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Sample records for stroke hazard ratio

  1. Dietary Sodium to Potassium Ratio and Risk of Stroke in a Multiethnic Urban Population: The Northern Manhattan Study.

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    Willey, Joshua; Gardener, Hannah; Cespedes, Sandino; Cheung, Ying K; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-11-01

    There is growing evidence that increased dietary sodium (Na) intake increases the risk of vascular diseases, including stroke, at least in part via an increase in blood pressure. Higher dietary potassium (K), seen with increased intake of fruits and vegetables, is associated with lower blood pressure. The goal of this study was to determine the association of a dietary Na:K with risk of stroke in a multiethnic urban population. Stroke-free participants from the Northern Manhattan Study, a population-based cohort study of stroke incidence, were followed-up for incident stroke. Baseline food frequency questionnaires were analyzed for Na and K intake. We estimated the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of Na:K with incident total stroke using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Among 2570 participants with dietary data (mean age, 69±10 years; 64% women; 21% white; 55% Hispanic; 24% black), the mean Na:K ratio was 1.22±0.43. Over a mean follow-up of 12 years, there were 274 strokes. In adjusted models, a higher Na:K ratio was associated with increased risk for stroke (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.1) and specifically ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.1). Na:K intake is an independent predictor of stroke risk. Further studies are required to understand the joint effect of Na and K intake on risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Performance and emission characteristics of LPG powered four stroke SI engine under variable stroke length and compression ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Hakan; Yamin, Jehad A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A computer simulation of a variable stroke length, LPG fuelled, four stroke, single cylinder, water cooled spark ignition engine was done. The engine capacity was varied by varying the stroke length of the engine, which also changed its compression ratio. The simulation model developed was verified with experimental results from the literature for both constant and variable stroke engines. The performance of the engine was simulated at each stroke length/compression ratio combination. The simulation results clearly indicate the advantages and utility of variable stroke engines in fuel economy and power issues. Using the variable stroke technique has significantly improved the engine's performance and emission characteristics within the range studied. The brake torque and power have registered an increase of about 7-54% at low speed and 7-57% at high speed relative to the original engine design and for all stroke lengths and engine speeds studied. The brake specific fuel consumption has registered variations from a reduction of about 6% to an increase of about 3% at low speed and from a reduction of about 6% to an increase of about 8% at high speed relative to the original engine design and for all stroke lengths and engine speeds studied. On the other hand, an increase of pollutants of about 0.65-2% occurred at low speed. Larger stroke lengths resulted in a reduction of the pollutants level of about 1.5% at higher speeds. At lower stroke lengths, on the other hand, an increase of about 2% occurred. Larger stroke lengths resulted in increased exhaust temperature and, hence, make the exhaust valve work under high temperature

  3. Some investigations in design of low cost variable compression ratio two stroke petrol engine

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas, A.; Venkatasubbaiah, G.; rao, P. Venkateswar; Reddy, M. Penchal

    2012-01-01

    Historically two stroke engine petrol engines find wide applications in construction of two wheelers worldwide, however due to stringent environmental laws enforced universally; these engines are fading in numbers. In spite of the tight norms, internationally these engines are still used in agriculture, gensets etc. Several designs of variable compression ratio two stroke engines are commercially available for analysis purpose. In this present investigation a novel method of changing the comp...

  4. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and early clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

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    Yu, Sungwook; Arima, Hisatomi; Bertmar, Carin; Clarke, Stephen; Herkes, Geoffrey; Krause, Martin

    2018-04-15

    The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is closely linked to mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether NLR is associated with early clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We collated data from a tertiary hospital's stroke registry including admitted patients with a first-ever acute ischemic stroke within 72 h of onset. White blood cell counts and peripheral differential counts were measured on admission. Early clinical outcomes were in-hospital mortality and disability at discharge assessed by the modified Rankin scale (mRS). Among 1131 stroke patients, 454 patients were included and classified into tertile groups based on NLR on admission. Patients in higher tertiles of NLR were likely to have severe neurologic deficit at discharge. Higher NLR tertiles were associated with an unfavourable shift of mRS score (p < .0001). This association remained significant after adjustment for clinical and laboratory variables including age, sex, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, stroke severity, and glucose level (p = .032 for trend). However, risk of death or major disability (score of 3-6 on mRS) and in-hospital mortality were not significantly different across NLR tertile groups. In patients with acute ischemic stroke, NLR was predictive of short-term functional outcome. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic change of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and hemorrhagic transformation after thrombolysis in stroke.

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    Guo, Zhiliang; Yu, Shuhong; Xiao, Lulu; Chen, Xin; Ye, Ruidong; Zheng, Ping; Dai, Qiliang; Sun, Wen; Zhou, Changsheng; Wang, Shuiping; Zhu, Wusheng; Liu, Xinfeng

    2016-08-26

    The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to predict short- and long-term outcomes in ischemic stroke patients. We sought to explore the temporal profile of the plasma NLR in stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and its relationship with intracranial bleeding complications after thrombolysis. A total of 189 ischemic stroke patients were prospectively enrolled. Blood samples for leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were obtained at admission and at 3-6, 12-18, and 36-48 h after IVT. Head CT was performed on admission and repeated after 36-48 h, and a CT scan was done immediately in case of clinical worsening. Hemorrhagic events were categorized as symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) and parenchymal hematomas (PH) according to previously published criteria. An increasing trend in the NLR was observed after stroke, and the NLR was higher in patients who developed PH or sICH at 3-6, 12-18, and 36-48 h after IVT (P treatment was independently associated with PH (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.14) and sICH (adjusted OR 1.14). In addition, patients with a NLR ≥10.59 had an 8.50-fold greater risk for PH (95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.69-26.89) and a 7.93-fold greater risk for sICH (95 % CI 2.25-27.99) than patients with a NLR stroke patients.

  6. The predictive value of waist-to-height ratio for ischemic stroke in a population-based prospective cohort study among Mongolian men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Xu, Tian; Bu, Xiaoqing; Peng, Hao; Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Mingzhi; Zhang, Yonghong

    2014-01-01

    To explore the associations between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) and risk of ischemic stroke among Mongolian men in China. A population-based prospective cohort study was conducted from June 2003 to July 2012 in Inner Mongolia, an autonomous region in north China. A total of 1034 men aged 20 years and older free of cardiovascular disease were included in the cohort and followed up for an average of 9.2 years. The subjects were divided into four groups by WHtR levels (WHtR0.60). The cumulative survival rates of ischemic stroke among the four groups were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier curves and compared by log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were employed to evaluate the associations between obesity indices and ischemic stroke. A total of 47 ischemic stroke patients were observed during the follow-up period. The cumulative incidence and incidence density of ischemic stroke were 4.55% and 507.61/100 000 person-years, respectively. After the major risk factors were adjusted, individuals with WHtR>0.60 had a 3.56-fold increased risk of ischemic stroke compared with those with 0.40≤WHtR≤0.50. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ischemic stroke for a 1-SD increase in WHtR was 1.34(95% CI: 1.00-1.81). After adding BMI or WC to models, higher WHtR remained significantly associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the cumulative survival rate in the group with WHtR>0.60 was significantly lower than in the group with 0.40≤WHtR≤0.50 (log-rank test, P = 0.025). The areas under the curve for each index were as follows: 0.586 for WHtR, 0.543 for WC; 0.566 for BMI. Higher WHtR is associated with risk of ischemic stroke in Mongolian males. WHtR may be useful in predicting ischemic stroke incidence in males.

  7. Thrombolysis in stroke patients: Comparability of point-of-care versus central laboratory international normalized ratio.

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    Dolscheid-Pommerich, Ramona C; Dolscheid, Sarah; Eichhorn, Lars; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Graeff, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    In acute stroke patients, thrombolysis is one gold standard therapy option within the first four hours after the ischemic event. A contraindication for thrombolysis is an International Normalized Ratio (INR) value >1.7. Since time is brain, rapid and reliable INR results are fundamental. Aim was to compare INR values determined by central laboratory (CL) analyzer and Point-of-Care Testing(POCT)-device and to evaluate the quality of POCT performance in cases of potential therapeutic thrombolysis at a certified stroke unit. In 153 patients INR measurements using POCT-devices (HEMOCHRON Signature Elite®) were compared to INR measurements (BCS®XP) performed at the central laboratory. Outlier evaluation was performed regarding the critical thrombolysis cut-off. Overall, we demonstrated a significant correlation (r = 0.809, p75 years. POCT-INR measurements based on our POCT concept are suitable to determine INR values in critical stroke patients. Nevertheless, outlier evaluation is mandatory.

  8. Flash Flood Hazard Susceptibility Mapping Using Frequency Ratio and Statistical Index Methods in Coalmine Subsidence Areas

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    Chen Cao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on producing flash flood hazard susceptibility maps (FFHSM using frequency ratio (FR and statistical index (SI models in the Xiqu Gully (XQG of Beijing, China. First, a total of 85 flash flood hazard locations (n = 85 were surveyed in the field and plotted using geographic information system (GIS software. Based on the flash flood hazard locations, a flood hazard inventory map was built. Seventy percent (n = 60 of the flooding hazard locations were randomly selected for building the models. The remaining 30% (n = 25 of the flooded hazard locations were used for validation. Considering that the XQG used to be a coal mining area, coalmine caves and subsidence caused by coal mining exist in this catchment, as well as many ground fissures. Thus, this study took the subsidence risk level into consideration for FFHSM. The ten conditioning parameters were elevation, slope, curvature, land use, geology, soil texture, subsidence risk area, stream power index (SPI, topographic wetness index (TWI, and short-term heavy rain. This study also tested different classification schemes for the values for each conditional parameter and checked their impacts on the results. The accuracy of the FFHSM was validated using area under the curve (AUC analysis. Classification accuracies were 86.61%, 83.35%, and 78.52% using frequency ratio (FR-natural breaks, statistical index (SI-natural breaks and FR-manual classification schemes, respectively. Associated prediction accuracies were 83.69%, 81.22%, and 74.23%, respectively. It was found that FR modeling using a natural breaks classification method was more appropriate for generating FFHSM for the Xiqu Gully.

  9. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio is associated with thromboembolic stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

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    Ertaş, Gökhan; Sönmez, Osman; Turfan, Murat; Kul, Seref; Erdoğan, Ercan; Tasal, Abdurrahman; Bacaksiz, Ahmet; Vatankulu, Mehmet Akif; Altıntaş, Ozge; Uyarel, Hüseyin; Göktekin, Omer

    2013-01-15

    Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been associated with poor outcomes in patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the role of NLR in patients with thromboembolic stroke due to atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to compare the NLR ratios between non-valvular AF patients with or without thromboembolic stroke. A total of 126 non-valvular AF patients with or without stroke were included in the study; 126 consecutive patients (52 males and 74 females), mean age, 70 ± 10.2 years old. No patient had a recent history of an acute infection or an inflammatory disease. Baseline NLR was measured by dividing neutrophil count to lymphocyte count. WBC count>12.000 cells per μL or 38 º are excluded from the study. Mean NLR was significantly higher among persons with stroke compared to individuals without a stroke (5.6 ± 3.4 vs. 3.1 ± 2.1, p=0.001). There were no significant differences in RDW levels between the two groups (p>0.05). HAS-BLED and CHADS(2) scores were significantly higher in the stroke group. Higher NLR, an emerging marker of inflammation, is associated with thromboembolic stroke in non-valvular AF patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Southern Dietary Pattern is Associated With Hazard of Acute Coronary Heart Disease in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikany, James M; Safford, Monika M; Newby, P K; Durant, Raegan W; Brown, Todd M; Judd, Suzanne E

    2015-09-01

    The association of overall diet, as characterized by dietary patterns, with risk of incident acute coronary heart disease (CHD) has not been studied extensively in samples including sociodemographic and regional diversity. We used data from 17 418 participants in Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS), a national, population-based, longitudinal study of white and black adults aged ≥45 years, enrolled from 2003 to 2007. We derived dietary patterns with factor analysis and used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine hazard of incident acute CHD events - nonfatal myocardial infarction and acute CHD death - associated with quartiles of consumption of each pattern, adjusted for various levels of covariates. Five primary dietary patterns emerged: Convenience, Plant-based, Sweets, Southern, and Alcohol and Salad. A total of 536 acute CHD events occurred over a median (interquartile range) 5.8 (2.1) years of follow-up. After adjustment for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, and energy intake, highest consumers of the Southern pattern (characterized by added fats, fried food, eggs, organ and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages) experienced a 56% higher hazard of acute CHD (comparing quartile 4 with quartile 1: hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.08; P for trend across quartiles=0.003). Adding anthropometric and medical history variables to the model attenuated the association somewhat (hazard ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.85; P=0.036). A dietary pattern characteristic of the southern United States was associated with greater hazard of CHD in this sample of white and black adults in diverse regions of the United States. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and the hematoma volume and stroke severity in acute intracerebral hemorrhage patients.

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    Sun, Yaming; You, Shoujiang; Zhong, Chongke; Huang, Zhichao; Hu, Lifang; Zhang, Xia; Shi, Jijun; Cao, Yongjun; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2017-03-01

    Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) serves as a powerful inflammatory marker for predicting cardiovascular events. Here, we investigate whether admission NLR is associated with hematoma volume, stroke severity, and 3-month outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). 352 patients with acute ICH were prospectively identified in this study. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, NIHSS score, hematoma volumes, and other clinical features were recorded for all participants. Patients was divided into quartiles based on the admission NLR levels (Q1: hematoma volume, admission severity, or the outcomes after ICH. Median NIHSS scores for each quartile (Q1 to Q4) were 6.0, 6.0, 6.0, and 11.0 (P=.001), and median hematoma volumes were 9.5, 9.3, 9.1, and 15.0ml (P=.005), respectively. After adjusting the age, sex, and other potential risk factors, the patients in Q4 had higher NIHSS scores (P=.042) and larger hematoma volume (P=.014). After 3-month follow-up, 148 poor outcomes (mRS, 3-6) and 47 all-cause deaths were documented. There were more patients with poor outcomes in Q4 than Q1. However, compared with the patients in Q1, those in Q4 were not associated with poor outcomes (P-trend=0.379), and all-cause mortality (P-trend=0.843) after adjust for other risk factors. Higher admission NLR are associated with larger hematoma volume and more serious stroke, but not 3-month outcomes in patients with acute ICH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stroke

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    ... adjust your treatment as needed. Rehabilitation After a stroke, you may need rehabilitation (rehab) to help you recover. Rehab may include working with speech, physical, and occupational therapists. Language, ... may have trouble communicating after a stroke. You may not be able to find the ...

  13. Elevated Urinary Methylmalonic Acid/creatinine ratio and Serum Sterol levels in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

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    Sivrikaya Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sitosterolemia, defined as phytosterolemia, is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by elevated blood sterol levels. Our aim was to investigate serum plant sterols, methylmalonic acid, vitamin B12, oxidized-LDL and homocysteine levels in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients and healthy subjects. Material and Methods: 50 healthy subjects (without a family history of coronary artery disease and 89 patients hospitalized in the Selcuk University neurology clinic or intensive care unit with a diagnosis of stroke were included in this study. Serum plant sterols, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid, oxidized-LDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-Cholesterol and vitamin B12 levels were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, commercially available ELISA kit, spectrophotometry and chemiluminescence methods, respectively. Results: Urinary methylmalonic acid/creatinine ratio (p< 0.05, serum β-sitosterol levels and β-sitosterol/ cholesterol ratio were significantly higher (p <0.01 in patients compared to the control group. There was a significant positive correlation between the serum OxLDL- methylmalonic acid, serum homocysteine- urinary methylmalonic acid /creatinine ratio, serum methylmalonic acid - Urinary methylmalonic acid (p<0.05, serum homocysteine- urinary methylmalonic acid, urinary methylmalonic acid-methylmalonic acid/creatinine ratio, serum methylmalonic acid- methylmalonic acid/creatinine ratio, serum beta-sitosterol- beta-sitosterol /cholesterol, total cholesterol-HDL, total cholesterol-LDL (p <0.01 levels and negative correlation between vitamin B12- serum methylmalonic acid (p<0.05, cholesterol-stigmasterol/cholesterol, LDL- stigmasterol/cholesterol (p <0.01 levels in the patient group. Conclusion: Our findings presented that the serum sitosterol levels were significantly higher in stroke patients compared to controls.

  14. Correcting hazard ratio estimates for outcome misclassification using multiple imputation with internal validation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jiayi; Leong, Aaron; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Rahme, Elham

    2017-08-01

    Outcome misclassification may occur in observational studies using administrative databases. We evaluated a two-step multiple imputation approach based on complementary internal validation data obtained from two subsamples of study participants to reduce bias in hazard ratio (HR) estimates in Cox regressions. We illustrated this approach using data from a surveyed sample of 6247 individuals in a study of statin-diabetes association in Quebec. We corrected diabetes status and onset assessed from health administrative data against self-reported diabetes and/or elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) assessed in subsamples. The association between statin use and new onset diabetes was evaluated using administrative data and the corrected data. By simulation, we assessed the performance of this method varying the true HR, sensitivity, specificity, and the size of validation subsamples. The adjusted HR of new onset diabetes among statin users versus non-users was 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.09-2.38) using administrative data only, 1.49 (0.95-2.34) when diabetes status and onset were corrected based on self-report and undiagnosed diabetes (FBG ≥ 7 mmol/L), and 1.36 (0.92-2.01) when corrected for self-report and undiagnosed diabetes/impaired FBG (≥ 6 mmol/L). In simulations, the multiple imputation approach yielded less biased HR estimates and appropriate coverage for both non-differential and differential misclassification. Large variations in the corrected HR estimates were observed using validation subsamples with low participation proportion. The bias correction was sometimes outweighed by the uncertainty introduced by the unknown time of event occurrence. Multiple imputation is useful to correct for outcome misclassification in time-to-event analyses if complementary validation data are available from subsamples. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Frontal EEG delta/alpha ratio and screening for post-stroke cognitive deficits: the power of four electrodes.

