Statins improve infarct volume and neurological outcome in animal stroke models. We investigated the relationship between statin therapy and ischemic stroke outcome in the North Dublin Population Stroke Study.
Nkusi, Agabe Emmy; Muneza, Severien; Nshuti, Steven; Hakizimana, David; Munyemana, Paulin; Nkeshimana, Menelas; Rudakemwa, Emmanuel; Amendezo, Etienne
Cerebrovascular accidents or stroke constitute the second leading cause of mortality worldwide. Low- and middle-income countries bear most of the stroke burden worldwide. The main objective of this study is to determine the burden of stroke in Rwanda. This was a prospective observational study in 2 parts: 6 months baseline data collection and outcome assessment sessions at 1 year. A total of 96 patients were enrolled in our series. Stroke constituted 2100 per 100,000 population. Of all patients, 55.2% were male and most (60%) were 55 years and older. Of all patients and/or caretakers, 22% were not aware of their previous health status and 53.5% of hypertensive patients were not on treatment by the time of the event. Median presentation delay was 72 hours for patients with ischemic stroke and 24 hours for patients with hemorrhagic stroke. Most patients had hemorrhagic stroke (65% vs. 35%), and more patients with hemorrhagic stroke presented with loss of consciousness (80% vs. 51%). Many patients (62% ischemic group and 44% hemorrhagic group) presented with severe stroke scores, and this was associated with worst outcome (P = 0.004). At 1 year follow-up, 24.7% had no or mild disability, 14.3% were significantly disabled, and 61% had died. Our results show that stroke is a significant public health concern in Rwanda. Risk factor awareness and control are still low and case fatality of stroke is significantly high. The significant delay in presentation to care and presentation with severe stroke are major contributors for the high mortality and severe disability rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maree L Hackett
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine which early modifiable factors are associated with younger stroke survivors' ability to return to paid work in a cohort study with 12-months of follow-up conducted in 20 stroke units in the Stroke Services NSW clinical network. PARTICIPANTS: Were aged >17 and <65 years, recent (within 28 days stroke, able to speak English sufficiently to respond to study questions, and able to provide written informed consent. Participants with language or cognitive impairment were eligible to participate if their proxy provided consent and completed assessments on the participants' behalf. The main outcome measure was return to paid work during the 12 months following stroke. RESULTS: Of 441 consented participants (average age 52 years, 68% male, 83% with ischemic stroke, 218 were in paid full-time and 53 in paid part-time work immediately before their stroke, of whom 202 (75% returned to paid part- or full-time work within 12 months. Being male, female without a prior activity restricting illness, younger, independent in activities of daily living (ADL at 28 days after stroke, and having private health insurance was associated with return to paid work, following adjustment for other illnesses and a history of depression before stroke (C statistic 0·81. Work stress and post stroke depression showed no such independent association. CONCLUSIONS: Given that independence in ADL is the strongest predictor of return to paid work within 12 months of stroke, these data reinforce the importance of reducing stroke-related disability and increasing independence for younger stroke survivors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZCTRN 12608000459325.
Du, Juan; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Jingze; Xu, Qiang; Hu, Jianping; Zeng, Fanyong; Lu, Guangming; Liu, Xinfeng
An accurate prediction of long term outcome after stroke is urgently required to provide early individualized neurorehabilitation. This study aimed to examine the added value of early neuroimaging measures and identify the best approaches for predicting motor outcome after stroke. This prospective study involved 34 first-ever ischemic stroke patients (time since stroke: 1-14 days) with upper limb impairment. All patients underwent baseline multimodal assessments that included clinical (age, motor impairment), neurophysiological (motor-evoked potentials, MEP) and neuroimaging (diffusion tensor imaging and motor task-based fMRI) measures, and also underwent reassessment 3 months after stroke. Bivariate analysis and multivariate linear regression models were used to predict the motor scores (Fugl-Meyer assessment, FMA) at 3 months post-stroke. With bivariate analysis, better motor outcome significantly correlated with (1) less initial motor impairment and disability, (2) less corticospinal tract injury, (3) the initial presence of MEPs, (4) stronger baseline motor fMRI activations. In multivariate analysis, incorporating neuroimaging data improved the predictive accuracy relative to only clinical and neurophysiological assessments. Baseline fMRI activation in SMA was an independent predictor of motor outcome after stroke. A multimodal model incorporating fMRI and clinical measures best predicted the motor outcome following stroke. fMRI measures obtained early after stroke provided independent prediction of long-term motor outcome.
Cordenier, Ann; De Smedt, Ann; Brouns, Raf; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; De Raedt, Sylvie; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; De Keyser, Jacques
Background: Animal pre-clinical studies suggest that statins may have neuroprotective effects in acute ischaemic stroke. Statins might also increase the risk of developing haemorrhagic transformation after thrombolytic treatment. Methods: We performed a systematic review and included studies that
Goeggel Simonetti, Barbara; Mono, Marie-Luise; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Michel, Patrik; Odier, Celine; Sztajzel, Roman; Lyrer, Philippe; Engelter, Stefan T; Bonati, Leo; Gensicke, Henrik; Traenka, Christopher; Tettenborn, Barbara; Weder, Bruno; Fischer, Urs; Galimanis, Aekaterini; Jung, Simon; Luedi, Rudolf; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Weck, Anja; Cereda, Carlo W; Baumgartner, Ralf; Bassetti, Claudio L; Mattle, Heinrich P; Nedeltchev, Krassen; Arnold, Marcel
Ischaemic stroke (IS) in young adults has been increasingly recognized as a serious health condition. Stroke aetiology is different in young adults than in the older population. This study aimed to investigate aetiology and risk factors, and to search for predictors of outcome and recurrence in young IS patients. We conducted a prospective multicentre study of consecutive IS patients aged 16-55 years. Baseline demographic data, risk factors, stroke aetiology including systematic genetic screening for Fabry disease and severity were assessed and related to functional neurological outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS), case fatality, employment status, place of residence, and recurrent cerebrovascular events at 3 months. In 624 IS patients (60% men), median age was 46 (IQR 39-51) years and median NIHSS on admission 3 (IQR 1-8). Modifiable vascular risk factors were found in 73%. Stroke aetiology was mostly cardioembolism (32%) and of other defined origin (24%), including cervicocerebral artery dissection (17%). Fabry disease was diagnosed in 2 patients (0.3%). Aetiology remained unknown in 20%. Outcome at 3 months was favourable (mRS 0-1) in 61% and fatal in 2.9%. Stroke severity (p young adults with IS had modifiable vascular risk factors, emphasizing the importance of prevention strategies. Outcome was unfavourable in more than a third of patients and was associated with initial stroke severity and diabetes mellitus. Previous cerebrovascular events predicted recurrent ones.
Krishnamurthi, Rita; Jones, Amy; Barber, P Alan; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn; Bennett, Derrick; Rush, Elaine; Suh, Flora; Starkey, Nicola; Theadom, Alice; Parag, Varsha; Rathnasabapathy, Yogini; Feigin, Valery L
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Stroke burden is immense as it leads to premature deaths, leaves survivors with ongoing disabilities, and has a major financial impact on the individual, their families, and the community. Reliable, high-quality evidence is needed on stroke risk factors, incidence, and outcomes to provide information on how best to reduce this burden. Population-based studies are regarded as the 'gold-standard' of measuring disease burden but are not common due to the logistical and financial challenges they present. The Auckland Regional Community Stroke Studies are among a few in the world that have been carried out at a population level and at regular intervals. The aim of the fourth Auckland Regional Community Stroke Studies IV is to examine the current measures of stroke incidence, prevalence, and outcomes as well the trends over four decades. This article describes the methodology of the Auckland Regional Community Stroke Studies IV with stroke and transient ischemic attacks cases registered over a 12-month period from March 1, 2011 to February 29, 2012. The methodology described may be used as a guide in order to design similar population-based stroke incidence and outcome studies in other countries and populations, thus facilitating the collection of most consistent and accurate stroke epidemiological data. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.
Arntz, R.M.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of poststroke epilepsy on long-term functional outcome in young stroke survivors. METHODS: This study is a prospective cohort study among 537 stroke survivors with a first-ever TIA, ischemic stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhagic (ICH) stroke, aged 18 to 50 years.
Conclusion: We conclude that, apart from risk factors and stroke subtypes, the functional outcomes observed in the two groups differed. Early identification of these differences with good management may help to improve the clinical outcomes in younger stroke patients.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke contributes significantly to disability and mortality in developing countries yet little is known about the determinants of stroke outcomes in such countries. 12% of Malawian adults have HIV/AIDS. It is not known whether having HIV-infection alters the outcome of stroke. The aim of this study was to document the functional outcome and mortality at 1 year of first-ever acute stroke in Malawi. Also to find out if the baseline variables, including HIV-infection, affect the outcome of stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 147 adult patients with first-ever acute stroke were prospectively followed up for 12 months. Conventional risk factors and HIV-infection were assessed at baseline. Stroke severity was evaluated with modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (mNIHSS and functional outcome with modified Rankin scale (mRS. Fifty (34% of patients were HIV-seropositive. 53.4% of patients had a poor outcome (severe disability or death, mRS 4-6 at 1 year. Poor outcome was related to stroke severity and female gender but not to presence of HIV-infection. HIV-seropositive patients were younger and had less often common risk factors for stroke. They suffer more often ischemic stroke than HIV-seronegative patients. CONCLUSIONS: Mild stroke and male gender were associated with favourable outcome. HIV-infection is common in stroke patients in Malawi but does not worsen the outcome of stroke. However, it may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke for young people, who do not have the common stroke risk factors. Our results are significant, because stroke outcome in HIV-seropositive patients has not been studied before in a setting such as ours, with very limited resources and a high prevalence of HIV.
Kameran Hassan Ismail
Full Text Available Background and objective: Stroke is an increasing problem in developing countries and is the principal cause of disability and dependency in the western world. This study aimed to find out the one- and six-month case fatality, dependency and recurrence rates of stroke in Erbil teaching hospitals. Methods: This hospital-based prospective study included 293 stroke patients hospitalized in Erbil teaching hospitals from January 1st, 2015 through December 31st, 2015. Stroke was diagnosed by a consultant internist or neurologist and confirmed by brain CT-scan and/or MRI. Patients were followed-up for six months, then one- and six-month outcomes were measured including case-fatality, dependency and recurrences rates. Results: The one and six month case fatality rates were 28.3% and 37.5%, respectively. The rates in females (33.3%, 42.6%, respectively were higher than that in males (23.7%, 32.9%, respectively, but there was no significant association between case-fatality rate and gender. A total of 74.3% and 45.4% of patients at one- and six-month were functionally dependent. The majority (88.9% of diabetic patients were functionally dependent. Also, the one and six month recurrence rates of stroke patients were 15.7% and 23.2%, respectively. For both one and six month post stroke more recurrence occurred from ischemic (16.2%, 14.3%, respectively than from hemorrhagic (24.5%, 19.5%, respectively strokes, but there was no significant association between the recurrence and stroke subtype (P = 0.691, P = 0.367, respectively. Conclusion: The reported outcomes are relatively comparable to that reported in other developing countries, although it is still more than the rates of developed countries. Outcome measures can help to give information and develop guidelines for clinical practice and research. Keywords: Stroke; Case fatality; Recurrence; Functional outcome.
Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Smania, Nicola; Bisoffi, Giulia; Squaquara, Teresa; Zuccher, Paola; Mazzucco, Sara
Stroke is a major cause of dysphagia. Few studies to date have reported on standardized multidisciplinary protocolized approaches to the management of post-stroke dysphagia. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the impact of a standardized multidisciplinary protocol on clinical outcomes in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. We performed retrospective chart reviews of patients with post-stroke dysphagia admitted to the neurological ward of Verona University Hospital from 2004 to 2008. Outcomes after usual treatment for dysphagia (T- group) were compared versus outcomes after treatment under a standardized diagnostic and rehabilitative multidisciplinary protocol (T+ group). Outcome measures were death, pneumonia on X-ray, need for respiratory support, and proportion of patients on tube feeding at discharge. Of the 378 patients admitted with stroke, 84 had dysphagia and were enrolled in the study. A significantly lower risk of in-hospital death (odds ratio [OR] 0.20 [0.53-0.78]), pneumonia (OR 0.33 [0.10-1.03]), need for respiratory support (OR 0.48 [0.14-1.66]), and tube feeding at discharge (OR 0.30 [0.09-0.91]) was recorded for the T+ group (N = 39) as compared to the T- group (N = 45). The adjusted OR showed no difference between the two groups for in-hospital death and tube feeding at discharge. Use of a standardized multidisciplinary protocolized approach to the management of post-stroke dysphagia may significantly reduce rates of aspiration pneumonia, in-hospital mortality, and tube feeding in dysphagic stroke survivors. Consistent with the study's exploratory purposes, our findings suggest that the multidisciplinary protocol applied in this study offers an effective model of management of post-stroke dysphagia.
Gustavo W. Kuster
Full Text Available Background. Stroke mortality in Brazil is one of the highest among Western countries. Nonetheless, stroke outcome determinants are still poorly known in this country. In this study we evaluate outcome determinants of stroke in a primary stroke center in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods. We evaluated demographic, clinical, and outcome data of patients with ischemic stroke (IS, transient ischemic attack (TIA, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH admitted at “Hospital Paulistano,” São Paulo, Brazil. In-hospital mortality and functional outcome determinants were assessed. Univariate and binary logistic regression analysis were performed. Results. Three hundred forty-one patients were included in the study, 52.2% being male with 66.8±15.7 years. The stroke type distribution was IS: 59.2%, TIA: 29.6%, and ICH: 11.1%. ICH was associated with greater severity and poorer functional outcome. The determinants of poorer functional outcome were higher NIHSS, lower Glasgow score, and lower oxygen saturation level. The most important mortality determinant was the presence of visual symptoms. Conclusions. The stroke mortality and stroke outcome determinants found in the present study do not remarkably differ from studies carried out in developed countries. Stroke prognosis studies are crucial to better understand the high burden of stroke in Brazil.
Pedersen, P M; Jørgensen, H S; Kammersgaard, L P; Nakayama, H; Raaschou, H O; Olsen, T S
To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome. Seven hundred seventy six unselected, acute stroke patients who were admitted within seven days of stroke onset with unimpaired consciousness were included. If possible, the patients were assessed for manual and oral apraxia on acute admission. Neurologic stroke severity including aphasia was assessed with the Scandinavian Stroke Scale, and activities of daily living function was assessed with the Barthel Index. All patients completed their rehabilitation in the same large stroke unit. Six hundred eighteen patients could cooperate with the apraxia assessments. Manual apraxia was found in 7% of subjects (10% in left and 4% in right hemispheric stroke; chi2 = 9.0; P = 0.003). Oral apraxia was found in 6% (9% in left and 4% in right hemispheric stroke; chi2 = 5.4; P = 0.02). Both manual and oral apraxia were related to increasing stroke severity, and manual, but not oral, apraxia was associated with increasing age. There was no gender difference in frequency of apraxia. Patients with either type of apraxia had temporal lobe involvement more often than patients without. When analyzed with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses, neither manual nor oral apraxia had any independent influence on functional outcome. Apraxia is significantly less frequent in unselected patients with acute stroke than has previously been assumed and has no independent negative influence on functional outcome.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In New Zealand, around 45,000 people live with stroke and many studies have reported that benefits gained during initial rehabilitation are not sustained. Evidence indicates that participation in physical interventions can prevent the functional decline that frequently occurs after discharge from acute care facilities. However, on-going stroke services provision following discharge from acute care is often related to non-medical factors such as availability of resources and geographical location. Currently most people receive no treatment beyond three months post stroke. The study aims to determine if the Augmented Community Telerehabilitation Intervention (ACTIV results in better physical function for people with stroke than usual care, as measured by the Stroke Impact Scale, physical subcomponent. Methods/design This study will use a multi-site, two-arm, assessor blinded, parallel randomised controlled trial design. People will be eligible if they have had their first ever stroke, are over 20 and have some physical impairment in either arm or leg, or both. Following discharge from formal physiotherapy services (inpatient, outpatient or community, participants will be randomised into ACTIV or usual care. ACTIV uses readily available technology, telephone and mobile phones, combined with face-to-face visits from a physiotherapist over a six-month period, to help people with stroke resume activities they enjoyed before the stroke. The impact of stroke on physical function and quality of life will be assessed, measures of cost will be collected and a discrete choice survey will be used to measure preferences for rehabilitation options. These outcomes will be collected at baseline, six months and 12 months. In-depth interviews will be used to explore the experiences of people participating in the intervention arm of the study. Discussion The lack of on-going rehabilitation for people with stroke diminishes the chance of their
Willeit, Johann; Geley, Theresa; Schöch, Johannes; Rinner, Heinrich; Tür, Andreas; Kreuzer, Hans; Thiemann, Norbert; Knoflach, Michael; Toell, Thomas; Pechlaner, Raimund; Willeit, Karin; Klingler, Natalie; Praxmarer, Silvia; Baubin, Michael; Beck, Gertrud; Berek, Klaus; Dengg, Christian; Engelhardt, Klaus; Erlacher, Thomas; Fluckinger, Thomas; Grander, Wilhelm; Grossmann, Josef; Kathrein, Hermann; Kaiser, Norbert; Matosevic, Benjamin; Matzak, Heinrich; Mayr, Markus; Perfler, Robert; Poewe, Werner; Rauter, Alexandra; Schoenherr, Gudrun; Schoenherr, Hans-Robert; Schinnerl, Adolf; Spiss, Heinrich; Thurner, Theresa; Vergeiner, Gernot; Werner, Philipp; Wöll, Ewald; Willeit, Peter; Kiechl, Stefan
Intravenous thrombolysis for ischaemic stroke remains underused worldwide. We aimed to assess whether our statewide comprehensive stroke management programme would improve thrombolysis use and clinical outcome in patients. In 2008-09, we designed the Tyrol Stroke Pathway, which provided information campaigns for the public and standardised the entire treatment pathway from stroke onset to outpatient rehabilitation. It was commenced in Tyrol, Austria, as a long-term routine-care programme and aimed to include all patients with stroke in the survey area. We focused on thrombolysis use and outcome in the first full 4 years of implementation (2010-13). We enrolled 4947 (99%) of 4992 patients with ischaemic stroke who were admitted to hospitals in Tyrol; 675 (14%) of the enrollees were treated with alteplase. Thrombolysis administration in Tyrol increased after programme implementation, from 160 of 1238 patients (12·9%, 95% CI 11·1-14·9) in 2010 to 213 of 1266 patients (16·8%, 14·8-19·0) in 2013 (ptrend 2010-13stroke programmes, thrombolysis administration remained stable or declined between 2010 and 2013 (mean reduction 14·4%, 95% CI 10·9-17·9). Although the 3-month mortality was not affected by our programme (137 [13%] of 1060 patients in 2010 vs 143 [13%] of 1069 patients in 2013), 3-month functional outcome significantly improved (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 in 375 [40%] of 944 patients in 2010 vs 493 [53%] of 939 in 2013; score 0-2 in 531 [56%] patients in 2010 and 615 [65%] in 2013; ptrend 2010-13stroke management programme, thrombolysis administration increased and clinical outcome significantly improved, although mortality did not change. We hope that these results will guide health authorities and stroke physicians elsewhere when implementing similar programmes for patients with stroke. Reformpool of the Tyrolean Health Care Fund. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vibo, R; Kõrv, J; Roose, M
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the outcome at 1 year following a first-ever stroke based on a population-based registry from 2001 to 2003 in Tartu, Estonia. The outcome of first-ever stroke was assessed in 433 patients by stroke risk factors, demographic data and stroke severity at onset using the Barthel Index (BI) score and the modified Rankin Score (mRS) at seventh day, 6 months and 1 year. Female sex, older age, blood glucose value >10 mmol/l on admission and more severe stroke on admission were the best predictors of dependency 1 year following the first-ever stroke. At 1 year, the percentage of functionally dependent patients was 20% and the survival rate was 56%. The use of antihypertensive/antithrombotic medication prior to stroke did not significantly affect the outcome. The survival rate of stroke patients in Tartu is lower compared with other studied populations. The outcome of stroke was mainly determined by the initial severity of stroke and by elevated blood glucose value on admission. Patients with untreated hypertension had more severe stroke and trend for unfavourable outcome compared with those who were on treatment.
Zaganas, Ioannis; Halpin, Amy P; Oleinik, Alexandra; Alegakis, Athanasios; Kotzamani, Dimitra; Zafiris, Spiros; Chlapoutaki, Chryssanthi; Tsimoulis, Dimitris; Giannakoudakis, Emmanouil; Chochlidakis, Nikolaos; Ntailiani, Aikaterini; Valatsou, Christina; Papadaki, Efrosini; Vakis, Antonios; Furie, Karen L; Greenberg, Steven M; Plaitakis, Andreas
Although corticosteroid use in acute hemorrhagic stroke is not widely adopted, management with intravenous dexamethasone has been standard of care at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete with observed outcomes superior to those reported in the literature. To explore this further, we conducted a retrospective, multivariable-adjusted 2-center study. We studied 391 acute hemorrhagic stroke cases admitted to the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete between January 1997 and July 2010 and compared them with 510 acute hemorrhagic stroke cases admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, from January 2003 to September 2009. Of the Cretan cases, 340 received a tapering scheme of intravenous dexamethasone, starting with 16 to 32 mg/day, whereas the Boston patients were managed without steroids. The 2 cohorts had comparable demographics and stroke severity on admission, although anticoagulation was more frequent in Boston. The in-hospital mortality was significantly lower on Crete (23.8%, n=340) than in Boston (38.0%, n=510; Pmortality (Crete: 25.4%, n=307; Boston: 39.4%, n=510; Pmortality: Crete 20.8%; n=259; Boston 37.0%; n=359; Phemorrhages. After adjusting for acute hemorrhagic stroke volume/location, Glasgow Coma Scale, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, coronary artery disease and statin, antiplatelet, and anticoagulant use, intravenous dexamethasone treatment was associated with better functional outcomes and significantly lower risk of death at 30 days (OR, 0.357; 95% CI, 0.174-0.732). This study suggests that intravenous dexamethasone improves outcome in acute hemorrhagic stroke and supports a randomized clinical trial using this approach.
Schneider, Hauke; Hertel, Franziska; Kuhn, Matthias; Ragaller, Maximilian; Gottschlich, Birgit; Trabitzsch, Anne; Dengl, Markus; Neudert, Marcus; Reichmann, Heinz; Wöpking, Sigrid
Tracheostomy is performed in ventilated stroke patients affected by persisting severe dysphagia, reduced level of consciousness, or prolonged mechanical ventilation. The study aim was to determine the frequency and predictors of successful decannulation and long-term functional outcome in tracheotomized stroke patients. A prospective single-center observational study recruited ventilated patients with ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Follow-up visits were performed at hospital discharge, 3, and 12 months. Competing risk analyses were performed to identify predictors of decannulation. We included 53 ventilated stroke patients who had tracheostomy. One year after tracheostomy, 19 patients were decannulated (median [IQR] time to decannulation 74 [58-117] days), 13 patients were permanently cannulated, and 21 patients died without prior removal of the cannula. Independent predictors for decannulation in our cohort were patient age (HR 0.95 [95% CI: 0.92-0.99] per one year increase, p = 0.003) and absence of sepsis (HR 4.44 [95% CI: 1.33-14.80], p = 0.008). Compared to surviving patients without cannula removal, decannulated patients had an improved functional outcome after one year (median modified Rankin Scale score 4 vs. 5 [p tracheostomy and was associated with better functional outcome compared to patients without decannulation. Further prospective studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm our results.
De Raedt, S.; Haentjens, P.; De Smedt, A.; Brouns, R.; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Luijckx, G. J.; De Keyser, J.
Background and purpose: It is unclear whether pre-stroke beta-blockers use may influence stroke outcome. This study evaluates the independent effect of pre-stroke use of beta-blockers on ischaemic stroke severity and 3 months functional outcome. Methods: Pre-stroke use of beta-blockers was
González, R. Gilberto; Lev, Michael H.; Goldmacher, Gregory V.; Smith, Wade S.; Payabvash, Seyedmehdi; Harris, Gordon J.; Halpern, Elkan F.; Koroshetz, Walter J.; Camargo, Erica C. S.; Dillon, William P.; Furie, Karen L.
Purpose To improve ischemic stroke outcome prediction using imaging information from a prospective cohort who received admission CT angiography (CTA). Methods In a prospectively designed study, 649 stroke patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke had admission NIH stroke scale scores, noncontrast CT (NCCT), CTA, and 6-month outcome assessed using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores. Poor outcome was defined as mRS>2. Strokes were classified as “major” by the (1) Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS+) if NCCT ASPECTS was≤7; (2) Boston Acute Stroke Imaging Scale (BASIS+) if they were ASPECTS+ or CTA showed occlusion of the distal internal carotid, proximal middle cerebral, or basilar arteries; and (3) NIHSS for scores>10. Results Of 649 patients, 253 (39.0%) had poor outcomes. NIHSS, BASIS, and age, but not ASPECTS, were independent predictors of outcome. BASIS and NIHSS had similar sensitivities, both superior to ASPECTS (p10/BASIS+ had poor outcomes, versus 21.5% (77/358) with NIHSS≤10/BASIS− (p10/BASIS+ compared to patients who are NIHSS≤10/BASIS−; the odds ratio is 5.4 (95% CI: 3.5 to 8.5) when compared to patients who are only NIHSS>10 or BASIS+. Conclusions BASIS and NIHSS are independent outcome predictors. Their combination is stronger than either instrument alone in predicting outcomes. The findings suggest that CTA is a significant clinical tool in routine acute stroke assessment. PMID:22276182
This thesis is based on findings of the Functional Prognostication and disability study on stroke, which had two main objectives: (1) to examine which outcome measures are most appropriate, and especially most responsive, for the assessment of functional outcome in stroke patients and (2) to study
Masjuan, J; Gállego Culleré, J; Ignacio García, E; Mira Solves, J J; Ollero Ortiz, A; Vidal de Francisco, D; López-Mesonero, L; Bestué, M; Albertí, O; Acebrón, F; Navarro Soler, I M
Organisational capacity in terms of resources and care circuits to shorten response times in new stroke cases is key to obtaining positive outcomes. This study compares therapeutic approaches and treatment outcomes between traditional care centres (with stroke teams and no stroke unit) and centres with stroke units. We conducted a prospective, quasi-experimental study (without randomisation of the units analysed) to draw comparisons between 2 centres with stroke units and 4 centres providing traditional care through the neurology department, analysing a selection of agreed indicators for monitoring quality of stroke care. A total of 225 patients participated in the study. In addition, self-administered questionnaires were used to collect patients' evaluations of the service and healthcare received. Centres with stroke units showed shorter response times after symptom onset, both in the time taken to arrive at the centre and in the time elapsed from patient's arrival at the hospital to diagnostic imaging. Hospitals with stroke units had greater capacity to respond through the application of intravenous thrombolysis than centres delivering traditional neurological care. Centres with stroke units showed a better fit to the reference standards for stroke response time, as calculated in the Quick study, than centres providing traditional care through the neurology department. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Xu, Tao; Ou, Shu; Liu, Xi; Yu, Xinyuan; Yuan, Jinxian; Huang, Hao; Chen, Yangmei
Abstract A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to investigate a potential association between post-ischemic stroke seizures (PISS) and subsequent ischemic stroke (IS) outcome. A systematic search of two electronic databases (Medline and Embase) was conducted to identify studies that explored an association between PISS and IS outcome. The primary and secondary IS outcomes of interest were mortality and disability, respectively, with the latter defined as a score of 3 to 5 on th...
Honeybul, Stephen; Ho, Kwok M; Blacker, David W
There continues to be considerable interest in the use of decompressive hemicraniectomy in the management of malignant cerebral artery infarction; however, concerns remain about long-term outcome. To assess opinion on consent and acceptable outcome among a wide range of healthcare workers. Seven hundred seventy-three healthcare workers at the 2 major public neurosurgical centers in Western Australia participated. Participants were asked to record their opinion on consent and acceptable outcome based on the modified Rankin Score (mRS). The evidence for clinical efficacy of the procedure was presented, and participants were then asked to reconsider their initial responses. Of the 773 participants included in the study, 407 (52.7%) initially felt that they would provide consent for a decompressive craniectomy as a lifesaving procedure, but only a minority of them considered an mRS score of 4 or 5 an acceptable outcome (for mRS score ≤4, n = 67, 8.7%; for mRS score = 4, n = 57, 7.4%). After the introduction of the concept of the disability paradox and the evidence for the clinical efficacy of decompressive craniectomy, more participants were unwilling to accept decompressive craniectomy (18.1% vs 37.8%), but at the same time, more were willing to accept an mRS score ≤4 as an acceptable outcome (for mRS score ≤4, n = 92, 11.9%; for mRS score = 4, n = 79, 10.2%). Most participants felt survival with dependency to be unacceptable. However, many would be willing to provide consent for surgery in the hopes that they may survive with some degree of independence. DESTINY, Decompressive Surgery for the Treatment of Malignant Infarction of the Middle Cerebral ArterymRS, modified Rankin Scale.
Ahmed, R.; Zuberi, F.Z.; Afsar, S.
Objective: To evaluate the baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score as a predictor of functional outcome after ischemic stroke. Subjects and Methods: The study included 50 patients who presented to Civil Hospital, Karachi, during the study period with acute stroke and were evaluated with CT scan of brain. Only those patients were enrolled in the study that had acute ischemic stroke. The enrolled subjects were then evaluated for the neurological impairment using National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The subjects were followed-up and their functional outcome was assessed using Barthel index (BI) on the 7th day of their admission. Results: Of the fifty patients enrolled in the study, 31 (62%) were males and 19 (38%) were females, with age ranging from 45 years to 95 years and a mean age of 59.9 years. Neurological impairment at presentation was assessed by NIHSS. The score ranged between 2 and 28. The functional outcome was evaluated on the 7th day using Barthel index (BI), which ranged from 0 to 80. NIHSS score was found to be a good predictor of functional outcome in patients with ischemic stroke (p<0.001). Other factors like gender, hypertension and heart disease did not affect the functional recovery in such patients. Various factors were found to be significant for early prediction of stroke recovery. The NIHSS score was the strongest predictor of outcome after ischemic stroke. Age at the time of the event was also found to be an important predictor for stroke recovery. Conclusion: The NIHSS score is a good predictor of patient's recovery after stroke. Assessing the patient's neurological impairment at first presentation of ischemic stroke can guide the physician regarding the prognosis and management plan. (author)
Heugten, C.M. van; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Dijk, A.J. van; Stehmann-Saris, J.C.; Kinebanian, A.
Objective: Evaluation of a therapy programme for srorke patients with apraxia. The programme is based on teaching patients strategies to compensate for the presence of apraxia. This programme was designed for assessment and treatment by occupational therapists. Design: The outcome was studied in de pre-post design. Measurements were conducted at baseline and 12 weeks later. Subjects: Thirty-three stroke patients with apraxia were treated at occupational therapy departments in general hospital...
Awosanya Gbolahan O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia is a potentially modifiable risk factor for stroke, and may have a negative impact on the course of ischaemic stroke. The role of hyperhomocysteinemia as it relates to stroke in Africans is still uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and short-term impact of hyperhomocysteinemia in Nigerians with acute ischaemic stroke. We hypothesized that Hcy levels are significantly higher than in normal controls, worsen stroke severity, and increase short-term case fatality rates following acute ischaemic stroke. Methods The study employed both a case-control and prospective follow-up design to study hospitalized adults with first – ever acute ischaemic stroke presenting within 48 hours of onset. Clinical histories, neurological evaluation (including National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores on admission were documented. Total plasma Hcy was determined on fasting samples drawn from controls and stroke cases (within 24 hours of hospitalization. Outcome at 4 weeks was assessed in stroke patients using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS. Results We evaluated 155 persons (69 acute ischaemic stroke and 86 healthy controls. The mean age ± SD of the cases was 58.8 ± 9.8 years, comparable to that of controls which was 58.3 ± 9.9 years (T = 0.32; P = 0.75. The mean duration of stroke (SD prior to hospitalization was 43.5 ± 38.8 hours, and mean admission NIHSS score was 10.1 ± 7.7. Total fasting Hcy in stroke patients was 10.2 ± 4.6 umol/L and did not differ significantly from controls (10.1 ± 3.6 umol/L; P = 0.88. Hyperhomocysteinemia, defined by plasma Hcy levels > 90th percentile of controls (>14.2 umol/L in women and >14.6 umol/L in men, was present in 7 (10.1% stroke cases and 11 (12.8% controls (odds ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.31 – 2.39; P > 0.05. In multiple regression analysis admission NIHSS score (but not plasma Hcy was a significant determinant of 4
Essue, Beverley M; Hackett, Maree L; Li, Qiang; Glozier, Nick; Lindley, Richard; Jan, Stephen
Stroke is associated with severe economic consequences. This is the first study to investigate in younger survivors the household economic burden of stroke. A multicenter, 3-year prospective cohort study was conducted of younger (18-65 years) survivors in Australia. Pre- and poststroke patterns of income and hardship were evaluated and multivariable logistic regression identified the predictors of economic hardship after stroke. Four hundred fourteen participants were followed up over 12 months after stroke. The variables that independently predicted economic hardship after stroke were: female (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.52-5.70), hazardous alcohol consumption (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.00-5.20), manual occupation (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.07-3.30), lack of health insurance (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.12-3.60), and prior hardship (OR, 3.93; 95% CI, 2.12-7.29), whereas concessional status (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26-0.95) and more social contacts per week (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98-1.00) reduced hardship likelihood. Higher prestroke income did not buffer hardship after stroke nor did clinical, health service, or disability factors. Policies to reduce inequalities after stroke would be best aimed at socioeconomic targets.
Objectives To determine the accuracy of coding of admissions for stroke on weekdays versus weekends and any impact on apparent outcome. Design Prospective population based stroke incidence study and a scoping review of previous studies of weekend effects in stroke. Setting Primary and secondary care of all individuals registered with nine general practices in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom (OXVASC, the Oxford Vascular Study). Participants All patients with clinically confirmed acute stroke in OXVASC identified with multiple overlapping methods of ascertainment in 2002-14 versus all acute stroke admissions identified by hospital diagnostic and mortality coding alone during the same period. Main outcomes measures Accuracy of administrative coding data for all patients with confirmed stroke admitted to hospital in OXVASC. Difference between rates of “false positive” or “false negative” coding for weekday and weekend admissions. Impact of inaccurate coding on apparent case fatality at 30 days in weekday versus weekend admissions. Weekend effects on outcomes in patients with confirmed stroke admitted to hospital in OXVASC and impacts of other potential biases compared with those in the scoping review. Results Among 92 728 study population, 2373 episodes of acute stroke were ascertained in OXVASC, of which 826 (34.8%) mainly minor events were managed without hospital admission, 60 (2.5%) occurred out of the area or abroad, and 195 (8.2%) occurred in hospital during an admission for a different reason. Of 1292 local hospital admissions for acute stroke, 973 (75.3%) were correctly identified by administrative coding. There was no bias in distribution of weekend versus weekday admission of the 319 strokes missed by coding. Of 1693 admissions for stroke identified by coding, 1055 (62.3%) were confirmed to be acute strokes after case adjudication. Among the 638 false positive coded cases, patients were more likely to be admitted on weekdays than at weekends (536
Todo, Kenichi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Kono, Tomoyuki; Hoshi, Taku; Imamura, Hirotoshi; Adachi, Hidemitsu; Kohara, Nobuo
Outcomes after successful endovascular therapy in acute ischemic stroke are associated with onset-to-reperfusion time (ORT) and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. In intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy, the NIHSS-time score, calculated by multiplying onset-to-treatment time with the NIHSS score, has been shown to predict clinical outcomes. In this study, we assessed whether a similar combination of the ORT and the NIHSS score can be applied to predict the outcomes after endovascular therapy. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 128 consecutive ischemic stroke patients with successful reperfusion after endovascular therapy. We analyzed the association of the ORT, the NIHSS score, and the NIHSS-time score with good outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 2 at 3 months). Good outcome rates for patients with NIHSS-time scores of 84.7 or lower, scores higher than 84.7 up to 127.5 or lower, and scores higher than 127.5 were 72.1%, 44.2%, and 14.3%, respectively (P < .01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the NIHSS-time score was an independent predictor of good outcomes (odds ratio, .372; 95% confidence interval, .175-.789) after adjusting for age, sex, internal carotid artery occlusion, plasma glucose level, ORT, and NIHSS score. The NIHSS-time score can predict good clinical outcomes after endovascular treatment. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Todo, Kenichi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Kono, Tomoyuki; Hoshi, Taku; Imamura, Hirotoshi; Adachi, Hidemitsu; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Kohara, Nobuo
Clinical outcomes after successful endovascular therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke are associated with several factors including onset-to-reperfusion time (ORT), the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, and the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). The NIHSS-time score, calculated as follows: [NIHSS score] × [onset-to-treatment time (h)] or [NIHSS score] × [ORT (h)], has been reported to predict clinical outcomes after intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy and endovascular therapy for acute stroke. The objective of the current study was to assess whether the combination of the ASPECTS and the ORT can predict the outcomes after endovascular therapy. The charts of 117 consecutive ischemic stroke patients with successful reperfusion after endovascular therapy were retrospectively reviewed. We analyzed the association of ORT, ASPECTS, and ASPECTS-time score with clinical outcome. ASPECTS-time score was calculated as follows: [11 - ASPECTS] × [ORT (h)]. Rates of good outcome for patients with ASPECTS-time scores of tertile values, scores 5.67 or less, scores greater than 5.67 to 10.40 or less, and scores greater than 10.40, were 66.7%, 56.4%, and 33.3%, respectively (P < .05). Ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that the ASPECTS-time score (per category increase) was an independent predictor for better outcome (common odds ratio: .374; 95% confidence interval: .150-0.930; P < .05). A lower ASPECTS-time score may predict better clinical outcomes after endovascular treatment. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Katzan, Irene L; Lapin, Brittany
The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement recently included the 10-item PROMIS GH (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Global Health) scale as part of their recommended Standard Set of Stroke Outcome Measures. Before collection of PROMIS GH is broadly implemented, it is necessary to assess its performance in the stroke population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of PROMIS GH in patients with ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. PROMIS GH and 6 PROMIS domain scales measuring same/similar constructs were electronically collected on 1102 patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes at various stages of recovery from their stroke who were seen in a cerebrovascular clinic from October 12, 2015, through June 2, 2017. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to evaluate the adequacy of 2-factor structure of component scores. Test-retest reliability and convergent validity of PROMIS GH items and component scores were assessed. Discriminant validity and responsiveness were compared between PROMIS GH and PROMIS domain scales measuring the same or related constructs. Analyses were repeated stratified by stroke subtype and modified Rankin Scale score validity was good with significant correlations between all PROMIS GH items and PROMIS domain scales ( P 0.5) was demonstrated for 8 of the 10 PROMIS GH items. Reliability and validity remained consistent across stroke subtype and disability level (modified Rankin Scale, <2 versus ≥2). PROMIS GH exhibits acceptable performance in patients with stroke. Our findings support International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement recommendation to use PROMIS GH as part of the standard set of outcome measures in stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Li, Linxin; Rothwell, Peter M
To determine the accuracy of coding of admissions for stroke on weekdays versus weekends and any impact on apparent outcome. Prospective population based stroke incidence study and a scoping review of previous studies of weekend effects in stroke. Primary and secondary care of all individuals registered with nine general practices in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom (OXVASC, the Oxford Vascular Study). All patients with clinically confirmed acute stroke in OXVASC identified with multiple overlapping methods of ascertainment in 2002-14 versus all acute stroke admissions identified by hospital diagnostic and mortality coding alone during the same period. Accuracy of administrative coding data for all patients with confirmed stroke admitted to hospital in OXVASC. Difference between rates of "false positive" or "false negative" coding for weekday and weekend admissions. Impact of inaccurate coding on apparent case fatality at 30 days in weekday versus weekend admissions. Weekend effects on outcomes in patients with confirmed stroke admitted to hospital in OXVASC and impacts of other potential biases compared with those in the scoping review. Among 92 728 study population, 2373 episodes of acute stroke were ascertained in OXVASC, of which 826 (34.8%) mainly minor events were managed without hospital admission, 60 (2.5%) occurred out of the area or abroad, and 195 (8.2%) occurred in hospital during an admission for a different reason. Of 1292 local hospital admissions for acute stroke, 973 (75.3%) were correctly identified by administrative coding. There was no bias in distribution of weekend versus weekday admission of the 319 strokes missed by coding. Of 1693 admissions for stroke identified by coding, 1055 (62.3%) were confirmed to be acute strokes after case adjudication. Among the 638 false positive coded cases, patients were more likely to be admitted on weekdays than at weekends (536 (41.0%) v 102 (26.5%); Pcoded acute stroke admissions and false positive
Kongbunkiat, Kannikar; Kasemsap, Narongrit; Thepsuthammarat, Kaewjai; Tiamkao, Somsak; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak
Stroke is a major public health problem worldwide. There are limited data on national stroke prevalence and outcomes after the beginning of the thrombolytic therapy era in Thailand. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with mortality in stroke patients in Thailand using the national reimbursement databases. Clinical data retrieved included individuals under the universal coverage, social security, and civil servant benefit systems between 1 October 2009 and 30 September 2010. The stroke diagnosis code was based on the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision system including G45 (transient cerebral ischemic attacks and related syndromes), I61 (intracerebral hemorrhage), and I63 (cerebral infarction). The prevalence and stroke outcomes were calculated from these coded data. Factors associated with death were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression analysis. We found that the most frequent stroke subtype was cerebral infarction with a prevalence of 122 patients per 100,000 of population, an average length of hospital stay of 6.8 days, an average hospital charge of 20,740 baht (∼$USD 691), a mortality rate of 7%, and thrombolytic prescriptions of 1%. The significant factors associated with stroke mortality were septicemia, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, status epilepticus, and heart failure. In conclusion, the prevalence and outcomes of stroke in Thailand were comparable with other countries. The era of thrombolytic therapy has just begun in Thailand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fahey, Marion; Rudd, Anthony; Béjot, Yannick; Wolfe, Charles; Douiri, Abdel
Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability and death worldwide. The neurological impairments associated with stroke prevent patients from performing basic daily activities and have enormous impact on families and caregivers. Practical and accurate tools to assist in predicting outcome after stroke at patient level can provide significant aid for patient management. Furthermore, prediction models of this kind can be useful for clinical research, health economics, policymaking and clinical decision support. 2869 patients with first-ever stroke from South London Stroke Register (SLSR) (1995-2004) will be included in the development cohort. We will use information captured after baseline to construct multilevel models and a Cox proportional hazard model to predict cognitive impairment, functional outcome and mortality up to 5 years after stroke. Repeated random subsampling validation (Monte Carlo cross-validation) will be evaluated in model development. Data from participants recruited to the stroke register (2005-2014) will be used for temporal validation of the models. Data from participants recruited to the Dijon Stroke Register (1985-2015) will be used for external validation. Discrimination, calibration and clinical utility of the models will be presented. Patients, or for patients who cannot consent their relatives, gave written informed consent to participate in stroke-related studies within the SLSR. The SLSR design was approved by the ethics committees of Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Kings College Hospital, Queens Square and Westminster Hospitals (London). The Dijon Stroke Registry was approved by the Comité National des Registres and the InVS and has authorisation of the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
In-hospital stroke (IS) made up 6.5% of strokes recorded in the Irish National Stroke Register in 2012. International research has demonstrated poorer outcomes post IS compared to out of hospital stroke (OS). We aimed to profile all IS and OS over a 22 month period and compare the two groups by gathering data from the HIPE portal stroke register. The study site is a primary stroke centre. IS represented 11% (50\\/458) of total strokes with over half (27\\/50, 54%) admitted initially with medical complaints. IS patients had a significantly longer length of stay (79.2 +\\/- 87.4 days vs. 21.9 +\\/- 45.9 days, p < 0.01) and higher mortality (13\\/50 vs. 39\\/408, p < 0.01). Patients in the IS group were also less likely to receive stroke unit care (1\\/50 vs. 136\\/408, p < 0.01). This study demonstrates the significant morbidity and mortality associated with IS and highlights the need for efforts to be made to optimize identification and management of acute stroke in this cohort.
Chinda, Betty; Medvedev, George; Siu, William; Ester, Martin; Arab, Ali; Gu, Tao; Moreno, Sylvain; D'Arcy, Ryan C N; Song, Xiaowei
Haemorrhagic stroke is of significant healthcare concern due to its association with high mortality and lasting impact on the survivors' quality of life. Treatment decisions and clinical outcomes depend strongly on the size, spread and location of the haematoma. Non-contrast CT (NCCT) is the primary neuroimaging modality for haematoma assessment in haemorrhagic stroke diagnosis. Current procedures do not allow convenient NCCT-based haemorrhage volume calculation in clinical settings, while research-based approaches are yet to be tested for clinical utility; there is a demonstrated need for developing effective solutions. The project under review investigates the development of an automatic NCCT-based haematoma computation tool in support of accurate quantification of haematoma volumes. Several existing research methods for haematoma volume estimation are studied. Selected methods are tested using NCCT images of patients diagnosed with acute haemorrhagic stroke. For inter-rater and intrarater reliability evaluation, different raters will analyse haemorrhage volumes independently. The efficiency with respect to time of haematoma volume assessments will be examined to compare with the results from routine clinical evaluations and planimetry assessment that are known to be more accurate. The project will target the development of an enhanced solution by adapting existing methods and integrating machine learning algorithms. NCCT-based information of brain haemorrhage (eg, size, volume, location) and other relevant information (eg, age, sex, risk factor, comorbidities) will be used in relation to clinical outcomes with future project development. Validity and reliability of the solution will be examined for potential clinical utility. The project including procedures for deidentification of NCCT data has been ethically approved. The study involves secondary use of existing data and does not require new consent of participation. The team consists of clinical neuroimaging
van Heugten, C M; Dekker, J; Deelman, B G; van Dijk, A J; Stehmann-Saris, J C; Kinebanian, A
Evaluation of a therapy programme for stroke patients with apraxia. The programme is based on teaching patients strategies to compensate for the presence of apraxia. This programme was designed for assessment and treatment by occupational therapists. The outcome was studied in a pre-post test design. Measurements were conducted at baseline and 12 weeks later. Thirty-three stroke patients with apraxia were treated at occupational therapy departments n general hospitals, rehabilitation centres and nursing homes. The following measurements were conducted: an apraxia test, a motor functioning test, observation of activities of daily living (ADL), Barthel Index, and an ADL questionnaire for the therapist and the patient. The patients showed large improvements in ADL functioning on all measures and small improvements on the apraxia test and the motor functioning test. The effect sizes for the disabilities, ranging from 0.92 to 1.06, were large compared to the effect sizes for apraxia (0.34) and motor functioning (0.19). The significant effect of treatment is also seen when individual improvement and subjective improvement are considered. Measured with the Barthel Index for instance, 71% of the patients improved. These results suggest that the programme seems to be successful in teaching patients compensatory strategies that enable them to function more independently, despite the lasting presence of apraxia.
Garcia-Ptacek, Sara; Contreras Escamez, Beatriz; Zupanic, Eva; Religa, Dorota; von Koch, Lena; Johnell, Kristina; von Euler, Mia; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Eriksdotter, Maria
To explore the association between prestroke mobility dependency and dementia on functioning and mortality outcomes after stroke in patients>65 years of age. Longitudinal cohort study based on SveDem, the Swedish Dementia Registry and Riksstroke, the Swedish Stroke Registry. A total of 1689 patients with dementia >65 years of age registered in SveDem and suffering a first stroke between 2007 and 2014 were matched with 7973 controls without dementia with stroke. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for intrahospital mortality, and functioning and mortality outcomes at 3 months were calculated. Functioning included level of residential assistance (living at home without help, at home with help, or nursing home) and mobility dependency (independent, needing help to move outdoors, or needing help indoors and outdoors). Prestroke dependency in activities of daily living and mobility were worse in patients with dementia than controls without dementia. In unadjusted analyses, patients with dementia were more often discharged to nursing homes (51% vs 20%; P mobility (OR 2.57; 2.20-3.02). Patients with dementia who were independent for mobility prestroke were more likely to be discharged to a nursing home compared with patients without dementia with the same prestroke mobility (37% vs 16%; P mobility limitations were associated with higher odds for poorer mobility, needing more residential assistance, and death. Patients with mobility impairments and/or dementia present a high burden of disability after a stroke. There is a need for research on stroke interventions among these populations. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background-Although experimental data suggest that statin therapy may improve neurological outcome after acute cerebral ischemia, the results from clinical studies are conflicting. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the relationship between statin therapy and outcome after ischemic stroke. METHODS: The primary analysis investigated statin therapy at stroke onset (prestroke statin use) and good functional outcome (modified Rankin score 0 to 2) and death. Secondary analyses included the following: (1) acute poststroke statin therapy (≤72 hours after stroke), and (2) thrombolysis-treated patients. RESULTS: The primary analysis included 113 148 subjects (27 studies). Among observational studies, statin treatment at stroke onset was associated with good functional outcome at 90 days (pooled odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-1.56; P<0.001), but not 1 year (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.9-1.4; P=0.31), and with reduced fatality at 90 days (pooled OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.62-0.82; P<0.001) and 1 year (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.95; P=0.01). In the single randomized controlled trial reporting 90-day functional outcome, statin treatment was associated with good outcome (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.24; P=0.05). No reduction in fatality was observed on meta-analysis of data from 3 randomized controlled trials (P=0.9). In studies of thrombolysis-treated patients, an association between statins and increased fatality at 90 days was observed (pooled OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52; P=0.03, 3 studies, 4339 patients). However, this association was no longer present after adjusting for age and stroke severity in the largest study (adjusted OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.90-1.44; 4012 patients). CONCLUSIONS: In the largest meta-analysis to date, statin therapy at stroke onset was associated with improved outcome, a finding not observed in studies restricted to thrombolysis-treated patients. Randomized trials of statin therapy in acute ischemic stroke are needed.
Garbusinski, Johanne M; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Bartholome, Emmanuel J; Dramaix, Michèle; Gaye, Alieu; Coleman, Rosalind; Nyan, Ousman A; Walker, Richard W; McAdam, Keith P W J; Walraven, Gys E
Despite increasing burden of stroke in Africa, prospective descriptive data are rare. Our objective was to describe, in The Gambia, the clinical outcome of stroke patients admitted to the Royal Victoria Teaching Hospital in the capital Banjul, to assess mortality and morbidity, and propose preventive and therapeutic measures. Prospective data were collected on consecutive patients older than 15 years old admitted between February 2000 and February 2001 with the diagnosis of nonsubarachnoid stroke. Risk factors, clinical characteristics, and social consequences were assessed using a modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (mNIHSS), the Barthel Activity in Daily Living scale, the Siriraj score for subtypes, and the Bamford criteria for location/extension. Patients were followed-up at home up to 1 year after discharge. Ninety-one percent (148/162) of eligible patients were enrolled and followed-up. Hypertension and smoking were the most prevalent risk factors. Severity was high at admission, especially in women, and was strongly correlated to the outcome. mNIHSS and consciousness level on admission were strong predictors of the mortality risk. Swallowing difficulties at admission, fever, lung infection, and no aspirin treatment were, independently, risk factors for a lethal outcome susceptible to being addressed by treatment. Mortality was 41% in-hospital and 62% after 1 year. In survivors, autonomy levels improved over time. Drug compliance was poor. At home, family members provided care. Long-term socioeconomic and cultural activities were affected in most patients. Case-fatality was high compared with Western cohorts. Preventive measures can be developed. Rational treatment, in the absence of head imaging for initial assessment, requires adapted protocols. Providers should be trained, both at hospital and community levels.
Translating knowledge for action against stroke--using 5-minute videos for stroke survivors and caregivers to improve post-stroke outcomes: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (Movies4Stroke).
Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran; Khoja, Adeel; Usmani, Bushra; Muqeet, Abdul; Zaidi, Fabiha; Ahmed, Masood; Shakeel, Saadia; Soomro, Nabila; Gowani, Ambreen; Asad, Nargis; Ahmed, Asma; Sayani, Saleem; Azam, Iqbal; Saleem, Sarah
Two thirds of the global mortality of stroke is borne by low and middle income countries (LMICs). Pakistan is the world's sixth most populous country with a stroke-vulnerable population and is without a single dedicated chronic care center. In order to provide evidence for a viable solution responsive to this health care gap, and leveraging the existing >70% mobile phone density, we thought it rational to test the effectiveness of a mobile phone-based video intervention of short 5-minute movies to educate and support stroke survivors and their primary caregivers. Movies4Stroke will be a randomized control, outcome assessor blinded, parallel group, single center superiority trial. Participants with an acute stroke, medically stable, with mild to moderate disability and having a stable primary caregiver will be included. After obtaining informed consent the stroke survivor-caregiver dyad will be randomized. Intervention participants will have the movie program software installed in their phone, desktop, or Android device which will allow them to receive, view and repeat 5-minute videos on stroke-related topics at admission, discharge and first and third months after enrollment. The control arm will receive standard of care at an internationally accredited center with defined protocols. The primary outcome measure is medication adherence as ascertained by a locally validated Morisky Medication Adherence Scale and control of major risk factors such as blood pressure, blood sugar and blood cholesterol at 12 months post discharge. Secondary outcome measures are post-stroke complications and mortality, caregiver knowledge and change in functional outcomes after acute stroke at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Movies4Stroke is designed to enroll 300 participant dyads after inflating 10% to incorporate attrition and non-compliance and has been powered at 95% to detect a 15% difference between intervention and usual care arm. Analysis will be done by the intention
Munsch, Fanny; Sagnier, Sharmila; Asselineau, Julien; Bigourdan, Antoine; Guttmann, Charles R; Debruxelles, Sabrina; Poli, Mathilde; Renou, Pauline; Perez, Paul; Dousset, Vincent; Sibon, Igor; Tourdias, Thomas
On top of functional outcome, accurate prediction of cognitive outcome for stroke patients is an unmet need with major implications for clinical management. We investigated whether stroke location may contribute independent prognostic value to multifactorial predictive models of functional and cognitive outcomes. Four hundred twenty-eight consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were prospectively assessed with magnetic resonance imaging at 24 to 72 hours and at 3 months for functional outcome using the modified Rankin Scale and cognitive outcome using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Statistical maps of functional and cognitive eloquent regions were derived from the first 215 patients (development sample) using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. We used multivariate logistic regression models to study the influence of stroke location (number of eloquent voxels from voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping maps), age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and stroke volume on modified Rankin Scale and MoCA. The second part of our cohort was used as an independent replication sample. In univariate analyses, stroke location, age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and stroke volume were all predictive of poor modified Rankin Scale and MoCA. In multivariable analyses, stroke location remained the strongest independent predictor of MoCA and significantly improved the prediction compared with using only age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and stroke volume (area under the curve increased from 0.697-0.771; difference=0.073; 95% confidence interval, 0.008-0.155). In contrast, stroke location did not persist as independent predictor of modified Rankin Scale that was mainly driven by initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (area under the curve going from 0.840 to 0.835). Similar results were obtained in the replication sample. Stroke location is an independent predictor of cognitive outcome (MoCA) at 3
Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; Mehnert, Frank; Rungby, Jørgen
BACKGROUND: We examined whether the preadmission use of sulfonylureas is associated with improved clinical outcome compared with other antidiabetic treatments after hospitalization with ischemic stroke. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide population-based follow-up study among all Danish patients...... computed mortality rates and rates of readmission recurrent ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction according to type of treatment and used the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to compute hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: We identified 4817 stroke patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We found...... lower 30-day mortality rates among users of metformin (adjusted HR 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.68), insulin (adjusted HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.27-0.81), and patients without antidiabetic pharmacotherapy (adjusted HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.36-0.93) compared with users of sulfonylureas. Users of any...
Hong, Keun-Sik; Lee, Juneyoung; Bae, Hee-Joon; Lee, Ji Sung; Kang, Dong-Wha; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Han, Moon-Ku; Cho, Yong-Jin; Song, Pamela; Park, Jong-Moo; Oh, Mi-Sun; Koo, Jaseong; Lee, Byung-Chul
Cardioembolic (CE) strokes are more disabling and more fatal than non-CE strokes. Multiple prognostic factors have been recognized, but the magnitude of their relative contributions has not been well explored. Using a prospective stroke outcome database, we compared the 3-month outcomes of CE and non-CE strokes. We assessed the relative contribution of each prognostic factor of initial stroke severity, poststroke complications, and baseline characteristics with multivariable analyses and model fitness improvement using -2 log-likelihood and Nagelkerke R2. This study included 1233 patients with acute ischemic stroke: 193 CE strokes and 1040 non-CE strokes. Compared with the non-CE group, CE group had less modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2 outcomes (47.2% versus 68.5%; odds ratio [95% confidence interval], .41 [.30-.56]), less mRS 0-1 outcomes (33.7% versus 53.5%; .44 [.32-.61]), more mRS 5-6 outcomes (32.1% versus 10.9%; 3.88 [2.71-5.56]), and higher mortality (19.2% versus 5.2%; 4.33 [2.76-6.80]) at 3 months. When adjusting either baseline characteristics or poststroke complications, the outcome differences between the 2 groups remained significant. However, adjusting initial National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score alone abolished all outcome differences except for mortality. For mRS 0-2 outcomes, the decrement of -2 log-likelihood and the Nagelkerke R2 of the model adjusting initial NIHSS score alone approached 70.2% and 76.7% of the fully adjusting model. Greater stroke severity predominates over all other factors for the worse outcome of CE stroke. Primary prevention and more efficient acute therapy for stroke victims should be given top priorities to reduce the burden of CE strokes. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neurological outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke receiving enoxaparin or heparin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis: subanalysis of the Prevention of VTE after Acute Ischemic Stroke with LMWH (PREVAIL) study.
Kase, Carlos S; Albers, Gregory W; Bladin, Christopher; Fieschi, Cesare; Gabbai, Alberto A; O'Riordan, William; Pineo, Graham F
The Prevention of VTE after Acute Ischemic Stroke with LMWH (PREVAIL) study demonstrated that enoxaparin was superior to unfractionated heparin (UFH) in preventing venous thromboembolism in patients with ischemic stroke and was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in extracranial hemorrhage rates. In this PREVAIL subanalysis, we evaluate the long-term neurological outcomes associated with the use of enoxaparin compared with UFH. We also determine predictors of stroke progression. Acute ischemic stroke patients aged >or=18 years, who could not walk unassisted, were randomized to receive enoxaparin (40 mg once daily) or UFH (5000 U every 12 hours) for 10 days. Patients were stratified according to baseline stroke severity using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. End points for this analysis included stroke progression (>or=4-point increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score), neurological outcomes up to 3 months postrandomization (assessed using National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and modified Rankin Scale score), and incidence of intracranial hemorrhage. Stroke progression occurred in 45 of 877 (5.1%) patients in the enoxaparin group and 42 of 872 (4.8%) of those receiving UFH. Similar improvements in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin Scale scores were observed in both groups over the 90-day follow-up period. Incidence of intracranial hemorrhage was comparable between groups (20 of 877 [2.3%] and 22 of 872 [2.5%] in enoxaparin and UFH groups, respectively). Baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, hyperlipidemia, and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of stroke progression. The clinical benefits associated with use of enoxaparin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in patients with acute ischemic stroke are not associated with poorer long-term neurological outcomes or increased rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage compared
Synhaeve, N.E.; Arntz, R.M.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Kort, P.L.M. de; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke in young adults has a dramatic effect on life; therefore, we investigated the long-term functional outcome after transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhage in adults aged 18 to 50 years. METHODS: We studied 722 young patients with
Pryor Johnny C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicting data exists regarding the effect of hemispheric lateralization on acute ischemic stroke outcome. Some of this variability may be related to heterogeneous study populations, particularly with respect to the level of arterial occlusion. Furthermore, little is known about the relationship between stroke lateralization and predictors of outcome. The purpose of this study was to characterize the impact of stroke lateralization on both functional outcome and its predictors in a well-defined population of anterior circulation proximal artery occlusions treated with IAT. Methods Thirty-five consecutive left- and 35 consecutive right-sided stroke patients with intracranial ICA and/or MCA occlusions who underwent IAT were retrospectively analyzed. Ischemic change on pre-treatment imaging was quantified. Reperfusion success was graded using the Mori scale. Good outcome at three months was defined as an mRS ≤ 2. Left- and right-sided strokes were compared for outcome and its predictors. Result Of 70 patients with median NIHSS score of 18 (IQR, 14-21, 19 (27.1% had a good outcome. There were 21 terminal ICA and 49 MCA occlusions. There was no difference in the rate of good outcomes between left- (n = 9 and right-sided (n = 10 strokes (p = 0.99. There were no significant differences in occlusion level, age, ischemic change on initial imaging and degree of reperfusion between left- and right-sided strokes. Left-sided strokes had higher baseline NIHSS scores (p = 0.02 and lower admission SBP (p = 0.009. Independent predictors of outcome for left-sided strokes were NIHSS (p = 0.0002 and reperfusion (p = 0.006, and for right-sided strokes were age (p = 0.002 and reperfusion (p = 0.003. In univariate analysis, pre-treatment ischemic change on NCCT was associated with outcome only for left-sided strokes (p = 0.05. Conclusions In anterior circulation proximal artery occlusions treated with IAT, hemispheric lateralization influences
Cole, Lauran; Dewey, Deborah; Letourneau, Nicole; Kaplan, Bonnie J; Chaput, Kathleen; Gallagher, Clare; Hodge, Jacquie; Floer, Amalia; Kirton, Adam
Hemorrhage into the brain of term newborns often results in major injury and lifelong disability. The clinical epidemiology of neonatal hemorrhagic stroke (NHS) remains undefined, hindering the development of strategies to improve outcomes. To characterize the incidence, types, presentations, associated factors, and outcomes of neonatal hemorrhagic stroke. Population-based, nested case-control study. The Alberta Perinatal Stroke Project, a provincial registry, ascertained NHS cases using exhaustive diagnostic code searching (1992-2010, >2500 medical record reviews). Prospective cases were captured through the Calgary Pediatric Stroke Program (2007-2014). Participants included term neonates with magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed NHS including primary and secondary intracerebral hemorrhage, hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic injury, and presumed perinatal hemorrhagic stroke. Control infants with common data were recruited from a population-based study (4 to 1 ratio). Infants with NHS underwent structured medical record review using data-capture forms and blinded scoring of neuroimaging. Clinical risk factor common data elements were explored using logistic regression. Provincial live births were obtained from Statistics Canada. Outcomes were extrapolated to the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure. We identified 86 cases: 51 infants (59%) with NHS, of which 32 (67%) were idiopathic, 30 (35%) were hemorrhagic transformation of primary ischemic injuries (14 with neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, 11 with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and 5 with neonatal arterial ischemic stroke), and 5 were presumed perinatal hemorrhagic stroke. Sixty-two percent were male. Incidence of pure NHS was 1 in 9500 live births and 1 in 6300 for all forms. Most presented in the first week of life with seizures and encephalopathy. Acute neurosurgical intervention was rare (3 of 86 total cases; 3.5%). Temporal lobe was the most common NHS location (16 of 51 pure NHS cases; 31%). A
Perna, Robert; Temple, Jessica
Background. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have different pathophysiologies and possibly different long-term cerebral and functional implications. Hemorrhagic strokes expose the brain to irritating effects of blood and ischemic strokes reflect localized or diffuse cerebral vascular pathology. Methods. Participants were individuals who suffered either an ischemic (n = 172) or hemorrhagic stroke (n = 112) within the past six months and were involved in a postacute neurorehabilitation program. Participants completed three months of postacute neurorehabilitation and the Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-4 (MPAI-4) at admission and discharge. Admission MPAI-4 scores and level of functioning were comparable. Results. Group ANOVA comparisons show no significant group differences at admission or discharge or difference in change scores. Both groups showed considerably reduced levels of productivity/employment after discharge as compared to preinjury levels. Conclusions. Though the pathophysiology of these types of strokes is different, both ultimately result in ischemic injuries, possibly accounting for lack of findings of differences between groups. In the present study, participants in both groups experienced similar functional levels across all three MPAI-4 domains both at admission and discharge. Limitations of this study include a highly educated sample and few outcome measures.
