A. [State Research Center of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The purpose was to study the risk factors and clinical course of brain strokes in professionally exposed workers being employed in plutonium production in comparison with a control group. The method and materials of study -clinical supervision and clinical database creation on 162 cases of brain stroke (128 males and 34 females) developed among professionally exposed workers. Age of patient varied from 21 to 68 years (in average -51.6 y.). The control group consisted of patients with the same diagnosis, worked on the same enterprise, but non-exposed to radiation. Data on the totally accumulated dose of external gamma radiation were received on the base of the individual dosimeters (from 0.1 cSv to 52 cSv, in average about 13 cSv); the plutonium-239 body content was estimated accordingly to the level of urine radionuclide excretion (from 0.4 kBq to 1.6 kBq, in average about 0.33 kBq). Muscle's hypertinsion and pathological great-toe reflexes in paretic legs and hands, hemianopsia, impressive and ataxic aphasia prevailed in the patients with ischemic brain strokes in system of internal carotid artery, exposed to radiation. The changes of muscle's tension, ataxia and nystagmus were marked more often in the professionals with ischemic brain strokes in system of vertebrobasilar artery. The illness proceeded more easy and with smaller frequency of frustration of consciousness and algesthesia, irrespective of a type ischemic brain strokes in the people exposed to ionizing radiation, than in patients of non-irradiated group. It was found that the arterial hypertension appeared to be the main risk factor for the brain stroke in both groups of patients (in 81.48% and 91.15% of cases). There was no marked differences in significance of risk factors and in main clinical parameters of various types of ischemic brain strokes among the patients professionally exposed to radiation in comparison with a control group. (author)

  13. Stroke awareness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Krarup, Lars-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the awareness of major stroke symptoms and stroke risk factors among the general population in Denmark. Early recognition of stroke warning signs and means of reducing stroke occurrence could improve the treatment and prevention of stroke....

  14. Clinical nursing leaders' perceptions of nutrition quality indicators in Swedish stroke wards: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persenius, Mona; Hall-Lord, Marie-Louise; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Carlsson, Eva

    2015-09-01

    To describe nursing leaders' perceptions of nutrition quality in Swedish stroke wards. A high risk of undernutrition places great demand on nutritional care in stroke wards. Evidence-based guidelines exist, but healthcare professionals have reported low interest in nutritional care. The Donabedian framework of structure, process and outcome is recommended to monitor and improve nutrition quality. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, a web-based questionnaire regarding nutritional care quality was delivered to eligible participants. Most clinical nursing leaders reported structure indicators, e.g. access to dieticians. Among process indicators, regular assessment of patients' swallowing was most frequently reported in comprehensive stroke wards compared with other stroke wards. Use of outcomes to monitor nutrition quality was not routine. Wards using standard care plans showed significantly better results. Using the structure, process and outcome framework to examine nutrition quality, quality-improvement needs became visible. To provide high-quality nutrition, all three structure, process and outcome components must be addressed. The use of care pathways, standard care plans, the Senior Alert registry, as well as systematic use of outcome measures could improve nutrition quality. To assist clinical nursing leaders in managing all aspects of quality, structure, process and outcome can be a valuable framework. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Intravascular Cooling in the Treatment of Stroke (ICTuS): early clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyden, Patrick D; Allgren, Robin L; Ng, Ken; Akins, Paul; Meyer, Brett; Al-Sanani, Fahmi; Lutsep, Helmi; Dobak, John; Matsubara, Bradley S; Zivin, Justin

    2005-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the safety and feasibility of mild therapeutic hypothermia using an endovascular temperature management system in awake acute ischemic stroke patients. The Intravascular Cooling in the Treatment of Stroke (ICTuS) study was an uncontrolled, multicenter development and feasibility study of conscious patients (n = 18) presenting within 12 hours of onset of an acute ischemic stroke at 5 clinical sites in the United States. Enrolled patients were to undergo core temperature management using an endovascular cooling system to induce and maintain mild, therapeutic hypothermia (target temperature of 33.0 degrees C) for a period of either 12 or 24 hours, followed by controlled rewarming to 36.5 degrees C over the subsequent 12-hour period. Nine patients underwent 12 hours of cooling followed by 12 hours of controlled rewarming, and 6 patients underwent 24 hours of cooling followed by 12 hours of controlled rewarming. Three patients underwent <1.5 hours of hypothermia due to clinical or technical issues. We also developed an antishivering regimen using buspirone and meperidine administered prophylactically to suppress shivering. The endovascular cooling catheter was well tolerated, with acceptable adverse event rates. Increasing the duration of hypothermia administration from 12 hours to 24 hours did not appear to increase the incidence or severity of adverse effects. Endovascular cooling with a proactive antishivering regimen can be accomplished in awake stroke patients. Further studies are needed to establish the safety and efficacy of this approach.

  16. Do clinical assessments, steady-state or daily-life gait characteristics predict falls in ambulatory chronic stroke survivors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Michiel; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Wittink, Harriet; van de Port, Ingrid G.; Van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory study investigated to what extent gait characteristics and clinical physical therapy assessments predict falls in chronic stroke survivors. Design: Prospective study. Subjects: Chronic fall-prone and non-fall-prone stroke survivors. Methods: Steady-state gait

  17. Efficacy of electrical stimulation in preventing or reducing subluxation of the shoulder after stroke: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Louise; Foongchomcheay, Anchalee

    2002-01-01

    After stroke, up to 81% of individuals develop shoulder subluxation, a condition frequently associated with poor upper limb function. Recently, electrical stimulation has been applied to shoulder muscles to treat shoulder subluxation. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of surface electrical stimulation for the prevention or reduction of shoulder subluxation after stroke. A meta-analysis of all eligible randomised or quasi-randomised trials of electrical stimulation for the treatment of shoulder subluxation identified by computerised and hand searches of the literature was carried out. The primary outcome measure of interest was subluxation. Seven (four early and three late) trials met the inclusion criteria. The mean PEDro score out of 10 for quality of the methods was 5.8 for the four early trials and 4.3 for the three late trials. Data were pooled when subluxation was measured in millimetres. Analysis found that, when added to conventional therapy, electrical stimulation prevented on average 6.5mm of shoulder subluxation (weighted mean difference, 95% CI 4.4 to 8.6) but only reduced it by 1.9mm (weighted mean difference, 95% CI -2.3 to 6.1) compared with conventional therapy alone. Therefore, evidence supports the use of electrical stimulation early after stroke for the prevention of, but not late after stroke for the reduction of, shoulder subluxation.

  18. Strategies to improve recruitment and retention of older stroke survivors to a randomized clinical exercise trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Boros, Daniella; Coull, Bruce M

    2014-03-01

    Relatively few exercise randomized clinical trials (RCTs) among stroke survivors have reported the effectiveness of recruitment and retention strategies, despite its central importance to study integrity. Our objective is to examine recruitment and retention strategies used among a group of older community-dwelling stroke survivors for an exercise RCT. Recruitment strategies were multidimensional using both paid (ie, newspaper, radio and, television) and unpaid advertisements (ie, staff visits, flyers, and brochures placed at outpatient rehabilitation centers, physician offices, and community facilities working with older adults; free media coverage of the study, presentations at stroke support groups, relatives/friends, and study Web site) to obtain referrals. Retention strategies centered on excellent communication, the study participants' needs, and having dedicated study staff. Attrition rates and adherence to the intervention were used to examine the effectiveness of these retention strategies. A total of 393 referrals were received, 233 persons were screened, and 145 stroke survivors enrolled in the study. During 3 years of study recruitment, we achieved 97% of our enrollment target. We enrolled 62% of those screened. Study enrollment from paid advertising was 21.4% (n = 31), whereas unpaid advertisements resulted in 78.6% (n = 114) of our participants. Attrition was 10% (n = 14 dropouts), and adherence to the intervention was 85%. Recruitment and retention of participants in an exercise RCT are time and labor intensive. Multiple recruitment and retention strategies are required to ensure an adequate sample of community-dwelling stroke survivors. Many of these strategies are also relevant for exercise RCTs among adults with other chronic illnesses. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical implications of eye deviation on admission CT examination of acute ischaemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payabvash, S; Qureshi, I; Qureshi, A I

    2016-12-01

    To determine the frequency and prognostic value of eye deviation detected on the admission computed tomography (CT) of acute ischaemic stroke patients. The clinical and imaging data from the Albumin in Acute Stroke (ALIAS) Trials 1 and 2 were analysed. Two reviewers evaluated all admission CT images for the presence of eye deviation, and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). The admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and 3-month modified Rankin scale (mRs) scores were ascertained. Disability or death was defined as mRS score >2, at 3-month follow-up. Of 1,223 patients included in the present series, 352 (28.8%) had rightward and 331 (27.1%) had leftward eye deviation on admission CT. Patients with eye deviation on CT had higher admission NIHSS score and larger middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarct volume (based on ASPECTS). The presence of eye deviation on CT was associated with higher rates of haemorrhagic transformation at 24 hours (19.8% versus 13.5%, p=0.004), and higher rates of disability or death at 3-month follow-up (53.1% versus 35.7%, pMediation analysis showed that radiological eye deviation relation with higher rate of disability or death is predominantly due to its association with higher admission NIHSS scores, lower ASPECTS, and to a lesser extent patients' older age. The presence of eye deviation on CT examination of acute ischaemic stroke patients is associated with larger anterior circulation stroke volumes, higher risk of 24-hour haemorrhagic transformation, and 3-month disability or death. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A cluster randomized trial to assess the impact of clinical pathways for patients with stroke: rationale and design of the Clinical Pathways for Effective and Appropriate Care Study [NCT00673491

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Antonella

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with stroke should have access to a continuum of care from organized stroke units in the acute phase, to appropriate rehabilitation and secondary prevention measures. Moreover to improve the outcomes for acute stroke patients from an organizational perspective, the use of multidisciplinary teams and the delivery of continuous stroke education both to the professionals and to the public, and the implementation of evidence-based stroke care are recommended. Clinical pathways are complex interventions that can be used for this purpose. However in stroke care the use of clinical pathways remains questionable because little prospective controlled data has demonstrated their effectiveness. The purpose of this study is to determine whether clinical pathways could improve the quality of the care provided to the patients affected by stroke in hospital and through the continuum of the care. Methods Two-arm, cluster-randomized trial with hospitals and rehabilitation long-term care facilities as randomization units. 14 units will be randomized either to arm 1 (clinical pathway or to arm 2 (no intervention, usual care. The sample will include 238 in each group, this gives a power of 80%, at 5% significance level. The primary outcome measure is 30-days mortality. The impact of the clinical pathways along the continuum of care will also be analyzed by comparing the length of hospital stay, the hospital re-admissions rates, the institutionalization rates after hospital discharge, the patients' dependency levels, and complication rates. The quality of the care provided to the patients will be assessed by monitoring the use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures during hospital stay and rehabilitation, and by the use of key quality indicators at discharge. The implementation of organized care will be also evaluated. Conclusion The management of patients affected by stroke involves the expertise of several professionals, which can

  1. Multimodal secondary prevention behavioral interventions for TIA and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Lawrence

    Full Text Available Guidelines recommend implementation of multimodal interventions to help prevent recurrent TIA/stroke. We undertook a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of behavioral secondary prevention interventions.Searches were conducted in 14 databases, including MEDLINE (1980-January 2014. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs testing multimodal interventions against usual care/modified usual care. All review processes were conducted in accordance with Cochrane guidelines.Twenty-three papers reporting 20 RCTs (6,373 participants of a range of multimodal behavioral interventions were included. Methodological quality was generally low. Meta-analyses were possible for physiological, lifestyle, psychosocial and mortality/recurrence outcomes. Note: all reported confidence intervals are 95%. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 4.21 mmHg (mean (-6.24 to -2.18, P = 0.01 I2 = 58%, 1,407 participants; diastolic blood pressure by 2.03 mmHg (mean (-3.19 to -0.87, P = 0.004, I2 = 52%, 1,407 participants. No significant changes were found for HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, high sensitivity-CR, BMI, weight or waist:hip ratio, although there was a significant reduction in waist circumference (-6.69 cm, -11.44 to -1.93, P = 0.006, I2 = 0%, 96 participants. There was no significant difference in smoking continuance, or improved fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a significant difference in compliance with antithrombotic medication (OR 1.45, 1.21 to 1.75, P<0.0001, I2 = 0%, 2,792 participants and with statins (OR 2.53, 2.15 to 2.97, P< 0.00001, I2 = 0%, 2,636 participants; however, there was no significant difference in compliance with antihypertensives. There was a significant reduction in anxiety (-1.20, -1.77 to -0.63, P<0.0001, I2 = 85%, 143 participants. Although there was no significant difference in odds of death or recurrent TIA/stroke, there was a significant reduction in the odds of cardiac events (OR 0.38, 0

  2. Searching for factors associated with resistance to acetylsalicylic acid used for secondary prevention of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łabuz-Roszak, Beata; Pierzchała, Krystyna; Niewiadomska, Ewa; Skrzypek, Michał; Machowska-Majchrzak, Agnieszka

    2015-03-16

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of resistance to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), used for secondary prevention of stroke, including the assessment of risk factors associated with the lack of ASA anti-aggregatory action. Patients after a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ischaemic stroke in the acute (n = 111) and chronic phase (n = 87) were enrolled in the study. The assessment of platelet function was performed by whole blood impedance aggregometry using a multi-channel platelet function analyser (Multiplate). A proper response to ASA was found in 121 patients (61.1%) (ASA responders), a partial response to ASA in 59 patients (29.8%) (ASA partial responders), and ASA resistance in 18 patients (9.1%) (ASA non-responders). Acetylsalicylic acid resistance was observed more frequently in the chronic phase. The mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration was higher in ASA non-responders (p = 0.02). The mean heart rate (p = 0.03) and the mean haematocrit (p = 0.03) were higher in the group of ASA partial responders and ASA non-responders. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists were more often used in the group of ASA partial responders and ASA non-responders (p = 0.04). Diuretics were more rarely used by ASA non-responders, whereas fibrates were more rarely used by ASA partial responders. The method enabled the detection of ASA resistance in some patients with cerebrovascular disease. The study revealed some possible risk factors of ASA resistance: long ASA therapy, increased heart rate, higher LDL concentration, and higher haematocrit value. The relationship between the effect of ASA and other medications (angiotensin II receptor blockers, fibrates, diuretics) requires further study. Platelet function monitoring should be considered in patients at a greater risk of ASA resistance.

  3. Is bleeding a necessary evil? The inherent risk of antithrombotic pharmacotherapy used for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myat, Aung; Ahmad, Yousif; Haldar, Shouvik; Tantry, Udaya S; Redwood, Simon R; Gurbel, Paul A; Lip, Gregory Yh

    2013-08-01

    Current European atrial fibrillation (AF) guidelines have assigned a strong recommendation for the initiation of antithrombotic therapy to prevent thromboembolism in all but those AF patients at low risk (or with contraindications). Furthermore, the selection of antithrombotic therapy is based on the absolute risks of thromboembolism and bleeding, and the relative risk and benefit for a given patient. By their very mechanism of action, antithrombotic agents used for stroke prevention in AF will potentially increase the risk of bleeding events. Moreover, the introduction of novel oral anticoagulation agents have introduced new, hitherto ill-defined, deficiencies in the authors' knowledge with respect to anticoagulation monitoring, availability of direct antidotes, drug-drug interactions and the ability to appropriately control and reverse their actions if bleeding events occur. The authors present a comprehensive review on all aspects of bleeding related to currently licensed antithrombotic agents used for stroke prevention in patients with AF.