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    Schleiger, Emma; Sheikh, Nabeel; Rowland, Tennille; Wong, Andrew; Read, Stephen; Finnigan, Simon

    2014-10-01

    This study analysed correlations between post-stroke, quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) indices, and cognition-specific, functional outcome measures. Results were compared between QEEG indices calculated from the standard 19 versus 4 frontal (or 4 posterior) electrodes to assess the feasibility and efficacy of employing a reduced electrode montage. Resting-state EEG was recorded at the bedside within 62-101 h after onset of symptoms of middle cerebral artery, ischaemic stroke (confirmed radiologically). Relative power for delta, theta, alpha and beta, delta/alpha ratio (DAR) and pairwise-derived brain symmetry index (pdBSI) were averaged; over all electrodes (global), over F3, F4, F7, F8 (frontal) and P3, P4, T5, T6 (posterior). The functional independence measure and functional assessment measure (FIM-FAM) was administered at mean 105 days post-stroke. Total (30 items) and cognition-specific (5 items) FIM-FAM scores were correlated with QEEG indices using Spearman's coefficient, with a Bonferroni correction. Twenty-five patients were recruited, 4 died within 3 months and 1 was lost to follow-up. Hence 20 cases (10 female; 9 left hemisphere; mean age 68 years, range 38-84) were analysed. Two QEEG indices demonstrated highly-significant correlations with cognitive outcomes: frontal DAR (ρ = -0.664, p ≤ 0.001) and global, relative alpha power (ρ = 0.67, p ≤ 0.001). After correction there were no other significant correlations. Alpha activity - particularly frontally - may index post-stroke attentional capacity, which appears to be a key determinant of functional and cognitive outcomes. Likewise frontal delta pathophysiology influences such outcomes. Pending further studies, DAR from 4 frontal electrodes may inform early screening for post-MCA stroke cognitive deficits, and thereby, clinical decisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-Term Risk of Dementia among Survivors of Ischemic or Hemorrhagic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corraini, Priscila; Henderson, Victor; Ording, Anne Gulbech

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a risk factor for dementia, but the risk of dementia after different stroke types is poorly understood. We examined the long-term risk of dementia among survivors of any first-time stroke and of first-time ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid...... 303 survivors of unspecified stroke types. Patients were aged ≥18 years and survived for at least 3 months after diagnosis. We formed a comparison cohort from the general population (1 075 588 patients without stroke, matched to stroke patients by age and sex). We computed absolute risks and hazard...... ratios of dementia up to 30 years after stroke. RESULTS: The 30-year absolute risk of dementia among stroke survivors was 11.5% (95% confidence interval, 11.2%-11.7%). Compared with the general population, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for dementia among stroke survivors was 1.80 (1...

  17. Arterial compliance in patients with cirrhosis: stroke volume-pulse pressure ratio as simplified index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, S; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, E

    2001-01-01

    Arterial function may be altered in patients with cirrhosis. We determined compliance of the arterial tree (C(1)) in relation to systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic derangement and clinical variables. C(1) and the stroke volume-pulse pressure index (SV/PP) were significantly higher (+62% and +40%...... predictors of SV/PP (P abnormalities in the arterial compliance of these patients....

  18. Arterial compliance in patients with cirrhosis: stroke volume-pulse pressure ratio as simplified index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, S; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, E

    2001-01-01

    Arterial function may be altered in patients with cirrhosis. We determined compliance of the arterial tree (C(1)) in relation to systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic derangement and clinical variables. C(1) and the stroke volume-pulse pressure index (SV/PP) were significantly higher (+62% and +40....../PP on one side and age, sex, body weight, portal pressure, systemic hemodynamics, biochemical variables, and severity of disease on the other. In the multiple-regression analysis, sex, age, mean arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and biochemical variables were significant independent...

  19. The influence of Compression Ratio to Performance of Four Stroke Engine Use of Arak Bali as a Fuel

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    I Dewa Made Krishna Muku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Arak bali is alternative fuel as ethanol. Ethanol has octane number 108. Octane number which was higher can over come adetonation, and can work at higher compression ratio. This experiment has done to now how the effect of compression ratiovariation to the performance four strokes engine by arak bali fuel. This research was done by changing the compressionratio that is 8,8 : 1, 8,9 : 1, 9 : 1 and 9,3 : 1. The change was done by reducing combustion chamber by scrap the cylinderhead. The result, for the used arak bali fuel to the vehicle is, if engine compression ratio to increase can be influence ofengine performance to be increase and engine fuel consumption to be decrease. For premium is, if engine compression ratioto increase to influence of engine performance to be decrease and engine fuel consumption to be increase.

  20. De Ritis ratio (AST/ALT as an independent predictor of poor outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke

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    Gao F

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fan Gao,1 Chen Chen,2 Jun Lu,1 Jie Zheng,1 Xian-Cang Ma,1,3 Xing-Yun Yuan,2 Kang Huo,2 Jian-Feng Han2 1Clinical Research Center, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China Purpose: The aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase ratio (De Ritis ratio, AAR was reported to be associated with patients’ prognosis in certain diseases recently. The objective of the current study was to determine the association between the AAR at admission and poor outcome at 3 months in acute ischemic stroke (AIS patients.Patients and methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients who experienced their first-ever AIS between June 2015 and March 2016. The primary outcome measure was a poor outcome at 3 months (modified Rankin Scale score >2. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between AAR quartiles and clinical outcomes among the AIS patients. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was applied to identify the optimal cutoff for AAR in predicting the prognosis of AIS.Results: In terms of the relationship between poor outcome and AAR, the adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest and lowest AAR quartiles was 2.15 (95% confidence interval =1.14–4.05. An AAR of 1.53 was identified as the optimal cutoff. In a prespecified subgroup analysis according to the time from symptom onset to treatment (>24 vs ≤24 hours, there was no significant difference in the effect of AAR >1.53 between the two groups.Conclusion: An increased AAR at admission is significantly associated with a poor outcome at 3 months in AIS patients. Keywords: De Ritis ratio, stroke, prognosis, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, modified Rankin scale, poor outcome

  1. Association between atherogenic dyslipidemia and recurrent stroke risk in patients with different subtypes of ischemic stroke.

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    Zhao, Lu; Wang, Ruihao; Song, Bo; Tan, Song; Gao, Yuan; Fang, Hui; Lu, Jie; Xu, Yuming

    2015-07-01

    The association between atherogenic dyslipidemia and stroke recurrence remains unclear, and may be influenced by different subtypes of ischemic stroke. We aimed to investigate whether atherogenic dyslipidemia contributed to stroke recurrence in ischemic stroke patients and in those with certain subtypes of ischemic stroke. We conducted a prospective hospital-based study enrolling patients with acute ischemic stroke. Atherogenic dyslipidemia was defined as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol dyslipidemia and stroke recurrence was analyzed by using multivariable Cox regression model. In the 510 ischemic stroke patients, 64 patients (12·5%) had atherogenic dyslipidemia, and 66 patients (12·9%) experienced stroke recurrence events within 24 months. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that stroke recurrence rate was significantly higher in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia than those without in all the stroke patients (20·3% vs. 11·9%; P = 0·048), and more evident in those of large-artery atherosclerosis subtype (31·0% vs. 14·1%; P = 0·014), but not in the other subtypes. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that atherogenic dyslipidemia was associated with higher stroke recurrence risk among stroke patients of large-artery atherosclerosis subtype (hazard ratio, 2·79; 95% confidence interval, 1·24-6·28), but not significant in all the stroke patients (hazard ratio, 1·69; 95% confidence interval, 0·85-3·37). Atherogenic dyslipidemia is associated with higher risk of stroke recurrence in ischemic stroke patients. Such association might be more pronounced in large-artery atherosclerosis subtype and needs further investigation to establish such relationship. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  2. Recurrent Stroke: The Value of the CHA2DS2VASc Score and the Essen Stroke Risk Score in a Nationwide Stroke Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Due; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose—The CHA2DS2VASc score and the Essen Stroke Risk Score are respectively used for risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation and in patients with cerebrovascular incidents. We aimed to test the ability of the 2 scores to predict stroke recurrence, death...... and no atrial fibrillation. Patients were stratified according to the CHA2DS2VASc score and the Essen Stroke Risk Score and were followed up until stroke recurrence or death. We estimated stratified incidence rates and hazard ratios and calculated the cumulative risks. Results—42 182 patients with incident...... ischemic stroke with median age 70.1 years were included. The overall 1-year incidence rates of recurrent stroke, death, and cardiovascular events were 3.6%, 10.5%, and 6.7%, respectively. The incidence rates, the hazard ratios, and the cumulative risk of all outcomes increased with increasing risk scores...

  3. De Ritis ratio (AST/ALT) as an independent predictor of poor outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

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    Gao, Fan; Chen, Chen; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Jie; Ma, Xian-Cang; Yuan, Xing-Yun; Huo, Kang; Han, Jian-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase ratio (De Ritis ratio, AAR) was reported to be associated with patients' prognosis in certain diseases recently. The objective of the current study was to determine the association between the AAR at admission and poor outcome at 3 months in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. This retrospective cohort study included patients who experienced their first-ever AIS between June 2015 and March 2016. The primary outcome measure was a poor outcome at 3 months (modified Rankin Scale score >2). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between AAR quartiles and clinical outcomes among the AIS patients. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was applied to identify the optimal cutoff for AAR in predicting the prognosis of AIS. In terms of the relationship between poor outcome and AAR, the adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest and lowest AAR quartiles was 2.15 (95% confidence interval =1.14-4.05). An AAR of 1.53 was identified as the optimal cutoff. In a prespecified subgroup analysis according to the time from symptom onset to treatment (>24 vs ≤24 hours), there was no significant difference in the effect of AAR >1.53 between the two groups. An increased AAR at admission is significantly associated with a poor outcome at 3 months in AIS patients.

  4. Job strain and the risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Nyberg, Solja T; Heikkilä, Katriina

    2015-01-01

    studies to investigate the association between job strain, a measure of work-related stress, and incident stroke. RESULTS: In 1.8 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 9.2 years), 2023 first-time stroke events were recorded. The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for job strain relative to no job....... CONCLUSION: Job strain may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, but further research is needed to determine whether interventions targeting job strain would reduce stroke risk beyond existing preventive strategies....

  5. Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  6. Bias in Hazard Ratios Arising From Misclassification According to Self-Reported Weight and Height in Observational Studies of Body Mass Index and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Brian K; Graubard, Barry I

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Misclassification of body mass index (BMI) categories arising from self-reported weight and height can bias hazard ratios in studies of BMI and mortality. We examined the effects on hazard ratios of such misclassification using national US survey data for 1976 through 2010 that had both measured and self-reported weight and height along with mortality follow-up for 48,763 adults and a subset of 17,405 healthy never-smokers. BMI was categorized as self-reported data. Both the magnitude and direction of bias varied according to the underlying hazard ratios in measured data, showing that findings on bias from one study should not be extrapolated to a study with different underlying hazard ratios. Because of misclassification effects, self-reported weight and height cannot reliably indicate the lowest-risk BMI category. PMID:29309516

  7. Differences in the role of black race and stroke risk factors for first vs recurrent stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissela, Brett M.; Kleindorfer, Dawn O.; McClure, Leslie A.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Rhodes, J. David; Cushman, Mary; Moy, Claudia S.; Sands, Kara A.; Howard, Virginia J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether black race and other cerebrovascular risk factors have a differential effect on first vs recurrent stroke events. Methods: Estimate the differences in the magnitude of the association of demographic (age, back race, sex) or stroke risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, cigarette smoking, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular hypertrophy, or heart disease) for first vs recurrent stroke from a longitudinal cohort study of 29,682 black or white participants aged 45 years and older. Results: Over an average 6.8 years follow-up, 301 of 2,993 participants with a previous stroke at baseline had a recurrent stroke, while 818 of 26,689 participants who were stroke-free at baseline had a first stroke. Among those stroke-free at baseline, there was an age-by-race interaction (p = 0.0002), with a first stroke risk 2.70 (95% confidence interval: 1.86–3.91) times greater for black than white participants at age 45, but no racial disparity at age 85 (hazard ratio = 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.70–1.18). In contrast, there was no evidence of a higher risk of recurrent stroke at any age for black participants (p > 0.05). The association of traditional stroke risk factors was generally similar for first and recurrent stroke. Conclusion: The association of age and black race differs substantially on first vs recurrent stroke risk, with risk factors playing a similar role. PMID:26791153

  8. Sex differences in stroke survival: 10-year follow-up of the Copenhagen stroke study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Nonboe; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2005-01-01

    factors showed no difference between sexes for ischemic heart disease, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and previous stroke. Men more often were smokers and alcohol consumers. Unadjusted survival in men and women did not differ: 70.3% versus 66.7% (1-year), 40.0% versus 38.9% (5-year...... (hazard ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.28-1.76). Before 9 months poststroke, no difference in survival was seen. Severity of stroke had the same effect on sex. CONCLUSION: Stroke is equally severe in men and women. Short-term survival is the same. Having survived stroke, women, however, live longer.......BACKGROUND: Although diverging, most studies show that sex has no significant influence on stroke survival. METHODS: In a Copenhagen, Denmark, community all patients with stroke during March 1992 to November 1993 were registered on hospital admission. Stroke severity was measured using...

  9. Clot lysis time and the risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in young women; results from the RATIO case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegerink, Bob; Meltzer, Mirjam E.; de Groot, Philip G.; Algra, Ale; Lisman, Ton; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    Reduced overall fibrinolytic capacity increases the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), as demonstrated in studies with predominantly male participants. We determined the influence of altered fibrinolysis on the risk of MI and ischaemic stroke (IS) in young women. The RATIO (Risk of Arterial

  10. An Investigation of the Composition of the Flow in and out of a Two-Stroke Diesel Engine and Air Consumption Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Grljušić

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the mass, substance and energy flow through two-stroke low speed Diesel engines. For this reason, a zero-dimensional model of the combustion in the engine was developed with a calculated amount and composition of exhaust gases. Due to the large amount of oxygen in the exhaust gases, a ratio of real air consumption and stoichiometric amount of air required for combustion of injected fuel was set. The calculated ratio showed that the engine consumed four times more air than needed for combustion in AFRstoich. In this work, this was called the Air Consumption Factor or Ratio, and has not previously been mentioned in scientific literature. The air consumption ratio is defined as a factor of dry or humid air. To be more comprehensive, a modified diagram of the composition of the flow in and out of a two-stroke fuel injection engine and the cylinder was made.

  11. Association of Osteopontin, Neopterin, and Myeloperoxidase With Stroke Risk in Patients With Prior Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attacks: Results of an Analysis of 13 Biomarkers From the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Peter; Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Sillesen, Henrik; Bao, Weihang; Preston, Gregory M; Welch, K Michael A

    2017-12-01

    Established risk factors do not fully identify patients at risk for recurrent stroke. The SPARCL trial (Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels) evaluated the effect of atorvastatin on stroke risk in patients with a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease. This analysis explored the relationships between 13 plasma biomarkers assessed at trial enrollment and the occurrence of outcome strokes. We conducted a case-cohort study of 2176 participants; 562 had outcome strokes and 1614 were selected randomly from those without outcome strokes. Time to stroke was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models. There was no association between time to stroke and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 , monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, resistin, matrix metalloproteinase-9, N-terminal fragment of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, or soluble CD40 ligand. In adjusted analyses, osteopontin (hazard ratio per SD change, 1.362; P strokes. After adjustment for the Stroke Prognostic Instrument-II and treatment, osteopontin, neopterin, and myeloperoxidase remained independently associated with outcome strokes. The addition of these 3 biomarkers to Stroke Prognostic Instrument-II increased the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve by 0.023 ( P =0.015) and yielded a continuous net reclassification improvement (29.1%; P stroke and improved risk classification when added to a clinical risk algorithm. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT00147602. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Neighborhood cohesion is associated with reduced risk of stroke mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cari Jo; Guo, Hongfei; Lunos, Scott; Aggarwal, Neelum T; Beck, Todd; Evans, Denis A; Mendes de Leon, Carlos; Everson-Rose, Susan A

    2011-05-01

    Greater social cohesion is related to lower rates of coronary heart disease, but its relation to stroke risk is unstudied. This study examined whether neighborhood social cohesion was protective against stroke mortality and incidence. Data come from 5789 participants (60% female; 62% black; mean age, 74.7 years) in a longitudinal study of chronic diseases in the elderly. Stroke mortality, ascertained through December 31, 2007, was verified through the National Death Index; 186 stroke deaths were identified in 11 years of follow-up. Stroke incidence was determined in a subset (N=3816) with linkage to Medicare claims files; 701 first-ever strokes were identified. Cohesion was measured by 6 items assessing frequency of contact and social interactions with neighbors; items were z-scored and averaged. Individual scores were averaged across 82 census block groups, forming a neighborhood-level measure of social cohesion. Marginal Cox proportional hazard models tested the association of neighborhood-level cohesion with stroke mortality and incidence. Each 1-point increase in cohesion related to a 53% reduced risk of stroke mortality (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.90), adjusting for relevant covariates, including sociodemographics, known stroke risk factors, and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status. A race×cohesion interaction (P=0.04) revealed cohesion was protective in whites (hazard ratio, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.67) but not blacks (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.35 to 3.86). Cohesion was unrelated to stroke incidence (P>0.5). Neighborhood-level social cohesion was independently protective against stroke mortality. Research is needed to further examine observed race differences and pathways by which cohesion is health-protective.

  13. Periodontal Disease, Regular Dental Care Use, and Incident Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Souvik; Giamberardino, Lauren D; Moss, Kevin; Morelli, Thiago; Rosamond, Wayne D; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Beck, James; Offenbacher, Steven

    2018-02-01

    Periodontal disease is independently associated with cardiovascular disease. Identification of periodontal disease as a risk factor for incident ischemic stroke raises the possibility that regular dental care utilization may reduce the stroke risk. In the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study, pattern of dental visits were classified as regular or episodic dental care users. In the ancillary dental ARIC study, selected subjects from ARIC underwent fullmouth periodontal measurements collected at 6 sites per tooth and classified into 7 periodontal profile classes (PPCs). In the ARIC study 10 362 stroke-free participants, 584 participants had incident ischemic strokes over a 15-year period. In the dental ARIC study, 6736 dentate subjects were assessed for periodontal disease status using PPC with a total of 299 incident ischemic strokes over the 15-year period. The 7 levels of PPC showed a trend toward an increased stroke risk (χ 2 trend P stroke/1000-person years was 1.29 for PPC-A (health), 2.82 for PPC-B, 4.80 for PPC-C, 3.81 for PPC-D, 3.50 for PPC-E, 4.78 for PPC-F, and 5.03 for PPC-G (severe periodontal disease). Periodontal disease was significantly associated with cardioembolic (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-5.6) and thrombotic (hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.8) stroke subtypes. Regular dental care utilization was associated with lower adjusted stroke risk (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.94). We confirm an independent association between periodontal disease and incident stroke risk, particularly cardioembolic and thrombotic stroke subtype. Further, we report that regular dental care utilization may lower this risk for stroke. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Restricted mean survival time: an alternative to the hazard ratio for the design and analysis of randomized trials with a time-to-event outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Patrick; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2013-12-07

    Designs and analyses of clinical trials with a time-to-event outcome almost invariably rely on the hazard ratio to estimate the treatment effect and implicitly, therefore, on the proportional hazards assumption. However, the results of some recent trials indicate that there is no guarantee that the assumption will hold. Here, we describe the use of the restricted mean survival time as a possible alternative tool in the design and analysis of these trials. The restricted mean is a measure of average survival from time 0 to a specified time point, and may be estimated as the area under the survival curve up to that point. We consider the design of such trials according to a wide range of possible survival distributions in the control and research arm(s). The distributions are conveniently defined as piecewise exponential distributions and can be specified through piecewise constant hazards and time-fixed or time-dependent hazard ratios. Such designs can embody proportional or non-proportional hazards of the treatment effect. We demonstrate the use of restricted mean survival time and a test of the difference in restricted means as an alternative measure of treatment effect. We support the approach through the results of simulation studies and in real examples from several cancer trials. We illustrate the required sample size under proportional and non-proportional hazards, also the significance level and power of the proposed test. Values are compared with those from the standard approach which utilizes the logrank test. We conclude that the hazard ratio cannot be recommended as a general measure of the treatment effect in a randomized controlled trial, nor is it always appropriate when designing a trial. Restricted mean survival time may provide a practical way forward and deserves greater attention.