Full Text Available Background. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have different pathophysiologies and possibly different long-term cerebral and functional implications. Hemorrhagic strokes expose the brain to irritating effects of blood and ischemic strokes reflect localized or diffuse cerebral vascular pathology. Methods. Participants were individuals who suffered either an ischemic (n=172 or hemorrhagic stroke (n=112 within the past six months and were involved in a postacute neurorehabilitation program. Participants completed three months of postacute neurorehabilitation and the Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-4 (MPAI-4 at admission and discharge. Admission MPAI-4 scores and level of functioning were comparable. Results. Group ANOVA comparisons show no significant group differences at admission or discharge or difference in change scores. Both groups showed considerably reduced levels of productivity/employment after discharge as compared to preinjury levels. Conclusions. Though the pathophysiology of these types of strokes is different, both ultimately result in ischemic injuries, possibly accounting for lack of findings of differences between groups. In the present study, participants in both groups experienced similar functional levels across all three MPAI-4 domains both at admission and discharge. Limitations of this study include a highly educated sample and few outcome measures.
Schmitz, Marie Louise; Simonsen, Claus Ziegler; Svendsen, M L
OBJECTIVES: The impact of ischemic stroke subtype on clinical outcome in patients treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) is sparsely examined. We studied the association between stroke subtype and clinical outcome in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-evaluated patients...... patients were more likely to achieve early neurological improvement and favorable outcome compared with LVD stroke following MRI-based IV-tPA treatment. This finding may reflect a difference in the effect of IV-tPA among stroke subtypes....
Lazar, Ronald M; Boehme, Amelia K
Aphasia is a common feature of stroke, affecting 21-38% of acute stroke patients and an estimated 1 million stroke survivors. Although stroke, as a syndrome, is the leading cause of disability in the USA, less is known about the independent impact of aphasia on stroke outcomes. During the acute stroke period, aphasia has been found to increase length of stay, inpatient complications, overall neurological disability, mortality, and to alter discharge disposition. Outcomes during the sub-acute and chronic stroke periods show that aphasia is associated with lower Functional Independence Measures (FIM) scores, longer stays in rehabilitation settings, poorer function in activities of daily living, and mortality. Factors that complicate the analysis of aphasia on post-stroke outcomes, however, include widely different systems of care across international settings that result in varying admission patterns to acute stroke units, allowable length of stays based on reimbursement, and criteria for rehabilitation placement. Aphasia arising from stroke is associated with worse outcomes both in the acute and chronic periods. Future research will have to incorporate disparate patterns in analytic models, and to take into account specific aphasia profiles and evolving methods of post-stroke speech-language therapy.
Costalat, V.; Lobotesis, K.; Machi, P.; Mourand, I.; Maldonado, I.; Heroum, C.; Vendrell, J.F.; Milhaud, D.; Riquelme, C.; Bonafé, A.; Arquizan, C.
Background and aims: New thrombectomy devices allow successful and rapid recanalization in acute ischemic stroke. Nevertheless prognostics factors need to be systematically analyzed in the context of these new therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to analyze prognostic factors related to clinical outcome following Solitaire FR thrombectomy in ischemic stroke. Methods: Fifty consecutive ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusion were included. Three treatment strategies were applied; rescue therapy, combined therapy, and standalone thrombectomy. DWI ASPECT score < 5 was the main exclusion criterion after initial MRI (T2, T2*, TOF, FLAIR, DWI). Sexes, age, time to recanalization were prospectively collected. Clinical outcome was assessed post treatment, day one and discharge by means of a NIHSS. Three months mRS evaluation was performed by an independent neurologist. The probability of good outcome at 3 months was assessed by forward stepwise logistic regression using baseline NIHSS score, Glasgow score at entrance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, blood–brain barrier disruption on post-operative CT, embolic and hemorrhagic post procedural complication, ischemic brain lesion extension on 24 h imaging, NIHSS at discharge, ASPECT score, and time to recanalization. All variables significantly associated with the outcome in the univariate analysis were entered in the model. The significance of adding or removing a variable from the logistic model was determined by the maximum likelihood ratio test. Odds-ratio (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: At 3 months 54% of patients had a mRS 0–2, 70% in MCA, 44% in ICA, and 43% in BA with an overall mortality rate of 12%. Baseline NIHSS score (p = 0.001), abnormal Glasgow score at entrance (p = 0.053) hyperglycemia (p = 0.023), dyslipidemia (p = 0.031), blood–brain barrier disruption (p = 0.022), embolic and hemorrhagic post procedural complication, ischemic brain lesion
Costalat, V., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [CHU Montpellier, Neuroradiology, Montpellier (France); Lobotesis, K., E-mail: email@example.com [CHU Montpellier, Neuroradiology, Montpellier (France); Machi, P., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [CHU Montpellier, Neuroradiology, Montpellier (France); Mourand, I., E-mail: email@example.com [CHU Montpellier, Neurology, Montpellier (France); Maldonado, I., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [CHU Montpellier, Neuroradiology, Montpellier (France); Heroum, C., E-mail: email@example.com [CHU Montpellier, Neurology, Montpellier (France); Vendrell, J.F., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [CHU Montpellier, Neuroradiology, Montpellier (France); Milhaud, D., E-mail: email@example.com [CHU Montpellier, Neurology, Montpellier (France); Riquelme, C., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [CHU Montpellier, Neuroradiology, Montpellier (France); Bonafé, A., E-mail: email@example.com [CHU Montpellier, Neuroradiology, Montpellier (France); Arquizan, C., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [CHU Montpellier, Neurology, Montpellier (France)
Background and aims: New thrombectomy devices allow successful and rapid recanalization in acute ischemic stroke. Nevertheless prognostics factors need to be systematically analyzed in the context of these new therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to analyze prognostic factors related to clinical outcome following Solitaire FR thrombectomy in ischemic stroke. Methods: Fifty consecutive ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusion were included. Three treatment strategies were applied; rescue therapy, combined therapy, and standalone thrombectomy. DWI ASPECT score < 5 was the main exclusion criterion after initial MRI (T2, T2*, TOF, FLAIR, DWI). Sexes, age, time to recanalization were prospectively collected. Clinical outcome was assessed post treatment, day one and discharge by means of a NIHSS. Three months mRS evaluation was performed by an independent neurologist. The probability of good outcome at 3 months was assessed by forward stepwise logistic regression using baseline NIHSS score, Glasgow score at entrance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, blood–brain barrier disruption on post-operative CT, embolic and hemorrhagic post procedural complication, ischemic brain lesion extension on 24 h imaging, NIHSS at discharge, ASPECT score, and time to recanalization. All variables significantly associated with the outcome in the univariate analysis were entered in the model. The significance of adding or removing a variable from the logistic model was determined by the maximum likelihood ratio test. Odds-ratio (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: At 3 months 54% of patients had a mRS 0–2, 70% in MCA, 44% in ICA, and 43% in BA with an overall mortality rate of 12%. Baseline NIHSS score (p = 0.001), abnormal Glasgow score at entrance (p = 0.053) hyperglycemia (p = 0.023), dyslipidemia (p = 0.031), blood–brain barrier disruption (p = 0.022), embolic and hemorrhagic post procedural complication, ischemic brain lesion
Leys, D; Englund, E; Del Ser, T
or white matter lesions or leukoencephalopathy or leukoaraiosis' and 'stroke or cerebral infarct or cerebral hemorrhage or cerebrovascular disease or transient ischemic attack (TIA)'. WMC, as defined radiologically, are present in up to 44% of patients with stroke or TIA and in 50% of patients...... of death or dependency, recurrent stroke of any type, cerebral bleeding under anticoagulation, myocardial infarction, and poststroke dementia. WMC in stroke patients are often associated with small-vessel disease and lead to a higher risk of death, and poor cardiac and neurological outcome. However......White matter changes (WMC), detected by imaging techniques, are frequent in stroke patients. The aim of the study was to determine how WMC relate to stroke subtypes and to stroke outcome. We made a systematic Medline search for articles appearing with two of the following key words: either 'WMC...
Khatri, Pooja; Yeatts, Sharon D.; Mazighi, Mikael; Broderick, Joseph P.; Liebeskind, David S.; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Amarenco, Pierre; Carrozzella, Janice; Spilker, Judith; Foster, Lydia D.; Goyal, Mayank; Hill, Michael D.; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Jauch, Edward C.; Haley, E. Clarke; Vagal, Achala; Tomsick, Thomas A.
BACKGROUND The IMS III Trial did not demonstrate clinical benefit of the endovascular approach compared to IV rt-PA alone for moderate or severe ischemic strokes (NIHSS≥8) enrolled within three hours of stroke onset. Late reperfusion of tissue that is no longer salvageable may be one explanation, as suggested by prior exploratory studies showing an association between time to reperfusion and good clinical outcome. We sought to validate this relationship in the large-scale IMS III trial, and consider its implications for future endovascular trials. METHODS The analysis consisted of the endovascular cohort with proximal arterial occlusions in the anterior circulation that achieved angiographic reperfusion (TICI 2–3) during the endovascular procedure (within 7 hours from the onset of symptoms). Logistic regression was used to model good clinical outcome (90-day modified Rankin 0–2) as a function of the time to reperfusion, and prespecified variables were considered for adjustment. FINDINGS Among 240 proximal vessel occlusions, angiographic reperfusion (TICI 2–3) was achieved in 182 (76%). Mean time to reperfusion was 325 minutes (range 180–418 minutes). Longer time for reperfusion was associated with a decreased likelihood of good clinical outcome (RR [95% CI] for every 30 minute delay: unadjusted 0·85 [0·77–0·94]; adjusted 0·88 [0·80–0·98]). INTERPRETATION We confirm that delay in time to angiographic reperfusion leads to a decreased likelihood of good clinical outcome. Achieving rapid reperfusion may be critical for the successes of future acute endovascular trials. FUNDING: NIH/NINDS (study sponsor), Genentech Inc. (study drug - intra-arterial t-PA), EKOS Corp. (device), Concentric Inc. (device), Cordis Neurovascular, Inc. (device), and Boehringer Ingelheim (European Investigator Meeting support). PMID:24784550
Xu, Tao; Ou, Shu; Liu, Xi; Yu, Xinyuan; Yuan, Jinxian; Huang, Hao; Chen, Yangmei
Abstract A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to investigate a potential association between post-ischemic stroke seizures (PISS) and subsequent ischemic stroke (IS) outcome. A systematic search of two electronic databases (Medline and Embase) was conducted to identify studies that explored an association between PISS and IS outcome. The primary and secondary IS outcomes of interest were mortality and disability, respectively, with the latter defined as a score of 3 to 5 on the modified Rankin Scale. A total of 15 studies that were published between 1998 and 2015 with 926,492 participants were examined. The overall mortality rates for the patients with and without PISS were 34% (95% confidence interval [CI], 27–42%) and 18% (95% CI, 12–23%), respectively. The pooled relative ratio (RR) of mortality for the patients with PISS was 1.97 (95% CI, 1.48–2.61; I2 = 88.6%). The overall prevalence rates of disability in the patients with and without PISS were 60% (95% CI, 32–87%) and 41% (95% CI, 25–57%), respectively. Finally, the pooled RR of disability for the patients with PISS was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.32–2.02; I2 = 66.1%). PISS are significantly associated with higher risks of both mortality and disability. PISS indicate poorer prognoses in patients experiencing IS. PMID:27399117
Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors have neuroprotective effects in experimental stroke models and are commonly prescribed in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine if patients taking statins before hospital admission for stroke had an improved clinical outcome. Methods This was an observational study of 436 patients admitted to the National Institutes of Health Suburban Hospital Stroke Program between July 2000 and December 2002. Self-reported risk factors for stroke were obtained on admission. Stroke severity was determined by the admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. Good outcome was defined as a Rankin score Results There were 436 patients with a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke; statin data were available for 433 of them. A total of 95/433 (22% of patients were taking a statin when they were admitted, rising from 16% in 2000 to 26% in 2002. Fifty-one percent of patients taking statins had a good outcome compared to 38% of patients not taking statins (p = 0.03. After adjustment for confounding factors, statin pretreatment was associated with a 2.9 odds (95% CI: 1.2–6.7 of a good outcome at the time of hospital discharge. Conclusions The proportion of patients taking statins when they are admitted with stroke is rising rapidly. Statin pretreatment was significantly associated with an improved functional outcome at discharge. This finding could support the early initiation of statin therapy after stroke.
Kamitani, Satoru; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Kada, Akiko; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Toyoda, Kazunori; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ono, Junichi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Aruga, Toru; Miyachi, Shigeru; Nagata, Izumi; Matsuda, Shinya; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Iwata, Michiaki; Suzuki, Akifumi; Ishikawa, Koichi B.; Kataoka, Hiroharu; Morita, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Yasuki; Iihara, Koji
Background Poor outcomes have been reported for stroke patients admitted outside of regular working hours. However, few studies have adjusted for case severity. In this nationwide assessment, we examined relationships between hospital admission time and disabilities at discharge while considering case severity. Methods and Results We analyzed 35 685 acute stroke patients admitted to 262 hospitals between April 2010 and May 2011 for ischemic stroke (IS), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The proportion of disabilities/death at discharge as measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was quantified. We constructed 2 hierarchical logistic regression models to estimate the effect of admission time, one adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, and number of beds; and the second adjusted for the effect of consciousness levels and the above variables at admission. The percentage of severe disabilities/death at discharge increased for patients admitted outside of regular hours (22.8%, 27.2%, and 28.2% for working‐hour, off‐hour, and nighttime; P<0.001). These tendencies were significant in the bivariate and multivariable models without adjusting for consciousness level. However, the effects of off‐hour or nighttime admissions were negated when adjusted for consciousness levels at admission (adjusted OR, 1.00 and 0.99; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.13 and 0.89 to 1.10; P=0.067 and 0.851 for off‐hour and nighttime, respectively, versus working‐hour). The same trend was observed when each stroke subtype was stratified. Conclusions The well‐known off‐hour effect might be attributed to the severely ill patient population. Thus, sustained stroke care that is sufficient to treat severely ill patients during off‐hours is important. PMID:25336463
Full Text Available Long-term follow-up of population-based prospective studies is often achieved through linkages to coded regional or national health care data. Our knowledge of the accuracy of such data is incomplete. To inform methods for identifying stroke cases in UK Biobank (a prospective study of 503,000 UK adults recruited in middle-age, we systematically evaluated the accuracy of these data for stroke and its main pathological types (ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, determining the optimum codes for case identification.We sought studies published from 1990-November 2013, which compared coded data from death certificates, hospital admissions or primary care with a reference standard for stroke or its pathological types. We extracted information on a range of study characteristics and assessed study quality with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Studies tool (QUADAS-2. To assess accuracy, we extracted data on positive predictive values (PPV and-where available-on sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values (NPV.37 of 39 eligible studies assessed accuracy of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-coded hospital or death certificate data. They varied widely in their settings, methods, reporting, quality, and in the choice and accuracy of codes. Although PPVs for stroke and its pathological types ranged from 6-97%, appropriately selected, stroke-specific codes (rather than broad cerebrovascular codes consistently produced PPVs >70%, and in several studies >90%. The few studies with data on sensitivity, specificity and NPV showed higher sensitivity of hospital versus death certificate data for stroke, with specificity and NPV consistently >96%. Few studies assessed either primary care data or combinations of data sources.Particular stroke-specific codes can yield high PPVs (>90% for stroke/stroke types. Inclusion of primary care data and combining data sources should improve accuracy in large
Synhaeve, Nathalie E; Arntz, Renate M; Maaijwee, Noortje A M; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Schoonderwaldt, Henny C; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; de Kort, Paul L M; van Dijk, Ewoud J; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik
Stroke in young adults has a dramatic effect on life; therefore, we investigated the long-term functional outcome after transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhage in adults aged 18 to 50 years. We studied 722 young patients with first-ever stroke admitted between January 1, 1980, and November 1, 2010. Functional outcome was assessed by stroke subtype with the modified Rankin Scale and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale. After a mean follow-up of 9.1 (SD, 8.2) years, 32.0% of all patients had a poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale, >2); for ischemic stroke, this was 36.5%, for intracerebral hemorrhage 49.3%, and for transient ischemic attack 16.8%. At follow-up, 10.8% of transient ischemic attack, 14.6% of ischemic stroke, and 18.2% of intracerebral hemorrhage patients had a poor outcome as assessed by Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults, 1 of 8 survivors is still dependent in daily life.
Lee, Yeong-Bae; Park, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Eunja; Kang, Chang-Ki; Park, Hyeon-Mi
Objective Arterial stiffness is a common change associated with aging and can be evaluated by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) between sites in the arterial tree, with the stiffer artery having the higher PWV. Arterial stiffness is associated with the risk of stroke in the general population and of fatal stroke in hypertensive patients. This study is to clarify whether PWV value predicts functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. Methods One hundred patients were enrolled with a diagnosi...
Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; van der Haer, Marit; Smit, Liesbeth S; Feijen-Roon, Monique; Lequin, Maarten; de Jonge, Rogier C J; Govaert, Paul; Dudink, Jeroen
AIM: To assess outcome after neonatal perforator stroke in the largest cohort to date. METHOD: Survivors from a cohort of children diagnosed with neonatal perforator stroke using cranial ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging were eligible for inclusion. Recovery and Recurrence Questionnaire
Ana L. Faria
Full Text Available Stroke is one of the most common causes of acquired disability, leaving numerous adults with cognitive and motor impairments, and affecting patients’ capability to live independently. Virtual Reality (VR based methods for stroke rehabilitation have mainly focused on motor rehabilitation but there is increasing interest toward the integration of cognitive training for providing more effective solutions. Here we investigate the feasibility for stroke recovery of a virtual cognitive-motor task, the Reh@Task, which combines adapted arm reaching, and attention and memory training. 24 participants in the chronic stage of stroke, with cognitive and motor deficits, were allocated to one of two groups (VR, Control. Both groups were enrolled in conventional occupational therapy, which mostly involves motor training. Additionally, the VR group underwent training with the Reh@Task and the control group performed time-matched conventional occupational therapy. Motor and cognitive competences were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (1 month and at a 1-month follow-up through the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Single Letter Cancelation, Digit Cancelation, Bells Test, Fugl-Meyer Assessment Test, Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory, Modified Ashworth Scale, and Barthel Index. Our results show that both groups improved in motor function over time, but the Reh@Task group displayed significantly higher between-group outcomes in the arm subpart of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Test. Improvements in cognitive function were significant and similar in both groups. Overall, these results are supportive of the viability of VR tools that combine motor and cognitive training, such as the Reh@Task. Trial Registration: This trial was not registered because it is a small clinical study that addresses the feasibility of a prototype device.
Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.
Objective was to report on the prognosis, neurologic outcome, and recurrence of stroke in Saudi children. We evaluated a cohort of 104 Saudi children with stroke at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). We analyzed the salient clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and laboratory data following retrieval from a specially designed comprehensive protocol. Of the 104 children in the cohort (aged one month to 12 years), 5 (4.8%) died during the study period and 9(8.7%) were lost to follow-up. The mean duration of follow-up for the remaining 90 children was 40 months (median 33 months). Recovery was judged complete in 6(6.7%) of these 90 children. We detected residual hemiparesis (irrespective of its effect on daily functions) in 73 (81%) and this was combined with other motor deficits in 45 children (50%). Forty-one children (46%) had residual dysphasia or language deficits, whereas 45 (50%) were judged to have had cognitive deficit. Psychometry revealed an abnormal intelligence quotient test (70) in 19 of 26 (73%) children. Other neurologic sequelae included epilepsy in 52 (58%), recurrent headaches in 13 (14%) and hydrocephalus in 4 (4.4%) patients, Six of the 95 (6.3%) children, who were ascertained to have died or kept their follow-up, had one or more occurrences, one month to 5 years after initial stroke (median 23 months). Patients who had recurrent strokes were significantly more likely to be the product of consanguineous marriages (p=0.04). Regarding the group of 23 children with perinatal stroke, neither deaths nor recurrences occurred during the follow-up period. However, 20 (87%) of them had significant delays in their developmental milestones. The toll of stroke in Saudi children is demanding, with most children demonstrating
Balaban, Birol; Tok, Fatih; Yavuz, Ferdi; Yaşar, Evren; Alaca, Rıdvan
Although important data on the prognosis and rehabilitation outcome in stroke patients have been reported, data on functional recovery according to stroke subtypes are limited. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate functional outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke-the most common subtype of ischemic stroke. The records of stroke patients that underwent the rehabilitation program at our brain injury rehabilitation service between January 2007 and December 2008 were reviewed, and those with MCA stroke were included in the study. Patient demographic and clinical data, and Barthel Index (BI) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores at admission and discharge were collected. The study included 80 MCA stroke patients with a mean age of 63.54 years. FIM and BI scores improved significantly post rehabilitation (Prehabilitation had similar outcomes as those that had >1 month of inpatient rehabilitation (P>0.05). Length of time after stroke onset was not correlated with BI or FIM scores at admission. Regardless of initial functional status, prediction of discharge functional status was misleading. Physiatrists should keep in mind that functional improvement does not always increase with duration of inpatient therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Epstein, Katherine A; Viscoli, Catherine M; Spence, J David; Young, Lawrence H; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Gorman, Mark; Gerstenhaber, Brett; Guarino, Peter D; Dixit, Anand; Furie, Karen L; Kernan, Walter N
To assess whether smoking cessation after an ischemic stroke or TIA improves outcomes compared to continued smoking. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 3,876 nondiabetic men and women enrolled in the Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke (IRIS) trial who were randomized to pioglitazone or placebo within 180 days of a qualifying stroke or TIA and followed up for a median of 4.8 years. A tobacco use history was obtained at baseline and updated during annual interviews. The primary outcome, which was not prespecified in the IRIS protocol, was recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death. Cox regression models were used to assess the differences in stroke, MI, and death after 4.8 years, with correction for adjustment variables prespecified in the IRIS trial: age, sex, stroke (vs TIA) as index event, history of stroke, history of hypertension, history of coronary artery disease, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures. At the time of their index event, 1,072 (28%) patients were current smokers. By the time of randomization, 450 (42%) patients had quit smoking. Among quitters, the 5-year risk of stroke, MI, or death was 15.7% compared to 22.6% for patients who continued to smoke (adjusted hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.48-0.90). Cessation of cigarette smoking after an ischemic stroke or TIA was associated with significant health benefits over 4.8 years in the IRIS trial cohort. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Valery L Feigin
Full Text Available Insufficient data exist on population-based trends in morbidity and mortality to determine the success of prevention strategies and improvements in health care delivery in stroke. The aim of this study was to determine trends in incidence and outcome (1-year mortality, 28-day case-fatality in relation to management and risk factors for stroke in the multi-ethnic population of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ over 30-years.Four stroke incidence population-based register studies were undertaken in adult residents (aged ≥15 years of Auckland NZ in 1981-1982, 1991-1992, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012. All used standard World Health Organization (WHO diagnostic criteria and multiple overlapping sources of case-ascertainment for hospitalised and non-hospitalised, fatal and non-fatal, new stroke events. Ethnicity was consistently self-identified into four major groups. Crude and age-adjusted (WHO world population standard annual incidence and mortality with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated per 100,000 people, assuming a Poisson distribution.5400 new stroke patients were registered in four 12 month recruitment phases over the 30-year study period; 79% were NZ/European, 6% Māori, 8% Pacific people, and 7% were of Asian or other origin. Overall stroke incidence and 1-year mortality decreased by 23% (95% CI 5%-31% and 62% (95% CI 36%-86%, respectively, from 1981 to 2012. Whilst stroke incidence and mortality declined across all groups in NZ from 1991, Māori and Pacific groups had the slowest rate of decline and continue to experience stroke at a significantly younger age (mean ages 60 and 62 years, respectively compared with NZ/Europeans (mean age 75 years. There was also a decline in 28-day stroke case fatality (overall by 14%, 95% CI 11%-17% across all ethnic groups from 1981 to 2012. However, there were significant increases in the frequencies of pre-morbid hypertension, myocardial infarction, and diabetes mellitus, but a reduction in
Feigin, Valery L; Krishnamurthi, Rita V; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn M; Barber, P Alan; Parag, Varsha; Arroll, Bruce; Bennett, Derrick A; Tobias, Martin; Jones, Amy; Witt, Emma; Brown, Paul; Abbott, Max; Bhattacharjee, Rohit; Rush, Elaine; Suh, Flora Minsun; Theadom, Alice; Rathnasabapathy, Yogini; Te Ao, Braden; Parmar, Priya G; Anderson, Craig; Bonita, Ruth
Insufficient data exist on population-based trends in morbidity and mortality to determine the success of prevention strategies and improvements in health care delivery in stroke. The aim of this study was to determine trends in incidence and outcome (1-year mortality, 28-day case-fatality) in relation to management and risk factors for stroke in the multi-ethnic population of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) over 30-years. Four stroke incidence population-based register studies were undertaken in adult residents (aged ≥15 years) of Auckland NZ in 1981-1982, 1991-1992, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012. All used standard World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria and multiple overlapping sources of case-ascertainment for hospitalised and non-hospitalised, fatal and non-fatal, new stroke events. Ethnicity was consistently self-identified into four major groups. Crude and age-adjusted (WHO world population standard) annual incidence and mortality with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated per 100,000 people, assuming a Poisson distribution. 5400 new stroke patients were registered in four 12 month recruitment phases over the 30-year study period; 79% were NZ/European, 6% Māori, 8% Pacific people, and 7% were of Asian or other origin. Overall stroke incidence and 1-year mortality decreased by 23% (95% CI 5%-31%) and 62% (95% CI 36%-86%), respectively, from 1981 to 2012. Whilst stroke incidence and mortality declined across all groups in NZ from 1991, Māori and Pacific groups had the slowest rate of decline and continue to experience stroke at a significantly younger age (mean ages 60 and 62 years, respectively) compared with NZ/Europeans (mean age 75 years). There was also a decline in 28-day stroke case fatality (overall by 14%, 95% CI 11%-17%) across all ethnic groups from 1981 to 2012. However, there were significant increases in the frequencies of pre-morbid hypertension, myocardial infarction, and diabetes mellitus, but a reduction in frequency
Feigin, Valery L.; Krishnamurthi, Rita V.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn M.; Barber, P. Alan; Parag, Varsha; Arroll, Bruce; Bennett, Derrick A.; Tobias, Martin; Jones, Amy; Witt, Emma; Brown, Paul; Abbott, Max; Bhattacharjee, Rohit; Rush, Elaine; Suh, Flora Minsun; Theadom, Alice; Rathnasabapathy, Yogini; Te Ao, Braden; Parmar, Priya G.; Anderson, Craig; Bonita, Ruth
Background Insufficient data exist on population-based trends in morbidity and mortality to determine the success of prevention strategies and improvements in health care delivery in stroke. The aim of this study was to determine trends in incidence and outcome (1-year mortality, 28-day case-fatality) in relation to management and risk factors for stroke in the multi-ethnic population of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) over 30-years. Methods Four stroke incidence population-based register studies were undertaken in adult residents (aged ≥15 years) of Auckland NZ in 1981–1982, 1991–1992, 2002–2003 and 2011–2012. All used standard World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria and multiple overlapping sources of case-ascertainment for hospitalised and non-hospitalised, fatal and non-fatal, new stroke events. Ethnicity was consistently self-identified into four major groups. Crude and age-adjusted (WHO world population standard) annual incidence and mortality with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated per 100,000 people, assuming a Poisson distribution. Results 5400 new stroke patients were registered in four 12 month recruitment phases over the 30-year study period; 79% were NZ/European, 6% Māori, 8% Pacific people, and 7% were of Asian or other origin. Overall stroke incidence and 1-year mortality decreased by 23% (95% CI 5%-31%) and 62% (95% CI 36%-86%), respectively, from 1981 to 2012. Whilst stroke incidence and mortality declined across all groups in NZ from 1991, Māori and Pacific groups had the slowest rate of decline and continue to experience stroke at a significantly younger age (mean ages 60 and 62 years, respectively) compared with NZ/Europeans (mean age 75 years). There was also a decline in 28-day stroke case fatality (overall by 14%, 95% CI 11%-17%) across all ethnic groups from 1981 to 2012. However, there were significant increases in the frequencies of pre-morbid hypertension, myocardial infarction, and diabetes
Heugten, C.M. van; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Dijk, A.J. van; Stehmann-Saris, J.C.; Kinebanian, A.
Objective: Evaluation of a therapy programme for srorke patients with apraxia. The programme is based on teaching patients strategies to compensate for the presence of apraxia. This programme was designed for assessment and treatment by occupational therapists. Design: The outcome was studied in de
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is the third leading cause of death in developed countries and the leading cause of long-term disability worldwide. A series of national stroke audits in the UK highlighted the differences in stroke care between hospitals. The study aims to describe variation in outcomes following stroke and to identify the characteristics of services that are associated with better outcomes, after accounting for case mix differences and individual prognostic factors. Methods/Design We will conduct a cohort study in eight acute NHS trusts within East of England, with at least one year of follow-up after stroke. The study population will be a systematically selected representative sample of patients admitted with stroke during the study period, recruited within each hospital. We will collect individual patient data on prognostic characteristics, health care received, outcomes and costs of care and we will also record relevant characteristics of each provider organisation. The determinants of one year outcome including patient reported outcome will be assessed statistically with proportional hazards regression models. Self (or proxy completed EuroQol (EQ-5D questionnaires will measure quality of life at baseline and follow-up for cost utility analyses. Discussion This study will provide observational data about health service factors associated with variations in patient outcomes and health care costs following hospital admission for acute stroke. This will form the basis for future RCTs by identifying promising health service interventions, assessing the feasibility of recruiting and following up trial patients, and provide evidence about frequency and variances in outcomes, and intra-cluster correlation of outcomes, for sample size calculations. The results will inform clinicians, public, service providers, commissioners and policy makers to drive further improvement in health services which will bring direct benefit to the patients.
Abilleira, Sònia; Ribera, Aida; Dávalos, Antonio; Ribó, Marc; Chamorro, Angel; Cardona, Pere; Molina, Carlos A; Martínez-Yélamos, Antonio; Urra, Xabier; Dorado, Laura; Roquer, Jaume; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Aja, Lucía; Tomasello, Alejandro; Castaño, Carlos; Blasco, Jordi; Cánovas, David; Castellanos, Mar; Krupinski, Jerzy; Guimaraens, Leopoldo; Perendreu, Joan; Ustrell, Xavier; Purroy, Francisco; Gómez-Choco, Manuel; Baiges, Joan Josep; Cocho, Dolores; Saura, Júlia; Gallofré, Miquel
Among the acute ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusions and contraindications for the use of IV thrombolysis, mainly on oral anticoagulation or presenting too late, primary endovascular therapy is often performed as an alternative to the standard therapy even though evidence supporting the use of endovascular reperfusion therapies is not yet established. Using different statistical approaches, we compared the functional independence rates at 3 months among patients undergoing primary endovascular therapy and patients treated only with IV thrombolysis. We used data from a prospective, government-mandated and externally audited registry of reperfusion therapies for ischemic stroke (January 2011 to November 2012). Patients were selected if treated with either IV thrombolysis alone (n = 1,582) or primary endovascular thrombectomy (n = 250). A series of exclusions were made to homogenize the clinical characteristics among the two groups. We then carried out multivariate logistic regression and propensity score matching analyses on the final study sample (n = 1,179) to compare functional independence at 3 months, as measured by the modified Rankin scale scores 0-2, between the two groups. The unadjusted likelihood of good outcome was poorer among the endovascular group (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.47-1.0). After adjustment, no differences by treatment modality were seen (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 0.93-2.43 for primary endovascular therapy). Patients undergoing endovascular thrombectomy within 180-270 min (OR: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.17-7.15) and patients with severe strokes (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.02-3.35) did better than their intravenous thrombolysis counterparts. The propensity score-matched analyses with and without adjustment by additional covariates showed that endovascular thrombectomy was as effective as intravenous thrombolysis alone in achieving functional independence (OR for unadjusted propensity score matched: 1.35; 95% CI: 0.9-2.02, OR for adjusted propensity score
Eric Vounsia Balti
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Determinants of post-acute stroke outcomes in Africa have been less investigated. We assessed the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS and insulin resistance with post-stroke mortality in patients with first-ever-in-lifetime stroke in the capital city of Cameroon (sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Patients with an acute first-stroke event (n = 57 were recruited between May and October 2006, and followed for 5 years for mortality outcome. MetS definition was based on the Joint Interim Statement 2009, insulin sensitivity/resistance assessed via glucose-to-insulin ratio, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostatic model assessment. RESULTS: Overall, 24 (42% patients deceased during follow-up. The prevalence of MetS was higher in patients who died after 28 days, 1 year and 5 years from any cause or cardiovascular-related causes (all p≤0.040. MetS was associated with an increased overall mortality both after 1 year (39% vs. 9% and 5 years of follow-up (55% vs. 26%, p = 0.022. Similarly, fatal events due to cardiovascular-related conditions were more frequent in the presence of MetS both 1 year (37% vs. 9% and 5 years after the first-ever-in-lifetime stroke (43% vs. 13%, p = 0.017. Unlike biochemical measures of insulin sensitivity and resistance (non-significant, in age- and sex-adjusted Cox models, MetS was associated with hazard ratio (95% CI of 2.63 (1.03-6.73 and 3.54 (1.00-12.56 respectively for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality 5 years after stroke onset. CONCLUSION: The Joint Interim Statement 2009 definition of MetS may aid the identification of a subgroup of black African stroke patients who may benefit from intensification of risk factor management.
Lee, Yeong-Bae; Park, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Eunja; Kang, Chang-Ki; Park, Hyeon-Mi
Arterial stiffness is a common change associated with aging and can be evaluated by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) between sites in the arterial tree, with the stiffer artery having the higher PWV. Arterial stiffness is associated with the risk of stroke in the general population and of fatal stroke in hypertensive patients. This study is to clarify whether PWV value predicts functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. ONE HUNDRED PATIENTS WERE ENROLLED WITH A DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE AND CATEGORIZED INTO TWO GROUPS: large-artery atherosclerosis (LAAS) or small vessel disease (SVD) subtype of Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. Each group was divided into two sub-groups based on the functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke, indicated by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge. Poor functional outcome group was defined as a mRS ≥ 3 at discharge. Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test were used to compare maximal brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) values. Twenty-four patients whose state was inadequate to assess baPWV or mRS were excluded. There were 38 patients with good functional outcome (mRS vs. 1,789.80 ± 421.91, p = 0.022), while there was no significant difference of baPWV among patients with LAAS subtype (2,071.76 ± 618.42 vs. 1,878.00 ± 365.35, p = 0.579). Arterial stiffness indicated by baPWV is associated with the functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. This finding suggests that measurement of baPWV predicts functional outcome in patients with stroke especially those whose TOAST classification was confirmed as SVD subtype.
Qureshi, Adnan I; Chaudhry, Saqib A; Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Suri, M Fareed K; Lakshminarayan, Kamakshi; Ezzeddine, Mustapha A
BACKGROUND: The 'drip-and-ship' paradigm denotes a treatment regimen in patients in whom intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is initiated at the emergency department (ED) of a community hospital, followed by transfer within 24 h to a comprehensive stroke center. Although the drip-and-ship paradigm has the potential to increase the number of patients who receive IV rt-PA, comparative outcomes have not been assessed at a population-based level. METHODS: Statewide estimates of thrombolysis, associated in-hospital outcomes, and hospitalization charges were obtained from 2008-2009 Minnesota Hospital Association data for all patients hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke. Patients who were assigned the drip-and-ship code [International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) V45.88] were classified under the drip-and-ship paradigm. Patients who underwent thrombolysis (ICD-9-CM code 99.10) without drip-and-ship code were classified as primary ED arrival. Patient outcomes were analyzed after stratification into patients treated with IV rt-PA through primary ED arrival or drip-and-ship paradigm. RESULTS: Of the 21,024 admissions, 602 (2.86%) received IV rt-PA either through primary ED arrival (n = 473) or the drip-and-ship paradigm (n = 129). IV rt-PA was administered in 30 hospitals, of which 13 hospitals used the drip-and-ship paradigm; the number of patients treated with the drip-and-ship paradigm varied from 1 to 40 between the 13 hospitals. The rates of secondary intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage were higher in patients treated with IV rt-PA through primary ED arrival compared with those treated with the drip-and-ship paradigm (8.5 vs. 3.1%, respectively; p = 0.038). The in-hospital mortality rate was similar among ischemic stroke patients receiving IV rt-PA through primary ED arrival or the drip-and-ship paradigm (5.9 vs. 7.0%, respectively). The mean hospital charges were USD
Alladi, Suvarna; Bak, Thomas H; Mekala, Shailaja; Rajan, Amulya; Chaudhuri, Jaydip Ray; Mioshi, Eneida; Krovvidi, Rajesh; Surampudi, Bapiraju; Duggirala, Vasanta; Kaul, Subhash
Bilingualism has been associated with slower cognitive aging and a later onset of dementia. In this study, we aimed to determine whether bilingualism also influences cognitive outcome after stroke. We examined 608 patients with ischemic stroke from a large stroke registry and studied the role of bilingualism in predicting poststroke cognitive impairment in the absence of dementia. A larger proportion of bilinguals had normal cognition compared with monolinguals (40.5% versus 19.6%; Pdementia and vascular mild cognitive impairment (monolinguals 77.7% versus bilinguals 49.0%; Pbilinguals 10.5%; P=0.354). Bilingualism was found to be an independent predictor of poststroke cognitive impairment. Our results suggest that bilingualism leads to a better cognitive outcome after stroke, possibly by enhancing cognitive reserve. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Hurvitz, Edward; Warschausky, Seth; Berg, Michelle; Tsai, Shane
To examine the long-term functional, psychosocial, and medical outcome of pediatric stroke survivors. This was a descriptive survey performed on patients with childhood stroke who participated in an earlier study. Measures included the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) and the Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale. Current information on living situation, school placement, employment, and medical outcome were obtained. Twenty-nine (58%) patients participated. The mean age was 19.3 years (SD = 6.6), mean age of onset of stroke was 7.0 years (SD = 5.4), and mean follow-up time was 11.9 years (SD = 3.9). Diagnoses included hemorrhagic (31%) and ischemic (69%) stroke. All but one adult had finished high school, and the majority of participants had gone to college. 60% of patients over age 16 were employed. The average VABS levels for communication, daily living skills, socialization, and adaptive behavior fell into the moderately low range. Use of seizure medications and ADL dependence were the predictors for lower VABS levels (p life satisfaction. Patients who scored below adequate on VABS tended toward lower life satisfaction. Pediatric stroke survivors had good educational and mobility outcomes, but communication, ADL, and socialization fell into the low-moderate range. The different predictors of functional and subjective quality of life outcomes suggest that functional outcomes may mediate the relations between medical factors and satisfaction with life.
Liman, T G; Heuschmann, P U; Endres, M; Flöel, A; Schwab, S; Kolominsky-Rabas, P L
Cognitive deficits are frequent stroke sequelae. Data from population-based stroke cohorts on the impact of cognitive deficits on long-term outcome are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of low mini-mental status on health outcome up to 5 years after first-ever stroke. Data were collected from the Erlangen Stroke Project, a population-based stroke registry covering a source population of 103,000 inhabitants. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to assess global cognitive function. Health outcome included limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, Frenchay Activities Index), low independence in activities of daily living (ADL, Barthel Index), depressive symptoms (Zung Self Rating Depression Scale), and institutionalization. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, association of an education-adjusted MMSE score ≤ 24 with these health outcomes was investigated within distinct models at 12, 36, and 60 months after stroke as well as predictors at 3 months for low IADL. A total of 705 patients with first-ever stroke were included. Institutionalization, low levels of ADL and IADL (p mini-mental status up to 3 years after stroke (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.2-5.8) as well as older age (p mini-mental status has an independent impact on long-term health outcome after stroke. Our results emphasize the importance of cognitive status screening to identify stroke survivors at risk and manage and treat these patients more efficiently.
Boehme, Amelia K.; Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Marshall, Randolph S.
Objective: To determine the independent effects of aphasia on outcomes during acute stroke admission, controlling for total NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and loss of consciousness. Methods: Data from the Tulane Stroke Registry were used from July 2008 to December 2014 for patient demographics, NIHSS scores, length of stay (LOS), complications (sepsis, deep vein thrombosis), and discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. Aphasia was defined as a score >1 on question 9 on the NIHSS on admission and hemiparesis as >1 on questions 5 or 6. Results: Among 1,847 patients, 866 (46%) had aphasia on admission. Adjusting for NIHSS score and inpatient complications, those with aphasia had a 1.22 day longer LOS than those without aphasia, whereas those with hemiparesis (n = 1,225) did not have any increased LOS compared to those without hemiparesis. Those with aphasia had greater odds of having a complication (odds ratio [OR] 1.44, confidence interval [CI] 1.07–1.93, p = 0.0174) than those without aphasia, which was equivalent to those having hemiparesis (OR 1.47, CI 1.09–1.99, p = 0.0137). Controlling for NIHSS scores, aphasia patients had higher odds of discharge mRS 3–6 (OR 1.42 vs 1.15). Conclusion: Aphasia is independently associated with increased LOS and complications during the acute stroke admission, adding $2.16 billion annually to US acute stroke care. The presence of aphasia was more likely to produce a poor functional outcome than hemiparesis. These data suggest that further research is necessary to determine whether establishing adaptive communication skills can mitigate its consequences in the acute stroke setting. PMID:27765864
Kim, Young Dae; Jung, Yo Han; Norrving, Bo; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Saposnik, Gustavo
Background Expenditure on research and development is a macroeconomic indicator representative of national investment. International organizations use this indicator to compare international research and development activities. Aim We investigated whether differences in expenditures on research and development at the country level may influence the incidence of stroke and stroke mortality. Methods We compared stroke metrics with absolute amount of gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) per-capita adjusted for purchasing power parity (aGERD) and relative amount of GERD as percent of gross domestic product (rGERD). Sources included official data from the UNESCO, the World Health Organization, the World Bank, and population-based studies. We used correlation analysis and multivariable linear regression modeling. Results Overall, data on stroke mortality rate and GERD were available from 66 countries for two periods (2002 and 2008). Age-standardized stroke mortality rate was associated with aGERD (r = -0.708 in 2002 and r = -0.730 in 2008) or rGERD (r = -0.545 in 2002 and r = -0.657 in 2008) (all p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis showed a lower aGERD and rGERD were independently and inversely associated with higher stroke mortality (all p < 0.05). The estimated prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, or obesity was higher in countries with lower aGERD. The analysis of 27 population-based studies showed consistent inverse associations between aGERD or rGERD and incident risk of stroke and 30-day case fatality. Conclusions There is higher stroke mortality among countries with lower expenditures in research and development. While this study does not prove causality, it suggests a potential area to focus efforts to improve global stroke outcomes.
Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Toft, Nils; Westrup, Ulrik
The objectives of the present study were to investigate survival time, possible predictors of survival and clinical outcome in dogs with ischaemic stroke. A retrospective study of dogs with a previous diagnosis of ischaemic stroke diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed....... The association between survival and the hypothesised risk factors was examined using univariable exact logistic regression. Survival was examined using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Twenty-two dogs were identified. Five dogs (23%) died within the first 30days of the stroke event. Median survival in 30-day...... survivors was 505days. Four dogs (18%) were still alive by the end of the study. Right-sided lesions posed a significantly increased risk of mortality with a median survival time in dogs with right-sided lesions of 24days vs. 602days in dogs with left sided lesions (P=0.006). Clinical outcome was considered...
Zhao, Meng; Deng, Xiaofeng; Gao, Faliang; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Zhao, Jizong
Stroke in young adults is uncommon and rarely described. Moyamoya disease is one of the leading causes of stroke in young adults. We aimed to study the prognostic factors for stroke recurrences and functional outcomes in young stroke patients with moyamoya disease after revascularization. We reviewed 696 consecutive patients with moyamoya disease admitted to our hospital from 2009-2015 and identified patients aged 18-45 years with first-ever stroke. Follow-up was conducted via face-to-face or structured telephone interviews. Outcome measures were recurrent stroke events and unfavorable functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale >2). We included 121 young patients with moyamoya disease suffering from stroke (initial presentation age, 35.4 ± 7.5 years). All patients underwent revascularization after the acute phase of initial stroke events as the secondary prevention for recurrences. During follow-up (median, 40 months), 9 patients (7.4%) experienced recurrent strokes and 8 of them (6.6%) suffered unfavorable functional outcomes. In the multivariate analysis, diabetes was an independent predictor for stroke recurrences (hazard ratio 6.76; 95% confidence interval 1.30-35.11; P = 0.02) and was significantly associated with unfavorable functional outcomes (odds ratio 7.87; 95% confidence interval 1.42-38.74; P = 0.01). We identified diabetes as an independent risk factor for recurrent strokes and unfavorable functional outcomes after revascularization in young stroke patients with moyamoya disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zierath, Dannielle; Shen, Angela; Stults, Astiana; Olmstead, Theresa; Becker, Kyra J
Immune responses to brain antigens after stroke contribute to poor outcome. We hypothesized that splenectomy would lessen the development of such responses and improve outcome. Male Lewis rats (275-350 g) underwent 2-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion immediately after splenectomy or sham splenectomy. Animals were survived to 4 weeks (672 hrs), and immune responses to myelin basic protein determined at euthanasia. Infarct volume was determined in a subset of animals euthanized at 72 hours. Behavioral outcomes were assessed to 672 hours. Splenectomy was associated with worse neurological scores early after stroke, but infarct size at 72 hours was similar in both groups. Behavioral outcomes and immune responses to myelin basic protein were also similar among splenectomized and sham-operated animals 672 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Splenectomy did not alter the immune responses to brain antigens or improve outcome after stroke. Differences between this study and other studies of splenectomy and stroke are examined. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Wu, Andy J; Burgard, Emily; Radel, Jeff
Stroke-induced paresis commands much attention during rehabilitation; other stroke-related consequences receive less consideration. Apraxia is a stroke disorder that may have important implications for rehabilitation and recovery. To investigate association of apraxia with stroke rehabilitation outcomes during inpatient rehabilitation. This cohort study compared patients with and without apraxia after a first left hemispheric stroke. All study patients received standard of care. Clinical measures were the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and the upper extremity section of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) administered upon admission and at discharge. Length of stay was also documented. Florida Apraxia Battery subtests were used to classify patients with apraxia. Fifteen patients were included in this study, 10 of whom had apraxia. Data analysis revealed that patients with apraxia exhibited improvement from admission to discharge in clinical measures; however, admission FIM score was significantly lower compared to patients without apraxia. There was no statistically significant difference between groups on FMA score, length of stay, or amount of change on clinical measures. This study of acute patients found those with apraxia to be significantly less independent upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation compared to patients without apraxia. Although both groups improved a similar amount during rehabilitation, patients with apraxia discharged at a level of independence comparable to patients without apraxia upon admission. Such disparity in independence is of concern, and apraxia as a factor in stroke rehabilitation and recovery deserves further attention.
Risk for Major Bleeding in Patients Receiving Ticagrelor Compared With Aspirin After Transient Ischemic Attack or Acute Ischemic Stroke in the SOCRATES Study (Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated With Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes).
Easton, J Donald; Aunes, Maria; Albers, Gregory W; Amarenco, Pierre; Bokelund-Singh, Sara; Denison, Hans; Evans, Scott R; Held, Peter; Jahreskog, Marianne; Jonasson, Jenny; Minematsu, Kazuo; Molina, Carlos A; Wang, Yongjun; Wong, K S Lawrence; Johnston, S Claiborne
Patients with minor acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack are at high risk for subsequent stroke, and more potent antiplatelet therapy in the acute setting is needed. However, the potential benefit of more intense antiplatelet therapy must be assessed in relation to the risk for major bleeding. The SOCRATES trial (Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated With Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes) was the first trial with ticagrelor in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in which the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor were compared with those of aspirin. The main safety objective was assessment of PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes)-defined major bleeds on treatment, with special focus on intracranial hemorrhage (ICrH). An independent adjudication committee blinded to study treatment classified bleeds according to the PLATO, TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction), and GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) definitions. The definitions of ICrH and major bleeding excluded cerebral microbleeds and asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformations of cerebral infarctions so that the definitions better discriminated important events in the acute stroke population. A total of 13 130 of 13 199 randomized patients received at least 1 dose of study drug and were included in the safety analysis set. PLATO major bleeds occurred in 31 patients (0.5%) on ticagrelor and 38 patients (0.6%) on aspirin (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.34). The most common locations of major bleeds were intracranial and gastrointestinal. ICrH was reported in 12 patients (0.2%) on ticagrelor and 18 patients (0.3%) on aspirin. Thirteen of all 30 ICrHs (4 on ticagrelor and 9 on aspirin) were hemorrhagic strokes, and 4 (2 in each group) were symptomatic hemorrhagic transformations of brain infarctions. The ICrHs were spontaneous in 6 and 13, traumatic in 3 and 3, and procedural in 3 and 2
Leira, Enrique C; Zaheer, Asgar; Schnell, Thomas; Torner, James C; Olalde, Heena M; Pieper, Andrew A; Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Nagaraja, Nandakumar; Marks, Nancy L; Adams, Harold P
Patients often suffer a stroke at a significant distance from a center capable of delivering endovascular therapy, thus requiring rapid transport by helicopter emergency medical services while receiving a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator infusion that was initiated locally. But little is known about how a helicopter flight may impact the safety and efficacy of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator-induced reperfusion and patient outcomes. To establish a new animal method to address with fidelity the safety and overall effect of helicopter emergency medical services during thrombolysis. Prospective randomized open blinded end-point study of an actual helicopter flight exposure. Adult C57BL/6 male mice were treated with a 10 mg/kg recombinant tissue plasminogen activator infusion two-hours after an embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion. Mice were randomized in pairs to simultaneously receive the infusion during a local helicopter flight or in a ground hangar. Eighteen mice (nine pairs) were analyzed. The paired t-test analysis showed nonsignificant smaller infarction volumes in the helicopter-assigned animals (mean pair difference 33 mm(3) , P = 0·33). The amount of hemorrhagic transformation between the helicopter and ground groups was 4·08 vs. 4·56 μl, respectively (paired t-test, P = 0·45). This study shows that helicopter emergency medical services do not have an inherent adverse effect on outcome in a mouse model of ischemic stroke with reperfusion. These results endorse the safety of the practice of using helicopter emergency medical services in stroke patients. The observed potential synergistic effect of helicopter-induced factors, such as vibration and changes in altitude, with reperfusion merits further exploration in animal experimental models and in stroke patients. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.
O'Neill, N P; Godden, D J
Stroke is the third leading cause of death in Scotland after coronary heart disease and cancer and is a major cause of long-term disability. There is evidence in other clinical conditions such as asthma, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer that rural residents may have poorer outcomes, due to relative inaccessibility of health-service provision or because the disease is at a more advanced stage at diagnosis. However, the evidence-base for stroke care and outcomes in remote and rural areas is small and the subject matter is under-researched. This study was designed to examine, over a one-year period, the incidence and outcome of stroke occurring in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, a large geographical area with many rural and remote settlements. The study explored whether stroke care and outcome was affected by remoteness and rurality. The study was a prospective, community-based, observational survey. Patients in Highland and the Islands (Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles) suffering first-ever stroke during a 12-month period (from 1 May 2001 to 30 April 2002) were included. All practitioners from health and social care sectors, residential homes, voluntary and charitable organisations were encouraged to notify the researchers of any individual they suspected or knew had a first-ever stroke within the designated time period. Data on 'limitation in activities' (formerly 'level of disability') and service provision were collected using questionnaires and proformas at 1, 3 and 6 months post-stroke from several sources. These included individual patients and carers, health and social care professionals, residential homes, voluntary organisations, and charitable organisations. The analysis focused on location at time of follow up, limitation in activities and service provision. Outcomes were compared across different settlement categories. Settlements were classified as urban/accessible, remote rural and very remote, based on the Scottish Household Survey. In all
Gredal, H; Toft, N; Westrup, U; Motta, L; Gideon, P; Arlien-Søborg, P; Skerritt, G C; Berendt, M
The objectives of the present study were to investigate survival time, possible predictors of survival and clinical outcome in dogs with ischaemic stroke. A retrospective study of dogs with a previous diagnosis of ischaemic stroke diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. The association between survival and the hypothesised risk factors was examined using univariable exact logistic regression. Survival was examined using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Twenty-two dogs were identified. Five dogs (23%) died within the first 30days of the stroke event. Median survival in 30-day survivors was 505days. Four dogs (18%) were still alive by the end of the study. Right-sided lesions posed a significantly increased risk of mortality with a median survival time in dogs with right-sided lesions of 24days vs. 602days in dogs with left sided lesions (P=0.006). Clinical outcome was considered excellent in seven of 17 (41%) 30-day survivors. Another seven 30-day survivors experienced new acute neurological signs within 6-17months of the initial stroke event; in two of those cases a new ischaemic stroke was confirmed by MRI. In conclusion, dogs with ischaemic stroke have a fair to good prognosis in terms of survival and clinical outcome. However, owners should be informed of the risk of acute death within 30days and of the possibility of new neurological events in survivors. Mortality was increased in dogs with right-sided lesions in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burton, Louisa-Jane; Tyson, Sarah; McGovern, Alison
The use of standardised outcome measures is an integral part of stroke rehabilitation and is widely recommended as good practice. However, little is known about how measures are actually used or their impact. This study aimed to identify current clinical practice; how healthcare professionals working in stroke rehabilitation use outcome measures and their perceptions of the benefits and barriers to use. Eighty-four Health Care Professionals and 12 service managers and commissioners working in stroke services across a large UK county were surveyed by postal questionnaire. Ninety-six percent of clinical respondents used at least one measure, however, less than half used measures regularly during a patient's stay. The mean number of tools used was 3.2 (SD = 1.9). Eighty-one different tools were identified; 16 of which were unpublished and unvalidated. Perceived barriers in using outcome measures in day-to-day clinical practice included lack of resources (time and training) and lack of knowledge of appropriate measures. Benefits identified were to demonstrate the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions and monitor patients' progress. Although the use of outcome measures is prevalent in clinical practice, there is little consistency in the tools utilised. The term "outcome measures" is used, but staff rarely used the measures at appropriate time points to formally assess and evaluate outcome. The term "measurement tool" more accurately reflects the purposes to which they were put and potential benefits. Further research to overcome the barriers in using standardised measurement tools and evaluate the impact of implementation on clinical practice is needed. • Health professionals working in stroke rehabilitation should work together to agree when and how outcome measures can be most effectively used in their service. • Efforts should be made to ensure that standardised tools are used to measure outcome at set time-points during rehabilitation, in order to
Hatfield, Brooke; Millet, Deborah; Coles, Janice; Gassaway, Julie; Conroy, Brendan; Smout, Randall J
Hatfield B, Millet D, Coles J, Gassaway J, Conroy B, Smout RJ. Characterizing speech and language pathology outcomes in stroke rehabilitation. To describe a subset of speech-language pathology (SLP) patients in the Post-Stroke Rehabilitation Outcomes Project and to examine outcomes for patients with low admission FIM levels of auditory comprehension and verbal expression. Observational cohort study. Five inpatient rehabilitation hospitals. Patients (N=397) receiving post-stroke SLP with admission FIM cognitive components at levels 1 through 5. Not applicable. Increase in comprehension and expression FIM scores from admission to discharge. Cognitively and linguistically complex SLP activities (problem-solving and executive functioning skills) were associated with greater likelihood of success in low- to mid-level functioning communicators in the acute post-stroke rehabilitation period. The results challenge common clinical practice by suggesting that use of high-level cognitively and linguistically complex SLP activities early in a patient's stay may result in more efficient practice and better outcomes regardless of the patient's functional communication severity level on admission.
Sarfo, Fred S; Adusei, Nathaniel; Ampofo, Michael; Kpeme, Frank K; Ovbiagele, Bruce
Tele-rehabilitation after stroke holds promise for under-resourced settings, especially sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with its immense stroke burden and severely limited physical therapy services. To preliminarily assess the feasibility and outcomes of mobile technology-assisted physical therapy exercises for stroke survivors in Ghana. We conducted a prospective, single arm, pre-post study involving 20 stroke survivors recruited from a tertiary medical center, who received a Smartphone with the 9zest Stroke App® to deliver individualized, goal-targeted 5-days-a-week exercise program that was remotely supervised by a tele-therapist for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included changes in stroke levity scale scores (SLS), Modified Rankin score (MRS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA), and feasibility indicators. Among study participants, mean ± SD age was 54.6 ± 10.2 years, 11 (55%) were men, average time from stroke onset was 6 months. No participants dropped out. Compared with baseline status, mean ± SD scores on SLS improved from 7.5 ± 3.1 to 11.8 ± 2.2 at month 1 (p < 0.0001) and 12.2 ± 2.4 at month 3 (p < 0.0001), MOCA scores improved from 18.2 ± 4.3 to 20.4 ± 4.7 at month 1 (p = 0.14), and 22.2 ± 7.6 at month 3 (p = 0.047). Mean ± SD weekly sessions performed by participants per month was 5.7 ± 5.8 and duration of sessions was 25.5 ± 16.2 min. Erratic internet connectivity negatively affected full compliance with the intervention, although satisfaction ratings by study participants were excellent. It is feasible to administer an m-health delivered physical therapy intervention in SSA, with high user satisfaction. Randomized trials to assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of this intervention are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Al-Khaled, Mohamed; Matthis, Christine; Binder, Andreas; Mudter, Jonas; Schattschneider, Joern; Pulkowski, Ulrich; Strohmaier, Tim; Niehoff, Torsten; Zybur, Roland; Eggers, Juergen; Valdueza, Jose M; Royl, Georg
Dysphagia is associated with poor outcome in stroke patients. Studies investigating the association of dysphagia and early dysphagia screening (EDS) with outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are rare. The aims of our study are to investigate the association of dysphagia and EDS within 24 h with stroke-related pneumonia and outcomes. Over a 4.5-year period (starting November 2007), all consecutive AIS patients from 15 hospitals in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, were prospectively evaluated. The primary outcomes were stroke-related pneumonia during hospitalization, mortality, and disability measured on the modified Rankin Scale ≥2-5, in which 2 indicates an independence/slight disability to 5 severe disability. Of 12,276 patients (mean age 73 ± 13; 49% women), 9,164 patients (74%) underwent dysphagia screening; of these patients, 55, 39, 4.7, and 1.5% of patients had been screened for dysphagia within 3, 3 to 72 h following admission. Patients who underwent dysphagia screening were likely to be older, more affected on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and to have higher rates of neurological symptoms and risk factors than patients who were not screened. A total of 3,083 patients (25.1%; 95% CI 24.4-25.8) had dysphagia. The frequency of dysphagia was higher in patients who had undergone dysphagia screening than in those who had not (30 vs. 11.1%; p dysphagia had a higher rate of pneumonia than those without dysphagia (29.7 vs. 3.7%; p dysphagia was associated with increased risk of stroke-related pneumonia (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.8-4.2; p dysphagia was independently correlated with an increase in mortality (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.4-4.2; p Dysphagia exposes stroke patients to a higher risk of pneumonia, disability, and death, whereas an EDS seems to be associated with reduced risk of stroke-related pneumonia and disability. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Veerbeek, J.M.; Kwakkel, G.; Wegen, van, E.E.H.; Ket, J.C.F.; Heijmans, M.W.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE-Knowledge about robust and unbiased factors that predict outcome of activities of daily living (ADL) is paramount in stroke management. This review investigates the methodological quality of prognostic studies in the early poststroke phase for final ADL to identify variables that are predictive or not predictive for outcome of ADL after stroke. METHODS-PubMed, Ebsco/Cinahl and Embase were systematically searched for prognostic studies in which stroke patients were inclu...