  4. Advancing non-invasive neuromodulation clinical trials in children: Lessons from perinatal stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirton, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Applications of non-invasive brain stimulation including therapeutic neuromodulation are expanding at an alarming rate. Increasingly established scientific principles, including directional modulation of well-informed cortical targets, are advancing clinical trial development. However, high levels of disease burden coupled with zealous enthusiasm may be getting ahead of rational research and evidence. Experience is limited in the developing brain where additional issues must be considered. Properly designed and meticulously executed clinical trials are essential and required to advance and optimize the potential of non-invasive neuromodulation without risking the well-being of children and families. Perinatal stroke causes most hemiplegic cerebral palsy and, as a focal injury of defined timing in an otherwise healthy brain, is an ideal human model of developmental plasticity. Advanced models of how the motor systems of young brains develop following early stroke are affording novel windows of opportunity for neuromodulation clinical trials, possibly directing neuroplasticity toward better outcomes. Reviewing the principles of clinical trial design relevant to neuromodulation and using perinatal stroke as a model, this article reviews the current and future issues of advancing such trials in children. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants are non-inferior for stroke prevention but cause fewer major bleedings than well-managed warfarin: A retrospective register study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilhelm Sjögren

    Full Text Available For patients with atrial fibrillation, non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants, or NOACs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, edoxaban, and apixaban have been proven non-inferior or superior to warfarin in preventing stroke and systemic embolism, and in risk of haemorrhage. In the pivotal NOAC studies, quality of warfarin treatment was poor with mean time in therapeutic range (TTR 55-65%, compared with ≥70% in Swedish clinical practice.We compared NOACs (as a group to warfarin in non-valvular atrial fibrillation, studying all 12,694 patients starting NOAC treatment within the Swedish clinical register and dosing system Auricula, from July 1, 2011 to December 31, 2014, and matching them to 36,317 patients starting warfarin using propensity scoring. Endpoints were thromboembolic events and major bleedings that were fatal or required hospital care. Outcome data were collected from validated Swedish hospital administrative and clinical registers.Mean age was 72.2 vs 72.3 years, proportion of males 58.2% vs 57.0%, and mean follow-up time 299 vs 283 days for NOACs and warfarin. Distribution of NOACs was: dabigatran 40.3%, rivaroxaban 31.2%, and apixaban 28.5%. Mean TTR was 70%. There were no significant differences in rates of thromboembolic/thrombotic events or gastrointestinal bleeding. NOAC treated patients had lower rates of major bleeding overall, hazard ratio 0.78 (95% confidence interval 0.67-0.92, intracranial bleeding 0.59 (0.40-0.87, haemorrhagic stroke 0.49 (0.28-0.86, and other major bleeding 0.71 (0.57-0.89.For patients with atrial fibrillation, NOACs are as effective for stroke prevention as well-managed warfarin but cause fewer major bleedings.

  6. Psychiatric morbidity in stroke patients attending a neurology clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specific diagnoses recorded were depression (19.2%), generalised anxiety disorder (9.6%), harmful alcohol use (2.4%); dementia, somatoform disorder, phobia and delusional disorder each had a prevalence of 1.2%. Clinical and sociodemographic variables were not significantly associated with psychiatric morbidity.

  7. Impact of the New American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Definition of Stroke on the Results of the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kasab, Sami; Lynn, Michael J; Turan, Tanya N; Derdeyn, Colin P; Fiorella, David; Lane, Bethany F; Janis, L Scott; Chimowitz, Marc I

    2017-01-01

    An American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) writing committee has recently recommended that tissue evidence of cerebral infarction associated with temporary symptoms (CITS) lasting Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) trial. We compared outcomes in the medical (n = 227) and stenting (n = 224) groups in SAMMPRIS using the following primary end point (new components in bold): any stroke, CITS, or death within 30 days after enrollment or within 30 days after a revascularization procedure for the qualifying lesion during follow-up; or ischemic stroke or CITS in the territory of the qualifying artery beyond 30 days. We also compared the use of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) in both treatment groups. By considering CITS as equivalent to stroke, the number of primary end points increased from 34 to 43 in the medical group and from 52 to 66 in the stenting group of SAMMPRIS. The Kaplan-Meier curves for the primary end points in the 2 groups were significantly different (P = .009). The percentage of patients with reported TIAs who underwent brain MRI was 69% in the medical group and 61% in the stenting group (P = .40). Using the AHA/ASA definition of stroke resulted in a substantially higher primary end point rate in both treatment groups and an even higher benefit from medical therapy over stenting than originally shown in SAMMPRIS. The higher rate of CITS in the stenting group was not due to ascertainment bias. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Establishing the minimal clinically important difference of the Barthel Index in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Wang, Chun-Hou; Wu, Shwu-Chong; Chen, Pau-Chung; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2007-01-01

    The interpretation of the change scores of the Barthel Index (BI) in follow-up or outcome studies has been hampered by the fact that its minimal clinically important difference (MCID) has not been determined. This article was written to establish the MCID of the BI in stroke patients. Both anchor-based and distribution-based methods were used to establish the MCID. In the anchor-based method, 43 stroke inpatients participated in a follow-up study designed to determine the MCID of the BI using patients' global ratings of the activities of daily living function on a 15-point Likert-type scale. The mean change scores on the 20-point scale of the BI of the MCID group, based on the patients' ratings on the Likert-type scale, served as the first estimate of the MCID. In the distribution-based method, 56 chronic stroke patients participated in the test-retest reliability study to determine the MCID of the BI. One standard error of measurement (SEM) served as the second estimate for the MCID. The larger MCID value of the 2 estimates was chosen as the MCID of the BI. In the anchor-based study, there were 20 patients in the MCID group, with a mean change score of 1.85 points (ie, the first MCID estimate). In the distribution-based study, the SEM based on test-retest agreement was 1.45 points (ie, the second MCID estimate). The MCID of the BI in stroke patients was estimated to be 1.85 points. The authors' results, within the limitations of their design, suggest that if the mean BI change score within a stroke group has reached 1.85 points in a study, the change score on the BI can be perceived by patients as important and beyond measurement error (ie, such a change score is clinically important).

  9. Inspiratory and expiratory muscle training in subacute stroke: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaggi-Sartor, Monique; Guillen-Solà, Anna; Depolo, Marina; Duarte, Esther; Rodríguez, Diego A; Barrera, Maria-Camelia; Barreiro, Esther; Escalada, Ferran; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Marco, Ester

    2015-08-18

    To assess the effectiveness, feasibility, and safety of short-term inspiratory and expiratory muscle training (IEMT) in subacute stroke patients. Within 2 weeks of stroke onset, 109 patients with a first ischemic stroke event were randomly assigned to the IEMT (n = 56) or sham IEMT (n = 53) study group. The IEMT consisted of 5 sets of 10 repetitions, twice a day, 5 days per week for 3 weeks, at a training workload equivalent to 30% of maximal respiratory pressures. Patients and researchers assessing outcome variables were blinded to the assigned study group. The main outcome was respiratory muscle strength assessed by maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (PImax, PEmax). Respiratory complications at 6 months were also recorded. Both groups improved respiratory muscle strength during the study. IEMT was associated with significantly improved %PImax and %PEmax: effect size d = 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.20) and d = 0.56 (95% CI 0.11-1.02), respectively. No significant training effect was observed for peripheral muscle strength. Respiratory complications at 6 months occurred more frequently in the sham group (8 vs 2, p = 0.042), with an absolute risk reduction of 14%. The number needed to treat to prevent one lung infection event over a follow-up of 6 months was 7. No major adverse events or side effects were observed. IEMT induces significant improvement in inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength and could potentially offer an additional therapeutic tool aimed to reduce respiratory complications at 6 months in stroke patients. This study provides Class II evidence that short-term training may have the potential to improve respiratory muscle strength in patients with subacute stroke. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Therapeutic Effect of Virtual Reality on Post-Stroke Patients: Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreira da Fonseca, Erika; Ribeiro da Silva, Nildo Manoel; Pinto, Elen Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to check the therapeutic effect of virtual reality associated with conventional physiotherapy on gait balance and the occurrence of falls after a stroke. This was a randomized, blinded clinical trial conducted with post-stroke patients, randomized into two groups-treatment group and control group-and subjected to balance assessments by the Dynamic Gait Index and investigation of falls before and after 20 intervention sessions. Statistically significant difference was considered at P < .05. We selected 30 patients, but there were three segment losses, resulting in a total of 13 patients in the control group and 14 in the treatment group. There was an improvement in gait balance and reduced occurrence of falls in both groups. After intervention, the differences in gait balance in the control group (P = .047) and the reduction in the occurrence of falls in the treatment group (P = .049) were significant. However, in intergroup analysis, there was no difference in the two outcomes. Therapy with games was a useful tool for gait balance rehabilitation in post-stroke patients, with repercussions on the reduction of falls. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical predictors of fever in stroke patients: relevance of nasogastric tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscari, A; Puddu, G M; Conte, C; Falcone, R; Kolce, B; Lega, M V; Zoli, M

    2015-09-01

    Fever frequently occurs in stroke patients and worsens their prognosis. However, only few studies have assessed the determinants of fever in acute stroke, and no study has specifically addressed the possible prediction of the development of fever. This investigation included 536 patients with acute stroke and a body temperature =37.5°C starting after 24 h). Among the clinical variables available during the first 24 h from admission, those predictive of the subsequent appearance of fever were searched for. One hundred further patients had a temperature >37°C during the first 24 h. In univariate analysis, many variables were predictive of the subsequent development of fever, but in multivariate analysis, only the following four predictors remained significant (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], P value): nasogastric tube (4.0 [2.2-7.4], 37°C during the first 24 h were as follows: National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (P nasogastric tube was the strongest and most significant one. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Intravenous Injection of Clinical Grade Human MSCs After Experimental Stroke: Functional Benefit and Microvascular Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Anack; Favre, Isabelle; Rome, Claire; De Fraipont, Florence; Grillon, Emmanuelle; Coquery, Nicolas; Mathieu, Herv; Mayan, Virginie; Naegele, Bernadette; Hommel, Marc; Richard, Marie-Jeanne; Barbier, Emmanuel Luc; Remy, Chantal; Detante, Olivier

    2016-12-13

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults. Many current clinical trials use intravenous (IV) administration of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). This autologous graft requires a delay for ex vivo expansion of cells. We followed microvascular effects and mechanisms of action involved after an IV injection of human BM-MSCs (hBM-MSCs) at a subacute phase of stroke. Rats underwent a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) or a surgery without occlusion (sham) at day 0 (D0). At D8, rats received an IV injection of 3 million hBM-MSCs or PBS-glutamine. In a longitudinal behavioral follow-up, we showed delayed somatosensory and cognitive benefits 4 to 7 weeks after hBM-MSC injection. In a separate longitudinal in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, we observed an enhanced vascular density in the ischemic area 2 and 3 weeks after hBM-MSC injection. Histology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed an overexpression of angiogenic factors such as Ang1 and transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-1) at D16 in hBM-MSC-treated MCAo rats compared to PBS-treated MCAo rats. Altogether, delayed IV injection of hBM-MSCs provides functional benefits and increases cerebral angiogenesis in the stroke lesion via a release of endogenous angiogenic factors enhancing the stabilization of newborn vessels. Enhanced angiogenesis could therefore be a means of improving functional recovery after stroke.

  13. A Clinical Research Study of Cognitive Dysfunction and Affective Impairment after Isolated Brainstem Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the function of the cerebellum in neurocognition has been well-documented, the similar role of the brainstem has yet to be fully elucidated. This clinical research study aimed to combine data relating to neuropsychological assessments and P300 to explore cognitive dysfunction and affective impairment following brainstem stroke. Thirty-four patients with isolated brainstem stroke and twenty-six healthy controls were recruited; for each patient, we collated data pertaining to the P300, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III, Montreal Cognitive Assessment Chinese version (MoCA, trail-making test (TMT, Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Digit Spans (DS, Stroop test, Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS, and Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS. Significance was analyzed using an independent T-test or the Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation was analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis or Spearman's correlation analysis. Collectively, data revealed that brainstem stroke caused mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and that visuospatial, attention, linguistic, and emotional disturbances may occur after isolated brainstem stroke. Cognitive decline was linked to P300 latency, ACE-III, and MoCA; P300 latency was correlated with ACE-III. Patients with right brainstem lesions were more likely to suffer memory decline. The present study provides initial data relating to the role of the brainstem in neurocognition, and will be useful for further understanding of vascular cognitive and affective impairment.

  14. White matter structure and clinical characteristics of stroke patients: A diffusion tensor MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Ryo; Yamada, Naoki; Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Senoo, Atsushi

    2016-03-15

    Fractional anisotropy has been used in many studies that examined post-stroke changes in white matter. This study was performed to clarify cerebral white matter changes after stroke using generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA). White matter structure was visualized using diffusion tensor imaging in 72 patients with post-stroke arm paralysis. Exercise-related brain regions were examined in cerebral white matter using GFA. The relationship between GFA and clinical characteristics was examined. Overall, the mean GFA of the lesioned hemisphere was significantly lower than that of the non-lesioned hemisphere (PBrodmann area 5 of the non-lesioned hemisphere. Age correlated negatively with GFA in Brodmann areas 5 and 7 of the lesioned hemisphere. Though these results may be due to a decrease in the frequency of use of the paralyzed limb over time, GFA overall was significantly and negatively affected by the subject's age. The GFA values of patients with paralysis of the dominant hand were significantly different from those of patients with paralysis of the nondominant hand in Brodmann areas 4 and 6 of the non-lesioned hemisphere and Brodmann area 4 of the lesioned hemisphere (P<0.05). The stroke size and location were not associated with GFA differences. Differences between the GFA of the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres varied depending on the affected brain region, age at onset of paralysis, and paralysis of the dominant or non-dominant hand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intravoxel incoherent motion perfusion imaging in acute stroke: initial clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federau, C.; Becce, F.; Maeder, P.; Meuli, R.; Sumer, S.; Wintermark, M.; O'Brien, K.

    2014-01-01

    Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging is an MRI perfusion technique that uses a diffusion-weighted sequence with multiple b values and a bi-compartmental signal model to measure the so-called pseudo-diffusion of blood caused by its passage through the microvascular network. The goal of the current study was to assess the feasibility of IVIM perfusion fraction imaging in patients with acute stroke. Images were collected in 17 patients with acute stroke. Exclusion criteria were onset of symptoms to imaging >5 days, hemorrhagic transformation, infratentorial lesions, small lesions 2 . Image quality was assessed by two radiologists, and quantitative analysis was performed in regions of interest placed in the stroke area, defined by thresholding the apparent diffusion coefficient maps, as well as in the contralateral region. IVIM perfusion fraction maps showed an area of decreased perfusion fraction f in the region of decreased apparent diffusion coefficient. Quantitative analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in both IVIM perfusion fraction f (0.026 ± 0.019 vs. 0.056 ± 0.025, p = 2.2 . 10 -6 ) and diffusion coefficient D compared with the contralateral side (3.9 ± 0.79 . 10 -4 vs. 7.5 ± 0.86 . 10 -4 mm 2 /s, p = 1.3 . 10 -20 ). IVIM perfusion fraction imaging is feasible in acute stroke. IVIM perfusion fraction is significantly reduced in the visible infarct. Further studies should evaluate the potential for IVIM to predict clinical outcome and treatment response. (orig.)