  15. Recurrent Stroke: The Value of the CHA2DS2VASc Score and the Essen Stroke Risk Score in a Nationwide Stroke Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Søren Due; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Lip, Gregory Y H; Bach, Flemming W; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard

    2015-09-01

    The CHA2DS2VASc score and the Essen Stroke Risk Score are respectively used for risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation and in patients with cerebrovascular incidents. We aimed to test the ability of the 2 scores to predict stroke recurrence, death, and cardiovascular events (stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, or arterial thromboembolism) in a nationwide Danish cohort study, among patients with incident ischemic stroke and no atrial fibrillation. We conducted a registry-based study in patients with incident ischemic stroke and no atrial fibrillation. Patients were stratified according to the CHA2DS2VASc score and the Essen Stroke Risk Score and were followed up until stroke recurrence or death. We estimated stratified incidence rates and hazard ratios and calculated the cumulative risks. 42 182 patients with incident ischemic stroke with median age 70.1 years were included. The overall 1-year incidence rates of recurrent stroke, death, and cardiovascular events were 3.6%, 10.5%, and 6.7%, respectively. The incidence rates, the hazard ratios, and the cumulative risk of all outcomes increased with increasing risk scores. C-statistics for both risk scores were around 0.55 for 1-year stroke recurrence and cardiovascular events and correspondingly for death around 0.67 for both scores. In this cohort of non-atrial fibrillation patients with incident ischemic stroke, increasing CHA2DS2VASc score and Essen Stroke Risk Score was associated with increasing risk of recurrent stroke, death, and cardiovascular events. Their discriminatory performance was modest and further refinements are required for clinical application. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Prepregnancy Obesity and Associations With Stroke and Myocardial Infarction in Women in the Years After Childbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle Dalgas; Andersson, Charlotte; Køber, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular events (stroke or myocardial infarction) are often associated with poorer prognosis in younger, compared with older individuals. We examined the associations between prepregnancy obesity and the risks of myocardial infarction and stroke in young, healthy women. METHODS......) in underweight (BMIischemic stroke, and a composite outcome (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death) were assessed using multivariable Cox...... regression models. We included 273 101 women with a median age of 30.4 years (interquartile range, 27.2-33.8). A total of 68 women experienced a myocardial infarction, and 175 women experienced an ischemic stroke. The adjusted hazard ratios of myocardial infarction compared with normal weight were 2.50 (95...

  17. Fatalism, optimism, spirituality, depressive symptoms, and stroke outcome: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Lewis B; Sánchez, Brisa N; Skolarus, Lesli E; Garcia, Nelda; Risser, Jan M H; Wing, Jeffrey J; Smith, Melinda A; Zahuranec, Darin B; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2011-12-01

    We sought to describe the association of spirituality, optimism, fatalism, and depressive symptoms with initial stroke severity, stroke recurrence, and poststroke mortality. Stroke cases from June 2004 to December 2008 were ascertained in Nueces County, TX. Patients without aphasia were queried on their recall of depressive symptoms, fatalism, optimism, and nonorganizational spirituality before stroke using validated scales. The association between scales and stroke outcomes was studied using multiple linear regression with log-transformed National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Cox proportional hazards regression for recurrence and mortality. Six hundred sixty-nine patients participated; 48.7% were women. In fully adjusted models, an increase in fatalism from the first to third quartile was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.06-1.88) and marginally associated with risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.97-1.88), but not stroke severity. Similarly, an increase in depressive symptoms was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.02-1.72), marginally associated with stroke recurrence (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.93-1.62), and with a 9.0% increase in stroke severity (95% CI, 0.01-18.0). Depressive symptoms altered the fatalism-mortality association such that the association of fatalism and mortality was more pronounced for patients reporting no depressive symptoms. Neither spirituality nor optimism conferred a significant effect on stroke severity, recurrence, or mortality. Among patients who have already had a stroke, self-described prestroke depressive symptoms and fatalism, but not optimism or spirituality, are associated with increased risk of stroke recurrence and mortality. Unconventional risk factors may explain some of the variability in stroke outcomes observed in populations and may be novel targets for intervention.

  18. Increased stroke risk in Bell's palsy patients without steroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C-C; Su, Y-C; Chien, S-H; Ho, H-C; Hung, S-K; Lee, M-S; Chou, P; Chiu, B C-H; Huang, Y-S

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the risk of stroke development following a diagnosis of Bell's palsy in a nationwide follow-up study. Information on Bell's palsy and other factors relevant for stroke was obtained for 433218 eligible subjects without previous stroke who had ambulatory visit in 2004. Of those, 897 patients with Bell's palsy were identified. Over a median 2.9 years of follow-up, 4581 incident strokes were identified. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals [CI] with Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for age, sex, co-morbidities, and important risk factors. Standardized incidence ratio of stroke amongst patients with Bell's palsy was analyzed. Compared with non-Bell's palsy patients, patients with Bell's palsy had a 2.02-times (95% CI, 1.42-2.86) higher risk of stroke. The adjusted HR of developing stroke for patients with Bell's palsy treated with and without systemic steroid were 1.67 (95% CI, 0.69-4) and 2.10 (95%, 1.40-3.07), respectively. Patients with Bell's palsy carry a higher risk of stroke than the general population. Our data suggest that these patients might benefit from a more intensive stroke prevention therapy and regular follow-up after initial diagnosis. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  19. Three-dimensional echocardiographic ventricular mass/end-diastolic volume ratio in native hypertensive patients: relation between stroke volume and geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Maria; Esposito, Roberta; Santoro, Ciro; Lo Iudice, Francesco; Schiano-Lomoriello, Vincenzo; Fazio, Valeria; Grimaldi, Maria Gabriella; Trimarco, Bruno; de Simone, Giovanni; Galderisi, Maurizio

    2018-03-22

    Elevated left ventricular (LV) mass/end-diastolic volume ratio (LVM/EDV) has been associated with higher evidence of myocardial fibrosis and dysfunction in hypertensive patients by cardiac magnetic resonance, a technique with limited availability. We investigated the ability of three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography in identifying a phenotype of LV concentric geometry according to LVM/EDV ratio, possibly detecting early myocardial damage in native-hypertensive patients. One hundred and twenty-eight native-hypertensive patients underwent 2D and 3D-echocardiography. The population was divided into two groups, according to cut-off point values of 3D-LVM/EDV ratio corresponding to its upper 95% confidence interval in a population of 90 healthy normotensive individuals: LVM/EDV ratio cut-off was 1.22 in men and 1.23 in women. An increased 3D-LVM/EDV ratio identified a higher rate of LV concentric geometry in comparison with 2D-derived relative wall thickness (37 versus 24%, P = 0.03). Patients with LVM/EDV ratio of 1.22 or more in men and 1.23 or more in women were significantly older, had smaller 3D-LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and higher LV mass index, without difference in ejection fraction. 3D-stroke volume (P geometry than 2D-relative wall thickness. Stroke volume is independently and negatively associated with LVM/EDV ratio and its reduction represents an early marker of myocardial dysfunction in hypertensives with LV concentric geometry.

  20. Southern Dietary Pattern is Associated with Hazard of Acute Coronary Heart Disease in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikany, James M.; Safford, Monika M.; Newby, P. K.; Durant, Raegan W.; Brown, Todd M.; Judd, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The association of overall diet, as characterized by dietary patterns, with risk of incident acute coronary heart disease (CHD) has not been studied extensively in samples including sociodemographic and regional diversity. Methods and Results We used data from 17,418 participants in Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS), a national, population-based, longitudinal study of white and black adults aged ≥45 years, enrolled from 2003-2007. We derived dietary patterns with factor analysis, and used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine hazard of incident acute CHD events – nonfatal myocardial infarction and acute CHD death – associated with quartiles of consumption of each pattern, adjusted for various levels of covariates. Five primary dietary patterns emerged: Convenience, Plant-based, Sweets, Southern, and Alcohol and Salad. A total of 536 acute CHD events occurred over a median (IQR) 5.8 (2.1) years of follow-up. After adjustment for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, and energy intake, highest consumers of the Southern pattern (characterized by added fats, fried food, eggs, organ and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages) experienced a 56% higher hazard of acute CHD (comparing quartile 4 to quartile 1: HR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.08; P for trend across quartiles = 0.003). Adding anthropometric and medical history variables to the model attenuated the association somewhat (HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.85; P = 0.036). Conclusions A dietary pattern characteristic of the southern US was associated with greater hazard of CHD in this sample of white and black adults in diverse regions of the US. PMID:26260732

  1. Increased risk of stroke in hypertensive women using hormone therapy: analyses based on the Danish Nurse Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen; Jovanovic, Zorana; Heitmann, Berit L

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent randomized clinical trials suggest an increased risk of stroke with hormone therapy (HT), whereas observational studies have suggested mixed results. Differences in design, definitions of HT exposure, and stroke outcome may explain these discrepancies. Little attention has been.......0% of the 13 122 were current HT users, 14.3% were past users, and 57.7% were never users. Overall, HT exposure was not consistently associated with stroke. However, subdivision based on the presence of hypertension showed a significantly increased risk of stroke among hypertensive women. Compared...... with hypertensive never HT users, an increased risk of total stroke was found with current use (hazard ratio, 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-4.74) and especially with current use of estrogen-progestin (hazard ratio, 3.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-6.76). Normotensive women had no increased risk of stroke...

  2. Sodium Valproate, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Is Associated With Reduced Stroke Risk After Previous Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Rebecca L; Crichton, Siobhan; Wolfe, Charles D A; Yi, Qilong; Li, Linxin; Hankey, Graeme J; Rothwell, Peter M; Markus, Hugh S

    2018-01-01

    A variant in the histone deacetylase 9 ( HDAC9 ) gene is associated with large artery stroke. Therefore, inhibiting HDAC9 might offer a novel secondary preventative treatment for ischemic stroke. The antiepileptic drug sodium valproate (SVA) is a nonspecific inhibitor of HDAC9. We tested whether SVA therapy given after ischemic stroke was associated with reduced recurrent stroke rate. Data were pooled from 3 prospective studies recruiting patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack and long-term follow-up: the South London Stroke Register, The Vitamins to Prevent Stroke Study, and the Oxford Vascular Study. Patients receiving SVA were compared with patients who received antiepileptic drugs other than SVA using survival analysis and Cox Regression. A total of 11 949 patients with confirmed ischemic event were included. Recurrent stroke rate was lower in patient taking SVA (17 of 168) than other antiepileptic drugs (105 of 530; log-rank survival analysis P =0.002). On Cox regression, controlling for potential cofounders, SVA remained associated with reduced stroke (hazard ratio=0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.3-0.7; P =0.002). A similar result was obtained when patients taking SVA were compared with all cases not taking SVA (Cox regression, hazard ratio=0.47; 95% confidence interval: 0.29-0.77; P =0.003). These results suggest that exposure to SVA, an inhibitor of HDAC, may be associated with a lower recurrent stroke risk although we cannot exclude residual confounding in this study design. This supports the hypothesis that HDAC9 is important in the ischemic stroke pathogenesis and that its inhibition, by SVA or a more specific HDAC9 inhibitor, is worthy of evaluation as a treatment to prevent recurrent ischemic stroke. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke is associated with lower long-term hospital bed day use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Thorkild; Schmitz, Marie Louise; Simonsen, Claus Z

    2016-01-01

    Background  Thrombolysis with intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator improves functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke. Few studies have investigated the effects of thrombolysis in a real-world setting. We evaluated the impact of thrombolysis on long-term hospital bed day use...... patients admitted to stroke centers not yet offering thrombolysis in 2004-2006. The outcomes were length of the stroke admission, total all-cause hospital bed day use during the first year after the stroke, and the long-term risk of readmissions. Thrombolysed and non-thrombolysed patients were compared...... in the overall risk of readmission (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI: 0.79-1.04); however, thrombolysis was associated with reduced risk of pneumonia (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI: 0.35-0.97).  Conclusions  Thrombolysis in ischemic stroke was associated with lower long-term hospital bed day use...

  4. Predictors and Outcomes of Dysphagia Screening After Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joundi, Raed A; Martino, Rosemary; Saposnik, Gustavo; Giannakeas, Vasily; Fang, Jiming; Kapral, Moira K

    2017-04-01

    Guidelines advocate screening all acute stroke patients for dysphagia. However, limited data are available regarding how many and which patients are screened and how failing a swallowing screen affects patient outcomes. We sought to evaluate predictors of receiving dysphagia screening after acute ischemic stroke and outcomes after failing a screening test. We used the Ontario Stroke Registry from April 1, 2010, to March 31, 2013, to identify patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke and determine predictors of documented dysphagia screening and outcomes after failing the screening test, including pneumonia, disability, and death. Among 7171 patients, 6677 patients were eligible to receive dysphagia screening within 72 hours, yet 1280 (19.2%) patients did not undergo documented screening. Patients with mild strokes were significantly less likely than those with more severe strokes to have documented screening (adjusted odds ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.64). Failing dysphagia screening was associated with poor outcomes, including pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio, 4.71; 95% CI, 3.43-6.47), severe disability (adjusted odds ratio, 5.19; 95% CI, 4.48-6.02), discharge to long-term care (adjusted odds ratio, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.11-3.79), and 1-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% CI, 2.09-2.80). Associations were maintained in patients with mild strokes. One in 5 patients with acute ischemic stroke did not have documented dysphagia screening, and patients with mild strokes were substantially less likely to have documented screening. Failing dysphagia screening was associated with poor outcomes, including in patients with mild strokes, highlighting the importance of dysphagia screening for all patients with acute ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Risk of ischemic stroke after atrial fibrillation diagnosis: A national sample cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Kyoung Son

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke and associated with a 5-fold higher risk of stroke. In this retrospective cohort study, the incidence of and risk factors for ischemic stroke in patients with AF were identified. All patients (≥30 years old without previous stroke who were diagnosed with AF in 2007-2013 were selected from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. To identify factors that influenced ischemic stroke risk, Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted. During a mean follow-up duration of 3.2 years, 1022 (9.6% patients were diagnosed with ischemic stroke. The overall incidence rate of ischemic stroke was 30.8/1000 person-years. Of all the ischemic stroke that occurred during the follow-up period, 61.0% occurred within 1-year after AF diagnosis. Of the patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score of ≥2, only 13.6% were receiving warfarin therapy within 30 days after AF diagnosis. Relative to no antithrombotic therapy, warfarin treatment for >90 days before the index event (ischemic stroke in stroke patients and death/study end in non-stroke patients associated with decreased ischemic stroke risk (Hazard Ratio = 0.41, 95%confidence intervals = 0.32-0.53. Heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus associated with greater ischemic stroke risk. AF patients in Korea had a higher ischemic stroke incidence rate than patients in other countries and ischemic stroke commonly occurred at early phase after AF diagnosis. Long-term (>90 days continuous warfarin treatment may be beneficial for AF patients. However, warfarin treatment rates were very low. To prevent stroke, programs that actively detect AF and provide anticoagulation therapy are needed.

  6. Prediction of Major Vascular Events after Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovbiagele, Bruce; Goldstein, Larry B.; Amarenco, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identifying patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) at high risk of major vascular events (MVEs; stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death) may help optimize the intensity of secondary preventive interventions. We evaluated the relationships between...... were analyzed. Hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox regression models were used to determine the risk of subsequent MVEs based on the FCRS predicting 20% or more 10-year coronary heart disease risk. The novel risk model was derived based on multivariable modeling with backward selection. Model discrimination...

  7. Effects of epilepsy and selected antiepileptic drugs on risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death in patients with or without previous stroke: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J. B.; Abildstrom, S. Z.; Erdal, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Patients with epilepsy have increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death associated with epilepsy and examined if this risk was modified by treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Methods A cohort consisting of the Danish...... population was followed from January 1997 to December 2006. The risk of MI, stroke, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death associated with epilepsy was estimated by multivariable Cox proportional hazard models stratified for occurrence of previous stroke. AED use was determined at baseline, and risks...... associated with exposure to individual AEDs were examined in patients with epilepsy. Results In patients without previous stroke, AED-treated epilepsy was associated with an increased risk of MI (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; 95%CI, 1.00-1.19), stroke (HR, 2.22; 95%CI, 2.09-2.36), cardiovascular death (HR, 1...