Zietemann, Vera; Wollenweber, Frank Arne; Bayer-Karpinska, Anna; Biessels, Geert Jan; Dichgans, Martin
Introduction: The relationship between glucose metabolism and stroke outcome is likely to be complex. We examined whether there is a linear or non-linear relationship between glucose measures in the acute phase of stroke and post-stroke cognition, and whether altered glucose metabolism at different
Sex-related differences in risk factors, type of treatment received and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation and acute stroke: Results from the RAF-study (Early Recurrence and Cerebral Bleeding in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation)
Antonenko, Kateryna; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Falocci, Nicola; Becattini, Cecilia; Marcheselli, Simona; Rueckert, Christina; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Csiba, Laszló; Szabó, Lilla; Sohn, Sung-Il; Tassinari, Tiziana; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H
Introduction: Atrial fibrillation is an independent risk factor of thromboembolism. Women with atrial fibrillation are at a higher overall risk for stroke compared to men with atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate for sex differences in patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation, regarding risk factors, treatments received and outcomes.\\ud Methods Data were analyzed from the “Recurrence and Cerebral Bleeding in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Atrial Fibril...
Charles D A Wolfe
Full Text Available Although stroke is acknowledged as a long-term condition, population estimates of outcomes longer term are lacking. Such estimates would be useful for planning health services and developing research that might ultimately improve outcomes. This burden of disease study provides population-based estimates of outcomes with a focus on disability, cognition, and psychological outcomes up to 10 y after initial stroke event in a multi-ethnic European population.Data were collected from the population-based South London Stroke Register, a prospective population-based register documenting all first in a lifetime strokes since 1 January 1995 in a multi-ethnic inner city population. The outcomes assessed are reported as estimates of need and included disability (Barthel Index 10, and mental and physical domain scores of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item short form (SF-12 health survey. Estimates were stratified by age, gender, and ethnicity, and age-adjusted using the standard European population. Plots of outcome estimates over time were constructed to examine temporal trends and sociodemographic differences. Between 1995 and 2006, 3,373 first-ever strokes were registered: 20%-30% of survivors had a poor outcome over 10 y of follow-up. The highest rate of disability was observed 7 d after stroke and remained at around 110 per 1,000 stroke survivors from 3 mo to 10 y. Rates of inactivity and cognitive impairment both declined up to 1 y (280/1,000 and 180/1,000 survivors, respectively; thereafter rates of inactivity remained stable till year eight, then increased, whereas rates of cognitive impairment fluctuated till year eight, then increased. Anxiety and depression showed some fluctuation over time, with a rate of 350 and 310 per 1,000 stroke survivors, respectively. SF-12 scores showed little variation from 3 mo to 10 y after stroke. Inactivity was higher in males at all time points, and in white compared to black stroke survivors, although black
Marshall, Iain James; Wang, Yanzhong; Crichton, Siobhan Laura; McKevitt, Christopher John; Rudd, Anthony; Wolfe, Charles David Alexander
The latest evidence on socioeconomic status and stroke shows that stroke not only disproportionately affects low-income and middle-income countries, but also socioeconomically deprived populations within high-income countries. These disparities are reflected not only in risk of stroke but also in short-term and long-term outcomes after stroke. Increased average levels of conventional risk factors (eg, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, excessive alcohol intake, smoking, obesity, and sedentary lif...
Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kono, Syoichiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Narai, Hisashi; Omori, Nobuhiko
This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of acute phase blood pressure in patients with acute ischemic stroke by determining whether or not it contributes to clinical outcome. We studied 515 consecutive patients admitted within the first 48 hours after the onset of ischemic strokes, employing systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements recorded within 36 hours after admission. High blood pressure was defined when the mean of at least 2 blood pressure measurements was ≥200 mmHg systolic and/or ≥110 mmHg diastolic at 6 to 24 hours after admission or ≥180 mmHg systolic and/or ≥105 mmHg diastolic at 24 to 36 hours after admission. The high blood pressure group was found to include 16% of the patients. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, carotid artery stenosis, leukoaraiosis, NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and mortality were not significantly correlated with either the high blood pressure or non-high blood pressure group. High blood pressure on admission was significantly associated with a past history of hypertension, kidney disease, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on discharge and the length of stay. On logistic regression analysis, with no previous history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and kidney disease were independent risk factors associated with the presence of high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR), 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-3.22), 1.89 (95% CI: 1.11-3.22), and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.36-8.04), respectively]. Multi-organ injury may be presented in acute stroke patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had a poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.
Mohammed Aslam Shaikh
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stroke affects 16.9 million people annually and the greatest burden of stroke is in low- and middle-income countries where 69% of all strokes occur. Stroke risk factors, mortality and outcomes differ in developing countries as compared to the developed world. Stroke incidence increases with increasing age and has an impact on daily living in many areas with increasing life expectancy. Old people constitute the majority of stroke victims. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 101 elderly patients of acute ischaemic stroke fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria who were admitted to M.S. Ramaiah Hospital between January 2014 and June 2016 were included in the study. Outcome was assessed by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score at admission, day 5 and at discharge, duration of hospital stay and inpatient mortality. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 67.70±8.77 years. 67.3% of the patients were males. Hypertension (72.3%, diabetes mellitus (51.5% and dyslipidaemia (48.5% were the most common co-morbid conditions. Mean NIHSS score at the time of admission was 12±5.1, on day 5 was 8.47±4.75 and at the time of discharge was 3.27±3.33. Mean duration of hospital stay was 9.01±6.45 days and mortality was seen in 4 patients (4%. Most common site for infarct was in the middle cerebral artery territory (71.71%. CONCLUSION With continuing rapid increase in life expectancy and improvement in medical care, the proportion of elderly with stroke will rise. Therefore, stroke in the elderly is rapidly becoming a major public health concern.
Irwin, P; Rudd, A
The emphasis on outcomes measurement requires that casemix is considered in any comparative studies. In 1996 the Intercollegiate Working Party for Stroke agreed a minimum data set to measure the severity of casemix in stroke. The reasons for its development, the evidence base supporting the items included and the possible uses of the data set are described. It is currently being evaluated in national outcome and process audits to be reported at a later date.
Clinical Effectiveness of Statin Therapy After Ischemic Stroke: Primary Results From the Statin Therapeutic Area of the Patient-Centered Research Into Outcomes Stroke Patients Prefer and Effectiveness Research (PROSPER) Study.
O'Brien, Emily C; Greiner, Melissa A; Xian, Ying; Fonarow, Gregg C; Olson, DaiWai M; Schwamm, Lee H; Bhatt, Deepak L; Smith, Eric E; Maisch, Lesley; Hannah, Deidre; Lindholm, Brianna; Peterson, Eric D; Pencina, Michael J; Hernandez, Adrian F
In patients with ischemic stroke, data on the real-world effectiveness of statin therapy for clinical and patient-centered outcomes are needed to better inform shared decision making. Patient-Centered Research Into Outcomes Stroke Patients Prefer and Effectiveness Research (PROSPER) is a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute-funded research program designed with stroke survivors to evaluate the effectiveness of poststroke therapies. We linked data on patients ≥65 years of age enrolled in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Registry to Medicare claims. Two-year to postdischarge outcomes of those discharged on a statin versus not on a statin were adjusted through inverse probability weighting. Our coprimary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events and home time (days alive and out of a hospital or skilled nursing facility). Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality, all-cause readmission, cardiovascular readmission, and hemorrhagic stroke. From 2007 to 2011, 77 468 patients who were not taking statins at the time of admission were hospitalized with ischemic stroke; of these, 71% were discharged on statin therapy. After adjustment, statin therapy at discharge was associated with a lower hazard of major adverse cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.94), 28 more home-time days after discharge (PStatin therapy at discharge was not associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-1.23). Among statin-treated patients, 31% received a high-intensity dose; after risk adjustment, these patients had outcomes similar to those of recipients of moderate-intensity statin. In older ischemic stroke patients who were not taking statins at the time of admission, discharge statin therapy was associated with lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and nearly 1 month more home time during the 2-year period after hospitalization. © 2015 American Heart Association
Loft, M I; Esbensen, B A; Kirk, K; Pedersen, L; Martinsen, B; Iversen, H; Mathiesen, L L; Poulsen, I
During the past two decades, attempts have been made to describe nurses' contributions to the rehabilitation of inpatients following stroke. There is currently a lack of interventions that integrate the diversity of nurses' role and functions in stroke rehabilitation and explore their effect on patient outcomes. Using a systematic evidence- and theory-based design, we developed an educational programme, Rehabilitation 24/7, for nursing staff working in stroke rehabilitation aiming at two target behaviours; working systematically with a rehabilitative approach in all aspects of patient care and working deliberately and systematically with patients' goals. The aim of this study was to assess nursing staff members' self-perceived outcome related to their capability, opportunity and motivation to work with a rehabilitative approach after participating in the stroke Rehabilitation 24/7 educational programme. A convergent mixed-method design was applied consisting of a survey and semi-structured interviews. Data collection was undertaken between February and June 2016. Data from the questionnaires ( N = 33) distributed before and after the intervention were analysed using descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon sign rank test. The interviews ( N = 10) were analysed using deductive content analysis. After analysing questionnaires and interviews separately, the results were merged in a side by side comparison presented in the discussion. The results from both the quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate that the educational programme shaped the target behaviours that we aimed to change by addressing the nursing staff's capability, opportunity and motivation and hence could strengthen the nursing staff's contribution to inpatient stroke rehabilitation. A number of behaviours changed significantly, and the qualitative results indicated that the staff experienced increased focus on their role and functions in rehabilitation practice. Our study provides an
Martini, S R; Hill, M D; Alexandrov, A V; Molina, C A; Kent, T A
Hyperglycemia independently predicts poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke. CLOTBUST (Combined Lysis Of Thrombus in Brain ischemia using transcranial Ultrasound and Systemic tPA) demonstrated that ultrasound-augmented thrombolysis improves recanalization and 24-hour outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that ultrasound would preferentially benefit hyperglycemic patients, and reviewed CLOTBUST with respect to admission glucose and good outcome. We found that ultrasound's benefit on 90-day outcome was primarily apparent at higher glucose levels, suggesting that ultrasound therapy may improve outcome following hyperglycemic stroke.
Kapral, Moira K.; Fang, Jiming; Silver, Frank L.; Hall, Ruth; Stamplecoski, Melissa; O’Callaghan, Christina; Tu, Jack V.
Background: Systems of stroke care delivery have been promoted as a means of improving the quality of stroke care, but little is known about their effectiveness. We assessed the effect of the Ontario Stroke System, a province-wide strategy of regionalized stroke care delivery, on stroke care and outcomes in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We used population-based provincial administrative databases to identify all emergency department visits and hospital admissions for acute stroke and transient ischemic attack from Jan. 1, 2001, to Dec. 31, 2010. Using piecewise regression analyses, we assessed the effect of the full implementation of the Ontario Stroke System in 2005 on the proportion of patients who received care at stroke centres, and on rates of discharge to long-term care facilities and 30-day mortality after stroke. Results: We included 243 287 visits by patients with acute stroke or transient ischemic attack. The full implementation of the Ontario Stroke System in 2005 was associated with an increase in rates of care at stroke centres (before implementation: 40.0%; after implementation: 46.5%), decreased rates of discharge to long-term care facilities (before implementation: 16.9%; after implementation: 14.8%) and decreased 30-day mortality for hemorrhagic (before implementation: 38.3%; after implementation: 34.4%) and ischemic stroke (before implementation: 16.3%; after implementation: 15.7%). The system’s implementation was also associated with marked increases in the proportion of patients who received neuroimaging, thrombolytic therapy, care in a stroke unit and antithrombotic therapy. Interpretation: The implementation of an organized system of stroke care delivery was associated with improved processes of care and outcomes after stroke. PMID:23713072
Milot, Marie-Hélène; Spencer, Steven J; Chan, Vicky; Allington, James P; Klein, Julius; Chou, Cathy; Bobrow, James E; Cramer, Steven C; Reinkensmeyer, David J
To date, the limited degrees of freedom (DOF) of most robotic training devices hinders them from providing functional training following stroke. We developed a 6-DOF exoskeleton ("BONES") that allows movement of the upper limb to assist in rehabilitation. The objectives of this pilot study were to evaluate the impact of training with BONES on function of the affected upper limb, and to assess whether multijoint functional robotic training would translate into greater gains in arm function than single joint robotic training also conducted with BONES. Twenty subjects with mild to moderate chronic stroke participated in this crossover study. Each subject experienced multijoint functional training and single joint training three sessions per week, for four weeks, with the order of presentation randomized. The primary outcome measure was the change in Box and Block Test (BBT). The secondary outcome measures were the changes in Fugl-Meyer Arm Motor Scale (FMA), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and quantitative measures of strength and speed of reaching. These measures were assessed at baseline, after each training period, and at a 3-month follow-up evaluation session. Training with the robotic exoskeleton resulted in significant improvements in the BBT, FMA, WMFT, MAL, shoulder and elbow strength, and reaching speed (p robotic training programs. However, for the BBT, WMFT and MAL, inequality of carryover effects were noted; subsequent analysis on the change in score between the baseline and first period of training again revealed no difference in the gains obtained between the types of training. Training with the 6 DOF arm exoskeleton improved motor function after chronic stroke, challenging the idea that robotic therapy is only useful for impairment reduction. The pilot results presented here also suggest that multijoint functional robotic training is not decisively superior to single joint robotic training. This challenges the idea that
Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The very old are expected to become a growing part of the stroke population in the industrialised part of the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical characteristics of patients aged 85 years or more at stroke onset and to investigate very old age as an ind...... and rehabilitation after stroke.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The very old are expected to become a growing part of the stroke population in the industrialised part of the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical characteristics of patients aged 85 years or more at stroke onset and to investigate very old age...... as an independent predictor of short- and long-term outcome. METHODS: In the community-based Copenhagen Stroke Study we recorded admission clinical characteristics in 1197 consecutive stroke patients. Patients were stratified according to age groups on admission. Follow-up was performed at a mean of 7 years after...
Perna, Robert; Temple, Jessica
Background. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have different pathophysiologies and possibly different long-term cerebral and functional implications. Hemorrhagic strokes expose the brain to irritating effects of blood and ischemic strokes reflect localized or diffuse cerebral vascular pathology. Methods. Participants were individuals who suffered either an ischemic (n = 172) or hemorrhagic stroke (n = 112) within the past six months and were involved in a postacute neurorehabilitation program....
Wagle, Jørgen; Farner, Lasse; Flekkøy, Kjell; Bruun Wyller, Torgeir; Sandvik, Leiv; Fure, Brynjar; Stensrød, Brynhild; Engedal, Knut
To identify prognostic factors associated with functional outcome at 13 months in a sample of stroke rehabilitation patients. Specifically, we hypothesized that cognitive functioning early after stroke would predict long-term functional outcome independently of other factors. 163 stroke rehabilitation patients underwent a structured neuropsychological examination 2-3 weeks after hospital admittance, and their functional status was subsequently evaluated 13 months later with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) as outcome measure. Three predictive models were built using linear regression analyses: a biological model (sociodemographics, apolipoprotein E genotype, prestroke vascular factors, lesion characteristics and neurological stroke-related impairment); a functional model (pre- and early post-stroke cognitive functioning, personal and instrumental activities of daily living, ADL, and depressive symptoms), and a combined model (including significant variables, with p value Stroke Scale; β = 0.402, p stroke cognitive functioning (Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Status, RBANS; β = -0.248, p = 0.001) and prestroke personal ADL (Barthel Index; β = -0.217, p = 0.002). Further linear regression analyses of which RBANS indexes and subtests best predicted long-term functional outcome showed that Coding (β = -0.484, p stroke cognitive functioning as measured by the RBANS is a significant and independent predictor of long-term functional post-stroke outcome. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Investigators at University Children’s Hospital, Inselspital, and Universities of Bern, Geneva, Basel, and Zurich, Switzerland compared long-term outcome of children (1 month-16 years and young adults (16.1-45 years with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS using prospective data from the Swiss Neuropediatric Stroke Registry and the Adult Bernese stroke registry, between Jan 2000 and Dec 2008.
Burns, Suzanne Perea; White, Brandi M; Magwood, Gayenell; Ellis, Charles; Logan, Ayaba; Jones Buie, Joy N; Adams, Robert J
To identify how post-stroke disability outcomes are assessed in studies that examine racial/ethnic disparities and to map the identified assessment content to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) across the time course of stroke recovery. We conducted a scoping review of the literature. Articles published between January 2001 and July 2017 were identified through Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We identified 1791 articles through database and hand-searching strategies. Of the articles, 194 met inclusion criteria for full-text review, and 41 met inclusion criteria for study inclusion. The included studies used a variety of outcome measures encompassing domains within the ICF: body functions, activities, participation, and contextual factors across the time course of stroke recovery. We discovered disproportionate representation among racial/ethnic groups in the post-stroke disability disparities literature. A wide variety of assessments are used to examine disparities in post-stroke disability across the time course of stroke recovery. Several studies have identified disparities through a variety of assessments; however, substantial problems abound from the assessments used including inconsistent use of assessments, lacking evidence on the validity of assessments among racial/ethnic groups, and inadequate representation among all racial/ethnic populations comprising the US. Implications for Rehabilitation An enhanced understanding of racial/ethnic disparities in post-stroke disability outcomes is inherently important among rehabilitation practitioners who frequently engage with racial/ethnic minority populations across the time course of stroke recovery. Clinicians should carefully consider the psychometric properties of assessment tools to counter potential racial bias. Clinicians should be aware that many assessments used in stroke rehabilitation lack cultural
Bindawas, Saad M; Mawajdeh, Hussam; Vennu, Vishal; Alhaidary, Hisham
Functional outcomes, length of stay (LOS), and discharge disposition have become frequent outcome measures among stroke patients after rehabilitation programs. To examine the trends of changes in functional outcomes, LOS, and discharge disposition in stroke patients discharged from an inpatient rehabilitation facility.All patients (n = 432) were admitted to a tertiary inpatient rehabilitation hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with stroke diagnoses from November 2008 to December 2014. The functional independence measure (FIM) instrument used to assess the patient's functional status. The LOS was measured as the number of days the patients spent in the hospital from the day of admission to the day of discharge. The FIM efficiency was used to measure the patient's rehabilitation progress. All of the variables of the prospectively collected data were retrospectively analyzed.There were significant changes by years in the total FIM ranging from 23 to 29 (P stroke have improved after an inpatient stroke rehabilitation program between 2008 and 2014 even with a constant LOS. Discharge disposition has remained unstable over this period. To improve the efficiency of the stroke rehabilitation program in Saudi Arabia, there is a need to decrease the LOS and emphasize a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach.
We therefore conducted this study to evaluate the frequencies of the traditional risk factors and outcomes of stroke at the main tertiary referral centre in the middle belt of Ghana in a prospective observational study. Methods and results: Patients with a clinical diagnosis of stroke were consecutively recruited and vascular risk ...
Hoffmann, Sarah; Harms, Hendrik; Ulm, Lena; Nabavi, Darius G; Mackert, Bruno-Marcel; Schmehl, Ingo; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J; Montaner, Joan; Bustamante, Alejandro; Hermans, Marcella; Hamilton, Frank; Göhler, Jos; Malzahn, Uwe; Malsch, Carolin; Heuschmann, Peter U; Meisel, Christian; Meisel, Andreas
Stroke-associated pneumonia is a frequent complication after stroke associated with poor outcome. Dysphagia is a known risk factor for stroke-associated pneumonia but accumulating evidence suggests that stroke induces an immunodepressive state increasing susceptibility for stroke-associated pneumonia. We aimed to confirm that stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome is associated with stroke-associated pneumonia independently from dysphagia by investigating the predictive properties of monocytic HLA-DR expression as a marker of immunodepression as well as biomarkers for inflammation (interleukin-6) and infection (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein). This was a prospective, multicenter study with 11 study sites in Germany and Spain, including 486 patients with acute ischemic stroke. Daily screening for stroke-associated pneumonia, dysphagia and biomarkers was performed. Frequency of stroke-associated pneumonia was 5.2%. Dysphagia and decreased monocytic HLA-DR were independent predictors for stroke-associated pneumonia in multivariable regression analysis. Proportion of pneumonia ranged between 0.9% in the higher monocytic HLA-DR quartile (≥21,876 mAb/cell) and 8.5% in the lower quartile (≤12,369 mAb/cell). In the presence of dysphagia, proportion of pneumonia increased to 5.9% and 18.8%, respectively. Patients without dysphagia and normal monocytic HLA-DR expression had no stroke-associated pneumonia risk. We demonstrate that dysphagia and stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome are independent risk factors for stroke-associated pneumonia. Screening for immunodepression and dysphagia might be useful for identifying patients at high risk for stroke-associated pneumonia.
Joundi, Raed A; Martino, Rosemary; Saposnik, Gustavo; Giannakeas, Vasily; Fang, Jiming; Kapral, Moira K
Guidelines advocate screening all acute stroke patients for dysphagia. However, limited data are available regarding how many and which patients are screened and how failing a swallowing screen affects patient outcomes. We sought to evaluate predictors of receiving dysphagia screening after acute ischemic stroke and outcomes after failing a screening test. We used the Ontario Stroke Registry from April 1, 2010, to March 31, 2013, to identify patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke and determine predictors of documented dysphagia screening and outcomes after failing the screening test, including pneumonia, disability, and death. Among 7171 patients, 6677 patients were eligible to receive dysphagia screening within 72 hours, yet 1280 (19.2%) patients did not undergo documented screening. Patients with mild strokes were significantly less likely than those with more severe strokes to have documented screening (adjusted odds ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.64). Failing dysphagia screening was associated with poor outcomes, including pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio, 4.71; 95% CI, 3.43-6.47), severe disability (adjusted odds ratio, 5.19; 95% CI, 4.48-6.02), discharge to long-term care (adjusted odds ratio, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.11-3.79), and 1-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% CI, 2.09-2.80). Associations were maintained in patients with mild strokes. One in 5 patients with acute ischemic stroke did not have documented dysphagia screening, and patients with mild strokes were substantially less likely to have documented screening. Failing dysphagia screening was associated with poor outcomes, including in patients with mild strokes, highlighting the importance of dysphagia screening for all patients with acute ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Tong, Dao-Ming; Zhou, Ye-Ting; Wang, Guang-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Tong-Hui
Background Septic encephalopathy (SE) is the most common acute encephalopathy in ICU; however, little attention has been focused on risk of SE in the course of acute stroke. Our aim is to investigate the early prediction and outcome of SE in stroke patients with nosocomial coma (NC). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in an ICU of the tertiary teaching hospital in China from January 2006 to December 2009. Ninety-four acute stroke patients with NC were grouped according to with...
Lees, Kennedy R; Bluhmki, Erich; von Kummer, Rüdiger
BACKGROUND: Early administration of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) after ischaemic stroke improves outcome. Previous analysis of combined data from individual patients suggested potential benefit beyond 3 h from stroke onset. We re-examined the effect of time to trea...
Vloothuis, Judith D.M.; Mulder, Marijn; Veerbeek, Janne M.; Konijnenbelt, Manin; Visser-Meily, Johanna M.A.; Ket, Johannes C.F.; Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E.H.
Background: Stroke is a major cause of long-term disability in adults. Several systematic reviews have shown that a higher intensity of training can lead to better functional outcomes after stroke. Currently, the resources in inpatient settings are not always sufficient and innovative methods are
Although therapeutic anticoagulation improves early (within 1 month) outcomes after ischemic stroke in hospital-admitted patients with atrial fibrillation, no information exists on late outcomes in unselected population-based studies, including patients with all stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic).
Roth, David L.; Haley, William E.; Clay, Olivio J.; Perkins, Martinique; Grant, Joan S.; Rhodes, J. David; Wadley, Virginia G.; Kissela, Brett; Howard, George
Background and Purpose Previous research has reported worse outcomes after stroke for women and for African Americans, but few prospective, population-based studies have systematically examined demographic differences on long-term stroke outcomes. Race and gender differences on one-year stroke outcomes were examined using an epidemiologically-derived sample of first-time stroke survivors from the national REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Methods Participants of REGARDS who reported a first-time stroke event during regular surveillance calls were interviewed by telephone and then completed an in-home evaluation approximately one year after the verified first-time stroke event (N = 112). A primary family caregiver was also enrolled and interviewed for each stroke survivor. Measures from the in-home evaluation included previously validated stroke outcomes assessments of neurological deficits, functional impairments, and patient-reported effects of stroke in multiple domains. Results African American stroke survivors were less likely to be living with their primary family caregivers than White participants. Analyses that controlled for age, education, and whether the stroke survivors lived with their primary family caregivers indicated that African Americans and women showed significantly greater deficits on multiple one-year outcome measures compared to Whites and men, respectively. Conclusions Among community-dwelling stroke survivors with family caregivers, women and African Americans are at heightened risk for poor long-term outcomes one year after first-time stroke events. Rehabilitation services and public health policies aimed at enhancing stroke recovery rates should address these disparities in post-stroke outcomes. PMID:21257820
Tung, Yu-Chi; Chang, Guann-Ming; Cheng, Shou-Hsia
As healthcare spending continues to increase, reimbursement cuts have become 1 type of healthcare reform to contain costs. Little is known about the long-term impact of cuts in reimbursement, especially under a global budget cap with fee-for-service (FFS) reimbursement, on processes and outcomes of care. The FFS-based reimbursement cuts have been implemented since July 2002 in Taiwan. We examined the long-term association of FFS-based reimbursement cuts with trends in processes and outcomes of care for stroke. We analyzed all 411,487 patients with stroke admitted to general acute care hospitals in Taiwan during the period 1997 to 2010 through Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We used a quasi-experimental design with quarterly measures of healthcare utilization and outcomes and used segmented autoregressive integrated moving average models for the analysis. After accounting for secular trends and other confounders, the implementation of the FFS-based reimbursement cuts was associated with trend changes in computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging scanning (0.31% per quarter; P=0.013), antiplatelet/anticoagulant use (-0.20% per quarter; Pprocesses and outcomes of care over time. However, the reimbursement cuts from the FFS-based global budget cap are associated with trend changes in processes and outcomes of care for stroke. The FFS-based reimbursement cuts may have long-term positive and negative associations with stroke care. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Meyer, Sarah; Verheyden, Geert; Brinkmann, Nadine; Dejaeger, Eddy; De Weerdt, Willy; Feys, Hilde; Gantenbein, Andreas R; Jenni, Walter; Laenen, Annouschka; Lincoln, Nadina; Putman, Koen; Schuback, Birgit; Schupp, Wilfried; Thijs, Vincent; De Wit, Liesbet
Recovery of patients within the first 6 months after stroke is well documented, but there has been little research on long-term recovery. The aim of this study was to analyze functional and motor recovery between admission to rehabilitation centres and 5 years after stroke. This follow-up of the Collaborative Evaluation of Rehabilitation in Stroke Across Europe study, included patients from 4 European rehabilitation centres. Patients were assessed on admission, at 2 and 6 months, and 5 years after stroke, using the Barthel Index, Rivermead Motor Assessment Gross Function, Leg and Trunk function, and Arm function. Linear mixed models were used, corrected for baseline characteristics. To account for the drop-out during follow-up, the analysis is likelihood-based (assumption of missingness at random). A total of 532 patients were included in this study, of which 238 were followed up at 5 years post stroke. Mean age at stroke onset was 69 (±10 SD) years, 53% were men, 84% had ischemic strokes, and 53% had left-sided motor impairment. Linear mixed model analysis revealed a significant deterioration for all 4 outcomes between 6 months and 5 years (Pstroke. Higher age (Pstroke severity on admission (Pstroke severity negatively affected recovery up to 5 years after stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Skolarus, Lesli E; Murphy, Jillian B; Dome, Mackenzie; Zimmerman, Marc A; Bailey, Sarah; Fowlkes, Sophronia; Morgenstern, Lewis B
Evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions for rare outcomes is a challenge. One such topic is stroke preparedness, defined as inteventions to increase stroke symptom recognition and behavioral intent to call 911. Current stroke preparedness intermediate outcome measures are centered on written vignettes or open-ended questions and have been shown to poorly reflect actual behavior. Given that stroke identification and action requires aural and visual processing, video vignettes may improve on current measures. This article discusses an approach for creating a novel stroke preparedness video vignette intermediate outcome measure within a community-based participatory research partnership. A total of 20 video vignettes were filmed of which 13 were unambiguous (stroke or not stroke) as determined by stroke experts and had test discrimination among community participants. Acceptable reliability, high satisfaction, and cultural relevance were found among the 14 community respondents. A community-based participatory approach was effective in creating a video vignette intermediate outcome. Future projects should consider obtaining expert and community feedback prior to filming all the video vignettes to improve the proportion of vignettes that are usable. While content validity and preliminary reliability were established, future studies are needed to confirm the reliability and establish construct validity. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Xu, Tao; Ou, Shu; Liu, Xi; Yu, Xinyuan; Yuan, Jinxian; Huang, Hao; Chen, Yangmei
A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to investigate a potential association between post-ischemic stroke seizures (PISS) and subsequent ischemic stroke (IS) outcome.A systematic search of two electronic databases (Medline and Embase) was conducted to identify studies that explored an association between PISS and IS outcome. The primary and secondary IS outcomes of interest were mortality and disability, respectively, with the latter defined as a score of 3 to 5 on the modified Rankin Scale.A total of 15 studies that were published between 1998 and 2015 with 926,492 participants were examined. The overall mortality rates for the patients with and without PISS were 34% (95% confidence interval [CI], 27-42%) and 18% (95% CI, 12-23%), respectively. The pooled relative ratio (RR) of mortality for the patients with PISS was 1.97 (95% CI, 1.48-2.61; I = 88.6%). The overall prevalence rates of disability in the patients with and without PISS were 60% (95% CI, 32-87%) and 41% (95% CI, 25-57%), respectively. Finally, the pooled RR of disability for the patients with PISS was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.32-2.02; I = 66.1%).PISS are significantly associated with higher risks of both mortality and disability. PISS indicate poorer prognoses in patients experiencing IS.
Nakase, Taizen; Moroi, Junta; Ishikawa, Tatsuya
Since non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were released for clinical use, many studies have investigated its effectiveness in stroke prevention. In this study, to determine whether or not there is a difference in outcome in secondary stroke prevention between warfarin and NOACs, patients with embolic stroke with newly prescribed anticoagulants were prospectively analyzed. Patients with acute ischemic stroke, who newly started anticoagulant therapy, were consecutively asked to participate in this study. Enrolled patients (76.3 ± 11.0 years old) were classified into warfarin (n = 48), dabigatran (n = 73), rivaroxaban (n = 49), and apixaban (n = 65). The outcome in 1 year was prospectively investigated at outpatient clinic or telephone interview. Recurrence of stroke and death was considered as the critical incidence. The prevalence of risk factors was not different among all medicines. Patients with dabigatran showed significantly younger onset age (P incident rates were 7.1%, 15.3%, 19.0%, and 29.7% for dabigatran, apixaban, rivaroxaban, and warfarin, respectively. Dabigatran showed relatively better outcome compared with warfarin (P = .069) and rivaroxaban (P = .055). All patients on NOACs presented lower cumulative stroke recurrence compared with warfarin. Even in the situation of secondary stroke prevention, noninferiority of NOACs to warfarin might be demonstrated. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Hemorrhagic transformation (HT may occur as a part of the natural history of acute ischemic stroke, with incidence between 13-43% in computer-tomography (CT studies. Detection of HT in a patient with ischemic stroke is important in establishing treatment in the acute phase in assessing prognosis and in taking therapeutical decisions for secondary stroke prevention. There were controversies regarding optimal treatment in acute ischemic stroke with HT, especially if the patient needs further anticoagulant or antiplatelet treatment. Rehabilitation treatment needs to be continued for post-stroke patients who developed HT, because HT does not decrease rehabilitation outcome. We present rehabilitation treatment and prognosis in a case of hemorrhagic transformation after an embolic ischemic stroke treated with anticoagulants, which required reinitiation of anticoagulant treatment.
Anderson, N.E. [Auckland Hospital, Auckland, (New Zealand); Bonita, R.; Broad, J.B. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Faculty of Medicine and Health Science
Studies of acute stroke management in stroke units and tertiary referral hospitals may not accurately reflect practice within the population. Reliable information on the management of stroke within a population is sparse. The aims of this study was to compare clinical practice in acute stroke management in Auckland with guidelines for the management and treatment of stroke in other countries; to provide a baseline measure against which future changes in management can be evaluated. All new stroke events in Auckland residents in 12 months were traced through multiple case finding sources. For each patient, a record of investigations and treatment during the first week of hospital admission was kept. One thousand eight hundred and three stroke events (including subarachnoid haemorrhages) occurred in 1761 patients in one year. Twenty-seven per cent of all events were managed outside hospital and 73% of the stroke events were treated in an acute hospital. Of the 1242 stroke events admitted to an acute hospital in the first week, only 6% were managed on the neurology and neurosurgery ward, 83% were managed by a general physician or geriatrician and 42% had computed tomography (CT). Of 376 validated ischaemic strokes, 44% were treated with aspirin and 12% with intravenous heparin. Of the 690 unspecified strokes (no CT or autopsy), 38% received aspirin and 0.5% heparin. The 28 day in-hospital case fatality for all stroke events admitted to an acute hospital during the first week was 25%. It was concluded that in Auckland, management of acute stroke differed from clinical guidelines in the high proportion of patients managed in the community, the low rate of neurological consultation, and the low frequency of CT scanning. Despite these deficiencies in management, the 28 day hospital case fatality in Auckland was similar to other comparable studies which had a high proportion of cases evaluated by a neurologist and CT. (authors). 34 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.
Anderson, N.E.; Bonita, R.; Broad, J.B.
Studies of acute stroke management in stroke units and tertiary referral hospitals may not accurately reflect practice within the population. Reliable information on the management of stroke within a population is sparse. The aims of this study was to compare clinical practice in acute stroke management in Auckland with guidelines for the management and treatment of stroke in other countries; to provide a baseline measure against which future changes in management can be evaluated. All new stroke events in Auckland residents in 12 months were traced through multiple case finding sources. For each patient, a record of investigations and treatment during the first week of hospital admission was kept. One thousand eight hundred and three stroke events (including subarachnoid haemorrhages) occurred in 1761 patients in one year. Twenty-seven per cent of all events were managed outside hospital and 73% of the stroke events were treated in an acute hospital. Of the 1242 stroke events admitted to an acute hospital in the first week, only 6% were managed on the neurology and neurosurgery ward, 83% were managed by a general physician or geriatrician and 42% had computed tomography (CT). Of 376 validated ischaemic strokes, 44% were treated with aspirin and 12% with intravenous heparin. Of the 690 unspecified strokes (no CT or autopsy), 38% received aspirin and 0.5% heparin. The 28 day in-hospital case fatality for all stroke events admitted to an acute hospital during the first week was 25%. It was concluded that in Auckland, management of acute stroke differed from clinical guidelines in the high proportion of patients managed in the community, the low rate of neurological consultation, and the low frequency of CT scanning. Despite these deficiencies in management, the 28 day hospital case fatality in Auckland was similar to other comparable studies which had a high proportion of cases evaluated by a neurologist and CT. (authors)
Myint, Phyo Kyaw; Kwok, Chun Shing; Roffe, Christine; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Zaman, Azfar; Berry, Colin; Ludman, Peter F; de Belder, Mark A; Mamas, Mamas A
Stroke after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a serious complication, but its determinants and outcomes after PCI in different clinical settings are poorly documented. The British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS) database was used to study 560 439 patients who underwent PCI in England and Wales between 2006 and 2013. We examined procedural-type specific determinants of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and the likelihood of subsequent 30-day mortality and in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events (a composite of in-hospital mortality, myocardial infarction or reinfarction, and repeat revascularization). A total of 705 stroke cases were recorded (80% ischemic). Stroke after an elective PCI or PCI for acute coronary syndrome indications was associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes compared with those without stroke; 30-day mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events outcomes in fully adjusted model were odds ratios 37.90 (21.43-67.05) and 21.05 (13.25-33.44) for elective and 5.00 (3.96-6.31) and 6.25 (5.03-7.77) for acute coronary syndrome, respectively. Comparison of odds of these outcomes between these 2 settings showed no differences; corresponding odds ratios were 1.24 (0.64-2.43) and 0.63 (0.35-1.15), respectively. Hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke complications are uncommon, but serious complications can occur after PCI and are independently associated with worse mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events outcomes in both the elective and acute coronary syndrome setting irrespective of stroke type. Our study provides a better understanding of the risk factors and prognosis of stroke after PCI by procedure type, allowing physicians to provide more informed advice around stroke risk after PCI and counsel patients and their families around outcomes if such neurological complications occur. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Bouslama, Mehdi; Haussen, Diogo C; Aghaebrahim, Amin; Grossberg, Jonathan A; Walker, Gregory; Rangaraju, Srikant; Horev, Anat; Frankel, Michael R; Nogueira, Raul G; Jovin, Tudor G; Jadhav, Ashutosh P
Endovascular therapy is increasingly used in acute ischemic stroke treatment and is now considered the gold standard approach for selected patient populations. Prior studies have demonstrated that eventual patient outcomes depend on both patient-specific factors and procedural considerations. However, these factors remain unclear for acute basilar artery occlusion stroke. We sought to determine prognostic factors of good outcome in acute posterior circulation large vessel occlusion strokes treated with endovascular therapy. We reviewed our prospectively collected endovascular databases at 2 US tertiary care academic institutions for patients with acute posterior circulation strokes from September 2005 to September 2015 who had 3-month modified Rankin Scale documented. Baseline characteristics, procedural data, and outcomes were evaluated. A good outcome was defined as a 90-day modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2. The association between clinical and procedural parameters and functional outcome was assessed. A total of 214 patients qualified for the study. Smoking status, creatinine levels, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, anesthesia modality (conscious sedation versus general anesthesia), procedural length, and reperfusion status were significantly associated with good outcomes in the univariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that only smoking (odds ratio=2.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-5.56; P =0.013), low baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (odds ratio=1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.13; P <0.0001), and successful reperfusion status (odds ratio=10.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-85.96; P =0.025) were associated with good outcome. In our retrospective case series, only smoking, low baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and successful reperfusion status were associated with good outcome in patients with posterior circulation stroke treated with endovascular
Lakshminarayan, Kamakshi; Larson, Joseph C; Virnig, Beth; Fuller, Candace; Allen, Norrina Bai; Limacher, Marian; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Safford, Monika M; Burwen, Dale R
Many studies use medical record review for ascertaining outcomes. One large, longitudinal study, the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), ascertains strokes using participant self-report and subsequent physician review of medical records. This is resource-intensive. Herein, we assess whether Medicare data can reliably assess stroke events in the WHI. Subjects were WHI participants with fee-for-service Medicare. Four stroke definitions were created for Medicare data using discharge diagnoses in hospitalization claims: definition 1, stroke codes in any position; definition 2, primary position stroke codes; and definitions 3 and 4, hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke codes, respectively. WHI data were randomly split into training (50%) and test sets. A concordance matrix was used to examine the agreement between WHI and Medicare stroke diagnosis. A WHI stroke and a Medicare stroke were considered a match if they occurred within ±7 days of each other. Refined analyses excluded Medicare events when medical records were unavailable for comparison. Training data consisted of 24 428 randomly selected participants. There were 577 WHI strokes and 557 Medicare strokes using definition 1. Of these, 478 were a match. With regard to algorithm performance, specificity was 99.7%, negative predictive value was 99.7%, sensitivity was 82.8%, positive predictive value was 85.8%, and κ=0.84. Performance was similar for test data. Whereas specificity and negative predictive value exceeded 99%, sensitivity ranged from 75% to 88% and positive predictive value ranged from 80% to 90% across stroke definitions. Medicare data seem useful for population-based stroke research; however, performance characteristics depend on the definition selected.
Full Text Available Objectives. This study investigated serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and free thiol levels in different subtypes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS and evaluated their association with clinical outcomes. Methods. This prospective study evaluated 100 AIS patients, including 75 with small-vessel and 25 with large-vessel diseases. Serum oxidative stress (TBARS and antioxidant (thiol were determined within 48 hours and days 7 and 30 after stroke. For comparison, 80 age- and sex-matched participants were evaluated as controls. Results. Serum TBARS was significantly higher and free thiol was lower in stroke patients than in the controls on days 1 and 7 after AIS. The level of free thiol was significantly lower in the large-vessel disease than in the small-vessel disease on day 7 after stroke. Using the stepwise logistic regression model for potential variables, only stroke subtype, NIHSS score, and serum TBARS level were independently associated with three-month outcome. Higher TBARS and lower thiol levels in the acute phase of stroke were associated with poor outcome. Conclusions. Patients with large-vessel disease have higher oxidative stress but lower antioxidant defense compared to those with small-vessel disease after AIS. Serum TBARS level at the acute phase of stroke is a potential predictor for three-month outcome.
Full Text Available Yanling Wang,1 Jihong Liu,1 Xuemei Wang,1 Zongjian Liu,2 Fengwu Li,1 Fenghua Chen,3 Xiaokun Geng,1 Zhili Ji,2 Huishan Du,1 Xiaoming Hu1,3 1Department of Neurology, China-America Institute of Neuroscience, 2Central Laboratory, Beijing Luhe Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Neurology, Pittsburgh Institute of Brain Disorders and Recovery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Background: Stroke has high mortality and morbidity. Biomarkers are required for to predict stroke outcomes, which could help clinicians to provide rationale approaches for patient management. The dynamic changes in circulating immune cells have been reported in stroke patients and animal models of stroke.Aim: The aim of this study was to explore biomarkers to predict stroke outcomes by investigating the relationship between the frequencies of circulating immune cells and stroke outcomes.Methods: In all, 50 acute ischemic stroke (AIS patients were enrolled. Their blood samples were collected upon hospital admission and on day 1 and day 7 after stroke, and the leukocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. The dynamic changes in some types of immune cells in the AIS course and their correlation with clinical parameters were analyzed. Blood samples from 123 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were used as controls.Results: The proportions of T-lymphocytes and NK cells in stroke patients were significantly lower than in healthy controls. The frequencies of B- and T-lymphocytes were negatively correlated with stroke severity at onset, including neurological deficits as assessed by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, and infarct volume as measured by the diffusion-weighted images (DWIs of magnetic resonance (MR. Logistic regression analysis showed that modified Rankin scale (mRs scores, a score system for the long-term neurological dysfunctions, were negatively correlated
Mishra, N K; Ahmed, N; Davalos, A
BACKGROUND: Patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM) and prior stroke (PS) were excluded from European approval of alteplase in stroke. We examined the influence of DM and PS on the outcomes of patients who received thrombolytic therapy (T; data from Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis......,986), or concomitant DM and PS (OR 1.23 [0.996-1.52], p = 0.05, n = 1,136), all CMH p treatment (tissue...
Karaszewski, Bartosz; Carpenter, Trevor K; Thomas, Ralph G R; Armitage, Paul A; Lymer, Georgina Katherine S; Marshall, Ian; Dennis, Martin S; Wardlaw, Joanna M
Pyrexia soon after stroke is associated with severe stroke and poor functional outcome. Few studies have assessed brain temperature after stroke in patients, so little is known of its associations with body temperature, stroke severity, or outcome. We measured temperatures in ischemic and normal-appearing brain using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and its correlations with body (tympanic) temperature measured four-hourly, infarct growth by 5 days, early neurologic (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, NIHSS) and late functional outcome (death or dependency). Among 40 patients (mean age 73 years, median NIHSS 7, imaged at median 17 hours), temperature in ischemic brain was higher than in normal-appearing brain on admission (38.6°C-core, 37.9°C-contralateral hemisphere, P=0.03) but both were equally elevated by 5 days; both were higher than tympanic temperature. Ischemic lesion temperature was not associated with NIHSS or 3-month functional outcome; in contrast, higher contralateral normal-appearing brain temperature was associated with worse NIHSS, infarct expansion and poor functional outcome, similar to associations for tympanic temperature. We conclude that brain temperature is higher than body temperature; that elevated temperature in ischemic brain reflects a local tissue response to ischemia, whereas pyrexia reflects the systemic response to stroke, occurs later, and is associated with adverse outcomes. PMID:23571281
Sylaja, P N; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Kaul, Subhash; Srivastava, M V Padma; Khurana, Dheeraj; Schwamm, Lee H; Kesav, Praveen; Arora, Deepti; Pannu, Aman; Thankachan, Tijy K; Singhal, Aneesh B
The Indo-US Collaborative Stroke Project was designed to characterize ischemic stroke across 5 high-volume academic tertiary hospitals in India. From January 2012 to August 2014, research coordinators and physician coinvestigators prospectively collected data on 2066 patients with ischemic stroke admitted <2 weeks after onset. Investigator training and supervision and data monitoring were conducted by the US site (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston). The mean age was 58.3±14.7 years, 67.2% men. The median admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 10 (interquartile range, 5-15) and 24.5% had National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≥16. Hypertension (60.8%), diabetes mellitus (35.7%), and tobacco use (32.2%, including bidi/smokeless tobacco) were common risk factors. Only 4% had atrial fibrillation. All patients underwent computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging; 81% had cerebrovascular imaging. Stroke etiologic subtypes were large artery (29.9%), cardiac (24.9%), small artery (14.2%), other definite (3.4%), and undetermined (27.6%, including 6.7% with incomplete evaluation). Intravenous or intra-arterial thrombolysis was administered in 13%. In-hospital mortality was 7.9%, and 48% achieved modified Rankin Scale score 0 to 2 at 90 days. On multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus predicted poor 3-month outcome and younger age, lower admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and small-artery etiology predicted excellent 3-month outcome. These comprehensive and novel clinical imaging data will prove useful in refining stroke guidelines and advancing stroke care in India. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Francisca Diana Alexandra, Iwan Dwiprahasto, Rizaldy Pinzon
Full Text Available Stroke becomes world health problem all over the world because it is the causal factor of high mortality and disability. Good and well-organized process of healthcare service will improve the outcome of the patients with stroke. Clinical pathway may be used as clear standard to help reduce unnecessary variations of medical treatment and measure. The study aimed at finding out the correlation between the use of clinical pathway and the outcome of the patients with ischemic stroke in Bethesda Hospital Yogyakarta. It was an observational and analytic study with cohort restorative study design. The author compared the outcomes of acute ischemic stroke between the group with clinical pathway and the group without the clinical pathway. Data was collected using consecutive sampling from the electronic registry and medical record data of the patients from January 1st, 2011 to December 31st, 2011. It was conducted to 124 patients with ischemic stroke assigned to two groups (the first groups of 62 patients with clinical pathway and the second groups of 62 patients without clinical pathway. The basic characteristics of the two groups were the same. The results of the analysis showed that there was a significant decrease in the incidence of complication and a significant increase in the use of antiplatelete drugs, antidiabetic drugs and statin as secondary preventive measure of the recurrent stroke. There was not any significant difference in the duration of the hospitalized healthcare, the financing and the mortality between the two observation groups. The study indicated that the use of the clinical pathway in the stroke treatment improved the outcome of the patients with stroke. It was necessary to conduct further study to evaluate the effectiveness of the clinical pathway in improving the outcome of the patients with bigger number of the subjects and the longer period of time.
Majidi, Shahram; Leon Guerrero, Christopher R; Burger, Kathleen M; Rothrock, John F
The management of patients with acute transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke is highly variable. Whether hospitalization of such patients significantly improves short-term clinical outcome is unknown. We assessed the short-term clinical outcome associated with inpatient versus outpatient management of patients with TIA or minor stroke. We evaluated a consecutive series of patients with acute TIA or minor ischemic stroke (NIH Stroke Scale score ≤ 3) presenting to a single emergency department (ED). We randomized patients to either hospital-based or outpatient-based management. All patients underwent interview and examination 7-10 days following the index event. This study included 100 patients, 41 with TIA and 59 with minor stroke. Nineteen (46%) of the TIA patients and 29 (49%) of the minor stroke patients randomized to hospital management, and the remaining 22 TIA patients and 30 minor stroke patients randomized to outpatient-based management. In the patients with a minor stroke, neurologic worsening occurred in 6 out of 29 (21%) in the inpatient arm compared with 3 out of 30 (10%) in the outpatient arm ( p = 0.3). In none of these cases was acute interventional therapy or need for urgent admission considered medically appropriate. In the patients with a TIA, recurrence of a TIA occurred in 2 out of 19 (11%) in the inpatient arm compared with 2 out of 22 (9%) in the outpatient arm ( p = 1). None of the patients with a TIA randomized to the inpatient arm experienced a stroke compared with 1 out of 22 in the outpatient arm ( p = 1). There were no deaths in either group. Routine hospitalization of all patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke may not positively affect short-term clinical outcome.
Majidi, Shahram; Leon Guerrero, Christopher R.; Burger, Kathleen M.; Rothrock, John F.
Background The management of patients with acute transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke is highly variable. Whether hospitalization of such patients significantly improves short-term clinical outcome is unknown. We assessed the short-term clinical outcome associated with inpatient versus outpatient management of patients with TIA or minor stroke. Methods We evaluated a consecutive series of patients with acute TIA or minor ischemic stroke (NIH Stroke Scale score ≤ 3) presenting to a single emergency department (ED). We randomized patients to either hospital-based or outpatient-based management. All patients underwent interview and examination 7–10 days following the index event. Results This study included 100 patients, 41 with TIA and 59 with minor stroke. Nineteen (46%) of the TIA patients and 29 (49%) of the minor stroke patients randomized to hospital management, and the remaining 22 TIA patients and 30 minor stroke patients randomized to outpatient-based management. In the patients with a minor stroke, neurologic worsening occurred in 6 out of 29 (21%) in the inpatient arm compared with 3 out of 30 (10%) in the outpatient arm (p = 0.3). In none of these cases was acute interventional therapy or need for urgent admission considered medically appropriate. In the patients with a TIA, recurrence of a TIA occurred in 2 out of 19 (11%) in the inpatient arm compared with 2 out of 22 (9%) in the outpatient arm (p = 1). None of the patients with a TIA randomized to the inpatient arm experienced a stroke compared with 1 out of 22 in the outpatient arm (p = 1). There were no deaths in either group. Conclusion Routine hospitalization of all patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke may not positively affect short-term clinical outcome. PMID:28702120
Cerebral oxygen transport failure?: decreasing hemoglobin and hematocrit levels after ischemic stroke predict poor outcome and mortality: STroke: RelevAnt Impact of hemoGlobin, Hematocrit and Transfusion (STRAIGHT)--an observational study.
Kellert, Lars; Martin, Evgenia; Sykora, Marek; Bauer, Harald; Gussmann, Philipp; Diedler, Jennifer; Herweh, Christian; Ringleb, Peter A; Hacke, Werner; Steiner, Thorsten; Bösel, Julian
Although conceivably relevant for penumbra oxygenation, the optimal levels of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) in patients with acute ischemic stroke are unknown. We identified patients from our prospective local stroke database who received intravenous thrombolysis based on multimodal magnet resonance imaging during the years 1998 to 2009. A favorable outcome at 3 months was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score≤2 and a poor outcome as a modified Rankin Scale score≥3. The dynamics of Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct), and other relevant laboratory parameters as well as cardiovascular risk factors were retrospectively assessed and analyzed between these 2 groups. Of 217 patients, 114 had a favorable and 103 a poor outcome. In a multivariable regression model, anemia until day 5 after admission (odds ratio [OR]=2.61; 95% CI, 1.33 to 5.11; P=0.005), Hb nadir (OR=0.81; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.99; P=0.038), and Hct nadir (OR=0.93; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.99; P=0.038) remained independent predictors for poor outcome at 3 months. Mortality after 3 months was independently associated with Hb nadir (OR=0.80; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.98; P=0.028) and Hb decrease (OR=1.34; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.76; P=0.04) as well as Hct decrease (OR=1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.23; P=0.027). Poor outcome and mortality after ischemic stroke are strongly associated with low and further decreasing Hb and Hct levels. This decrease of Hb and Hct levels after admission might be more relevant and accessible to treatment than are baseline levels.
Lukman Femi Owolabi
Full Text Available Background: Posterior circulation stroke (PCS, though less common, differs from stroke in anterior circulation in many aspects. Relatively, it portends a poorer prognosis. However, there is a paucity of data from African countries, in particular, where stroke is a menace. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the etiology, clinical characteristics, outcome, and predictors of outcome in a cohort of patients with IPCS in Northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Out of 595 patients with stroke, we prospectively analyzed 57 patients with PCS in a Tertiary Care Center in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria. Patients were analyzed for demographic data, risk factors, clinical characteristics, stroke subtypes, mortality, and predictors of mortality. Results: Posterior circulation ischemic stroke accounted for 57 (9.6% of 595 of all strokes seen in the study period. They comprised 44 males (mean age 47.8 ± 17.7 and 13 females (mean age 46.3 ± 13.7. Overall, their age ranged between 24 and 90 (mean age 47.4 ± 16.7. However, 52.7% of the patients were < 45 years of age. The most common site affected was the cerebellum seen in 33 (57.9% patients. Hypertension was the most common risk factor (86%. Headache and vertigo were the most common features accounting for 83.6% and 86.3%, respectively. Thirty-eight (66.7% patients had an ischemic stroke. Twenty-one (36.8% of the patients died during the 1-month period of follow-up. Independent predictors of death in the study were hyperglycemia on admission and hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusions: IPCS occurred in a relatively younger age group. Headache and vertigo were the most common symptoms. The independent predictors of death in the study were hyperglycemia at presentation and hemorrhagic stroke.
Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W
the years 1979-1993 inclusive and were of pensionable age during that period. These patients were then screened in registers for death during the period 1979-1993 and for the award of disability pensions between the years 1979-1995. A total of 19476 (27%) patients had received a pension at some level. MAIN......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish prevalence levels of disability pensions among stroke patients within a national population. RESEARCH DESIGN: From a Danish National register of hospitalizations, 72 673 patients were identified who had a discharge diagnosis of stroke between...... OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Being in possession of a disability pension prior to stroke (n = 8565, 12%), rarely at the highest level, was not associated with elevated risk for stroke, or with elevated stroke mortality. It was, however, associated with a greater mortality subsequent to stroke. Disability pensions...
Ko, Darae; Thigpen, Jonathan L; Otis, James A; Forster, Kristen; Henault, Lori; Quinn, Emily; Tripodis, Yorghos; Berger, Peter B; Limdi, Nita; Hylek, Elaine M
Statin pretreatment has been associated with reduced infarct volume in nonlacunar strokes. The effect of statins on functional outcomes of strokes related to atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown. We aimed to define the influence of prestroke statin use on functional outcome in AF. We assembled a cohort of consecutive ischemic stroke patients from 2006 to 2010. All patients underwent CT or MRI and were adjudicated by site investigators. AF was confirmed by electrocardiogram in 100% of patients. Site neurologists blinded to the study hypothesis affirmed the type of stroke and assessed the severity of disability at the time of hospital discharge. The frequency of death at 30-days was calculated. Ischemic stroke (n=1030) resulted in a severe neurological deficit or death (modified Rankin scale ≥4) at 30days in 711 patients (69%). Using multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for factors associated with statin treatment and factors associated with functional outcome, prestroke statin use was associated with a 32% reduction in frequency of severe stroke (odds ratio [OR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-0.92; P=0.011). Other independent factors associated with severe stroke included older age, female sex, non-White race, diabetes mellitus, prior ischemic stroke, prior venous thromboembolism, and dementia. Ischemic strokes in AF are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Statin use at time of stroke onset among patients with AF was associated in this study with less severe stroke and warrant validation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Biffi, Alessandro; Devan, William J; Anderson, Christopher D; Cortellini, Lynelle; Furie, Karen L; Rosand, Jonathan; Rost, Natalia S
Multiple studies suggest that statin use before acute ischemic stroke is associated with improved functional outcome. However, available evidence is conflicting, and several published reports are limited by small sample sizes. We therefore investigated the effect of antecedent use of statins on stroke outcome by performing a meta-analysis of all results from published studies as well as our own unpublished data. We performed a systematic literature search and meta-analysis of studies investigating the association between prestroke statin use and clinical outcome and included additional data from 126 prestroke statin users and 767 nonusers enrolled at our institution. A total of 12 studies, comprising 2013 statin users and 9682 nonusers, was meta-analyzed using a random effects model. We also meta-analyzed results for individual Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment stroke subtypes to determine whether the effect of statin use differed across subtypes using the Breslow-Day test. Meta-analysis of all available data identified an association between prestroke statin use and improved functional outcome (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.39 to 1.88), but we uncovered evidence of publication bias. The effect of statin use on functional outcome was found to be larger for small vessel strokes compared with other subtypes (Breslow-Day P=0.008). Antecedent use of statins is associated with improved outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This association appears to be stronger in patients with small vessel stroke subtype. However, evidence of publication bias in the existing literature suggests these findings should be interpreted with caution.
Liu, Ning; Cadilhac, Dominique A; Andrew, Nadine E; Zeng, Lingxia; Li, Zongfang; Li, Jin; Li, Yan; Yu, Xuewen; Mi, Baibing; Li, Zhe; Xu, Honghai; Chen, Yangjing; Wang, Juan; Yao, Wanxia; Li, Kuo; Yan, Feng; Wang, Jue
Mechanisms, acute management, and outcomes for patients who experience intracerebral hemorrhage may differ from patients with ischemic stroke. Studies of very early rehabilitation have been mainly undertaken in patients with ischemic stroke, and it is unknown if benefits apply to those with intracerebral hemorrhage. We hypothesized that early rehabilitation, within 48 hours of stroke, would improve survival and functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. This was a multicenter, randomized controlled study, with blinded assessment of outcome at 3 and 6 months. Eligible patients were randomized to receive standard care or standard care plus early rehabilitation. Primary outcome includes survival. Secondary outcomes includes health-related quality of life using the 36-item Short Form Questionnaire, function measured with the modified Barthel Index, and anxiety measured with the Zung Self-Rated Anxiety Scale. Two hundred forty-three of 326 patients were randomized (mean age, 59 years; 56% men). At 6 months, patients receiving standard care were more likely to have died (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-15.87); for morbidity outcomes, a 6-point difference in the Physical Component Summary score of the 36-item Short Form Questionnaire (95% CI, 4.2-8.7), a 7-point difference for the Mental Component Summary score (95% CI, 4.5-9.5), a 13-point difference in Modified Barthel Index scores (95% CI, 6.8-18.3), and a 6-point difference in Self-Rating Anxiety Scale scores (95% CI, 4.4-8.3) was reported in favor of the intervention groups. For the first time, we have shown that commencing rehabilitation within 48 hours of intracerebral hemorrhage improves survival and functional outcomes at 6 months after stroke in hospitalized patients in China. http://www.chictr.org/en. Unique identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-13004039. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Wang, Hua; Camicia, Michelle; Terdiman, Joe; Hung, Yun-Yi; Sandel, M Elizabeth
To study the association of time to inpatient rehabilitation hospital (IRH) admission and functional outcomes of patients who have had a stroke. A retrospective cohort study. A regional IRH. Moderately (n = 614) and severely (n = 1294) impaired patients who had a stroke who were admitted to the facility between 2002 and 2006. Not applicable. Change in total, motor, and cognitive Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores between IRH admission and discharge. After controlling for patient demographics and initial medical conditions and functional status, shorter periods from stroke onset to IRH admission were significantly associated with greater functional gains for these patients during IRH hospitalization. Moderately impaired patients achieved a greater total FIM gain when admitted to an IRH within 21 days of stroke. Severely impaired patients showed a gradient relationship between time to IRH admission and total FIM gain, with significantly different functional gain if admitted to an IRH within 30 and 60 days after stroke diagnosis. Results of multiple regression analysis also showed that age, race/ethnicity, side of stroke, history of a previous stroke, functional measures at IRH admission, IRH length of stay, and selected medications were associated with total, motor, and cognitive FIM score changes. In addition, certain factors such as older age, diagnosis of a hemorrhagic stroke or a previous history of stroke, and initial functional status were associated with longer periods between diagnosis and admission to an IRH after the stroke occurred. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that earlier transfer to an IRH may lead to better functional improvement after stroke. However, certain factors such as age, race/ethnicity, initial medical conditions and functional status, and length of stay at an IRH contributed to functional gain. Factors affecting the time to IRH admission also were addressed. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Physical Medicine
Schmitz, Marie Louise; Simonsen, Claus Z; Hundborg, Heidi
to compute adjusted hazard ratios for all outcomes. RESULTS: Among 4292 ischemic strokes (2146 intravenous tPA-treated and 2146 propensity score-matched nonintravenous tPA-treated patients), with a follow-up for a median of 1.4 years, treatment with intravenous tPA was associated with a lower risk of long...