  16. A STUDY ON CLINICAL AND PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriram Ganesh R. T

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stroke is one of the major health problems in many countries. There is supporting evidence suggesting that Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT enzyme has an active involvement in atherosclerosis through its oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms. With this background, we conducted a study among acute stroke patients with an aim and objective to evaluate the relationship between stroke and serum GGT levels and to assess the severity of various types of stroke in relation to the levels of serum GGT enzyme. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 50 acute stroke patients and 50 normal individuals as controls participated in the study. Stroke patients were advised for routine haematological investigations, serum GGT estimation and plain CT of brain. RESULTS Out of the 50 acute stroke patients who participated in our study, 32 patients had elevated levels of serum GGT and 3 patients had drastically elevated levels of GGT (>100 IU/L. A statistically significant relationship was found between ischaemic stroke and GGT with a p-value of 0.0418. CONCLUSION Gamma-glutamyl transferase estimation in acute stroke patients may serve as a reliable and feasible clinical test for the physician to initially stratify patient risk and provide prompt therapy.

  17. Prediction of Clinical Outcome in Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke from a Single CT Scan on Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Chiranjib; Das, Kamalesh; Ghosh, Mrinalkanti; Khandakar, M R

    2012-10-01

    From a single CT scan in primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), clinical outcome can be assessed on admission by using the CT scan parameters. The study aims to find out how hematoma volume, location of stroke, midline shift, intraventricular extension of bleed and ventricle compression influence the clinical outcome in patients with acute ICH. Non-contrast CT scan was done on admission in hospital for every patient with acute hemorrhagic stroke and was analyzed accordingly. Clinical assessments were done in National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Mean hematoma volume associated with death before 30 days is 33.16 cm(3) (P 30 cm(3) (OR = 27.857), brain stem hemorrhage (OR = 6.000), intraventricular extension of bleed from other location (OR = 7.846), presence of ventricular compression alone (OR = 2.700) and in combination with midline shift of ≥ 5 mm (OR = 2.124). From a single CT scan during hospital admission, mortality and morbidity in next 30 days can be predicted. A hematoma volume >30 cm(3), brain stem hematoma, intraventricular extension of bleed and ventricular compression along and with midline shift are associated with early mortality in ICH.

  18. Feasibility of Applying the Extended ICF Core Set for Stroke to Clinical Settings in Rehabilitation: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu Yong; Kim, Hyo Jong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential feasibility of application of the extended International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for stroke. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 40 stroke outpatients (>6 months after onset) admitted to the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine for comprehensive rehabilitation. Clinical information of the patients were respectively evaluated to link to the 166 second-level categories of the extended ICF Core Set for stroke. Results Clinical information could be linked to 111 different ICF categories, 58 categories of the body functions component, eight categories of the body structures component, 38 categories of the activities and participation component, and seven categories of the environmental factors component. Conclusion The body functions component might be feasible for application of the extended ICF Core Set for stroke to clinical settings. The activities and participation component and environmental factors component may not be directly applied to clinical settings without additional evaluation tools including interview and questionnaire. PMID:25750873

  19. Does sex affect anticoagulant use for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation? The prospective global anticoagulant registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lip, G.Y.; Rushton-Smith, S.K.; Goldhaber, S.Z.; Fitzmaurice, D.A.; Mantovani, L.G.; Goto, S.; Haas, S.; Bassand, J.P.; Camm, A.J.; Ambrosio, G.; Jansky, P.; Mahmeed, W. Al; Oh, S.; Eickels, M. van; Raatikainen, P.; Steffel, J.; Oto, A.; Kayani, G.; Accetta, G.; Kakkar, A.K.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), women are at higher risk of stroke than men. Using prospective cohort data from a large global population of patients with nonvalvular AF, we sought to identify any differences in the use of anticoagulants for stroke prevention in women and

  20. Choosing a particular oral anticoagulant and dose for stroke prevention in individual patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diener, H.C.; Aisenberg, J.; Ansell, J.; Atar, D.; Breithardt, G.; Eikelboom, J.; Ezekowitz, M.D.; Granger, C.B.; Halperin, J.L.; Hohnloser, S.H.; Hylek, E.M.; Kirchhof, P.; Lane, D.A.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Veltkamp, R.; Lip, G.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have a high risk of stroke and mortality, which can be considerably reduced by oral anticoagulants (OAC). Recently, four non-vitamin-K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were compared with warfarin in large randomized trials for the prevention of stroke and systemic

  1. Childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Psychological perspectives of clinical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Catena Quattropani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusions: There is a clear need to consider psychological aspects (emotional, cognitive and relational related to the childhood obesity’s causes and involve psychologists in its prevention projects. Keywords: childhood obesity, overweight, multidisciplinary approach, clinical psychology, prevention, treatment

  2. Childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Psychological perspectives of clinical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Catena Quattropani; Teresa Buccheri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusion...

  3. FERMENTED SOYBEAN CAKE AND ALBUMIN FORMULA AS NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT PREVENTS PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION AND AKI IN STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanny Djaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the leading cause of death in every hospital in Indonesia. The death rate of newly formed or recurrent stroke is estimated around 750.000 case every year nation wide, 200.000 of which are recurrent stroke. Stroke patients have higher risk to develop another stroke attack. In 5 years time, the recurrence of stroke attack is estimated around 30–43%. In many cases, elderly stroke patients who were admitted to the hospital with recurrent stroke attack also suffer from anorexia which leads to hypoalbuminemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and impaired renal function marked by a rise in ureum level with or without elevation in blood creatinin levels. This study uses pre and post nutrition intervention method. Hospital’s fermented soybean cake and albumin blend formula was given through nasogastric tube. The amount of calorie was adjusted according to basal needs x 1,3 and consisted of carbohydrate, protein 1 gram/kg BB (albumin : fermented soybean cake=3:1 and 25% fat. This formula was given to 11 stroke patients who had been admitted to Atma Jaya Hospital for at least 10 days and met the inclusion & exclusion criteria, such as did not receive parenteral blood and albumin transfusion without history of renal failure. All the patients’ intake and fluid balance were monitored. The average albumin level of these patients was ±3,1 mg/dL(pre intervention. After receiving nutrition (NGT and fluid (parenteral nutrition intervention, the result is as follows: There was an average of±5 mg increase in Natrium level during day 3–5 of hospital stay. There was an average of±0,3 mg increase in Kalium level during day 2–3 of hospital stay. There was an average of ±15 mg reduction of Ureum level during day 5–7 of hospital stay When there was inadequate calorie intake, protein from muscle might be broken down marked by a rise in blood ureum level with or without an increase in creatinin level. In this condition, electrolyte level, such as

  4. Stroke (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your friend. Being around friends can help with healing. Preventing Strokes Some strokes can be prevented in ... Why Does Hair Turn Gray? What Are Wrinkles? Alzheimer Disease Your Brain & Nervous System Why Exercise Is ...

  5. Goreisan Prevents Brain Edema after Cerebral Ischemic Stroke by Inhibiting Aquaporin 4 Upregulation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takafumi; Nishigami, Chisa; Irie, Keiichi; Shigemori, Yutaka; Sano, Kazunori; Yamashita, Yuta; Myose, Takayuki; Tominaga, Koji; Matsuo, Koichi; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Ishikura, Hiroyasu; Kamimura, Hidetoshi; Egawa, Takashi; Mishima, Kenichi

    2018-03-01

    Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a water-selective transport protein expressed in astrocytes throughout the central nervous system. AQP4 level increases after cerebral ischemia and results in ischemic brain edema. Brain edema markedly influences mortality and motor function by elevating intracranial pressure that leads to secondary brain damage. Therefore, AQP4 is an important target to improve brain edema after cerebral ischemia. The Japanese herbal Kampo medicine, goreisan, is known to inhibit AQP4 activity. Here, we investigated whether goreisan prevents induction of brain edema by cerebral ischemia via AQP4 using 4-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion (4h MCAO) mice. Goreisan was orally administered at a dose of 500 mg/kg twice a day for 5 days before MCAO. AQP4 expression and motor coordination were measured by Western blotting and rotarod test, respectively. Brain water content of 4h MCAO mice was significantly increased at 24 hours after MCAO. Treatment with goreisan significantly decreased both brain water content and AQP4 expression in the ischemic brain at 24 hours after MCAO. In addition, treatment with goreisan alleviated motor coordination deficits at 24 hours after MCAO. The results of this study suggested that goreisan may be a useful new therapeutic option for ischemic brain edema. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of clinical efficacy of intraarterial thrombolysis for acute cerebral ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qinghua; Zhou Shi; Song Jie; Wang Xuejian; He Yujie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of local intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) with urokinase in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: One hundred and sixty two patients with acute ischemic stroke were treated with LIT by using urokinase and relationship of recanalization for different occluded arteries with the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) scores three months later was analyzed. Results: Angiography showed occlusion of the cerebral artery in 162 patients, among which 119(73.5%) patients showed the sites in the internal carotid artery system, with 27 occlusions in the internal carotid artery (ICA) trunk, 63 (38.89%) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and 29 (17.9%) in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) , and the remaining 43 (26.5%) patients of vertebrobasilar artery (VBA); successful recanalization was achieved in 103 (63.58%) patients, including 11 (40.7%), 49 (77.8%), 20 (69.0%) and 23 (53.3%), respectively, after intraarterial infusion of urokinase. Unsuccessful recanalization occurred in 59 patients (36.42%). Followed up for 90 days, 90 (55.6%) patients obtained a good outcome; 72(44.44%) had poor prognosis including 20(12.35%) deaths. 8 patients associated with hemorrhage (4.9%) 73 with reperfusion injury (45.1%) and 5 arterial re-occlusion (3.1%). Based on statistic analysis, ICA trunk and VBA had low ratio of successful recanalization with poor clinic prognosis MCA and ACA possessed high ratio of successful recanalization and good clinic outcomes. There was a significant relationship between arterial recanalization rate and clinic prognosis (r=0.86). Conclusions: Successful recanalization of cerebral occlusive artery by using intra-arterial thrombolysis could improve clinic prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Clinical prognosis has a significant relationship with both initial treatment time and arterial recanalization rate. (authors)

  7. Multi-professional audit supports clinical governance in projecting and implementing a new stroke care area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with acute stroke have better outcomes in terms of survival or regaining independence if they receive organized inpatient care in a specific setting (Stroke Unit, SU where a coordinated multidisciplinary team can ensure the best level of care. The clinical governance of an SU requires a systematic monitoring of diagnostic, clinical and therapeutic processes through a structured audit. The entire project and set up of a new SU in Bentivoglio, Italy, were based on a model that focused on multidisciplinary teamwork and clinical governance. An audit based on the Benjamin audit cycle followed every step of the set up of the new SU. Markers from national and international guidelines and from the Italian Regional Audit, together with a specific database were used. The audit showed a high level of care and a significant improvement in the majority of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic parameters. Only a few markers (i.e. waiting times for ultrasound tomography and prescription of oral anticoagulation therapy required specific projects in order to improve the results. Our experience confirmed that a structured audit can support clinical governance of an SU by monitoring clinical processes and quality of care. Such an audit involves the whole professional team and shows the effects of any single actions. It also helps integration and co-operation among staff. Furthermore, a structured audit is a useful instrument for professional accountability for both qualitative and quantitative aspects of care.

  8. Atorvastatin reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with carotid atherosclerosis: a secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H.; Amarenco, P.; Hennerici, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial found that treatment with atorvastatin 80 mg per day reduced the risk of stroke and cardiovascular events in patients with a recent transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke. We hypothesized...... this benefit would be greatest in the subgroup of patients with carotid stenosis. METHODS: The SPARCL trial randomized patients with TIA or stroke within 1 to 6 months without known coronary heart disease (CHD) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 190 mg/dL to treatment with atorvastatin 80 mg per...

  9. Therapeutic interventions and success in risk factor control for secondary prevention of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Sabin, Jose; Quintana, Manuel; Hernandez-Presa, Miguel Angel; Alvarez, Carlos; Chaves, Jose; Ribo, Marc

    2009-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the success rates in achieving preventive therapeutic goals in patients who experienced an ischemic stroke (IS) and compare them with those achieved in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This was an observational multicenter case-control study (3 patients with IS and one control subject with CAD) performed in 1444 primary health centers in Spain. Preventive therapeutic objectives according to American Heart Association guidelines were predefined. Demographic data, vascular risk factors, and success/failure in achievement of objectives were recorded and compared between patients with IS and CAD. A total of 5458 patients were included, 4098 (75.1%) had IS and 1360 (24.9%) had CAD. Although more than 90% of patients with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia were under specific drug regimens, only about 25% achieved the recommended therapeutic objective for each risk factor. Success rate was especially low among patients with IS compared with CAD: hypertension (23.8% v 27.2%; P = .028); dyslipidemia (13.6% v 20.3%; P risk factors under control, compared with 5.6% of those with CAD (P = .006). For all patients, multivariate logistic regression model showed that independent predictors of full risk factor control were: presence of CAD as compared with IS (odds ratio [OR] 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-3.29; P = .001), older age (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.00-1.04; P = .028), and having less than 3 risk factors (OR 16.98; 95% CI 9.02-31.97; P risk factor control.

  10. A randomized clinical trial of oral hygiene care programmes during stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ruoxi; Lam, Otto L T; Lo, Edward C M; Li, Leonard S W; McGrath, Colman

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of an advanced oral hygiene care programme (AOHCP) and a conventional oral hygiene care programme (COHCP) in improving oral hygiene, and reducing gingival bleeding among patients with stroke during outpatient rehabilitation. Subjects were randomized to receive (i) the COHCP comprising a manual toothbrush, toothpaste, and oral hygiene instruction, or (ii) the AOHCP comprising a powered toothbrush, 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse, toothpaste, and oral hygiene instruction. Dental plaque, gingival bleeding, and other clinical oral health outcomes were assessed at baseline, the end of the clinical trial, and the end of observation period. Development of infectious complications was also monitored. Participants of both programmes had a significant reduction in the percentages of sites with moderate to abundant dental plaque (poral hygiene care programmes were effective in terms of plaque and gingival bleeding control, the AOHCP was more effective than the COHCP in reducing dental plaque and gingival bleeding. This study highlighted the value of oral hygiene programmes within stroke outpatient rehabilitation and provides evidence to advocate for the inclusion of oral hygiene care programmes within stroke outpatient rehabilitation for patients with normal cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety and efficacy of anticoagulation for secondary stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation patients: The AMADEUS trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lane, D.A.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Minini, P.; Buller, H.R.; Lip, G.Y.H.

    2010-01-01

    ackground: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and previous ischemic stroke are at high risk of recurrent stroke, but are also perceived to be at increased bleeding risk while treated with anticoagulants. Methods: Post-hoc analyses examined the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation of 4576 AF

  12. Point-of-care cluster randomized trial in stroke secondary prevention using electronic health records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dregan, Alex; van Staa, Tjeerd P; McDermott, Lisa; McCann, Gerard; Ashworth, Mark; Charlton, Judith; Wolfe, Charles D A; Rudd, Anthony; Yardley, Lucy; Gulliford, Martin C

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the remote introduction of electronic decision support tools into family practices improves risk factor control after first stroke. This study also aimed to develop methods to implement cluster randomized trials in stroke using

  13. Clinical impacts of 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takashi; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ogawa, Akira

    2004-01-01

    The progress of the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the cerebral stroke patients was remarkable, and it became possible to evaluate a brain perfusion or function. Here, we describe about the clinical application of the neuronal tracts and brain perfusion evaluation using 3.0 Tesla MR imaging. The subjects were patients with internal cerebral hemorrhage and major cerebral occlusive diseases. Three dimensional anisotropy contrast (3DAC) imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were accepted to estimate the damages of neurnal tracts. Perfusion weighted images with the contrast medium were performed for a quantitative evaluation. The pyramidal tracts were depicted well with 3DAC imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA) value generated from DTI can predict the outcome of the motor dysfunction in each patient at early stage. Cerebral blood volume calculated from perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) was correlated with and cerebral vascular reserve capacity. 3.0 Tesla MR imaging may develop in cerebral stroke patients in near future. (author)

  14. Post-stroke depression: Main phenomenological clusters and their relationships with clinical measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Davide; Marra, Camillo; Gainotti, Guido

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the principal psychopathological dimensions of post-stroke depression (PSD) through the assessment of the factorial structure of the Post-Stroke Depression Rating Scale (PSDRS). We enrolled ninety-eight subjects with PSD, who underwent the PSDRS, MMSE and Barthel Index. Information about demographic, clinical, and neuroanatomical factors was collected. The factor analysis extracted three factors accounting for 63.4% of the total variance, and identified as: 1) "Depressive and Anxious Symptoms" (DAS); 2) "Lack of Emotional Control" (LEC); 3) "Reduced Motivation" (RM). On multivariate statistics, DAS severity was predicted by previous history of mood disorders and Barthel Index; LEC severity was predicted by Barthel Index; RM severity was predicted by age. The PSDRS displayed a reliable factor structure that agreed with previous interpretation of PSD. In particular, core depressive symptoms seem to be related to premorbid personality and functional status, whereas apathy/anhedonia may be connected to brain aging.