  8. Four-year follow-up of transient ischemic attacks, strokes, and mimics: a retrospective transient ischemic attack clinic cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dipankar; Bowen, Emily; Foy, Chris

    2015-05-01

    There is limited information on outcomes from rapid access transient ischemic attack (TIA) clinics. We present 4-year outcomes of TIAs, strokes, and mimics from a UK TIA clinic database. All patients referred between April 2010 and May 2012 were retrospectively identified and outcomes determined. End points were stroke, myocardial infarction, any vascular event (TIA, stroke, or myocardial infarction), and all-cause death. Data were analyzed by survival analysis. Of 1067 patients, 31.6% were TIAs, 18% strokes, and 50.4% mimics. Median assessment time was 4.5 days from onset and follow-up was for 34.9 months. Subsequent strokes occurred in 7.1% of patients with TIA, 10.9% of patients with stroke, and 2.0% of mimics at the end of follow-up. Stroke risk at 90 days was 1.3% for patients diagnosed as TIA or stroke. Compared with mimics, hazard ratios for subsequent stroke were 3.88 (1.90-7.91) for TIA and 5.84 (2.81-12.11) for stroke. Hazard ratio for any subsequent vascular event was 2.91 (1.97-4.30) for TIA and 2.83 (1.81-4.41) for stroke. Hazard ratio for death was 1.68 (1.10-2.56) for TIA and 2.19 (1.38-3.46) for stroke. Our results show a lower 90-day stroke incidence after TIA or minor stroke than in earlier studies, suggesting that rapid access daily TIA clinics may be having a significant effect on reducing strokes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Substitution of Linoleic Acid for Other Macronutrients and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venø, Stine K; Schmidt, Erik B; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Bach, Flemming W; Overvad, Kim

    2017-12-01

    Ischemic stroke is a major health problem worldwide, but the influence of dietary factors on stroke risk is not well known. This study aimed to investigate the risk of ischemic stroke and its subtypes with a higher intake from linoleic acid and a concomitant lower intake from saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, or glycemic carbohydrates. In the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer, and Health Study of 57 053 participants aged 50 to 64 years at baseline, information on diet was collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Information on ischemic stroke was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register, and cases were all validated and subclassified according to the TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification. Substitution of linoleic acid for saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, or glycemic carbohydrates was investigated in relation to the risk of ischemic stroke and subtypes. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the associations with ischemic stroke adjusting for appropriate confounders. During 13.5 years of follow-up 1879 participants developed ischemic stroke. A slightly lower risk of ischemic stroke was found with a 5% higher intake of linoleic acid and a concomitant lower intake of saturated fatty acid (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.16), monounsaturated fatty acid (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-1.02), and glycemic carbohydrates (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.09), although not statistically significant. Similar patterns of association were found for large-artery atherosclerosis and small-vessel occlusions. This study suggests that replacing saturated fatty acid, glycemic carbohydrate, or monounsaturated fatty acid with linoleic acid may be associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Hemoglobin Concentration and Risk of Incident Stroke in Community-Living Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Bhupesh; Judd, Suzanne E; Warnock, David G; McClellan, William M; Booth, John N; Muntner, Paul; Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2016-08-01

    In previous observational studies, hemoglobin concentrations have been associated with an increased risk of stroke. However, these studies were limited by a relatively low number of stroke events, making it difficult to determine whether the association of hemoglobin and stroke differed by demographic or clinical factors. Using Cox proportional hazards analysis and Kaplan-Meier plots, we examined the association of baseline hemoglobin concentrations with incident stroke in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a cohort of black and white adults aged ≥45 years. A total of 518 participants developed stroke over a mean 7±2 years of follow-up. There was a statistically significant interaction between hemoglobin and sex (P=0.05) on the risk of incident stroke. In Cox regression models adjusted for demographic and clinical variables, there was no association of baseline hemoglobin concentration with incident stroke in men, whereas in women, the lowest (14.0 g/dL) quartiles of hemoglobin were associated with higher risk of stroke when compared with the second quartile (12.4-13.2 g/dL; quartile 1: hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.31; quartile 2: referent; quartile 3: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.38; quartile 4: hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.35). Similar results were observed in models stratified by hemoglobin and sex and when hemoglobin was modeled as a continuous variable using restricted quadratic spline regression. Lower and higher hemoglobin concentrations were associated with a higher risk of incident stroke in women. No such associations were found in men. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Patent Foramen Ovale Closure or Antiplatelet Therapy for Cryptogenic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lars; Kasner, Scott E; Rhodes, John F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the prevention of recurrent stroke after cryptogenic stroke is uncertain. We investigated the effect of PFO closure combined with antiplatelet therapy versus antiplatelet therapy alone on the risks of recurrent stroke and new...... incidence of new brain infarction, which was a composite of clinical ischemic stroke or silent brain infarction detected on imaging. RESULTS: We enrolled 664 patients (mean age, 45.2 years), of whom 81% had moderate or large interatrial shunts. During a median follow-up of 3.2 years, clinical ischemic...... stroke occurred in 6 of 441 patients (1.4%) in the PFO closure group and in 12 of 223 patients (5.4%) in the antiplatelet-only group (hazard ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09 to 0.62; P=0.002). The incidence of new brain infarctions was significantly lower in the PFO closure group than...

  12. A semi-Markov model for stroke with piecewise-constant hazards in the presence of left, right and interval censoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Venediktos; Matthews, Fiona E; van den Hout, Ardo

    2013-02-20

    This paper presents a parametric method of fitting semi-Markov models with piecewise-constant hazards in the presence of left, right and interval censoring. We investigate transition intensities in a three-state illness-death model with no recovery. We relax the Markov assumption by adjusting the intensity for the transition from state 2 (illness) to state 3 (death) for the time spent in state 2 through a time-varying covariate. This involves the exact time of the transition from state 1 (healthy) to state 2. When the data are subject to left or interval censoring, this time is unknown. In the estimation of the likelihood, we take into account interval censoring by integrating out all possible times for the transition from state 1 to state 2. For left censoring, we use an Expectation-Maximisation inspired algorithm. A simulation study reflects the performance of the method. The proposed combination of statistical procedures provides great flexibility. We illustrate the method in an application by using data on stroke onset for the older population from the UK Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The left atrial septal pouch as a risk factor for stroke: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachinaru, Mihai; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose; Verbeet, Thierry; Gazagnes, Marie-Dominique

    2017-04-01

    The left atrial septal pouch (LASP) is formed by incomplete fusion of the septum primum and septum secundum, leaving a cavity open towards the left atrium, but without interatrial shunting. There is no recommendation concerning strategy in the presence of a LASP, especially in the setting of stroke. The aim of this review was to determine whether the LASP could be incriminated as the aetiology of a stroke. We included all pertinent publications on the subject, and calculated hazard ratios for ischaemic stroke and cryptogenic stroke. There were only five case-control studies concerning the LASP, involving 516 stroke patients and 779 controls. Overall LASP prevalence was 21%, with a slightly higher prevalence in the cryptogenic stroke group (26%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.27). In a random-effects meta-analysis, there was no difference between controls and patients with ischaemic stroke (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 0.96-1.53; P=0.14). Cryptogenic stroke appeared more frequently in patients with LASP (hazard ratio 1.53, 95% confidence interval 1.07-2.24; P=0.02), but this was driven by only one severely underpowered study. The published case reports demonstrated that thrombus formation inside the pouch can occur in the presence of major predisposing factors. The LASP can be a site for thrombus formation, leading to embolic events, but its presence does not correlate with an increased incidence of stroke. Associated factors should be taken into consideration in the setting of stroke. Further studies are necessary to validate a possible relationship with cryptogenic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Patent foramen ovale and the risk of ischemic stroke in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, Marco R; Sacco, Ralph L; Sciacca, Robert R; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi

    2007-02-20

    We sought to assess the risk of ischemic stroke from a patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the multiethnic prospective cohort of northern Manhattan. Patent foramen ovale has been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, mainly in case-control studies. The actual PFO-related stroke risk in the general population is unclear. The presence of PFO was assessed at baseline by using transthoracic 2-dimensional echocardiography with contrast injection in 1,100 stroke-free subjects older than 39 years of age (mean age 68.7 +/- 10.0 years) from the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS). The presence of atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) also was recorded. Subjects were followed annually for outcomes. We assessed PFO/ASA-related stroke risk after adjusting for established stroke risk factors. We detected PFO in 164 subjects (14.9%); ASA was present in 27 subjects (2.5%) and associated with PFO in 19 subjects. During a mean follow-up of 79.7 +/- 28.0 months, an ischemic stroke occurred in 68 subjects (6.2%). After adjustment for demographics and risk factors, PFO was not found to be significantly associated with stroke (hazard ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87 to 3.09). The same trend was observed in all age, gender, and race-ethnic subgroups. The coexistence of PFO and ASA did not increase the stroke risk (adjusted hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 0.17 to 9.24). Isolated ASA was associated with elevated stroke incidence (2 of 8, or 25%; adjusted hazard ratio 3.66, 95% CI 0.88 to 15.30). Patent foramen ovale, alone or together with ASA, was not associated with an increased stroke risk in this multiethnic cohort. The independent role of ASA needs further assessment in appositely designed and powered studies.

  15. Comparison of the restricted mean survival time with the hazard ratio in superiority trials with a time-to-event end point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Kuan, Pei-Fen

    2017-12-28

    With the emergence of novel therapies exhibiting distinct mechanisms of action compared to traditional treatments, departure from the proportional hazard (PH) assumption in clinical trials with a time-to-event end point is increasingly common. In these situations, the hazard ratio may not be a valid statistical measurement of treatment effect, and the log-rank test may no longer be the most powerful statistical test. The restricted mean survival time (RMST) is an alternative robust and clinically interpretable summary measure that does not rely on the PH assumption. We conduct extensive simulations to evaluate the performance and operating characteristics of the RMST-based inference and against the hazard ratio-based inference, under various scenarios and design parameter setups. The log-rank test is generally a powerful test when there is evident separation favoring 1 treatment arm at most of the time points across the Kaplan-Meier survival curves, but the performance of the RMST test is similar. Under non-PH scenarios where late separation of survival curves is observed, the RMST-based test has better performance than the log-rank test when the truncation time is reasonably close to the tail of the observed curves. Furthermore, when flat survival tail (or low event rate) in the experimental arm is expected, selecting the minimum of the maximum observed event time as the truncation timepoint for the RMST is not recommended. In addition, we recommend the inclusion of analysis based on the RMST curve over the truncation time in clinical settings where there is suspicion of substantial departure from the PH assumption. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Risk of ischemic stroke in patients with systemic sclerosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungprasert, Patompong; Sanguankeo, Anawin; Upala, Sikarin

    2016-01-01

    Several chronic inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and idiopathic inflammatory myositis, have been shown to increase risk of ischemic stroke but the data on systemic sclerosis (SSc) remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies that reported odds ratio, relative risk, hazard ratio, or standardized incidence ratio comparing risk of ischemic stroke in patients with SSc versus non-SSc participants. Pooled risk ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird. Four retrospective cohort studies were identified and included in our data analysis. We found a statistically significant elevated ischemic stroke risk in patients with SSc with a pooled risk ratio of 1.68 (95% CI, 1.26-2.24). The statistical heterogeneity was moderate with an I(2) of 69%. Our study demonstrated a statistically significant increased ischemic stroke risk among patients with SSc.

  17. Reflux of Anterior Spinal Artery Predicts Recurrent Posterior Circulation Stroke in Bilateral Vertebral Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Kosuke; Handa, Akira; Kurosaki, Yoshitaka; Lo, Benjamin; Yamagata, Sen

    2015-11-01

    Predictive value of reflux of anterior spinal artery for recurrent posterior circulation ischemia in bilateral vertebral arteries steno-occlusive disease was evaluated. We retrospectively reviewed 55 patients with symptomatic posterior circulation stroke caused by bilateral stenotic (>70%) lesions of the vertebral artery. We investigated any correlation of clinical and angiographic characteristics including collateral flow patterns, with recurrent stroke. Risk factors for poor 3-month functional outcome were also evaluated. Recurrent posterior circulation stroke was observed in 15 (27.3%) patients. Multivariable analysis using Cox proportional hazards model showed anterior spinal artery reflux as a significant risk factor for stroke recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio, 19.3 [95% confidence interval, 5.35-69.9]; Pdisease, anterior spinal artery reflux predicted recurrent posterior circulation stroke and poor functional outcome. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults with Moyamoya Disease: Prognostic Factors for Stroke Recurrence and Functional Outcome after Revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Deng, Xiaofeng; Gao, Faliang; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Zhao, Jizong

    2017-07-01

    Stroke in young adults is uncommon and rarely described. Moyamoya disease is one of the leading causes of stroke in young adults. We aimed to study the prognostic factors for stroke recurrences and functional outcomes in young stroke patients with moyamoya disease after revascularization. We reviewed 696 consecutive patients with moyamoya disease admitted to our hospital from 2009-2015 and identified patients aged 18-45 years with first-ever stroke. Follow-up was conducted via face-to-face or structured telephone interviews. Outcome measures were recurrent stroke events and unfavorable functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale >2). We included 121 young patients with moyamoya disease suffering from stroke (initial presentation age, 35.4 ± 7.5 years). All patients underwent revascularization after the acute phase of initial stroke events as the secondary prevention for recurrences. During follow-up (median, 40 months), 9 patients (7.4%) experienced recurrent strokes and 8 of them (6.6%) suffered unfavorable functional outcomes. In the multivariate analysis, diabetes was an independent predictor for stroke recurrences (hazard ratio 6.76; 95% confidence interval 1.30-35.11; P = 0.02) and was significantly associated with unfavorable functional outcomes (odds ratio 7.87; 95% confidence interval 1.42-38.74; P = 0.01). We identified diabetes as an independent risk factor for recurrent strokes and unfavorable functional outcomes after revascularization in young stroke patients with moyamoya disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lumbar spine fusion surgery and stroke: a national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jau-Ching; Chen, Yu-Chun; Liu, Laura; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Thien, Peck-Foong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Cheng, Henrich; Lo, Su-Shun

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the incidence and risk of stroke after lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Study subjects were identified from a nationwide cohort of 1 million people from 2000 to 2005 and were divided into the lumbar spinal fusion group (n = 2,015), who received posterior lumbar spinal fusion surgery, and the comparison group (n = 16,120) composed of age-, sex-, and propensity score-matched control subjects. The matching process was intended to adjust for demographics, comorbidities, and other immeasurable covariates to minimize selection bias. All subjects were followed up for 3 years for stroke, including hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed. The overall incidence rate of stroke in the cohort was 9.99 per 1,000 person-year. The lumbar spinal fusion group was less likely to have any stroke (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.83, p = 0.293), hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted HR = 0.74, p = 0.739) and ischemic stroke (adjusted HR = 0.81, p = 0.250) than the comparison group, but without significance. Three years post-operatively, patients who received lumbar spinal fusion had stroke incidence rates similar to those without surgery. Posterior lumbar spinal fusion surgery is not associated with increased risks for any kind of stroke.

  20. Heart rate as a predictor of stroke in high-risk, hypertensive patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandset, Else Charlotte; Berge, Eivind; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Julius, Stevo; Holzhauer, Björn; Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Hua, Tsushung A

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for first stroke are well established, but less is known about risk factors for recurrent stroke. In the present analysis, we aimed to assess the effect of heart rate and other possible predictors of stroke in a hypertensive population with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). The Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-Term Use Evaluation trial was a multicentre, double-masked, randomized controlled, parallel group trial comparing the effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker (valsartan) and a calcium channel blocker (amlodipine) in patients with hypertension and high cardiovascular risk. We used Cox proportional hazard models to investigate the effect of baseline variables on the risk of stroke. Quadratic terms of the continuous variables were entered in the models to test for linearity. Of 15,245 patients included in the trial, 3014 had a previous stroke or TIA at baseline and were included in the present analysis. Stroke recurrence occurred in 239 patients (7.9%) during a median of 4.5 years of follow-up. Resting heart rate (per 10 beats per minute; hazard ratio [HR], 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-6.58) and diabetes mellitus at baseline (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.03-2.10) were significantly associated with an increased risk of stroke recurrence in the multivariable analysis. In high-risk, hypertensive patients with previous stroke or TIA, resting heart rate was the strongest predictor of recurrent stroke. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ischemic stroke subtypes and migraine with visual aura in the ARIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis, X Michelle; Kodumuri, Nishanth; Giamberardino, Lauren D; Rosamond, Wayne D; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Yim, Eunsil; Sen, Souvik

    2016-12-13

    To investigate the association among migraine, ischemic stroke, and stroke subtypes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. In this ongoing, prospective, longitudinal community-based cohort study, participants were given an interview ascertaining migraine history in 1993-1995, and were followed for all vascular events, including stroke. All stroke events over the subsequent 20 years were adjudicated and classified into stroke subtypes by standard definitions. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for stroke risk factors were used to study the relationship between migraine and ischemic stroke, overall, as well as stroke subtypes (cardioembolic, lacunar, or thrombotic). We identified 1,622 migraineurs among 12,758 participants. Mean age of the study population at the 3rd clinical visit was 59 years. When compared to nonheadache participants, there was a significant association between migraine with visual aura and ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.6, p = 0.008). Migraine without visual aura was not significantly associated with ischemic stroke (HR 1.2, CI 1.0-1.8, p = 0.28) when compared to nonheadache participants. Among the 3 subtypes of ischemic stroke evaluated, migraine with visual aura was significantly associated only with cardioembolic stroke (HR 3.7, 95% CI 1.6-8.7, p = 0.003). In participants with migraine with visual aura in late middle age, increased risk of cardioembolic stroke was observed. Migraine with visual aura was linked to increased stroke risk, while migraine without visual aura was not, over the period of 20 years. These results are specific to older migraineurs. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Whole Grain Consumption and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: Results From 2 Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Juan; Liu, Gang; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Sun, Qi

    2017-12-01

    Higher intake of whole grains may exert cardiometabolic benefits, although findings on stroke risk are inconclusive. The potentially differential effects of individual whole grain foods on ischemic stroke have not been examined. We analyzed whole grain consumption in relation to ischemic stroke among 71 750 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 42 823 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study who were free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer at baseline (1984 and 1986, respectively) through 2010 using a Cox proportional hazards model. Validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires were used to assess consumption of whole grain intake, including whole grain cold breakfast cereal, dark bread, oatmeal, brown rice, popcorn, bran, and germ. Self-reported incident cases of ischemic stroke were confirmed through medical record review. During 2 820 128 person-years of follow-up in the 2 cohorts, 2458 cases of ischemic stroke were identified and confirmed. Intake of total whole grains was not associated with risk of ischemic stroke after adjustment for covariates: the pooled hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing extreme intake levels was 1.04 (0.91-1.19). However, intake of whole grain cold breakfast cereal and total bran was inversely associated with ischemic stroke after multivariate adjustment: the pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.88 (0.80-0.96; P trend =0.008) and 0.89 (0.79-1.00; P trend =0.004), respectively. Other whole grain foods were not associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke. Although overall consumption of whole grains was not associated with lower risk of ischemic stroke, greater consumption of whole grain cold breakfast cereal and bran was significantly associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke. More studies are needed to replicate these associations between individual whole grain foods and risk of ischemic stroke among other populations. © 2017 American Heart

  3. Arsenic Exposure in Relation to Ischemic Stroke: The Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinovoi, Cari L; Xun, Pengcheng; McClure, Leslie A; Carioni, Vivian M O; Brockman, John D; Cai, Jianwen; Guallar, Eliseo; Cushman, Mary; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Howard, Virginia J; He, Ka

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this case-cohort study was to examine urinary arsenic levels in relation to incident ischemic stroke in the United States. We performed a case-cohort study nested within the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) cohort. A subcohort (n=2486) of controls was randomly sampled within region-race-sex strata while all incident ischemic stroke cases from the full REGARDS cohort (n=671) were included. Baseline urinary arsenic was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Arsenic species, including urinary inorganic arsenic and its metabolites monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid, were measured in a random subset (n=199). Weighted Cox's proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of ischemic stroke by arsenic and its species. The average follow-up was 6.7 years. Although incident ischemic stroke showed no association with total arsenic or total inorganic arsenic, for each unit higher level of urinary monomethylarsonic acid on a log-scale, after adjustment for potential confounders, ischemic stroke risk increased ≈2-fold (hazard ratio=1.98; 95% confidence interval: 1.12-3.50). Effect modification by age, race, sex, or geographic region was not evident. A metabolite of arsenic was positively associated with incident ischemic stroke in this case-cohort study of the US general population, a low-to-moderate exposure area. Overall, these findings suggest a potential role for arsenic methylation in the pathogenesis of stroke, having important implications for future cerebrovascular research. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Incidence of Depression After Stroke, and Associated Risk Factors and Mortality Outcomes, in a Large Cohort of Danish Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Terese S. H.; Wium-Andersen, Ida K.; Wium-Andersen, Marie K.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: More than 30 million people live with a stroke diagnosis worldwide. Depression after stroke is frequent, and greater knowledge of associated risk factors and outcomes is needed to understand the etiology and implications of this disabling complication. Objectives: To examine whether......, history of depression, and stroke severity (in patients with stroke). The associations were strongest for the reference population. In both populations, depressed individuals, especially those with new onset, had increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio for new-onset depression, 1.89 [95% CI, 1...