Leffert, Lisa R; Clancy, Caitlin R; Bateman, Brian T; Cox, Margueritte; Schulte, Phillip J; Smith, Eric E; Fonarow, Gregg C; Schwamm, Lee H; Kuklina, Elena V; George, Mary G
Hospitalizations for pregnancy-related stroke are rare but increasing. Hemorrhagic stroke (HS), ie, subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage, is more common than ischemic stroke in pregnant versus nonpregnant women, reflecting different phenotypes or risk factors. We compared stroke risk factors and outcomes in pregnant versus nonpregnant HS in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Registry. Using medical history or International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision codes, we identified 330 pregnant and 10 562 nonpregnant female patients aged 18 to 44 years with HS in Get With The Guidelines-Stroke (2008-2014). Differences in patient and care characteristics were compared by χ(2) or Fisher exact test (categorical variables) or Wilcoxon rank-sum (continuous variables) tests. Conditional logistic regression assessed the association of pregnancy with outcomes conditional on categorical age and further adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics. Pregnant versus nonpregnant HS patients were younger with fewer pre-existing stroke risk factors and medications. Pregnant versus nonpregnant subarachnoid hemorrhage patients were less impaired at arrival, and less than half met blood pressure criteria for severe preeclampsia. In-hospital mortality was lower in pregnant versus nonpregnant HS patients: adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for subarachnoid hemorrhage 0.17 (0.06-0.45) and intracerebral hemorrhage 0.57 (0.34-0.94). Pregnant subarachnoid hemorrhage patients also had a higher likelihood of home discharge (2.60 [1.67-4.06]) and independent ambulation at discharge (2.40 [1.56-3.70]). Pregnant HS patients are younger and have fewer risk factors than their nonpregnant counterparts, and risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality is lower. Our findings suggest possible differences in underlying disease pathophysiology and challenges to identifying at-risk patients. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Luo, Yanhong; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Yanbo
Family support and patient satisfaction with treatment are crucial for aiding in the recovery from stroke. However, current validated stroke-specific questionnaires may not adequately capture the impact of these two variables on patients undergoing clinical trials of new drugs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a new stroke patient-reported outcome measure (Stroke-PROM) instrument for capturing more comprehensive effects of stroke on patients participating in clinical trials of new drugs. A conceptual framework and a pool of items for the preliminary Stroke-PROM were generated by consulting the relevant literature and other questionnaires created in China and other countries, and interviewing 20 patients and 4 experts to ensure that all germane parameters were included. During the first item-selection phase, classical test theory and item response theory were applied to an initial scale completed by 133 patients with stroke. During the item-revaluation phase, classical test theory and item response theory were used again, this time with 475 patients with stroke and 104 healthy participants. During the scale assessment phase, confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the final scale of the Stroke-PROM using the same study population as in the second item-selection phase. Reliability, validity, responsiveness and feasibility of the final scale were tested. The final scale of Stroke-PROM contained 46 items describing four domains (physiology, psychology, society and treatment). These four domains were subdivided into 10 subdomains. Cronbach's α coefficients for the four domains ranged from 0.861 to 0.908. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the final scale, and the model fit index satisfied the criterion. Differences in the Stroke-PROM mean scores were significant between patients with stroke and healthy participants in nine subdomains (P < 0.001), indicating that the scale showed good responsiveness. The Stroke
Tong, Dao-Ming; Zhou, Ye-Ting; Wang, Guang-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Tong-Hui
Septic encephalopathy (SE) is the most common acute encephalopathy in ICU; however, little attention has been focused on risk of SE in the course of acute stroke. Our aim is to investigate the early prediction and outcome of SE in stroke patients with nosocomial coma (NC). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in an ICU of the tertiary teaching hospital in China from January 2006 to December 2009. Ninety-four acute stroke patients with NC were grouped according to with or without SE. Risk factors for patients with SE were compared with those without SE by univariate and multivariate analysis. Of 94 stroke patients with NC, 46 (49%) had NC with SE and 48 (51%) had NC without SE. The onset-to-NC time was significant later in stroke patients with SE than those without SE (P stroke patients with SE was higher than those without SE (76.1% vs. 45.8%, P = 0.003). High fever and severe SIRS are two early predictors of stroke patients with SE, and survival rates were worse in stroke patients with SE than those without SE.
Broeg-Morvay, Anne; Meisterernst, Julia; Schlager, Markus; Mono, Marie-Luise; El-Koussy, Marwan; Kägi, Georg; Jung, Simon; Sarikaya, Hakan
Background Reported frequency of post-stroke dysphagia in the literature is highly variable. In view of progress in stroke management, we aimed to assess the current burden of dysphagia in acute ischemic stroke. Methods We studied 570 consecutive patients treated in a tertiary stroke center. Dysphagia was evaluated by using the Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS). We investigated the relationship of dysphagia with pneumonia, length of hospital stay and discharge destination and compared rates of favourable clinical outcome and mortality at 3 months between dysphagic patients and those without dysphagia. Results Dysphagia was diagnosed in 118 of 570 (20.7%) patients and persisted in 60 (50.9%) at hospital discharge. Thirty-six (30.5%) patients needed nasogastric tube because of severe dysphagia. Stroke severity rather than infarct location was associated with dysphagia. Dysphagic patients suffered more frequently from pneumonia (23.1% vs. 1.1%, pdysphagia. At 3 months, dysphagic patients less often had a favourable outcome (35.7% vs. 69.7%; pdysphagia to be an independent predictor of discharge destination and institutionalization at 3 months, while severe dysphagia requiring tube placement was strongly associated with mortality. Conclusion Dysphagia still affects a substantial portion of stroke patients and may have a large impact on clinical outcome, mortality and institutionalization. PMID:26863627
Matano, A; Iosa, M; Guariglia, C; Pizzamiglio, L; Paolucci, S
Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) after stroke is associated to severe disability and to a poor rehabilitation outcome. However it is still unclear if a reduction of USN after a specific neurophsycological treatment could also favor the functional recovery. The first aim of this study was to determine if low responders to neuropsychological treatment of unilateral spatial neglect may have a worse functional prognosis for activities of daily living. The second aim was to investigate which variables can predict a low response to neuropsychological treatment. Observational study. Neurorehabilitation hospital in Italy. Two hundred inpatients with the diagnosis of ischemic stroke were screened in this observational study. Inclusion criteria were: patients in subacute phase of first ischemic stroke in right hemisphere. Exclusion criteria were: presence of previous and/or other disabling pathologies, medical conditions contraindicating physical therapy. Data of 73 patients who performed neurorehabilitation and visual scanning training for reducing USN were analysed, while the remaining others were excluded for at least one of the following reasons: hemorrhagic lesions, presence of other chronic disabling pathologies, contraindications for therapy. USN was evaluated using: Letter Cancellation Test, Barrage Test, Sentence Reading Test and Wundt-Jastrow Area Illusion Test. Barthel Index (BI), Beck Depression Inventory, and Canadian Neurological Scale were also administered. According to the aim of the study, forward binary logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the effects of different factors on functional recovery. Three factors were identified as predictors of low effectiveness in terms of BI-score: older age (odds ratio OR=9.882, P=0.002), severity of disease at admission (OR=12.594, P=0.002) and being low responders to neuropsychological treatment (OR=3.847, P=0.027). Further, the initial barrage score (OR=3.313, P=0.027) and the initial BI-score (OR=3.252, P=0
Goldstein, L.B.; Amarenco, P.; Zivin, J.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Laboratory experiments suggest statins reduce stroke severity and improve outcomes. The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial was a placebo-controlled, randomized trial designed to determine whether treatment with atorvastatin reduces...... or 4), moderate (modified Rankin Scale score 3 or 2), and mild (modified Rankin Scale score 1 or 0) outcome ischemic strokes and transient ischemic attacks and an increase in the proportion of event-free subjects randomized to atorvastatin (P
Utilisation of diagnostic computerised tomography imaging and immediate clinical outcomes in older people with stroke before and after introduction of the National Service Framework for older people. A comparative study of hospital-based stroke registry data (1997-2003): Norfolk experience.
Myint, Phyo K; Vowler, Sarah L; Redmayne, Oliver; Fulcher, Robert A
how the National Service Framework (NSF) for older people in England might be associated with changes in clinically relevant stroke outcome has not been investigated. We looked for changes in computerised tomography (CT) scan rate, inpatient case-fatality rate (CFR), length of acute hospital stay and discharge destination for older people with stroke, compared with their younger counterparts, for a period before, and after, the introduction of the NSF. two periods, 4 years before and 2 years after the publication of the NSF, were selected to compare the above outcomes between three age categories: or = 85 years of age. Annual summary data for these periods were compared for the magnitude of changes in all age categories for all outcomes measured between pre- and post-NSF periods. n = 5,219. Utilisation of CT imaging had increased in all age groups post-NSF, with the most significant improvement in the oldest group. This change was associated with a greater proportion of people who had CT in this age group being discharged home in the post-NSF period. There was no change in the mortality from stroke in any age group during the study. Although the length of acute hospital stay increased, this was associated with a higher percentage of home discharges particularly in > 65-year olds, suggesting better clinical outcome in those who survived. in this single-centre analysis, the post-NSF period appeared to be associated with improvement in outcome in older people with stroke. Continual monitoring using stroke registry data may help to assess whether these effects are sustained in the longer term.
Dossa, Almas; Glickman, Mark E; Berlowitz, Dan
Limited evidence exists regarding the association of pre-existing mental health conditions in patients with stroke and stroke outcomes such as rehospitalization, mortality, and function. We examined the association between mental health conditions and rehospitalization, mortality, and functional outcomes in patients with stroke following inpatient rehabilitation. Our observational study used the 2001 VA Integrated Stroke Outcomes database of 2162 patients with stroke who underwent rehabilitation at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Separate models were fit to our outcome measures that included 6-month rehospitalization or death, 6-month mortality post-discharge, and functional outcomes post inpatient rehabilitation as a function of number and type of mental health conditions. The models controlled for patient socio-demographics, length of stay, functional status, and rehabilitation setting. Patients had an average age of 68 years. Patients with stroke and two or more mental health conditions were more likely to be readmitted or die compared to patients with no conditions (OR: 1.44, p = 0.04). Depression and anxiety were associated with a greater likelihood of rehospitalization or death (OR: 1.33, p = 0.04; OR:1.47, p = 0.03). Patients with anxiety were more likely to die at six months (OR: 2.49, p = 0.001). Patients with stroke with pre-existing mental health conditions may need additional psychotherapy interventions, which may potentially improve stroke outcomes post-hospitalization.
Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Westendorp, Willeke F.; Roos, Yvo B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J.
The Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS), a randomized open-label masked endpoint trial, showed that preventive ceftriaxone did not improve functional outcome at 3 months in patients with acute stroke (adjusted common OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.82-1.09). Post-hoc analyses showed that among patients
Roquer, J; Segura, T; Serena, J; Castillo, J
Endothelial dysfunction is a fundamental step in the atherosclerotic disease process. Its presence is a risk factor for the development of clinical events, and may represent a marker of atherothrombotic burden. Also, endothelial dysfunction contributes to enhanced plaque vulnerability, may trigger plaque rupture, and favors thrombus formation. The assessment of endothelial vasomotion is a useful marker of atherosclerotic vascular disease. There are different methods to assess endothelial function: endothelium-dependent vasodilatation brachial flow-mediated dilation, cerebrovascular reactivity to L-arginine, and the determination of some biomarkers such as microalbuminuria, platelet function, and C-reactive protein. Endothelial dysfunction has been observed in stroke patients and has been related to stroke physiopathology, stroke subtypes, clinical severity and outcome. Resting ankle-brachial index (ABI) is also considered an indicator of generalized atherosclerosis, and a low ABI is associated with an increase in stroke incidence in the elderly. Despite all these data, there are no studies analyzing the predictive value of ABI for new cardiovascular events in patients after suffering an acute ischemic stroke. ARTICO is an ongoing prospective, observational, multicenter study being performed in 50 Spanish hospitals. The aim of the ARTICO study is to evaluate the prognostic value of a pathological ABI (ARTICO study will increase the knowledge of patient outcome after ischemic stroke and may help to improve our ability to detect patients at high risk of stroke recurrence or major cardiovascular events. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kawachi, Toshiaki; Wada, Keiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Tsuji, Michiko; Tamura, Takashi; Konishi, Kie; Nagata, Chisato
Few studies have assessed the associations between sleep duration and stroke subtypes. We examined whether sleep duration is associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. Subjects included 12 875 men and 15 021 women aged 35 years or older in 1992, who were followed until 2008. The outcome variable was stroke death (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and total stroke). During follow-up, 611 stroke deaths (354 from ischemic stroke, 217 from hemorrhagic stroke, and 40 from undetermined stroke) were identified. Compared with 7 h of sleep, ≥9 h of sleep was significantly associated with an increased risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality after controlling for covariates. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.16-1.97) and 1.65 (95% CI, 1.16-2.35) for total stroke mortality and ischemic stroke mortality, respectively. Short sleep duration (≤6 h of sleep) was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-1.01), although this association was of borderline significance (P = 0.06). The trends for total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality were also significant (P hemorrhagic stroke mortality for ≤6 h of sleep as compared with 7 h of sleep (HR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.98; P for trend = 0.08). The risk reduction was pronounced for men (HR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16-0.64). Data suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with increased mortality from total and ischemic stroke. Short sleep duration may be associated with a decreased risk of mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men.
Brown, Arleen F; Liang, Li-Jung; Vassar, Stefanie D; Stein-Merkin, Sharon; Longstreth, W T; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Yan, Tingjian; Escarce, José J
Neighborhood characteristics may influence the risk of stroke and contribute to socioeconomic disparities in stroke incidence. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status and incident ischemic stroke and examine potential mediators of these associations. We analyzed data from 3834 whites and 785 blacks enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a multicenter, population-based, longitudinal study of adults ages≥65 years from 4 US counties. The primary outcome was adjudicated incident ischemic stroke. Neighborhood socioeconomic status was measured using a composite of 6 census tract variables. Race-stratified multilevel Cox proportional hazard models were constructed adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological risk factors. Among whites, in models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, stroke hazard was significantly higher among residents of neighborhoods in the lowest compared with the highest neighborhood socioeconomic status quartile (hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.01-1.72) with greater attenuation of the hazard ratio after adjustment for biological risk factors (hazard ratio, 1.16; 0.88-1.52) than for behavioral risk factors (hazard ratio, 1.30; 0.99-1.70). Among blacks, we found no significant associations between neighborhood socioeconomic status and ischemic stroke. Higher risk of incident ischemic stroke was observed in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods among whites, but not among blacks. The relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status and stroke among whites appears to be mediated more strongly by biological than behavioral risk factors.
Putaala, J; Strbian, D; Mustanoja, S; Haapaniemi, E; Kaste, M; Tatlisumak, T
To determine the functional outcome in a cohort of young adults with ischemic stroke patients, focusing on components of lipid profile. In our registry including consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic stroke aged 15-49 from 1994 to 2007, we analyzed predictors of 3-month functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS). Infarct size fell into small, medium, large posterior, or large anterior. Stroke severity was assessed with NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Serum lipids were measured within 72 h after admission. Binary, multinomial ordinal, and Poisson regressions allowed revealing factors associated with size of infarct, stroke severity, and unfavorable outcome or death (mRS, 2-6) or mRS as an ordinal measure. In the 968 patients included (mean age, 41.3 ± 7.6; 62.6% men; 49.5% with mRS 0-1), factors associated with unfavorable outcome after multivariable analysis were increasing age (odds ratio, 1.03 per year; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.05), higher NIHSS score (1.23 per point, 1.17-1.29), large anterior (4.37, 2.26-8.42) or posterior (1.73, 1.05-2.85) infarcts, bilateral lesions (2.28, 1.30-3.98), internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) (3.65, 1.41-9.47), and inversely high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels (0.58 per unit increase, 0.38-0.86). Increasing HDL associated with smaller infarct size (0.71, 0.51-0.98). Both higher total and HDL cholesterol associated with lower NIHSS score (0.96, 0.93-0.98 for total cholesterol and 0.82, 0.75-0.88 for HDL) and lower 3-month mRS (0.87, 0.78-0.97 for total cholesterol and 0.65, 0.47-0.90 for HDL). In addition to known prognosticators, ICAD and lower HDL levels were independently associated with adverse clinical outcomes in our young adult stroke cohort. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Lin, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Chin-I; Hu, Han-Hwa; Bai, Chyi-Huey
Posterior circulation acute ischemic stroke constitutes one-fourth of all ischemic strokes and can be efficiently quantified using the posterior circulation Alberta stroke program early computed tomography score (PC-ASPECTS) through diffusion-weighted imaging. We investigated whether the PC-ASPECTS and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) facilitate functional outcome prediction among Chinese patients with posterior circulation acute ischemic stroke. Participants were selected from our prospective stroke registry from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016. The baseline NIHSS score was assessed on the first day of admission, and brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed within 36 h after stroke onset. Simple and multiple logistic regressions were conducted to determine stroke risk factors and the PC-ASPECTS. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to compare the NIHSS and PC-ASPECTS. Of 549 patients from our prospective stroke admission registry database, 125 (22.8%) had a diagnosis of posterior circulation acute ischemic stroke. The optimal cutoff for the PC-ASPECTS in predicting outcomes was 7. The odds ratios of the PC-ASPECTS (≤ 7 vs > 7) in predicting outcomes were 6.33 (p = 0.0002) and 8.49 (p = 0.0060) in the univariate and multivariate models, respectively, and 7.52 (p = 0.0041) in the aging group. On ROC curve analysis, the PC-ASPECTS demonstrated more reliability than the baseline NIHSS for predicting functional outcomes of minor posterior circulation stroke. In conclusion, both the PC-ASPECTS and NIHSS help clinicians predict functional outcomes. PC-ASPECTS > 7 is a helpful discriminator for achieving favorable functional outcome prediction in posterior circulation acute ischemic stroke.
Evaluating the functional outcomes of ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin type A injections using the Euro-musculus approach for upper limb spasticity treatment in post-stroke patients; an observational study.
Buyukavci, Raikan; Akturk, Semra; Ersoy, Yüksel
Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin type A injection is an effective treatment for spasticity. Euro-musculus spasticity approach is a new method for administering injections to the correct point of the correct muscle. The clinical outcomes of this practical approach is not yet available in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on spasticity and the functional outcomes of ultrasound guided botulinum toxin type A injections via the Euro-musculus spasticity approach to treat upper limb spasticity in post-stroke patients. An observational study. Inpatient post-stroke patients. Twenty five post-stroke patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity were recruited. The ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin type A injections were administered into the spastic target muscles using the Euro-musculus spasticity approach, and all of the patients were enrolled in rehabilitation programmes after the injections. This research included the innervation zone and injection site figures and ultrasound images of each muscle in the upper limb. The degree of spasticity was assessed via the Modified Ashworth Scale and the upper limb motor function via the Fugl Meyer Upper Extremity Scale at the baseline and 4 and 12 weeks after the botulinum toxin type A injection. Significant decreases in the Modified Ashworth Scale scores of the upper limb flexor muscle tone measured 4 and 12 weeks after the botulinum toxin type A injection were found when compared to the baseline scores (pbotulinum toxin type A injection via the Euro- musculus spasticity approach is a practical and effective method for administering injections to the correct point of the correct muscle. Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin type A injections combined with rehabilitation programmes decrease spasticity and improve the upper extremity motor functions in stroke patients. This new approach for ultrasound- guided botulinum toxin type A injection is very practical and effective method for upper
Using wireless technology in clinical practice: does feedback of daily walking activity improve walking outcomes of individuals receiving rehabilitation post-stroke? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Background Regaining independent ambulation is the top priority for individuals recovering from stroke. Thus, physical rehabilitation post-stroke should focus on improving walking function and endurance. However, the amount of walking completed by individuals with stroke attending rehabilitation is far below that required for independent community ambulation. There has been increased interest in accelerometer-based monitoring of walking post-stroke. Walking monitoring could be integrated within the goal-setting process for those with ambulation goals in rehabilitation. The feedback from these devices can be downloaded to a computer to produce reports. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of accelerometer-based feedback of daily walking activity during rehabilitation on the frequency and duration of walking post-stroke. Methods Participants will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: feedback or no feedback. Participants will wear accelerometers daily during in- and out-patient rehabilitation and, for participants in the feedback group, the participants’ treating physiotherapist will receive regular reports of walking activity. The primary outcome measures are the amount of daily walking completed, as measured using the accelerometers, and spatio-temporal characteristics of walking (e.g. walking speed). We will also examine goal attainment, satisfaction with progress towards goals, stroke self-efficacy, and community-integration. Discussion Increased walking activity during rehabilitation is expected to improve walking function and community re-integration following discharge. In addition, a focus on altering walking behaviour within the rehabilitation setting may lead to altered behaviour and increased activity patterns after discharge. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01521234 PMID:23865593
Osei, E; Fonville, S; Zandbergen, A A M; Koudstaal, P J; Dippel, D W J; den Hertog, H M
Newly diagnosed disturbed glucose metabolism is highly prevalent in patients with stroke. Limited data are available on their prognostic value on outcome after stroke. We aimed to assess the association of glucose in the prediabetic and diabetic range with unfavourable short-term outcome after stroke. We included 839 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke and 168 patients with intracerebral haemorrhage. In all nondiabetic patients, fasting glucose levels were determined on day 2-4. Prediabetic range was defined as fasting glucose of 5.6-6.9 mmol/L, diabetic range as ≥7.0 mmol/L, pre-existent diabetes as the use of anti-diabetic medication prior to admission. Outcome measures were poor functional outcome or death defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score >2 and discharge not to home. The association of prediabetic range, diabetic range and pre-existent diabetes (versus normal glucose) with unfavourable outcome was expressed as odds ratios, estimated with multiple logistic regression, with adjustment for prognostic factors. Compared with normal glucose, prediabetic range (aOR 1.8; 95%CI 1.1-2.8), diabetic range (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.3-4.9) and pre-existent diabetes (aOR 2.6; 95%CI 1.6-4.0) were associated with poor functional outcome or death. Patients in the prediabetic range (aOR 0.6; 95%CI 0.4-0.9), diabetic range (aOR 0.4; 95%CI 0.2-0.9) and pre-existent diabetes (aOR 0.6; 95%CI 0.4-0.9) were more likely not to be discharged to home. Patients with glucose in the prediabetic and diabetic range have an increased risk of unfavourable short-term outcome after stroke. These findings illustrate the potential impact of early detection and treatment of these patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lee, Chien-Chung; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lim, Wai-Ho; Hsu, Kai-Hsiang; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Fu, Ren-Huei; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Chu, Shih-Ming; Lien, Reyin
Perinatal stroke is a common cause of established neurological sequelae. Although several risk factors have been identified, many questions regarding causes and clinical outcomes remain unanswered. This study investigated the clinical manifestations and outcomes of perinatal stroke and identified its etiologies in Taiwan. We searched the reports of head magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography performed between January 2003 and December 2012. The medical records of enrolled infants with perinatal stroke were also reviewed. Thirty infants with perinatal stroke were identified; 10 infants had perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS) and 20 had perinatal hemorrhagic stroke (PHS). Neonatal seizure was the most common manifestation and presented in 40% of infants with PAIS and 50% of infants with PHS. All survivors with PAIS and 77% of the surviving infants with PHS developed neurological sequelae. Acute seizure manifestation was associated with poststroke epilepsy in infants with PHS but not in infants with PAIS (86% vs. 0%, p=0.005). PAIS was mostly caused by dysfunctional hemostasis (20%) and embolism (20%), whereas PHS was mostly attributable to birth asphyxia (30%). Perinatal stroke is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates in infants. Clinically, it can be difficult to distinguish PAIS and PHS. One should keep a high level of suspicion, especially for PHS, if infants develop unexplained seizure, cyanosis, conscious change, anemia, and/or thrombocytopenia. A systematic diagnostic approach is helpful in identifying the etiologies of perinatal stroke. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Background: The prevalence of stroke is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa due to increases in size of aging population and stroke risk factors.We assessed risk factors, quality of care and outcomes of stroke to identify modifiable risk factors and areas of care that need improvement for better outcomes. Objectives: To ...
Previous studies suggest that undernourished patients with acute stroke do badly. The data, however, are not robust. We aimed to reliably assess the importance of baseline nutritional status as an independent predictor of long-term outcome after stroke in a large prospective cohort enrolled in the Feed Or Ordinary Diet (FOOD) trial, a multicenter randomized trial evaluating various feeding policies. Patients admitted to hospital with a recent stroke were enrolled in the FOOD trial. Data on nutritional status and other clinical predictors of outcome were collected at trial entry. At 6 months, the coordinating center collected data on survival and functional status (modified Rankin Scale). Outcome assessment was done by researchers blinded to baseline assessments and treatment allocation. Between November 1996 and November 2001, 3012 patients were enrolled, and 2955 (98%) were followed up. Of the 275 undernourished patients, 102 (37%) were dead by final follow-up compared with only 445 (20%) of 2194 patients of normal nutritional status (odds ratio [OR], 2.32; 95% CI, 1.78 to 3.02). After adjustment for age, prestroke functional state, and stroke severity, this relationship, although weakened, still held (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.47). Undernourished patients were more likely to develop pneumonia, other infections, and gastrointestinal bleeding during their hospital admission than other patients. These data provide reliable evidence that nutritional status early after stroke is independently associated with long-term outcome. It supports the rationale for the FOOD trial, which continues to recruit and aims to estimate the effect of different feeding regimes on outcome after stroke and thus determine whether the association observed in this study is likely to be causal.
Wollenweber, Frank Arne; Zietemann, Vera; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Opherk, Christian; Dichgans, Martin
Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with adverse cardiovascular events, including stroke and atrial fibrillation. However, its impact on functional outcome after stroke remains unexplored. A total of 165 consecutively recruited patients admitted for ischemic stroke were included in this observational prospective study. Blood samples were taken in the morning within 3 days after symptom onset, and patients were divided into the following 3 groups: subclinical hyperthyroidism (0.1hyperthyroidism, and 23 patients (13.9%) had subclinical hypothyroidism. Patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism had a substantially increased risk of functional disability 3 months after stroke compared with subjects with euthyroid state (odds ratio, 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-6.82, adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, and time of blood sampling). The association remained significant, when including the baseline NIHSS, TIA, serum CRP, atrial fibrillation, body mass index, and total cholesterol as additional variables (odds ratio, 3.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-12.47), and was confirmed by the secondary outcome (Barthel Index: odds ratio, 9.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.08-39.89). Subclinical hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for poor outcome 3 months after ischemic stroke.
Hosomi, Naohisa; Naya, Takayuki; Ohkita, Hiroyuki; Mukai, Mao; Nakamura, Takehiro; Ueno, Masaki; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Murao, Koji; Masugata, Hisashi; Miki, Takanori; Kohno, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koziol, James A
The aim of this investigation was to determine the factors influencing acute intracerebral hemorrhage severity on admission and clinical outcomes at discharge. Sixty acute stroke hospitals throughout Japan participated in the Japan Standard Stroke Registry Study (JSSRS), documenting the in-hospital course of 16,630 consecutive patients with acute stroke from January 2001 to March 2004. We identified 2,840 adult patients from the JSSRS who had intracerebral hemorrhage. Intracerebral hemorrhage severity on admission was strongly related to age, previous stroke history, and hemorrhage size in a monotone fashion [chi(2)(9) = 374.5, p < 0.0001]. Drinking history was also predictive of intracerebral hemorrhage severity on admission, but the association was not monotone. Interestingly, intracerebral hemorrhage severity on admission was increased in nondrinking and heavy drinking compared to mild drinking (p < 0.05). Unsuccessful outcome (modified Rankin scale score = 3-6) was related to age, previous stroke history, hemorrhage size, and intracerebral hemorrhage severity on admission [chi(2)(9) = 830.4, p < 0.0001]. Mortality was related to hemorrhage size, intraventricular hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage severity on admission, and surgical operation [chi(2)(7) = 540.4, p < 0.0001]. We could find four varied factors associated with intracerebral hemorrhage severity and its outcomes. Interestingly, intracerebral hemorrhage severity tended to be greater in nondrinking and heavy drinking than mild drinking. Additionally, surgical operation decreased intracerebral hemorrhage mortality. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mo; Sun, Wenjie; Xu, Tan; Tong, Weijun
Objectives To assess the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), blood pressure (BP) and poor outcome at hospital discharge among acute ischemic stroke patients, and if high Hcy increases the risk of poor outcome based on high BP status in a northern Chinese population. Methods Between June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013, a total of 3695 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited from three hospitals in northern Chinese cities. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, medical history, and other clinical characteristics were recorded for all subjects. Poor outcome was defined as a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≥3 or death. The association between homocysteine concentration, admission blood pressure, and risk of poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke was analyzed by using multivariate non-conditional logistic regression models. Results Compared with those in the lowest quartile of Hcy concentration in a multivariate-adjusted model, those in the highest quartile of Hcy concentration had increased risk of poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke, (OR = 1.33, P<0.05). The dose-response relationship between Hcy concentration and risk of poor outcome was statistically significant (p-value for trend = 0.027). High BP was significantly associated with poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95%CI, 1.19–1.74). Compared with non-high BP with nhHcy, in a multivariate-adjusted model, the ORs (95% CI) of non-high BP with hHcy, high BP with nhHcy, and high BP with hHcy to poor outcome were 1.14 (0.85–1.53), 1.37 (1.03–1.84) and 1.70 (1.29–2.34), respectively. Conclusion The present study suggested that high plasma Hcy and blood pressure were independent risk factors for prognosis of acute ischemic stroke, and hHcy may further increase the risk of poor outcome among patients with high blood pressure. Additionally, the results indicate that high Hcy with high BP may cause increased susceptibility
Full Text Available Cohort studies have demonstrated a higher vulnerability in males towards ischemic and/or hypoxic-ischemic injury in infants born near- or full-term. Male sex was also associated with limited brain repair following neonatal stroke and hypoxia-ischemia, leading to increased incidence of long-term cognitive deficits compared to females with similar brain injury. As a result, the design of pre-clinical experiments considering sex as an important variable was supported and investigated because neuroprotective strategies to reduce brain injury demonstrated sexual dimorphism. While the mechanisms underlining these differences between boys and girls remain unclear, several biological processes are recognized to play a key role in long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes: gonadal hormones across developmental stages, vulnerability to oxidative stress, modulation of cell death, and regulation of microglial activation. This review summarizes the current evidence for sex differences in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic and/or ischemic brain injury, considering the major pathways known to be involved in cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with damages of the developing brain.
Jørgensen, Terese S. H.; Wium-Andersen, Ida K.; Wium-Andersen, Marie K.
the incidence of and risk factors for depression differ between patients with stroke and a reference population without stroke and to assess how depression influences mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Register-based cohort study in Denmark. Participants were all individuals 15 years or older......Importance: More than 30 million people live with a stroke diagnosis worldwide. Depression after stroke is frequent, and greater knowledge of associated risk factors and outcomes is needed to understand the etiology and implications of this disabling complication. Objectives: To examine whether...... ratio for stroke vs the reference population, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.85-2.08). Significant risk factors for depression for patients with stroke and the reference population included older age, female sex, single cohabitation status, basic educational attainment, diabetes, high level of somatic comorbidity...
Tirschwell David L
Full Text Available Abstract Background As low and middle-income countries such as Vietnam experience the health transition from infectious to chronic diseases, the morbidity and mortality from stroke will rise. In line with the recommendation of the Institute of Medicine’s report on “Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World” to “improve local data”, we sought to investigate patient characteristics and clinical predictors of mortality among stroke inpatients at Da Nang Hospital in Vietnam. Methods A stroke registry was developed and implemented at Da Nang Hospital utilizing the World Health Organization’s Stroke STEPS instrument for data collection. Results 754 patients were hospitalized for stroke from March 2010 through February 2011 and admitted to either the intensive care unit or cardiology ward. Mean age was 65 years, and 39% were female. Nearly 50% of strokes were hemorrhagic. At 28-day follow-up, 51.0% of patients with hemorrhagic stroke died whereas 20.3% of patients with ischemic stroke died. A number of factors were independently associated with 28-day mortality; the two strongest independent predictors were depressed level of consciousness on presentation and hemorrhagic stroke type. While virtually all patients completed a CT during the admission, evidence-based processes of care such as anti-thrombotic therapy and carotid ultrasound for ischemic stroke patients were underutilized. Conclusions This cohort study highlights the high mortality due in part to the large proportion of hemorrhagic strokes in Vietnam. Lack of hypertension awareness and standards of care exacerbated clinical outcomes. Numerous opportunities for simple, inexpensive interventions to improve outcomes or reduce recurrent stroke have been identified.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a major cause of death and disability. Accurately predicting stroke outcome from a set of predictive variables may identify high-risk patients and guide treatment approaches, leading to decreased morbidity. Logistic regression models allow for the identification and validation of predictive variables. However, advanced machine learning algorithms offer an alternative, in particular, for large-scale multi-institutional data, with the advantage of easily incorporating newly available data to improve prediction performance. Our aim was to design and compare different machine learning methods, capable of predicting the outcome of endovascular intervention in acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective study of a prospectively collected database of acute ischaemic stroke treated by endovascular intervention. Using SPSS®, MATLAB®, and Rapidminer®, classical statistics as well as artificial neural network and support vector algorithms were applied to design a supervised machine capable of classifying these predictors into potential good and poor outcomes. These algorithms were trained, validated and tested using randomly divided data. RESULTS: We included 107 consecutive acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients treated by endovascular technique. Sixty-six were male and the mean age of 65.3. All the available demographic, procedural and clinical factors were included into the models. The final confusion matrix of the neural network, demonstrated an overall congruency of ∼ 80% between the target and output classes, with favourable receiving operative characteristics. However, after optimisation, the support vector machine had a relatively better performance, with a root mean squared error of 2.064 (SD: ± 0.408. DISCUSSION: We showed promising accuracy of outcome prediction, using supervised machine learning algorithms, with potential for incorporation of larger multicenter
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Biochemical markers of inflammation could be useful to predict severity of stroke in acute phase. Stroke is the third cause of mortality and the first cause of disability. Recent literature have demonstrated that inflammation contributes to all phases of atherosclerosis. The results of researchers suggest that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. The aim of the study is to assess the1. Level of peripheral inflammatory markers in acute ischaemic stroke and their relation to severity of acute stroke. 2. Value of inflammatory markers in predicting the short-term outcome and disability at the end of six months. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective case control study for 6 months done from September 2014 to August 2016 in 100 patients of acute ischaemic stroke within first 5 days of symptom onset in comparison >18 years of age with 50 age and sex matched controls. Blood samples for all cases and controls were sent for erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR, hs-C-reactive protein, mean platelet volume, serum ferritin, serum albumin and S. gamma-glutamyl transferase at admission. RESULTS The mean values of ESR, NLR, hs-CRP in all the cases are higher when compared to the controls and are statistically significant, whereas the mean values of MPV, S. ferritin, S. albumin and GGT in cases are lower when compared to controls, but are within normal range and difference is statistically significant except ferritin. ESR, hs-CRP has significant correlation with severity of acute ischaemic stroke. The mean values of these markers increased with increase in severity. Serum albumin has significant correlation with severity of acute ischaemic stroke with mean values of these markers decreasing with increase in severity of stroke. There is no significant correlation of the inflammatory markers in present study with the short-term outcome. CONCLUSION Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non
Full Text Available The association between diabetes mellitus (DM and prognosis of minor stroke is unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether DM contributes to the prognosis of minor stroke or its specific subtype.All minor ischemic stroke patients were derived from the China National Stroke Registry and classified into 5 subtypes according to the TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. DM was defined as either self-reported physician diagnosis of diabetes or use of hypoglycemic medications during hospitalization or at discharge. Patients were followed up for 1 year for clinical outcomes of recurrent stroke, death and functional outcome. Poor functional outcomes were defined as a score of 2-6 for modified Rankin Score. Associations between DM and prognosis of minor stroke and its subtypes were analyzed by univariable and multivariable logistic regression.Of 4,548 patients with minor stroke, 1,230(27.0% patients had DM, 1,038(22.8% had poor outcomes and 570(13.0% of 4,401 patients had recurrent stroke at 1 year. In multivariable analyses, DM were significantly associated with 1-year stroke recurrence (Odds Ratio [OR], 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.59 and poor outcome (OR, 1.51; 95%CI: 1.28-1.77. Among the subtypes of minor stroke, DM was only significantly associated with 1-year stroke recurrence (OR, 1.63; 95%CI: 1.07-2.50 and poor outcome (OR, 1.73; 95%CI: 1.22-2.45 in the small-artery occlusion subtype.DM significantly increased the risk of stroke recurrence and poor outcome in the small-artery occlusion subtype, but not in other subtypes of minor stroke.
Kumbha Thulasi Ram
Full Text Available NTRIDUCTION : Stroke is one of the important causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Incidence of stroke steadily increases with age. Experts are concerned of the emerging stroke epidemic in India. Stroke affecting the young has potentially devastating consequence son the individual and his family. Certain risk factors are unique to the young. I t needs more studies for identification and modification of risk factors. The study aims to evaluate clinical features, risk factors, etiology and mortality of stroke in young patients. METHODS : 74 young patients satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in this study. A detailed history was taken from young stroke patients, systemic examination and required investigations were done. Data was collected in standardized proforma and analysed. RESULTS: Stroke in young accounts for 7.95% of stroke cases of all age groups. The mean age of the patients was 34.66 ± 7.48 years. Among 74 patients, 47(63.51% were male and 27(36.49% were female. Seizures, decreased consciousness, speech involvement and motor deficit were observed in 33.78%, 44.59%, 22.97% and 100% of cases respectively. 82.43% patients had ischemic and 17.57% patients had hemorrhagic stroke. Among ischemic stroke, large artery atherosclerosis was 16.21%, tuberculous meningoencephalitis with vasculitis was 16.21%, lacunar stroke was 10.81%, CVT was 10.81% and cardio embolic stroke was 6.76%. Smoking (59.45%, alcoholism (58.10%, hypertension (43.24%, coronary artery disease (8.10%, diabetes mellitus (10.81%, elevated total cholesterol (25.67%, elevated low density lipo proteins (22.97%, elevated triglycerides (27.02% and low HDL (22.97% were important risk factors. Carotid doppler was abnormal in 9.45% of patients. 6.76% patients had mitral stenosis in echocardiogram. Low protein C and protein S were found in 1.35% of patients. Eight (10.81% patients died during the hospital stay. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The major risk
Gadodia, Gaurav; Rizk, Nibal; Camp, Deborah; Bryant, Katja; Zimmerman, Susan; Brasher, Cynthia; Connelly, Kerrin; Dunn, Joshua; Frankel, Michael; Ido, Moges Seymour; Lugtu, James; Nahab, Fadi
There are limited data on which patients not treated with intravenous (IV) tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) due to mild and rapidly improving stroke symptoms (MaRISS) have unfavorable outcomes. Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients not treated with IV tPA due to MaRISS from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013 were identified as part of the Georgia Coverdell Acute Stroke Registry. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with a lower likelihood of favorable outcome, defined as discharge to home. There were 1614 AIS patients who did not receive IV tPA due to MaRISS (median National Institutes of Health stroke scale [NIHSS] 1], of which 305 (19%) did not have a favorable outcome. Factors associated with lower likelihood of favorable outcome included Medicare insurance status (odds ratio [OR]: .53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .34-.84), arrival by emergency medical services (OR: .46, 95% CI: .29-.73), increasing NIHSS score (per unit OR: .89, 95% CI: .84-.93), weakness as the presenting symptom (OR: .50, 95% CI: .30-.84), and a failed dysphagia screen (OR: .43, 95% CI: .23-.80). During the study period, dysphagia screen identify a subgroup of patients who are more likely to have an unfavorable outcome. Whether IV tPA treatment can improve the outcome in this subgroup of patients needs to be evaluated in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zakai, Neil A.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Alexander, Kristine; McClure, Leslie A.; Kissela, Brett M.; Howard, George; Cushman, Mary
Background ABO blood type is an inherited trait associated with coagulation factor levels and vascular outcomes. Objectives To assess the association of blood type with stroke and whether blood type contributes to racial disparities in stroke in the United States. Patients and Methods The REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study recruited 30,239 participants between 2003-07. Using a case-cohort design, blood type was genotyped in 646 participants with stroke and a 1,104 participant cohort random sample. Cox models adjusting for Framingham stroke risk factors assessed the association of blood type with stroke. Results Over 5.8 years of follow-up, blood types A or B versus type O were not associated with stroke. Blood type AB versus O was associated with an increased risk of stroke (adjusted HR 1.83; 95% CI 1.01, 3.30). The association of blood type AB versus O was greater in those without diabetes (adjusted HR 3.33; 95% CI 1.61, 6.88) than those with diabetes (adjusted HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.17, 1.44) (p-interaction = 0.02). Factor VIII levels accounted for 60% (95% CI 11%, 98%) of the association of AB blood type and stroke risk. Conclusion Blood type AB is associated with an increased risk of stroke that is not attenuated by conventional stroke risk factors and factor VIII levels were associated with 60% of the association. While blood type AB is rare in the U.S. population, it is a significant stroke risk factor and may play an important role in stroke risk in these individuals. PMID:24444093
Materials and Methods: A prospectively study of 66 adult patients who presented to the medical emergency unit of University College Hospital (U.C.H), Ibadan, in coma from acute stroke, from August 2004 to March 2005, was undertaken after obtaining ethical clearance and written consent of the patients' relations.
van de Port, Ingrid G. L.; Visser-Meily, Anne M. A.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Lindeman, Eline
Objective: To investigate the long-term effects on children of parental stroke, with respect to care-giving tasks, children's behavioural problems and stress, and to study the relationship between stress and child, patient and partner characteristics. Subjects: A total of 44 children (age range
Ricciardi, Ana Clara; López-Cancio, Elena; Pérez de la Ossa, Natalia; Sobrino, Tomás; Hernández-Pérez, María; Gomis, Meritxell; Munuera, Josep; Muñoz, Lucía; Dorado, Laura; Millán, Mónica; Dávalos, Antonio; Arenillas, Juan F
Although multiple studies and meta-analyses have consistently suggested that regular physical activity (PhA) is associated with a decreased stroke risk and recurrence, there is limited data on the possible preconditioning effect of prestroke PhA on stroke severity and prognosis. We aimed to study the association of prestroke PhA with different outcome variables in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to an anterior large vessel occlusion. The Prestroke Physical Activity and Functional Recovery in Patients with Ischemic Stroke and Arterial Occlusion trial is an observational and longitudinal study that included consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to a single tertiary stroke center. Main inclusion criteria were: anterior circulation ischemic stroke within 12 h from symptom onset; presence of a confirmed anterior large vessel occlusion, and functional independence previous to stroke. Prestroke PhA was evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and categorized into mild, moderate and high levels by means of metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes per week thresholds. The primary outcome measure was good functional outcome at 3 months (modified Rankin scale ≤2). Secondary outcomes were severity of stroke at admission, complete early recanalization, early dramatic neurological improvement and final infarct volume. During the study period, 159 patients fulfilled the above criteria. The mean age was 68 years, 62% were men and the baseline NIHSS score was 17. Patients with high levels of prestroke PhA were younger, had more frequently distal occlusions and had lower levels of blood glucose and fibrinogen at admission. After multivariate analysis, a high level of prestroke PhA was associated with a good functional outcome at 3 months. Regarding secondary outcome variables and after adjustment for relevant factors, a high level of prestroke PhA was independently associated with milder stroke severity at admission, early dramatic
Widjaja, E.; Manuel, D.; Hodgson, T.J.; Connolly, D.J.A.; Coley, S.C.; Romanowski, C.A.J.; Gaines, P.; Cleveland, T.; Thomas, S.; Griffiths, P.D.; Doyle, C.; Venables, G.S.
AIM: A rapid assessment stroke clinic (RASC) was established to provide a rapid diagnostic service to individuals with suspected transient cerebral or ocular ischaemia or recovered non-hospitalized strokes. In this report we review imaging findings and clinical outcomes of patients proceeding to the carotid surgery programme. METHODS: Between October 2000 and December 2002, 1339 people attended the RASC. The findings of head CT and carotid Doppler ultrasound of the 1320 patients who underwent brain and carotid imaging were reviewed, and the number subsequently proceeding to carotid angiography and intervention was reported. RESULTS: CT head scans were normal in 57% of cases; 38% demonstrated ischaemia or infarction; and 3% yielded incidental or other significant findings not related to ischaemia. On screening with carotid Doppler ultrasound, 7.5% showed greater than 50% stenosis on the symptomatic side. A total of 83 patients (6.2%) proceeded to cerebral angiography and 65 (4.8%) underwent carotid endarterectomy or endovascular repair. CONCLUSION: Rapid-access neurovascular clinics are efficient in selecting patients for carotid intervention, but this is at a cost and the number of potential strokes prevented is small. Alternative management pathways based on immediate medical treatment need to be evaluated
Full Text Available Lisa Mellon,1 Frank Doyle,1 Daniela Rohde,1 David Williams,2 Anne Hickey1 1Department of Psychology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Geriatric and Stroke Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland Background: Patient delay in presenting to hospital with stroke symptoms remains one of the major barriers to thrombolysis treatment, leading to its suboptimal use internationally. Educational interventions such as mass media campaigns and community initiatives aim to reduce patient delays by promoting the signs and symptoms of a stroke, but no consistent evidence exists to show that such interventions result in appropriate behavioral responses to stroke symptoms. Methods: A systematic literature search and narrative synthesis were conducted to examine whether public educational interventions were successful in the reduction of patient delay to hospital presentation with stroke symptoms. Three databases, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, were searched to identify quantitative studies with measurable behavioral end points, including time to hospital presentation, thrombolysis rates, ambulance use, and emergency department (ED presentations with stroke. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria: one randomized controlled trial, two time series analyses, three controlled before and after studies, five uncontrolled before and after studies, two retrospective observational studies, and two prospective observational studies. Studies were heterogeneous in quality; thus, meta-analysis was not feasible. Thirteen studies examined prehospital delay, with ten studies reporting a significant reduction in delay times, with a varied magnitude of effect. Eight studies examined thrombolysis rates, with only three studies reporting a statistically significant increase in thrombolysis administration. Five studies examined ambulance usage, and four reported a statistically significant increase in ambulance
Conclusions : Adherence to Mediterranean diet or DASH diet and increasing the consumption of antioxidant, vitamins, potassium, calcium food sources, vegetables, fruits, and whole grains intake can lower the risk of stroke. Healthy diet is effective in reducing risk of stroke, however, more studies need to be carried out in this area.
Goeggel Simonetti, Barbara; Cavelti, Ariane; Arnold, Marcel; Bigi, Sandra; Regényi, Mária; Mattle, Heinrich P; Gralla, Jan; Fluss, Joel; Weber, Peter; Hackenberg, Annette; Steinlin, Maja; Fischer, Urs
To compare long-term outcome of children and young adults with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) from 2 large registries. Prospective cohort study comparing functional and psychosocial long-term outcome (≥2 years after AIS) in patients who had AIS during childhood (1 month-16 years) or young adulthood (16.1-45 years) between January 2000 and December 2008, who consented to follow-up. Data of children were collected prospectively in the Swiss Neuropediatric Stroke Registry, young adults in the Bernese stroke database. Follow-up information was available in 95/116 children and 154/187 young adults. Median follow-up of survivors was 6.9 years (interquartile range 4.7-9.4) and did not differ between the groups (p = 0.122). Long-term functional outcome was similar (p = 0.896): 53 (56%) children and 84 (55%) young adults had a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0-1). Mortality in children was 14% (13/95) and in young adults 7% (11/154) (p = 0.121) and recurrence rate did not differ (p = 0.759). Overall psychosocial impairment and quality of life did not differ, except for more behavioral problems among children (13% vs 5%, p = 0.040) and more frequent reports of an impact of AIS on everyday life among adults (27% vs 64%, p Stroke Scale/NIH Stroke Scale score was the most important predictor of favorable outcome (p young adults for mortality, disability, quality of life, psychological, or social variables. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
Full Text Available Foot drop is a quite common problem in nervous system disorders. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES has showed to be an alternative approach to correct foot drop improving walking ability in patients with stroke. In this study, twenty patients with stroke in subacute phase were enrolled and randomly divided in two groups: one group performing the NMES (i.e. Walkaide Group, WG and the Control Group (CG performing conventional neuromotor rehabilitation. Both groups underwent the same amount of treatment time. Significant improvements of walking speed were recorded for WG (% than for CG (%, as well as in terms of locomotion (Functional Ambulation Classification score: . In terms of mobility and force, ameliorations were recorded, even if not significant (Rivermead Mobility Index: ; Manual Muscle Test: . Similar changes between groups were observed for independence in activities of daily living, neurological assessments, and spasticity reduction. These results highlight the potential efficacy for patients affected by a droop foot of a walking training performed with a neurostimulator in subacute phase.
Suda, Satoshi; Muraga, Kanako; Kanamaru, Takuya; Okubo, Seiji; Abe, Arata; Aoki, Junya; Suzuki, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Yuki; Shimoyama, Takashi; Nito, Chikako; Kimura, Kazumi
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of admission serum thyroid hormone concentration with clinical characteristics and functional outcomes in patients after acute ischemic stroke. We retrospectively enrolled 398 consecutive patients admitted to our stroke center between July 2010 and April 2012. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) were evaluated upon admission. Neurological severity was evaluated using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) upon admission and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) upon discharge. Poor outcome was defined as a mRS score of 3-5 or death (mRS score 6). Separate analyses were conducted according to outcome and quartile serum FT3 concentration. In total, 164 patients (41.2%) demonstrated a poor outcome. Age, male gender, blood glucose level, arterial fibrillation, dyslipidemia, smoking, NIHSS score, cardioembolic stroke type, and periventricular hyperintensities, but not FT4 or TSH, were significantly associated with poor functional outcome. Furthermore, poor functional outcome was independently associated with low FT3 (<2.29pg/mL). In comparisons between FT3 quartiles (Q1 [≤2.11pg/mL], Q2 [2.12-2.45pg/mL], Q3 [2.46-2.77pg/mL], Q4 [≥2.78pg/mL]), patients with poor outcomes were more frequent in Q1 than in Q4 after multivariate adjustment. Death was more frequent in Q1 than in Q4 after adjustment for risk factors and comorbidities, but this difference was non-significant after additional adjustment for age and NIHSS score. Our data suggest that a lower FT3 value upon admission may predict a poor functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Further large-scale prospective studies are required to clarify the role of thyroid hormone in the acute phase of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Barber, Mark; Wright, Fiona; Stott, David J; Langhorne, Peter
Early neurological deterioration after ischaemic stroke (stroke in progression) is reported to be common and associated with poor outcome or death. The causes of progressing stroke are, however, uncertain. To determine whether prior drug treatment (with anticoagulant or antiplatelet agents) or early adverse physiological features (pyrexia, hypoxia, dehydration or hyperglycaemia) are associated with progressing ischaemic stroke. The study used a case-control design. From a database of 873 consecutive acute stroke admissions, 196 cases of progressing ischaemic stroke (defined by point deterioration in components of the Scandinavian Stroke Scale or death over the first 72 h after hospital admission) were matched to 196 controls on the basis of age and stroke type. Univariate and conditional logistic regression techniques were used to explore predictors of progressing stroke. Cases and controls were well matched for baseline stroke severity. Warfarin use prior to admission was associated with a reduced risk of progressing stroke [odds ratio (OR) 0.10, p = 0.005]. Prior antiplatelet use was not related. A previous history of diabetes (OR 2.11, p = 0.039) and elevated systolic blood pressure on admission (OR 1.01 for each 1 mm Hg rise, p = 0.017) predicted progressing stroke. Although there were no differences in time to presentation or to brain imaging, a visible causative lesion on CT scanning was more common in the progressing stroke group (OR 2.30, p = 0.022). We found no evidence that adverse physiological features were associated with progressing stroke. Outcomes were worse in the progressing stroke group with 70% being dead or dependent by 30 days compared to 55% in the control group (p = 0.002). Prior warfarin use may be protective against progressing ischaemic stroke. A previous history of diabetes along with elevated admission systolic blood pressure predict deterioration. We found no evidence for an association between adverse physiological features and
Montalvo, Mayra; Tadi, Prasanna; Merkler, Alexander; Gialdini, Gino; Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Navalkele, Digvijaya; Samai, Alyana; Nouh, Amre; Hussain, Mohammad; Goldblatt, Steven; Hemendinger, Morgan; Chu, Antony; Song, Christopher; Kamel, Hooman; Furie, Karen L; Yaghi, Shadi
Atrial dysfunction or "cardiopathy" has been recently proposed as a mechanism in cryptogenic stroke. A prolonged PR interval may reflect impaired atrial conduction and thus may be a biomarker of atrial cardiopathy. We aim to compare the prevalence of PR interval prolongation in patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) when compared with known non-cryptogenic non-cardioembolic stroke (NCNCS) subtypes. We used prospective ischemic stroke databases of 3 comprehensive stroke centers to identify patients 18 years or older with a discharge diagnosis of ischemic non-cardioembolic stroke between December 1, 2013 and August 31, 2015. The main outcome was ischemic stroke subtype (CS versus NCNCS). We compared PR intervals as a continuous and categorical variable (PR interval prolongation and CS. We identified 644 patients with ischemic non-cardioembolic stroke (224 CS and 420 NCNCS). Patients with CS were more likely to have a PR of 200 milliseconds or greater when compared with those with NCNCS (23.2% versus 13.8%, P = .009). After adjusting for factors that were significant in univariate analyses, a PR of 200 milliseconds or greater was independently associated with CS (odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% CI 1.08-2.70). The association was more pronounced when excluding patients on atrioventricular nodal blocking agents (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.44-4.83). A PR of 200 milliseconds or greater is associated with CS and may be a biomarker of atrial cardiopathy in the absence of atrial fibrillation. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this association. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
López-Cancio, Elena; Ricciardi, Ana Clara; Sobrino, Tomás; Cortés, Jordi; de la Ossa, Natalia Pérez; Millán, Mónica; Hernández-Pérez, María; Gomis, Meritxell; Dorado, Laura; Muñoz-Narbona, Lucía; Campos, Francisco; Arenillas, Juan F; Dávalos, Antoni
Physical activity (PhA) prior to stroke has been associated with good outcomes after the ischemic insult, but there is scarce data on the involved molecular mechanisms. We studied consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to a single tertiary stroke center. Prestroke PhA was evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (metabolic equivalent of minutes/week). We studied several circulating angiogenic and neurogenic factors at different time points: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) at admission, day 7, and at 3 months. We considered good functional outcome at 3 months (modified Rankin scale ≤ 2) as primary end point, and final infarct volume as secondary outcome. We studied 83 patients with at least 2 time point serum determinations (mean age 69.6 years, median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 17 at admission). Patients more physically active before stroke had a significantly higher increment of serum VEGF on the seventh day when compared to less active patients. This increment was an independent predictor of good functional outcome at 3 months and was associated with smaller infarct volume in multivariate analyses adjusted for relevant covariates. We did not find independent associations of G-CSF or BDNF levels neither with level of prestroke PhA nor with stroke outcomes. Although there are probably more molecular mechanisms by which PhA exerts its beneficial effects in stroke outcomes, our observation regarding the potential role of VEGF is plausible and in line with previous experimental studies. Further research in this field is needed. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Medlin, Friedrich; Amiguet, Michael; Vanacker, Peter; Michel, Patrik
We aimed to assess the interaction between intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and arterial occlusion on acute cervicocerebral computed tomographic angiography on the outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Patients from the Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL) registry with onset-to-door-time ≤4 hours, acute cervicocerebral computed tomographic angiography, a premorbid modified Rankin Scale ≤2, and a National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) >4 were selected. Patients with significant intracranial arterial obstruction (≥50%-99%) and undergoing acute endovascular treatment were excluded. An interaction analysis of IVT and initial arterial occlusion for favorable 3 months outcome (modified Rankin Scale <3) were performed with adjustment for potential confounders. Among 654 included patients, 382 (58%) showed arterial occlusion, of whom 263 (69%) received IVT. Two hundred seventy-two showed no/minimal obstruction of whom 139 (51%) received IVT. In the adjusted interaction analysis, there was a trend in favor of the arterial occlusion group (odds ratio [OR]=3.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-18.97; P=0.08). IVT (versus no IVT) was associated with better outcome in patients with occlusion (adjusted OR for favorable outcome, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.10-8.28) but not in patients with no/minimal obstruction (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.21-2.74). Conversely, patients with occlusion had a similar rate of favorable outcome as no/minimal obstruction when thrombolysed (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.17-1.47) but had a less favorable outcome without thrombolysis (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.04-0.44). In this retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, there was a trend for more favorable outcomes with IVT in the setting of initial arterial occlusion than in the setting of no/minimal obstruction. Before confirmation in randomized controlled studies, this information should not influence thrombolysis decisions, however. © 2014 American Heart
Funder, Kamilia S; Rasmussen, Lars S.; Lohse, Nicolai
Background: Transportation by helicopter may reduce time to hospital admission and improve outcome. We aimed to investigate the effect of transport mode on mortality, disability, and labour market affiliation in patients admitted to the stroke unit. Methods: Prospective, observational study with 5...... patients. Primary outcome was long-term mortality after admission to the stroke unit. Results: Of the 1679 patients admitted to the stroke unit, 1068 were eligible for inclusion. Mortality rates were 9.04 per 100 person-years at risk (PYR) in GEMS patients and 9.71 per 100 PYR in HEMS patients (IRR = 1...... for neurological outcome is probably difficult to detect by considering mortality, but for the secondary analyses we had less statistical power as illustrated by the wide confidence intervals. Conclusion: Helicopter transport of stroke patients was not associated with reduced mortality or disability, nor improved...
Ickenstein, Guntram W; Höhlig, Carolin; Prosiegel, Mario; Koch, Horst; Dziewas, Rainer; Bodechtel, Ulf; Müller, Rainer; Reichmann, Heinz; Riecker, Axel
Stroke is the most frequent cause of neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia (NOD). In the acute phase of stroke, the frequency of NOD is greater than 50% and, half of this patient population return to good swallowing within 14 days while the other half develop chronic dysphagia. Because dysphagia leads to aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and in-hospital mortality, it is important to pay attention to swallowing problems. The question arises if a prediction of severe chronic dysphagia is possible within the first 72 hours of acute stroke. On admission to the stroke unit, all stroke patients were screened for swallowing problems by the nursing staff within 2 hours. Patients showing signs of aspiration were included in the study (n = 114) and were given a clinical swallowing examination (CSE) by the swallowing/speech therapist within 24 hours and a swallowing endoscopy within 72 hours by the physician. The primary outcome of the study was the functional communication measure (FCM) of swallowing (score 1-3, tube feeding dependency) on day 90. The grading system with the FCM swallowing and the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) in the first 72 hours was tested in a multivariate analysis for its predictive value for tube feeding-dependency on day 90. For the FCM level 1 to 3 (P dysphagia scales to prevent aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition. A dysphagia program can lead to better communication within the stroke unit team to initiate the appropriate diagnostics and swallowing therapy as soon as possible. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Xinmiao; Liao, Xiaoling; Wang, Chunjuan; Liu, Liping; Wang, Chunxue; Zhao, Xingquan; Pan, Yuesong; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun
The DRAGON score predicts functional outcome of ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Our aim was to evaluate its utility in a Chinese stroke population. Patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis were prospectively registered in the Thrombolysis Implementation and Monitor of acute ischemic Stroke in China. We excluded patients with basilar artery occlusion and missing data, leaving 970 eligible patients. We calculated the DRAGON score, and the clinical outcome was measured by the modified Rankin Scale at 3 months. Model discrimination was quantified by calculating the C statistic. Calibration was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient. The C statistic was .73 (.70-.76) for good outcome and .75 (.70-.79) for miserable outcome. Proportions of patients with good outcome were 94%, 83%, 70%, and 0% for 0 to 1, 2, 3, and 8 to 10 score points, respectively. Proportions of patients with miserable outcome were 0%, 3%, 9%, and 50% for 0 to 1, 2, 3, and 8 to 10 points, respectively. There was high correlation between predicted and observed probability of 3-month favorable and miserable outcome in the external validation cohort (Pearson correlation coefficient, .98 and .98, respectively, both P DRAGON score showed good performance to predict functional outcome after tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment in the Chinese population. This study demonstrated the accuracy and usability of the DRAGON score in the Chinese population in daily practice. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yu-Fang; Li, Jiao-Xing; Sun, Xun-Sha; Lai, Rong; Sheng, Wen-Li
Objective We aimed to evaluate the association between serum uric acid levels at the onset and prognostic outcome in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Methods We retrospectively analysed the outcomes of 1166 patients with ischaemic stroke who were hospitalized in our centre during August 2008 to November 2012. Correlations of serum uric acid levels and prognostic outcomes were analysed. Results Men had higher serum uric acid levels and better neurological functional outcomes compared with women. There was a strong negative correlation between serum uric acid levels and unfavourable neurological functional outcomes. Generalized estimated equation analysis showed that a higher serum uric acid level (>237 µmol/L) was a protective factor for neurological functional outcome in male, but not female, patients. Among five trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment classification subtypes, only patients with the large-artery atherosclerosis subtype had a significant protective effect of serum uric acid levels on neurological outcome. Conclusions Our study shows that high serum uric acid levels are a significant protective factor in men and in the large-artery atherosclerosis subtype in patients with ischaemic stroke. This is helpful for determining the prognostic value of serum uric acid levels for neurological outcome of acute ischaemic stroke.