  15. Variation in Clinical Practice of Intravenous Thrombolysis in Stroke in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auke Bauer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands in 2010, 11% of patients with ischemic stroke received intravenous thrombolysis (IVT, varying from 4 to 26% between hospitals. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in clinical practice and organization of IVT in relationship to performance and outcome. In all 84 Dutch hospitals performing IVT, a stroke neurologist was approached using a web-based survey. The response rate was 82%. The study showed considerable variation. For example, door-to-needle time ranged from 25 to 80 min. High blood pressure was actively lowered before performing IVT by 57% of neurologists, while 35% chose to wait. 28% started IVT without knowledge of laboratory results. Better follow-up data are needed to see whether this variation results in differences in outcome.

  16. Development of Pyriform Sinus Suctioning Programs for Aspiration Pneumonia Prevention During the Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Yuki; Kamakura, Yayoi; Fukada, Junko; Yoneda, Masahiko; Kataoka, Emiko; Usami, Yasuko; Sugiura, Miki; Nagatani, Tetsuya; Seki, Yukio; Hatano, Norikazu; Yasui, Keizo

    2017-12-01

    Aspiration due to dysphagia is a factor associated with pneumonia during acute stroke. In such cases, it is likely that secretions in the pyriform sinuses enter the laryngeal inlet. The present study was based on the idea that it is possible to reduce aspiration pneumonia by periodically suctioning and removing such secretions (pyriform sinus suctioning), a study was conducted in a single facility. The incidence of pneumonia as a dependent variable was compared between before (control) and after (intervention group) intervention with pyriform sinus suctioning as an independent variable. With a view of unifying the quality and frequency of intervention, two programs to: initially confirm the safety of such suctioning; subsequently enhance/evaluate knowledge and skills related to the procedure (educational); and specify conditions for the implementation and criteria for determining its appropriateness (practical), were developed. The study involved 33 (mean age: 74.6 ± 12.4) and 30 (80.0 ± 8.8) control and intervention group members, respectively, 25 (83.3%) of the latter were treated with pyriform sinus suctioning for 5 days after a stroke. Pneumonia developed in 7 (21.2%) and 2 (6.7%) of the former and latter, respectively. As individuals with a Japan Coma Scale (JCS) score of III or a midline shift on head CT tend to develop pharyngeal dysphagia, the patients were also divided into 2 groups to compare the incidence of pneumonia based on the risk level: low: Japan Coma Scale scores of I-II without a midline shift on head CT; and high: scores of II-III with it. In the latter, the incidence after intervention was markedly lower (p = 0.06, φ = 0.326), while the former did not show changes (p = 0.574, φ = 0.066), supporting the effectiveness of pyriform sinus suctioning to prevent aspiration pneumonia among patients with a low risk level.

  17. ExStroke Pilot Trial of the effect of repeated instructions to improve physical activity after ischaemic stroke: a multinational randomised controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Gudrun; Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Zeng, Xianrong

    2009-01-01

    training programme before discharge and at five follow-up visits during 24 months. Control patients had follow-up visits with the same frequency but without instructions in physical activity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physical activity assessed with the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) at each......OBJECTIVES: To investigate if repeated verbal instructions about physical activity to patients with ischaemic stroke could increase long term physical activity. DESIGN: Multicentre, multinational, randomised clinical trial with masked outcome assessment. SETTING: Stroke units in Denmark, China...... infarction, or falls and fractures. CONCLUSION: Repeated encouragement and verbal instruction in being physically active did not lead to a significant increase in physical activity measured by the PASE score. More intensive strategies seem to be needed to promote physical activity after ischaemic stroke...

  18. ExStroke Pilot Trial of the effect of repeated instructions to improve physical activity after ischaemic stroke: a multinational randomised controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Gudrun; Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Zeng, Xianrong

    2009-01-01

    training programme before discharge and at five follow-up visits during 24 months. Control patients had follow-up visits with the same frequency but without instructions in physical activity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physical activity assessed with the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) at each......OBJECTIVES: To investigate if repeated verbal instructions about physical activity to patients with ischaemic stroke could increase long term physical activity. DESIGN: Multicentre, multinational, randomised clinical trial with masked outcome assessment. SETTING: Stroke units in Denmark, China......, Poland, and Estonia. PARTICIPANTS: 314 patients with ischaemic stroke aged >or=40 years who were able to walk-157 (mean age 69.7 years) randomised to the intervention, 157 (mean age 69.4 years) in the control group. INTERVENTIONS: Patients randomised to the intervention were instructed in a detailed...

  19. B vitamins in patients with recent transient ischaemic attack or stroke in the VITAmins TO Prevent Stroke (VITATOPS) trial: a randomised, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that raised plasma concentrations of total homocysteine might be a risk factor for major vascular events. Whether lowering total homocysteine with B vitamins prevents major vascular events in patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack is unknown. We aimed to assess whether the addition of once-daily supplements of B vitamins to usual medical care would lower total homocysteine and reduce the combined incidence of non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and death attributable to vascular causes in patients with recent stroke or transient ischaemic attack of the brain or eye. In this randomised, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned patients with recent stroke or transient ischaemic attack (within the past 7 months) from 123 medical centres in 20 countries to receive one tablet daily of placebo or B vitamins (2 mg folic acid, 25 mg vitamin B6, and 0.5 mg vitamin B12). Patients were randomly allocated by means of a central 24-h telephone service or an interactive website, and allocation was by use of random permuted blocks stratified by hospital. Participants, clinicians, carers, and investigators who assessed outcomes were masked to the assigned intervention. The primary endpoint was the composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death. All patients randomly allocated to a group were included in the analysis of the primary endpoint. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00097669, and Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN74743444. Between Nov 19, 1998, and Dec 31, 2008, 8164 patients were randomly assigned to receive B vitamins (n=4089) or placebo (n=4075). Patients were followed up for a median duration of 3.4 years (IQR 2.0-5.5). 616 (15%) patients assigned to B vitamins and 678 (17%) assigned to placebo reached the primary endpoint (risk ratio [RR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.00, p=0.05; absolute risk reduction 1.56%, -0.01 to 3.16). There were no unexpected

  20. The Effect of Electromagnetic Field Treatment on Recovery from Ischemic Stroke in a Rat Stroke Model: Clinical, Imaging, and Pathological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Segal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Effects of stroke include significant deficits in sensory-motor skills and cognitive abilities. At present, there are limited effective interventions for postacute stroke patients. In this preliminary research we studied a new noninvasive, very low intensity, low frequency, electromagnetic field treatment (VLIFE, targeting a neural network, on an in vivo stroke rat model. Eighteen rats were divided into three groups: sham (M1 and two treatment groups which were exposed to VLIFE treatment for 4 weeks, one using theta waves (M2 and another using beta waves (M3; all groups were followed up for an additional month. Results indicate that the M2 and M3 treated groups showed recovery of sensorimotor functional deficits, as demonstrated by Modified Neurological Severity Score and forelimb placement tests. Brain MRI imaging results show a decrease in perilesional edema and lateral ventricle widening in the treated groups. Fiber tracts’ imaging, following VLIFE treatment, showed a higher white matter integrity compared to control. Histological findings support neural regeneration processes. Our data suggest that VLIFE treatment, targeting a specific functional neural network by frequency rather than location, promotes neuronal plasticity after stroke and, as a result, improves clinical recovery. Further studies will investigate the full potential of the treatment.

  1. Clinical Variables Associated with Hydration Status in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients with Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Shabbir, Yasmeen; Miller, Leslie; Silliman, Scott

    2016-02-01

    Acute stroke patients with dysphagia are at increased risk for poor hydration. Dysphagia management practices may directly impact hydration status. This study examined clinical factors that might impact hydration status in acute ischemic stroke patients with dysphagia. A retrospective chart review was completed on 67 ischemic stroke patients who participated in a prior study of nutrition and hydration status during acute care. Prior results indicated that patients with dysphagia demonstrated elevated BUN/Cr compared to non-dysphagia cases during acute care and that BUN/Cr increased selectively in dysphagic patients. This chart review evaluated clinical variables potentially impacting hydration status: diuretics, parenteral fluids, tube feeding, oral diet, and nonoral (NPO) status. Exposure to any variable and number of days of exposure to each variable were examined. Dysphagia cases demonstrated significantly more NPO days, tube fed days, and parenteral fluid days, but not oral fed days, or days on diuretics. BUN/Cr values at discharge were not associated with NPO days, parenteral fluid days, oral fed days, or days on diuretics. Patients on modified solid diets had significantly higher mean BUN/Cr values at discharge (27.12 vs. 17.23) as did tube fed patients (28.94 vs. 18.66). No difference was noted between these subgroups at baseline (regular diet vs. modified solids diets). Any modification of solid diets (31.11 vs. 17.23) or thickened liquids (28.50 vs. 17.81) resulted in significantly elevated BUN/Cr values at discharge. Liquid or diet modifications prescribed for acute stroke patients with dysphagia may impair hydration status in these patients.

  2. Changes in risk factor profile after ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornnes, Nete

    Background and aims. Adherence to preventive medication and to a healthy life style reduces stroke survivors’ risk of recurrent stroke. We investigated risk factor management in patients admitted to 3 Copenhagen hospitals with ischemic stroke (IS) Methods. 320 patients with acute IS were followed...... up 1 year after stroke. We constructed a baseline risk factor profile (RFP) of 6 variables: smoking, excessive drinking, physical inactivity, untreated hypertension, no cholesterol-lowering, and no antithrombotic treatment/warfarin at discharge from hospital. Each item was rated 0 or 1 giving......-fatal recurrent stroke or myocardial infarction Conclusions. We suggest the organisation of secondary prevention clinics within the stroke units for life style modification and treatment to target of risk factors immediately after discharge, thus extending the success of TIA clinics to all stroke survivors...

  3. 75 FR 22140 - Office of Clinical and Preventive Services; Division of Oral Health; Dental Preventive and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Services; Division of Oral Health; Dental Preventive and Clinical Support Centers Program Announcement Type...' oral health by directly addressing the perceived needs of dental personnel and Area or regional dental... clinic-based and community-based oral health promotion/disease prevention (HP/DP) initiatives. Centers...

  4. Program of rehabilitative exercise and education to avert vascular events after non-disabling stroke or transient ischemic attack (PREVENT Trial: a multi-centred, randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Kara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite lack of outward signs, most individuals after non-disabling stroke (NDS and transient ischemic attack (TIA have significant cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and are at high risk of a major stroke, hospitalization for other vascular events, or death. Most have multiple modifiable risk factors (e.g., hypertension, physical inactivity, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, tobacco consumption, psychological stress. In addition, accelerated rates of depression, cognitive decline, and poor quality of sleep have been reported following TIA, which correlate with poor functional outcomes and reduced quality of life. Thus, NSD and TIA are important warning signs that should not be overlooked. The challenge is not unlike that facing other 'silent' conditions - to identify a model of care that is effective in changing people's current behaviors in order to avert further morbidity. Methods/Design A single blind, randomized controlled trial will be conducted at two sites to compare the effectiveness of a program of rehabilitative exercise and education versus usual care in modifying vascular risk factors in adults after NDS/TIA. 250 adults within 90 days of being diagnosed with NDS/TIA will be randomly allocated to a 12-week program of exercise and education (PREVENT or to an outpatient clinic assessment and discussion of secondary prevention recommendations with return clinic visits as indicated (USUAL CARE. Primary outcome measures will include blood pressure, waist circumference, 12-hour fasting lipid profile, and 12-hour fasting glucose/hemoglobin A1c. Secondary measures will include exercise capacity, walking endurance, physical activity, cognitive function, depression, goal attainment and health-related quality of life. Outcome assessment will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention, and 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Direct health care costs incurred over one year by PREVENT versus USUAL CARE participants will also be

  5. Declining stroke and vascular event recurrence rates in secondary prevention trials over the past 50 years and consequences for current trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Keun-Sik; Yegiaian, Sharon; Lee, Meng; Lee, Juneyoung; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2011-05-17

    It is widely supposed, but not well-demonstrated, that cumulative advances in standard care have reduced recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events in secondary prevention trials. Systematic search identified all randomized, controlled trials of medical secondary stroke prevention therapies published from 1960 to 2009. Randomized, controlled trials narrowly focused on single stroke mechanisms, including atrial fibrillation, cervical carotid stenosis, and intracranial stenosis, were excluded. From control arms of individual trials, we extracted data for baseline characteristics and annual event rates for recurrent stroke, fatal stroke, and major vascular events and analyzed trends over time. Fifty-nine randomized controlled trials were identified, enrolling 66 157 patients in control arms. Over the 5 decade periods, annual event rates declined, per decade, for recurrent stroke by 0.996% (P=0.001), fatal stroke by 0.282% (P=0.003), and major vascular events by 1.331% (P=0.001). Multiple regression analyses identified increasing antithrombotic use and lower blood pressures as major contributors to the decline in recurrent stroke. For recurrent stroke, annual rates fell from 8.71% in trials launched in the 1960s to 6.10% in the 1970s, 5.41% in the 1980s, 4.04% in the 1990s, and 4.98% in the 2000s. The sample size required for a trial to have adequate power to detect a 20% reduction in recurrent stroke increased 2.2-fold during this period. Recurrent stroke and vascular event rates have declined substantially over the last 5 decades, with improved blood pressure control and more frequent use of antiplatelet therapy as the leading causes. Considerably larger sample sizes are now needed to demonstrate incremental improvements in medical secondary prevention.