  5. Risk Factors for Stroke among Young-Old and Old-Old Community-Dwelling Adults in Japan: The Ohasama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiko; Asayama, Kei; Satoh, Michihiro; Inoue, Ryusuke; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Hosaka, Miki; Matsuda, Ayako; Nomura, Kyoko; Murakami, Takahisa; Kikuya, Masahiro; Metoki, Hirohito; Imai, Yutaka; Ohkubo, Takayoshi

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have addressed stroke risk factors in older populations, particularly among the old-old. We examined differences in traditional risk factors for stroke among the old-old compared with the young-old in community-dwelling Japanese adults. We followed 2,065 residents aged ≥ 60 years who had no history of stroke. Traditional risk factors for stroke were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire at baseline. We classified participants into two age categories, 60-74 years (n=1,502) and ≥ 75 years (n=563), and assessed whether traditional risk factors were differentially associated with stroke incidence according to age category. Hazard ratios were calculated by the Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for confounding factors and competing risk of death. During a median follow-up of 12.8 and 7.9 years, 163 and 111 participants aged 60-74 and ≥ 75 years, respectively, developed a first stroke. Hypertension was consistently associated with increased risk of stroke, regardless of age category. Diabetes mellitus was associated with increased risk of stroke in those aged 60-74 years (hazard ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.25), but not in those aged ≥ 75 years (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.29), with significant interaction by age (P=0.035). No traditional risk factor other than hypertension was associated with stroke among those aged ≥ 75 years. Those with hypertension had significantly higher stroke risk among old people, while diabetes mellitus was differentially associated with stroke according to age category. Our findings indicate the importance of different prevention strategies for stroke incidence according to age category.

  6. Dietary fibre intake and risk of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke in the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threapleton, D E; Burley, V J; Greenwood, D C; Cade, J E

    2015-04-01

    Stroke risk is modifiable through many risk factors, one being healthy dietary habits. Fibre intake was associated with a reduced stroke risk in recent meta-analyses; however, data were contributed by relatively few studies, and few examined different stroke types. A total of 27,373 disease-free women were followed up for 14.4 years. Diet was assessed with a 217-item food frequency questionnaire and stroke cases were identified using English Hospital Episode Statistics and mortality records. Survival analysis was applied to assess the risk of total, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke in relation to fibre intake. A total of 135 haemorrhagic and 184 ischaemic stroke cases were identified in addition to 138 cases where the stroke type was unknown or not recorded. Greater intake of total fibre, higher fibre density and greater soluble fibre, insoluble fibre and fibre from cereals were associated with a significantly lower risk for total stroke. For total stroke, the hazard ratio per 6 g/day total fibre intake was 0.89 (95% confidence intervals: 0.81-0.99). Different findings were observed for haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in healthy-weight or overweight women. Total fibre, insoluble fibre and cereal fibre were inversely associated with haemorrhagic stroke risk in overweight/obese participants, and in healthy-weight women greater cereal fibre was associated with a lower ischaemic stroke risk. In non-hypertensive women, higher fibre density was associated with lower ischaemic stroke risk. Greater total fibre and fibre from cereals are associated with a lower stroke risk, and associations were more consistent with ischaemic stroke. The different observations by stroke type, body mass index group or hypertensive status indicates potentially different mechanisms.

  7. Stroke Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Month Infographic Stroke Hero F.A.S.T. Quiz Stroke Treatment Stroke used to rank fourth in leading causes of ... type of treatment depends on the type of stroke. Ischemic stroke happens when a clot blocks a ...

  8. Cannabis, Tobacco, Alcohol Use, and the Risk of Early Stroke: A Population-Based Cohort Study of 45 000 Swedish Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkstedt, Daniel; Wolff, Valerie; Allebeck, Peter; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Danielsson, Anna-Karin

    2017-02-01

    Current knowledge on cannabis use in relation to stroke is based almost exclusively on clinical reports. By using a population-based cohort, we aimed to find out whether there was an association between cannabis use and early-onset stroke, when accounting for the use of tobacco and alcohol. The cohort comprises 49 321 Swedish men, born between 1949 and 1951, who were conscripted into compulsory military service between the ages of 18 and 20. All men answered 2 detailed questionnaires at conscription and were subject to examinations of physical aptitude, psychological functioning, and medical status. Information on stroke events up to ≈60 years of age was obtained from national databases; this includes strokes experienced before 45 years of age. No associations between cannabis use in young adulthood and strokes experienced ≤45 years of age or beyond were found in multivariable models: cannabis use >50 times, hazard ratios=0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-2.57) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.59-1.53). Although an almost doubled risk of ischemic stroke was observed in those with cannabis use >50 times, this risk was attenuated when adjusted for tobacco usage: hazards ratio=1.47 (95% CI, 0.83-2.56). Smoking ≥20 cigarettes per day was clearly associated both with strokes before 45 years of age, hazards ratio=5.04 (95% CI, 2.80-9.06), and with strokes throughout the follow-up, hazards ratio=2.15 (95% CI, 1.61-2.88). We found no evident association between cannabis use in young adulthood and stroke, including strokes before 45 years of age. Tobacco smoking, however, showed a clear, dose-response shaped association with stroke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Statin Adherence Is Associated With Reduced Recurrent Stroke Risk in Patients With or Without Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Alexander C; Conell, Carol; Ren, Xiushui; Kamel, Hooman; Chan, Sheila L; Rao, Vivek A; Johnston, S Claiborne

    2017-07-01

    Outpatient statin use reduces the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke among patients with stroke of atherothrombotic cause. It is not known whether statins have similar effects in ischemic stroke caused by atrial fibrillation (AFib). We studied outpatient statin adherence, measured by percentage of days covered, and the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with or without AFib in a 21-hospital integrated healthcare delivery system. Among 6116 patients with ischemic stroke discharged on a statin over a 5-year period, 1446 (23.6%) had a diagnosis of AFib at discharge. The mean statin adherence rate (percentage of days covered) was 85, and higher levels of percentage of days covered correlated with greater degrees of low-density lipoprotein suppression. In multivariable survival models of recurrent ischemic stroke over 3 years, after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, medical comorbidities, and hospital center, higher statin adherence predicted reduced stroke risk both in patients without AFib (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.97) and in patients with AFib (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.81). This association was robust to adjustment for the time in the therapeutic range for international normalized ratio among AFib subjects taking warfarin (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.89). The relationship between statin adherence and reduced recurrent stroke risk is as strong among patients with AFib as it is among patients without AFib, suggesting that AFib status should not be a reason to exclude patients from secondary stroke prevention with a statin. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Recurrent Stroke in Minor Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack With Metabolic Syndrome and/or Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiqi; Pan, Yuesong; Jing, Jing; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Meng, Xia; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to determine the risk conferred by metabolic syndrome (METS) and diabetes mellitus (DM) to recurrent stroke in patients with minor ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack from the CHANCE (Clopidogrel in High-risk patients with Acute Non-disabling Cerebrovascular Events) trial. In total, 3044 patients were included. Patients were stratified into 4 groups: neither, METS only, DM only, or both. METS was defined using the Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) and International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) definitions. The primary outcome was new stroke (including ischemic and hemorrhagic) at 90 days. A multivariable Cox regression model was used to assess the relationship of METS and DM status to the risk of recurrent stroke adjusted for potential covariates. Using the CDS criteria of METS, 53.2%, 17.2%, 19.8%, and 9.8% of patients were diagnosed as neither, METS only, DM only, and both, respectively. After 90 days of follow-up, there were 299 new strokes (293 ischemic, 6 hemorrhagic). Patients with DM only (16.1% versus 6.8%; adjusted hazard ratio 2.50, 95% CI 1.89-3.39) and both (17.1% versus 6.8%; adjusted hazard ratio 2.76, 95% CI 1.98-3.86) had significantly increased rates of recurrent stroke. No interaction effect of antiplatelet therapy by different METS or DM status for the risk of recurrent stroke ( P =0.82 for interaction in the fully adjusted model of CDS) was observed. Using the METS (IDF) criteria demonstrated similar results. Concurrent METS and DM was associated with an increased risk of recurrent stroke in patients with minor stroke and transient ischemic attack. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  11. Risk of stroke among patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Pan, Tai-Long; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Lee, Ying-Chiao; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2015-04-01

    Previous evidence has shown positive associations between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus, which are all risk factors for stroke, but the role of PTSD in the subsequent development of stroke is still unknown. To investigate the temporal association between PTSD and the development of stroke. Identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 5217 individuals aged ≥18 years, with PTSD but with no history of stroke, and 20 868 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled between 2002 and 2009, and followed up until the end of 2011 to identify the development of stroke. Individuals with PTSD had an increased risk of developing any stroke (hazard ratio (HR) 3.37, 95% CI 2.44-4.67) and ischaemic stroke (HR = 3.47, 95% CI 2.23-5.39) after adjusting for demographic data and medical comorbidities. Sensitivity tests showed consistent findings (any stroke HR = 3.02, 95% CI 2.13-4.28; ischaemic stroke HR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.79-4.66) after excluding the first year of observation. Individuals with PTSD have an increased risk of developing any stroke and ischaemic stroke. Further studies are required to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  12. Measurement of Nutritional Status Using Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Hip Ratio, and Waist Circumference to Predict Treatment Outcome in Females and Males with Acute First-Ever Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembenek, Jan Paweł; Karlinski, Michał; Niewada, Maciej; Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Iwona; Członkowska, Anna

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether increased waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), or improper body mass index (BMI) may differently predict short-term outcomes in females and males with first-ever acute ischemic stroke. This was a retrospective study of consecutive patients (1109 females and 939 males) admitted for first-ever ischemic stroke between 2003 and 2015. Data were collected in a detailed hospital stroke registry. BMI of 18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 and gender-specific normal values of WHC and WC were used as references for comparisons. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of in-hospital death or being dead or dependent at discharge, adjusted for patients' age and prestroke disability. In both sexes a high WHR increased the odds of death or dependency at discharge (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-3.08 for females and 1.43; 95% CI, 1.00-2.04 for males), but not in-hospital death alone. Increased WC was significantly associated with lower odds of either death or death and dependency at discharge in females only (OR, .36; 95% CI, .22-.58 and .69; 95% CI, .48-.97, respectively). BMI did not show any clear predictive value in either sex. Our findings suggest that being overweight measured with WC is a strong predictor of good outcome in women but not in men. The WHR less consistently predicts stroke outcome, as it is not associated with death at discharge alone; however, the WHR seems to be of similar clinical relevance in both genders. BMI seems to have the least clinical value in predicting stroke outcome in both genders. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of carotid atherosclerotic plaque characteristics between patients with first-time and recurrent acute ischaemic stroke using B-mode ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Mi, Donghua; Pu, Yuehua; Zou, Xinying; Pan, Yuesong; Soo, Yannie; Leung, Thomas; Wang, Yilong; Wong, Ka Sing; Liu, Liping

    2015-06-23

    The differences between initial and recurrent stroke plaques are not defined. Hence, a nested case-control study was conducted to evaluate the association of stroke recurrence with the echogenic characteristics of carotid plaques in patients with ischaemic stroke. One hundred and four patients with 1-year recurrent acute ischaemic stroke were enrolled and compared with 104 control patients (first-time ischaemic stroke) matched for age, gender, stroke severity and treatment allocation. Based on the Mannheim Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Consensus (2004-2006), the number of carotid plaques and echogenicity between the two groups of patients were compared. As compared to patients with first-time stroke, those with recurrent stroke showed significantly higher prevalence of heart disease (13.46 vs 28.85%, P = 0.0066) and presence of intracranial stenosis (55.77 vs 89.90%, P stroke had a significantly higher rate of unstable plaques (80.41%) than patients with first-time stroke (64.21%, P = 0.036). Also, patients with recurrent stroke had a significantly larger number of plaques than patients with first-time stroke (P = 0.0152). Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis (after adjustment for heart disease and intracranial stenosis) identified an association between 1-year stroke recurrence and the presence of unstable plaques (hazard ratio 3.077; 95% CI: 1.133-8.355). Stroke recurrence is related to advanced atherosclerosis defined by carotid plaque and its characteristics.

  14. Symptoms of Insomnia and Sleep Duration and Their Association with Incident Strokes: Findings from the Population-Based MONICA/KORA Augsburg Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, A Katharina; Stöckl, Doris; Heier, Margit; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Meisinger, Christa

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between symptoms of insomnia and sleep duration and incident total (non-fatal plus fatal) strokes, non-fatal strokes, and fatal strokes in a large cohort of men and women from the general population in Germany. In four population-based MONICA (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease)/KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) surveys conducted between 1984 and 2001, 17,604 men and women (aged 25 to 74 years) were asked about issues like sleep, health behavior, and medical history. In subsequent surveys and mortality follow-ups, incident stroke cases (cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, unknown stroke type) were gathered prospectively until 2009. Sex-specific hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using sequential Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 917 strokes (710 non-fatal strokes and 207 fatal strokes) were observed. Trouble falling asleep and difficulty staying asleep were not significantly related to any incident stroke outcome in either sex in the multivariable models. Among men, the HR for the association between short (≤5 hours) and long (≥10 hours) daily sleep duration and total strokes were 1.44 (95% CI: 1.01-2.06) and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.16-2.29), after adjustment for basic confounding variables. As for non-fatal strokes and fatal strokes, in the analyses adjusted for age, survey, education, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, the increased risks persisted, albeit somewhat attenuated, but no longer remained significant. Among women, in the multivariable analyses the quantity of sleep was also not related to any stroke outcome. In the present study, symptoms of insomnia and exceptional sleep duration were not significantly predictive of incident total strokes, non-fatal strokes, and fatal strokes in

  15. Symptoms of Insomnia and Sleep Duration and Their Association with Incident Strokes: Findings from the Population-Based MONICA/KORA Augsburg Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Katharina Helbig

    Full Text Available To examine the relationship between symptoms of insomnia and sleep duration and incident total (non-fatal plus fatal strokes, non-fatal strokes, and fatal strokes in a large cohort of men and women from the general population in Germany.In four population-based MONICA (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease/KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg surveys conducted between 1984 and 2001, 17,604 men and women (aged 25 to 74 years were asked about issues like sleep, health behavior, and medical history. In subsequent surveys and mortality follow-ups, incident stroke cases (cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, unknown stroke type were gathered prospectively until 2009. Sex-specific hazard ratios (HR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using sequential Cox proportional hazards regression models.During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 917 strokes (710 non-fatal strokes and 207 fatal strokes were observed. Trouble falling asleep and difficulty staying asleep were not significantly related to any incident stroke outcome in either sex in the multivariable models. Among men, the HR for the association between short (≤5 hours and long (≥10 hours daily sleep duration and total strokes were 1.44 (95% CI: 1.01-2.06 and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.16-2.29, after adjustment for basic confounding variables. As for non-fatal strokes and fatal strokes, in the analyses adjusted for age, survey, education, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, the increased risks persisted, albeit somewhat attenuated, but no longer remained significant. Among women, in the multivariable analyses the quantity of sleep was also not related to any stroke outcome.In the present study, symptoms of insomnia and exceptional sleep duration were not significantly predictive of incident total strokes, non-fatal strokes, and fatal strokes in

  16. Increase of Meningitis Risk in Stroke Patients in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie-Hong Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposeThe blood–brain barrier (BBB not only provides a physical obstruction but also recruits and activates neutrophils in cases of infection. Hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke reportedly induces the disruption of the BBB. However, few studies have reported a correlation between the incidence of meningitis in patients with a history of stroke. This study tested the hypothesis that patients with a history of stroke may be more vulnerable to meningitis.MethodsStroke and age-matched comparison (n = 29,436 and 87,951, respectively cohorts were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database (2000–2011. Correlations between the two cohorts were evaluated by Cox proportional hazard regression model, Kaplan–Meier curve, and log-rank tests.ResultsThe incidence of meningitis was higher in the stroke cohort compared to that in the comparison cohort [hazard ratio (HR, 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI, 2.23–3.74, p < 0.001]. After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the estimated HR in the stroke cohort was 2.55-fold higher than that in the comparison cohort (CI, 1.94–3.37; p < 0.001. Notably, patients who had experienced hemorrhagic stroke had a higher incidence rate of meningitis than those with a history of ischemic stroke, except for patients older than 75 years (incidence rates in hemorrhagic/ischemic stroke patients, 3.14/1.48 in patients younger than 45 years, 1.52/0.41 in 45- to 64-year group, 1.15/0.90 in 65- to 74-year group, 0.74/0.93 in patients older than 75 years. Moreover, stroke patients who had undergone head surgery had the highest meningitis risk (adjusted HR, 8.66; 95% CI, 5.55–13.5; p < 0.001 followed by stroke patients who had not undergone head surgery (adjusted HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.57–2.82; p < 0.001.ConclusionOur results indicated that stroke patients have higher risks of meningitis. Compromised BBB integrity in stroke patients may lead to increased

  17. Tooth loss, hypertension and risk for stroke in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Heon; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Ji Wan; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Sang-Yi; Jee, Sun Ha

    2009-04-01

    Tooth loss has been suggested as a potential risk factor for stroke. We conducted a prospective cohort study of stroke in Korea on hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and tooth loss to characterize their independent effects and interactions. The overall risk of stroke and the risk of different subtypes of stroke were evaluated in relation to tooth loss using Cox proportional hazards models among 867,256 Korean men and women, aged 30-95 years, who received health insurance from the National Health Insurance Corporation and were medically evaluated between 1992 and 1995, with tooth loss measured. The overall prevalence of having at least one tooth removed among the people in the study was 29.8% (31.9% for men and 22.3% for women). During a 14-year follow-up, 28,258 strokes with 5105 fatal strokes occurred. For men and women, tooth loss was associated with total stroke and stroke subtypes. In a multivariable model adjusting for selected covariates, a graded association between higher tooth loss and higher risk of total stroke was observed in men [> or =7 lost teeth versus 0 (hazard ratio (HR)=1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-1.4)] and in women (HR=1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.3). The HRs for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were also similar in men and women. There was evidence of interaction of hemorrhagic stroke risk with hypertension and tooth loss. Tooth loss is independently associated with increased risk of stroke and hypertension does interact antagonistically, particularly for hemorrhagic stroke.