Effect of general anaesthesia on functional outcome in patients with anterior circulation ischaemic stroke having endovascular thrombectomy versus standard care: a meta-analysis of individual patient data
Campbell, Bruce C. V.; van Zwam, Wim H.; Goyal, Mayank; Menon, Bijoy K.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Bracard, Serge; White, Philip; Dávalos, Antoni; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; van der Lugt, Aad; Ford, Gary A.; de la Ossa, Natalia Pérez; Kelly, Michael; Bourcier, Romain; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; Bang, Oh Young; Nogueira, Raul G.; Devlin, Thomas G.; van den Berg, Lucie A.; Clarençon, Frédéric; Burns, Paul; Carpenter, Jeffrey; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; Yavagal, Dileep R.; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Ducrocq, Xavier; Dixit, Anand; Quesada, Helena; Epstein, Jonathan; Davis, Stephen M.; Jansen, Olav; Rubiera, Marta; Urra, Xabier; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Emmer, Bart J.; Bot, Joseph C. J.; Marquering, Henk A.; Sprengers, Marieke E. S.; Beenen, Ludo F. M.; van den Berg, René; Fleitour, Nadine; Santos, Emilie; Borst, Jordi; Jansen, Ivo; Kappelhof, Manon; Lucas, Marit; Barros, Renan Sales; Koch, S.
Background General anaesthesia (GA) during endovascular thrombectomy has been associated with worse patient outcomes in observational studies compared with patients treated without GA. We assessed functional outcome in ischaemic stroke patients with large vessel anterior circulation occlusion
Reznik, Michael E; Yaghi, Shadi; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; McTaggart, Ryan A; Hemendinger, Morgan; Mac Grory, Brian C; Burton, Tina M; Cutting, Shawna M; Thompson, Bradford B; Wendell, Linda C; Mahta, Ali; Potter, N Stevenson; Daiello, Lori A; Kosar, Cyrus M; Jones, Richard N; Furie, Karen L
Many factors may potentially complicate the stroke recovery process, including persistently impaired level of consciousness (LOC)-whether from residual stroke effects or from superimposed delirium. We aimed to determine the degree to which impaired LOC at hospital discharge is associated with outcomes after ischemic stroke. We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study using prospectively-collected data from 2015 to 2017, collecting total NIHSS-LOC score at discharge as well as subscores for responsiveness (LOC-R), orientation questions (LOC-Q), and command-following (LOC-C). We determined associations between LOC scores and 3-month outcome using logistic regression, with discharge location (skilled nursing facility [SNF] vs. inpatient rehabilitation) representing a pre-specified secondary outcome. We identified 1003 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke who survived to discharge, of whom 32% had any LOC score > 0. Total LOC score at discharge was associated with unfavorable 3-month outcome (OR 4.9 [95% CI 2.4-9.8] for LOC = 1; OR 8.0 [2.7-23.9] for LOC = 2-3; OR 6.3 [2.1-18.5] for LOC = 4-5; all patients with LOC = 6-7 had poor outcomes), as were subscores for LOC-R (OR 5.3 [1.3-21.2] for LOC-R = 1; all patients with LOC-R = 2-3 had poor outcomes) and LOC-Q (OR 4.1 [2.1-8.3] for LOC-Q = 1; OR 4.9 [1.8-13.5] for LOC-Q = 2). Total LOC score (OR 2.6 [1.3-5.3] for LOC = 1; OR 3.1 [1.2-8.2] for LOC = 2-3) and LOC-Q (OR 3.3 [1.6-6.6] for LOC-Q = 1; OR 3.4 [1.3-9.0] for LOC-Q = 2) were also associated with discharge to SNF rather than to inpatient rehabilitation. The presence of impaired consciousness or disorientation at discharge is associated with markedly worse outcomes after ischemic stroke. Further studies are necessary to determine the separate effects of residual stroke-related LOC changes and those caused by superimposed delirium. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
C S Mohanty
Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated that stroke functional outcome can be predicted from the baseline BI and mRS scales. It is concluded thatBI and mRS Stroke scale can be used to prognosticate functional outcome at admission and at follow up.
Okada, Noritaka; Oshima, Hideki; Narita, Yuji; Abe, Tomonobu; Araki, Yoshimori; Mutsuga, Masato; Fujimoto, Kazuro L; Tokuda, Yoshiyuki; Usui, Akihiko
Thoracic aortic operations still remain associated with substantial risks of death and neurologic injury. This study investigated the impact of surgical stroke on the early and late outcomes, focusing on the physical status and quality of life (QOL). From 1986 to 2008, 500 patients (aged 63 ± 13 years) underwent open thoracic aortic repair for root and ascending (31%), arch (39%), extended arch (10%), and descending and thoracoabdominal (19%) aneurysms. Brain protection consisted of retrograde cerebral perfusion (52%), antegrade cerebral perfusion (29%), and simple deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (19%). Surgical stroke was defined as a neurologic deficit persisting more than 72 hours after the operation. QOL was assessed with the Short-Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire 5.9 ± 4.2 years after the operation. Stroke occurred in 10.3% of patients. Hospital mortality was 21% in the stroke group and 2.7% in the nonstroke group (p mental component was similar in both groups (14% vs 14%). Surgical stroke is associated with high hospital mortality and PNDs that decrease late survival and the physical component score of the QOL survey. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cognitive impairment on functional status in patients with subacute stroke. Fifty-two patients with subacute stroke were included in the study. Mini mental state examination (MMSE test was used for the evaluation of cognitive status. Patients were separated into two groups according to their cognitive functions. Functional follow-up parameters were activities of daily living (ADL, global recovery and ambulation status. All patients were evaluated on admission to rehabilitation unit, at discharge and 6 months after discharge. Forty-four patients were completed the study. Mean age was 66 and 57 years; disease duration on admission was 4,8 and 3,5 months in the cognitively impaired and normal groups, respectively. Significant improvement was found in terms of functional follow-up parameters in both groups at discharge (<.05. Functional follow-up parameters did not show statistically significant difference between the groups. But community ambulation rate was higher in cognitively normal group at the sixth month visit. As a result of this study, inpatient rehabilitation was effective both cognitively normal and impaired subacute stroke patients.
Williams, Olajide; Leighton-Herrmann, Ellyn; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Hecht, Mindy; Hedmann, Monique; Huq, Saima; Gerin, William; Chinchilli, Vernon; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Noble, James
Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and the leading cause of serious long-term adult disability in the US. Acute stroke treatments with intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy are proven to reduce disability, however a critical limitation on their effectiveness is the narrow time window for administration, which is 4.5 hours and 6 hours respectively from the onset of symptoms. Our overarching goal is to reduce pre-hospital delays to acute stroke treatments in economically disadvantaged minority communities where the greatest delays exist, using Hip Hop Stroke. Hip Hop Stroke (HHS) is a school-based, child-mediated, culturally-tailored stroke communication multimedia intervention developed using validated models of behavior change and designed to improve stroke literacy (knowledge of stroke symptoms, the urgent need to call 911, and prevention measures) of 4 th , 5 th and 6 th grade students and their parents residing in poor urban communities. Children in the intervention arm will receive the HHS intervention, while those in the attentional control arm will receive standardized nutrition education based on the USDA's MyPyramid program. Children will be trained and motivated to share stroke information with their parents or other adult caregiver. Both children and parents will complete a stroke knowledge assessment at baseline, immediately following the program, and at 3-months post-program. The primary outcome is the effect of the child mediation on parental stroke literacy. Stroke literate children, a captive audience in school systems, may represent a viable channel for spreading stroke information into households of poor urban communities where mass media stroke campaigns have shown the lowest penetration. These children may also call 911 when witnessing a stroke in their homes or communities. The HHS program may highlight the potential role of children in the chain of stroke recovery as a strategy for reducing prehospital delays to acute stroke
Turner, Melanie; Barber, Mark; Dodds, Hazel; Dennis, Martin; Langhorne, Peter; Macleod, Mary Joan
Randomised trials indicate that stroke unit care reduces morbidity and mortality after stroke. Similar results have been seen in observational studies but many have not corrected for selection bias or independent predictors of outcome. We evaluated the effect of stroke unit compared with general ward care on outcomes after stroke in Scotland, adjusting for case mix by incorporating the six simple variables (SSV) model, also taking into account selection bias and stroke subtype. We used routine data from National Scottish datasets for acute stroke patients admitted between 2005 and 2011. Patients who died within 3 days of admission were excluded from analysis. The main outcome measures were survival and discharge home. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the OR for survival, and adjustment was made for the effect of the SSV model and for early mortality. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard of death within 365 days. There were 41 692 index stroke events; 79% were admitted to a stroke unit at some point during their hospital stay and 21% were cared for in a general ward. Using the SSV model, we obtained a receiver operated curve of 0.82 (SE 0.002) for mortality at 6 months. The adjusted OR for survival at 7 days was 3.11 (95% CI 2.71 to 3.56) and at 1 year 1.43 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.54) while the adjusted OR for being discharged home was 1.19 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.28) for stroke unit care. In routine practice, stroke unit admission is associated with a greater likelihood of discharge home and with lower mortality up to 1 year, after correcting for known independent predictors of outcome, and excluding early non-modifiable mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Weber, Ralph; Reimann, Gernot; Weimar, Christian; Winkler, Angela; Berger, Klaus; Nordmeyer, Hannes; Hadisurya, Jeffrie; Brassel, Friedhelm; Kitzrow, Martin; Krogias, Christos; Weber, Werner; Busch, Elmar W; Eyding, Jens
After thrombectomy has shown to be effective in acute stroke patients with large vessel occlusion, the potential benefit of secondary referral for such an intervention needs to be validated. We aimed to compare consecutive stoke patients directly admitted and treated with thrombectomy at a neurointerventional centre with patients secondarily referred for such a procedure from hospitals with a stroke unit. Periprocedure times and mortality in 300 patients primarily treated in eight neurointerventional centres were compared with 343 patients referred from nine other hospitals in a prospective multicentre study of a German neurovascular network. Data on functional outcome at 3 months was available in 430 (76.4%) patients. In-hospital mortality (14.8% versus 11.7%, p = 0.26) and 3 months mortality (21.9% versus 24.1%, p = 0.53) were not statistically different in both patient groups despite a significant shorter symptom to groin puncture time in directly admitted patients, which was mainly caused by a longer interfacility transfer time. We found a nonsignificant trend for better functional outcome at 3 months in directly admitted patients (modified Rankin Scale 0-2, 44.0% versus 35.7%, p = 0.08). Our results show that a drip-and-ship thrombectomy concept can be effectively organized in a metropolitan stroke network. Every effort should be made to speed up the emergency interfacility transfer to a neurointerventional centre in stroke patients eligible for thrombectomy after initial brain imaging.
Pedersen, P M; Jørgensen, H S; Kammersgaard, L P
To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome.......To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome....
Nip, W F R; Perry, L; McLaren, S; Mackenzie, A
Nutrition affects rehabilitation through its influence on physical and mental functioning, although little attention has been paid to effects on rehabilitation outcomes. The present study aimed to describe nutritional status and food consumption in stroke patients within 2 weeks of hospital admission and before discharge, as well as to investigate the effects of nutritional and dietary factors on rehabilitation outcomes. One hundred patients from a consecutive cohort admitted to a metropolitan hospital with acute stroke were recruited and assessed by a single researcher, with 38 reassessed at discharge. Nutritional status was assessed using Mini-Nutritional Assessment and anthropometric indices and dietary intake was assessed by 1-day weighed dietary records. Rehabilitation outcomes were changes in Barthel index scores and the rehabilitation efficiency index. Few (n = 9; 10%) consumed ≥100% of the estimated average requirement (EAR) for energy within 2 weeks of admission and 13 (33%) had energy intakes stroke patients to improve rehabilitation outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Increased work and social engagement is associated with increased stroke specific quality of life in stroke survivors at 3 months and 12 months post-stroke: a longitudinal study of an Australian stroke cohort.
Tse, Tamara; Binte Yusoff, Siti Zubaidah; Churilov, Leonid; Ma, Henry; Davis, Stephen; Donnan, Geoffrey Alan; Carey, Leeanne M
There is a relative lack of longitudinal studies investigating stroke-specific outcomes and quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to identify which factors (level of disability, cognitive functioning, depressive symptoms, physical activity, and work and social engagement) were independently associated with each stroke-specific domain of QOL, adjusting for age and gender, at 3 months and 12 months post-stroke in an Australian cohort. Survivors of ischemic stroke were recruited from 18 sites of the STroke imAging pRevention and Treatment (START) longitudinal cohort study. Survivors were assessed at 3 months (n = 185) and 12 months (n = 170) post-stroke using the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). WSAS was independently associated with the SIS domains of: Physical Composite function; Participation; and Perceived Recovery at 3 months and 12 months and SIS domain of Emotion at 12 months post-stroke. The presence of depressive symptoms was independently associated with the SIS domains of: Memory and Thinking; and Emotion at 3 months. At 12 months post-stroke, mRS was independently associated with SIS domain of Physical Composite function and MoCA with SIS domain of Communication. Engaging in work and social activities is an important factor associated with stroke-specific domains of QOL over time. It is recommended that services focus on improving work and social engagement given their importance related to QOL in the first year of recovery post-stroke. Identifying and treating those with depressive symptoms may enhance QOL in the early months post-stroke. START-PrePARE Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials, www.anzctr.org.au , Registry number: ACTRN12610000987066. EXTEND ClinicalTrial.gov identifier: NCT00887328.
Wu, Teddy Y; Cheung, Jeanette; Cole, David; Fink, John N
We examined the impact of major earthquakes on acute stroke admissions by a retrospective review of stroke admissions in the 6 weeks following the 4 September 2010 and 22 February 2011 earthquakes. The control period was the corresponding 6 weeks in the previous year. In the 6 weeks following the September 2010 earthquake there were 97 acute stroke admissions, with 79 (81.4%) ischaemic infarctions. This was similar to the 2009 control period which had 104 acute stroke admissions, of whom 80 (76.9%) had ischaemic infarction. In the 6 weeks following the February 2011 earthquake, there were 71 stroke admissions, and 61 (79.2%) were ischaemic infarction. This was less than the 96 strokes (72 [75%] ischaemic infarction) in the corresponding control period. None of the comparisons were statistically significant. There was also no difference in the rate of cardioembolic infarction from atrial fibrillation between the study periods. Patients admitted during the February 2011 earthquake period were less likely to be discharged directly home when compared to the control period (31.2% versus 46.9%, p=0.036). There was no observable trend in the number of weekly stroke admissions between the 2 weeks leading to and 6 weeks following the earthquakes. Our results suggest that severe psychological stress from earthquakes did not influence the subsequent short term risk of acute stroke, but the severity of the earthquake in February 2011 and associated civil structural damages may have influenced the pattern of discharge for stroke patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sheth, Sunil A; Sanossian, Nerses; Hao, Qing; Starkman, Sidney; Ali, Latisha K; Kim, Doojin; Gonzalez, Nestor R; Tateshima, Satoshi; Jahan, Reza; Duckwiler, Gary R; Saver, Jeffrey L; Vinuela, Fernando; Liebeskind, David S
Endovascular reperfusion techniques are a promising intervention for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Prior studies have identified markers of initial injury (arrival NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) or infarct volume) as predictive of outcome after these procedures. We sought to define the role of collateral flow at the time of presentation in determining the extent of initial ischemic injury and its influence on final outcome. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiographic data were prospectively collected on a consecutive cohort of patients who received endovascular therapy for acute cerebral ischemia at a single tertiary referral center from September 2004 to August 2010. Higher collateral grade as assessed by the American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology (ASITN/SIR) grading scheme on angiography at the time of presentation was associated with improved reperfusion rates after endovascular intervention, decreased post-procedural hemorrhage, smaller infarcts on presentation and discharge, as well as improved neurological function on arrival to the hospital, discharge, and 90 days later. Patients matched by vessel occlusion, age, and time of onset demonstrated smaller strokes on presentation and better functional and radiographic outcome if found to have superior collateral flow. In multivariate analysis, lower collateral grade independently predicted higher NIHSS on arrival. Improved collateral flow in patients with AIS undergoing endovascular therapy was associated with improved radiographic and clinical outcomes. Independent of age, vessel occlusion and time, in patients with comparable ischemic burdens, changes in collateral grade alone led to significant differences in initial stroke severity as well as ultimate clinical outcome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To establish whether there are increased rates of suicide after a stroke and the degree to which any increase is related to gender, age at stroke, diagnosis, duration of hospitalisation, and time since stroke. DESIGN: Cross linkage of national registers for hospitalisations...... cases of suicide were identified. MAIN RESULTS: Annual incidence rates, both observed and expected, together with standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were computed based on annual population and suicide statistics, stratified by age and gender. The overall annual incidence rate of suicide in the cohort.......76) for patients under 50 years of age group and were least for patients 80 years or older (1.3; 0.95, 1.79). There was no clear relation to stroke diagnosis. Suicides were negatively related to duration of hospitalisation, being lowest for those hospitalised for more than three months (0.88; 0.65, 1...
Villain, Marie; Sibon, Igor; Renou, Pauline; Poli, Mathilde; Swendsen, Joel
To investigate whether social contact and support received during hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke predict depression and daily life functioning three months later. Prospective observational study using Ecological Momentary Assessments to evaluate the number of social contacts as well as social support received from family, friends and medical staff within 24 hours following admission for stroke. Patients also monitored depression symptoms and behavior in real-time and in daily life contexts three months later. A university hospital acute stroke unit. Thirty-four mild ischemic stroke patients. None. One-day Ecological Momentary Assessments immediately following stroke collected information concerning perceived social support, number of social contacts and depression symptoms. Ecological Momentary Assessments was repeated three months later and addressed depression levels as well as activities of daily living, such as working, cooking, shopping and housework. The number of social interactions received at hospitalization did not predict three-month outcomes. However, a better quality of moral support from friends and family immediately after stroke was associated with decreases in later depression levels ( p = 0.041) and increases in activities of daily living ( p = 0.011). Material support from friends and family was associated with increases in activities of daily living ( p = 0.012). No effect was observed for support received from medical staff. Patient perceptions of better support quality, and not quantity, immediately following mild stroke, are associated with better behavioral and emotional outcomes three months later.
Snarska, Katarzyna K; Bachórzewska-Gajewska, Hanna; Kapica-Topczewska, Katarzyna; Drozdowski, Wiesław; Chorąży, Monika; Kułakowska, Alina; Małyszko, Jolanta
Stroke is the second leading cause of long-term disability and death worldwide. Diabetes and hyperglycemia may impact the outcome of stroke. We examined the impact of hyperglycemia and diabetes on in-hospital death among ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients. Data from 766 consecutive patients with ischemic (83.15%) and hemorrhagic stroke were analyzed. Patients were classified into four groups: ischemic and diabetic; ischemic and non-diabetic; hemorrhagic and diabetic; and hemorrhagic and non-diabetic. Serum glucose was measured on admission at the emergency department together with biochemical and clinical parameters. Mean admission glucose in ischemic stroke patients with diabetes was higher than in non-diabetic ones ( p hemorrhagic stroke patients with diabetes than in those without diabetes ( p stroke and without diabetes were age, admission glucose level and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), while in diabetics they were female gender, admission glucose level, and eGFR; in patients with hemorrhagic stroke and without diabetes they were age and admission glucose levels. The cut-off value in predicting death in patients with ischemic stroke and without diabetes was above 113.5 mg/dl, while in diabetics it was above 210.5 mg/dl. Hyperglycemia on admission is associated with worsened clinical outcome and increased risk of in-hospital death in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients. Diabetes increased the risk of in-hospital death in hemorrhagic stroke patients, but not in ischemic ones.
Full Text Available Background: Cognition and gait have often been studied separately after stroke whereas it has been suggested that these two domains could interact through a cognitive-motor interference.Objective: To evaluate the influence of gait changes on cognitive outcome after an ischemic stroke (IS.Methods: We conducted a prospective and monocentric study including patients admitted for an acute supratentorial IS with a National Institute of Health Stroke Score ≤ 15. Cognition, gait and motor disability were evaluated at baseline, 3 months and 1 year post-stroke, using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, the 10-m walking test (10-MWT and the Fugl-Meyer motor assessment (FMMA. The effect of changes in 10-MWT over the year of follow-up on MoCA changes was estimated using a generalized linear mixed model with FMMA, age and gender as covariates.Results: Two hundred and Twelve patients were included (71% male, age 64 ± 13 years old. 10-MWT improved from baseline to 1 year (p < 0.001, as did MoCA (p < 0.001 and FMMA (p < 0.001 scores. Ninety-nine patients (47% had a MoCA <26 at 1 year. Changes in 10-MWT were independently associated with changes in MoCA (β = −0.2, 95% CI −0.24 to −0.07, Bonferroni-corrected p-value = 0.002. Analyses of MoCA sub-scores suggested that changes in gait performance was associated with changes in executive functions and recall.Conclusion: Gait performance is associated with cognitive outcome after a mild to moderate IS, suggesting that they should be managed together to improve post-stroke independence.
Schuster, Corina; Maunz, Gerd; Lutz, Karin; Kischka, Udo; Sturzenegger, Rolf; Ettlin, Thierry
For early inpatient stroke rehabilitation, the effectiveness of amphetamine combined with physiotherapy varies across studies. To investigate whether the recovery of activities of daily living (ADL, primary outcome) and motor function (secondary outcome) can be improved by dexamphetamine added to physiotherapy. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 16 patients, from 918 who were screened, were randomized to the experimental group (EG, dexamphetamine + physiotherapy) or control group (CG, placebo + physiotherapy). Both groups received multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. Dexamphetamine (10 mg oral) or placebo was administered 2 days per week before physiotherapy. ADL and motor function were measured using the Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA) twice during baseline, every week during the 5-week treatment period, and at follow-up 1 week, 6 months, and 12 months after intervention. The majority of ineligible patients had too little paresis, were on anticoagulants, or had a stroke >60 days prior to entry. Participants (EG, n = 7, age 70.3 ± 10 years, 5 women, 37.9 ± 9 days after stroke; CG, n = 9, age 65.2 ± 17 years, 3 women, 40.3 ± 9 days after stroke) did not differ at baseline except for the leg subscale. Analysis of variance from baseline to 1 week follow-up revealed significant improvements in favor of EG for subscales ADL (P = .023) and arm function (P = .020) at end of treatment. No adverse events were detected. In this small trial that was based on prior positive trials, significant gains in ADL and arm function suggest that the dose and timing of dexamphetamine can augment physiotherapy. Effect size calculation suggests inclusion of at least 25 patients per group in future studies.
Tan, Xiaoping [Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University at Shenyang, Department of Neurology, Shengjing Hospital, Shenyang (China); Guo, Yang [Shengjing Hospital, Department of Neurology, Shenyang (China)
It is well established that the hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign is a specific marker for early ischemia in anterior circulation. However, little is known about the hyperdense basilar artery sign (HDBA) in posterior circulation. Our aim was to determine whether the HDBA sign has utility in early diagnosis of acute posterior circulation stroke and prediction of short-term outcome. Three-blinded readers examined unenhanced computed tomography scans for the HDBA sign, and materials were classified into two groups according to this sign. Vascular risk factors, admission and discharge National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, short-term outcome, and radiological findings between the two groups were compared. One hundred and twenty-six cases of acute posterior circulation stroke (PCS) were included in the study. No statistically significant differences were found in risk factors of ischemic stroke, except atrial fibrillation (P = 0.025). Admission and discharge NIHSS scores for the positive HDBA group were significantly higher than scores for the negative HDBA group (P = 0.001, 0.002, respectively). The infarction territory for the positive HDBA group was mainly multi-region in nature (51.6%, P < 0.001), while the negative HDBA group showed mainly middle territory infarction. Significant independent predictors of short-term outcome included the HDBA sign (P < 0.001) and admission NIHSS scores (P < 0.001). Approximately half of the HDBA patients showed multi-region infarction and a serious neurological symptom. Based on our results, this sign might not only be helpful in early diagnosis of acute PCS but also be able to correlate with a poor short-term outcome. (orig.)
He, William J; Zhong, Chongke; Xu, Tan; Wang, Dali; Sun, Yingxian; Bu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Wang, Jinchao; Ju, Zhong; Li, Qunwei; Zhang, Jintao; Geng, Deqin; Zhang, Jianhui; Li, Dong; Li, Yongqiu; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yonghong; Kelly, Tanika N
We studied the effect of early antihypertensive treatment on death, major disability, and vascular events among patients with acute ischemic stroke according to their baseline SBP. We randomly assigned 4071 acute ischemic stroke patients with SBP between 140 and less than 220 mmHg to receive antihypertensive treatment or to discontinue all antihypertensive medications during hospitalization. A composite primary outcome of death and major disability and secondary outcomes were compared between treatment and control stratified by baseline SBP levels of less than 160, 160-179, and at least 180 mmHg. At 24 h after randomization, differences in SBP reductions were 8.8, 8.6 and 7.8 mmHg between the antihypertensive treatment and control groups among patients with baseline SBP less than 160, 160-179, and at least 180 mmHg, respectively (P baseline SBP subgroups on death (P = 0.02): odds ratio (95% CI) of 2.42 (0.74-7.89) in patients with baseline SBP less than 60 mmHg and 0.34 (0.11-1.09) in those with baseline SBP at least 180 mmHg. At the 3-month follow-up, the primary and secondary clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the treatment and control groups by baseline SBP levels. Early antihypertensive treatment had a neutral effect on clinical outcomes among acute ischemic stroke patients with various baseline SBP levels. Future clinical trials are warranted to test BP-lowering effects in acute ischemic stroke patients by baseline SBP levels. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01840072.
Turc, Guillaume; Aguettaz, Pierre; Ponchelle-Dequatre, Nelly; Hénon, Hilde; Naggara, Olivier; Leclerc, Xavier; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Leys, Didier; Mas, Jean-Louis; Oppenheim, Catherine
The aim of our study was to validate in an independent cohort the MRI-DRAGON score, an adaptation of the (CT-) DRAGON score to predict 3-month outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MRI before intravenous thrombolysis (IV-tPA). We reviewed consecutive (2009-2013) anterior circulation stroke patients treated within 4.5 hours by IV-tPA in the Lille stroke unit (France), where MRI is the first-line pretherapeutic work-up. We assessed the discrimination and calibration of the MRI-DRAGON score to predict poor 3-month outcome, defined as modified Rankin Score >2, using c-statistic and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, respectively. We included 230 patients (mean ±SD age 70.4±16.0 years, median [IQR] baseline NIHSS 8 -; poor outcome in 78(34%) patients). The c-statistic was 0.81 (95%CI 0.75-0.87), and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was not significant (p = 0.54). The MRI-DRAGON score showed good prognostic performance in the external validation cohort. It could therefore be used to inform the patient's relatives about long-term prognosis and help to identify poor responders to IV-tPA alone, who may be candidates for additional therapeutic strategies, if they are otherwise eligible for such procedures based on the institutional criteria.
Full Text Available The aim of our study was to validate in an independent cohort the MRI-DRAGON score, an adaptation of the (CT- DRAGON score to predict 3-month outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MRI before intravenous thrombolysis (IV-tPA.We reviewed consecutive (2009-2013 anterior circulation stroke patients treated within 4.5 hours by IV-tPA in the Lille stroke unit (France, where MRI is the first-line pretherapeutic work-up. We assessed the discrimination and calibration of the MRI-DRAGON score to predict poor 3-month outcome, defined as modified Rankin Score >2, using c-statistic and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, respectively.We included 230 patients (mean ±SD age 70.4±16.0 years, median [IQR] baseline NIHSS 8 -; poor outcome in 78(34% patients. The c-statistic was 0.81 (95%CI 0.75-0.87, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was not significant (p = 0.54.The MRI-DRAGON score showed good prognostic performance in the external validation cohort. It could therefore be used to inform the patient's relatives about long-term prognosis and help to identify poor responders to IV-tPA alone, who may be candidates for additional therapeutic strategies, if they are otherwise eligible for such procedures based on the institutional criteria.
Al-Khathaami, Ali M; Abulaban, Ahmad A; Mohamed, Gamal E; Alamry, Ahmed M; Kojan, Suleiman M; Aljumah, Mohammed A
To examine and test the possible association between boarding time and stroke patients` outcome. This study is a retrospective review of stroke patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 2007-2010. We excluded thrombolysis cases and those deemed critically ill. We collected time of stroke onset, ED arrival, decision to admit, and arrival to ward. Boarding time (BT) was defined as time of arrival to ward minus time of decision to admit. Primary outcome (PO) was defined as a composite of mortality, and/or any of post-stroke complications. We included 300 patients with a mean age +/- standard deviation of 69 +/- 12 years, and 66.3% were men. The PO occurred in 37.7%. There was no association between BT and PO (odds ratio [OR]=0.9, p=0.3), or any of the secondary outcomes, such as, death (OR=0.97, p=0.5), severe disability (OR=0.97, p=0.3), pneumonia (OR=1, p=0.9), urinary tract infection (OR=1, p=0.9), or neurological deterioration (OR=0.8, p=0.1). Multivariate analysis included gender, age, stroke severity, subtype, hypertension, diabetes, coronary disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure (HF), onset to ED, BT and ED wait time; only moderate to severe stroke, HF, and previous stroke predicted poor outcome. Although `admit no bed` was not associated with adverse effects, the results should be interpreted with caution, and early admission to the stroke unit should be encouraged.
Janita Pak Chun Chau
Full Text Available BackgroundPoststroke shoulder pain limits stroke survivors’ physical functioning, impairs their ability to perform daily activities, and compromises their quality of life. The use of acupuncture to manage shoulder pain after a stroke is believed to free the blockage of energy flow and produce analgesic effects, but the evidence is unclear. We therefore conducted a systematic review to summarize the current evidence on the effects of acupuncture on the recovery outcomes of stroke survivors with shoulder pain.MethodsFourteen English and Chinese databases were searched for data from January 2009 to August 2017. The review included adult participants with a clinical diagnosis of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke who had developed shoulder pain and had undergone conventional acupuncture, electroacupuncture, fire needle acupuncture, or warm needle acupuncture. The participants in the comparison group received the usual stroke care only.ResultsTwenty-nine randomized controlled trials were included. Most studies were assessed as having a substantial risk of bias. Moreover, due to the high heterogeneity of the acupuncture therapies examined, pooling the results in a meta-analysis was not appropriate. A narrative summary of the results is thus presented. The review showed that conventional acupuncture can be associated with benefits in reducing pain and edema and improving upper extremity function and physical function. The effects of conventional acupuncture on improving shoulder range of motion (ROM are in doubt because this outcome was only examined in two trials. Electroacupuncture might be effective in reducing shoulder pain and improving upper extremity function, and conclusions on the effects of electroacupuncture on edema, shoulder ROM, and physical function cannot be drawn due to the limited number of eligible trials. The evidence to support the use of fire needle or warm needle acupuncture in stroke survivors with shoulder pain is also
Gensicke, H.; Wicht, A.; Bill, O.; Zini, A.; Costa, P.; Kagi, G.; Stark, R.; Seiffge, D. J.; Traenka, C.; Peters, N.; Bonati, L. H.; Giovannini, G.; De Marchis, G. M.; Poli, L.; Polymeris, A.
Abstract: Background and purposeThe impact of body mass index (BMI) on outcome in stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) was investigated. MethodsIn a multicentre IVT-register-based observational study, BMI with (i) poor 3-month outcome (i.e. modified Rankin Scale scores 3-6), (ii) death and (iii) symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (sICH) based on criteria of the ECASS II trial was compared. BMI was used as a continuous and categorical variable distinguishing normal wei...
Full Text Available A critical decision-step in the emergency treatment of ischemic stroke is whether or not to administer thrombolysis — a treatment that can result in good recovery, or deterioration due to symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (SICH. Certain imaging features based upon early computerized tomography (CT, in combination with clinical variables, have been found to predict SICH, albeit with modest accuracy. In this proof-of-concept study, we determine whether machine learning of CT images can predict which patients receiving tPA will develop SICH as opposed to showing clinical improvement with no haemorrhage. Clinical records and CT brains of 116 acute ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis were collected retrospectively (including 16 who developed SICH. The sample was split into training (n = 106 and test sets (n = 10, repeatedly for 1760 different combinations. CT brain images acted as inputs into a support vector machine (SVM, along with clinical severity. Performance of the SVM was compared with established prognostication tools (SEDAN and HAT scores; original, or after adaptation to our cohort. Predictive performance, assessed as area under receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC, of the SVM (0.744 compared favourably with that of prognostic scores (original and adapted versions: 0.626–0.720; p < 0.01. The SVM also identified 9 out of 16 SICHs, as opposed to 1–5 using prognostic scores, assuming a 10% SICH frequency (p < 0.001. In summary, machine learning methods applied to acute stroke CT images offer automation, and potentially improved performance, for prediction of SICH following thrombolysis. Larger-scale cohorts, and incorporation of advanced imaging, should be tested with such methods.
Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.
Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID
Alexander W Dromerick
Full Text Available Introduction: 795,000 Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 hours of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2-3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test at one year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial.
Full Text Available Background: Few studies have assessed the associations between sleep duration and stroke subtypes. We examined whether sleep duration is associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. Methods: Subjects included 12 875 men and 15 021 women aged 35 years or older in 1992, who were followed until 2008. The outcome variable was stroke death (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and total stroke. Results: During follow-up, 611 stroke deaths (354 from ischemic stroke, 217 from hemorrhagic stroke, and 40 from undetermined stroke were identified. Compared with 7 h of sleep, ≥9 h of sleep was significantly associated with an increased risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality after controlling for covariates. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.16–1.97 and 1.65 (95% CI, 1.16–2.35 for total stroke mortality and ischemic stroke mortality, respectively. Short sleep duration (≤6 h of sleep was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59–1.01, although this association was of borderline significance (P = 0.06. The trends for total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality were also significant (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively. There was a significant risk reduction of hemorrhagic stroke mortality for ≤6 h of sleep as compared with 7 h of sleep (HR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42–0.98; P for trend = 0.08. The risk reduction was pronounced for men (HR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16–0.64. Conclusions: Data suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with increased mortality from total and ischemic stroke. Short sleep duration may be associated with a decreased risk of mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men.
Katzan, Irene L; Thompson, Nicolas R; Lapin, Brittany; Uchino, Ken
There is uncertainty regarding the clinical utility of the data obtained from patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for patient care. We evaluated the incremental information obtained by PROMs compared to the clinician-reported modified Rankin Scale (mRS). This was an observational study of 3283 ischemic stroke patients seen in a cerebrovascular clinic from September 14, 2012 to June 16, 2015 who completed the routinely collected PROMs: Stroke Impact Scale-16 (SIS-16), EQ-5D, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, PROMIS Physical Function, and PROMIS fatigue. The amount of variation in the PROMs explained by mRS was determined using r 2 after adjustment for age and level of stroke impairment. The proportion with meaningful change was calculated for patients with ≥2 visits. Concordance with change in the other scales and the ability to discriminate changes in health state as measured by c-statistic was evaluated for mRS versus SIS-16. Correlation between PROMs and mRS was highest for SIS-16 ( r =-0.64, P measures. PROMs provide additional valuable information compared to the mRS alone in stroke patients seen in the ambulatory setting. SIS-16 may have a better ability to identify change than mRS in health status of relevance to the patient. PROMs may be a useful addition to mRS in the assessment of health status in clinical practice. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
Douglas D Thompson
Full Text Available To determine whether the predictions of functional outcome after ischemic stroke made at the bedside using a doctor's clinical experience were more or less accurate than the predictions made by clinical prediction models (CPMs.A prospective cohort study of nine hundred and thirty one ischemic stroke patients recruited consecutively at the outpatient, inpatient and emergency departments of the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh between 2002 and 2005. Doctors made informal predictions of six month functional outcome on the Oxford Handicap Scale (OHS. Patients were followed up at six months with a validated postal questionnaire. For each patient we calculated the absolute predicted risk of death or dependence (OHS≥3 using five previously described CPMs. The specificity of a doctor's informal predictions of OHS≥3 at six months was good 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94 to 0.97 and similar to CPMs (range 0.94 to 0.96; however the sensitivity of both informal clinical predictions 0.44 (95% CI: 0.39 to 0.49 and clinical prediction models (range 0.38 to 0.45 was poor. The prediction of the level of disability after stroke was similar for informal clinical predictions (ordinal c-statistic 0.74 with 95% CI 0.72 to 0.76 and CPMs (range 0.69 to 0.75. No patient or clinician characteristic affected the accuracy of informal predictions, though predictions were more accurate in outpatients.CPMs are at least as good as informal clinical predictions in discriminating between good and bad functional outcome after ischemic stroke. The place of these models in clinical practice has yet to be determined.
Christopher O. Leonards
Full Text Available Background: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations are frequently altered in acute ischemic stroke patients. It is becoming increasingly apparent that various hormones in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis may be associated with functional stroke outcome. We have previously shown that white matter hyperintensities (WMH of presumed vascular origin are strong indicators of functional outcome. It is unclear whether an association exists between WMH and TSH. We therefore sought to determine whether TSH levels, measured in acute ischemic stroke patients, are associated with WMH and functional outcome. Methods: We analyzed all first ischemic stroke patients who participated in the Berlin ‘Cream & Sugar' Study (NCT 01378468 and completed a 1-year follow-up assessment from January 2009 to March 2013. Patients were stratified into 3 groups: (1 low TSH (0.1-0.44 μU/ml; (2 normal TSH (0.44-2.5 μU/ml, and (3 high TSH (2.5-20 μU/ml. WMH were assessed using the Fazekas and Wahlund visual rating scales. Functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale and was performed via telephone at 1 year by a certified rater. Results: 183 patients were included [median age 66, interquartile range (IQR 54-75; 33% females; median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale 3, IQR 1-4, range 0-24]. Venous samples were collected a median of 4 days (IQR 3-5 following initial symptom onset between 8 and 9 a.m. following a 10-hour fast. Patients with normal TSH levels (n = 132; 72% had significantly higher rates of prestroke diabetes than patients with high TSH levels (normal TSH 17%; high TSH 1%; p = 0.03. Additionally, patients with normal TSH levels tended to have higher estimated glomerular filtration rates than patients with high and low TSH concentrations (normal TSH median estimated glomerular filtration rates: 83 ml/min/1.73 m2; high TSH median estimated glomerular filtration rates: 76 ml/min/1.73 m2; low TSH median: 78 ml/min/1.73 m2; p
Hamedani, Ali G; Cole, John W; Cheng, Yuching; Sparks, Mary J; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Stine, Oscar C; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J
Factor V Leiden (FVL) has been associated with ischemic stroke in children but not in adults. Although the FVL mutation is associated with increased risk for venous thrombosis, its association with ischemic stroke in young adults remains uncertain. Therefore, we examined the association between FVL and ischemic stroke in participants of the Genetics of Early Onset Stroke (GEOS) study. A population-based case control study identified 354 women and 476 men 15 to 49 years of age with first-ever ischemic stroke and 907 controls. Participant-specific data included vascular risk factors, FVL genotype and, for cases, the ischemic stroke subtype by modified Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke criteria. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the entire population and for subgroups stratified by risk factors and ischemic stroke subtype. The frequency of the FVL mutation was similar between ischemic stroke patients (3.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5%-5.1%) and nonstroke controls (3.8%; 95% CI 2.7%-5.2%). This frequency did not change significantly when cases were restricted to patients with stroke of undetermined etiology (4.1%; 95% CI 2.6%-6.4%). Among young adults, we found no evidence for an association between FVL and either all ischemic stroke or the subgroup with stroke of undetermined etiology. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lennon, Sheila; Ashburn, Ann; Baxter, David
The purpose of this study was to characterize the gait cycle of patients with hemiplegia before and after a period of outpatient physiotherapy based on the Bobath concept. Nine patients, at least 6 weeks post stroke and recently discharged from a stroke unit, were measured before and after a period of outpatient physiotherapy (mean duration = 17.4 weeks). Therapy was documented using a treatment checklist for each patient. The primary outcome measures were a number of gait variables related to the therapists' treatment hypothesis, recorded during the gait cycle using the CODA motion analysis system. Other secondary outcome measures were the Motor Assessment Scale, Modified Ashworth Scale, subtests of the Sodring Motor Evaluation Scale, the Step test, a 10-m walk test, the Barthel Index and the London Handicap Score. Recovery of more normal gait patterns in the gait cycle (using motion analysis) did not occur. Significant changes in temporal parameters (loading response, single support time) for both legs, in one kinematic (dorsiflexion during stance) and one kinetic variable on the unaffected side (hip flexor moment), and most of the clinical measures of impairment, activity and participation (with the exception of the Modified Ashworth Scale and the 10-m walk) were noted. Study findings did not support the hypothesis that the Bobath approach restored more normal movement patterns to the gait cycle. Further research is required to investigate the treatment techniques that are effective at improving walking ability in people after stroke.
Howard, George; McClure, Leslie A; Moy, Claudia S; Howard, Virginia J; Judd, Suzanne E; Yuan, Ya; Long, D Leann; Muntner, Paul; Safford, Monika M; Kleindorfer, Dawn O
The standard for stroke risk stratification is the Framingham Stroke Risk Function (FSRF), an equation requiring an examination for blood pressure assessment, venipuncture for glucose assessment, and ECG to determine atrial fibrillation and heart disease. We assess a self-reported stroke risk function (SRSRF) to stratify stroke risk in comparison to the FSRF. Participants from the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) were evaluated at baseline and followed for incident stroke. The FSRF was calculated using directly assessed stroke risk factors. The SRSRF was calculated from 13 self-reported questions to exclude those with prevalent stroke and assess stroke risk. Proportional hazards analysis was used to assess incident stroke risk using the FSRF and SRSRF. Over an average 8.2-year follow-up, 939 of 23 983 participants had a stroke. The FSRF and SRSRF produced highly correlated risk scores ( r Spearman =0.852; 95% confidence interval, 0.849-0.856); however, the SRSRF had higher discrimination of stroke risk than the FSRF (c SRSRF =0.7266; 95% confidence interval, 0.7076-0.7457; c FSRF =0.7075; 95% confidence interval, 0.6877-0.7273; P =0.0038). The 10-year stroke risk in the highest decile of predicted risk was 11.1% for the FSRF and 13.4% for the SRSRF. A simple self-reported questionnaire can be used to identify those at high risk for stroke better than the gold standard FSRF. This instrument can be used clinically to easily identify individuals at high risk for stroke and also scientifically to identify a subpopulation enriched for stroke risk. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Tu, Hans T H; Campbell, Bruce C V; Christensen, Soren; Desmond, Patricia M; De Silva, Deidre A; Parsons, Mark W; Churilov, Leonid; Lansberg, Maarten G; Mlynash, Michael; Olivot, Jean-Marc; Straka, Matus; Bammer, Roland; Albers, Gregory W; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Davis, Stephen M
Atrial fibrillation is associated with greater baseline neurological impairment and worse outcomes following ischemic stroke. Previous studies suggest that greater volumes of more severe baseline hypoperfusion in patients with history of atrial fibrillation may explain this association. We further investigated this association by comparing patients with and without atrial fibrillation on initial examination following stroke using pooled multimodal magnetic resonance imaging and clinical data from the Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolytic Evaluation Trial and the Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution studies. Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolytic Evaluation Trial was a trial of 101 ischemic stroke patients randomized to intravenous tissue plasminogen activator or placebo, and Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution was a prospective cohort of 74 ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator at three to six hours following symptom onset. Patients underwent multimodal magnetic resonance imaging before treatment, at three to five days and three-months after stroke in Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolytic Evaluation Trial; before treatment, three to six hours after treatment and one-month after stroke in Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution. Patients were assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the modified Rankin scale before treatment and at three-months after stroke. Patients were categorized into definite atrial fibrillation (present on initial examination), probable atrial fibrillation (history but no atrial fibrillation on initial examination), and no atrial fibrillation. Perfusion data were reprocessed with automated magnetic resonance imaging analysis software (RAPID, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA). Hypoperfusion volumes were defined using time to maximum delays in two-second increments from >4 to
Ntaios, G; Gioulekas, F; Papavasileiou, V; Strbian, D; Michel, P
ASTRAL, SEDAN and DRAGON scores are three well-validated scores for stroke outcome prediction. Whether these scores predict stroke outcome more accurately compared with physicians interested in stroke was investigated. Physicians interested in stroke were invited to an online anonymous survey to provide outcome estimates in randomly allocated structured scenarios of recent real-life stroke patients. Their estimates were compared to scores' predictions in the same scenarios. An estimate was considered accurate if it was within 95% confidence intervals of actual outcome. In all, 244 participants from 32 different countries responded assessing 720 real scenarios and 2636 outcomes. The majority of physicians' estimates were inaccurate (1422/2636, 53.9%). 400 (56.8%) of physicians' estimates about the percentage probability of 3-month modified Rankin score (mRS) > 2 were accurate compared with 609 (86.5%) of ASTRAL score estimates (P DRAGON score estimates (P DRAGON score estimates (P DRAGON and SEDAN scores predict outcome of acute ischaemic stroke patients with higher accuracy compared to physicians interested in stroke. © 2016 EAN.
Salinas, J. (Joel); Sprinkhuizen, S.M. (Sara M.); Ackerson, T. (Teri); Bernhardt, J. (Julie); Davie, C. (Charlie); George, M.G. (Mary G.); Gething, S. (Stephanie); Kelly, A.G. (Adam G.); Lindsay, P. (Patrice); Liu, L. (Liping); Martins, S.C.O. (Sheila C.O.); Morgan, L. (Louise); B. Norrving (Bo); Ribbers, G.M. (Gerard M.); Silver, F.L. (Frank L.); Smith, E.E. (Eric E.); Williams, L.S. (Linda S.); Schwamm, L.H. (Lee H.)
markdownabstract__BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:__ Value-based health care aims to bring together patients and health systems to maximize the ratio of quality over cost. To enable assessment of healthcare value in stroke management, an international standard set of patient-centered stroke outcome measures
Vilic, Adnan; Petersen, John Asger; Wienecke, Troels
We designed a queue-based model, and investigated which parameters are of importance when predicting stroke outcome. Medical record forms have been collected for 57 ischemic stroke patients, including medical history and vital sign measurement along with neurological scores for the first twenty...
Khan, Ahsan A; Lip, Gregory Y H
and diabetes mellitus lead to impairment of renal function and development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Indeed, CKD is increasingly prevalent in the elderly population and is an independent predictor of stroke recurrence, mortality and poor clinical outcomes after acute ischaemic stroke (1). This article...
Abilleira, Sònia; Cardona, Pere; Ribó, Marc; Millán, Mònica; Obach, Víctor; Roquer, Jaume; Cánovas, David; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Rubio, Francisco; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Dávalos, Antoni; Chamorro, Angel; de Miquel, Maria Angeles; Tomasello, Alejandro; Castaño, Carlos; Macho, Juan M; Ribera, Aida; Gallofré, Miquel
We sought to assess outcomes after endovascular treatment/therapy of acute ischemic stroke, overall and by subgroups, and looked for predictors of outcome. We used data from a mandatory, population-based registry that includes external monitoring of completeness, which assesses reperfusion therapies for consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke since 2011. We described outcomes overall and by subgroups (age ≤ or >80 years; onset-to-groin puncture ≤ or >6 hours; anterior or posterior strokes; previous IV recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator or isolated endovascular treatment/therapy; revascularization or no revascularization), and determined independent predictors of good outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2) and mortality at 3 months by multivariate modeling. We analyzed 536 patients, of whom 285 received previous IV recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator. Overall, revascularization (modified Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction scores, 2b and 3) occurred in 73.9%, 5.6% developed symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages, 43.3% achieved good functional outcome, and 22.2% were dead at 90 days. Adjusted comparisons by subgroups systematically favored revascularization (lower proportion of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages and death rates and higher proportion of good outcome). Multivariate analyses confirmed the independent protective effect of revascularization. Additionally, age >80 years, stroke severity, hypertension (deleterious), atrial fibrillation, and onset-to-groin puncture ≤6 hours (protective) also predicted good outcome, whereas lack of previous disability and anterior circulation strokes (protective) as well as and hypertension (deleterious) independently predicted mortality. This study reinforces the role of revascularization and time to treatment to achieve enhanced functional outcomes and identifies other clinical features that independently predict good/fatal outcome after endovascular treatment/therapy.
Rasmussen, M; Espelund, U S; Juul, N; Yoo, A J; Sørensen, L H; Sørensen, K E; Johnsen, S P; Andersen, G; Simonsen, C Z
Observational studies have suggested that low blood pressure and blood pressure variability may partially explain adverse neurological outcome after endovascular therapy with general anaesthesia (GA) for acute ischaemic stroke. The aim of this study was to further examine whether blood pressure related parameters during endovascular therapy are associated with neurological outcome. The GOLIATH trial randomised 128 patients to either GA or conscious sedation for endovascular therapy in acute ischaemic stroke. The primary outcome was 90 day modified Rankin Score. The haemodynamic protocol aimed at keeping the systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and mean blood pressure >70 mm Hg during the procedure. Blood pressure related parameters of interest included 20% reduction in mean blood pressure; mean blood pressure blood pressure blood pressure; mean blood pressure at the time of groin puncture; postreperfusion mean blood pressure; blood pressure variability; and use of vasopressors. Sensitivity analyses were performed in the subgroup of reperfused patients. Procedural average mean and systolic blood pressures were higher in the conscious sedation group (Pblood pressure blood pressure blood pressure variability, and use of vasopressors were all higher in the GA group (Pblood pressure related parameters and the modified Rankin Score in the overall patient population, and in the subgroup of patients with full reperfusion. We found no statistically significant association between blood pressure related parameters during endovascular therapy and neurological outcome. NCT 02317237. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goldstein, L.B.; Amarenco, P.; Szarek, M.
BACKGROUND: In the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) study, atorvastatin 80 mg/day reduced the risk of stroke in patients with recent stroke or TIA. Post hoc analysis found this overall benefit included an increase in the numbers of treated patients having......: Of 4,731 patients, 67% had ischemic strokes, 31% TIAs, and 2% hemorrhagic strokes as entry events. In addition to atorvastatin treatment (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.59, p = 0.02), Cox multivariable regression including baseline variables significant in univariable analyses showed that hemorrhagic stroke...... and treatment. Multivariable analyses also found that having Stage 2 (JNC-7) hypertension at the last study visit before a hemorrhagic stroke increased risk (HR 6.19, 95% CI 1.47 to 26.11, p = 0.01), but there was no effect of most recent LDL-cholesterol level in those treated with atorvastatin. CONCLUSIONS...
Hassan, Ameer E; Sanchez, Christina; Johnson, Angela N
Background "Door to treatment" time affects outcomes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients undergoing endovascular treatment (EVT). However, the correlation between staff education and accessible technology with stroke outcomes has not been demonstrated. Objective The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the five-year impact of the Stroke Triage Education, Procedure Standardization, and Technology (STEPS-T) program on time-to-treat and clinical outcomes. Methods The study analyzed a prospectively maintained database of AIS patients who benefited from EVT through implementation of STEPS-T. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and modified Rankin Score at three months were analyzed. Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) scale was used to grade pre- and post-procedure angiographic recanalization. Using electronic hemodynamic recording, stepwise workflow times were collected for door time (T D ), entering angiography suite (T A ), groin puncture (T G ), first DSA (T DSA ), microcatheter placement (T M ), and final recanalization (T R ). Median intervention time (T A to T R ) and recanalization time (T G to T R ) were compared through Year 1 to Year 5. Results A total of 230 individuals (age 74 ± 12, between 30 to 95) were enrolled. Median intervention and recanalization times were significantly reduced, from 121 minutes to 52 minutes and from 83 minutes to 36 minutes respectively from Year 1 to Year 5, ( p < 0.001). Across the study period, annual recruitment went up from 12 to 66 patients, and modified Rankin Score between 0 and 2 increased from 36% to 59% ( p = 0.024). Conclusions STEPS-T improved time-to-treat in patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy for AIS. During the observation period, clinical outcomes significantly improved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is a common complication of a stroke which can impede participation in rehabilitation programs and has been associated with poorer outcomes. The evidence base for current medical and therapeutic management options of hemiplegic shoulder pain is limited. This study will evaluate the use of suprascapular nerve block injection as part of an interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of shoulder pain following stroke. The technique has previously been proven safe and effective in the treatment of shoulder pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis and degenerative shoulder conditions but its usefulness in a stroke population is unclear. Methods/Design A double blind randomised placebo controlled trial will assess the effect of a suprascapular nerve block compared with placebo in a population of 66 stroke patients. The trial will measure effect of injection on the primary outcome of pain, and secondary outcomes of function and quality of life. Measurements will take place at baseline, and 1, 4 and 12 weeks post intervention. Both groups will continue to receive routine physiotherapy and standard ward care. Discussion The results of this study could reduce pain symptoms in persons with mechanical shoulder pain post stroke and provide improvement in upper limb function. Trial Registration This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR - ACTRN12609000621213.
Pudjonarko, Dwi; Retnaningsih; Abidin, Zainal
Background: Levels of arginine associated with clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Arginine is a protein needed to synthesis nitric oxide (NO), a potential vasodilator and antioxidant. Snakehead fish is a source of protein which has antioxidant activity. Snakehead fish contains mineral, vitamin, and amino acids. One of the amino acids that were found quite high in snakehead fish extract is arginine. The aim of this study was done to determine the effect of snakehead fish extracts (SFE) on serum arginin levels and clinical outcome of AIS patients. Methods: It was double-blind randomized pretest-posttest control group design, with. AIS patients were divided into two groups i.e. snakehead fish extracts (SFE) and control. SFE group were administered 15 grams SFE for 7 days . Arginine serum levels and clinical outcome (measured by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale = NIHSS) were measured before and after treatment, other related factors were also analyzed in Logistic regression. Results: A total of 42 subjects who were performed random allocation as SFE or control group. There was no differences in subject characteristics between the two groups. There was a differences Δ arginine serum levels between SFE and control (33.6±19.95 μmol/L 0.3±2.51 μmol/L pgender factor that affected on improvement of NIHSS (OR=7; p=0,01). Conclusion: There is Clinical outcome improvement and enhancement of arginine serum levels in AIS patient with snakehead fish extract supplementation.
Geisler, Tobias; Poli, Sven; Meisner, Christoph; Schreieck, Juergen; Zuern, Christine S; Nägele, Thomas; Brachmann, Johannes; Jung, Werner; Gahn, Georg; Schmid, Elisabeth; Bäezner, Hansjörg; Keller, Timea; Petzold, Gabor C; Schrickel, Jan-Wilko; Liman, Jan; Wachter, Rolf; Schön, Frauke; Schabet, Martin; Lindner, Alfred; Ludolph, Albert C; Kimmig, Hubert; Jander, Sebastian; Schlegel, Uwe; Gawaz, Meinrad; Ziemann, Ulf
Rationale Optimal secondary prevention of embolic stroke of undetermined source is not established. The current standard in these patients is acetylsalicylic acid, despite high prevalence of yet undetected paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Aim The ATTICUS randomized trial is designed to determine whether the factor Xa inhibitor apixaban administered within 7 days after embolic stroke of undetermined source, is superior to acetylsalicylic acid for prevention of new ischemic lesions documented by brain magnetic resonance imaging within 12 months after index stroke. Design Prospective, randomized, blinded, parallel-group, open-label, German multicenter phase III trial in approximately 500 patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source. A key inclusion criterion is the presence or the planned implantation of an insertable cardiac monitor. Patients are 1:1 randomized to apixaban or acetylsalicylic acid and treated for a 12-month period. It is an event-driven trial aiming for core-lab adjudicated primary outcome events. Study outcomes The primary outcome is the occurrence of at least one new ischemic lesion identified by axial T2-weighted FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging and/or axial DWI magnetic resonance imaging at 12 months when compared with the baseline magnetic resonance imaging. Key secondary outcomes are the combination of recurrent ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes, systemic embolism; combination of MACE including recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death and combination of major and clinically relevant non-major bleeding defined according to ISTH, and change of cognitive function and quality of life (EQ-5D, Stroke Impact Scale). Discussion Embolic stroke of undetermined source is caused by embolic disease and associated with a high risk of recurrent ischemic strokes and clinically silent cerebral ischemic lesions. ATTICUS will investigate the impact of atrial fibrillation detected by insertable cardiac monitor and the effects of
Shen, Peng-Fei; Kong, Li; Ni, Li-Wei; Guo, Hai-Long; Yang, Sha; Zhang, Li-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Long; Guo, Jia-Kui; Xiong, Jie; Zhen, Zhong; Shi, Xue-Min
Stroke is one of the most common causes of death and few pharmacological therapies show benefits in ischemic stroke. In this study, 290 patients aged 40-75 years old with first onset of acute ischemic stroke (more than 24 hours but within 14 days) were treated with standard treatments, and then were randomly allocated into an intervention group (treated with resuscitating acupuncture) and a control group (treated using sham-acupoints). Primary outcome measures included Barthel Index (BI), relapse and death up to six months. For the 290 patients in both groups, one case in the intervention group died, and two cases in the control group died from the disease (p = 0.558). Six patients of the 144 cases in the intervention group had relapse, whereas 34 of 143 patients had relapse in the control group (p two groups, respectively (p two groups for the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), not at two weeks (7.03 ± 3.201 vs. 8.13 ± 3.634; p = 0.067), but at four weeks (4.15 ± 2.032 vs. 6.35 ± 3.131, p Stroke Scale (CSS) at four weeks showed more improvement in the intervention group than that in the control group (9.40 ± 4.51 vs. 13.09 ± 5.80, p Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS-QOL) at six months was higher in the intervention group (166.63 ± 45.70) than the control group (143.60 ± 50.24; p < 0.01). The results of this clinical trial showed a clinically relevant decrease of relapse in patients treated with resuscitating acupuncture intervention by the end of six months, compared with needling at the sham-acupoints. The resuscitating acupuncture intervention could also improve self-care ability and quality of life, evaluated with BI, NIHSS, CSS, Oxford Handicap Scale (OHS), and SS-QOL.
Qijia Shi; Donghang Li
Abstract: 30 stroke cases were studied in field of their emotional facts. linear related statistics showed the negative relation between the age, disease onset MMSE and ADL with SDS, SSRI drugs and Psychothcrapy should bc useful for prohibiting sever functional retardation.
Wu, Ona; Cloonan, Lisa; Mocking, Steven J T; Bouts, Mark J R J; Copen, William A; Cougo-Pinto, Pedro T; Fitzpatrick, Kaitlin; Kanakis, Allison; Schaefer, Pamela W; Rosand, Jonathan; Furie, Karen L; Rost, Natalia S
Acute infarct volume, often proposed as a biomarker for evaluating novel interventions for acute ischemic stroke, correlates only moderately with traditional clinical end points, such as the modified Rankin Scale. We hypothesized that the topography of acute stroke lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging may provide further information with regard to presenting stroke severity and long-term functional outcomes. Data from a prospective stroke repository were limited to acute ischemic stroke subjects with magnetic resonance imaging completed within 48 hours from last known well, admission NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and 3-to-6 months modified Rankin Scale scores. Using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping techniques, including age, sex, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging lesion volume as covariates, statistical maps were calculated to determine the significance of lesion location for clinical outcome and admission stroke severity. Four hundred ninety subjects were analyzed. Acute stroke lesions in the left hemisphere were associated with more severe NIHSS at admission and poor modified Rankin Scale at 3 to 6 months. Specifically, injury to white matter (corona radiata, internal and external capsules, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and uncinate fasciculus), postcentral gyrus, putamen, and operculum were implicated in poor modified Rankin Scale. More severe NIHSS involved these regions, as well as the amygdala, caudate, pallidum, inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and precentral gyrus. Acute lesion topography provides important insights into anatomic correlates of admission stroke severity and poststroke outcomes. Future models that account for infarct location in addition to diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging volume may improve stroke outcome prediction and identify patients likely to benefit from aggressive acute intervention and personalized rehabilitation strategies. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Ravenell, Joseph; Leighton-Herrmann, Ellyn; Abel-Bey, Amparo; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Teresi, Jeanne; Valdez, Lenfis; Gordillo, Madeleine; Gerin, William; Hecht, Michael; Ramirez, Mildred; Noble, James; Cohn, Elizabeth; Jean-Louis, Giardin; Spruill, Tanya; Waddy, Salina; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Williams, Olajide
Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability and mortality. Intravenous thrombolysis can minimize disability when patients present to the emergency department for treatment within the 3 - 4½ h of symptom onset. Blacks and Hispanics are more likely to die and suffer disability from stroke than whites, due in part to delayed hospital arrival and ineligibility for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke. Low stroke literacy (poor knowledge of stroke symptoms and when to call 911) among Blacks and Hispanics compared to whites may contribute to disparities in acute stroke treatment and outcomes. Improving stroke literacy may be a critical step along the pathway to reducing stroke disparities. The aim of the current study is to test a novel intervention to increase stroke literacy in minority populations in New York City. In a two-arm cluster randomized trial, we will evaluate the effectiveness of two culturally tailored stroke education films - one in English and one in Spanish - on changing behavioral intent to call 911 for suspected stroke, compared to usual care. These films will target knowledge of stroke symptoms, the range of severity of symptoms and the therapeutic benefit of calling 911, as well as address barriers to timely presentation to the hospital. Given the success of previous church-based programs targeting behavior change in minority populations, this trial will be conducted with 250 congregants across 14 churches (125 intervention; 125 control). Our proposed outcomes are (1) recognition of stroke symptoms and (2) behavioral intent to call 911 for suspected stroke, measured using the Stroke Action Test at the 6-month and 1-year follow-up. This is the first randomized trial of a church-placed narrative intervention to improve stroke outcomes in urban Black and Hispanic populations. A film intervention has the potential to make a significant public health impact, as film is a highly scalable and disseminable medium. Since there is at least one
... doctor Preventing falls Stroke - discharge Swallowing problems Images Brain Carotid stenosis, x-ray of the left artery Carotid stenosis, x-ray of the right artery Stroke Brainstem function Cerebellum - function Circle of Willis Left cerebral hemisphere - ...