  6. Extracranial-Intracranial Bypass Surgery for Stroke Prevention in Hemodynamic Cerebral Ischemia: The Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, William J.; Clarke, William R.; Grubb, Robert L.; Videen, Tom O; Adams, Harold P.; Derdeyn, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    Context Patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic internal carotid artery occlusion (AICAO) and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia are at high risk for subsequent stroke when treated medically. Objective Test the hypothesis that extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery, added to best medical therapy, reduces subsequent ipsilateral ischemic stroke in patients with recently symptomatic AICAO and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. Design Parallel group, randomized, open-label, blinded-adjudication clinical treatment trial conducted from 2002–2010. Setting 49 clinical centers and 18 positron emission tomography (PET) centers in the United States and Canada. The majority were academic medical centers. Participants Arteriographically-confirmed AICAO causing hemispheric symptoms within 120 days and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia identified by ipsilateral increased oxygen extraction fraction measured by PET. 195 were randomized: 97 to surgery and 98 to no surgery. Follow-up for the primary endpoint until occurrence, 2 years, or end of trial was 99% complete. No participant withdrew because of adverse events. Interventions Anastomosis of superficial temporal artery branch to a middle cerebral artery cortical branch for the surgical group. Anti-thrombotic therapy and risk factor intervention were recommended for all. Main Outcome Measure For all participants who were assigned to surgery and received surgery, the combination of (1) all stroke and death from surgery through 30 days post surgery and (2) ipsilateral ischemic stroke within 2 years of randomization. For the nonsurgical group and participants assigned to surgery who did not receive surgery was the combination of (1) all stroke and death from randomization to randomization plus 30 days and (2) ipsilateral ischemic stroke within two years of randomization. Results The trial was terminated early for futility. Two-year rates for the primary endpoint were 21.0% (95% CI, 12.8% to 29.2%; 20 events) for the surgical group

  7. Extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery for stroke prevention in hemodynamic cerebral ischemia: the Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, William J; Clarke, William R; Grubb, Robert L; Videen, Tom O; Adams, Harold P; Derdeyn, Colin P

    2011-11-09

    Patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic internal carotid artery occlusion (AICAO) and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia are at high risk for subsequent stroke when treated medically. To test the hypothesis that extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery, added to best medical therapy, reduces subsequent ipsilateral ischemic stroke in patients with recently symptomatic AICAO and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. Parallel-group, randomized, open-label, blinded-adjudication clinical treatment trial conducted from 2002 to 2010. Forty-nine clinical centers and 18 positron emission tomography (PET) centers in the United States and Canada. The majority were academic medical centers. Patients with arteriographically confirmed AICAO causing hemispheric symptoms within 120 days and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia identified by ipsilateral increased oxygen extraction fraction measured by PET. Of 195 patients who were randomized, 97 were randomized to receive surgery and 98 to no surgery. Follow-up for the primary end point until occurrence, 2 years, or termination of trial was 99% complete. No participant withdrew because of adverse events. Anastomosis of superficial temporal artery branch to a middle cerebral artery cortical branch for the surgical group. Antithrombotic therapy and risk factor intervention were recommended for all participants. For all participants who were assigned to surgery and received surgery, the combination of (1) all stroke and death from surgery through 30 days after surgery and (2) ipsilateral ischemic stroke within 2 years of randomization. For the nonsurgical group and participants assigned to surgery who did not receive surgery, the combination of (1) all stroke and death from randomization to randomization plus 30 days and (2) ipsilateral ischemic stroke within 2 years of randomization. The trial was terminated early for futility. Two-year rates for the primary end point were 21.0% (95% CI, 12.8% to 29.2%; 20 events) for the surgical group and

  8. Multidetector computed tomography angiography in clinically suspected hyperacute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation: an etiological workup in a cohort of Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Torres Pacheco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The potential of computed tomography angiography (CTA was assessed for early determination of stroke subtypes in a Brazilian cohort of patients with stroke. Method From July 2011 to July 2013, we selected patients with suspected hyperacute stroke (< 6 hours. Intracranial and cervical arteries were scrutinized on CTA and their imaging features were correlated with concurrent subtype of stroke. Results Stroke was documented in 50/106 selected patients (47.2% based on both clinical grounds and imaging follow-up (stroke group, with statistically significant arterial stenosis and vulnerable plaques on CTA. Intracranial large artery disease was demonstrated in 34% of patients in the stroke group. Partial territorial infarct prevailed (86% while artery-to-artery embolization was the most common stroke mechanism (52%. Conclusion Multidetector CTA was useful for the etiologic work-up of hyperacute ischemic stroke and facilitated the knowledge about the topographic pattern of brain infarct in accordance with its causative mechanism.

  9. Stroke: Working toward a Prioritized World Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachinski, Vladimir; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Gorelick, Philip B.; Hacke, Werner; Cramer, Steven C.; Kaste, Markku; Fisher, Marc; Brainin, Michael; Buchan, Alastair M.; Lo, Eng H.; Skolnick, Brett E.; Furie, Karen L.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Kivipelto, Miia; Morris, John; Rothwell, Peter M.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Smith, Jr., Sidney C.; Wang, Yulun; Bryer, Alan; Ford, Gary A.; Iadecola, Costantino; Martins, Sheila C.O.; Saver, Jeff; Skvortsova, Veronika; Bayley, Mark; Bednar, Martin M.; Duncan, Pamela; Enney, Lori; Finklestein, Seth; Jones, Theresa A.; Kalra, Lalit; Kleim, Jeff; Nitkin, Ralph; Teasell, Robert; Weiller, Cornelius; Desai, Bhupat; Goldberg, Mark P.; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Saarelma, Osmo; Schwamm, Lee H.; Shinohara, Yukito; Trivedi, Bhargava; Wahlgren, Nils; Wong, Lawrence K.; Hakim, Antoine; Norrving, Bo; Prudhomme, Stephen; Bornstein, Natan M.; Davis, Stephen M.; Goldstein, Larry B.; Leys, Didier; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose The aim of the Synergium was to devise and prioritize new ways of accelerating progress in reducing the risks, effects, and consequences of stroke. Methods Preliminary work was performed by 7 working groups of stroke leaders followed by a synergium (a forum for working synergistically together) with approximately 100 additional participants. The resulting draft document had further input from contributors outside the synergium. Results Recommendations of the Synergium are: Basic Science, Drug Development and Technology: There is a need to develop: (1) New systems of working together to break down the prevalent ‘silo’ mentality; (2) New models of vertically integrated basic, clinical, and epidemiological disciplines; and (3) Efficient methods of identifying other relevant areas of science. Stroke Prevention: (1) Establish a global chronic disease prevention initiative with stroke as a major focus. (2) Recognize not only abrupt clinical stroke, but subtle subclinical stroke, the commonest type of cerebrovascular disease, leading to impairments of executive function. (3) Develop, implement and evaluate a population approach for stroke prevention. (4) Develop public health communication strategies using traditional and novel (e.g., social media/marketing) techniques. Acute Stroke Management: Continue the establishment of stroke centers, stroke units, regional systems of emergency stroke care and telestroke networks. Brain Recovery and Rehabilitation: (1) Translate best neuroscience, including animal and human studies, into poststroke recovery research and clinical care. (2) Standardize poststroke rehabilitation based on best evidence. (3) Develop consensus on, then implementation of, standardized clinical and surrogate assessments. (4) Carry out rigorous clinical research to advance stroke recovery. Into the 21st Century: Web, Technology and Communications: (1) Work toward global unrestricted access to stroke-related information. (2) Build

  10. Stroke: working toward a prioritized world agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachinski, Vladimir; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Gorelick, Philip B; Hacke, Werner; Cramer, Steven C; Kaste, Markku; Fisher, Marc; Brainin, Michael; Buchan, Alastair M; Lo, Eng H; Skolnick, Brett E; Furie, Karen L; Hankey, Graeme J; Kivipelto, Miia; Morris, John; Rothwell, Peter M; Sacco, Ralph L; Smith, Sidney C; Wang, Yulun; Bryer, Alan; Ford, Gary A; Iadecola, Costantino; Martins, Sheila C O; Saver, Jeff; Skvortsova, Veronika; Bayley, Mark; Bednar, Martin M; Duncan, Pamela; Enney, Lori; Finklestein, Seth; Jones, Theresa A; Kalra, Lalit; Kleim, Jeff; Nitkin, Ralph; Teasell, Robert; Weiller, Cornelius; Desai, Bhupat; Goldberg, Mark P; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Saarelma, Osmo; Schwamm, Lee H; Shinohara, Yukito; Trivedi, Bhargava; Wahlgren, Nils; Wong, Lawrence K; Hakim, Antoine; Norrving, Bo; Prudhomme, Stephen; Bornstein, Natan M; Davis, Stephen M; Goldstein, Larry B; Leys, Didier; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the Synergium was to devise and prioritize new ways of accelerating progress in reducing the risks, effects, and consequences of stroke. Preliminary work was performed by seven working groups of stroke leaders followed by a synergium (a forum for working synergistically together) with approximately 100 additional participants. The resulting draft document had further input from contributors outside the synergium. Recommendations of the Synergium are: Basic Science, Drug Development and Technology: There is a need to develop: (1) New systems of working together to break down the prevalent 'silo' mentality; (2) New models of vertically integrated basic, clinical, and epidemiological disciplines; and (3) Efficient methods of identifying other relevant areas of science. Stroke Prevention: (1) Establish a global chronic disease prevention initiative with stroke as a major focus. (2) Recognize not only abrupt clinical stroke, but subtle subclinical stroke, the commonest type of cerebrovascular disease, leading to impairments of executive function. (3) Develop, implement and evaluate a population approach for stroke prevention. (4) Develop public health communication strategies using traditional and novel (eg, social media/marketing) techniques. Acute Stroke Management: Continue the establishment of stroke centers, stroke units, regional systems of emergency stroke care and telestroke networks. Brain Recovery and Rehabilitation: (1) Translate best neuroscience, including animal and human studies, into poststroke recovery research and clinical care. (2) Standardize poststroke rehabilitation based on best evidence. (3) Develop consensus on, then implementation of, standardized clinical and surrogate assessments. (4) Carry out rigorous clinical research to advance stroke recovery. Into the 21st Century: Web, Technology and Communications: (1) Work toward global unrestricted access to stroke-related information. (2) Build centralized electronic archives and

  11. Cost‑effectiveness analysis of apixaban versus other NOACs for the prevention of stroke in Italian atrial fibrillation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pradelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The study evaluated the cost‑effectiveness of apixaban in preventing thromboembolic events in non‑valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF patients, as compared to other three available novel oral anticoagulant agents (NOACs, from the Italian Health System (SSN perspective.METHODS: A previously published lifetime Markov model was adapted for the Italian context. Baseline clinical risks were assigned based on the demographic and clinical features of the patients; effectiveness and safety parameters derived from adjusted indirect comparison using warfarin as link. The main clinical events considered in the model are ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, systemic thromboembolism, bleeds (both major and clinically relevant minor and cardiovascular hospitalizations, besides treatment discontinuations. Expected survival was projected beyond trial duration using national mortality data adjusted for clinical risks and weighted by published utilities. Unit costs were collected from published Italian sources and actualized to 2013. Costs and health gains occurring after the first year were discounted at an annual 3.5% rate. The primary outcome measure of the economic evaluation was the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER, where effectiveness is measured in terms of life‑years and quality adjusted life‑years gained. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (DSA&PSA were carried out.RESULTS: In the short to medium term, apixaban was associated with marginal LYs and QALYs gains and slight savings, as compared to other NOACs. However, as apixaban extended expected survival versus dabigatran (110mg, dabigatran (150mg and rivaroxaban (0.13, 0.08, and 0.06 LYs or 0.11, 0.07, and 0.05 QALYs, expected total lifetime costs exceeded those of these comparators (€ 319, € 282, and € 16. Corresponding ICERs were estimated in € 2,911, € 3,882 and € 327 per QALY gained. The most influential parameter according to DSA was daily costs

  12. Susceptibility-diffusion mismatch in middle cerebral artery territory acute ischemic stroke: clinical and imaging implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payabvash, Seyedmehid; Taleb, Shayandokht; Benson, John C; Hoffman, Benjamin; Oswood, Mark C; McKinney, Alexander M; Rykken, Jeffrey B

    2017-07-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested a correlation between susceptibility-diffusion mismatch and perfusion-diffusion mismatch in acute ischemic stroke patients. Purpose To determine the clinical and imaging associations of susceptibility-diffusion mismatch in patients with acute ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Material and Methods Consecutive patients with MCA territory acute ischemic stroke, who had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed with susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) within 24 h of symptom onset or time last-seen-well, were included. Two neuroradiologists reviewed SWI scans for SWI-DWI mismatch defined by regionally increased vessel number or diameter on SWI extending beyond the DWI hyperintensity territory in the affected hemisphere. The stroke severity at admission was evaluated using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Poor clinical outcome was defined by a 3-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score >2. Results The SWI-DWI mismatch was identified in 44 (29.3%) of 150 patients included in this study. Patients with SWI-DWI mismatch had smaller admission infarct volumes (31.2 ± 44.7 versus 55.9 ± 117.7 mL, P = 0.045) and were younger (60.4 ± 18.9 versus 67.1 ± 15.5, P = 0.026). After correction for age, admission NIHSS score, and infarct volume, the SWI-DWI mismatch was associated with a 22.6% lower rate of poor clinical outcome using propensity score matching ( P = 0.032). In our cohort, thrombolytic therapy showed no significant effect on outcome. Conclusion The presence of SWI-DWI mismatch in acute MCA territory ischemic infarct is associated with smaller infarct volume. Moreover, SWI-DWI mismatch was associated with better outcome after correction for infarct size, severity of admission symptoms, and age.

  13. A net clinical benefit analysis of warfarin and aspirin on stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a nested case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azoulay Laurent

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the management of patients treated with anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs entails balancing coagulation levels, we evaluated the net clinical benefit of warfarin and aspirin on stroke in a large cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF. Methods A population-based cohort study of all patients at least 18 years of age with a first-ever diagnosis of chronic AF during the period 1993–2008 was conducted within the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. A nested case–control analysis was conducted to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage associated with the use of warfarin and aspirin. Cases were matched up to 10 controls on age, sex, and date of cohort entry. The adjusted net clinical benefit of warfarin and aspirin (expressed as the number of strokes prevented per 100 persons per year was calculated by subtracting the ischemic stroke rate (prevented by therapy from the intracranial hemorrhage (ICH rate (increased by therapy. Results The cohort included 70,766 patients newly-diagnosed with chronic AF, of whom 5519 experienced an ischemic stroke and 689 an ICH during follow-up. The adjusted net clinical benefit of warfarin was 0.59 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.73. However, the benefit was not seen for patients below (0.08, 95%: -0.38, 0.54 and above (−0.49, 95% CI: -1.13, 0.15 therapeutic range. The net clinical benefit of warfarin, apparent after 3 months of continuous use, increased as a function of CHADS2 score. The net clinical benefit was not significant with aspirin (−0.07, 95% CI: -0.22, 0.08, though it was seen in certain subgroups. Conclusions Warfarin provides a net clinical benefit in patients with atrial fibrillation, which is maintained with longer duration of use, particularly when used within therapeutic range. A similar net effect is not as clear with aspirin.

  14. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of apixaban versus acetylsalicylic acid in the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolar-Albaladejo, Ginés; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Zamorano, José Luis; Betegón-Nicolás, Lourdes; Canal-Fontcuberta, Cristina; de Salas-Cansado, Marina; Rubio-Rodríguez, Darío; Rubio-Terrés, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of apixaban versus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) with contraindications of vitamin K antagonists in Spain. A Markov model was adapted, simulating the patient's lifetime. The safety and efficacy of the drugs were obtained from AVERROES clinical trial. The analysis was done from the Spanish National Health System (NHS) and societal perspective. The cost of drugs was calculated according to the recommended doses. The cost of NVAF complications and disease management was obtained from Spanish sources. In a cohort of 1,000 patients with NVAF, during their lifetime numerous complications could be avoided with apixaban versus ASA (48 ischemic strokes, 10 systemic embolism and 53 related deaths). In each patient treated with apixaban more life-years (0.303 LYG) and more quality-adjusted life-years (0.277 QALYs) could be gained. Apixaban would generate more costs per patient for the NHS (€1,742 per patient) but savings would result from the social perspective (€2,887 saved per patient). The cost per LYG and QALY gained would be of €5,749 and €6,289 for the NHS. Apixaban would be dominant (more effective with less costs than ASA) from the societal perspective. The results were stable in both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. According to this model, when costs and estimated lifetime outcomes achieved with apixaban are compared with those of ASA, apixaban was assessed to be a cost-effective treatment for the prevention of stroke in patients with NVAF in Spain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between clinical condition and F-waves changes in the acute phase of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo José Luvizutto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To relate F-waves with clinical and laboratory exams in the acute phase of stroke. Methods Inclusion criteria for this cross-sectional study were: hemiplegia, absence of previous cranial trauma, myopathy, diabetes, alcoholism or other known causes of peripheral neuropathy, and normal sensory and motor conduction. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score, glycemia, glucosilate hemoglobin, and CPK were obtained at admission by routine blood exams. After hospital admission, the F-wave latencies and persistence were obtained from the deep peroneal nerve using symmetrical techniques. Results Evaluation of 20 individuals – mean age 66 years, 50% male and 85% Caucasian – showed association of F-wave persistence with glycemia (r = 0.71; p < 0.001 and NIHSS categorized (NIHSS 1-7 = 65.0 x NIHSS 9-23 = 100; p = 0.004. Multivariate analysis found only association of F-wave persistence with glycemia β = 0.59 (0.44–0.74; p < 0.001. Conclusion The increase in the persistence of F-waves are associated with hyperglycemia in the acute phase of stroke.