  18. Insulin Resistance and Prognosis of Nondiabetic Patients With Ischemic Stroke: The ACROSS-China Study (Abnormal Glucose Regulation in Patients With Acute Stroke Across China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jing; Pan, Yuesong; Zhao, Xingquan; Zheng, Huaguang; Jia, Qian; Mi, Donghua; Chen, Weiqi; Li, Hao; Liu, Liping; Wang, Chunxue; He, Yan; Wang, David; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance was common in patients with stroke. This study investigated the association between insulin resistance and outcomes in nondiabetic patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke. Patients with ischemic stroke without history of diabetes mellitus in the ACROSS-China registry (Abnormal Glucose Regulation in Patients With Acute Stroke Across China) were included. Insulin resistance was defined as a homeostatis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in the top quartile (Q4). HOMA-IR was calculated as fasting insulin (μU/mL)×fasting glucose (mmol/L)/22.5. Multivariable logistic regression or Cox regression was performed to estimate the association between HOMA-IR and 1-year prognosis (mortality, stroke recurrence, poor functional outcome [modified Rankin scale score 3-6], and dependence [modified Rankin scale score 3-5]). Among the 1245 patients with acute ischemic stroke enrolled in this study, the median HOMA-IR was 1.9 (interquartile range, 1.1-3.1). Patients with insulin resistance were associated with a higher mortality risk than those without (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.53; P =0.01), stroke recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.57, 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.19; P =0.008), and poor outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.95; P =0.03) but not dependence after adjustment for potential confounders. Higher HOMA-IR quartile categories were associated with a higher risk of 1-year death, stroke recurrence, and poor outcome ( P for trend =0.005, 0.005, and 0.001, respectively). Insulin resistance was associated with an increased risk of death, stroke recurrence, and poor outcome but not dependence in nondiabetic patients with acute ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Acute-Phase Blood Pressure Levels Correlate With a High Risk of Recurrent Strokes in Young-Onset Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanoja, Satu; Putaala, Jukka; Gordin, Daniel; Tulkki, Lauri; Aarnio, Karoliina; Pirinen, Jani; Surakka, Ida; Sinisalo, Juha; Lehto, Mika; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2016-06-01

    High blood pressure (BP) in acute stroke has been associated with a poor outcome; however, this has not been evaluated in young adults. The relationship between BP and long-term outcome was assessed in 1004 consecutive young, first-ever ischemic stroke patients aged 15 to 49 years enrolled in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry. BP parameters included systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure at admission and 24 hours. The primary outcome measure was recurrent stroke in the long-term follow-up. Adjusted for demographics and preexisting comorbidities, Cox regression models were used to assess independent BP parameters associated with outcome. Of our patients (63% male), 393 patients (39%) had prestroke hypertension and 358 (36%) used antihypertensive treatment. The median follow-up period was 8.9 years (interquartile range 5.7-13.2). Patients with a recurrent stroke (n=142, 14%) had significantly higher admission SBP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure (Pstroke. Patients with SBP ≥160 mm Hg compared with those with SBP strokes (hazard ratio 3.3 [95% confidence interval, 2.05-4.55]; Pstroke, while the 24-hour BP levels were not. In young ischemic stroke patients, high acute phase BP levels are independently associated with a high risk of recurrent strokes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Sleep Duration and the Risk of Mortality From Stroke in Japan: The Takayama Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Kawachi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have assessed the associations between sleep duration and stroke subtypes. We examined whether sleep duration is associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. Methods: Subjects included 12 875 men and 15 021 women aged 35 years or older in 1992, who were followed until 2008. The outcome variable was stroke death (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and total stroke. Results: During follow-up, 611 stroke deaths (354 from ischemic stroke, 217 from hemorrhagic stroke, and 40 from undetermined stroke were identified. Compared with 7 h of sleep, ≥9 h of sleep was significantly associated with an increased risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality after controlling for covariates. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.16–1.97 and 1.65 (95% CI, 1.16–2.35 for total stroke mortality and ischemic stroke mortality, respectively. Short sleep duration (≤6 h of sleep was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59–1.01, although this association was of borderline significance (P = 0.06. The trends for total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality were also significant (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively. There was a significant risk reduction of hemorrhagic stroke mortality for ≤6 h of sleep as compared with 7 h of sleep (HR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42–0.98; P for trend = 0.08. The risk reduction was pronounced for men (HR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16–0.64. Conclusions: Data suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with increased mortality from total and ischemic stroke. Short sleep duration may be associated with a decreased risk of mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men.

  1. Pancreatic β-Cell Function and Prognosis of Nondiabetic Patients With Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuesong; Chen, Weiqi; Jing, Jing; Zheng, Huaguang; Jia, Qian; Li, Hao; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Wang, Yongjun; He, Yan; Wang, Yilong

    2017-11-01

    Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction is an important factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to estimate the association between β-cell dysfunction and prognosis of nondiabetic patients with ischemic stroke. Patients with ischemic stroke without a history of diabetes mellitus in the ACROSS-China (Abnormal Glucose Regulation in Patients with Acute Stroke across China) registry were included. Disposition index was estimated as computer-based model of homeostatic model assessment 2-β%/homeostatic model assessment 2-insulin resistance based on fasting C-peptide level. Outcomes included stroke recurrence, all-cause death, and dependency (modified Rankin Scale, 3-5) at 12 months after onset. Among 1171 patients, 37.2% were women with a mean age of 62.4 years. At 12 months, 167 (14.8%) patients had recurrent stroke, 110 (9.4%) died, and 184 (16.0%) had a dependency. The first quartile of the disposition index was associated with an increased risk of stroke recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.57; 95% confidence interval, 2.13-5.99) and dependency (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-4.38); both the first and second quartiles of the disposition index were associated with an increased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio, 5.09; 95% confidence interval, 2.51-10.33; adjusted hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.03) compared with the fourth quartile. Using a multivariable regression model with restricted cubic spline, we observed an L-shaped association between the disposition index and the risk of each end point. In this large-scale registry, β-cell dysfunction was associated with an increased risk of 12-month poor prognosis in nondiabetic patients with ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Impact of Age on the Importance of Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures for Stroke Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K K; Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates age-related shifts in the relative importance of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures as predictors of stroke and whether these relations are influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors. Using 34 European cohorts from the MOnica, Risk, Genetics, Archiving......, and Monograph (MORGAM) Project with baseline between 1982 and 1997, 68 551 subjects aged 19 to 78 years, without cardiovascular disease and not receiving antihypertensive treatment, were included. During a mean of 13.2 years of follow-up, stroke incidence was 2.8%. Stroke risk was analyzed using hazard ratios...

  3. Family History and Stroke Risk in China: Evidence from a Large Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Jin, Guangfu; Yu, Canqing; Lv, Jun; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Yang, Ling; Chen, Yiping; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Zhengming; Hu, Zhibin; Li, Liming

    2017-05-01

    Large cohort studies on relationship between family history of stroke (FHS) and stroke risk are lacking in Asians. We aimed to systematically evaluate the association of FHS with stroke risk in a cohort study of 0.5 million Chinese adults. Information about FHS was self-reported. The median follow-up time was 7.16 years and the end-point of follow-up was incident stroke, which was entered directly into the China Kadoorie Biobank system. Multivariate analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazards model, and interaction analyses were carried using likelihood-ratio tests. Compared with participants without FHS, the hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval, CI) of stroke for participants with FHS was 1.50 (1.46-1.55). The HRs increased with the number of first degree relatives with stroke (HRs=1.41, 1.98 and 2.47 for 1, 2 and ≥3 relatives, respectively, P trend history and parental history, respectively. Similar associations with offspring stroke risk were observed between paternal history (HR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.43-1.54) and maternal history (HR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.43-1.55). Moreover, significant interactions were detected between FHS and health-risk behaviors (tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking). FHS is an independent risk factor for stroke in Chinese. The more first degree relatives are affected by stroke, the higher are individuals' risk of suffering from stroke. The management of the health-risk behaviors for reducing stroke should be highlighted, especially for the individuals with FHS.

  4. Lower Risk of Stroke after Deformity Surgery: Long Term Benefit Demonstrated by a National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang-Chung; Chung, Wu-Fu; Liu, Shih-Wei; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Chen, Li-Fu; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chen, Yu-Chun; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Liu, Laura; Cheng, Henrich; Lo, Su-Shun

    2015-10-12

    This study aimed to investigate the long-term risk of stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity. Specifically, the study addressed the possible protective effect of surgery for spinal deformity against stroke. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), a monopolistic national database in Taiwan, this retrospective cohort study analyzed the incidence of stroke in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) in a 11-year period. A total of 13,503 patients, between 55 and 75 years old, were identified for the diagnosis of ASD. The patients were grouped into two: the surgical group (n = 10,439) who received spinal fusion surgery, and the control group (n = 2124) who received other medical treatment. The incidence rates of all subsequent cerebrovascular accidents, including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, were calculated. Hazard ratios for stroke were calculated use a full cohort and a propensity score matched cohort. Adjustments for co-morbidities that may predispose to stroke, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia and coronary heart disease were conducted. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the risk of stroke between the two groups. During the total observation period of 50,450 person-years, the incidence rate of stroke in the surgical group (15.55 per 1000 person-years) was significantly lower than that of the control group (20.89 per 1000 person-years, p Stroke was more likely to occur in the control group than in the surgical group (crude hazard ratio 1.34, p stroke was approximately 25% less likely to happen in patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery than those who received medical management. Therefore, spinal fusion surgery may provide a protective effect against stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity.

  5. Burden of Intracranial Atherosclerosis Is Associated With Long-Term Vascular Outcome in Patients With Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Su; Chung, Pil-Wook; Park, Kwang-Yeol; Won, Hong-Hee; Bang, Oh Young; Chung, Chin-Sang; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Gyeong-Moon

    2017-10-01

    Ischemic stroke patients often have intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS), despite heterogeneity in the cause of stroke. We tested the hypothesis that ICAS burden can independently reflect the risk of long-term vascular outcome. This was a retrospective cohort study analyzing data from a prospective stroke registry enrolling consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. A total of 1081 patients were categorized into no ICAS, single ICAS, and advanced ICAS (ICAS ≥2 different intracranial arteries) groups. Primary and secondary end points were time to occurrence of recurrent ischemic stroke and composite vascular outcome, respectively. Study end points by ICAS burden were compared using Cox proportional hazards models in overall and propensity-matched patients. ICAS was present in 405 patients (37.3%). During a median 5-year follow-up, recurrent stroke and composite vascular outcome occurred in 6.8% and 16.8% of patients, respectively. As the number of ICAS increased, the risk for study end points increased after adjustment of potential covariates (hazard ratio per 1 increase in ICAS, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.42 for recurrent ischemic stroke and hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.33 for composite vascular outcome). The hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for recurrent stroke and composite vascular outcome in patients with advanced ICAS compared with those without ICAS were 1.56 (0.88-2.74) and 1.72 (1.17-2.53), respectively, in the overall patients. The corresponding values in the propensity-matched patients were 1.28 (0.71-2.30) and 1.95 (1.27-2.99), respectively. ICAS burden was independently associated with the risk of subsequent composite vascular outcome in patients with ischemic stroke. These findings suggest that ICAS burden can reflect the risk of long-term vascular outcome. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Social network, social support, and risk of incident stroke: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H; Rose, Kathryn M; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2014-10-01

    Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study measured social network and social support in 13 686 men and women (mean, 57 years; 56% women; 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form. During a median follow-up of 18.6 years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.44 [1.02-2.04]) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables, marital status, behavioral risk factors, and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Determinants in Adolescence of Stroke-Related Hospital Stay Duration in Men: A National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Cecilia; Udumyan, Ruzan; Appelros, Peter; Fall, Katja; Montgomery, Scott

    2016-09-01

    Physical and psychological characteristics in adolescence are associated with subsequent stroke risk. Our aim is to investigate their relevance to length of hospital stay and risk of second stroke. Swedish men born between 1952 and 1956 (n=237 879) were followed from 1987 to 2010 using information from population-based national registers. Stress resilience, body mass index, cognitive function, physical fitness, and blood pressure were measured at compulsory military conscription examinations in late adolescence. Joint Cox proportional hazards models estimated the associations of these characteristics with long compared with short duration of stroke-related hospital stay and with second stroke compared with first. Some 3000 men were diagnosed with nonfatal stroke between ages 31 and 58 years. Low stress resilience, underweight, and higher systolic blood pressure (per 1-mm Hg increase) during adolescence were associated with longer hospital stay (compared with shorter) in ischemic stroke, with adjusted relative hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) of 1.46 (1.08-1.89), 1.41 (1.04-1.91), and 1.01 (1.00-1.02), respectively. Elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressures during adolescence were associated with longer hospital stay in men with intracerebral hemorrhage: 1.01 (1.00-1.03) and 1.02 (1.00-1.04), respectively. Among both stroke types, obesity in adolescence conferred an increased risk of second stroke: 2.06 (1.21-3.45). Some characteristics relevant to length of stroke-related hospital stay and risk of second stroke are already present in adolescence. Early lifestyle influences are of importance not only to stroke risk by middle age but also to recurrence and use of healthcare resources among stroke survivors. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Trends in risk of recurrence after the first ischemic stroke in adults younger than 55 years of age in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kok Wai; Björck, Lena; Ståhl, Christina H; Nielsen, Susanne; Sandström, Tatiana Z; Jern, Christina; Torén, Kjell; Rosengren, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on stroke recurrence in younger adults often contain small sample size which makes it difficult to study trends in stroke recurrence over a long period of time. The aim of the present study was to investigate temporal trends in the risk of recurrence in younger patients with a first ischemic stroke. All men and women aged 18-54 years who had survived at least 28 days after a first ischemic stroke from 1987 to 2006 were identified in the Swedish Inpatient Register. The patients were stratified into four 5-year periods according to their admission period and were followed up for a total of four years after the index event with regard to recurrent ischemic stroke. A Cox regression model was used to analyze the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke. Of the 17,149 ischemic stroke patients who were identified, 2432 (14.2%) had a recurrent ischemic stroke event within four years. From the first to the last periods (1987-1991 versus 2002-2006), the four-year risk of recurrent ischemic stroke decreased by 55% (hazard ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.53) in men and 59% (hazard ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.50) in women. The cumulative four-year risk was 11.8% (95% CI 10.55-13.25) in men and 9.8% (95% CI 8.40-11.46) in women during the last five-year period (2002-2006). The risk of recurrence among younger ischemic stroke patients has decreased over the past 20 years. Despite these improvements, younger patients are still at a high risk for recurrent ischemic stroke. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  9. Stroke rehabilitation and risk of mortality: a population-based cohort study stratified by age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Ni, Cheng-Hua; Li, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Lin, Li-Fong; Shen, Hsiu-Nien

    2015-06-01

    To determine the survival of patients with stroke for up to 10 years after a first-time stroke and to investigate whether stroke rehabilitation within the first 3 months reduced long-term mortality in these patients. We used the medical claims data for a random sample of 1 million insured Taiwanese registered in the year 2000. A total of 7767 patients admitted for a first-time stroke between 2000 and 2005; 1285 (16.7%) received rehabilitation within the first 3 months after stroke admission. The other 83.3% of patients served as a comparison cohort. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risk of mortality in relation to the rehabilitation intervention. In all, 181 patients with rehabilitation and 1123 controls died, representing respective mortality rates of 25.0 and 32.7 per 1000 person-years. Rehabilitation was significantly associated with a lower risk of mortality (hazard ratio .68, 95% confidence interval .58-.79). Such a beneficial effect tended to be more obvious as the frequency of rehabilitation increased (P for the trend Stroke rehabilitation initiated in the first 3 months after a stroke admission may significantly reduce the risk of mortality for 10 years after the stroke. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Five-Year Outcome in Stroke Patients Submitted to Thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Célia; Pinho, João; Alves, José Nuno; Santos, Ana Filipa; Ferreira, Maria do Céu; Abreu, Maria João; Oliveira, Liliana; Mota, João; Fontes, João Ramalho; Ferreira, Carla

    2015-08-01

    Little is known on long-term follow-up after thrombolysis in ischemic stroke patients because the majority of studies evaluated outcome at 3 to 12 months. We aimed to assess 5-year outcome after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Cohort study based on the prospective registry of all consecutive ischemic stroke patients submitted to IVT in our Stroke Unit. Five-year outcome, including living settings, functional outcome, stroke recurrence, and mortality, was ascertained by telephonic interviews and additional review of clinical records. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of outcome and mortality. Excellent outcome was defined as modified Rankin scale 0 to 1. Five-year outcome was available for 155/164 patients submitted to IVT. At 5 years, 32.9% of patients had an excellent outcome (95% confidence interval (CI) =25.5-43.3) and mortality was 43.9% (95%CI=36.1-51.7). Increasing age (odds ratio =0.93, 95% CI =0.90-0.97) and increasing National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) 24 h after thrombolysis (odds ratio =0.81, 95% CI =0.74-0.90) were independently associated with a lower likelihood of an excellent 5-year outcome. Age (hazards ratio =1.07, 95% CI =1.03-1.11) and excellent functional outcome 3 months after thrombolysis (hazards ratio =0.28, 95%CI=0.12-0.66) were independently associated with mortality during follow-up. One third of ischemic stroke patients have excellent 5-year outcome after IVT. Younger age, lower NIHSS 24 h after IVT, and excellent 3-month functional outcome are independent predictors of excellent 5-year outcome. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Aspirin for Stroke Prevention in Elderly Patients With Vascular Risk Factors: Japanese Primary Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Ishizuka, Naoki; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Teramoto, Tamio; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Oikawa, Shinichi; Sugawara, Masahiro; Ando, Katsuyuki; Murata, Mitsuru; Yokoyama, Kenji; Minematsu, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Ikeda, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    The effect of aspirin in primary prevention of stroke is controversial among clinical trials conducted in Western countries, and no data are available for Asian populations with a high risk of intracranial hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of aspirin on the risk of stroke and intracranial hemorrhage in the Japanese Primary Prevention Project (JPPP). A total of 14 464 patients (age, 60-85 years) with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus participated and were randomized into 2 treatment groups: 100 mg of aspirin or no aspirin. The median follow-up period was 5.02 years. The cumulative rate of fatal or nonfatal stroke was similar for the aspirin (2.068%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.750-2.443) and no aspirin (2.299%; 95% CI, 1.963-2.692) groups at 5 years; the estimated hazard ratio was 0.927 (95% CI, 0.741-1.160; P=0.509). Aspirin nonsignificantly reduced the risk of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (hazard ratio, 0.783; 95% CI, 0.606-1.012; P=0.061) and nonsignificantly increased the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 1.463; 95% CI; 0.956-2.237; P=0.078). A Cox regression adjusted by the risk factors for all stroke, which were age >70 years, smoking, and diabetes mellitus, supported the above result. Aspirin did not show any net benefit for the primary prevention of stroke in elderly Japanese patients with risk factors for stroke, whereas age >70 years, smoking, and diabetes mellitus were risk factors for stroke regardless of aspirin treatment. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00225849. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Protective effect of time spent walking on risk of stroke in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferis, Barbara J; Whincup, Peter H; Papacosta, Olia; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2014-01-01

    Older adults have the highest risks of stroke and the lowest physical activity levels. It is important to quantify how walking (the predominant form of physical activity in older age) is associated with stroke. A total of 4252 men from a UK population-based cohort reported usual physical activity (regular walking, cycling, recreational activity, and sport) in 1998 to 2000. Nurses took fasting blood samples and made anthropometric measurements. Among 3435 ambulatory men free from cardiovascular disease and heart failure in 1998 to 2000, 195 first strokes occurred during 11-year follow-up. Men walked a median of 7 (interquartile range, 3-12) hours/wk; walking more hours was associated with lower heart rate, D-dimer, and higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Compared with men walking 0 to 3 hours/wk, men walking 4 to 7, 8 to 14, 15 to 21, and >22 hours had age- and region-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for stroke of 0.89 (0.60-1.31), 0.63 (0.40-1.00), 0.68 (0.35-1.32), and 0.36 (0.14-0.91), respectively, P (trend)=0.006. Hazard ratios were somewhat attenuated by adjustment for established and novel risk markers (inflammatory and hemostatic markers and cardiac function [N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide]) and walking pace, but linear trends remained. There was little evidence for a dose-response relationship between walking pace and stroke; comparing average pace or faster to a baseline of slow pace, the hazard ratio for stroke was 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.97), which was fully mediated by time spent walking. Time spent walking was associated with reduced risk of onset of stroke in dose-response fashion, independent of walking pace. Walking could form an important part of stroke-prevention strategies in older people.