Luitse, Merel Ja; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Kappelle, L Jaap; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Biessels, Geert Jan
BACKGROUND: Acute hyperglycemia is associated with poor functional outcome after ischemic stroke, but the association between chronic antecedent hyperglycemia and outcome is unclear. AIM: We assessed the association between chronic hyperglycemia, measured by hemoglobin A1c, and functional outcome in
Yoshida, Kazumichi; Takahashi, Jun C; Takenobu, Yohei; Suzuki, Norihiro; Ogawa, Akira; Miyamoto, Susumu
The incidence and cause of strokes associated with pregnancy and the puerperium are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to characterize pregnancy-related strokes in Japan using a large-scale survey with current imaging techniques. A retrospective analysis was conducted based on clinical chart reviews in 736 stroke teaching hospitals certified by the Japan Stroke Society between 2012 and 2013, using a web-based questionnaire requesting the detailed clinical course without any personally identifying information. The collection rate of this questionnaire was 70.5%, with 151 pregnancy-associated strokes extracted. Hemorrhagic strokes were observed in 111 cases (73.5%), ischemic strokes in 37 (24.5%), and mixed type in 3 cases (2.0%). The estimated incidence of pregnancy-associated stroke was 10.2 per 100 000 deliveries. Major causes of hemorrhage were aneurysm (19.8%), arteriovenous malformation (17.1%), pregnancy-induced hypertension (11.7%), and HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) (8.1%). Preexisting cerebrovascular diseases responsible for hemorrhage were detected in 59 cases (53.1%). Among the ischemic strokes, 28 (75.7%) were arterial and 9 (24.3%) were venous infarctions. The most frequent cause of arterial infarctions was reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Hemorrhagic stroke showed much poorer prognosis than ischemic stroke. The incidence of pregnancy-associated stroke in Japan did not seem higher than that in other Asian and Western countries. The proportion of hemorrhagic stroke among Japanese women was much higher than that in white women. Preexisting cerebrovascular diseases and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome play a key role in hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, respectively. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Jauch, Edward C; Lindsell, Christopher; Broderick, Joseph; Fagan, Susan C; Tilley, Barbara C; Levine, Steven R
Biochemical markers of acute neuronal injury may aid in the diagnosis and management of acute ischemic stroke. Serum samples from the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Study were analyzed for the presence of 4 biochemical markers of neuronal, glial, and endothelial cell injury. These biochemical markers, myelin basic protein (MBP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100beta, and soluble thrombomodulin, were studied for an association with initial stroke severity, infarct volume, and functional outcome. In the original NINDS study, serum samples were drawn from all patients on presentation to the Emergency Department and at approximately 2 and 24 hours after initiation of study therapy. In this analysis, stored serum samples were available for 359 patients; 107 patients had samples for all 3 time points. Serum marker concentrations were measured by ELISA techniques. We examined the relation between serum concentrations of each marker and the degree of baseline neurological deficit, functional outcome, and infarct size on computed tomography at 24 hours and the effect of fibrinolytic therapy. Higher 24-hour peak concentrations of MBP, NSE, and S100beta were associated with higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale baseline scores (r=0.186, P<0.0001; r=0.117, P=0.032; and r=0.263, P<0.0001, respectively). Higher peak concentrations of MBP and S100beta (r=0.209, P<0.0001; r=0.239, P<0.0001) were associated with larger computed tomography lesion volumes. Patients with favorable outcomes had smaller changes in MBP and S100beta (P<0.05) concentrations in the first 24 hours. Soluble thrombomodulin was not associated with any severity or outcome measure. This study corroborates previous work demonstrating correlations of MBP, NSE, and S100beta with clinical and radiographic features in acute stroke. Despite significantly better outcomes in the tissue plasminogen activator-treated group, we
Anderson, Sharon; Keating, Norah C; Wilson, Donna M
Marriages are one of the most powerful predictors of health and longevity, yet research in stroke has focused separately on survivors' experience of impairments and how spouses deal with caregiving. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory study was to understand the key themes related to reconstruction or breakdown of marriages after stroke. In semi-structured interviews, 18 couples in long-term marriages discussed how their marriages were reconstructed or broke down after one member of the couple returned home after being hospitalized for a stroke. Constant comparison methods were used to compare the experiences of 12 couples in which both partners indicated their relationship was going well with 6 couples who either separated or remained in parallel marriages. Analysis revealed an overarching process of reconstructing compatible role-identities and three themes related to the reconstruction or breakdown of the marital identity: feeling overwhelmed, resolving conflict, and perceiving value in the marriage. Our findings highlight that marriages are contexts in which survivors and spouses can recalibrate their role-identities. Marriage relationships are not peripheral to survivors' and spouses' outcomes after stroke; rather, marriage is fundamental to the management of impairments and to the well-being of the couple.
Ní Chróinín, Danielle; Ní Chróinín, Chantelle; Akijian, Layan; Callaly, Elizabeth L; Hannon, Niamh; Kelly, Lisa; Marnane, Michael; Merwick, Áine; Sheehan, Órla; Horgan, Gillian; Duggan, Joseph; Kyne, Lorraine; Dolan, Eamon; Murphy, Seán; Williams, David; Kelly, Peter J
Few population-based studies have assessed lipid adherence to international guidelines for primary and secondary prevention in stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) patients. This study aims to evaluate adherence to lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) guidelines amongst patients with ischaemic stroke/TIA. Using hot and cold pursuit methods from multiple hospital/community sources, all stroke and TIA cases in North Dublin City were prospectively ascertained over a 1-year period. Adherence to National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) III guidelines, before and after index ischaemic stroke/TIA, was assessed. Amongst 616 patients (428 ischaemic stroke, 188 TIA), total cholesterol was measured following the qualifying event in 76.5% (471/616) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in 60.1% (370/616). At initial stroke/TIA presentation, 54.1% (200/370) met NCEP III LDL goals. Compliance was associated with prior stroke (odds ratio [OR] 2.19, p = 0.02), diabetes (OR 1.91, p = 0.04), hypertension (OR 1.57, p = 0.03), atrial fibrillation (OR 1.78, p = 0.01), pre-event LLT (OR 2.85, p TIA onset, 32.7% (195/596) was on LLT. Nonetheless, LDL exceeded individual NCEP goal in 29.2% (56/192); 21.6% (53/245) warranting LLT was not on treatment prior to stroke/TIA onset. After index stroke/TIA, 75.9% (422/556) was on LLT; 15.3% (30/196) meeting NCEP III criteria was not prescribed a statin as recommended. By 2 years, actuarial survival was 72.8% and 11.9% (59/497) experienced stroke recurrence. No association was observed between initial post-event target adherence and 2-year outcomes. In this population-based study, LLT recommended by international guidelines was under-used, before and after index stroke/TIA. Strategies to improve adherence are needed.
Wong, Peter T H; Qu, Kun; Chimon, Ghislain N; Seah, Alvin B H; Chang, Hui Meng; Wong, Meng Cheong; Ng, Yee Kong; Rumpel, Helmut; Halliwell, Barry; Chen, Christopher P L H
Cysteine is known to cause neuronal cell death and has been reported to be elevated in brain ischemia, but it has not been studied in clinical stroke. In this study, we correlated plasma levels of cyst(e)ine with long-term clinical outcome at 3 months in acute stroke. Patients were classified into 3 groups at 3 months as follows: good outcome (Rankin 0-1, n = 11), poor outcome (Rankin 2-5, n = 20), and dead (n = 5). Their plasma cyst(e)ine levels within 24 hours of stroke onset were 61 +/- 12, 67 +/- 9, and 82 +/- 14 micromol/L (standard deviation), respectively. The correlation between early plasma cyst(e)ine levels and long-term clinical outcome assessed at 3 months is significant with p ine was also significantly elevated in patients who had early stroke deterioration (p ine in patients with stroke may reflect increased production of H2S in the brain and thus predispose to poor outcome in clinical stroke. Inhibition of H2S formation may therefore be a novel approach in acute stroke therapy.
Senda, Joe; Ito, Keiichi; Kotake, Tomomitsu; Kanamori, Masahiko; Kishimoto, Hideo; Kadono, Izumi; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Katsuno, Masahisa; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki; Sobue, Gen
We investigated the factors influencing inpatient convalescent rehabilitation outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke, particularly severity of leukoaraiosis on magnetic resonance imaging. Participants included 520 patients with ischemic stroke (317 men and 203 women; mean age, 72.8±8.4 years) who were transferred from acute care hospitals for inpatient convalescent rehabilitation. Ischemic stroke subtypes included lacunar infarction (n=41), atherothrombosis (n=223), artery-to-artery embolism (n=67), cardiogenic embolism (n=97), undetermined embolism (n=76), and uncategorized ischemic stroke (n=16). Leukoaraiosis was graded according to periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) and deep white matter hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging. Functional Independence Measure scores were assessed on admission and at discharge. Multiple regression analysis revealed that rehabilitation outcomes, measured as total Functional Independence Measure scores, were significantly associated with leukoaraiosis estimated by PVH grade. This association was observed after adjustment for factors such as severity, age, and poststroke history. In all patients, PVH grades were associated with Functional Independence Measure motor scores (Prehabilitation outcome in patients with ischemic stroke. Furthermore, the PVH grade was associated with motor function outcome, whereas the deep white matter hyperintensity grade correlated with cognitive function outcome, likely because the progression patterns and anatomic backgrounds of PVH and deep white matter hyperintensity differ according to ischemic stroke subtype. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Nishioka, Shinta; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Yoshida, Tomomi; Mori, Natsumi; Watanabe, Riko; Nishioka, Emi
A protective effect of excessive body mass index (BMI) on mortality or functional outcome in patients with stroke is not well established in the Asian population. This study aimed to explore whether obese patients with stroke have advantages for functional improvement in Japanese rehabilitation wards. This retrospective cohort study included consecutive patients with stroke admitted and discharged from convalescent rehabilitation wards between 2011 and 2015. Demographic data, BMI, Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score, and nutritional status were analyzed. Participants were classified into 4 groups according to BMI (underweight stroke may have some advantages for functional recovery in rehabilitation wards. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jiang, Liang; Su, Hao-Bo; Zhang, Ying-Dong; Zhou, Jun-Shan; Geng, Wen; Chen, Huiyou; Xu, Quan; Yin, Xindao; Chen, Yu-Chen
Collateral vessels were considered to be related with outcome in endovascular-treated acute ischemic stroke patients. This study aimed to evaluate whether the collateral vessels on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) could predict the clinical outcome. Acute stroke patients with internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery occlusion within 6 hours of symptom onset were included. All patients underwent MRI and received endovascular treatment. The collateral circulations at the Sylvian fissure and the leptomeningeal convexity were evaluated. The preoperative and postoperative infarct volume was measured. The clinical outcome was evaluated by mRS score at 3 months after stroke. Of 55 patients, Cases with insufficient collateral circulation at the Sylvian fissure and leptomeningeal convexity showed that the NIHSS score at arrival and preoperative infarct volume were significantly lower in mRS score of 0-2 (both P collateral status at the leptomeningeal convexity were independent of the clinical outcome at 3 months after stroke (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.094 (1.025-1.168); 9.542 (1.812-50.245) respectively). The change of infarct volume in the group with mRS score of 0-2 was smaller than that with mRS score of 3-6. While multivariate logistic models showed that postoperative infarct volume was non-significant in predicting the clinical outcome after stroke. The extent of collateral circulation at the leptomeningeal convexity may be useful for predicting the functional recovery while the relationship between postoperative infarct volume and clinical outcome still requires for further study.
Liu, C-H; Lin, S-C; Lin, J-R; Yang, J-T; Chang, Y-J; Chang, C-H; Chang, T-Y; Huang, K-L; Ryu, S-J; Lee, T-H
Our aim was to investigate the influence of admission dehydration on the discharge outcome in acute ischaemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Between January 2009 and December 2011, 4311 ischaemic and 1371 hemorrhagic stroke patients from the stroke registry of Chang Gung healthcare system were analyzed. The eligible patients were identified according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. In total, 2570 acute ischaemic and 573 acute hemorrhagic stroke patients were finally recruited. According to the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) to creatinine (Cr) ratio (BUN/Cr), these patients were divided into dehydrated (BUN/Cr ≥ 15) and non-dehydrated (BUN/Cr dehydration had higher infection rates (P = 0.006), worse discharge BI (62.8 ± 37.4 vs. 73.4 ± 32.4, P dehydration. However, acute hemorrhagic stroke with or without admission dehydration showd no difference in admission costs (P = 0.618) and discharge outcomes (BI, P = 0.058; mRS, P = 0.058). Admission dehydration is associated with worse discharge outcomes and higher admission costs in acute ischaemic stroke but not in hemorrhagic stroke. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.
Trivedi, Megh M; Ryan, Kathleen A; Cole, John W
Prior studies indicate that young African-Americans (AA) have a greater frequency of ischemic stroke than similarly aged European-Americans (EA). We hypothesized that differences in stroke subtype frequency mediated through sex and differing risk factor profiles may play a role in ethnicity-specific stroke. Utilizing our biracial young-onset stroke population, we explored these relationships. Fifty nine hospitals in the Baltimore-Washington area participated in a population-based study of young-onset stroke in men (218-AA, 291-EA) and women (219-AA, 222-EA) aged 16-49. Data on age, sex, ethnicity and stroke risk factors (hypertension (HTN) and smoking) were gathered through standardized interview. A pair of vascular neurologists adjudicated each case to determine TOAST subtype. Logistic regression analyses evaluating for differences in stroke risk factors by TOAST subtype were performed. Analyses controlling for age and sex demonstrated that AA were more likely to have a lacunar stroke than EA (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.12-2.32; p = 0.011) when utilizing the other TOAST subtypes as the reference group. This effect was mediated by HTN, which increases the risk of lacunar stroke (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.38-2.98; p = 0.0003) and large artery stroke (OR = 1.70; 95% CI = 1.01-2.88; p = 0.048) when controlling for sex, ethnicity, and age. Cases below age 40 were more likely to have a cardioembolic stroke than those above age 40 (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.15-2.27; p = 0.006), controlling for sex and ethnicity. Lastly, current smokers were more likely to have a large artery stroke than non-smokers (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.08-2.98; p = 0.024). Our population-based data demonstrate ethnic differences in ischemic stroke subtypes. These findings may help clarify mechanisms of stroke in young adults which may in part be driven by ethnic-specific differences in early-onset traditional risk factors, thereby indicating differing emphasis on workup and prevention.
Adil, Malik M; Vidal, Gabriel A; Beslow, Lauren A
Children with ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) may require interfacility transfer for higher level of care. We compared the characteristics and clinical outcomes of transferred and nontransferred children with IS and HS. Children aged 1-18 years admitted to hospitals in the United States from 2008 to 2011 with a primary discharge diagnosis of IS and HS were identified from the National Inpatient Sample database by ICD-9 codes. Using logistic regression, we estimated the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for in-hospital mortality and discharge to nursing facilities (versus discharge home) between transferred and nontransferred patients. Of the 2815 children with IS, 26.7% were transferred. In-hospital mortality and discharge to nursing facilities were not different between transferred and nontransferred children in univariable analysis or in multivariable analysis that adjusted for age, sex, and confounding factors. Of the 6879 children with HS, 27.1% were transferred. Transferred compared to nontransferred children had higher rates of both in-hospital mortality (8% versus 4%, P = .003) and discharge to nursing facilities (25% versus 20%, P = .03). After adjusting for age, sex, and confounding factors, in-hospital mortality (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.4, P = .04) remained higher in transferred children, whereas discharge to nursing facilities was not different between the groups. HS but not IS was associated with worse outcomes for children transferred to another hospital compared to children who were not transferred. Additional study is needed to understand what factors may contribute to poorer outcomes among transferred children with HS. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Odden, Michelle C; McClure, Leslie A; Sawaya, B Peter; White, Carole L; Peralta, Carmen A; Field, Thalia S; Hart, Robert G; Benavente, Oscar R; Pergola, Pablo E
Studies suggest a J-shaped association between blood pressure and cardiovascular events in the setting of intensive systolic blood pressure control; whether there is a similar association with stroke remains less well established. The Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes was a randomized trial to evaluate higher (130-149 mm Hg) versus lower (blood pressure targets in participants with recent lacunar infarcts. We evaluated the association of mean achieved blood pressure, 6 months after randomization, and recurrent stroke, major vascular events, and all-cause mortality. After a mean follow up of 3.7 years, there was a J-shaped association between achieved blood pressure and outcomes; the lowest risk was at ≈124 and 67 mm Hg systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. For example, above a systolic blood pressure of 124 mm Hg, 1 standard deviation higher (11.1 mm Hg) was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 2.7), whereas below this level, this relationship was inverted (0.29; 0.10, 0.79), Pblood pressure of 67 mm Hg, a 1 standard deviation higher (8.2 mm Hg) was associated with an increased risk of stroke (2.2; 1.4, 3.6), whereas below this level, the association was in the opposite direction (0.34; 0.13, 0.89), P=0.02 for interaction. The lowest risk of all events occurred at a nadir of ≈120 to 128 mm Hg systolic blood pressure and 65 to 70 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure. Future studies should evaluate the impact of excessive blood pressure reduction, especially in older populations with preexisting vascular disease. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00059306. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Ji, Ruijun; Du, Wanliang; Shen, Haipeng; Pan, Yuesong; Wang, Penglian; Liu, Gaifen; Wang, Yilong; Li, Hao; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is one of the leading causes of death and adult disability worldwide. In the present study, we aimed to develop a web-based risk model for predicting dynamic functional status at discharge, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year after acute ischemic stroke (Dynamic Functional Status after Acute Ischemic Stroke, DFS-AIS). The DFS-AIS was developed based on the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR), in which eligible patients were randomly divided into derivation (60%) and validation (40%) cohorts. Good functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≤ 2 at discharge, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year after AIS, respectively. Independent predictors of each outcome measure were obtained using multivariable logistic regression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and plot of observed and predicted risk were used to assess model discrimination and calibration. A total of 12,026 patients were included and the median age was 67 (interquartile range: 57-75). The proportion of patients with good functional outcome at discharge, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year after AIS was 67.9%, 66.5%, 66.9% and 66.9%, respectively. Age, gender, medical history of diabetes mellitus, stroke or transient ischemic attack, current smoking and atrial fibrillation, pre-stroke dependence, pre-stroke statins using, admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, admission blood glucose were identified as independent predictors of functional outcome at different time points after AIS. The DFS-AIS was developed from sets of predictors of mRS ≤ 2 at different time points following AIS. The DFS-AIS demonstrated good discrimination in the derivation and validation cohorts (AUROC range: 0.837-0.845). Plots of observed versus predicted likelihood showed excellent calibration in the derivation and validation cohorts (all r = 0.99, P discrimination for good functional outcome and mortality at discharge, 3-month, 6
Ong, Cheung-Ter; Wong, Yi-Sin; Wu, Chi-Shun; Su, Yu-Hsiang
Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) at a dose of 0.9 mg/kg body weight is associated with a high hemorrhagic transformation (HT) rate. Low-dose tPA (0.6 mg/kg) may have a lower hemorrhage rate but the mortality and disability rates at 90 days cannot be confirmed as non-inferior to standard-dose tPA. Whether the doses 0.7 and 0.8 mg/kg have better efficacy and safety needs further investigation. Therefore, this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of each dose of tPA (0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 mg/kg body weight) and to investigate the factors affecting early neurological improvement (ENI) and early neurological deterioration (END). For this observational study, data were obtained from 274 patients who received tPA thrombolytic therapy in Chia-Yi Christian Hospital stroke unit. The tPA dose was given at the discretion of each physician. The definition of ENI was a >8 point improvement (compared with baseline) at 24 h following thrombolytic therapy or an improvement in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS) to 0 or 1 toward the end of tPA infusion. The definition of END was a >4 point increase in NIHSS (compared with baseline) within 24 h of tPA infusion. The primary objective was to investigate whether 0.7 and 0.8 mg/kg of tPA have higher ENI rate, lower END rate, and better outcome at 6 months. Poor outcome was defined as having a modified Rankin Scale of 3 to 6 (range, 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]). The secondary objective was to investigate whether low-dose tPA has a lower risk of intracerebral HT than that with standard-dose tPA. We also investigated the factors affecting ENI, END, HT, and 6-month outcome. A total of 274 patients were included during the study period, of whom 260 were followed up for >6 months. There was a trend for the HT rate to increase as the dose increased ( P =0.02). The symptomatic HT rate was not significantly different among the low-dose and standard-dose groups. The ENI and END ( P =0.52) were
Scrutinio, Domenico; Lanzillo, Bernardo; Guida, Pietro; Mastropasqua, Filippo; Monitillo, Vincenzo; Pusineri, Monica; Formica, Roberto; Russo, Giovanna; Guarnaschelli, Caterina; Ferretti, Chiara; Calabrese, Gianluigi
Prediction of outcome after stroke rehabilitation may help clinicians in decision-making and planning rehabilitation care. We developed and validated a predictive tool to estimate the probability of achieving improvement in physical functioning (model 1) and a level of independence requiring no more than supervision (model 2) after stroke rehabilitation. The models were derived from 717 patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to build each model. Then, each model was prospectively validated in 875 patients. Model 1 included age, time from stroke occurrence to rehabilitation admission, admission motor and cognitive Functional Independence Measure scores, and neglect. Model 2 included age, male gender, time since stroke onset, and admission motor and cognitive Functional Independence Measure score. Both models demonstrated excellent discrimination. In the derivation cohort, the area under the curve was 0.883 (95% confidence intervals, 0.858-0.910) for model 1 and 0.913 (95% confidence intervals, 0.884-0.942) for model 2. The Hosmer-Lemeshow χ 2 was 4.12 ( P =0.249) and 1.20 ( P =0.754), respectively. In the validation cohort, the area under the curve was 0.866 (95% confidence intervals, 0.840-0.892) for model 1 and 0.850 (95% confidence intervals, 0.815-0.885) for model 2. The Hosmer-Lemeshow χ 2 was 8.86 ( P =0.115) and 34.50 ( P =0.001), respectively. Both improvement in physical functioning (hazard ratios, 0.43; 0.25-0.71; P =0.001) and a level of independence requiring no more than supervision (hazard ratios, 0.32; 0.14-0.68; P =0.004) were independently associated with improved 4-year survival. A calculator is freely available for download at https://goo.gl/fEAp81. This study provides researchers and clinicians with an easy-to-use, accurate, and validated predictive tool for potential application in rehabilitation research and stroke management. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Watanabe, Yoko; Suda, Satoshi; Kanamaru, Takuya; Katsumata, Toshiya; Okubo, Seiji; Kaneko, Tomohiro; Mii, Akiko; Sakai, Yukinao; Katayama, Yasuo; Kimura, Kazumi; Tsuruoka, Shuichi
Albuminuria and a low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are widely recognized indices of kidney dysfunction and have been linked to cardiovascular events, including stroke. We evaluated albuminuria, measured using the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), and the eGFR in the acute phase of ischaemic stroke, and investigated the clinical characteristics of ischaemic stroke patients with and those without kidney dysfunction. The study included 422 consecutive patients admitted between June 2010 and May 2012. General blood and urine examinations were performed at admission. Kidney dysfunction was defined as a low eGFR (high albuminuria (≥30 mg/g creatinine), or both. Neurological severity was evaluated using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission and the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at discharge. A poor outcome was defined as a mRS score of 3-5 or death. The impacts of the eGFR and UACR on outcomes at discharge were evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Kidney dysfunction was diagnosed in 278 of the 422 patients (65.9%). The eGFR was significantly lower and UACR was significantly higher in patients with a poor outcome than in those with a good outcome. In multivariate analyses performed after adjusting for confounding factors, UACR >31.2 mg/g creatinine (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.52-4.43; P = 0.0005) was independently associated with a poor outcome, while a low eGFR was not associated. A high UACR at admission may predict a poor outcome at discharge in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj
Poststroke epilepsy (PSE) is a feared complication after stroke and is reported in 3% to 5% of stroke survivors. In this study we sought to identify incidence and predictors of PSE in an unselected stroke population with a follow-up period of 7 years. The study was community-based and comprises...... a cohort of 1197 consecutively and prospectively admitted patients with stroke. Patients were followed up for 7 years. We defined PSE as recurrent epileptic seizures with onset after stroke and requiring antiepileptic prophylaxis. PSE was related to clinical factors (age, sex, onset stroke severity, lesion...... size on computed tomography scans, stroke subtype, localization, stroke risk factor profile, and early seizures) in univariate analyses. Independent predictors of PSE were identified through multiple logistic regression analyses. Overall, 38 patients (3.2%) developed PSE. Univariately, PSE...
Full Text Available Background: Since stroke patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF have poor outcomes in general, the prediction of outcomes following discharge is of utmost concern for these patients. We previously reported that brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels were significantly higher in NVAF patients with larger infarcts, higher modified Rankin Scale (mRS score, and higher CHADS2 score. In the present study, we evaluated an array of variables, including BNP, in order to determine significant predictors for functional outcome in patients with NVAF after acute ischemic stroke (AIS. Methods: A total of 615 consecutive patients with AIS within 48 h of symptom onset, admitted to our hospital between April 2010 and October 2015, were retrospectively searched. Among these patients, we enrolled consecutive patients with NVAF. We evaluated the mRS score 3 months after onset of stroke and investigated associations between mRS score and the following clinical and echocardiographic variables. Categorical variables included male sex, current smoking, alcohol intake, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, use of antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants, or tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, and infarct size. Continuous variables included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, creatinine, D-dimer, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, left atrial diameter, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF, and early mitral inflow velocity/diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e’. We also analyzed the association of prestroke CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and R2CHADS2 scores, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score on admission with mRS score 3 months after the onset of stroke. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to mRS score: an mRS score ≤2 was defined as good outcome, an mRS score ≥3 was defined as poor outcome. To clarify the correlations between
The Quality in Acute Stroke Care (QASC) was a cluster randomised control trial (CRCT) which evaluated the effectiveness of evidence-based clinical treatment protocols for the management of fever, hyperglycaemia and swallowing, in conjunction with multidisciplinary team building workshops, and a standardised interactive staff education program (collectively known as the Fever, Sugar, Swallowing (FeSS) intervention) to improve patient outcomes 90-days. We found that patients cared for in stroke units who received our intervention were 15·7% more likely to be alive and independent 90 days following their stroke. They also had significantly: fewer episodes of fever, lower mean temperatures, lower mean blood glucose levels, and better screening for swallowing difficulties. © 2012 The Author. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.
Bianca Pinto Cunha
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Stroke individuals have sensorimotor repercussions on their ipsilesional upper limb. Therefore, it is important to use tests that allow an adequate assessment and follow-up of such deficits. Physical and occupational therapists commonly use maximal grip strength tests to assess the functional condition of stroke individuals. However, one could ask whether a single test is able to characterize the hand function in this population. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among outcomes of different tests frequently used to describe the function of the hand in the ipsilesional upper limb of stroke individuals. Methods: Twenty-two stroke individuals performed four hand function tests: maximal handgrip strength (HGSMax, maximal pinch grip strength (PGSMax, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT and Nine Hole Peg Test (9-HPT. All tests were performed with the ipsilesional hand. Pearson's correlation analyses were performed. Results: the results indicated a moderate and positive relationship between HGSMax and JTHFT (r = 0.50 and between JTHFT and 9-HPT (r = 0.55. Conclusion: We conclude that the existence of only moderate relationships between test outcomes demonstrates the need to use at least two instruments to better describe the ipsilesional hand function of stroke individuals.
Karla M. I. Freiria Elias
Full Text Available Objective To investigate central auditory processing in children with unilateral stroke and to verify whether the hemisphere affected by the lesion influenced auditory competence. Method 23 children (13 male between 7 and 16 years old were evaluated through speech-in-noise tests (auditory closure; dichotic digit test and staggered spondaic word test (selective attention; pitch pattern and duration pattern sequence tests (temporal processing and their results were compared with control children. Auditory competence was established according to the performance in auditory analysis ability. Results Was verified similar performance between groups in auditory closure ability and pronounced deficits in selective attention and temporal processing abilities. Most children with stroke showed an impaired auditory ability in a moderate degree. Conclusion Children with stroke showed deficits in auditory processing and the degree of impairment was not related to the hemisphere affected by the lesion.
Giese, Anne-Katrin; Schirmer, Markus D; Donahue, Kathleen L; Cloonan, Lisa; Irie, Robert; Winzeck, Stefan; Bouts, Mark J R J; McIntosh, Elissa C; Mocking, Steven J; Dalca, Adrian V; Sridharan, Ramesh; Xu, Huichun; Frid, Petrea; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Holmegaard, Lukas; Roquer, Jaume; Wasselius, Johan; Cole, John W; McArdle, Patrick F; Broderick, Joseph P; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Jern, Christina; Kissela, Brett M; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Lemmens, Robin; Lindgren, Arne; Meschia, James F; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sharma, Pankaj; Slowik, Agnieszka; Thijs, Vincent; Woo, Daniel; Worrall, Bradford B; Kittner, Steven J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Rosand, Jonathan; Golland, Polina; Wu, Ona; Rost, Natalia S
To describe the design and rationale for the genetic analysis of acute and chronic cerebrovascular neuroimaging phenotypes detected on clinical MRI in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within the scope of the MRI-GENetics Interface Exploration (MRI-GENIE) study. MRI-GENIE capitalizes on the existing infrastructure of the Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN). In total, 12 international SiGN sites contributed MRIs of 3,301 patients with AIS. Detailed clinical phenotyping with the web-based Causative Classification of Stroke (CCS) system and genome-wide genotyping data were available for all participants. Neuroimaging analyses include the manual and automated assessments of established MRI markers. A high-throughput MRI analysis pipeline for the automated assessment of cerebrovascular lesions on clinical scans will be developed in a subset of scans for both acute and chronic lesions, validated against gold standard, and applied to all available scans. The extracted neuroimaging phenotypes will improve characterization of acute and chronic cerebrovascular lesions in ischemic stroke, including CCS subtypes, and their effect on functional outcomes after stroke. Moreover, genetic testing will uncover variants associated with acute and chronic MRI manifestations of cerebrovascular disease. The MRI-GENIE study aims to develop, validate, and distribute the MRI analysis platform for scans acquired as part of clinical care for patients with AIS, which will lead to (1) novel genetic discoveries in ischemic stroke, (2) strategies for personalized stroke risk assessment, and (3) personalized stroke outcome assessment.
Gensicke, H; Wicht, A; Bill, O; Zini, A; Costa, P; Kägi, G; Stark, R; Seiffge, D J; Traenka, C; Peters, N; Bonati, L H; Giovannini, G; De Marchis, G M; Poli, L; Polymeris, A; Vanacker, P; Sarikaya, H; Lyrer, P A; Pezzini, A; Vandelli, L; Michel, P; Engelter, S T
The impact of body mass index (BMI) on outcome in stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) was investigated. In a multicentre IVT-register-based observational study, BMI with (i) poor 3-month outcome (i.e. modified Rankin Scale scores 3-6), (ii) death and (iii) symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (sICH) based on criteria of the ECASS II trial was compared. BMI was used as a continuous and categorical variable distinguishing normal weight (reference group 18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ) from underweight (m 2 ), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m 2 ) and obese (≥30 kg/m 2 ) patients. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses with adjustments for age and stroke severity were done and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals [OR (95% CI)] were calculated. Of 1798 patients, 730 (40.6%) were normal weight, 55 (3.1%) were underweight, 717 (39.9%) overweight and 295 (16.4%) obese. Poor outcome occurred in 38.1% of normal weight patients and did not differ significantly from underweight (45.5%), overweight (36.1%) and obese (32.5%) patients. The same was true for death (9.5% vs. 14.5%, 9.6% and 7.5%) and sICH (3.9% vs. 5.5%, 4.3%, 2.7%). Neither in univariable nor in multivariable analyses did the risks of poor outcome, death or sICH differ significantly between BMI groups. BMI as a continuous variable was not associated with poor outcome, death or sICH in unadjusted [OR (95% CI) 0.99 (0.97-1.01), 0.98 (0.95-1.02), 0.98 (0.94-1.04)] or adjusted analyses [OR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.98-1.03), 0.99 (0.95-1.05), 1.01 (0.97-1.05)], respectively. In this largest study to date, investigating the impact of BMI in IVT-treated stroke patients, BMI had no prognostic meaning with regard to 3-month functional outcome, death or occurrence of sICH. © 2016 EAN.
Full Text Available Due to its sensitivity to deoxyhemoglobin, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI enables the visualization of deep medullary veins (DMV in patients with acute stroke, which are difficult to depict under physiological circumstances. This study assesses the asymmetric appearance of prominent DMV as an independent predictor for stroke severity and outcome.SWI of 86 patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA stroke were included. A scoring system from 0 (no visible DMV to 3 (very prominent DMV was applied for both hemispheres separately. A difference of scores between ipsi- and contralateral side was defined as asymmetric (AMV+. Occurrence of AMV+ was correlated with the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS Score on admission and discharge, as well as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS at discharge. Ordinal regression analysis was used to evaluate NIHSS and mRS as predictors of stroke severity, clinical course of disease and outcome.55 patients displayed AMV+ while 31 did not show an asymmetry (AMV-. Median NIHSS on admission was 17 (11-21 in the AMV+ group and 9 (5-15 in the AMV- group (p = 0.001. On discharge median NIHSS was 11 (5-20 for AMV+ and 5 (2-14 for AMV- (p = 0.005. The median mRS at discharge was 4 (3-5 in the AMV+ group and 3 (1-4 in AMV- (p = 0.001. Odds ratio was 3.19 (95% CI: 1.24-8.21 for AMV+ to achieve a higher mRS than AMV- (p = 0.016.The asymmetric appearance of DMV on SWI is a fast and easily evaluable parameter for the prediction of stroke severity and can be used as an additional imaging parameter in patients with acute MCA stroke.
Smeeton, Nigel C; Corbin, David O C; Hennis, Anselm J M; Hambleton, Ian R; Rose, Angela M C; Fraser, Henry S; Heuschmann, Peter U; Wolfe, Charles D A
Little is known about the poststroke outcome in Caribbean populations. We investigated differences in the activities of daily living, level of social activities, living circumstances and survival for stroke patients in Barbados and London. Data were collected from the South London Stroke Register and the Barbados Register of Strokes for patients with a first-ever stroke registered between January 2001 and December 2004. The ability to perform activities of daily living was measured by the Barthel Index and level of social activities by the Frenchay Activities Index. Living circumstances were categorised into private household vs. institutional care. Death and dependency, activities of daily living and social activities were assessed at three-months, one- and two-years using logistic regression, adjusted for differences in demographic, socioeconomic and stroke severity characteristics. At three-months, a high level of social activities was more likely for the Barbados Register of Strokes (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.29); there were no differences in activities of daily living; and Barbados Register of Strokes patients were less likely to be in institutional care (relative risk ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.79). Following adjustment, Barbados Register of Strokes patients had a higher risk of mortality at three-months (relative risk ratio 1.85; 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.30), one-year (relative risk ratio 1.83; 95% confidence interval 1.08-3.09) and two-years (relative risk ratio 1.82; 95% confidence interval 1.08-3.07). This difference was due to early poststroke deaths; for patients alive at four-weeks poststroke, survival thereafter was similar in both settings. In Barbados, there was evidence for a healthy survivor effect, and short-term social activity was greater than that in the South London Stroke Register. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2010 World Stroke Organization.
Goh, Hui-Ting; Nadarajah, Mohanasuntharaam; Hamzah, Norhamizan Binti; Varadan, Parimalaganthi; Tan, Maw Pin
Falls are common after stroke, with potentially serious consequences. Few investigations have included age-matched control participants to directly compare fall characteristics between older adults with and without stroke. Further, fear of falling, a significant psychological consequence of falls, has only been examined to a limited degree as a risk factor for future falls in a stroke population. To compare the fall history between older adults with and without a previous stroke and to identify the determinants of falls and fear of falling in older stroke survivors. Case-control observational study. Primary teaching hospital. Seventy-five patients with stroke (mean age ± standard deviation, 66 ± 7 years) and 50 age-matched control participants with no previous stroke were tested. Fall history, fear of falling, and physical, cognitive, and psychological function were assessed. A χ 2 test was performed to compare characteristics between groups, and logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors for falls and fear of falling. Fall events in the past 12 months, Fall Efficacy Scale-International, Berg Balance Scale, Functional Ambulation Category, Fatigue Severity Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Patient Healthy Questionnaire-9 were measured for all participants. Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment was used to quantify severity of stroke motor impairments. Twenty-three patients and 13 control participants reported at least one fall in the past 12 months (P = .58). Nine participants with stroke had recurrent falls (≥2 falls) compared with none of the control participants (P falling than did nonstroke control participants (P falls in the nonstroke group, whereas falls in the stroke group were not significantly associated with any measured outcomes. Fear of falling in the stroke group was associated with functional ambulation level and balance. Functional ambulation level alone explained 22% of variance in fear of falling in the stroke group
Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J
Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome....... In addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....
... Development Support for Training at Universities and Other Institutions Individual Research Fellowships (F) Career Development (K) Awards ... feet that worsens with movement and temperature changes Depression Types of Treatment for Stroke Stroke treatment includes: ...
van Mierlo, Maria L.; van Heugten, Caroline M.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Hajos, Tibor R. S.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Visser-Meily, Johanna M. A.
BACKGROUND: Little information is available about the course of quality of life (QoL) post stroke and how dependency on activities of daily living (ADL) influences this course. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the course of QoL from 2 months up to 2 years post stroke and to study the
Smith, Eric E; Kent, David M; Bulsara, Ketan R; Leung, Lester Y; Lichtman, Judith H; Reeves, Mathew J; Towfighi, Amytis; Whiteley, William N; Zahuranec, Darin B
Dysphagia screening protocols have been recommended to identify patients at risk for aspiration. The American Heart Association convened an evidence review committee to systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of dysphagia screening protocols to reduce the risk of pneumonia, death, or dependency after stroke. The Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched on November 1, 2016, to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing dysphagia screening protocols or quality interventions with increased dysphagia screening rates and reporting outcomes of pneumonia, death, or dependency. Three RCTs were identified. One RCT found that a combined nursing quality improvement intervention targeting fever and glucose management and dysphagia screening reduced death and dependency but without reducing the pneumonia rate. Another RCT failed to find evidence that pneumonia rates were reduced by adding the cough reflex to routine dysphagia screening. A smaller RCT randomly assigned 2 hospital wards to a stroke care pathway including dysphagia screening or regular care and found that patients on the stroke care pathway were less likely to require intubation and mechanical ventilation; however, the study was small and at risk for bias. There were insufficient RCT data to determine the effect of dysphagia screening protocols on reducing the rates of pneumonia, death, or dependency after stroke. Additional trials are needed to compare the validity, feasibility, and clinical effectiveness of different screening methods for dysphagia. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.
Full Text Available Background: A study to investigate the level of the neurobiochemical marker, Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE, at the time of admission and its correlation with the blood sugar level in ischemic stroke patients. Patients and Methods: We investigated 90 patients with complete stroke who were admitted to the Stroke Unit of the Department of Neurology at Sri Aurobindo Institute of Medical Sciences. NSE was measured with commercially available quantitative ′sandwich′ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits obtained from R and D Systems. Hyperglycemia was defined as blood glucose concentration ≥ 7 mmol / L, and measured using the glucose oxidase method immediately. Results: Significantly increased NSE and lipid profile levels were found in ischemic stroke patients as compared to the control. Hyperglycemic ischemic stroke patients had increased levels of NSE, lipid profile, and National Institute of Health stroke scale scores (NIHSS score compared to normoglycemic ischemic stroke patients. In addition the serum NSE level of hyperglycemic stroke patients was also positively correlated with the blood sugar level (r = 0.734 P < 0.001. Conclusions: Hyperglycemia predicts an increased risk of poor outcome after ischemic stroke and it is reflected by a significantly increased level of Neuron-Specific Enolase.
Amesz, Sarah; Tessari, Alessia; Ottoboni, Giovanni; Marsden, Jon
To explore the relationship between laterality recognition after stroke and impairments in attention, 3D object rotation and functional ability. Observational cross-sectional study. Acute care teaching hospital. Thirty-two acute and sub-acute people with stroke and 36 healthy, age-matched controls. Laterality recognition, attention and mental rotation of objects. Within the stroke group, the relationship between laterality recognition and functional ability, neglect, hemianopia and dyspraxia were further explored. People with stroke were significantly less accurate (69% vs 80%) and showed delayed reaction times (3.0 vs 1.9 seconds) when determining the laterality of a pictured hand. Deficits either in accuracy or reaction times were seen in 53% of people with stroke. The accuracy of laterality recognition was associated with reduced functional ability (R(2) = 0.21), less accurate mental rotation of objects (R(2) = 0.20) and dyspraxia (p = 0.03). Implicit motor imagery is affected in a significant number of patients after stroke with these deficits related to lesions to the motor networks as well as other deficits seen after stroke. This research provides new insights into how laterality recognition is related to a number of other deficits after stroke, including the mental rotation of 3D objects, attention and dyspraxia. Further research is required to determine if treatment programmes can improve deficits in laterality recognition and impact functional outcomes after stroke.
Kellert, Lars; Hametner, Christian; Ahmed, Niaz; Rauch, Geraldine; MacLeod, Mary J; Perini, Francesco; Lees, Kennedy R; Ringleb, Peter A
Significance and management of blood pressure (BP) changes in acute stroke care are unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate the impact of 24-hour BP variability (BPV) on outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis. From the Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke International Stroke Thrombolysis registry, 28 976 patients with documented pre-treatment systolic BP at 2 and 24 hours were analyzed. The primary measure of BP variability was successive variability. Data were preprocessed using coarsened exact matching. We assessed early neurological improvement, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH), and long-term functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] at 90 days) by binary and ordinal regression analyses. Attempts to explain successive variation for analysis of BPV with patients characteristics at admission found systolic BP (5.5% variance) to be most influential, yet 92% of BPV variance remained unexplained. Independently from systolic BP, successive variation for analysis of BPV was associated with poor functional outcome mRS score of 0 to 2 (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-0.98), disadvantage across the shift of mRS (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08), mortality (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08), SICH SITS (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.23), and SICH ECASS (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.10-1.40; ECASS [European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study 2]). Analyzing successive variation for analysis of BPV as a function of pre-treatment, systolic BP significantly improved the prediction of functional outcome (mRS score of 0-1, mRS score of 0-2, neurological improvement, mRS-shift: all P interaction accounting for pre-treatment BP and the acute BP course (ie, BPV) to achieve best possible outcome for the patient. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Sandset, Else C; Murray, Gordon D; Bath, Philip M W
The Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial (SCAST) found no benefits of candesartan in acute stroke. In the present analysis we aim to investigate the effect of change in blood pressure during the first 2 days of stroke on the risk of early adverse events and poor outcome....
Izzy, Saef; Rubin, Daniel B; Ahmed, Firas S; Akbik, Feras; Renault, Simone; Sylvester, Katelyn W; Vaitkevicius, Henrikas; Smallwood, Jennifer A; Givertz, Michael M; Feske, Steven K
Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have emerged as an effective treatment for patients with advanced heart failure refractory to medical therapy. Post-LVAD strokes are an important cause of morbidity and reduced quality of life. Data on risks that distinguish between ischemic and hemorrhagic post-LVAD strokes are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of post-LVAD ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, their association with stroke risk factors, and their effect on mortality. Data are collected prospectively on all patients with LVADs implanted at Brigham and Women's Hospital. We added retrospectively collected clinical data for these analyses. From 2007 to 2016, 183 patients (median age, 57; 80% male) underwent implantation of HeartMate II LVAD as a bridge to transplant (52%), destination therapy (39%), or bridge to transplant candidacy (8%). A total of 48 strokes occurred in 39 patients (21%): 28 acute ischemic strokes in 24 patients (13%) and 20 intracerebral hemorrhages in 19 patients (10.3%). First events occurred at a median of 238 days from implantation (interquartile range, 93-515) among those who developed post-LVAD stroke. All but 9 patients (4.9%) were on warfarin (goal international normalized ratio, 2-3.5) and all received aspirin (81-325 mg). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were more likely to have an ischemic stroke (odds ratio, 2.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-7.70). Dialysis-dependent patients showed a trend toward a higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke (odds ratio, 6.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-40.47). Hemorrhagic stroke was associated with higher mortality (odds ratio, 3.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-11.45) than ischemic stroke (odds ratio, 3.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-8.85). Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients on LVAD support. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increases the risk of ischemic stroke, whereas dialysis may increase the risk of hemorrhagic
Wada, Tomoki; Yasunaga, Hideo; Inokuchi, Ryota; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Matsubara, Takehiro; Nakajima, Susumu; Yahagi, Naoki
We investigated whether edaravone could improve early outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA). We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. We identified patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke from 1 July 2010 to 31 March 2012 and treated with rtPA on the same day of stroke onset or the following day. Thereafter, we selected those who received edaravone on the same day of rtPA administration (edaravone group), and those who received rtPA without edaravone (control group). The primary outcomes were modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at discharge. One-to-one propensity-score matching was performed between the edaravone and control groups. An ordinal logistic regression analysis for mRS scores at discharge was performed with adjustment for possible variables as well as clustering of patients within hospitals using a generalized estimating equation. We identified 6336 eligible patients for inclusion in the edaravone group (n=5979; 94%) and the control group (n=357; 6%) as the total population. In 356 pairs of the propensity-matched population, the ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that edaravone was significantly associated with lower mRS scores of patients at discharge (adjusted odds ratio: 0.74; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.96). Edaravone may improve early outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients treated with rtPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bell, Christina L.; Rantanen, Taina; Chen, Randi; Davis, James; Petrovitch, Helen; Ross, G. Webster; Masaki, Kamal
Objective To examine baseline pre-stroke weight loss and post-stroke mortality among men. Design Longitudinal study of late-life pre-stroke body mass index (BMI), weight loss and BMI change (midlife to late-life), with up to 8-year incident stroke and mortality follow-up. Setting Honolulu Heart Program/Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Participants 3,581 Japanese-American men aged 71–93 years and stroke-free at baseline. Main Outcome Measure Post-stroke Mortality: 30-day post-stroke, analyzed with stepwise multivariable logistic regression and long-term post-stroke (up to 8-year), analyzed with stepwise multivariable Cox regression. Results Weight loss (10-pound decrements) was associated with increased 30-day post-stroke mortality (aOR=1.48, 95%CI 1.14–1.92), long-term mortality after incident stroke (all types n=225, aHR=1.25, 95%CI=1.09–1.44) and long-term mortality after incident thromboembolic stroke (n=153, aHR 1.19, 95%CI-1.01–1.40). Men with overweight/obese late-life BMI (≥25kg/m2, compared to normal/underweight BMI) had increased long-term mortality after incident hemorrhagic stroke (n=54, aHR=2.27, 95%CI=1.07–4.82). Neither desirable nor excessive BMI reductions (vs. no change/increased BMI) were associated with post-stroke mortality. In the overall sample (n=3,581), nutrition factors associated with increased long-term mortality included 1) weight loss (10-pound decrements, aHR=1.15, 1.09–1.21); 2) underweight BMI (vs. normal BMI, aHR=1.76, 1.40–2.20); and 3) both desirable and excessive BMI reductions (vs. no change or gain, separate model from weight loss and BMI, aHRs=1.36–1.97, pstroke incidence, pre-stroke weight loss was associated with increased post-stroke (all types and thromboembolic) mortality. Overweight/obese late-life BMI was associated with increased post-hemorrhagic stroke mortality. Desirable and excessive BMI reductions were not associated with post-stroke mortality. Weight loss, underweight late-life BMI and any BMI
Zangari, Rosalia; Zanier, Elisa R; Torgano, G
BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence support the involvement of the lectin pathway of complement (LP) in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke. The aim of this multicenter observational study was to assess the prognostic value of different circulating LP initiators in acute stroke. METHODS......: Plasma levels of the LP initiators ficolin-1, -2, and -3 and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) were measured in 80 stroke patients at 6 h only and in 85 patients at 48 h and later. Sixty-one age- and sex-matched healthy individuals served as controls. Stroke severity was measured on admission using...... (0.45 μg/ml, p difference...
Tsogkas, Ioannis; Knauth, Michael; Schregel, Katharina; Behme, Daniel; Psychogios, Marios Nikos [University Medicine Goettingen, Department of Neuroradiology, Goettingen (Germany); Wasser, Katrin; Maier, Ilko; Liman, Jan [University Medicine Goettingen, Department of Neurology, Goettingen (Germany)
CTP images analyzed with the Alberta stroke program early CT scale (ASPECTS) have been shown to be optimal predictors of clinical outcome. In this study we compared two biomarkers, the cerebral blood volume (CBV)-ASPECTS and the CTA-ASPECTS as predictors of clinical outcome after thrombectomy. Stroke patients with thrombosis of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery were included in our study. All patients underwent initial multimodal CT with CTP and CTA on a modern CT scanner. Treatment consisted of full dose intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, when applicable, and mechanical thrombectomy. Three neuroradiologists separately scored CTP and CTA images with the ASPECTS score. Sixty-five patients were included. Median baseline CBV-ASPECTS and CTA-ASPECTS for patients with favourable clinical outcome at follow-up were 8 [interquartile range (IQR) 8-9 and 7-9 respectively]. Patients with poor clinical outcome showed a median baseline CBV-ASPECTS of 6 (IQR 5-8, P < 0.0001) and a median baseline CTA-ASPECTS of 7 (IQR 7-8, P = 0.18). Using CBV-ASPECTS and CTA-ASPECTS raters predicted futile reperfusions in 96 % and 56 % of the cases, respectively. CBV-ASPECTS is a significant predictor of clinical outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with mechanical thrombectomy. (orig.)
Ayça Utkan Karasu; Elif Balevi Batur; Gülçin Kaymak Karataş
Objective: To investigate the efficacy of Nintendo Wii Fit®-based balance rehabilitation as an adjunc-tive therapy to conventional rehabilitation in stroke patients. Methods: During the study period, 70 stroke patients were evaluated. Of these, 23 who met the study criteria were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 12) or the control group (n = 11) by block randomization. Primary outcome measures were Berg Balance Scale, Functional Reach Test, Postural Asses...
Stern Barney J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroserpin, primarily localized to CNS neurons, inhibits the adverse effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA on the neurovascular unit and has neuroprotective effects in animal models of ischemic stroke. We sought to evaluate the association of neuroserpin polymorphisms with risk for ischemic stroke among young women. Methods A population-based case-control study of stroke among women aged 15–49 identified 224 cases of first ischemic stroke (47.3% African-American and 211 age-matched control subjects (43.1% African-American. Neuroserpin single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs chosen through HapMap were genotyped in the study population and assessed for association with stroke. Results Of the five SNPs analyzed, the A allele (frequency; Caucasian = 0.56, African-American = 0.42 of SNP rs6797312 located in intron 1 was associated with stroke in an age-adjusted dominant model (AA and AT vs. TT among Caucasians (OR = 2.05, p = 0.023 but not African-Americans (OR = 0.71, p = 0.387. Models adjusting for other risk factors strengthened the association. Race-specific haplotype analyses, inclusive of SNP rs6797312, again demonstrated significant associations with stroke among Caucasians only. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence that neuroserpin is associated with early-onset ischemic stroke among Caucasian women.
Warner, G.; Packer, T.L.; Villeneuve, M.; Audulv, A.; Versnel, J.
PURPOSE: A systematic review of stroke self-management programs was conducted to: (i) identify how many and what self-management support strategies were included in stroke self-management interventions and (ii) describe whether self-management programs effectively improved outcomes, focusing
Vos, Pieter C.; Bennink, Edwin; de Jong, Hugo; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Viergever, Max A.; Dankbaar, Jan Willem
Assessment of the extent of cerebral damage on admission in patients with acute ischemic stroke could play an important role in treatment decision making. Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging can be used to determine the extent of damage. However, clinical application is hindered by differences among vendors and used methodology. As a result, threshold based methods and visual assessment of CTP images has not yet shown to be useful in treatment decision making and predicting clinical outcome. Preliminary results in MR studies have shown the benefit of using supervised classifiers for predicting tissue outcome, but this has not been demonstrated for CTP. We present a novel method for the automatic prediction of tissue outcome by combining multi-parametric CTP images into a tissue outcome probability map. A supervised classification scheme was developed to extract absolute and relative perfusion values from processed CTP images that are summarized by a trained classifier into a likelihood of infarction. Training was performed using follow-up CT scans of 20 acute stroke patients with complete recanalization of the vessel that was occluded on admission. Infarcted regions were annotated by expert neuroradiologists. Multiple classifiers were evaluated in a leave-one-patient-out strategy for their discriminating performance using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) statistics. Results showed that a RandomForest classifier performed optimally with an area under the ROC of 0.90 for discriminating infarct tissue. The obtained results are an improvement over existing thresholding methods and are in line with results found in literature where MR perfusion was used.
İnci Şule Özer
Full Text Available Objective: Stroke in people aged less than 45 years is less frequent than in older patients, but has major impacts on both the individual and society. The aim of this study was to determine the etiologic subtypes of acute ischemic stroke in the young. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the hospital records of 619 patients who were admitted with acute ischemic stroke between January 2011 and November 2014. Acute ischemic stroke in the young was defined as patients aged 45 years and under. Demographic data, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores at admission and detailed investigations aimed at determining etiologic cause were recorded. Etiologic stroke subtypes were determined using the automated Causative Classification System. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS scores were recorded in the follow-up. Results: There were 32 (5.2% young patients with acute ischemic stroke. The rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and coronary artery disease were significantly lower in young patients compared with patients aged more than 45 years (p<0.05. The mean NIHSS score at admission and hospital mortality was significantly lower in patients aged 45 years and under compared with those older than 45 years (p=0.006, p=0.043. Cardioaortic embolism was the most common etiologic stroke subtype in both groups. Other causes were significantly more frequent in the young acute ischemic stroke group compared with the older patients. The median follow-up mRS was significantly lower in patients aged 45 years and under compared with those older than 45 years (p<0.001. Conclusion: Young patients with ischemic stroke have different risk factors, stroke etiology, stroke severity and prognosis compared with patients older than 45 years with the same condition
Myint, Phyo K; Vowler, Sarah L; Redmayne, Oliver; Fulcher, Robert A
Current demographic trends pose a major societal challenge due to the rising number of older people with chronic conditions such as stroke. The relative impact of various disabilities at the time of discharge from an acute unit on discharge outcome is poorly understood. To examine the association between cognition, continence and transfer status at the time of discharge from the acute stroke unit and discharge destination. A retrospective stroke register database study was conducted in an acute stroke unit in a UK hospital with a catchment population of 568,000. Consecutive acute stroke admissions between 1997 and 2003 who were discharged alive were identified and the likelihood of adverse discharge outcomes defined as institutionalization or a requirement for longer-term rehabilitation was estimated. A total of 2,521 discharges were analyzed (median length of hospital stay 8 days). The presence of confusion, urinary incontinence or the need for help with transfers at the time of discharge predicted a higher likelihood of an adverse outcome even after controlling for age, stroke subtype, premorbid Rankin score and length of hospital stay. The need for help with transfers appeared to be the most consistent and significant factor associated with an adverse outcome regardless of age, sex or stroke subtype across the sample distribution. The ability to transfer has a pivotal role in the clinical decision making of discharge destination after stroke. Understanding of the factors which may increase the potential for improving this ability after acute stroke could have an impact on clinical outcome. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Dave, Ajal; Cagniart, Kendra; Holtkamp, Matthew D
The development of primary stroke centers has improved outcomes for stroke patients. Telestroke networks have expanded the reach of stroke experts to underserved, geographically remote areas. This study illustrates the outcome and cost differences between neurology and primary care ischemic stroke admissions to demonstrate a need for telestroke networks within the Military Health System (MHS). All adult admissions with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke in the MHS Military Mart database from calendar years 2010 to 2015 were reviewed. Neurology, primary care, and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions were compared across primary outcomes of (1) disposition status and (2) intravenous tissue plasminogen activator administration and for secondary outcomes of (1) total cost of hospitalization and (2) length of stay (LOS). A total of 3623 admissions met the study's parameters. The composition was neurology 462 (12.8%), primary care 2324 (64.1%), ICU 677 (18.7%), and other/unknown 160 (4.4%). Almost all neurology admissions (97%) were at the 3 neurology training programs, whereas a strong majority of primary care admissions (80%) were at hospitals without a neurology admitting service. Hospitals without a neurology admitting service had more discharges to rehabilitation facilities and higher rates of in-hospital mortality. LOS was also longer in primary care admissions. Ischemic stroke admissions to neurology had better outcomes and decreased LOS when compared to primary care within the MHS. This demonstrates a possible gap in care. Implementation of a hub and spoke telestroke model is a potential solution. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hewetson, Ronelle; Cornwell, Petrea; Shum, David
Rehabilitation positively influences return to activities and social roles in people with aphasia. The cognitive-communication disorder (CCD) found following a right hemisphere stroke has been less extensively researched with rehabilitation access and outcomes yet to be determined. To document rehabilitation access and outcomes for people with CCD post-stroke; and compare outcomes based on presence (viz CCD; aphasia) or absence of communication impairment. A retrospective chart audit was completed for patients with first onset unilateral stroke, with a hospital length of stay (LOS) of at least two days and a communication assessment by a speech pathologist. Data extracted included presence and severity of communication impairment, access to and LOS in a rehabilitation unit, and functional outcome measures recorded at rehabilitation discharge. The majority of the 115 patients who met inclusion criteria were living independently (n = 112, 97.4%) at the time of stroke. CCD (66%) was diagnosed with similar frequency to aphasia (68%). The presence of communication impairment did not result in significant differences in rehabilitation LOS and discharge destination when compared to hemispheric strokes without communication impairment. Severity of CCD was an independent predictor of functional gain by rehabilitation discharge. People with CCD require comparable access to rehabilitation as people with aphasia, and severity of CCD should be considered in determining rehabilitation LOS. A large number of people are discharged with ongoing CCD which warrants exploration of potential participation restrictions created by the communication impairment.