  16. Clinical evaluation of a non-immersive virtual environment in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmans, Judi; Gladman, John; Hilton, Dave; Walker, Marion; Sunderland, Alan; Cobb, Sue; Pridmore, Tony; Thomas, Shirley

    2009-02-01

    We describe our attempts to evaluate the effectiveness of a virtual environment developed to rehabilitate stroke patients in the task of making a hot drink. Single case studies were performed in 13/138 (9%) stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation in a UK stroke unit. Participants in AB/BA (n = 5) and ABA (n = 2) design studies received 5 one-hour sessions of attention control training (A phase) and 5 one-hour sessions of virtual environment training (B phase). An AB design with random duration of A and B phases (minimum duration of A and B phases 3 and 5 days respectively, with total duration of 3 weeks) was used in 6 participants. Visual inspection of scores across all cases showed a trend towards improvement over time in both real and virtual hot drink making ability in both control and intervention phases. There was no significant difference (Wilcoxon, p > 0.05) in the improvements in real and virtual hot drink making ability during all control and intervention phases in the 13 cases. Ceiling effects limited the evaluation of effectiveness in 5 of the 8 cases in which daily performance measures were used. Few people in this setting were suitable for this intervention. The case studies showed no evidence of a strong effect of this intervention, but we had great difficulty in performing single case studies. We conclude that more testing and development of this system is required before it is subjected to rigorous testing of clinical effectiveness.

  17. Clinical and imaging features associated with an increased risk of early and late stroke in patients with symptomatic carotid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naylor, A R; Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T V

    2015-01-01

    intracranial disease; (v) a failure to recruit intracranial collaterals; (vi) low GSM; (vii) MR diagnosis of intra-plaque haemorrhage; (vii) spontaneous embolisation on TCD; and (viii) increased FDG uptake in the carotid plaque on PET. Clinical/imaging parameters associated with a lower risk of stroke include......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to identify clinical and/or imaging parameters that are associated with an increased (decreased) risk of early/late stroke in patients with symptomatic carotid disease. IN THE FIRST 14 DAYS: Natural history studies suggest that 8-15% of patients with 50......-99% stenoses will suffer a stroke within 72 hours of their index symptom. Currently, there are insufficient validated data to identify highest-risk patients for emergency carotid endarterectomy (CEA), but an increased risk of stroke appears to be predicted by (i) an ABCD(2) score of 4-7; (ii) the presence...

  18. Glycemia in Acute Stroke II study: a call to improve post-stroke hyperglycemia management in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, B; Sanz-Cuesta, B E; Gutiérrez-Fernández, M; Martínez-Sánchez, P; Lisbona, A; Madero-Jarabo, R; Delgado-Mederos, R; Gállego-Cullere, J; Rodríguez-Yáñez, M; Martínez-Zabaleta, M; Freijo, M; Alonso de Leciñana, M; Portilla, J C; Gil-Núñez, A; Díez-Tejedor, E

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of conventional glucose management, which aimed to maintain glucose levels stroke (IS) in a clinical practice setting. This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study of patients with acute IS. Patients were classified into four groups based on their initial 48-h capillary glucose levels and the administration of and response to corrective treatment: (i) untreated and maximum glucose levels <155 mg/dL (8.5 mmol/L) within the first 48 h; (ii) treated and good responders [glucose levels persistently <155 mg/dL (8.5 mmol/L)]; (iii) treated and non-responders [any glucose values ≥155 mg/dL (8.5 mmol/L) during the 24 h after the start of corrective treatment]; and (iv) untreated with any glucose value ≥155 mg/dL (8.5 mmol/L). The primary outcome was death or dependence at 3 months (blinded rater). A total of 213 patients were included. Ninety-seven (45.5%) patients developed glucose levels ≥155 mg/dL (8.5 mmol/L), 69 (71.1%) underwent corrective treatment and 31 patients underwent no corrective treatment at the physician's discretion [28 of whom had isolated values ≥155 mg/dL (8.5 mmol/L)]. Only 11 (16%) patients responded to conventional treatment, whereas 58 (84%) patients were non-responsive. Non-responders showed a twofold higher risk of death or dependence at 3 months (odds ratio, 2.472; 95% confidence interval, 1.096-5.576; P = 0.029). Lack of response to conventional treatment for glucose management in acute IS is frequent and associated with poor outcomes. © 2017 EAN.

  19. Clinical Information Systems Integration in New York City's First Mobile Stroke Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Benjamin R; Lerario, Michael P; Navi, Babak B; Ganzman, Adam C; Ribaudo, Daniel; Mir, Saad A; Pishanidar, Sammy; Lekic, Tim; Williams, Olajide; Kamel, Hooman; Marshall, Randolph S; Hripcsak, George; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Fink, Matthew E

    2018-01-01

     Mobile stroke units (MSUs) reduce time to thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke. These units are widely used, but the clinical information systems underlying MSU operations are understudied.  The first MSU on the East Coast of the United States was established at New York Presbyterian Hospital (NYP) in October 2016. We describe our program's 7-month pilot, focusing on the integration of our hospital's clinical information systems into our MSU to support patient care and research efforts.  NYP's MSU was staffed by two paramedics, one radiology technologist, and a vascular neurologist. The unit was equipped with four laptop computers and networking infrastructure enabling all staff to access the hospital intranet and clinical applications during operating hours. A telephone-based registration procedure registered patients from the field into our admit/discharge/transfer system, which interfaced with the institutional electronic health record (EHR). We developed and implemented a computerized physician order entry set in our EHR with prefilled values to permit quick ordering of medications, imaging, and laboratory testing. We also developed and implemented a structured clinician note to facilitate care documentation and clinical data extraction.  Our MSU began operating on October 3, 2016. As of April 27, 2017, the MSU transported 49 patients, of whom 16 received tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Zero technical problems impacting patient care were reported around registration, order entry, or intranet access. Two onboard network failures occurred, resulting in computed tomography scanner malfunctions, although no patients became ineligible for time-sensitive treatment as a result. Thirteen (26.5%) clinical notes contained at least one incomplete time field.  The main technical challenges encountered during the integration of our hospital's clinical information systems into our MSU were onboard network failures and incomplete clinical

  20. Intravoxel incoherent motion perfusion imaging in acute stroke: initial clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federau, C.; Becce, F.; Maeder, P.; Meuli, R. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV) and University of Lausanne, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sumer, S.; Wintermark, M. [University of Virginia, Neuroradiology Division, Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); O' Brien, K. [University of Geneva, Center for Biomedical Imaging (CIBM), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging is an MRI perfusion technique that uses a diffusion-weighted sequence with multiple b values and a bi-compartmental signal model to measure the so-called pseudo-diffusion of blood caused by its passage through the microvascular network. The goal of the current study was to assess the feasibility of IVIM perfusion fraction imaging in patients with acute stroke. Images were collected in 17 patients with acute stroke. Exclusion criteria were onset of symptoms to imaging >5 days, hemorrhagic transformation, infratentorial lesions, small lesions <0.5 cm in minimal diameter and hemodynamic instability. IVIM imaging was performed at 3 T, using a standard spin-echo Stejskal-Tanner pulsed gradients diffusion-weighted sequence, using 16 b values from 0 to 900 s/mm{sup 2}. Image quality was assessed by two radiologists, and quantitative analysis was performed in regions of interest placed in the stroke area, defined by thresholding the apparent diffusion coefficient maps, as well as in the contralateral region. IVIM perfusion fraction maps showed an area of decreased perfusion fraction f in the region of decreased apparent diffusion coefficient. Quantitative analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in both IVIM perfusion fraction f (0.026 ± 0.019 vs. 0.056 ± 0.025, p = 2.2 . 10{sup -6}) and diffusion coefficient D compared with the contralateral side (3.9 ± 0.79 . 10{sup -4} vs. 7.5 ± 0.86 . 10{sup -4} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 1.3 . 10{sup -20}). IVIM perfusion fraction imaging is feasible in acute stroke. IVIM perfusion fraction is significantly reduced in the visible infarct. Further studies should evaluate the potential for IVIM to predict clinical outcome and treatment response. (orig.)

  1. Stroke Trials Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Trials Registry Clinical Trials Interventions Conditions Sponsors ... a clinical trial near you Welcome to the Stroke Trials Registry Our registry of clinical trials in ...

  2. Nutritional interventions for Alzheimer's prevention: a clinical precision medicine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelke, Matthew W; Hackett, Katherine; Chen, Jaclyn L; Shih, Chiashin; Shum, Jessica; Montgomery, Mary E; Chiang, Gloria C; Berkowitz, Cara; Seifan, Alon; Krikorian, Robert; Isaacson, Richard Scott

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality, with the disease burden expected to rise as the population ages. No disease-modifying agent is currently available, but recent research suggests that nutritional and lifestyle modifications can delay or prevent the onset of AD. However, preventive nutritional interventions are not universally applicable and depend on the clinical profile of the individual patient. This article reviews existing nutritional modalities for AD prevention that act through improvement of insulin resistance, correction of dyslipidemia, and reduction of oxidative stress, and discusses how they may be modified on the basis of individual biomarkers, genetics, and behavior. In addition, we report preliminary results of clinical application of these personalized interventions at the first AD prevention clinic in the United States. The use of these personalized interventions represents an important application of precision medicine techniques for the prevention of AD that can be adopted by clinicians across disciplines. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Anticoagulant use for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: findings from a multi-payer analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kathleen; Bozkaya, Duygu; Patel, Aarti A; Macomson, Brian; Nelson, Winnie; Owens, Gary; Mody, Samir; Schein, Jeff; Menzin, Joseph

    2014-07-28

    Oral anticoagulation is recommended for stroke prevention in intermediate/high stroke risk atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of analytic software tools for descriptive analyses of disease management in atrial AF; a secondary objective is to demonstrate patterns of potential anticoagulant undertreatment in AF. Retrospective data analyses were performed using the Anticoagulant Quality Improvement Analyzer (AQuIA), a software tool designed to analyze health plan data. Two-year data from five databases were analyzed: IMS LifeLink (IMS), MarketScan Commercial (MarketScanCommercial), MarketScan Medicare Supplemental (MarketScanMedicare), Clinformatics™ DataMart, a product of OptumInsight Life Sciences (Optum), and a Medicaid Database (Medicaid). Included patients were ≥ 18 years old with a new or existing diagnosis of AF. The first observed AF diagnosis constituted the index date, with patient outcomes assessed over a one year period. Key study measures included stroke risk level, anticoagulant use, and frequency of International Normalized Ratio (INR) monitoring. High stroke risk (CHADS2 ≥ 2 points) was estimated in 54% (IMS), 22% (MarketScanCommercial), 64% (MarketscanMedicare), 42% (Optum) and 62% (Medicaid) of the total eligible population. Overall, 35%, 29%, 38%, 39% and 16% of all AF patients received an anticoagulant medication in IMS, MarketScanCommercial, MarketScanMedicare, Optum and Medicaid, respectively. Among patients at high risk for stroke, 19% to 51% received any anticoagulant. The AQuIA provided a consistent platform for analysis across multiple AF populations with varying baseline characteristics. Analyzer results show that many high-risk AF patients in selected commercial, Medicare-eligible, and Medicaid populations do not receive appropriate thromboprophylaxis, as recommended by treatment guidelines.

  4. Use of vitamin K antagonists for secondary stroke prevention depends on the treating healthcare provider in Germany - results from the German AFNET registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeusler, Karl Georg; Gerth, Andrea; Limbourg, Tobias; Tebbe, Ulrich; Oeff, Michael; Wegscheider, Karl; Treszl, András; Ravens, Ursula; Meinertz, Thomas; Kirchhof, Paulus; Breithardt, Günter; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Nabauer, Michael

    2015-08-05

    Anticoagulation using vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) significantly reduces the risk of recurrent stroke in stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and is recommended by guidelines. The German Competence NETwork on Atrial Fibrillation established a nationwide prospective registry including 9,574 AF patients, providing the opportunity to analyse AF management according to German healthcare providers. On enrolment, 896 (9.4 %) patients reported a prior ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Stroke patients were significantly older, more likely to be female, had a higher rate of cardiovascular risk factors, and more frequently received anticoagulation (almost exclusively VKA) than patients without prior stroke history. Following enrolment, 76.4 % of all stroke patients without VKA contraindications received anticoagulation, which inversely associated with age (OR 0.95 per year; 95 % CI 0.92-0.97). General practitioners/internists (OR 0.40; 95 % CI 0.21-0.77) and physicians working in regional hospitals (OR 0.47; 95 % CI 0.29-0.77) prescribed anticoagulation for secondary stroke prevention less frequently than physicians working at university hospitals (reference) and office-based cardiologists (OR 1.40; 95 % CI 0.76-2.60). The impact of the treating healthcare provider was less evident in registry patients without prior stroke. In the AFNET registry, anticoagulation for secondary stroke prevention was prescribed in roughly three-quarters of AF patients, a significantly higher rate than in primary prevention. We identified two factors associated with withholding oral anticoagulation in stroke survivors, namely higher age and-most prominently-treatment by a general practitioner/internist or physicians working at regional hospitals.

  5. Time to angiographic reperfusion and clinical outcome after acute ischaemic stroke: an analysis of data from the Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS III) phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Pooja; Yeatts, Sharon D; Mazighi, Mikael; Broderick, Joseph P; Liebeskind, David S; Demchuk, Andrew M; Amarenco, Pierre; Carrozzella, Janice; Spilker, Judith; Foster, Lydia D; Goyal, Mayank; Hill, Michael D; Palesch, Yuko Y; Jauch, Edward C; Haley, E Clarke; Vagal, Achala; Tomsick, Thomas A

    2014-06-01

    The IMS III trial did not show a clinical benefit of endovascular treatment compared with intravenous alteplase (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator) alone for moderate or severe ischaemic strokes. Late reperfusion of tissue that was no longer salvageable could be one explanation, as suggested by previous exploratory studies that showed an association between time to reperfusion and good clinical outcome. We sought to validate this association in a preplanned analysis of data from the IMS III trial. We used data for patients with complete proximal arterial occlusions in the anterior circulation who received endovascular treatment and achieved angiographic reperfusion (score on Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scale of grade 2-3) during the endovascular procedure (within 7 h of symptom onset). We used logistic regression to model good clinical outcome (defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at 3 months) as a function of the time to reperfusion. We prespecified variables to be considered for adjustment, including age, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, sex, and baseline blood glucose concentration. Of 240 patients who were otherwise eligible for inclusion in our analysis, 182 (76%) achieved angiographic reperfusion. Mean time from symptom onset to reperfusion (ie, procedure end) was 325 min (SD 52). Increased time to reperfusion was associated with a decreased likelihood of good clinical outcome (unadjusted relative risk for every 30-min delay 0·85 [95% CI 0·77-0·94]; adjusted relative risk 0·88 [0·80-0·98]). Delays in time to angiographic reperfusion lead to a decreased likelihood of good clinical outcome in patients after moderate to severe stroke. Rapid reperfusion could be crucial for the success of future acute endovascular trials. US National Institutes of Health and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical effects of using HEXORR (Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot) for movement therapy in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Sasha Blue; Holley, Rahsaan J; Lum, Peter S

    2013-11-01

    The goals of this pilot study were to quantify the clinical benefits of using the Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot for hand rehabilitation after stroke and to determine the population best served by this intervention. Nine subjects with chronic stroke (one excluded from analysis) completed 18 sessions of training with the Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot and a preevaluation, a postevaluation, and a 90-day clinical evaluation. Overall, the subjects improved in both range of motion and clinical measures. Compared with the preevaluation, the subjects showed significant improvements in range of motion, grip strength, and the hand component of the Fugl-Meyer (mean changes, 6.60 degrees, 8.84 percentage points, and 1.86 points, respectively). A subgroup of six subjects exhibited lower tone and received a higher dosage of training. These subjects had significant gains in grip strength, the hand component of the Fugl-Meyer, and the Action Research Arm Test (mean changes, 8.42 percentage points, 2.17 points, and 2.33 points, respectively). Future work is needed to better manage higher levels of hypertonia and provide more support to subjects with higher impairment levels; however, the current results support further study into the Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot treatment.