  13. Educational history is an independent predictor of cognitive deficits and long-term survival in postacute patients with mild to moderate ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala-Oksala, Johanna; Jokinen, Hanna; Kopsi, Valtteri; Lehtonen, Kalevi; Luukkonen, Liisa; Paukkunen, Antti; Seeck, Lotte; Melkas, Susanna; Pohjasvaara, Tarja; Karhunen, Pekka; Hietanen, Marja; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Oksala, Niku

    2012-11-01

    Poststroke cognitive decline and white matter lesions (WML) are related to poor poststroke survival. Whether cognitive reserve as reflected by educational history associates with cognitive decline, recurrent strokes, and poststroke mortality independent of WML is not known. A total of 486 consecutive acute mild/moderate ischemic stroke patients subjected to comprehensive neuropsychological assessment (n=409) and magnetic resonance imaging (n=395) 3 months poststroke were included in the study and followed-up for up to 12 years. Odds ratios (OR) for logistic and hazard ratios for Cox regression analyses are reported (OR and hazard ratio≤1 indicates a beneficial effect). Long educational history (per tertile) was associated with lower frequency of executive dysfunction in models adjusted for age, sex, marital status, and stroke severity (OR, 0.75; Peducational history was independently associated with less memory impairment (OR, 0.67; Peducational history was not associated with recurrent strokes, but it associated independently with favorable poststroke survival (hazard ratio, 0.86; Peducational history associates with less poststroke cognitive deficits, dementia, and favorable long-term survival independent of age, gender, marital status, stroke severity, and WML in patients with mild/moderate ischemic stroke. This supports the hypothesis that educational history as a proxy indicator of cognitive reserve protects against deficits induced by acute stroke.

  14. Pioglitazone after Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Walter N; Viscoli, Catherine M; Furie, Karen L; Young, Lawrence H; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Gorman, Mark; Guarino, Peter D; Lovejoy, Anne M; Peduzzi, Peter N; Conwit, Robin; Brass, Lawrence M; Schwartz, Gregory G; Adams, Harold P; Berger, Leo; Carolei, Antonio; Clark, Wayne; Coull, Bruce; Ford, Gary A; Kleindorfer, Dawn; O'Leary, John R; Parsons, Mark W; Ringleb, Peter; Sen, Souvik; Spence, J David; Tanne, David; Wang, David; Winder, Toni R

    2016-04-07

    Patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) are at increased risk for future cardiovascular events despite current preventive therapies. The identification of insulin resistance as a risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction raised the possibility that pioglitazone, which improves insulin sensitivity, might benefit patients with cerebrovascular disease. In this multicenter, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 3876 patients who had had a recent ischemic stroke or TIA to receive either pioglitazone (target dose, 45 mg daily) or placebo. Eligible patients did not have diabetes but were found to have insulin resistance on the basis of a score of more than 3.0 on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. The primary outcome was fatal or nonfatal stroke or myocardial infarction. By 4.8 years, a primary outcome had occurred in 175 of 1939 patients (9.0%) in the pioglitazone group and in 228 of 1937 (11.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the pioglitazone group, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 0.93; P=0.007). Diabetes developed in 73 patients (3.8%) and 149 patients (7.7%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.69; Pischemic stroke or TIA, the risk of stroke or myocardial infarction was lower among patients who received pioglitazone than among those who received placebo. Pioglitazone was also associated with a lower risk of diabetes but with higher risks of weight gain, edema, and fracture. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00091949.).

  15. Socioeconomic Status and the Risk of Stroke Recurrence: Persisting Gaps Observed in a Nationwide Swedish Study 2001 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennlert, Johanna; Asplund, Kjell; Glader, Eva-Lotta; Norrving, Bo; Eriksson, Marie

    2017-06-01

    This nationwide observational study aimed to investigate how socioeconomic status is associated with risk of stroke recurrence and how possible associations change over time. This study included 168 295 patients, previously independent in activities of daily living, with a first-ever stroke in the Swedish Stroke Register (Riksstroke) 2001 to 2012. Riksstroke was linked with Statistics Sweden as to add individual information on education and income. Subdistribution hazard regression was used to analyze time from 28 days after first stroke to stroke recurrence, accounting for the competing risk of other causes of death. Median time of follow-up was 3.0 years. During follow-up, 23 560 patients had a first recurrent stroke, and 53 867 died from other causes. The estimated cumulative incidence of stroke recurrence was 5.3% at 1 year, and 14.3% at 5 years. Corresponding incidence for other deaths were 10.3% and 30.2%. Higher education and income were associated with a reduced risk of stroke recurrence. After adjusting for confounding variables, university versus primary school education returned a hazard ratio of 0.902; 95% confidence interval, 0.864 to 0.942, and the highest versus the lowest income tertile a hazard ratio of 0.955; 95% confidence interval, 0.922 to 0.989. The risk of stroke recurrence decreased during the study period, but the inverse effect of socioeconomic status on risk of recurrence did not change significantly. Despite a declining risk of stroke recurrence over time, the differences in recurrence risk between different socioeconomic groups remained at a similar level in Sweden during 2001 to 2012. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Impact of metabolic syndrome on the prognosis of ischemic stroke secondary to symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis in Chinese patients.

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    Donghua Mi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS on prognosis of ischemic stroke secondary to intracranial stenosis in Chinese patients. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 701 patients with ischemic stroke, caused by intracranial stenosis, were followed at 3-month intervals for 1 year to monitor development of recurrent stroke or death. Imaging was performed using magnetic resonance angiography. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. RESULTS: MetS was identified in 26.0% of the cohort of stroke patients. Patients with MetS were more likely to be female, nonsmokers, and more likely to have a prior history of diabetes mellitus, high blood glucose and a family history of stroke than patients without MetS. During 1-year follow-up, patients with MetS had a non-significantly higher rate of stroke recurrence (7.1% than patients without MetS (3.9%; P = 0.07. There was no difference in mortality (3.3% versus 3.5%, respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis (adjusting for gender, BMI, smoking, diabetes, and LDL-C identified an association between that 1-year stroke recurrence and the presence of MetS (hazard ratio 2.30; 95% CI: 1.01-5.22 and large waist circumference (hazard ratio: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.05-5.42. However, multivariable analysis adjusting for the individual components of MetS found no significant associations between MetS and stroke recurrence. There were no associations between these parameters and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis who have MetS, are at higher risk of recurrent stroke than those without MetS. However, MetS was not predictive of stroke recurrence beyond its individual components and one-year mortality.

  17. Increased risk of ischemic stroke in young patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a population-based longitudinal follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective data on the association between ischemic stroke and ankylosing spondylitis (AS in the young are sparse. The purpose of this population-based, age- and sex-matched longitudinal follow-up study was to investigate the risk of developing ischemic stroke in young patients with AS. METHODS: A total of 4562 patients aged 18- to 45-year-old with at least two ambulatory visits in 2001 with a principal diagnosis of AS were enrolled in the AS group. The non-AS group consisted of 22810 age- and sex-matched, randomly sampled subjects without AS. The two-year ischemic stroke-free survival rate for each group were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio of ischemic stroke after adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. RESULTS: During follow-up, 21 patients in the AS group and 53 in the non-AS group developed ischemic stroke. The ischemic stroke-free survival rate over the 2 year follow-up was lower in the AS group than the non-AS group (p = 0.0021. The crude hazard ratio of ischemic stroke for the AS group was 1.98 (95% CI, 1.20-3.29; p = 0.0079 and the adjusted hazard ratio after controlling for demographic and comorbid medical disorders was 1.93 (95% CI, 1.16-3.20; p = 0.0110. CONCLUSION: Our study showed an increased risk of developing ischemic stroke in young patients with AS.

  18. Increased risk of ischemic stroke in young patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a population-based longitudinal follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Huang, Ya-Ping; Chiu, Yueh-Hsia; Ho, Yu-Tsun; Pan, Shin-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Prospective data on the association between ischemic stroke and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in the young are sparse. The purpose of this population-based, age- and sex-matched longitudinal follow-up study was to investigate the risk of developing ischemic stroke in young patients with AS. A total of 4562 patients aged 18- to 45-year-old with at least two ambulatory visits in 2001 with a principal diagnosis of AS were enrolled in the AS group. The non-AS group consisted of 22810 age- and sex-matched, randomly sampled subjects without AS. The two-year ischemic stroke-free survival rate for each group were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio of ischemic stroke after adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. During follow-up, 21 patients in the AS group and 53 in the non-AS group developed ischemic stroke. The ischemic stroke-free survival rate over the 2 year follow-up was lower in the AS group than the non-AS group (p = 0.0021). The crude hazard ratio of ischemic stroke for the AS group was 1.98 (95% CI, 1.20-3.29; p = 0.0079) and the adjusted hazard ratio after controlling for demographic and comorbid medical disorders was 1.93 (95% CI, 1.16-3.20; p = 0.0110). Our study showed an increased risk of developing ischemic stroke in young patients with AS.

  19. Using antidepressants and the risk of stroke recurrence: report from a national representative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Hsiao-Ting; Chen, Pei-Chun; Chien, Kuo-Liong

    2015-06-05

    Evidence about the association between antidepressants and the risk of stroke recurrence was scanty. This study evaluated the risk of stroke recurrence according to using antidepressants in patients with stroke from a national representative cohort. This cohort study followed 16770 patients aged > =20 years who had an incident stroke from 2000 to 2009 from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Records of each antidepressant prescription were obtained during follow-up. The types of antidepressants were categorized by Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system: tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and other antidepressants. The main outcome was a recurrent stroke during the follow-up period. The time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model was used in the analyses. During 63715 person-years of follow-up, we documented 3769 events for stroke recurrence. Antidepressants use was associated with an increased risk of stroke recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.42; 95 % confidence interval [C.I.], 1.24-1.62), especially for ischemic stroke (HR, 1.48; 95 % C.I., 1.28-1.70), but not for hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 1.22; 95 % C.I., 0.86-1.73). The increased risk of stoke recurrence was found for TCAs use only (HR, 1.41; 95 % C.I., 1.14-1.74), SSRIs use only (HR, 1.31; 95 % C.I.,1.00-1.73),use of other types of antidepressants only(HR, 1.46; 95 % C.I.,1.15-1.84), or use of multiple types of antidepressants (HR, 1.84; 95 % C.I.,1.04-3.25). We demonstrated that use of antidepressants was associated with an increased risk of stroke recurrence, especially in ischemic stroke among Taiwanese. Further studies are warranted to confirm the possible underlying mechanisms of these findings.

  20. Abnormal P-Wave Axis and Ischemic Stroke: The ARIC Study (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Ankit; Norby, Faye L; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Koene, Ryan J; Rooney, Mary R; O'Neal, Wesley T; Alonso, Alvaro; Chen, Lin Y

    2017-08-01

    Abnormal P-wave axis (aPWA) has been linked to incident atrial fibrillation and mortality; however, the relationship between aPWA and stroke has not been reported. We hypothesized that aPWA is associated with ischemic stroke independent of atrial fibrillation and other stroke risk factors and tested our hypothesis in the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities), a community-based prospective cohort study. We included 15 102 participants (aged 54.2±5.7 years; 55.2% women; 26.5% blacks) who attended the baseline examination (1987-1989) and without prevalent stroke. We defined aPWA as any value outside 0 to 75° using 12-lead ECGs obtained during study visits. Each case of incident ischemic stroke was classified in accordance with criteria from the National Survey of Stroke by a computer algorithm and adjudicated by physician review. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of aPWA with stroke. During a mean follow-up of 20.2 years, there were 657 incident ischemic stroke cases. aPWA was independently associated with a 1.50-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.22-1.85) increased risk of ischemic stroke in the multivariable model that included atrial fibrillation. When subtyped, aPWA was associated with a 2.04-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.42-2.95) increased risk of cardioembolic stroke and a 1.32-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.71) increased risk of thrombotic stroke. aPWA is independently associated with ischemic stroke. This association seems to be stronger for cardioembolic strokes. Collectively, our findings suggest that alterations in atrial electric activation may predispose to cardiac thromboembolism independent of atrial fibrillation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. D-dimer and the Risk of Stroke and Coronary Heart Disease. The REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakai, Neil A; McClure, Leslie A; Judd, Suzanne E; Kissela, Brett; Howard, George; Safford, Monika; Cushman, Mary

    2017-02-28

    D-dimer, a biomarker of coagulation, is higher in blacks than in whites and has been associated with stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). It was our objective to assess the association of higher D-dimer with stroke and CHD in blacks and whites. REGARDS recruited 30,239 black and white participants across the contiguous US and measured baseline D-dimer in stroke (n=646) and CHD (n=654) cases and a cohort random sample (n=1,104). Cox models adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors determined the hazard ratio (HR) for increasing D-dimer for cardiovascular disease with bootstrapping to assess the difference in HR for CHD versus stroke by race. D-dimer was higher with increasing age, female sex, diabetes, hypertension, pre-baseline cardiovascular disease and higher C-reactive protein (CRP). Accounting for cardiovascular risk factors, each doubling of D-dimer was associated with increased stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.01, 1.31) and CHD (HR 1.27; 95 % CI 1.11, 1.45) risk. The difference in the HR between CHD and stroke was 0.20 (95 % CI >0.00, 0.58) for blacks and 0.02 (95 % CI -0.30, 0.27) for whites. CRP mediated 22 % (95 % CI 5 %, 41 %) of the association between D-dimer and CHD and none of the association with stroke. Higher D-dimer increased the risk of stroke and CHD independent of cardiovascular risk factors and CRP, with perhaps a stronger association for CHD versus stroke in blacks than whites. These findings highlight potential different pathophysiology of vascular disease by disease site and race suggesting potential further studies targeting haemostasis in primary prevention of vascular disease.

  2. Perceived Walking Speed, Measured Tandem Walk, Incident Stroke, and Mortality in Older Latino Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Mayeda, Elizabeth Rose; Elfassy, Tali; Lee, Anne; Odden, Michelle C; Thekkethala, Divya; Wright, Clinton B; Glymour, Maria M; Haan, Mary N

    2017-05-01

    Walking speed is associated with functional status and all-cause mortality. Yet the relationship between walking speed and stroke, also a leading cause of disability, remains poorly understood, especially in older Latino adults who suffer from a significant burden of stroke. A total of 1,486 stroke-free participants from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, aged 60 and older at baseline in 1998-1999, were followed annually through 2010. Participants reported their usual walking speed outdoors which was classified into slow, medium, or fast. We also assessed timed tandem walk ability (unable or eight or more errors vs less than eight errors). We ascertained three incident stroke endpoints: total stroke, nonfatal stroke, and fatal stroke. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for stroke at different walking speed and timed tandem walk categories. Over an average of 6 years of follow-up (SD = 2.8), the incidence rate of total strokes was 23.2/1,000 person-years for slow walkers compared to 15.6/1,000 person-years for medium walkers, and 7.6/1,000 person-years for fast walkers. In Cox models adjusted for sociodemographics, cardiovascular risk, cognition and functional status, and self-rated health, the hazard of total stroke was 31% lower for medium walkers (HR: 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47, 1.02) and 56% lower for fast walkers (HR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.82) compared with slow walkers. We found similar associations with timed tandem walk ability (fully adjusted HR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45, 0.98). Our findings suggest perceived walking speed captures more than self-rated health alone and is a strong risk factor for stroke risk in Latino older adults.

  3. Risk of first and recurrent stroke in childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial and cervical radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sabine; Sear, Katherine; Hills, Nancy K; Chettout, Nassim; Afghani, Shervin; Gastelum, Erica; Haas-Kogan, Daphne; Fullerton, Heather J

    2013-07-15

    To assess, in a retrospective cohort study, rates and predictors of first and recurrent stroke in patients treated with cranial irradiation (CRT) and/or cervical irradiation at ≤18 years of age. We performed chart abstraction (n=383) and phone interviews (n=104) to measure first and recurrent stroke in 383 patients who received CRT and/or cervical radiation at a single institution between 1980 and 2009. Stroke was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms consistent with stroke. Incidence of first stroke was number of first strokes per person-years of observation after radiation. We used survival analysis techniques to determine cumulative incidence of first and recurrent stroke. Among 325 subjects with sufficient follow-up data, we identified 19 first strokes (13 ischemic, 4 hemorrhagic, 2 unknown subtype) occurring at a median age of 24 years (interquartile range 17-33 years) in patients treated with CRT. Imaging was reviewed when available (n=13), and the stroke was confirmed in 12. Overall rate of first stroke was 625 (95% confidence interval [CI] 378-977) per 100,000 person-years. The cumulative incidence of first stroke was 2% (95% CI 0.01%-5.3%) at 5 years and 4% (95% CI 2.0%-8.4%) at 10 years after irradiation. With each 100-cGy increase in the radiation dose, the stroke hazard increased by 5% (hazard ratio 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09; P=.02). We identified 6 recurrent strokes; 5 had available imaging that confirmed the stroke. Median time to recurrence was 15 months (interquartile range 6 months-3.2 years) after first stroke. The cumulative incidence of recurrent stroke was 38% (95% CI 17%-69%) at 5 years and 59% (95% CI 27%-92%) at 10 years after first stroke. Cranial irradiation puts childhood cancer survivors at high risk of both first and recurrent stroke. Stroke prevention strategies for these survivors are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk of First and Recurrent Stroke in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated With Cranial and Cervical Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sabine, E-mail: muellers@neuropeds.ucsf.edu [Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Sear, Katherine [Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Hills, Nancy K. [Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Chettout, Nassim [Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Afghani, Shervin [Undergraduate Program, University of California, Berkeley, California (United States); Gastelum, Erica [School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Haas-Kogan, Daphne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Fullerton, Heather J. [Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To assess, in a retrospective cohort study, rates and predictors of first and recurrent stroke in patients treated with cranial irradiation (CRT) and/or cervical irradiation at ≤18 years of age. Methods and Materials: We performed chart abstraction (n=383) and phone interviews (n=104) to measure first and recurrent stroke in 383 patients who received CRT and/or cervical radiation at a single institution between 1980 and 2009. Stroke was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms consistent with stroke. Incidence of first stroke was number of first strokes per person-years of observation after radiation. We used survival analysis techniques to determine cumulative incidence of first and recurrent stroke. Results: Among 325 subjects with sufficient follow-up data, we identified 19 first strokes (13 ischemic, 4 hemorrhagic, 2 unknown subtype) occurring at a median age of 24 years (interquartile range 17-33 years) in patients treated with CRT. Imaging was reviewed when available (n=13), and the stroke was confirmed in 12. Overall rate of first stroke was 625 (95% confidence interval [CI] 378-977) per 100,000 person-years. The cumulative incidence of first stroke was 2% (95% CI 0.01%-5.3%) at 5 years and 4% (95% CI 2.0%-8.4%) at 10 years after irradiation. With each 100-cGy increase in the radiation dose, the stroke hazard increased by 5% (hazard ratio 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09; P=.02). We identified 6 recurrent strokes; 5 had available imaging that confirmed the stroke. Median time to recurrence was 15 months (interquartile range 6 months-3.2 years) after first stroke. The cumulative incidence of recurrent stroke was 38% (95% CI 17%-69%) at 5 years and 59% (95% CI 27%-92%) at 10 years after first stroke. Conclusion: Cranial irradiation puts childhood cancer survivors at high risk of both first and recurrent stroke. Stroke prevention strategies for these survivors are needed.