Li, Siou; Yin, Changhao; Zhao, Weina; Zhu, Haifu; Xu, Dan; Xu, Qing; Jiao, Yang; Wang, Xue; Qiao, Hong
Whether insulin resistance (IR) predicts worse functional outcome in ischemic stroke is still a matter of debate. The aim of the present study is to determine the association between IR and risk of poor outcome in 173 Chinese nondiabetic patients with acute ischemic stroke. This is a prospective, population-based cohort study. Insulin sensitivity, expressed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin sensitivity (HOMA index = (fasting insulin × fasting glucose)/22.5). IR was defined by HOMA-IR index in the top quartile (Q4). Functional impairment was evaluated at discharge using the modified Rankin scale (mRS). The median (interquartile range) HOMA-IR was 2.14 (1.17–2.83), and Q4 was at least 2.83. There was a significantly positive correlation between HOMA-IR and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (r = 0.408; PIR group were associated with a higher risk of poor functional outcome (odds ratio (OR) = 3.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.75–5.08; P=0.001). In multivariate models comparing the third and fourth quartiles against the first quartile of the HOMA-IR, levels of HOMA-IR were associated with poor outcome, and the adjusted risk of poor outcome increased by 207% (OR = 3.05 (95% CI 1.70–4.89), P=0.006) and 429% (5.29 (3.05–9.80), PHOMA-IR to clinical examination variables (P=0.02). High HOMA-IR index is associated with a poor functional outcome in nondiabetic patients with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:29588341
Jin, Ju Hyun; Shin, Jeong Eun; Lee, Soon Min; Eun, Ho Seon; Park, Min Soo; Park, Kook In; Namgung, Ran
Neonatal arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) is an important cause of severe neurological disability. This study aimed to analyse the clinical manifestations and outcomes of AIS patients. We enrolled neonates with AIS admitted to Severance Children's Hospital and Gangnam Severance Hospital between 2008 and 2015. AIS was confirmed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical manifestations, MRI findings, electroencephalography (EEG) findings and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The study comprised 29 neonates (18 boys). The mean follow-up period was 15.4 months (range 6-44 months), and the mean age at diagnosis was 8.1 days. Seizure was the most common symptom (66%). Bilateral involvement was more common than unilateral involvement (52%). The middle cerebral artery was the most commonly identified territory (79%). Abnormal EEG findings were noted in 93% of the cases. Neurodevelopment was normal in 11 (38%) patients, while cerebral palsy and delayed development were noted in eight (28%) and six (21%) patients, respectively. Patients with bilateral involvement were very likely to have abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our study showed that abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes were very likely after cases of neonatal AIS with bilateral involvement, and clinicians should consider early and more effective interventions in such cases. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hepworth, Lauren R; Rowe, Fiona J
The aim of this study was to ascertain what items stroke survivors and stroke care professionals think are important when assessing quality of life for stroke survivors with visual impairment for inclusion in the new patient-reported outcome measure. A reactive Delphi process was used in a three-round electronic-based survey. The items presented consisted of 62 items originally sourced from a systematic review of existing vision-related quality of life instruments and stroke survivor interviews, reduced and refined following a ranking exercise and pilot with stroke survivors with visual impairment. Stakeholders (stroke survivors/clinicians) were invited to take part in the process. A consensus definition of ≥70% was decided a priori. Participants were asked to rank importance on a 9-point scale and categorize the items by relevance to types of visual impairment following stroke or not relevant. Analysis of consensus, stability, and agreement was conducted. In total, 113 participants registered for the Delphi survey of which 47 (41.6%) completed all three rounds. Response rates to the three rounds were 78/113 (69.0%), 61/76 (81.3%), and 49/64 (76.6%), respectively. The participants included orthoptists (45.4%), occupational therapists (44.3%), and stroke survivors (10.3%). Consensus was reached on 56.5% of items in the three-round process, all for inclusion. A consensus was reached for 83.8% in the categorization of items. The majority (82.6%) of consensus were for relevant to 'all visual impairment following stroke'; two items were deemed 'not relevant'. The lack of item reduction achieved by this Delphi process highlights the need for additional methods of item reduction in the development of a new PROM for visual impairment following stroke. These results will be considered alongside Rasch analysis to achieve further item reduction. However, the Delphi survey remains important as it provides clinical and patient insight into each item rather than purely relying
Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M.; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L.; Zeng, Jinsheng
The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor’s lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion–symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter
Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L; Zeng, Jinsheng; Turkeltaub, Peter E
The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor's lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion-symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter
Ehlers, Mana R; López Herrero, Carmen; Kastrup, Andreas; Hildebrandt, Helmut
There are no reliable outcome predictors for severely impaired patients suffering from large infarctions or hemorrhages within the territory of the middle cerebral artery. This study investigated whether the amplitude of the event-related potential (ERP) component P300 predicts if a patient will be transferred to the next stage of rehabilitation (positive outcome) or to a nursing home (negative outcome). The second goal was to look for lesion locations determining the generation of the P300 amplitude. Forty-seven patients performed an auditory oddball task to elicit the P300 and were assessed with different scores for activities of daily living (ADL). Patients were divided in two groups according to their outcome. P300 amplitudes were compared between these groups controlling for age and gender. Post-hoc analyses were performed to analyse the relationship between P300 amplitude and neurological outcome scores. In addition, lesion overlaps were created to detect which lesion pattern affects P300 generation. Patients with a positive outcome showed higher P300 amplitudes at frontal electrode sites than those with a negative outcome. P300 amplitude correlated with ADL score difference. Lesions in the superior temporal gyrus, middle and inferior frontal and prefrontal regions led to visibly diminished P300 amplitudes. The findings suggest that an impairment of attention (P300 amplitude reduction) negatively influences successful neurological rehabilitation. Left superior temporal lobe and the left premotor/prefrontal areas are essential brain areas for the generation of the P300. P300 amplitude may be used as an outcome predictor for severely impaired patients suffering from middle cerebral artery strokes or hemorrhages. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cao, Yan; Yin, Xuan; Soto-Aguilar, Francisca; Liu, Yiping; Yin, Ping; Wu, Junyi; Zhu, Bochang; Li, Wentao; Lao, Lixing; Xu, Shifen
The incidence, mortality, and prevalence of stroke are high in China. Stroke is commonly associated with insomnia; both insomnia and stroke have been effectively treated with acupuncture for a long time. The aim of this proposed trial is to assess the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on insomnia following stroke. This proposed study is a single-center, single-blinded (patient-assessor-blinded), parallel-group randomized controlled trial. We will randomly assign 60 participants with insomnia following stroke into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention group will undergo traditional acupuncture that achieves the De-qi sensation, and the control group will receive sham acupuncture without needle insertion. The same acupoints (DU20, DU24, EX-HN3, EX-HN22, HT7, and SP6) will be used in both groups. Treatments will be given to all participants three times a week for the subsequent 4 weeks. The primary outcome will be the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The secondary outcomes will be: the Insomnia Severity Index; sleep efficacy, sleep awakenings, and total sleep time recorded via actigraphy; the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life score; the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The use of estazolam will be permitted and regulated under certain conditions. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 2 weeks after treatment commencement, 4 weeks after treatment commencement, and at the 8-week follow-up. This proposed study will contribute to expanding knowledge about acupuncture treatment for insomnia following stroke. This will be a high-quality randomized controlled trial with strict methodology and few design deficits. It will investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture as an alternative treatment for insomnia following stroke. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry identifier: ChiCTR-IIC-16008382 . Registered on 28 April 2016.
Jenkins, Colin; Price, Fiona
Introduction The National Clinical Guidelines for Stroke recommend ‘routine follow-up of patients 6 months post discharge’. The Sentinel Stroke National Audit Programme sets a standard of 6 months postadmission follow-up, capturing data on process and outcomes. There appears to be no convincing model of stroke follow-up at 6 months, and despite evidence of unmet need in almost 50% of stroke survivors 1–5 years after their stroke, little work focuses on the first 12 months of recovery. By listening to the living experiences of stroke, the research aims to tailor the stroke care pathway to the needs of those affected. Methods and analysis A focus group of six stroke survivors and carers will be invited to identify appropriate interview questions about the value of follow-up at 6 months, ensuring that this study has its genesis in the participant experience. A pilot study of four stroke survivors will ascertain the feasibility of the method. Thirty stroke survivors from the follow-up clinic will be invited to take part in semistructured interviews. Raw data, in the form of digital recordings of the interviews, will be transcribed. Interview transcriptions will be checked by the participant for accuracy prior to analysis using NVivo software. Literal and reflective narrative analysis will be used to code transcribed text to examine shared themes and reflect on content. Ethics and dissemination Study documentation has been reviewed by the Coventry and Warwickshire Research Ethics Committee; the chief investigator met with the committee to scrutinise the study and justify its methodology. The committee has approved this study. A copy of the final report will be given to participants, the Stroke Association, the local Clinical Commissioning Group and participants’ general practitioners. It is intended to disseminate the results locally by presentation to the Trust board, at academic conferences and by publication in a peer-reviewed scientific journal
Li, S J; Hu, H Q; Wang, X L; Cao, B Z
Objective: To investigate the correlation between post-stroke pneumonia and outcome in patients with acute brain infarction. Methods: Consecutive acute cerebral infarction patients who were hospitalized in Department of Neurology, Jinan Military General Hospital were prospectively recruited from August 2010 to August 2014. The baseline data including age, sex, the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, type of Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP: total anterior circulation infarct, partial anterior circulation infarct, posterior circulation infarct and lacunar infarct), fasting blood glucose etc. after admission were recorded. Post-stroke pneumonia was diagnosed by treating physician according to criteria for hospital-acquired pneumonia of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recovery was assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 180 days after stroke by telephone interview (mRS≤2 reflected good prognosis, and mRS>2 reflected unfavorable prognosis). Multinominal Logistic regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier curve and log rank test were used. Results: A total of 1 249 patients were enrolled, among them 173 patients were lost during follow-up. A total of 159 patients had post-stroke pneumonia, while 1 090 patients were without post-stroke. Compared with patients without post-stoke pneumonia, patients with post-stroke pneumonia were older (67±13 vs 63±12 years, P =0.000), more severe (NIHSS, 15(14) vs 4(4), P =0.000). Compared with patients without post-stoke pneumonia, more patients with post-stroke pneumonia suffered from heart failure (12.58% vs 3.40%, P =0.000), atrial fibrillation (26.42% vs 8.81%, P =0.000), myocardial infarction (10.06% vs 5.05%, P =0.016), recurrent brain infarction (30.19% vs 22.66%, P =0.045), total anterior circulation infarct type of OCSP (46.54% vs 19.63%, P =0.000), posterior circulation infarct of OCSP (39.62% vs 25.51%, P =0.001); more patients suffered from disorder of consciousness (60.38% vs 9
Morer, C; Boestad, C; Zuluaga, P; Alvarez-Badillo, A; Maraver, F
Stroke remains the leading cause of acquired disability. Health and social planning and management may vary and although prevention is crucial, having better treatments and strategies to reduce disability is needed. To determine the effect of an intensive program of thalassotherapy and aquatic therapy in stroke patients, valuing clinical parameters and functional validated scales. A quasi-experimental prospective study consisting of a specific program assessed pre- and post- 3 weeks treatment to 26 stroke patients with a mild-moderate disability. The outcomes measured were: Berg Balance scale, Timed Up and Go test, 10-meter walking test, 6-minute walking test and pain Visual Analogue Scale. After intervention, participants had a significant improvement in all outcomes measured. Our results suggest that an intensive program of thalassotherapy and aquatic therapy could be useful during stroke rehabilitation to improve balance, gait and pain.
Wang, Arthur; Pednekar, Noorie; Lehrer, Rachel; Todo, Akira; Sahni, Ramandeep; Marks, Stephen; Stiefel, Michael F
The DRAGON score, which includes clinical and computed tomographic (CT) scan parameters, predicts functional outcomes in ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA). We assessed the utility of the DRAGON score in predicting functional outcome in stroke patients receiving both IV tPA and endovascular therapy. A retrospective chart review of patients treated at our institution from February 2009 to October 2015 was conducted. All patients with computed tomography angiography (CTA) proven large vessel occlusions (LVO) who underwent intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy were included. Baseline DRAGON scores and modified Rankin Score (mRS) at the time of hospital discharge was calculated. Good outcome was defined as mRS ≤3. Fifty-eight patients with LVO of the anterior circulation were studied. The mean DRAGON score of patients on admission was 5.3 (range, 3-8). All patients received IV tPA and endovascular therapy. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that DRAGON scores ≥7 was associated with higher mRS ( P DRAGON scores ≤6. Patients with DRAGON scores of 7 and 8 on admission had a mortality rate of 3.8% and 40%, respectively. The DRAGON score can help predict better functional outcomes in ischemic stroke patients receiving both IV tPA and endovascular therapy. This data supports the use of the DRAGON score in selecting patients who could potentially benefit from more invasive therapies such as endovascular treatment. Larger prospective studies are warranted to further validate these results.
Manawadu, Dulka; Choyi, Jithesh; Kalra, Lalit
Delays in treatment of in-hospital stroke (IHS) adversely affect patient outcomes. We hypothesised that early referral and specialist management of IHS patients will improve outcomes at 90 days. Baseline characteristics, assessment delays, thrombolysis eligibility, 90-day functional outcomes and all-cause mortality were compared between IHS patients referred for specialist stroke management within 3 hours of symptom onset (early referrals) and later referrals. Patients were identified from a prospective stroke registry between January 2009 and December 2010. Inclusion criteria were primary admission with a non-stroke diagnosis, onset of new neurological deficits after admission and early ischaemic changes on CT or MR imaging. Eighty four (4.6%) of 1836 stroke patients had IHS (mean age 74 year; 51% male, median NIHSS score 10). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between 53 (63%) early and 31 (37%) late referrals. Thrombolysis was performed in 29 (76%) of the 37/78 (47%) potentially eligible patients; 7 patients were excluded because specialist referral was delayed beyond 4.5 hours despite symptom recognition within 3 hours of onset. Early referral improved functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale 0-2 at 90 days 40% v 7%, p = 0.001) and was an independent predictor of mRS 0-2 at 90 days after adjusting for age, pre-morbid function, primary cause for hospital admission and stroke severity [OR 1.13 (95% C.I. = 1.10-1.27), p = 0.002]. Early referral and specialist management of IHS patients that includes thrombolysis is associated with better functional outcomes at 90 days.
Andersen, Hanne Elkjaer; Eriksen, Karen; Brown, Anne
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether follow-up services for stroke survivors could improve functional outcome and reduce readmission rate. In this paper results of functional outcome are reported. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial allocating patients to one of three different types of aftercare: (1......) follow-up home visits by a physician, (2) physiotherapist instruction in the patient's home, or (3) standard aftercare. SUBJECTS: Stroke patients with persisting impairment and disability who, after completing inpatient rehabilitation, were discharged to their homes. OUTCOME MEASURES: Six months after...... discharge, functional outcome was assessed with Functional Quality of Movement, Barthel Index, Frenchay Activity Index and Index of Extended Activites of Daily Living. RESULTS: One-hundred and fifty-five stroke patients were included in the study. Fifty-four received follow-up home visits by a physician, 53...
Boeskov, Birgitte; Carver, Line Tornehøj; von Essen-Leise, Anders; Henriksen, Marius
Stroke is an important cause of severe disability and impaired motor function. Treatment modalities that improve motor function in patients with stroke are needed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of kinesthetic taping of the anterior thigh and knee on maximal walking speed and clinical indices of spasticity in patients with stroke. Thirty-two patients (9 women) receiving rehabilitation after stroke (average, 50 days since stroke) who had impaired walking ability were recruited. Primary outcome was maximal walking speed measured by the 10-meter walk test. Secondary outcomes were number of steps taken during the test and clinical signs of spasticity measured by the Tardieu Scale. Tests were conducted before and immediately after application of kinesthetic tape to the anterior thigh and knee of the paretic lower limb. After application of the tape, the maximal walking speed increased, on average, by 0.08 m/s (95% CI, 0.04 to 0.12; P kinesthetic taping of the anterior thigh and knee provides an immediate improvement in walking function in patients with stroke. Such a positive effect on motor function could be a valuable adjunct in physical therapy and rehabilitation of patients with stroke.
Krarup, L.H.; Truelsen, T.; Gluud, C.
were randomized in the ExStroke Pilot Trial to an intervention of repeated instructions and encouragement to increase the level of physical activity or to a control group. Prestroke level of physical activity was assessed retrospectively by interview using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly......OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prestroke level of physical activity influenced stroke severity and long-term outcome. METHODS: Patients included into the present analyses represent a subset of patients with first-ever stroke enrolled into the ExStroke Pilot Trial. Patients with ischemic stroke...... (PASE) questionnaire. The PASE questionnaire quantifies the amount of physical activity done during a 7-day period. In this prospectively collected patient population initial stroke severity was measured using the Scandinavian Stroke Scale and long-term outcome was assessed after 2 years using...
Luke, Carolyn; Dodd, Karen J; Brock, Kim
To determine the effectiveness of the Bobath concept at reducing upper limb impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions after stroke. Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant trials published between 1966 and 2003. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for the following inclusion criteria: population of adults with upper limb disability after stroke; stated use of the Bobath concept aimed at improving upper limb disability in isolation from other approaches; outcomes reflecting changes in upper limb impairment, activity limitation or participation restriction. Of the 688 articles initially identified, eight met the inclusion criteria. Five were randomized controlled trials, one used a single-group crossover design and two were single-case design studies. Five studies measured impairments including shoulder pain, tone, muscle strength and motor control. The Bobath concept was found to reduce shoulder pain better than cryotherapy, and to reduce tone compared to no intervention and compared to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). However, no difference was detected for changes in tone between the Bobath concept and a functional approach. Differences did not reach significance for measures of muscle strength and motor control. Six studies measured activity limitations, none of these found the Bobath concept was superior to other therapy approaches. Two studies measured changes in participation restriction and both found equivocal results. Comparisons of the Bobath concept with other approaches do not demonstrate superiority of one approach over the other at improving upper limb impairment, activity or participation. However, study limitations relating to methodological quality, the outcome measures used and contextual factors investigated limit the ability to draw conclusions. Future research should use sensitive upper limb measures, trained Bobath therapists and homogeneous samples to identify the influence of
Bhalla, Ajay; Grieve, Richard; Rudd, Anthony G; Wolfe, Charles D A
To develop effective strategies to address the needs of young patients with stroke, it is important to recognize what components of stroke care they receive. The aims of this study were to describe the provision of stroke care and the factors associated with 3-month mortality and disability (Barthel Index 0-14) in patients younger than 55 years across Western and Eastern Europe. Data from hospital-based stroke registers in Western Europe (7 centers, 6 countries) and Eastern Europe (4 centers, 3 countries) were analyzed. Of 1735 patients admitted to hospital, 201 (11.5%) patients were younger than 55 years (Western European centers 51%, and Eastern European centers 49%). Stroke department care was higher in Western centers (67%) than in Eastern centers (24%) (P Western centers. At 3 months, case fatalities between Western and Eastern centers were 8% versus 23% (P = .003). Patients in Eastern European centers were more likely to have disability at 3 months (odds ratio = 24.3, confidence interval = 1.2-494, P = .04). Young patients with stroke in Western Europe are more likely to gain access to a number of components of stroke care compared with those in Eastern Europe. The future challenge is to ensure that recommendations are adopted to ensure all young patients receive evidence-based stroke care across Europe.
Westendorp, W.F.; Vermeij, J.D.; Zock, E.; Hooijenga, I.J.; Kruyt, N.D.; Bosboom, H.J.; Kwa, V.I.H.; Weisfelt, M.; Remmers, M.J.; Houten, R. ten; Schreuder, A.H.; Vermeer, S.E.; Dijk, E.J. van; Dippel, D.W.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Spanjaard, L.; Vermeulen, M; Poll, T. van der; Prins, J.M.; Vermeij, F.H.; Roos, Y.B.; Kleyweg, R.P.; Kerkhoff, H.; Brouwer, M.C.T.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Beek, D. van de; Nederkoorn, P.J.
BACKGROUND: In adults with acute stroke, infections occur commonly and are associated with an unfavourable functional outcome. In the Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS) we aimed to establish whether or not preventive antimicrobial therapy with a third-generation cephalosporin,
Andersen, Morten Nonboe; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter
BACKGROUND: Although diverging, most studies show that sex has no significant influence on stroke survival. METHODS: In a Copenhagen, Denmark, community all patients with stroke during March 1992 to November 1993 were registered on hospital admission. Stroke severity was measured using the Scandi......BACKGROUND: Although diverging, most studies show that sex has no significant influence on stroke survival. METHODS: In a Copenhagen, Denmark, community all patients with stroke during March 1992 to November 1993 were registered on hospital admission. Stroke severity was measured using......-up period. Predictors of death were identified using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Of 999 patients, 559 (56%) were women and 440 (44%) were men. Women were older (77.0 v 70.9 years; P ... factors showed no difference between sexes for ischemic heart disease, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and previous stroke. Men more often were smokers and alcohol consumers. Unadjusted survival in men and women did not differ: 70.3% versus 66.7% (1-year), 40.0% versus 38.9% (5-year...
Andersen, Morten Nonboe; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter
BACKGROUND: Although diverging, most studies show that sex has no significant influence on stroke survival. METHODS: In a Copenhagen, Denmark, community all patients with stroke during March 1992 to November 1993 were registered on hospital admission. Stroke severity was measured using the Scandi......BACKGROUND: Although diverging, most studies show that sex has no significant influence on stroke survival. METHODS: In a Copenhagen, Denmark, community all patients with stroke during March 1992 to November 1993 were registered on hospital admission. Stroke severity was measured using......-up period. Predictors of death were identified using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Of 999 patients, 559 (56%) were women and 440 (44%) were men. Women were older (77.0 v 70.9 years; P ... factors showed no difference between sexes for ischemic heart disease, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and previous stroke. Men more often were smokers and alcohol consumers. Unadjusted survival in men and women did not differ: 70.3% versus 66.7% (1-year), 40.0% versus 38.9% (5-year...
Liu, Hanxiang; Reynolds, Gavin P; Wang, Wenmin; Wei, Xianwen
Uric acid has neuroprotective properties in experimental and clinical studies of neurodegenerative disease. It is, however, associated with increased risk of stroke, yet, despite some inconsistent findings, increasing evidence suggests it may also be related to improved stroke outcomes. We have determined whether there is an effect of plasma uric acid on the short-term outcome of stroke patients in a general hospital setting using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). We also investigated the relationship of uric acid with other clinical correlates. Plasma uric acid was determined in 108 acute ischemic stroke patients and their mRS scores measured. Patients with a poor outcome (mRS > 2) had significantly lower uric acid than those with a better outcome; this remained after correcting for the effect of sex on uric acid concentrations. There was no significant association with other epidemiological factors or with cognitive function determined by Mini-Mental State Examination. An association between uric acid and the cerebral circulation was also found in which lower uric acid occurs with posterior artery involvement. These findings demonstrate in a naturalistic cohort of patients the association of uric acid with short-term disability following ischemic stroke. They also raise the question of whether uric acid may influence the regional brain involvement in stroke.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Family history and twins studies suggest an inherited component to ischemic stroke risk. Candidate gene association studies have been performed but have limited capacity to identify novel risk factor genes. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS aims to conduct a genome-wide scan in sibling pairs concordant or discordant for ischemic stroke to identify novel genetic risk factors through linkage analysis. Methods Screening at multiple clinical centers identifies patients (probands with radiographically confirmed ischemic stroke and a family history of at least 1 living full sibling with stroke. After giving informed consent, without violating privacy among other family members, the proband invites siblings concordant and discordant for stroke to participate. Siblings then contact the study coordinating center. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke in potentially concordant siblings is confirmed by systematic centralized review of medical records. The stroke-free status of potentially discordant siblings is confirmed by validated structured telephone interview. Blood samples for DNA analysis are taken from concordant sibling pairs and, if applicable, from 1 discordant sibling. Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines are created, and a scan of the human genome is planned. Discussion Conducting adequately powered genomics studies of stroke in humans is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the stroke phenotype and the difficulty of obtaining DNA samples from clinically well-characterized members of a cohort of stroke pedigrees. The multicentered design of this study is intended to efficiently assemble a cohort of ischemic stroke pedigrees without invoking community consent or using cold-calling of pedigree members.
Ong, Cheung-Ter; Wong, Yi-Sin; Sung, Sheng-Feng; Wu, Chi-Shun; Hsu, Yung-Chu; Su, Yu-Hsiang; Hung, Ling-Chien
Sex-related differences in the clinical presentation and outcomes of stroke patients are issues that have attracted increased interest from the scientific community. The present study aimed to investigate sex-related differences in the risk factors for in-hospital mortality and outcome in ischemic stroke patients. A total of 4278 acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to a stroke unit between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2014 were included in the study. We considered demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, co-morbidities, and complications, among others, as factors that may affect clinical presentation and in-hospital mortality. Good and poor outcomes were defined as modified Ranking Score (mRS)≦2 and mRS>2. Neurological deterioration (ND) was defined as an increase of National Institutes of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS) ≥ 4 points. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) was defined as signs of hemorrhage in cranial CT or MRI scans. Transtentorial herniation was defined by brain edema, as seen in cranial CT or MRI scans, associated with the onset of acute unilateral or bilateral papillary dilation, loss of reactivity to light, and decline of ≥ 2 points in the Glasgow coma scale score. Of 4278 ischemic stroke patients (women 1757, 41.1%), 269 (6.3%) received thrombolytic therapy. The in hospital mortality rate was 3.35% (139/4278) [4.45% (80/1757) for women and 2.34% (59/2521) for men, p stroke, 56.1% (1813/3231) showed good outcomes [47.4% (629/1328) for women and 62.2% (1184/1903) for men, p stroke history, and old age were factors contributing to poor outcomes in men and women. Hypertension was associated with poor outcomes in women but not in men in comparison with patients without hypertension. Stroke severity and increased intracranial pressure were associated with increased in-hospital mortality in men and women. AF was associated with increased in-hospital mortality in women but not in men compared with patients without AF. The in
Huber, Roman; Grittner, Ulrike; Weidemann, Frank; Thijs, Vincent; Tanislav, Christian; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Wolf, Markus; Hennerici, Michael G; McCabe, Dominick J H; Putaala, Jukaa; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Kessler, Christoph; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Martus, Peter; Kolodny, Edwin; Norrving, Bo; Rolfs, Arndt
A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is disproportionately prevalent in patients with cryptogenic stroke. Without alternative explanations, it is frequently considered to be causative. A detailed stratification of these patients may improve the identification of incidental PFO. We investigated the PFO prevalence in 3497 transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients aged 18 to 55 years in the prospective multicenter SIFAP1 study (Stroke in Young Fabry Patients 1) using the ASCO classification. Patients without an obvious cause for transient ischemic attack/stroke (ASCO 0) were divided into subgroups with and without vascular risk factors (ASCO 0+ and 0-). In addition, we looked for PFO-related magnetic resonance imaging lesion patterns. PFO was identified in 25% of patients. Twenty percent of patients with a definite or probable cause of transient ischemic attack/stroke (≥1 grade 1 or 2 ASCO criterion; n=1769) had a PFO compared with 29% of cryptogenic stroke patients (ASCO 0 and 3; n=1728; Pstrokes revealed a PFO in 24% of 978 ASCO 3 patients (n.s. versus ASCO 1 and 2) and a higher prevalence of 36% in 750 ASCO 0 cases (Pstroke patients demonstrate a heterogeneous PFO prevalence. Even in case of less conclusive diseases like nonstenotic arteriosclerosis, patients should preferentially be considered to have a non-PFO-mediated stroke. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful return to work is regarded as one of the most important outcome factors for working-age post stroke patients. The present study will estimate the effect of various predictors on the odds of returning to work after stroke. Nearly twenty thousand 20-57 year-old stroke patients in Denmark who were gainfully occupied prior to the stroke will be included in the study. Methods/design Stroke patients will be followed prospectively through national registers. Multi-level logistic regression will be used to model the odds of being gainfully occupied ca. two years after the stroke as a function of the following predictors: Age (20-49 years, 50-57 years gender, occupational class, self-employment (yes; no, onset calendar year (1996, 1997, ..., 2006, diagnosis (subarachnoid haemorrhage; intracerebral haemorrhage; cerebral infarction; stroke, not specified as haemorrhage or infarction and 'type of municipality' (the variable is set to 1 if the person lived in a municipality which had a brain injury rehabilitation centre at the time of the stroke. Otherwise it is set to 0. Municipalities will be treated as the subjects while individual observations within municipalities are treated as correlated repeated measurements. Discussion Since our follow-up is done through registers and all people in the target population are included, the study is free from sampling bias, recall bias and non-response bias. The study is also strengthened by its size. The major weakness of the study is that it does not contain any stroke severity measures. Thus, it cannot accurately predict whether a particular stroke patient will in fact return to work. The study is, however, quite useful from a public health perspective. It can be used to estimate the proportion of patients in a certain group that is expected to return to work, and thereby provide a comparison material, which e.g. municipalities can use to evaluate their success in returning their
M. Geurts (Marjolein); Scheijmans, F.E.V. (Féline E.V.); T. van Seeters (Tom); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta K.); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos (Yvo); L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); Greve, D. (Droogh-de); H.P. Bienfait (Henri); M.A.A. van Walderveen (Marianne); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (Wouter); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); Bot, J.; M.C. Visser (Marieke); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); van Seeters, T.; A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)
textabstractBackground: High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute
Aries, M J H; Uyttenboogaart, M; Koopman, K; Rödiger, L A; Vroomen, P C; De Keyser, J; Luijckx, G J
Background: The presence of a hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign (HMCAS) on baseline brain CT is associated with poor clinical outcome in stroke patients treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). It remains uncertain whether the presence of HMCAS is associated with
Chan, Adeline; Yan, Jun; Csurhes, Peter; Greer, Judith; McCombe, Pamela
The aim of this study was to measure the levels of circulating BDNF and the frequency of BDNF-producing T cells after acute ischaemic stroke. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate peripheral blood leukocytes that were labelled with antibodies against markers of T cells, T regulatory cells (Tregs), and intracellular BDNF. There was a slight increase in serum BDNF levels after stroke. There was no overall difference between stroke patients and controls in the frequency of CD4(+) and CD8(+) BDNF(+) cells, although a subgroup of stroke patients showed high frequencies of these cells. However, there was an increase in the percentage of BDNF(+) Treg cells in the CD4(+) population in stroke patients compared to controls. Patients with high percentages of CD4(+) BDNF(+) Treg cells had a better outcome at 6months than those with lower levels. These groups did not differ in age, gender or initial stroke severity. Enhancement of BDNF production after stroke could be a useful means of improving neuroprotection and recovery after stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rothwell, Peter M; Giles, Matthew F; Chandratheva, Arvind; Marquardt, Lars; Geraghty, Olivia; Redgrave, Jessica N E; Lovelock, Caroline E; Binney, Lucy E; Bull, Linda M; Cuthbertson, Fiona C; Welch, Sarah J V; Bosch, Shelley; Alexander, Faye C; Carasco-Alexander, Faye; Silver, Louise E; Gutnikov, Sergei A; Mehta, Ziyah
The risk of recurrent stroke is up to 10% in the week after a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke. Modelling studies suggest that urgent use of existing preventive treatments could reduce the risk by 80-90%, but in the absence of evidence many health-care systems make little provision. Our aim was to determine the effect of more rapid treatment after TIA and minor stroke in patients who are not admitted direct to hospital. We did a prospective before (phase 1: April 1, 2002, to Sept 30, 2004) versus after (phase 2: Oct 1, 2004, to March 31, 2007) study of the effect on process of care and outcome of more urgent assessment and immediate treatment in clinic, rather than subsequent initiation in primary care, in all patients with TIA or minor stroke not admitted direct to hospital. The study was nested within a rigorous population-based incidence study of all TIA and stroke (Oxford Vascular Study; OXVASC), such that case ascertainment, investigation, and follow-up were complete and identical in both periods. The primary outcome was the risk of stroke within 90 days of first seeking medical attention, with independent blinded (to study period) audit of all events. Of the 1278 patients in OXVASC who presented with TIA or stroke (634 in phase 1 and 644 in phase 2), 607 were referred or presented direct to hospital, 620 were referred for outpatient assessment, and 51 were not referred to secondary care. 95% (n=591) of all outpatient referrals were to the study clinic. Baseline characteristics and delays in seeking medical attention were similar in both periods, but median delay to assessment in the study clinic fell from 3 (IQR 2-5) days in phase 1 to less than 1 (0-3) day in phase 2 (prisk of recurrent stroke in the patients referred to the study clinic was 10.3% (32/310 patients) in phase 1 and 2.1% (6/281 patients) in phase 2 (adjusted hazard ratio 0.20, 95% CI 0.08-0.49; p=0.0001); there was no significant change in risk in patients treated elsewhere. The
Westendorp, Willeke F.; Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; van Geloven, Nan; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; van der Poll, Tom; Prins, Jan M.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Vermeij, Frederique H.; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; van de Beek, Diederik
Stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide. Infections after stroke occur in 30% of stroke patients and are strongly associated with unfavourable outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy lowers infection rate in patients after stroke, however, the effect of preventive antibiotic treatment on
W.F. Westendorp (Willeke); J.-D. Vermeij (Jan-Dirk); N. van Geloven (Nan); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); M.G.W. Dijkgraaf (Marcel); T. van der Poll (Tom); J.M. Prins (Jan); L. Spanjaard (Lodewijk); F.H. Vermeij (Frederique); P.J. Nederkoorn (Paul); D. van de Beek (Diederik)
textabstractBackground: Stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide. Infections after stroke occur in 30% of stroke patients and are strongly associated with unfavourable outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy lowers infection rate in patients after stroke, however, the effect of preventive
Lin, Keh-chung; Fu, Tiffany; Wu, Ching-yi; Hsieh, Ching-ju
This study was conducted to establish the minimal detectable change (MDC) and clinically important differences (CIDs) of the physical category of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale in patients with stroke. MDC and CIDs scores were calculated from the data of 74 participants enrolled in randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of two rehabilitation programs in patients with stroke. These participants received treatments for 3 weeks and underwent clinical assessment before and after treatment. To obtain test-retest reliability for calculating MDC, another 25 patients with chronic stroke were recruited. The MDC was calculated from the standard error of measurement (SEM) to indicate a real change with 95% confidence for individual patients (MDC95). Distribution-based and anchor-based methods were adopted to triangulate the ranges of minimal CIDs. The percentage of scale width was calculated by dividing the MDC and CIDs by the total score range of each physical category. The percentage of patients exceeding MDC95 and minimal CIDs was also reported. The MDC95 of the mobility, self-care, and upper extremity (UE) function subscales were 5.9, 4.0, and 5.3 respectively. The minimal CID ranges for these 3 subscales were 1.5 to 2.4, 1.2 to 1.9, and 1.2 to 1.8. The percentage of patients exceeding MDC95 and minimal CIDs of the mobility, self-care, and UE function subscales were 9.5% to 28.4%, 6.8% to 28.4%, and 12.2% to 33.8%, respectively. The change score of an individual patient has to reach 5.9, 4.0, and 5.3 on the 3 subscales to indicate a true change. The mean change scores of a group of patients with stroke on these subscales should reach the lower bound of CID ranges of 1.5 (6.3% scale width), 1.2 (6.0% scale width), and 1.2 (6.0% scale width) to be regarded as clinically important change. This information may facilitate interpretations of patient-reported outcomes after stroke rehabilitation. Future research is warranted to validate these findings.
Ekstam, Lisa; Johansson, Ulla; Guidetti, Susanne; Eriksson, Gunilla; Ytterberg, Charlotte
Objectives The aim of the study was to explore the associations between the dyad’s (person with stroke and informal caregiver) perception of the person with stroke’s rehabilitation needs and stroke severity, personal factors (gender, age, sense of coherence), the use of rehabilitation services, amount of informal care and caregiver burden. Further, the aim was to explore the personal experience of everyday life changes among persons with stroke and their caregivers and their strategies for handling these 1 year after stroke. Design A mixed methods design was used combining quantitative and qualitative data and analyses. Setting Data were mainly collected in the participants’ homes. Outcome measures Data were collected through established instruments and open-ended interviews. The dyad's perceptions of the person with stroke’s rehabilitation needs were assessed by the persons with stroke and their informal caregivers using a questionnaire based on Ware’s taxonomy. The results were combined and classified into three groups: met, discordant (ie, not in agreement) and unmet rehabilitation needs. To assess sense of coherence (SOC) in persons with stroke, the SOC-scale was used. Caregiver burden was assessed using the Caregiver Burden Scale. Data on the use of rehabilitation services were obtained from the computerised register at the Stockholm County Council. Participants 86 persons with stroke (mean age 73 years, 38% women) and their caregivers (mean age 65 years, 40% women). Results Fifty-two per cent of the dyads perceived that the person with stroke’s need for rehabilitation was met 12 months after stroke. Met rehabilitation needs were associated with less severe stroke, more coping strategies for solving problems in everyday activities and less caregiver burden. Conclusions Rehabilitation interventions need to focus on supporting the dyads’ process of psychological and social adaptation after stroke. Future studies need to explore and evaluate
Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Lin, Keh-Chung; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Wu, Ching-Yi; Wu, Kuen-Yuh
We evaluated the reliability of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and determined its ability to predict functional outcomes in stroke survivors. The rehabilitation effect on 8-OHdG and functional outcomes were also assessed. Sixty-one stroke patients received a 4-week rehabilitation. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The test-retest reliability of 8-OHdG was good (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.76). Upper-limb motor function and muscle power determined by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Medical Research Council (MRC) scales before rehabilitation showed significant negative correlation with 8-OHdG (r = −0.38, r = −0.30; p rehabilitation, we found a fair and significant correlation between 8-OHdG and FMA (r = −0.34) and 8-OHdG and pain (r = 0.26, p rehabilitation. The exploratory study findings conclude that 8-OHdG is a reliable and promising biomarker of oxidative stress and could be a valid predictor of functional outcomes in patients. Monitoring of behavioral indicators along with biomarkers may have crucial benefits in translational stroke research. PMID:24743892
Geurts, Marjolein; Scheijmans, Féline E V; van Seeters, Tom; Biessels, Geert J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K; van der Worp, H Bart
High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In 419 patients with acute ischemic stroke we assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and during the first 3 days with both infarct size and functional outcome. Infarct size was measured in milliliters on CT or MRI after 3 days. Poor functional outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≥3 at 3 months. Body temperature on admission was not associated with infarct size or poor outcome in adjusted analyses. By contrast, each additional 1.0 °C in body temperature on day 1 was associated with 0.31 ml larger infarct size (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.59), on day 2 with 1.13 ml larger infarct size(95% CI, 0.83-1.43), and on day 3 with 0.80 ml larger infarct size (95% CI, 0.48-1.12), in adjusted linear regression analyses. Higher peak body temperatures on days two and three were also associated with poor outcome (adjusted relative risks per additional 1.0 °C in body temperature, 1.52 (95% CI, 1.17-1.99) and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.22-1.77), respectively). Higher peak body temperatures during the first days after ischemic stroke, rather than on admission, are associated with larger infarct size and poor functional outcome. This suggests that prevention of high temperatures may improve outcome if continued for at least 3 days.
Davies, Sarah E; Dodd, Karen J; Hill, Keith D
Primary purpose to determine if cultural and linguistic diversity affects health-related outcomes in people with stroke at discharge from hospital and secondary purpose to explore whether interpreter use alters these outcomes. Systematic search of: Cochrane, PEDro, CINAHL, Medline, Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO and Ageline databases. Publications were classified into whether they examined the impact of diversity in culture, or language or culture and language combined. Quality of evidence available was summarized using Best Evidence Synthesis. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Best Evidence Synthesis indicated conflicting evidence about the impact of culture alone and language barriers alone on health-related outcomes. There was strong evidence that hospital length of stay does not differ between groups when the combined impact of culture and language was investigated. Conflicting evidence was found for other outcomes including admission, discharge and change in FIM scores, and post-hospital discharge living arrangements. It is unknown if interpreter use alters health-related outcomes, because this was infrequently reported. The current limited research suggests that cultural and linguistic diversity does not appear to impact on health-related outcomes at discharge from hospital for people who have had a stroke, however further research is needed to address identified gaps. Implications for Rehabilitation The different language, culture and beliefs about health demonstrated by patients with stroke from minority groups in North America do not appear to significantly impact on their health-related outcomes during their admission to hospital. It is not known whether interpreter use influences outcomes in stroke rehabilitation because there is insufficient high quality research in this area. Clinicians in countries with different health systems and different cultural and linguistic groups within their communities need to view the results with caution
Loetscher, Tobias; Chen, Celia; Wignall, Sophie; Bulling, Andreas; Hoppe, Sabrina; Churches, Owen; Thomas, Nicole A; Nicholls, Michael E R; Lee, Andrew
A visual field defect (VFD) is a common consequence of stroke with a detrimental effect upon the survivors' functional ability and quality of life. The identification of effective treatments for VFD is a key priority relating to life post-stroke. Understanding the natural evolution of scanning compensation over time may have important ramifications for the development of efficacious therapies. The study aims to unravel the natural history of visual scanning behaviour in patients with VFD. The assessment of scanning patterns in the acute to chronic stages of stroke will reveal who does and does not learn to compensate for vision loss. Eye-tracking glasses are used to delineate eye movements in a cohort of 100 stroke patients immediately after stroke, and additionally at 6 and 12 months post-stroke. The longitudinal study will assess eye movements in static (sitting) and dynamic (walking) conditions. The primary outcome constitutes the change of lateral eye movements from the acute to chronic stages of stroke. Secondary outcomes include changes of lateral eye movements over time as a function of subgroup characteristics, such as side of VFD, stroke location, stroke severity and cognitive functioning. The longitudinal comparison of patients who do and do not learn compensatory scanning techniques may reveal important prognostic markers of natural recovery. Importantly, it may also help to determine the most effective treatment window for visual rehabilitation.
Marchal, G.; Serrati, C.; Rioux, P.; Petit-Taboue, M.C.; Viader, F.; Sayette, V. de la; Doze, F. le; Lonchon, P; Derlon, J.M.; Orgogozo, J.M.; Baron, J.C.
The authors used positron emission tomography (PET) to assess the relation between combined imaging of cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption 5-18 h after first middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke and neurological outcome at 2 months. All 18 patients could be classified into three visually defined PET patterns of perfusion and oxygen consumption changes. Pattern 1 suggested extensive irreversible damage and was consistently associated with poor outcome. Pattern 2 suggested continuing ischemia and was associated with variable outcome. Pattern 3 with hyperperfusion and little or no metabolic alteration, was associated with excellent recovery, which suggests that early reperfusion is beneficial. This relation between PET and outcome was highly significant. The results suggest that within 5-18 h of stroke onset, PET is a good predictor of outcome in patterns 1 and 3, for which therapy seems limited. The absence of predictive value for pattern 2 suggests that it is due to a reversible ischemic state that is possibly amenable to therapy. These findings may have important implications for acute MCA stroke management and for patients' selection for therapeutic trials
Groppo, Elisabetta; De Gennaro, Riccardo; Granieri, Gino; Fazio, Patrik; Cesnik, Edward; Granieri, Enrico; Casetta, Ilaria
The reported annual incidence of juvenile stroke ranges from 9 to 47 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. We sought to estimate the incidence of first-ever stroke in young adults through a population-based stroke registry in a well-defined and stable population. We planned to collect all cases of new stroke in people aged 15-44 years in Ferrara, Italy, over the period 2002-2007. During the surveillance period, a first-ever stroke was diagnosed in 39 patients, giving a mean annual crude incidence rate of 12.1 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 8.6-16.5), 9.1 when adjusted to the European population. The overall 30-day case fatality rate was 7.7, 21.4% for hemorrhagic stroke. The incidence rate was in the range of estimates detected in western countries. The case-fatality rate was lower than that reported in less recent studies. The stroke subtype predicted the probability of death and the outcome.
Oyedunni S. Arulogun
Full Text Available The burden of stroke is on the rise in Nigeria. A multi-faceted strategy is essential for reducing this growing burden and includes promoting medication adherence, optimizing traditional biomarker risk targets (blood pressure, cholesterol and encouraging beneficial lifestyle practices. Successful implementation of this strategy is challenged by inadequate patient health literacy, limited patient/medical system resources, and lack of a coordinated interdisciplinary treatment approach. Moreover, the few interventions developed to improve medical care in Nigeria have generally been aimed at physicians (primarily and nurses (secondarily with minimal input from other key health care providers, and limited contributions from patients, caregivers, and the community itself. The Tailored Hospital-based Risk Reduction to Impede Vascular Events after Stroke (THRIVES study is assessing the efficacy of a culturally sensitive multidimensional intervention for controlling blood pressure in recent stroke survivors. A key component of the intervention development process was the constitution of a project task force comprising various healthcare providers and administrators. This paper describes the unique experience in Sub-Saharan Africa of utilizing of an interdisciplinary Task force to facilitate the development of the multipronged behavioral intervention aimed at enhancing stroke outcomes in a low-middle income country.
Asplund, Kjell; Sukhova, Maria; Wester, Per; Stegmayr, Birgitta
In many countries, including Sweden, initiatives have been taken to reduce between-hospital differences in the quality of stroke services. We have explored to what extent hospital type (university, specialized nonuniversity, or community hospital) influences hospital performance. Riksstroke collects clinical data during hospital stay (national coverage 94%). Follow-up data at 3 months were collected using administrative registers and a questionnaire completed by surviving patients (response rate 88%). Structural data were collected from a questionnaire completed by hospital staff (response rate 100%). Multivariate analyses with adjustment for clustering were used to test differences between types of hospitals. The proportion of patients admitted directly to a stroke unit was highest in community hospitals and lowest in university hospitals. Magnetic resonance, carotid imaging, and thrombectomy were more frequently performed in university hospitals, and the door-to-needle time for thrombolysis was shorter. Secondary prevention with antihypertensive drugs was used less often, and outpatient follow-up was less frequent in university hospitals. Fewer patients in community hospitals were dissatisfied with their rehabilitation. After adjusting for possible confounders, poor outcome (dead or activities of daily living dependency 3 months after stroke) was not significantly different between the 3 types of hospital. In a setting with national stroke guidelines, stroke units in all hospitals, and measurement of hospital performance and benchmarking, outcome (after case-mix adjustment) is similar in university, specialized nonuniversity, and community hospitals. There seems to be fewer barriers to organizing well-functioning stroke services in community hospitals compared with university hospitals. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Brown, Allen W; Therneau, Terry M; Schultz, Billie A; Niewczyk, Paulette M; Granger, Carl V
Identifying clinical data acquired at inpatient rehabilitation admission for stroke that accurately predict key outcomes at discharge could inform the development of customized plans of care to achieve favorable outcomes. The purpose of this analysis was to use a large comprehensive national data set to consider a wide range of clinical elements known at admission to identify those that predict key outcomes at rehabilitation discharge. Sample data were obtained from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation data set with the diagnosis of stroke for the years 2005 through 2007. This data set includes demographic, administrative, and medical variables collected at admission and discharge and uses the FIM (functional independence measure) instrument to assess functional independence. Primary outcomes of interest were functional independence measure gain, length of stay, and discharge to home. The sample included 148,367 people (75% white; mean age, 70.6±13.1 years; 97% with ischemic stroke) admitted to inpatient rehabilitation a mean of 8.2±12 days after symptom onset. The total functional independence measure score, the functional independence measure motor subscore, and the case-mix group were equally the strongest predictors for any of the primary outcomes. The most clinically relevant 3-variable model used the functional independence measure motor subscore, age, and walking distance at admission (r(2)=0.107). No important additional effect for any other variable was detected when added to this model. This analysis shows that a measure of functional independence in motor performance and age at rehabilitation hospital admission for stroke are predominant predictors of outcome at discharge in a uniquely large US national data set. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Jauch, Edward C; Barreto, Andrew D; Broderick, Joseph P; Char, Doug M; Cucchiara, Brett L; Devlin, Thomas G; Haddock, Alison J; Hicks, William J; Hiestand, Brian C; Jickling, Glen C; June, Jeff; Liebeskind, David S; Lowenkopf, Ted J; Miller, Joseph B; O'Neill, John; Schoonover, Tim L; Sharp, Frank R; Peacock, W Frank
Acute ischemic stroke affects over 800,000 US adults annually, with hundreds of thousands more experiencing a transient ischemic attack. Emergent evaluation, prompt acute treatment, and identification of stroke or TIA (transient ischemic attack) etiology for specific secondary prevention are critical for decreasing further morbidity and mortality of cerebrovascular disease. The Biomarkers of Acute Stroke Etiology (BASE) study is a multicenter observational study to identify serum markers defining the etiology of acute ischemic stroke. Observational trial of patients presenting to the hospital within 24 h of stroke onset. Blood samples are collected at arrival, 24, and 48 h later, and RNA gene expression is utilized to identify stroke etiology marker candidates. The BASE study began January 2014. At the time of writing, there are 22 recruiting sites. Enrollment is ongoing, expected to hit 1000 patients by March 2017. The BASE study could potentially aid in focusing the initial diagnostic evaluation to determine stroke etiology, with more rapidly initiated targeted evaluations and secondary prevention strategies.Clinical Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02014896 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02014896?term=biomarkers+of+acute+stroke+etiology&rank=1.
Kefi, Asma; Larbi, Thara; Abdallah, Meya; Ouni, Amira El; Bougacha, Neil; Bouslama, Kamel; Hamzaoui, Saloua; M'rad, Skander
There is wanting data regarding young ischemic stroke in developing countries, especially in Tunisia. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors and etiologies of young ischemic stroke in Tunisian and make a comparison with previous reports. A total of 102 young ischemic stroke patients (15-45 years old) were admitted, between January 1996 and August 2007, to 11 departments of internal medicine in different Tunisian hospitals. The risk factors for stroke were documented and assessed. Diagnosis workup consisted of anamnesis, complete physical examination and extensive laboratory, radiologic, immunologic, neurologic and cardiologic examination. Stroke etiologies were classified according the Trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment. There were 42 men (41.2%) and 60 women (58.89%) with a mean age at onset of 35.7 years. As regards stroke subtype, large-artery atherosclerosis was diagnosed in 6.9% of cases, cardioembolism in 11.8%, small-vessel occlusion in 8.8%, other determined etiology in 37.3% and undetermined etiology in 35.3%. Concerning the traditional risk factors, smoking (31.4%), hypertension and diabetes mellitus (12.7% for each one) and a family history of stroke (10.8%) were the most common. The mean follow-up period was 30.5 months. In our study, traditional risk factors were not-so-uncommon in young adults with ischemic stroke suggesting that prevention can go through controlling these factors. Stroke of other determined etiology was the most common among our patients, so that a broad and detailed diagnostic workup is crucial to puzzle out the etiology for more and better stroke prevention.
Stephen E Roberts
Full Text Available Increased mortality following hospitalisation for stroke has been reported from many but not all studies that have investigated a 'weekend effect' for stroke. However, it is not known whether the weekend effect is affected by factors including hospital size, season and patient distance from hospital.To assess changes over time in mortality following hospitalisation for stroke and how any increased mortality for admissions on weekends is related to factors including the size of the hospital, seasonal factors and distance from hospital.A population study using person linked inpatient, mortality and primary care data for stroke from 2004 to 2012. The outcome measures were, firstly, mortality at seven days and secondly, mortality at 30 days and one year.Overall mortality for 37 888 people hospitalised following stroke was 11.6% at seven days, 21.4% at 30 days and 37.7% at one year. Mortality at seven and 30 days fell significantly by 1.7% and 3.1% per annum respectively from 2004 to 2012. When compared with week days, mortality at seven days was increased significantly by 19% for admissions on weekends, although the admission rate was 21% lower on weekends. Although not significant, there were indications of increased mortality at seven days for weekend admissions during winter months (31%, in community (81% rather than large hospitals (8% and for patients resident furthest from hospital (32% for distances of >20 kilometres. The weekend effect was significantly increased (by 39% for strokes of 'unspecified' subtype.Mortality following stroke has fallen over time. Mortality was increased for admissions at weekends, when compared with normal week days, but may be influenced by a higher stroke severity threshold for admission on weekends. Other than for unspecified strokes, we found no significant variation in the weekend effect for hospital size, season and distance from hospital.
Alotaibi, Naif M; Sarzetto, Francesca; Guha, Daipayan; Lu, Michael; Bodo, Andre; Gupta, Shaurya; Dyer, Erin; Howard, Peter; da Costa, Leodante; Swartz, Richard H; Boyle, Karl; Nathens, Avery B; Yang, Victor X D
The metrics of imaging-to-puncture and imaging-to-reperfusion were recently found to be associated with the clinical outcomes of endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. However, measures for improving workflow within hospitals to achieve better timing results are largely unexplored for endovascular therapy. The aim of this study was to examine our experience with a novel smartphone application developed in house to improve our timing metrics for endovascular treatment. We developed an encrypted smartphone application connecting all stroke team members to expedite conversations and to provide synchronized real-time updates on the time window from stroke onset to imaging and to puncture. The effects of the application on the timing of endovascular therapy were evaluated with a secondary analysis of our single-center cohort. Our primary outcome was imaging-to-puncture time. We assessed the outcomes with nonparametric tests of statistical significance. Forty-five patients met our criteria for analysis among 66 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who received endovascular therapy at our institution. After the implementation of the smartphone application, imaging-to-puncture time was significantly reduced (preapplication median time, 127 minutes; postapplication time, 69 minutes; P smartphone applications may reduce treatment times for endovascular therapy in acute ischemic stroke. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ovbiagele, Bruce; Schwamm, Lee H; Smith, Eric E; Grau-Sepulveda, Maria V; Saver, Jeffrey L; Bhatt, Deepak L; Hernandez, Adrian F; Peterson, Eric D; Fonarow, Gregg C
There is a paucity of information on clinical characteristics, care patterns, and clinical outcomes for hospitalized intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We assessed characteristics, care processes, and in-hospital outcome among ICH patients with CKD in the Get With the Guidelines-Stroke (GWTG-Stroke) program. We analyzed 113,059 ICH patients hospitalized at 1472 US centers participating in the GWTG-Stroke program between January 2009 and December 2012. In-hospital mortality and use of 2 predefined ICH performance measures were examined based on glomerular filtration rate. Renal dysfunction was categorized as a dichotomous (+CKD = estimated glomerular filtration rate mortality was also higher for those with CKD (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-1.52), mild dysfunction (adjusted OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16), moderate dysfunction (adjusted OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.39-1.53), severe dysfunction (adjusted OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.81-2.12), and kidney failure (adjusted OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 2.04-2.43) relative to those with normal renal function. Chronic kidney disease is present in nearly a third of patients hospitalized with ICH and is associated with slightly worse care and substantially higher mortality than those with normal renal function. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
W.F. Westendorp (Willeke); J.-D. Vermeij (Jan-Dirk); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); M.G.W. Dijkgraaf (Marcel); T. van der Poll (Tom); J.M. Prins (Jan); F.H. Vermeij (Frederique); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos (Yvo); M.C. Brouwer (Matthijs C.); A.H. Zwinderman (Ailko); D. van de Beek (Diederik); P.J. Nederkoorn (Paul)
textabstractBackground: Infections occur in 30% of stroke patients and are associated with unfavorable outcomes. Preventive antibiotic therapy lowers the infection rate after stroke, but the effect of preventive antibiotic treatment on functional outcome in patients with stroke is unknown. The PASS
Westendorp, Willeke F.; Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; van der Poll, Tom; Prins, Jan M.; Vermeij, Frederique H.; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J.
Infections occur in 30% of stroke patients and are associated with unfavorable outcomes. Preventive antibiotic therapy lowers the infection rate after stroke, but the effect of preventive antibiotic treatment on functional outcome in patients with stroke is unknown. The PASS is a multicenter,
Non-contrast cranial computed tomography (CT) scan reliably distinguishes between ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic strokes (HS) and will provide a reliable characterization of stroke types in the developing countries. Aims: To examine stroke types based on CT Imaging studies and the differences in stroke types ...
Blacquiere, Dylan; Bhimji, Khadija; Meggison, Hilary; Sinclair, John; Sharma, Michael
The determinants of satisfaction for families of acute stroke patients receiving palliative care have not been extensively studied. We surveyed families to determine how they perceived palliative care after stroke. Families of patients palliated after ischemic stroke, intracerebral, or subarachnoid hemorrhage were approached. Four weeks after the patient's death, families were administered the After-Death Bereaved Family Member Interview to determine satisfaction with the care provided. Fifteen families participated. Families were most satisfied with participation in decision making and least satisfied with attention to emotional needs. In stroke-specific domains, families had less satisfaction with artificial feeding, hydration, and communication. Overall satisfaction was high (9.04 out of 10). Families of patients receiving palliative care at our institution showed generally high satisfaction with palliation after stroke; specific domains were identified for improvement. Further study in larger populations is required.
M. H. Harirchian
Full Text Available Numerous etiologies are responsible for cases of stroke in young adults. This study reviews the causes of two types of stroke (ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults aged 15 to 40years, admitted to our center (a tertiary care center from 1997 to 2002. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative frequency of causes of stroke in young adults and compare this with published data in the literature. Using the codes 46.0 to 46.8 of the International Classification of Diseases- 10th Edition (ICD-10, cases were identified from the records of the stroke patients admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital and the data were collected from their files using a comprehensive questionnaire. Forty-two cases of ischemic stroke (62% and 26 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (38% were identified. The leading cause of ischemic stroke was cardioembolism (38.1%, followed by atherosclerosis in 5 cases (11.9%. Among cardiac causes infarction was attributable to consequences of rheumatic heart disease in 8 cases. In 3 cases a cessation or decrease in dose of warfarin was followed directly by an ischemic stroke. The most leading cause of intracerebral hemorrhage was hypertension (30.8%. Other causes were anticoagulant therapy, intratumoral hemorrhage, aplastic anemia, leukemia, arteriovenous malformations, and chronic active hepatitis. In conclusion, cardioembolism and hypertension were the most leading causes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in young adults admitted in our hospital.
Ryan, Clodagh M; Bayley, Mark; Green, Robin; Murray, Brian J; Bradley, T Douglas
In stroke patients, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with poorer functional outcomes than in those without OSA. We hypothesized that treatment of OSA by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in stroke patients would enhance motor, functional, and neurocognitive recovery. This was a randomized, open label, parallel group trial with blind assessment of outcomes performed in stroke patients with OSA in a stroke rehabilitation unit. Patients were assigned to standard rehabilitation alone (control group) or to CPAP (CPAP group). The primary outcomes were the Canadian Neurological scale, the 6-minute walk test distance, sustained attention response test, and the digit or spatial span-backward. Secondary outcomes included Epworth Sleepiness scale, Stanford Sleepiness scale, Functional Independence measure, Chedoke McMaster Stroke assessment, neurocognitive function, and Beck depression inventory. Tests were performed at baseline and 1 month later. Patients assigned to CPAP (n=22) experienced no adverse events. Regarding primary outcomes, compared to the control group (n=22), the CPAP group experienced improvement in stroke-related impairment (Canadian Neurological scale score, PStroke assessment of upper and lower limb motor recovery test of the leg (P=0.001), and the affective component of depression (P=0.006), but not neurocognitive function. Treatment of OSA by CPAP in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation improved functional and motor, but not neurocognitive outcomes. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00221065.
Saver, Jeffrey L; Carroll, John D; Thaler, David E; Smalling, Richard W; MacDonald, Lee A; Marks, David S; Tirschwell, David L
Whether closure of a patent foramen ovale reduces the risk of recurrence of ischemic stroke in patients who have had a cryptogenic ischemic stroke is unknown. In a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial, with blinded adjudication of end-point events, we randomly assigned patients 18 to 60 years of age who had a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and had had a cryptogenic ischemic stroke to undergo closure of the PFO (PFO closure group) or to receive medical therapy alone (aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel, or aspirin combined with extended-release dipyridamole; medical-therapy group). The primary efficacy end point was a composite of recurrent nonfatal ischemic stroke, fatal ischemic stroke, or early death after randomization. The results of the analysis of the primary outcome from the original trial period have been reported previously; the current analysis of data from the extended follow-up period was considered to be exploratory. We enrolled 980 patients (mean age, 45.9 years) at 69 sites. Patients were followed for a median of 5.9 years. Treatment exposure in the two groups was unequal (3141 patient-years in the PFO closure group vs. 2669 patient-years in the medical-therapy group), owing to a higher dropout rate in the medical-therapy group. In the intention-to-treat population, recurrent ischemic stroke occurred in 18 patients in the PFO closure group and in 28 patients in the medical-therapy group, resulting in rates of 0.58 events per 100 patient-years and 1.07 events per 100 patient-years, respectively (hazard ratio with PFO closure vs. medical therapy, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31 to 0.999; P=0.046 by the log-rank test). Recurrent ischemic stroke of undetermined cause occurred in 10 patients in the PFO closure group and in 23 patients in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.79; P=0.007). Venous thromboembolism (which comprised events of pulmonary embolism and deep-vein thrombosis) was more common in the PFO closure group
Full Text Available Most conventional measures of information processing speed require motor responses to facilitate performance. However, although not often addressed clinically, motor impairment, whether due to age or acquired brain injury, would be expected to confound the outcome measure of such tasks. The current study recruited 29 patients (20 stroke and 9 transient ischemic attack with documented reduction in dexterity of the dominant hand, and 29 controls, to investigate the extent to which 3 commonly used processing speed measures with varying motor demands (a Visuo-Motor Reaction Time task, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Symbol Search and Coding subtests may be measuring motor-related speed more so than cognitive speed. Analyses include correlations between indices of cognitive and motor speed obtained from two other tasks (Inspection Time and Pegboard task, respectively with the three speed measures, followed by hierarchical regressions to determine the relative contribution of cognitive and motor speed indices toward task performance. Results revealed that speed outcomes on tasks with relatively high motor demands, such as Coding, were largely reflecting motor speed in individuals with reduced dominant hand dexterity. Thus, findings indicate the importance of employing measures with minimal motor requirements, especially when the assessment of speed is aimed at understanding cognitive rather than physical function.
Full Text Available We evaluated the reliability of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, and determined its ability to predict functional outcomes in stroke survivors. The rehabilitation effect on 8-OHdG and functional outcomes were also assessed. Sixty-one stroke patients received a 4-week rehabilitation. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The test-retest reliability of 8-OHdG was good (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.76. Upper-limb motor function and muscle power determined by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA and Medical Research Council (MRC scales before rehabilitation showed significant negative correlation with 8-OHdG (r = −0.38, r = −0.30; p < 0.05. After rehabilitation, we found a fair and significant correlation between 8-OHdG and FMA (r = −0.34 and 8-OHdG and pain (r = 0.26, p < 0.05. Baseline 8-OHdG was significantly correlated with post-treatment FMA, MRC, and pain scores (r = −0.34, −0.31, and 0.25; p < 0.05, indicating its ability to predict functional outcomes. 8-OHdG levels were significantly decreased, and functional outcomes were improved after rehabilitation. The exploratory study findings conclude that 8-OHdG is a reliable and promising biomarker of oxidative stress and could be a valid predictor of functional outcomes in patients. Monitoring of behavioral indicators along with biomarkers may have crucial benefits in translational stroke research.