  7. Nursing care for stroke patients: A survey of current practice in 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulek, Zeliha; Poulsen, Ingrid; Gillis, Katrin; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a survey of the clinical nursing practice in European countries in accordance with the European Stroke Strategies 2006 and to examine to what extent the European Stroke Strategies have been implemented in stroke care nursing in Europe. Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability globally. Optimal organisation of interdisciplinary stroke care is expected to ameliorate outcome after stroke. Consequently, universal access to stroke care based on evidence-based guidelines is a priority. This study is a descriptive cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire comprising 61 questions based on the European Stroke Strategies and scientific evidence in nursing practice was distributed to representatives of the European Association of Neuroscience Nurses, who sent the questionnaire to nurses active in stroke care. The questionnaire covered the following areas of stroke care: organisation of stroke services, management of acute stroke and prevention including basic care and nursing, and secondary prevention. Ninety-two nurses in stroke care in 11 European countries participated in the survey. Within the first 48 hr after stroke onset, 95% monitor patients regularly, 94% start mobilisation after 24 hr when patients are stable, and 89% assess patients' ability to swallow. Change of position for immobile patients is followed by 73%, and postvoid residual urine volume is measured by 85%. Some aspects needed improvement, for example, staff education (70%), education for patients/families/carers (55%) and individual care plans in secondary prevention (62%). The participating European countries comply well with the European Stroke Strategies guidelines, particularly in the acute stroke care, but not all stroke units have reached optimal development in all aspects of stroke care nursing. Our study may provide clinical administrators and nurses in stroke care with information that may contribute to improved compliance with the European Stroke Strategies and evidence

  8. Predicting long-term outcome after acute ischemic stroke: a simple index works in patients from controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Inke R; Ziegler, Andreas; Bluhmki, Erich; Hacke, Werner; Bath, Philip M W; Sacco, Ralph L; Diener, Hans C; Weimar, Christian

    2008-06-01

    An early and reliable prognosis for recovery in stroke patients is important for initiation of individual treatment and for informing patients and relatives. We recently developed and validated models for predicting survival and functional independence within 3 months after acute stroke, based on age and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score assessed within 6 hours after stroke. Herein we demonstrate the applicability of our models in an independent sample of patients from controlled clinical trials. The prognostic models were used to predict survival and functional recovery in 5419 patients from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). Furthermore, we tried to improve the accuracy by adapting intercepts and estimating new model parameters. The original models were able to correctly classify 70.4% (survival) and 72.9% (functional recovery) of patients. Because the prediction was slightly pessimistic for patients in the controlled trials, adapting the intercept improved the accuracy to 74.8% (survival) and 74.0% (functional recovery). Novel estimation of parameters, however, yielded no relevant further improvement. For acute ischemic stroke patients included in controlled trials, our easy-to-apply prognostic models based on age and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score correctly predicted survival and functional recovery after 3 months. Furthermore, a simple adaptation helps to adjust for a different prognosis and is recommended if a large data set is available.

  9. Primary preventive potential for stroke by avoidance of major lifestyle risk factors: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Heidelberg cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikk, Kaja; Sookthai, Disorn; Monni, Stefano; Gross, Marie-Luise; Lichy, Christoph; Kloss, Manja; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-07-01

    Because primary prevention of stroke is a priority, our aim was to assess the primary preventive potential of major lifestyle risk factors for stroke in middle-aged women and men. Among 23,927 persons, 551 (195 women and 356 men) had a first diagnosis of stroke during an average follow-up of 12.7 years. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated the associations of adiposity, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and diet with risk of developing stroke. A competing risk model built from cause-specific proportional hazards models accounting for concurrent risk of death was used to calculate relative and absolute reductions in stroke occurrences that could have been achieved by maintaining a healthy lifestyle pattern. Obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical inactivity were each identified as modifiable lifestyle risk factors for stroke. About 38% of stroke cases were estimated as preventable through adherence to a healthy lifestyle profile (never smoking, maintaining optimal body mass index and waist circumference, performing physical exercise, consuming a moderate quantity of alcohol, and following a healthy dietary pattern). Age-specific estimates of 5-year incidence rates for stroke in the actual cohort and in a hypothetical, comparable cohort of individuals following a healthy lifestyle would be reduced from 153 to 94 per 100,000 women and from 261 to 161 per 100,000 men for the age group 60 to 65 years. Our analysis confirms the strong primary prevention potential for stroke based on avoidance of excess body weight, smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. A framework for chiropractic training in clinical preventive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Cheryl; Evans, Marion Willard

    2013-08-20

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provides incentives for both patients and providers to engage in evidence-based clinical preventive services recommended by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Depending upon the application of the new health care act, Doctors of Chiropractic (DC) may be considered to be covered providers of many of these services. It is therefore essential that DCs' training prepare them to competently deliver them. The aim of this commentary is to describe a framework for training in clinical preventive services, based largely on the USPSTF recommendations, which could be readily integrated into existing DC educational programs.

  11. A clinical study on perforator stroke resulting from Wingspan stent angioplasty for symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziliang; Xu Haowen; Li Tianxiao; Zhu Liangfu; Li Zhaoshuo; Xue Jiangyu; Bai Weixing; Li Li; Guan Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the incidence, potential hazards and effective countermeasure for perforator stroke (PS) resulting from stent angioplasty of symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis. Methods: Peri-operation PS complications of 258 patients receiving Gateway balloon-Wingspan stenting for severe symptomatic intracranial stenosis were analyzed. The incidence, clinical course, and prognosis of PS resulting from stenting were recorded. Special attention was given to the anatomical features, clinical manifestation and video materials of patients with PS. χ 2 test was used for statistics. Results: Two hundred and fifty-five patients received stent angioplasty successfully and 7 patients had PS (incidence rate 2.7%). The patients with basilar artery stenosis had a higher incidence of PS resulting from intracranial stenting (6.1%, 4/66) than patients with middle cerebral artery stenosis (2.5%, 3/118) (χ 2 =2.320, P= 0.025). The potential hazards for PS included preoperative perforator stroke adjacent to the stenotic segment and prominent dissection during operation. Six patients presented symptoms after awake from general anaesthesia and one had symptoms 3 hours after stenting. One deteriorated gradually and the others reached the maximum deficit almost at once. At the follow-up of 3 months, 3 patients were disabled and scored one, two, two by mRS respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of PS resulting from intracranial stenting was low and the prognosis was not disastrous. Stenosis at basilar artery and preoperative perforator stroke adjacent to the stenotic segment were potential risk factors for PS complication. Proper maneuver of angioplasty may decrease the incidence of PS and improve the prognosis. (authors)

  12. Effectiveness of Conventional Rehabilitation Therapy on Postural Stability and Clinic in Stroke Patients with Hemiplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Inanir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiviness of conventional rehabilitation in patients with stroke on static and dynamic balance as well as clinical assessment Methods: Twelve patients with stroke, 7 (58.33% of them being male and 5 (41.66% female, ranging from 51 to 75 in age who were treated in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation clinic were involved in this study. The patients were treated with conventional rehabilitation. All individuals were evaluated using balance tests before (Group 1 and after (Group 2 the treatment. Balance level and postural control has been assessed through Berg Balance Scale (BBS, Trunk Control Test (TCT and Biodex Stability System (BSS, motor level through BMIE, ambulation state through Functional Ambulatory Scale (FAS and functional state in daily activities through Functional Independence Measure (FIM. The same tests were repeated while the patients were being discharged. Results: The mean age of the study population was 65,83±4,38 years, the average Body Mas Index (BMI was 30,55±6,94. In the evaluations according to FIM, FAS, TCT and BBS differences between the mean of patients before and after the rehabilitation were significantly higher for the post-treatment (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001 and p=0.001, respectively. In the evaluations according to Overall Stability Index (OSI, Antero-Posterior Stability Index (APSI and Medio-Lateral Stability Index (MLSI differences between the mean of patients before and after the rehabilitation were significantly higher for the pre-treatment (p=0.001, p=0.001 and p=0.001, respectively. Conclusion: It can be stated that this approach is effective and useful in restoring static and dynamic balance as well as in obtaining an effective improvement in the treatment of patients with stroke through conventional treatment. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 446-455

  13. Intravenous Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Transplantation for Stroke: Phase1/2a Clinical Trial in a Homogeneous Group of Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Akihiko; Sakai, Chiaki; Soma, Toshihiro; Kasahara, Yukiko; Stern, David M; Kajimoto, Katsufumi; Ihara, Masafumi; Daimon, Takashi; Yamahara, Kenichi; Doi, Kaori; Kohara, Nobuo; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Matsuyama, Tomohiro; Naritomi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this clinical trial was to assess the feasibility and safety of transplanting autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells into patients suffering severe embolic stroke. Major inclusion criteria included patients with cerebral embolism, age 20-75 years, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score displaying improvement of ≤ 5 points during the first 7 days after stroke, and NIHSS score of ≥ 10 on day 7 after stroke. Bone marrow aspiration (25 or 50 mL; N = 6 patients in each case) was performed 7-10 days poststroke, and bone marrow mononuclear cells were administrated intravenously. Mean total transplanted cell numbers were 2.5 × 10(8) and 3.4 × 10(8) cells in the lower and higher dose groups, respectively. No apparent adverse effects of administering bone marrow cells were observed. Compared with the lower dose, patients receiving the higher dose of bone marrow cells displayed a trend toward improved neurologic outcomes. Compared with 1 month after treatment, patients receiving cell therapy displayed a trend toward improved cerebral blood flow and metabolic rate of oxygen consumption 6 months after treatment. In comparison with historical controls, patients receiving cell therapy had significantly better neurologic outcomes. Our results indicated that intravenous transplantation of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells is safe and feasible. Positive results and trends favoring neurologic recovery and improvement in cerebral blood flow and metabolism by cell therapy underscore the relevance of larger scale randomized controlled trials using this approach.

  14. Effect of Dysphagia Screening Strategies on Clinical Outcomes After Stroke: A Systematic Review for the 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric E; Kent, David M; Bulsara, Ketan R; Leung, Lester Y; Lichtman, Judith H; Reeves, Mathew J; Towfighi, Amytis; Whiteley, William N; Zahuranec, Darin B

    2018-03-01

    Dysphagia screening protocols have been recommended to identify patients at risk for aspiration. The American Heart Association convened an evidence review committee to systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of dysphagia screening protocols to reduce the risk of pneumonia, death, or dependency after stroke. The Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched on November 1, 2016, to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing dysphagia screening protocols or quality interventions with increased dysphagia screening rates and reporting outcomes of pneumonia, death, or dependency. Three RCTs were identified. One RCT found that a combined nursing quality improvement intervention targeting fever and glucose management and dysphagia screening reduced death and dependency but without reducing the pneumonia rate. Another RCT failed to find evidence that pneumonia rates were reduced by adding the cough reflex to routine dysphagia screening. A smaller RCT randomly assigned 2 hospital wards to a stroke care pathway including dysphagia screening or regular care and found that patients on the stroke care pathway were less likely to require intubation and mechanical ventilation; however, the study was small and at risk for bias. There were insufficient RCT data to determine the effect of dysphagia screening protocols on reducing the rates of pneumonia, death, or dependency after stroke. Additional trials are needed to compare the validity, feasibility, and clinical effectiveness of different screening methods for dysphagia. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Comparative pharmacoeconomic assessment of apixaban vs. standard of care for the prevention of stroke in Italian atrial fibrillation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pradelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost‑effectiveness of apixaban in the prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with non‑valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF relatively to standard of care (warfarin or aspirin from the Italian National Health System (SSN perspective.METHODS: A previously published lifetime Markov model was adapted for Italian context. Clinical effectiveness data were acquired from head‑to‑head randomized trials (ARISTOTLE and AVERROES; main events considered in the model were ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, systemic thromboembolism, bleeds (both major and clinically relevant minor and cardiovascular hospitalizations, besides treatment discontinuations. Expected survival was projected beyond trial duration using national mortality data adjusted for individual clinical risks and adjusted by utility weights for health states acquired from literature. Unit costs were collected from published Italian sources and actualized to 2013. Costs and health gains accruing after the first year were discounted at an annual 3.5% rate. The primary outcome measure of the economic evaluation was the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER, where effectiveness is measured in terms of life‑years and quality adjusted life‑years gained. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA were carried out to assess the effect of input uncertainty.RESULTS: Apixaban is expected to reduce the incidence of ischemic events relative to aspirin and to improve bleeding safety profile when compared to warfarin. Incremental LYs (0.31/0.19, QALYs (0.28/0.20, and costs (1,932/1,104 are predicted with the use of apixaban relative to aspirin and warfarin, respectively. The ICERs of apixaban were € 6,794 and € 5,607 per QALY gained, respectively. In PSA, the probability of apixaban being cost effective relative to aspirin and warfarin was 95% and 93%, respectively, for a WTP threshold of € 20,000 per QALY gained

  16. Differentiating clinical care from disease prevention: a prerequisite for practicing quaternary prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Dalcanale Tesser

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article contends that the distinction between clinical care (illness and prevention of future disease is essential to the practice of quaternary prevention. The authors argue that the ongoing entanglement of clinical care and prevention transforms healthy into "sick" people through changes in disease classification criteria and/or cut-off points for defining high-risk states. This diverts health care resources away from those in need of care and increases the risk of iatrogenic harm in healthy people. The distinction in focus is based on: (a management of uncertainty (more flexible when caring for ill persons; (b guarantee of benefit (required only in prevention; (c harm tolerance (nil or minimal in prevention. This implies attitudinal differences in the decision-making process: greater skepticism, scientism and resistance towards preventive action. These should be based on high-quality scientific evidence of end-outcomes that displays a net positive harm/benefit ratio.