Mestriner, Régis Gemerasca; Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Bagatini, Pamela Brambilla; Saur, Lisiani; Boisserand, Lígia Simões Braga; Baptista, Pedro Porto Alegre; Xavier, Léder Leal; Netto, Carlos Alexandre
Stroke causes disability and mortality worldwide and is divided into ischemic and hemorrhagic subtypes. Although clinical trials suggest distinct recovery profiles for ischemic and hemorrhagic events, this is not conclusive due to stroke heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to produce similar brain damage, using experimental models of ischemic (IS) and hemorrhagic (HS) stroke and evaluate the motor spontaneous recovery profile. We used 31 Wistar rats divided into the following groups: Sham (n=7), ischemic (IS) (n=12) or hemorrhagic (HS) (n=12). Brain ischemia or hemorrhage was induced by endotelin-1 (ET-1) and collagenase type IV-S (collagenase) microinjections, respectively. All groups were evaluated in the open field, cylinder and ladder walk behavioral tests at distinct time points as from baseline to 30 days post-surgery (30 PS). Histological and morphometric analyses were used to assess the volume of lost tissue and lesion length. Present results reveal that both forms of experimental stroke had a comparable long-term pattern of damage, since no differences were found in volume of tissue lost or lesion size 30 days after surgery. However, behavioral data showed that hemorrhagic rats were less impaired at skilled walking than ischemic ones at 15 and 30 days post-surgery. We suggest that experimentally comparable stroke design is useful because it reduces heterogeneity and facilitates the assessment of neurobiological differences related to stroke subtypes; and that spontaneous skilled walking recovery differs between experimental ischemic and hemorrhagic insults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Overgaard, Karsten; Rasmussen, Rune S; Johansen, Flemming F
Reliable models are essential for translational stroke research to study the pathophysiology of ischaemic stroke in an effort to find therapies that may ultimately reduce oedema, infarction and mortality in the clinic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between the site...
Beaulieu, Louis-David; Massé-Alarie, Hugo; Ribot-Ciscar, Edith; Schneider, Cyril
To investigate the ability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) outcomes in the chronic stroke population to (i) track individual plastic changes and (ii) detect differences between individuals. To this end, intrarater "test-retest" reliability (relative and absolute) was tested for the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres. Thirteen participants with a unilateral stroke (≥6months ago) and sensorimotor impairments were enrolled. Single and paired-pulse TMS outcomes were obtained from the primary motor cortex (M1) representation of the tibialis anterior muscle in both hemispheres and at two sessions separated by one week. The standard error of the measurement (SEM eas ), minimal detectable change (MDC) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were studied. Active motor threshold and latency of motor evoked potentials provided the lowest SEM eas and highest ICCs for both ipsi- and contralesional hemispheres. However, MDC were generally large, thus questioning the use of TMS outcomes to track individual plastic changes of M1. Our study provided supporting evidence of good to excellent intrarater reliability for a few TMS outcomes and proposed recommendations on the interpretation and the use of that knowledge in future work. Psychometric properties of TMS measures should be further addressed in order to better understand how to refine their use in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Abdelaziz, Hesham K; Saad, Marwan; Abuomara, Hossamaldin Z; Nairooz, Ramez; Pothineni, Naga Venkata K; Madmani, Mohamed E; Roberts, David H; Mahmud, Ehtisham
To examine long-term clinical outcomes with transcatheter patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure versus medical therapy alone in patients with cryptogenic stroke. A long-standing debate regarding the optimal approach for the management of patients with PFO after a cryptogenic stroke exists. An electronic search was performed for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reporting clinical outcomes with PFO closure vs. medical therapy alone after stroke. Random effects DerSimonian-Laird risk ratios (RR) were calculated. The main outcome was recurrence of stroke. Other outcomes included transient ischemic attack (TIA), new-onset atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFL), major bleeding, serious adverse events, and device-related complications. All-cause mortality was also examined. Five RCTs with a total of 3,440 patients were included. At a mean follow-up of 4.02 ± 1.57 years, PFO closure was associated with less recurrence of stroke (RR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.19-0.91; P = .027) compared with medical therapy alone. No difference was observed between both strategies for TIA (P = .21), major bleeding (P = .69), serious adverse events (P = .35), and all-cause death (P = .48). However, PFO closure, was associated with increased new-onset AF/AFL (P < .001), risk of pulmonary embolism (P = .04), and device-related complications (P < .001). On a subgroup analysis, stroke recurrence rate remained lower in PFO closure arm regardless of the type of closure device used (P interaction = .50), or the presence of substantial shunt in the majority of study population (P interaction = .13). Transcatheter PFO closure reduces the recurrence of stroke compared with medical therapy alone, with no significant safety concerns. Close follow-up of patients after PFO closure is recommended to detect new-onset atrial arrhythmias. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lampl, Y; Boaz, M; Gilad, R; Lorberboym, M; Dabby, R; Rapoport, A; Anca-Hershkowitz, M; Sadeh, M
Ischemic animal model studies have shown a neuroprotective effect of minocycline. To analyze the effect of minocycline treatment in human acute ischemic stroke. We performed an open-label, evaluator-blinded study. Minocycline at a dosage of 200 mg was administered orally for 5 days. The therapeutic window of time was 6 to 24 hours after onset of stroke. Data from NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and Barthel Index (BI) were evaluated. The primary objective was to compare changes from baseline to day 90 in NIHSS in the minocycline group vs placebo. One hundred fifty-two patients were included in the study. Seventy-four patients received minocycline treatment, and 77 received placebo. NIHSS and mRS were significantly lower and BI scores were significantly higher in minocycline-treated patients. This pattern was already apparent on day 7 and day 30 of follow-up. Deaths, myocardial infarctions, recurrent strokes, and hemorrhagic transformations during follow-up did not differ by treatment group. Patients with acute stroke had significantly better outcome with minocycline treatment compared with placebo. The findings suggest a potential benefit of minocycline in acute ischemic stroke.
Kakaletsis, Nikolaos; Ntaios, George; Milionis, Haralampos; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Makaritsis, Konstantinos; Savopoulos, Christos; Berge, Eivind; Hatzitolios, Apostolos I
The association of blood pressure levels during the acute phase of ischemic stroke with outcome remains controversial. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the predictive value for stroke outcome assessed by the modified Rankin scale score of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring methods during the acute phase of ischemic stroke, compared with the values of casually derived blood pressure measurement on admission. We searched for studies with patients admitted within 24 h of stroke onset, and who had ambulatory blood pressure monitoring during the first 24 h of admission. We identified studies that reported blood pressure in those with good outcome and in those with poor outcome at end of follow-up, and performed a meta-analysis of the effect of mean blood pressure on outcome. High systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels derived with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were associated with poor short-, medium-, and long-term outcome, but the same was not found for casual blood pressure measurements. An increase in systolic blood pressure of 9·1 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 6·6-11·6, P < 0·001; I(2) = 9%) and an increase in diastolic blood pressure of 2·3 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0·8-3·7, P = 0·002; I(2) = 0%) were associated with poor outcome. Higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels derived with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were associated with poor outcome. The same was not found for higher casual blood pressure measurements on admission, and it is possible that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring conveys better prognostic information. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.
Chan, Daniel K Y; Cordato, Dennis; O'Rourke, Fintan; Chan, Daniel L; Pollack, Michael; Middleton, Sandy; Levi, Chris
Stroke unit care offers significant benefits in survival and dependency when compared to general medical ward. Most stroke units are either acute or rehabilitation, but comprehensive (combined acute and rehabilitation) model (comprehensive stroke unit) is less common. To examine different levels of evidence of comprehensive stroke unit compared to other organized inpatient stroke care and share local experience of comprehensive stroke units. Cochrane Library and Medline (1980 to December 2010) review of English language articles comparing stroke units to alternative forms of stroke care delivery, different types of stroke unit models, and differences in processes of care within different stroke unit models. Different levels of comparative evidence of comprehensive stroke units to other models of stroke units are collected. There are no randomized controlled trials directly comparing comprehensive stroke units to other stroke unit models (either acute or rehabilitation). Comprehensive stroke units are associated with reduced length of stay and greatest reduction in combined death and dependency in a meta-analysis study when compared to other stroke unit models. Comprehensive stroke units also have better length of stay and functional outcome when compared to acute or rehabilitation stroke unit models in a cross-sectional study, and better length of stay in a 'before-and-after' comparative study. Components of stroke unit care that improve outcome are multifactorial and most probably include early mobilization. A comprehensive stroke unit model has been successfully implemented in metropolitan and rural hospital settings. Comprehensive stroke units are associated with reductions in length of stay and combined death and dependency and improved functional outcomes compared to other stroke unit models. A comprehensive stroke unit model is worth considering as the preferred model of stroke unit care in the planning and delivery of metropolitan and rural stroke services
Huh, Jin Seok; Lee, Yang-Soo; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Min, Yu-Sun; Kang, Min-Gu; Jung, Tae-Du
To investigate the efficacy of balance control training using a newly developed balance control trainer (BalPro) on the balance and gait of patients with subacute hemiparetic stroke. Forty-three subacute stroke patients were assigned to either a balance control training (BCT) group or a control group. The BCT group (n=23) was trained with BalPro for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks, and received one daily session of conventional physical therapy. The control group (n=20) received two sessions of conventional physical therapy every day for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was assessment with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Secondary outcomes were Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), the 6-minute walking test (6mWT), Timed Up and Go (TUG), the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI), and the manual muscle test (MMT) of the knee extensor. All outcome measures were evaluated before and after 2 weeks of training in both groups. There were statistically significant improvements in all parameters except MMT and FAC after 2 weeks of treatment in both groups. After training, the BCT group showed greater improvements in the BBS and the 6mWT than did the control group. Balance control training using BalPro could be a useful treatment for improving balance and gait in subacute hemiparetic stroke patients.
Clarke, DJ; Holt, J
Abstract Purpose: Nurses represent the largest professional group working with stroke-survivors, but there is limited evidence regarding nurses' involvement in post-stroke rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore the perspectives of nurses and other multidisciplinary stroke team members on nurses' practice in stroke rehabilitation. Method: Q-methodological study with 63 multidisciplinary stroke unit team members and semi-structured interviews with 27 stroke unit t...
Sides, Elizabeth G; Zimmer, Louise O; Wilson, Leslie; Pan, Wenqin; Olson, Daiwai M; Peterson, Eric D; Bushnell, Cheryl
Patients who are hospitalized with a first or recurrent stroke often are discharged with new medications or adjustment to the doses of pre-admission medications, which can be confusing and pose safety issues if misunderstood. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of medication coaching via telephone after discharge in patients with stroke. Two-arm pilot study of a medication coaching program with 30 patients (20 intervention, 10 control). Consecutive patients admitted with stroke or TIA with at least 2 medications changed between admission and discharge were included. The medication coach contacted intervention arm patients post-discharge via phone call to discuss risk factors, review medications and triage patients' questions to a stroke nurse and/or pharmacist. Intervention and control participants were contacted at 3 months for outcomes. The main outcomes were feasibility (appropriateness of script, ability to reach participants, and provide requested information) and participant evaluation of medication coaching. The median lengths of the coaching and follow-up calls with requested answers to these questions were 27 minutes and 12 minutes, respectively, and participant evaluations of the coaching were positive. The intervention participants were more likely to have seen their primary care provider than were control participants by 3 months post discharge. This medication coaching study executed early after discharge demonstrated feasibility of coaching and educating stroke patients with a trained coach. Results from our small pilot showed a possible trend towards improved appointment-keeping with primary care providers in those who received coaching.
Steiner, Thorsten; Vincent, Catherine; Morris, Stephen; Davis, Stephen; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Christensen, Michael C
The value of neurosurgical interventions after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) is uncertain. We evaluated clinical outcomes in patients diagnosed with SICH within 3 hours of symptom onset who underwent hematoma evacuation or external ventricular drainage (EVD) of the hematoma in the Factor Seven for Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke Trial (FAST). FAST was a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between May 2005 and February 2007 at 122 sites in 22 countries. Neurosurgical procedures (hematoma evacuation and external ventricular drainage) performed at any point after hospital admission were prospectively recorded. Clinical outcomes evaluated were post-SICH disability, as assessed by the modified Rankin Scale; neurologic impairment, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; and mortality at 90 days after SICH onset. The impact of neurosurgical procedures on clinical outcomes was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis, controlling for relevant baseline characteristics. Fifty-five of 821 patients underwent neurosurgery. Patients who underwent hematoma evacuation or EVD were on average younger, had greater baseline neurologic impairment, and lower levels of consciousness compared with patients who did not undergo neurosurgery. After adjusting for these differences and other relevant baseline characteristics, we found that neurosurgery was generally associated with unfavorable outcomes at day 90. Among the patients who underwent hematoma evacuation, those with lobar ICH had less ICH expansion than those with deep gray matter ICH, and the smaller expansion was associated with lower mortality. ICH volume was substantially decreased in patients who underwent hematoma evacuation between 24 and 72 hours after hospital admission, and this was associated with better clinical outcome. In conclusion, a small number of patients who underwent neurosurgery in FAST exhibited no overall clinical benefit
James T P Campbell
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is inconsistent evidence that patients with stroke admitted to hospital out of regular working hours (such as weekends experience worse outcomes. We aimed to identify if inequalities in the quality of care and mortality exist in contemporary stroke care in England. METHODS: SINAP is a prospective database of acute stroke patients, documenting details of processes of care over the first 72 hours. We compared quality of care indicators and mortality at 72 hours, 7 days and 30 days, for patients who arrived within normal hours (Monday-Friday 8am to 6pm and for those who arrived out of hours, using multivariable logistic and Cox proportional hazard models. Quality of care was defined according to time from arrival at hospital to interventions (e.g., brain scan, and whether the patient received therapeutic interventions (such as thrombolysis. RESULTS: 45,726 stroke patients were admitted to 130 hospitals in England between 1 April 2010 and 31 January 2012. Patients admitted out of hours (n = 23779 had more features indicative of worse prognosis (haemorrhagic stroke, reduced consciousness, pre stroke dependency. Out of hours admission was significantly associated with longer delays in receiving a CT scan or being admitted to a stroke unit, and reduced odds of receiving thrombolysis. After adjusting for casemix, there was no consistent evidence of higher mortality for patients admitted out of hours, but patients admitted at the weekends had a higher risk of 30 day mortality (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.21. CONCLUSION: Inequalities in the provision of stroke care for people admitted out of regular hours persist in contemporary stroke in England. The association with mortality is small and largely attributable to higher illness severity in patients admitted out of hours.
Fiona J. Rowe
Full Text Available Aims. To profile site of stroke/cerebrovascular accident, type and extent of field loss, treatment options, and outcome. Methods. Prospective multicentre cohort trial. Standardised referral and investigation protocol of visual parameters. Results. 915 patients were recruited with a mean age of 69 years (SD 14. 479 patients (52% had visual field loss. 51 patients (10% had no visual symptoms. Almost half of symptomatic patients (n=226 complained only of visual field loss: almost half (n=226 also had reading difficulty, blurred vision, diplopia, and perceptual difficulties. 31% (n=151 had visual field loss as their only visual impairment: 69% (n=328 had low vision, eye movement deficits, or visual perceptual difficulties. Occipital and parietal lobe strokes most commonly caused visual field loss. Treatment options included visual search training, visual awareness, typoscopes, substitutive prisms, low vision aids, refraction, and occlusive patches. At followup 15 patients (7.5% had full recovery, 78 (39% had improvement, and 104 (52% had no recovery. Two patients (1% had further decline of visual field. Patients with visual field loss had lower quality of life scores than stroke patients without visual impairment. Conclusions. Stroke survivors with visual field loss require assessment to accurately define type and extent of loss, diagnose coexistent visual impairments, and offer targeted treatment.
Dutta, Dipankar; Bowen, Emily; Foy, Chris
There is limited information on outcomes from rapid access transient ischemic attack (TIA) clinics. We present 4-year outcomes of TIAs, strokes, and mimics from a UK TIA clinic database. All patients referred between April 2010 and May 2012 were retrospectively identified and outcomes determined. End points were stroke, myocardial infarction, any vascular event (TIA, stroke, or myocardial infarction), and all-cause death. Data were analyzed by survival analysis. Of 1067 patients, 31.6% were TIAs, 18% strokes, and 50.4% mimics. Median assessment time was 4.5 days from onset and follow-up was for 34.9 months. Subsequent strokes occurred in 7.1% of patients with TIA, 10.9% of patients with stroke, and 2.0% of mimics at the end of follow-up. Stroke risk at 90 days was 1.3% for patients diagnosed as TIA or stroke. Compared with mimics, hazard ratios for subsequent stroke were 3.88 (1.90-7.91) for TIA and 5.84 (2.81-12.11) for stroke. Hazard ratio for any subsequent vascular event was 2.91 (1.97-4.30) for TIA and 2.83 (1.81-4.41) for stroke. Hazard ratio for death was 1.68 (1.10-2.56) for TIA and 2.19 (1.38-3.46) for stroke. Our results show a lower 90-day stroke incidence after TIA or minor stroke than in earlier studies, suggesting that rapid access daily TIA clinics may be having a significant effect on reducing strokes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Paul, Nicola L M; Koton, Silvia; Simoni, Michela; Geraghty, Olivia C; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Rothwell, Peter M
Outpatient management safely and effectively prevents early recurrent stroke after transient ischaemic attack (TIA), but this approach may not be safe in patients with acute minor stroke. To study outcomes of clinic and hospital-referred patients with TIA or minor stroke (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score ≤3) in a prospective, population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study). Of 845 patients with TIA/stroke, 587 (69%) were referred directly to outpatient clinics and 258 (31%) directly to inpatient services. Of the 250 clinic-referred minor strokes (mean age 72.7 years), 237 (95%) were investigated, treated and discharged on the same day, of whom 16 (6.8%) were subsequently admitted to hospital within 30 days for recurrent stroke (n=6), sepsis (n=3), falls (n=3), bleeding (n=2), angina (n=1) and nursing care (n=1). The 150 patients (mean age 74.8 years) with minor stroke referred directly to hospital (median length-of-stay 9 days) had a similar 30-day readmission rate (9/150; 6.3%; p=0.83) after initial discharge and a similar 30-day risk of recurrent stroke (9/237 in clinic patients vs 8/150, OR=0.70, 0.27-1.80, p=0.61). Rates of prescription of secondary prevention medication after initial clinic/hospital discharge were higher in clinic-referred than in hospital-referred patients for antiplatelets/anticoagulants (phospital-referred minor stroke versus £743 (1794) for clinic-referred cases. Outpatient management of clinic-referred minor stroke is feasible and may be as safe as inpatient care. Rates of early hospital admission and recurrent stroke were low and uptake and maintenance of secondary prevention was high.
Sako, Kazuhiro; Shirai, Wakako; Tokumitu, Naoki; Aizawa, Shizuka
A survey on stroke was conducted to evaluate the incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage and the prevalence of risk factors. The subjects, comprising those patients who suffesed a stroke, were registered on the Northern Hokkaido Stroke Study between July 2002 and June 2006. The severity of their illness was rated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at hospital admission, while their outcome was determined by the mortality within 3 months and the mRS (modified Rankin Scale score). Of the 1,046 registered stroke patients, 271 (25.9%) were found to suffer from cerebral hemorrhage. Their mean age was 70.3±11.7 years; male-to-female ratio, 154/117; mean NIHSS at admission, 11.8±8.1; mortality within 3 months, 19.2%; and percentage who regained independence within 3 months (mRS: ≤2), 32.5%. A history of hypertension was found in 72.6%, and 13.7% had no treatment. MRI (T2*) revealed micro-hemorrhage outside the lesions in 67.5%. Forty-seven patients (17.3%) were taking anti-platelet agents at the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage. There was no significant difference between the mortalities of the anti-platelet-agent-users and non-users but the percentage of those regaining independence within 3 months was 19.1% for the users against 37.3% for the non-users (p=0.0177), with a significantly poor outcome in the user group. In northern Hokkaido, the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage remains high, and the percentage of those with poorly controlled or uncontrolled hypertension was 30%. These findings suggest a need to educate not only the inhabitants themselves but also the physicians engaged in their care. (author)
Paul, Lorna; Wyke, Sally; Brewster, Stephen; Sattar, Naveed; Gill, Jason M R; Alexander, Gillian; Rafferty, Danny; McFadyen, Angus K; Ramsay, Andrew; Dybus, Aleksandra
Following stroke, people are generally less active and more sedentary which can worsen outcomes. Mobile phone applications (apps) can support change in health behaviors. We developed STARFISH, a mobile phone app-based intervention, which incorporates evidence-based behavior change techniques (feedback, self-monitoring and social support), in which users' physical activity is visualized by fish swimming. To evaluate the potential effectiveness of STARFISH in stroke survivors. Twenty-three people with stroke (12 women; age: 56.0 ± 10.0 years, time since stroke: 4.2 ± 4.0 years) from support groups in Glasgow completed the study. Participants were sequentially allocated in a 2:1 ratio to intervention (n = 15) or control (n = 8) groups. The intervention group followed the STARFISH program for six weeks; the control group received usual care. Outcome measures included physical activity, sedentary time, heart rate, blood pressure, body mass index, Fatigue Severity Scale, Instrumental Activity of Daily Living Scale, Ten-Meter Walk Test, Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale, and Psychological General Well-Being Index. The average daily step count increased by 39.3% (4158 to 5791 steps/day) in the intervention group and reduced by 20.2% (3694 to 2947 steps/day) in the control group (p = 0.005 for group-time interaction). Similar patterns of data and group-time interaction were seen for walking time (p = 0.002) and fatigue (p = 0.003). There were no significant group-time interactions for other outcome measures. Use of STARFISH has the potential to improve physical activity and health outcomes in people after stroke and longer term intervention trials are warranted.
Toyoda, Kazunori; Minematsu, Kazuo; Yasaka, Masahiro; Nagai, Yoji; Hosomi, Naohisa; Origasa, Hideki; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Koga, Masatoshi; Matsumoto, Masayasu
The preventive effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) on progression of carotid intima-media complex thickness (IMT) has been shown exclusively in nonstroke Western patients. The Japan Statin Treatment Against Recurrent Stroke (J-STARS) Echo Study aims to determine the effect of pravastatin on carotid IMT in Japanese patients with hyperlipidemia who developed noncardioembolic ischemic stroke. This is a substudy of the J-STARS, a multicenter, randomized, open-label, blinded-end point, parallel-group trial to examine whether pravastatin reduces stroke recurrence in patients with noncardioembolic stroke. The patients are randomized to receive pravastatin (10 mg daily) or not to receive any statins. Carotid ultrasonography is performed by well-trained certified examiners in each participating institute, and the recorded data are measured centrally. The primary outcome is change in the IMT of the distal wall in a consecutive 2-cm section on the central side of the common carotid artery bifurcation over 5 years of observation. The trial may help determine if the usual dose of pravastatin for daily clinical practice in Japan can affect carotid IMT in Japanese patients with noncardioembolic stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
S. M. Mahmudul Hasan
Full Text Available Although poststroke aerobic exercise (AE increases markers of neuroplasticity and protects perilesional tissue, the degree to which it enhances complex motor or cognitive outcomes is unknown. Previous research suggests that timing and dosage of exercise may be important. We synthesized data from clinical and animal studies in order to determine optimal AE training parameters and recovery outcomes for future research. Using predefined criteria, we included clinical trials of stroke of any type or duration and animal studies employing any established models of stroke. Of the 5,259 titles returned, 52 articles met our criteria, measuring the effects of AE on balance, lower extremity coordination, upper limb motor skills, learning, processing speed, memory, and executive function. We found that early-initiated low-to-moderate intensity AE improved locomotor coordination in rodents. In clinical trials, AE improved balance and lower limb coordination irrespective of intervention modality or parameter. In contrast, fine upper limb recovery was relatively resistant to AE. In terms of cognitive outcomes, poststroke AE in animals improved memory and learning, except when training was too intense. However, in clinical trials, combined training protocols more consistently improved cognition. We noted a paucity of studies examining the benefits of AE on recovery beyond cessation of the intervention.
Schregel, Katharina; Behme, Daniel; Tsogkas, Ioannis; Knauth, Michael; Maier, Ilko; Karch, André; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Hinz, José; Liman, Jan; Psychogios, Marios-Nikos
Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke has become standard of care for patients with large artery occlusion. Early restoration of blood flow is crucial for a good clinical outcome. We introduced an interdisciplinary standard operating procedure (SOP) between neuroradiologists, neurologists and anesthesiologists in order to streamline patient management. This study analyzes the effect of optimized workflow on periprocedural timings and its potential influence on clinical outcome. Data were extracted from a prospectively maintained university hospital stroke database. The standard operating procedure was established in February 2014. Of the 368 acute stroke patients undergoing endovascular treatment between 2008 and 2015, 278 patients were treated prior to and 90 after process optimization. Outcome measures were periprocedural time intervals and residual functional impairment. After implementation of the SOP, time from symptom onset to reperfusion was significantly reduced (median 264 min prior and 211 min after SOP-introduction (IQR 228-32 min and 161-278 min, respectively); Pworkflow optimization as measured with the modified Rankin Scale (common odds ratio (OR) 0.56; 95% CI 0.32-0.98; P = 0.038). Optimization of workflow and interdisciplinary teamwork significantly improved the outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke due to a significant reduction of in-hospital examination, transportation, imaging and treatment times.
Jhaveri, Mansi M; Benjamin-Garner, Ruby; Rianon, Nahid; Sherer, Mark; Francisco, Gerard; Vahidy, Farhaan; Kobayashi, Kayta; Gaber, Mary; Shoemake, Paige; Vu, Kim; Trevino, Alyssa; Grotta, James; Savitz, Sean
The aftermath of stroke leaves many consequences including cognitive deficits and falls due to imbalance. Stroke survivors and families struggle to navigate the complex healthcare system with little assistance posthospital discharge, often leading to early hospital readmission and worse stroke outcomes. Telemedicine Guided Education on Secondary Stroke and Fall Prevention Following Inpatient Rehabilitation feasibility study examines whether stroke survivors and their caregivers find value in telerehabilitation (TR) home visits that provide individualised care and education by a multidisciplinary team after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. A prospective, single arm, pilot study is designed to evaluate the feasibility of weekly TR home visits initiated postdischarge from inpatient rehabilitation. Newly diagnosed patients with stroke are recruited from a Houston-based comprehensive stroke centre inpatient rehabilitation unit, loaned an iPad with data plan and trained to use information technology security-approved videoconferencing application. After hospital discharge, six weekly TR home visits are led by rotating specialists (pharmacist, physical/occupational therapist, speech therapist, rehabilitation physician, social worker, geriatrician specialised in fracture prevention) followed by satisfaction survey on week 7. Specialists visually assess patients in real time, educate them on secondary stroke and fall prevention and suggest ways to improve function including direct medical interventions when indicated. Primary outcomes are proportion of eligible patients consenting to the study, participation rate in all six TR home visits and satisfaction score. The study started 31 December 2015 with plan to enrol up to 50 patients over 24 months. Feasibility study results will inform us as to whether a randomised controlled trial is warranted to determine efficacy of TR home visit intervention in improving stroke outcomes. Ethics approval obtained by the
Zinkstok, Sanne M; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Engelter, Stefan T; Lyrer, Philippe A; Bonati, Leo H; Arnold, Marcel; Mattle, Heinrich P; Fischer, Urs; Sarikaya, Hakan; Baumgartner, Ralf W; Georgiadis, Dimitrios; Odier, Céline; Michel, Patrik; Putaala, Jukka; Griebe, Martin; Wahlgren, Nils; Ahmed, Niaz; van Geloven, Nan; de Haan, Rob J; Nederkoorn, Paul J
The safety and efficacy of thrombolysis in cervical artery dissection (CAD) are controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to pool all individual patient data and provide a valid estimate of safety and outcome of thrombolysis in CAD. We performed a systematic literature search on intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis in CAD. We calculated the rates of pooled symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and mortality and indirectly compared them with matched controls from the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Register. We applied multivariate regression models to identify predictors of excellent (modified Rankin Scale=0 to 1) and favorable (modified Rankin Scale=0 to 2) outcome. We obtained individual patient data of 180 patients from 14 retrospective series and 22 case reports. Patients were predominantly female (68%), with a mean±SD age of 46±11 years. Most patients presented with severe stroke (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score=16). Treatment was intravenous thrombolysis in 67% and intra-arterial thrombolysis in 33%. Median follow-up was 3 months. The pooled symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rate was 3.1% (95% CI, 1.3 to 7.2). Overall mortality was 8.1% (95% CI, 4.9 to 13.2), and 41.0% (95% CI, 31.4 to 51.4) had an excellent outcome. Stroke severity was a strong predictor of outcome. Overlapping confidence intervals of end points indicated no relevant differences with matched controls from the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Register. Safety and outcome of thrombolysis in patients with CAD-related stroke appear similar to those for stroke from all causes. Based on our findings, thrombolysis should not be withheld in patients with CAD.
Ghous, Misbah; Malik, Arshad Nawaz; Amjad, Mian Imran; Kanwal, Maria
Stroke is one of most disabling condition which directly affects quality of life. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of activity repetition training with salat (prayer) versus task oriented training on functional outcomes of stroke. The study design was randomized control trial and 32 patients were randomly assigned into two groups'. The stroke including infarction or haemorrhagic, age bracket 30-70 years was included. The demographics were recorded and standardized assessment tool included Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Motor assessment scale (MAS) and Time Up and Go Test (TUG). The measurements were obtained at baseline, after four and six weeks. The mean age of the patients was 54.44±10.59 years with 16 (59%) male and 11(41%) female patients. Activity Repetition Training group showed significant improvement (peffective in enhancing the functional status as compare to task oriented training group. The repetition with motivation and concentration is the key in re-learning process of neural plasticity.
Alawieh, Ali; Pierce, Alyssa K; Vargas, Jan; Turk, Aquilla S; Turner, Raymond D; Chaudry, M Imran; Spiotta, Alejandro M
In acute ischemic stroke (AIS), extending mechanical thrombectomy procedural times beyond 60 min has previously been associated with an increased complication rate and poorer outcomes. After improvements in thrombectomy methods, to reassess whether this relationship holds true with a more contemporary thrombectomy approach: a direct aspiration first pass technique (ADAPT). We retrospectively studied a database of patients with AIS who underwent ADAPT thrombectomy for large vessel occlusions. Patients were dichotomized into two groups: 'early recan', in which recanalization (recan) was achieved in ≤35 min, and 'late recan', in which procedures extended beyond 35 min. 197 patients (47.7% women, mean age 66.3 years) were identified. We determined that after 35 min, a poor outcome was more likely than a good (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-2) outcome. The baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was similar between 'early recan' (n=122) (14.7±6.9) and 'late recan' patients (n=75) (15.9±7.2). Among 'early recan' patients, recanalization was achieved in 17.8±8.8 min compared with 70±39.8 min in 'late recan' patients. The likelihood of achieving a good outcome was higher in the 'early recan' group (65.2%) than in the 'late recan' group (38.2%; p<0.001). Patients in the 'late recan' group had a higher likelihood of postprocedural hemorrhage, specifically parenchymal hematoma type 2, than those in the 'early recan' group. Logistic regression analysis showed that baseline NIHSS, recanalization time, and atrial fibrillation had a significant impact on 90-day outcomes. Our findings suggest that extending ADAPT thrombectomy procedure times beyond 35 min increases the likelihood of complications such as intracerebral hemorrhage while reducing the likelihood of a good outcome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Molnar, Tihamer; Pusch, Gabriella; Nagy, Lajos
BACKGROUND: Immune responses contribute to secondary injury after acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and metabolites of the L-arginine pathway are associated with stroke outcome. Here, we analyzed the relationship of the L-arginine pathway with thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers in AIS and their additive...... and independent associations to outcome. METHODS: Serial changes in P-selectin, tPA, MCP-1, sCD40L, IL-6, IL-8, L-arginine, and asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, SDMA) were investigated in 55 patients with AIS and without infection within 6 and 72 hours after stroke onset. Outcomes were assessed...... as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) worsening by 24 hours, poststroke infection, and death by 1 month. RESULTS: Serum levels of L-arginine showed negative correlation, whereas ADMA and SDMA showed positive correlation with thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers in the hyperacute phase. Most...
Turk, Aquilla S; Magarick, Jordan Asher; Frei, Don; Fargen, Kyle Michael; Chaudry, Imran; Holmstedt, Christine A; Nicholas, Joyce; Mocco, J; Turner, Raymond D; Huddle, Daniel; Loy, David; Bellon, Richard; Dooley, Gwendolyn; Adams, Robert; Whaley, Michelle; Fanale, Chris; Jauch, Edward
The treatment of acute ischemic stroke is traditionally centered on time criteria, although recent evidence suggests that physiologic neuroimaging may be useful. In a multicenter study we evaluated the use of CT perfusion, regardless of time from symptom onset, in patients selected for intra-arterial treatment of ischemic stroke. Three medical centers retrospectively assessed stroke patients with a National Institute of Health Stroke Scale of ≥ 8, regardless of time from symptom onset. CT perfusion maps were qualitatively assessed. Patients with defined salvageable penumbra underwent intra-arterial revascularization of their occlusion. Functional outcome using the modified Rankin Score (mRS) was recorded. Two hundred and forty-seven patients were selected to undergo intra-arterial treatment based on CT perfusion imaging. The median time from symptom onset to procedure was 6 h. Patients were divided into two groups for analysis: ≤ 8 h and >8 h from symptom onset to endovascular procedure. We found no difference in functional outcome between the two groups (42.8% and 41.9% achieved 90-day mRS ≤ 2, respectively (p=1.0), and 54.9% vs 55.4% (p=1.0) achieved 90-day mRS ≤ 3, respectively). Overall, 48 patients (19.4%) had hemorrhages, of which 20 (8.0%) were symptomatic, with no difference between the groups (p=1.0). In a multicenter study, we demonstrated similar rates of good functional outcome and intracranial hemorrhage in patients with ischemic stroke when endovascular treatment was performed based on CT perfusion selection rather than time-guided selection. Our findings suggest that physiologic imaging-guided patient selection rather than time for endovascular reperfusion in ischemic stroke may be effective and safe.
Zock, E; Kerkhoff, H; Kleyweg, R P; van Bavel-Ta, T B V; Scott, S; Kruyt, N D; Nederkoorn, P J; van de Beek, D
Patients with acute stroke often do not seek immediate medical help, which is assumed to be driven by lack of knowledge of stroke symptoms. We explored the process of help seeking behavior in patients with acute stroke, evaluating knowledge about stroke symptoms, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and onset-to-alarm time (OAT). In a sub-study of the Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS), 161 acute stroke patients were prospectively included in 3 Dutch hospitals. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to assess knowledge, recognition and interpretation of stroke symptoms. With in-depth interviews, response actions and reasons were explored. OAT was recorded and associations with socio-demographic, clinical parameters were assessed. Knowledge about stroke symptoms does not always result in correct recognition of own stroke symptoms, neither into correct interpretation of the situation and subsequent action. In our study population of 161 patients with acute stroke, median OAT was 30 min (interquartile range [IQR] 10-150 min). Recognition of one-sided weakness and/or sensory loss (p = 0.046) and adequate interpretation of the stroke situation (p = 0.003), stroke at daytime (p = 0.002), severe stroke (p = 0.003), calling the emergency telephone number (p = 0.004), and transport by ambulance (p = 0.040) were associated with shorter OAT. Help seeking behavior after acute stroke is a complex process. A shorter OAT after stroke is associated with correct recognition of one-sided weakness and/or sensory loss, adequate interpretation of the stroke situation by the patient and stroke characteristics and logistics of stroke care, but not by knowledge of stroke symptoms.
Banks, Jamie L; Marotta, Charles A
The modified Rankin scale (mRS), a clinician-reported measure of global disability, is widely applied for evaluating stroke patient outcomes and as an end point in randomized clinical trials. Extensive evidence on the validity of the mRS exists across a large but fragmented literature. As new treatments for acute ischemic stroke are submitted for agency approval, an appreciation of the mRS's attributes, specifically its relationship to other stroke evaluation scales, would be valuable for decision-makers to properly assess the impact of a new drug on treatment paradigms. The purpose of this report is to assemble and systematically assess the properties of the mRS to provide decision-makers with pertinent evaluative information. A Medline search was conducted to identify reports in the peer-reviewed medical literature (1957-2006) that provide information on the structure, validation, scoring, and psychometric properties of the mRS and its use in clinical trials. The selection of articles was based on defined criteria that included relevance, study design and use of appropriate statistical methods. Of 224 articles identified by the literature search, 50 were selected for detailed assessment. Inter-rater reliability with the mRS is moderate and improves with structured interviews (kappa 0.56 versus 0.78); strong test-re-test reliability (kappa=0.81 to 0.95) has been reported. Numerous studies demonstrate the construct validity of the mRS by its relationships to physiological indicators such as stroke type, lesion size, perfusion and neurological impairment. Convergent validity between the mRS and other disability scales is well documented. Patient comorbidities and socioeconomic factors should be considered in properly applying and interpreting the mRS. Recent analyses suggest that randomized clinical trials of acute stroke treatments may require a smaller sample size if the mRS is used as a primary end point rather than the Barthel Index. Multiple types of evidence
Batubara, C. A.; Ritarwan, K.; Rambe, A. S.
Stress ulcer is one ofacute stroke complications. Giving ranitidine or omeprazole may prevent stress ulcer, but may increase the occurrence of pneumonia. Thus, it will affect the outcome of acute stroke. The method was experimental with a randomized control-group pretest - posttest design. This study divided the subjects into two groups, ranitidine 300mg and omeprazole 20mg group.We observed the patients whether stress ulcer or pneumonia occurred during hospitalization. Then, we measured the outcome by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scaleand modified Rankin Scale. There were 32 subjects in this study. Only 1 (3.1%) subject suffered stress ulcer, and 3 (3.1%) suffered pneumonia in ranitidine group. Moreover, 2 (6.2%) subjects suffered pneumonia in omeprazole group. The differences were not significant between the two groups (p = 0.31 and p = 0.54). There was no significant effect and difference effect on the administration of both medications to the outcome at day 14. These results indicate that ranitidine and omeprazole have anequal effectiveness in the prevention of stress ulcer and also have equal effect on the occurrence of pneumonia, and both have no effect on the outcome of acute stroke patients.
Medford-Davis, Laura N; Fonarow, Gregg C; Bhatt, Deepak L; Xu, Haolin; Smith, Eric E; Suter, Robert; Peterson, Eric D; Xian, Ying; Matsouaka, Roland A; Schwamm, Lee H
Insurance status affects access to care, which may affect health outcomes. The objective was to determine whether patients without insurance or with government-sponsored insurance had worse quality of care or in-hospital outcomes in acute ischemic stroke. Multivariable logistic regressions with generalized estimating equations stratified by age under or at least 65 years were adjusted for patient demographics and comorbidities, presenting factors, and hospital characteristics to determine differences in in-hospital mortality and postdischarge destination. We included 589 320 ischemic stroke patients treated at 1604 US hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke program between 2012 and 2015. Uninsured patients with hypertension, high cholesterol, or diabetes mellitus were less likely to be taking appropriate control medications prior to stroke, to use an ambulance to arrive to the ED, or to arrive early after symptom onset. Even after adjustment, the uninsured were more likely than the privately insured to die in the hospital (rehab (stroke, time to presentation for acute treatment, access to rehabilitation, and in-hospital mortality differ by patient insurance status. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Yan, Han; Liu, Baoxin; Meng, Guilin; Shang, Bo; Jie, Qiqiang; Wei, Yidong; Liu, Xueyuan
Objective: Socioeconomic status (SES) is being recognized as an important factor in both social and medical problems. The aim of present study is to examine the relationship between SES and ischemic stroke and investigate whether SES is a predictor of clinical outcomes among patients with different neighborhood status from Shanghai, China. Methods: A total of 471 first-ever ischemic stroke patients aged 18-80 years were enrolled in this retrospective study. The personal SES of each patient was evaluated using a summed score derived from his or her educational level, household income, occupation, and medical reimbursement rate. Clinical adverse events and all-cause mortality were analyzed to determine whether SES was a prognostic factor, its prognostic impact was then assessed based on different neighborhood status using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models after adjusting for other covariates. Results: The individual SES showed a significant positive correlation with neighborhood status (r = 0.370; P status, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed clinical adverse events and deaths were still higher in the low SES patients (all P status are independent prognostic factors for ischemic stroke (all P status, lower individual SES was significantly associated with clinical adverse events and mortality (all P status are significantly associated with the prognosis after ischemic stroke. A lower personal SES as well as poorer neighborhood status may significantly increase risk for adverse clinical outcomes among ischemic stroke patients. PMID:28138313
Kirkevold, Marit; Kildal Bragstad, Line; Bronken, Berit A; Kvigne, Kari; Martinsen, Randi; Gabrielsen Hjelle, Ellen; Kitzmüller, Gabriele; Mangset, Margrete; Angel, Sanne; Aadal, Lena; Eriksen, Siren; Wyller, Torgeir B; Sveen, Unni
Stroke is a major public health threat globally. Psychosocial well-being may be affected following stroke. Depressive symptoms, anxiety, general psychological distress and social isolation are prevalent. Approximately one third report depressive symptoms and 20% report anxiety during the first months or years after the stroke. Psychosocial difficulties may impact significantly on long-term functioning and quality of life, reduce the effects of rehabilitation services and lead to higher mortality rates. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of a previously developed and feasibility tested dialogue-based psychosocial intervention aimed at promoting psychosocial well-being and coping following stroke among stroke survivors with and without aphasia. The study will be conducted as a multicenter, randomized, single blind controlled trial with one intervention and one control arm. It will include a total of 330 stroke survivors randomly allocated into either an intervention group (dialogue-based intervention to promote psychosocial well-being) or a control group (usual care). Participants in the intervention group will receive eight individual sessions of supported dialogues in their homes during the first six months following an acute stroke. The primary outcome measure will be psychosocial well-being measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Secondary outcome measures will be quality of life (SAQoL), sense of coherence (SOC), and depression (Yale). Process evaluation will be conducted in a longitudinal mixed methods study by individual qualitative interviews with 15-20 participants in the intervention and control groups, focus group interviews with the intervention personnel and data collectors, and a comprehensive analysis of implementation fidelity. The intervention described in this study protocol is based on thorough development and feasibility work, guided by the UK medical research council framework for developing and testing complex
Kim, Sola; Shin, Sang Do; Ro, Young Sun; Song, Kyoung Jun; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Eui Jung; Ahn, Ki Ok; Kim, Taeyun; Hong, Ki Jeong; Kim, Yu Jin
It is unclear whether the use of emergency medical services (EMS) is associated with enhanced survival and decreased disability after hemorrhagic stroke and whether the effect size of EMS use differs according to the length of stay (LOS) in emergency department (ED). Adult patients (19 years and older) with acute hemorrhagic stroke who survived to admission at 29 hospitals between 2008 and 2011 were analyzed, excluding those who had symptom-to-ED arrival time of 3 h or greater, received thrombolysis or craniotomy before inter-hospital transfer, or had experienced cardiac arrest, had unknown information about ambulance use and outcomes. Exposure variable was EMS use. Endpoints were survival at discharge and worsened modified Rankin Scale (W-MRS) defined as 3 or greater points difference between pre- and post-event MRS. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the outcomes were calculated, including potential confounders (demographic, socioeconomic status, clinical parameter, comorbidity, behavior, and time of event) in the final model and stratifying patients by inter-hospital transfer and by time interval from symptom to ED arrival (S2D). ED LOS, classified into short (hemorrhagic strokes were analyzed in which 75.6% were transported by EMS. For outcome measures, 17.4% and 41.4% were dead and had worsened MRS, respectively. AORs (95% CIs) of EMS were 0.67 (0.51-0.89) for death and 0.74 (0.59-0.92) for W-MRS in all patients. The effect size of EMS, however, was different according to LOS in ED. AORs (95% CIs) for death were 0.74 (0.54-1.01) in short LOS and 0.60 (0.44-0.83) in long LOS group. AORs (95% CIs) for W-MRS were 0.76 (0.60-0.97) in short LOS and 0.68 (0.52-0.88) in long LOS group. EMS transport was associated with lower hospital mortality and disability after acute hemorrhagic stroke. Effect size of EMS use for mortality was significant in patients with long ED LOS. Key words: emergency medical service; hemorrhagic
Ullberg, Teresa; Zia, Elisabet; Petersson, Jesper; Norrving, Bo
Met care demands are key aspects in poststroke quality of care. This study aimed to identify baseline predictors and 12-month factors that were associated with perceived unmet rehabilitation needs 1 year poststroke. Data on patients who were independent in activities of daily living, hospitalized for acute stroke during 2008 to 2010, and followed up 1 year poststroke through a postal questionnaire were obtained from the Swedish stroke register. Patients reporting fulfilled rehabilitation needs were compared with those with unmet needs (Chi square test). The study included 37 383 patients, 46% female. At 12 months, 8019 (21.5%) patients reported unmet rehabilitation needs. Compared with those with met rehabilitation needs, patients reporting unmet rehabilitation needs were older (75.4 versus 72.4 years; Prehabilitation needs at 12 months in an age-adjusted model were severe stroke (odds ratio [OR]=3.04; confidence interval [CI]: 2.39-3.87), prior stroke (OR=1.63; CI: 1.53-1.75), female sex (OR=1.14; CI: 1.07-1.20), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.24; CI: 1.15-1.32), stroke other than ischemic (OR=1.26; CI: 1.20-1.32), and atrial fibrillation (OR=1.19; CI: 1.12-1.27). Unfulfilled rehabilitation needs 1 year poststroke are common and associated with high age, dependency, pain, and depression. Long-term follow-up systems should, therefore, be comprehensive and address multiple domains of poststroke problems, rather than having a single-domain focus. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, Karsten; Kristiansen, Uffe
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of d-amphetamine (amph) upon recovery after embolic stroke in rats. METHODS: Ninety-three rats were embolized in the right middle cerebral artery and assigned to: (1) controls; (2) combination (acute amph and later amph-facilitate...
Godecke, Erin; Ciccone, Natalie A.; Granger, Andrew S.; Rai, Tapan; West, Deborah; Cream, Angela; Cartwright, Jade; Hankey, Graeme J.
Background: Very early aphasia rehabilitation studies have shown mixed results. Differences in therapy intensity and therapy type contribute significantly to the equivocal results. Aims: To compare a standardized, prescribed very early aphasia therapy regimen with a historical usual care control group at therapy completion (4-5 weeks post-stroke)…
Shifren, Kim; Anzaldi, Kristen
The investigation of the relation of positive personality characteristics to mental and physical health among Stroke survivors has been a neglected area of research. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between optimism, well-being, depressive symptoms, and perceived physical health among Stroke survivors. It was hypothesized that Stroke survivors' optimism would explain variance in their physical health above and beyond the variance explained by demographic variables, diagnostic variables, and mental health. One hundred seventy-six Stroke survivors (97 females, 79 males) completed the Revised Life Orientation Test, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, two items on perceived physical health from the 36-item Short Form of the Medical Outcomes study, and the Identity scale of the Illness Perception Questionnaire. Pearson correlations, hierarchical regression analyses, and the PROCESS approach to determining mediators were used to assess hypothesized relations between variables. Stroke survivors' level of optimism explained additional variance in overall health in regression models controlling for demographic and diagnostic variables, and mental health. Analyses revealed that optimism played a partial mediator role between mental health (well-being, depressive symptoms and total score on CES-D) variables and overall health.
Meinzer, Marcus; Darkow, Robert; Lindenberg, Robert; Flöel, Agnes
Transcranial direct current stimulation has shown promise to improve recovery in patients with post-stroke aphasia, but previous studies have only assessed stimulation effects on impairment parameters, and evidence for long-term maintenance of transcranial direct current stimulation effects from randomized, controlled trials is lacking. Moreover, due to the variability of lesions and functional language network reorganization after stroke, recent studies have used advanced functional imaging or current modelling to determine optimal stimulation sites in individual patients. However, such approaches are expensive, time consuming and may not be feasible outside of specialized research centres, which complicates incorporation of transcranial direct current stimulation in day-to-day clinical practice. Stimulation of an ancillary system that is functionally connected to the residual language network, namely the primary motor system, would be more easily applicable, but effectiveness of such an approach has not been explored systematically. We conducted a randomized, parallel group, sham-controlled, double-blind clinical trial and 26 patients with chronic aphasia received a highly intensive naming therapy over 2 weeks (8 days, 2 × 1.5 h/day). Concurrently, anodal-transcranial direct current stimulation was administered to the left primary motor cortex twice daily at the beginning of each training session. Naming ability for trained items (n = 60 pictures that could not be named during repeated baseline assessments), transfer to untrained items (n = 284 pictures) and generalization to everyday communication were assessed immediately post-intervention and 6 months later. Naming ability for trained items was significantly improved immediately after the end of the intervention in both the anodal (Cohen's d = 3.67) and sham-transcranial direct current stimulation groups (d = 2.10), with a trend for larger gains in the anodal-transcranial direct current stimulation group (d
Maribo, Thomas; Nielsen, Claus Vinther
Relevance: Stroke is one of the major chronic diseases leading to long-term disability. Stroke treatment has improved and in-hospital stays have been reduced, leading to increasing emphasis on home-based rehabilitation. The transition from hospital to home-based rehabilitation is critical, as vital...... are vague. Purpose: The purpose was to examine the use of outcome measures used in clinical practice in the transition from hospital to home-based rehabilitation. Methods/Analysis: A questionnaire were sent to the heads of 26 hospitals discharging patients with stroke and 52 municipalities' health services...... rehabilitation, especially in the transition between hospital and home-based rehabilitation. A nationwide, interprofessional and intersectional group is currently discussing recommendations for the use of outcome measures in stroke rehabilitation. Results from this group will be presented at the conference...
Weimar, Christian; Goertler, Michael; Röther, Joachim; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Darius, Harald; Nabavi, Darius Günther; Kim, In-Ha; Theobald, Karlheinz; Diener, Han-Christoph
Stratification of patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke (IS) by risk of recurrent stroke can contribute to optimized secondary prevention. We therefore aimed to assess cardiovascular risk factor profiles of consecutive patients hospitalized with TIA/IS to stratify the risk of recurrent stroke according to the Essen Stroke Risk Score (ESRS) and of future cardiovascular events according to the ankle brachial index (ABI) as a marker of generalized atherosclerosis In this cross-sectional observational study, 85 neurological stroke units throughout Germany documented cardiovascular risk factor profiles of 10 consecutive TIA/IS patients on standardized questionnaires. Screening for PAD was done with Doppler ultrasonography to calculate the ABI. A total of 852 patients (57% men) with a mean age of 67+/-12.4 years were included of whom 82.9 % had IS. The median National Institutes of Health stroke sum score was 4 (TIA: 1). Arterial hypertension was reported in 71%, diabetes mellitus in 26%, clinical PAD in 10%, and an ABI or = 3 was observed in 58%, which in two previous retrospective analyses corresponded to a recurrent stroke risk of > or = 4%/year. The correlation between the ESRS and the ABI was low (r = 0.21). A high proportion of patients had asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease and a considerable risk of recurrent stroke according to the ABI and ESRS category. The prognostic accuracy as well as the potential benefit of various risk stratification scores in secondary stroke prevention require validation in a larger prospective study.
Fuentes, Amanda; Westmacott, Robyn; Deotto, Angela; deVeber, Gabrielle; Desrocher, Mary
There is a dearth of research examining working memory (WM) following pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). This study assesses the WM patterns of 32 children, aged 6 to 14 years, with a history of unilateral AIS and 32 controls using a paradigm based on Baddeley and Hitch's multi-component WM model. The results indicate compromised WM in children with AIS relative to controls and parent reports confirm higher rates of dysfunction. Supplementary analyses of impairment confirm higher rates in children with AIS, ranging from 31.25% to 38.70% on performance-based measures and 50.00% on parent reports, compared to 0.00% to 21.88% on performance-based measures in controls and 15.63% on parent reports. Continual follow-up is recommended given that a subset of children with stroke appear to be at risk for WM impairment. Moreover, the subtle nature of WM challenges experienced by many children who have experienced a stroke increases the likelihood that WM impairment could go undetected. The long-term trajectories of WM in the pediatric stroke population remains unknown and future studies are needed to track changes in WM functioning over time.
Zhao, Wenbo; Shang, Shuyi; Li, Chuanhui; Wu, Longfei; Wu, Chuanjie; Chen, Jian; Song, Haiqing; Zhang, Hongqi; Zhang, Yunzhou; Duan, Jiangang; Feng, Wuwei; Ji, Xunming
Long-term follow-up of large trials have confirmed the superiority of endovascular thrombectomy (ET) for treating acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, it is still unknown whether these results can be generalized to clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to determine the long-term outcomes of AIS post-ET in the real-world clinical practice. This observational study is based on a single-center prospective registry study. AIS patients were treated with second-generation stent retrievers from December 2012 to April 2016. The primary outcome was modified Ranks scale (mRS) at the time of the latest assessment. Favorable outcome was defined as mRS scores 0-2, and the unfavorable outcome was defined as mRS scores 3-6. Eighty-nine AIS subjects with large artery occlusion in anterior circulation undergoing ET were eligible for analysis. Median follow-up duration was 20 months (interquartile range 6-32), and 47 subjects (53%) achieved favorable outcome whereas 17 subjects (19%) were functional dependence and 25 subjects (28%) died. Independent predicators for long-term unfavorable outcome were higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (odd ratio:1.21;95% confidence interval 1.09-1.35; p < 0.001) and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) (odd ratio:16.45;95% confidence interval 1.34-193.44; p = 0.026). More subjects of large-artery-atherosclerosis underwent permanent intracranial stenting (22%vs.10%) as compared with those of cardioembolism, while subjects of cardioembolism were more likely to experience sICH (13%vs.8%) and died (32%vs.16%). Over half of AIS patients can achieve favorable long-term outcomes post-ET. Higher baseline NIHSS scores and sICH are independently associated with unfavorable outcome. Overall, clinical practice in this single canter can replicate the long-term outcomes from the published endovascular clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Takashi; Ogata, Toshiyasu; Saita, Kazuya; Hyakutake, Koichi; Watanabe, Junko; Shiota, Etsuji; Inoue, Tooru
This article investigated the feasibility of a tailor-made neurorehabilitation approach using multiple types of hybrid assistive limb (HAL) robots for acute stroke patients. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent rehabilitation using the HAL robots. The Brunnstrom stage, Barthel index (BI), and functional independence measure (FIM) were evaluated at baseline and when patients were transferred to a rehabilitation facility. Scores were compared between the multiple-robot rehabilitation and single-robot rehabilitation groups. Nine hemiplegic acute stroke patients (five men and four women; mean age 59.4 ± 12.5 years; four hemorrhagic stroke and five ischemic stroke) underwent rehabilitation using multiple types of HAL robots for 19.4 ± 12.5 days, and 14 patients (six men and eight women; mean age 63.2 ± 13.9 years; nine hemorrhagic stroke and five ischemic stroke) underwent rehabilitation using a single type of HAL robot for 14.9 ± 8.9 days. The multiple-robot rehabilitation group showed significantly better outcomes in the Brunnstrom stage of the upper extremity, BI, and FIM scores. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first pilot study demonstrating the feasibility of rehabilitation using multiple exoskeleton robots. The tailor-made rehabilitation approach may be useful for the treatment of acute stroke.
Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Stewart, Roy E; Vroomen, Patrick C A J; De Keyser, Jacques; Luijckx, Gert-Jan
Background and Purpose - There is little agreement on how to assess outcome in acute stroke trials. Cutoff scores for the Barthel Index (BI) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) are frequently arbitrarily chosen to dichotomize favorable and unfavorable outcome. We investigated sensitivity and specificity
Ayça Utkan Karasu
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficacy of Nintendo Wii Fit®-based balance rehabilitation as an adjunc-tive therapy to conventional rehabilitation in stroke patients. Methods: During the study period, 70 stroke patients were evaluated. Of these, 23 who met the study criteria were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 12 or the control group (n = 11 by block randomization. Primary outcome measures were Berg Balance Scale, Functional Reach Test, Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients, Timed Up and Go Test and Static Balance Index. Secondary outcome measures were postural sway, as assessed with Emed-X, Functional Independence Measure Transfer and Ambulation Scores. An evaluator who was blinded to the groups made assessments immediately before (baseline, immediately after (post-treatment, and 4 weeks after completion of the study (follow-up. Results: Group-time interaction was significant in the Berg Balance Scale, Functional Reach Test, anteroposterior and mediolateral centre of pressure displacement with eyes open, anteroposterior centre of pressure displacement with eyes closed, centre of pressure displacement during weight shifting to affected side, to unaffected side and total centre of pressure displacement during weight shifting. Demonstrating significant group-time interaction in those parameters suggests that, while both groups exhibited significant improvement, the experimental group showed greater improvement than the control group. Conclusion: Virtual reality exercises with the Nintendo Wii system could represent a useful adjunctive therapy to traditional treatment to improve static and dynamic balance in stroke patients.
Karasu, Ayça Utkan; Batur, Elif Balevi; Karataş, Gülçin Kaymak
To investigate the efficacy of Nintendo Wii Fit®-based balance rehabilitation as an adjunc-tive therapy to conventional rehabilitation in stroke patients. During the study period, 70 stroke patients were evaluated. Of these, 23 who met the study criteria were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 12) or the control group (n = 11) by block randomization. Primary outcome measures were Berg Balance Scale, Functional Reach Test, Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients, Timed Up and Go Test and Static Balance Index. Secondary outcome measures were postural sway, as assessed with Emed-X, Functional Independence Measure Transfer and Ambulation Scores. An evaluator who was blinded to the groups made assessments immediately before (baseline), immediately after (post-treatment), and 4 weeks after completion of the study (follow-up). Group-time interaction was significant in the Berg Balance Scale, Functional Reach Test, anteroposterior and mediolateral centre of pressure displacement with eyes open, anteroposterior centre of pressure displacement with eyes closed, centre of pressure displacement during weight shifting to affected side, to unaffected side and total centre of pressure displacement during weight shifting. Demonstrating significant group-time interaction in those parameters suggests that, while both groups exhibited significant improvement, the experimental group showed greater improvement than the control group. Virtual reality exercises with the Nintendo Wii system could represent a useful adjunctive therapy to traditional treatment to improve static and dynamic balance in stroke patients.
Murakami, Keiko; Asayama, Kei; Satoh, Michihiro; Hosaka, Miki; Matsuda, Ayako; Inoue, Ryusuke; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Murakami, Takahisa; Nomura, Kyoko; Kikuya, Masahiro; Metoki, Hirohito; Imai, Yutaka; Ohkubo, Takayoshi
Several observational studies have found modifying effects of functional status on the association between conventional office blood pressure (BP) and adverse outcomes. We aimed to examine whether the association between higher BP and stroke was attenuated or inverted among older adults with impaired function using self-measured home BP measurements. We followed 501 Japanese community-dwelling adults aged at least 60 years (mean age, 68.6 years) with no history of stroke. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for 1-SD increase in home BP and office BP measurements were calculated by the Cox proportional hazards model. Functional status was assessed by self-reported physical function. During a median follow-up of 11.5 years, first strokes were observed in 47 participants. Higher home SBP, but not office SBP, was significantly associated with increased risk of stroke among both 349 participants with normal physical function and 152 participants with impaired physical function [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) per 14.4-mmHg increase: 1.74 (1.12-2.69) and 1.77 (1.06-2.94), respectively], with no significant interaction for physical function (P = 0.56). Higher home DBP, but not office DBP, was also significantly associated with increased risk of stroke (P ≤ 0.029) irrespective of physical function (all P > 0.05 for interaction). Neither home BP nor office BP was significantly associated with all-cause mortality irrespective of physical function. Higher home BP was associated with increased risk of stroke even among those with impaired physical function. Measurements of home BP would be useful for stroke prevention, even after physical function decline.
Atalay, Ayce; Turhan, Nur
The objective was to identify the predictors of length of stay--the impact of age, comorbidity, and stroke subtype--on the outcome of geriatric stroke patients. One hundred and seventy stroke patients (129 first-ever ischemic, 25 hemorrhagic, and 16 ischemic second strokes) were included in the study. The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project…
Koh, Sukjin; Gordon, Andrew S; Wienberg, Christopher; Sood, Sara O; Morley, Stephanie
Background Research on cerebral stroke symptoms using hospital records has reported that women experience more nontraditional symptoms of stroke (eg, mental status change, pain) than men do. This is an important issue because nontraditional symptoms may delay the decision to get medical assistance and increase the difficulty of correct diagnosis. In the present study, we investigate sex differences in the stroke experience as described in stories on weblogs. Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the Internet as a source of data for basic research on stroke experiences. Methods Stroke experiences described in blogs were identified by using StoryUpgrade, a program that searches blog posts using a fictional prototype story. In this study, the prototype story was a description of a stroke experience. Retrieved stories coded by the researchers as relevant were used to update the search query and retrieve more stories using relevance feedback. Stories were coded for first- or third-person narrator, traditional and nontraditional patient symptoms, type of stroke, patient sex and age, delay before seeking medical assistance, and delay at hospital and in treatment. Results There were 191 relevant stroke stories of which 174 stories reported symptoms (52.3% female and 47.7% male patients). There were no sex differences for each traditional or nontraditional stroke symptom by chi-square analysis (all Ps>.05). Type of narrator, however, affected report of traditional and nontraditional symptoms. Female first-person narrators (ie, the patient) were more likely to report mental status change (56.3%, 27/48) than male first-person narrators (36.4%, 16/44), a marginally significant effect by logistic regression (P=.056), whereas reports of third-person narrators did not differ for women (27.9%, 12/43) and men (28.2%, 11/39) patients. There were more reports of at least 1 nontraditional symptom in the 92 first-person reports (44.6%, 41/92) than
Koh, Sukjin; Gordon, Andrew S; Wienberg, Christopher; Sood, Sara O; Morley, Stephanie; Burke, Deborah M
Research on cerebral stroke symptoms using hospital records has reported that women experience more nontraditional symptoms of stroke (eg, mental status change, pain) than men do. This is an important issue because nontraditional symptoms may delay the decision to get medical assistance and increase the difficulty of correct diagnosis. In the present study, we investigate sex differences in the stroke experience as described in stories on weblogs. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the Internet as a source of data for basic research on stroke experiences. St