  17. Clinical Correlates, Ethnic Differences, and Prognostic Implications of Perivascular Spaces in Transient Ischemic Attack and Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kui-Kai; Li, Linxin; Lovelock, Caroline E; Zamboni, Giovanna; Chan, Tsz-Tai; Chiang, Man-Fung; Lo, Kin-Ting; Küker, Wilhelm; Mak, Henry Ka-Fung; Rothwell, Peter M

    2017-06-01

    Perivascular spaces (PVSs) are considered markers of small vessel disease. However, their long-term prognostic implications in transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke patients are unknown. Ethnic differences in PVS prevalence are also unknown. Two independent prospective studies were conducted, 1 comprising predominantly whites with transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke (OXVASC [Oxford Vascular] study) and 1 comprising predominantly Chinese with ischemic stroke (University of Hong Kong). Clinical and imaging correlates, prognostic implications for stroke and death, and ethnic differences in basal ganglia (BG) and centrum semiovale (CS) PVSs were studied with adjustment for age, sex, vascular risk factors, and scanner strength. Whites with transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke (n=1028) had a higher prevalence of both BG and CS-PVSs compared with Chinese (n=974; >20 BG-PVSs: 22.4% versus 7.1%; >20 CS-PVSs: 45.8% versus 10.4%; P stroke (adjusted hazard ratio compared with 20 PVSs: HR, 1.82; 1.18-2.80; P =0.011) but not intracerebral hemorrhage ( P =0.10) or all-cause mortality ( P =0.16). CS-PVSs were not associated with recurrent stroke ( P =0.57) or mortality ( P =0.072). Prognostic associations were similar in both cohorts. Over and above ethnic differences in frequency of PVSs in transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke patients, BG and CS-PVSs had similar risk factors, but although >20 BG-PVSs were associated with an increased risk of recurrent ischemic stroke, CS-PVSs were not. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Piloting a Sex-Specific, Technology-Enhanced, Active Learning Intervention for Stroke Prevention in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirickson, Amanda; Stutzman, Sonja E; Alberts, Mark J; Novakovic, Roberta L; Stowe, Ann M; Beal, Claudia C; Goldberg, Mark P; Olson, DaiWai M

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies reveal deficiencies in stroke awareness and knowledge of risk factors among women. Existing stroke education interventions may not address common and sex-specific risk factors in the population with the highest stroke-related rate of mortality. This pilot study assessed the efficacy of a technology-enhanced, sex-specific educational program ("SISTERS") for women's knowledge of stroke. This was an experimental pretest-posttest design. The sample consisted of 150 women (mean age, 55 years) with at least 1 stroke risk factor. Participants were randomized to either the intervention (n = 75) or control (n = 75) group. Data were collected at baseline and at a 2-week posttest. There was no statistically significant difference in mean knowledge score (P = .67), mean confidence score (P = .77), or mean accuracy score (P = .75) between the intervention and control groups at posttest. Regression analysis revealed that older age was associated with lower knowledge scores (P women may have less comfort with technology and require consideration for cognitive differences.

  19. Clinical and EEG features of ischemic stroke patients with abnormal discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-lei YANG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical and EEG features of ischemic stroke patients with abnormal discharges.  Methods Clinical data and 24-hour EEG monitoring of 162 ischemic stroke patients were analyzed retrospectively. One-year follow-up was carried out and post-ischemic epilepsy was diagnosed.  Results Among 162 ischemic stroke patients, 24-hour EEG was abnormal in 87 cases (53.70%. According to the correspondence of site of infarcts and abnormal discharges, these 87 cases were classified into 2 groups: matched group (N = 24, 27.59% and unmatched group (N = 63, 72.41%. There was no significant difference between 2 groups in terms of Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP and TOAST classification (P = 0.792, 0.111, while there was significant difference between 2 groups on the site of infarcts (P = 0.000. In matched group, the infarcts were mainly located in cortex (N = 23, 95.83%. However, in unmatched group, the infarcts were mainly located in cortex and basal ganglia (N = 27, 42.86%, or in basal ganglia only (N = 24, 38.10%. In matched group, 24-hour EEG showed slowing of background activities, and sharp waves and sharp and slow wave complex which were corresponding to the infarct sites. The abnormal discharges could only be recorded around the infarct unilaterally. In unmatched group, the epileptiform discharges were recorded in both contralateral and ipsilateral ischemic hemispheres, usually with widespread slow waves and asymmetric background. The infarcts were limited, but abnormal discharges were widespread. For example, the infarct was located in deep brain, while scalp abnormal discharges were recorded. Although there was no significant difference in terms of epilepsy incidence between 2 groups (P = 0.908, the types of epilepsy were statistically different between 2 groups (P = 0.000. In matched group, the main type was partial seizure. But in unmatched group, the main types of epilepsy were secondary generalized seizure and

  20. Relationship between clinical and instrumental balance assessments in chronic post-stroke hemiparesis subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawacha, Zimi; Carraro, Elena; Contessa, Paola; Guiotto, Annamaria; Masiero, Stefano; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-08-13

    Stroke is often associated with balance deficits that increase the risk of falls and may lead to severe mobility disfunctions or death. The purpose of this study is to establish the relation between the outcome of instrumented posturography and of the most commonly used clinical balance tests, and investigate their role for obtaining reliable feedback on stroke patients' balance impairment. Romberg test was performed on 20 subjects, 10 hemiplegic post-stroke subjects (SS, 69.4 ± 8.2 years old) and 10 control subjects (CS, 61.6 ± 8.6 years old), with 1 Bertec force plate. The following parameters were estimated from the centre of pressure (CoP) trajectory, which can be used to define subjects' performance during the balance task: sway area; ellipse (containing 95% of the data); mean CoP path and velocity in the anterior-posterior and medio-lateral directions. The following clinical scales and tests were administered to the subjects: Tinetti Balance test (TB); Berg Balance test (BBT); Time up and go test (TUG), Fugl-Meyer (lower limbs) (FM), Motricity Index (lower limbs), Trunk Control Test, Functional Independence Measure. Comparison between SS and CS subjects was performed by using the Student t-test. The Pearson Correlation coefficient was computed between instrumental and clinical parameters. Mean ± standard deviation for the balance scales scores of SS were: 12.5 ± 3.6 for TB, 42.9 ± 13.1 for BBT, 24 s and 75 cent ± 25 s and 70 cent for TUG. Correlation was found among some CoP parameters and both BBT and TUG in the eyes open and closed conditions (0.9 ≤ R ≤ 0.8). Sway area correlated only with TUG. Statistically significant differences were found between SS and CS in all CoP parameters in eyes open condition (p CoP path and velocity (p balance outcomes, indicating that they might measure different aspects of balance control. Consistently with previous findings in healthy and pathological subjects, our results

  1. Four-year follow-up of transient ischemic attacks, strokes, and mimics: a retrospective transient ischemic attack clinic cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dipankar; Bowen, Emily; Foy, Chris

    2015-05-01

    There is limited information on outcomes from rapid access transient ischemic attack (TIA) clinics. We present 4-year outcomes of TIAs, strokes, and mimics from a UK TIA clinic database. All patients referred between April 2010 and May 2012 were retrospectively identified and outcomes determined. End points were stroke, myocardial infarction, any vascular event (TIA, stroke, or myocardial infarction), and all-cause death. Data were analyzed by survival analysis. Of 1067 patients, 31.6% were TIAs, 18% strokes, and 50.4% mimics. Median assessment time was 4.5 days from onset and follow-up was for 34.9 months. Subsequent strokes occurred in 7.1% of patients with TIA, 10.9% of patients with stroke, and 2.0% of mimics at the end of follow-up. Stroke risk at 90 days was 1.3% for patients diagnosed as TIA or stroke. Compared with mimics, hazard ratios for subsequent stroke were 3.88 (1.90-7.91) for TIA and 5.84 (2.81-12.11) for stroke. Hazard ratio for any subsequent vascular event was 2.91 (1.97-4.30) for TIA and 2.83 (1.81-4.41) for stroke. Hazard ratio for death was 1.68 (1.10-2.56) for TIA and 2.19 (1.38-3.46) for stroke. Our results show a lower 90-day stroke incidence after TIA or minor stroke than in earlier studies, suggesting that rapid access daily TIA clinics may be having a significant effect on reducing strokes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Adherence of physical therapy with clinical practice guidelines for the rehabilitation of stroke in an active inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M S, Ajimsha; Kooven, Smithesh; Al-Mudahka, Noora

    2018-03-09

    Clinical guidelines are systematically developed statements designed to help practitioners and patients to make decisions about appropriate health care. Clinical practice guideline adherence analysis is the best way to fine tune the best practices in a health care industry with international benchmarks. To assess the physical therapist's adherence to structured stroke clinical practice guidelines in an active inpatient rehabilitation center in Qatar. Department of Physical therapy in the stroke rehabilitation tertiary referral hospital in Qatar. A retrospective chart audit was performed on the clinical records of 216 stroke patients discharged from the active inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit with a diagnosis of stroke in 2016. The audit check list was structured to record the adherence of the assessment, goal settings and the management domains as per the "Physical Therapy After Acute Stroke" (PAAS) guideline. Of the 216 case files identified during the initial search, 127 files were ultimately included in the audit. Overall adherence to the clinical practice guideline was 71%, a comparable rate with the studies analyzing the same in various international health care facilities. Domains which were shared by interdisciplinary teams than managed by physical therapy alone and treatments utilizing sophisticated technology had lower adherence with the guideline. A detailed strength and weakness breakdown were then conducted. This audit provides an initial picture of the current adherence of physical therapy assessment and management with the stroke physical therapy guideline at a tertiary rehabilitation hospital in the state of Qatar. An evaluation of the guideline adherence and practice variations helps to fine tune the physical therapy care to a highest possible standard of practice. Implications for Rehabilitation  • An evaluation of the guideline adherence and practice variations helps to fine tune the rehabilitation care to the highest possible standard

  3. Totarol prevents neuronal injury in vitro and ameliorates brain ischemic stroke: Potential roles of Akt activation and HO-1 induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yuanxue; Xu, Xiaojun; Chang, Sai; Wang, Yunjie; Xu, Yazhou; Ran, Siqi; Huang, Zhangjian; Li, Ping; Li, Jia; Zhang, Luyong; Saavedra, Juan M.; Liao, Hong; Pang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The natural product totarol, a phenolic diterpenoid and a major constituent isolated from the sap of Podocarpus totara, has been reported to have a potent antimicrobial activity. In this study, we determined whether totarol possessed an additional neuroprotective activity in vitro and in vivo. We found that totarol prevented glutamate- and oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced neuronal death in primary rat cerebellar granule neuronal cells and cerebral cortical neurons. Totarol increased Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation, Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expressions and suppressed oxidative stress by increasing GSH and SOD activities. The PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 prevented totarol neuroprotective effect by suppressing the totarol-induced changes in HO-1 expression and the activities of GSH and SOD. The HO-1 inhibitor ZnPPIX also prevented totarol-increased GSH and SOD activities. In a model of acute cerebral ischemic injury in Sprague–Dawley rats, produced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 2 h followed by 22 h or 46 h of reperfusion, totarol significantly reduced infarct volume and improved the neurological deficit. In this model, totarol increased HO-1 expression and the activities of GSH and SOD. These observations suggest that totarol may be a novel activator of the Akt/HO-1 pathway protecting against ischemic stroke through reduction of oxidative stress. - Graphical abstract: It is unknown whether the natural product totarol has neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. This study underscores that totarol prevents neuronal injury in vitro, not only by activating PI3K/Akt pathway, but also via induction of Nrf2, HO-1, GSH and SOD expressions. Totarol also ameliorated acute cerebral ischemic injury in a rat ischemic stroke model. The findings highlight that totarol may be exploited for protecting against ischemic stroke through Akt/HO-1 pathway. - Highlights: • Totarol protects glutamate- and OGD-induced neuronal injury in vitro.

  4. Serum Potassium Is Positively Associated With Stroke and Mortality in the Large, Population-Based Malmö Preventive Project Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Linda S; Mattsson, Nick; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Wollmer, Per; Söderholm, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Low serum potassium is associated with stroke in populations with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus but has not been studied in a mainly healthy population. We aimed to study the relation between serum potassium and incident stroke and mortality in the Malmö Preventive Project, a large cohort with screening in early mid-life and follow-up >25 years. Serum potassium measurements and covariates were available in 21 353 individuals (79% men, mean age 44 years). Mean follow-up time was 26.9 years for stroke analyses and 29.3 years for mortality analyses. There were 2061 incident stroke events and 8709 deaths. Cox regression analyses adjusted for multiple stroke risk factors (age, sex, height, weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, serum sodium, current smoking, prevalent diabetes mellitus, prevalent coronary artery disease, and treatment for hypertension) were fitted. There was an independent, linear association between serum potassium, per mmol/L increase, and both stroke (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.52; P stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage and in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Serum potassium, measured in early mid-life, was linearly associated with both incidence of ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage and all-cause mortality. An interaction with serum sodium implies that factors related to electrolyte balance and incident hypertension may be mediating factors. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. "Clinical-CT mismatch" and the response to systemic thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David M; Hill, Michael D; Ruthazer, Robin; Coutts, Shelagh B; Demchuk, Andrew M; Dzialowski, Imanuel; Wunderlich, Olaf; von Kummer, Rudiger

    2005-08-01

    Mismatch between clinical deficits and imaging lesions in acute stroke has been proposed as a method of identifying patients who have hypoperfused but still have viable brain, and may be especially apt to respond to reperfusion therapy. We explored this hypothesis using a combined database including 4 major clinical trials of intravenous (IV) thrombolytic therapy. To determine what the radiological correlates of a "matched" functional deficit are, we calculated the relationship between the ASPECT score of the 24-hour (follow-up) CT scan and the 24-hour National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on the subsample with ASPECT scores performed at this time (n=820). Based on this empirical relationship, we computed the absolute difference between the observed baseline ASPECT score and the "expected" score (ie, matched) based on baseline NIHSS for all patients (n=2131). We tested whether patients with better than expected baseline ASPECTS were more likely to benefit from IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activation (rtPA). At 24 hours, there was a strong, linear, negative correlation between NIHSS and ASPECTS (r2=0.33, P<0.0001); on average, an increase of 10 points on NIHSS corresponded to a decrease of approximately 3 points on ASPECTS. At baseline, the average degree of mismatch between the observed and "expected" ASPECTS was 2.1 points (interquartile range, 1.0 to 3.4). However, multiple analyses failed to reveal a consistent relationship between the degree of clinical-CT mismatch at baseline and a patient's likelihood of benefiting from IV rtPA. Clinical-CT mismatch using ASPECT scoring does not reliably identify patients more or less likely to benefit from IV rtPA.

  6. Clinical Outcome And Arginine Serum of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Supplemented by Snakehead Fish Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudjonarko, Dwi; Retnaningsih; Abidin, Zainal

    2018-02-01

    Background: Levels of arginine associated with clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Arginine is a protein needed to synthesis nitric oxide (NO), a potential vasodilator and antioxidant. Snakehead fish is a source of protein which has antioxidant activity. Snakehead fish contains mineral, vitamin, and amino acids. One of the amino acids that were found quite high in snakehead fish extract is arginine. The aim of this study was done to determine the effect of snakehead fish extracts (SFE) on serum arginin levels and clinical outcome of AIS patients. Methods: It was double-blind randomized pretest-posttest control group design, with. AIS patients were divided into two groups i.e. snakehead fish extracts (SFE) and control. SFE group were administered 15 grams SFE for 7 days . Arginine serum levels and clinical outcome (measured by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale = NIHSS) were measured before and after treatment, other related factors were also analyzed in Logistic regression. Results: A total of 42 subjects who were performed random allocation as SFE or control group. There was no differences in subject characteristics between the two groups. There was a differences Δ arginine serum levels between SFE and control (33.6±19.95 μmol/L 0.3±2.51 μmol/L p<0.001). Change in NIHSS score in SFE improved significantly compared to the control group (4.14 ± 2.03; 2.52 ± 1.81;p=0.009 ). Logistic regression analysis showed only female gender factor that affected on improvement of NIHSS (OR=7; p=0,01). Conclusion: There is Clinical outcome improvement and enhancement of arginine serum le