  5. Risk of First and Recurrent Stroke in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated With Cranial and Cervical Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Sabine; Sear, Katherine; Hills, Nancy K.; Chettout, Nassim; Afghani, Shervin; Gastelum, Erica; Haas-Kogan, Daphne; Fullerton, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess, in a retrospective cohort study, rates and predictors of first and recurrent stroke in patients treated with cranial irradiation (CRT) and/or cervical irradiation at ≤18 years of age. Methods and Materials: We performed chart abstraction (n=383) and phone interviews (n=104) to measure first and recurrent stroke in 383 patients who received CRT and/or cervical radiation at a single institution between 1980 and 2009. Stroke was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms consistent with stroke. Incidence of first stroke was number of first strokes per person-years of observation after radiation. We used survival analysis techniques to determine cumulative incidence of first and recurrent stroke. Results: Among 325 subjects with sufficient follow-up data, we identified 19 first strokes (13 ischemic, 4 hemorrhagic, 2 unknown subtype) occurring at a median age of 24 years (interquartile range 17-33 years) in patients treated with CRT. Imaging was reviewed when available (n=13), and the stroke was confirmed in 12. Overall rate of first stroke was 625 (95% confidence interval [CI] 378-977) per 100,000 person-years. The cumulative incidence of first stroke was 2% (95% CI 0.01%-5.3%) at 5 years and 4% (95% CI 2.0%-8.4%) at 10 years after irradiation. With each 100-cGy increase in the radiation dose, the stroke hazard increased by 5% (hazard ratio 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09; P=.02). We identified 6 recurrent strokes; 5 had available imaging that confirmed the stroke. Median time to recurrence was 15 months (interquartile range 6 months-3.2 years) after first stroke. The cumulative incidence of recurrent stroke was 38% (95% CI 17%-69%) at 5 years and 59% (95% CI 27%-92%) at 10 years after first stroke. Conclusion: Cranial irradiation puts childhood cancer survivors at high risk of both first and recurrent stroke. Stroke prevention strategies for these survivors are needed

  6. Alcohol consumption at midlife and risk of stroke during 43 years of follow-up: cohort and twin analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlecová, Pavla; Andel, Ross; Mikulík, Robert; Handing, Elizabeth P; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2015-03-01

    Although alcohol-stroke association is well known, the age-varying effect of alcohol drinking at midlife on subsequent stroke risk across older adulthood has not been examined. The effect of genetic/early-life factors is also unknown. We used cohort and twin analyses of data with 43 years of follow-up for stroke incidence to help address these gaps. All 11 644 members of the population-based Swedish Twin Registry born 1886 to 1925 with alcohol data aged ≤60 years were included. The interaction of midlife alcohol consumption by age at stroke was evaluated in Cox-regression and analyses of monozygotic twins were used. Covariates were baseline age, sex, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, stress reactivity, depression, body mass index, smoking, and exercise. Altogether 29% participants developed stroke. Compared with very-light drinkers (2 drinks/d) had greater risk of stroke (hazard ratio, 1.34; P=0.02) and the effect for nondrinkers approached significance (hazard ratio, 1.11; P=0.08). Age increased stroke risk for nondrinkers (P=0.012) and decreased it for heavy drinkers (P=0.040). Midlife heavy drinkers were at high risk from baseline until the age of 75 years when hypertension and diabetes mellitus grew to being the more relevant risk factors. In analyses of monozygotic twin-pairs, heavy drinking shortened time to stroke by 5 years (P=0.04). Stroke-risk associated with heavy drinking (>2 drinks/d) in midlife seems to predominate over well-known risk factors, hypertension and diabetes, until the age of ≈75 years and may shorten time to stroke by 5 years above and beyond covariates and genetic/early-life factors. Alcohol consumption should be considered an age-varying risk factor for stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Type of Preadmission Antidiabetic Treatment and Outcome among Patients with Ischemic Stroke: A Nationwide Follow-up Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; Mehnert, Frank; Rungby, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    computed mortality rates and rates of readmission recurrent ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction according to type of treatment and used the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to compute hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: We identified 4817 stroke patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We found...... hospitalized with ischemic stroke between 2003 and 2006 and who were registered in the Danish National Indicator Project. We obtained data on diabetes and type of antidiabetic treatment, patient characteristics, in-hospital quality of care, and mortality and readmissions by linking medical databases. We......, it did not reach statistical significance for all treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Preadmission use of sulfonylureas appeared not to be associated with an overall improved clinical outcome among type 2 diabetic patients admitted with ischemic stroke....

  8. Higher Education Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Dementia after a Stroke or TIA. The Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Saira Saeed; Portegies, Marileen L P; Wolters, Frank J; Hofman, Albert; Koudstaal, Peter J; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia, possibly because of a higher tolerance to subclinical neurodegenerative pathology. Whether higher education also protects against dementia after clinical stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains unknown. Within the population-based Rotterdam Study, 12,561 participants free of stroke, TIA and dementia were followed for occurrence of stroke, TIA and dementia. Across the levels of education, associations of incident stroke or TIA with subsequent development of dementia and differences in cognitive decline following stroke or TIA were investigated. During 124,862 person-years, 1,463 persons suffered a stroke or TIA, 1,158 persons developed dementia, of whom 186 developed dementia after stroke or TIA. Risk of dementia after a stroke or TIA, compared to no stroke or TIA, was highest in the low education category (hazards ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% CI 1.18-1.81) followed by intermediate education category (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03-1.81). No significant association was observed in the high education category (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.25-1.54). In gender stratified analyses, decrease in risk of dementia with increasing education was significant only in men. Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia after stroke or TIA, particularly in men, which might be explained by a higher cognitive reserve. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Rates and Determinants of 5-Year Outcomes After Atrial Fibrillation-Related Stroke: A Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Derek T; Hannon, Niamh; Callaly, Elizabeth; Ní Chróinín, Danielle; Horgan, Gillian; Kyne, Lorraine; Duggan, Joseph; Dolan, Eamon; O'Rourke, Killian; Williams, David; Murphy, Sean; Kelly, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    Demographic trends in atrial fibrillation (AF) incidence may yield a substantial rise in the societal burden of AF-related stroke (AF-stroke). Accurate population-wide outcome data are essential to inform health service planning to improve AF-stroke prevention, and provision of rehabilitation, nursing home, and community supports for AF-stroke survivors. We investigated rates and determinants of 5-year fatality, stroke recurrence, functional outcomes, and prescribing of secondary prevention medications in AF-stroke in the North Dublin Population Stroke Study. Ascertainment included hot and cold pursuit using multiple overlapping sources. Survival analysis was performed using lifetables and Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and Cox proportional hazard modeling was performed to identify predictors of death and recurrent stroke. Five hundred sixty-eight patients with new stroke were identified, including 177 (31.2%) AF-stroke. At 5 years, 39.2% (confidence interval, 31.5-46.8) of ischemic AF-stroke patients were alive. Congestive heart failure, hypertension, age stroke, transient ischemic attack or thromboembolism, vascular disease and female sex (CHA2DS2-VASc) score (hazard ratio [HR], 1.34; PStroke Scale (HR, 1.09; Pstroke onset (HR, 3.29; P=0.003) were independently associated with 5-year fatality, whereas warfarin (HR, 0.40; P=0.001) and statin use after index stroke (HR, 0.52; P=0.005) were associated with improved survival. The 5-year recurrence rate after ischemic AF-stroke was 21.5% (confidence interval, 14.5-31.3). Trends toward greater risk of recurrence were observed for persistent AF (HR, 3.09; P=0.07) and CHA2DS2-VASc score (HR, 1.34; P=0.07). Nursing home care was needed for 25.9% of patients. AF-stroke is associated with considerable long-term morbidity, fatality, stroke recurrence, and nursing home requirement. Adequately resourced national AF strategies to improve AF detection and prevention are needed. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Increased risk of ischaemic stroke amongst patients with chronic osteomyelitis: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C-H; Chen, J-H; Muo, C-H; Chang, Y-J; Sung, F-C; Hsu, C Y

    2015-04-01

    Inflammatory processes, which kindle endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, may facilitate the development of cardiovascular disease, including ischaemic stroke. Evident stroke risk factors may not be identified in up to 40% of stroke patients, especially in the younger population. Inflammation remains to be established as a stroke risk factor. In this study, it was assessed whether chronic osteomyelitis (COM), an infectious disease with chronic inflammation, increases stroke risk. A national insurance claim data set of 22 million enrollees in Taiwan was used to identify 18 509 patients with COM and 74 034 randomly selected age- and gender-matched controls for a follow-up period of 11 years starting 1 January 2000 and ending 31 December 2010. Stroke risk was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Comorbidities known to increase stroke risk, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease, were more frequently noted in the COM group who had significantly greater stroke risk than the control cohort. Comparing only those without comorbidities, COM carried greater stroke risk than the control group [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-1.62, P  65, HR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.02-1.31). This is the first report linking COM to an increased risk of developing stroke. Results suggest that COM is a significant stroke risk factor and call for closer attention to this group of patients for more rigorous stroke prevention, especially in the younger age group. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  11. Return to Work after a Stroke in Working Age Persons; A Six-Year Follow Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Westerlind

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the most common and resource intensive diseases for society. Stroke in the working age population is increasing in different parts of the world. An incomplete return to work (RTW after sick leave post stroke entails negative consequences for the affected person and an economical burden for society. The aim of this study was to explore the RTW rate and factors associated with RTW in a six-year follow up post stroke.Data from 174 persons 63 years or younger, with first ever stroke in 2009-2010 in Gothenburg were analyzed. Baseline characteristics were collected through medical records and the Swedish Health Insurance Office provided information on sick leave up to 6 years post stroke. Time-to-event was presented and cox regression as well as logistic regression were used to analyze risk factors for no-RTW.The RTW rate was 74.7%, at the end of follow up. Participants continued to RTW until just over 3 years post stroke. Dependency at discharge (in the modified Rankin Scale and sick leave prior to the stroke were significant risk factors for no-RTW after 1 year with odds ratio 4.595 and 3.585, respectively. The same factors were significant in time-to-event within six years post stroke with hazard ratio 2.651 and 1.929, respectively.RTW after a stroke is incomplete, however RTW is possible over a longer period of time than previously thought. More severe disability at discharge from hospital and sick leave prior to the stroke were shown to be risk factors for no-RTW. This knowledge can contribute to more individualized vocational rehabilitation.

  12. Preventing stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hemorrhagic Stroke Ischemic Stroke Stroke Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  13. Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A stroke can cause lasting brain damage. People who survive a stroke need to relearn skills they lost because of ... them relearn those skills. The effects of a stroke depend on which area of the brain was ...

  14. Plasma d-Dimer and Incident Ischemic Stroke and Coronary Heart Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Aaron R; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Appiah, Duke; Shahar, Eyal; Mosley, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have documented that plasma d-dimer, a fibrin degradation product, is a risk marker for coronary heart disease, but there is limited prospective evidence for stroke. Given that thrombosis is a key mechanism for many strokes, we studied whether d-dimer is a risk marker for ischemic stroke incidence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. We measured d-dimer in 11 415 ARIC participants free of stroke and coronary heart disease in 1992 to 1995. We followed them for stroke, stroke subtype, and coronary heart disease events through 2012. Over a median of 18 years of follow-up, 719 participants had incident strokes (628 ischemic and 91 hemorrhagic). d-dimer was associated positively with risk of total, ischemic, and cardioembolic strokes, with risk elevated primarily for the highest quintile of d-dimer. After adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratio for the highest versus lowest quintile of d-dimer was 1.30 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.67) for total stroke, 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.73) for ischemic stroke, and 1.79 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.95) for cardioembolic stroke. There was no association with hemorrhagic, lacunar, or nonlacunar stroke categories. d-dimer was positively but weakly associated with coronary heart disease incidence. A higher basal plasma d-dimer concentration in the general population is a risk marker for ischemic stroke, especially cardioembolic stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Thyroid Function Within the Reference Range and the Risk of Stroke: An Individual Participant Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaker, Layal; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P. J.; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Ikram, M. Arfan; Blum, Manuel R.; Dehghan, Abbas; Drechsler, Christiane; Luben, Robert N.; Portegies, Marileen L. P.; Iervasi, Giorgio; Medici, Marco; Stott, David J.; Dullaart, Robin P.; Ford, Ian; Bremner, Alexandra; Newman, Anne B.; Wanner, Christoph; Sgarbi, José A.; Dörr, Marcus; Longstreth, W. T.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Westendorp, Rudi G.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Ceresini, Graziano; Imaizumi, Misa; Hofman, Albert; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Franklyn, Jayne A.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bauer, Douglas C.; Walsh, John P.; Razvi, Salman; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Völzke, Henry; Franco, Oscar H.; Cappola, Anne R.; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Context: The currently applied reference ranges for thyroid function are under debate. Despite evidence that thyroid function within the reference range is related with several cardiovascular disorders, its association with the risk of stroke has not been evaluated previously. Design and Setting: We identified studies through a systematic literature search and the Thyroid Studies Collaboration, a collaboration of prospective cohort studies. Studies measuring baseline TSH, free T4, and stroke outcomes were included, and we collected individual participant data from each study, including thyroid function measurements and incident all stroke (combined fatal and nonfatal) and fatal stroke. The applied reference range for TSH levels was between 0.45 and 4.49 mIU/L. Results: We collected individual participant data on 43 598 adults with TSH within the reference range from 17 cohorts, with a median follow-up of 11.6 years (interquartile range 5.1–13.9), including 449 908 person-years. Age- and sex-adjusted pooled hazard ratio for TSH was 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65–0.95 across the reference range of TSH) for all stroke and 0.83 (95% CI 0.62–1.09) for fatal stroke. For the free T4 analyses, the hazard ratio was 1.08 (95% CI 0.99–1.15 per SD increase) for all stroke and 1.10 (95% CI 1.04–1.19) for fatal stroke. This was independent of cardiovascular risk factors including systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, smoking, and prevalent diabetes. Conclusion: Higher levels of TSH within the reference range may decrease the risk of stroke, highlighting the need for further research focusing on the clinical consequences associated with differences within the reference range of thyroid function. PMID:27603906

  16. Combined effects of family history of CVD and heart rate on ischemic stroke incidence among Inner Mongolians in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yipeng; Tian, Yunfan; Zhong, Chongke; Batu, Buren; Xu, Tian; Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wang, Aili; Zhang, Yonghong

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the combined effects of family history of cardiovascular diseases (FHCVD) and heart rate on ischemic stroke incidence among Inner Mongolians in China. A prospective cohort study was conducted among 2589 participants aged 20 years and older from Inner Mongolia, China. The participants were divided into four groups according to status of FHCVD and heart rate and followed up from June 2002 to July 2012. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the combined effects of FHCVD and heart rate on the incidence of ischemic stroke. A total of 76 ischemic stroke occurred during the follow-up period. The observed ischemic stroke cases tended to be older and male, and had higher prevalence of smoking, drinking, hypertension and FHCVD as well as higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures at baseline compared with those who did not experience ischemic stroke. Age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of ischemic stroke in the participants with both FHCVD and heart rate ≥ 80 were 2.89 (1.51-5.53), compared with those without FHCVD and heart rate < 80. After multiple adjustment, the association between ischemic stroke risk and both FHCVD and heart rate ≥ 80 remained statistically significant (hazard ratio, 2.47; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-5.01). Our main finding that participants with both FHCVD and faster heart rate have the highest risk of ischemic stroke suggests that faster heart rate may increase the risk of ischemic stroke among people with FHCVD.

  17. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and prediction of incident stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Wadley, Virginia G; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Howard, George; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Moy, Claudia; Howard, Virginia J; Kissela, Brett; Judd, Suzanne E

    2015-03-01

    There are limited data on the potential association of adherence to Mediterranean diet (MeD) with incident stroke. We sought to assess the longitudinal association between greater adherence to MeD and risk of incident stroke. We prospectively evaluated a population-based cohort of 30 239 individuals enrolled in REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, after excluding participants with stroke history, missing demographic data or food frequency questionnaires, and unavailable follow-up information. Adherence to MeD was categorized using MeD score. Incident stroke was adjudicated by expert panel review of medical records during a mean follow-up period of 6.5 years. Incident stroke was identified in 565 participants (2.8%; 497 and 68 cases of ischemic stroke [IS] and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively) of 20 197 individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria. High adherence to MeD (MeD score, 5-9) was associated with lower risk of incident IS in unadjusted analyses (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-1.00; P=0.046). The former association retained its significance (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.96; P=0.016) after adjustment for demographics, vascular risk factors, blood pressure levels, and antihypertensive medications. When MeD was evaluated as a continuous variable, a 1-point increase in MeD score was independently associated with a 5% reduction in the risk of incident IS (95% confidence interval, 0-11%). We documented no association of adherence to MeD with incident hemorrhagic stroke. There was no interaction of race (P=0.37) on the association of adherence to MeD with incident IS. High adherence to MeD seems to be associated with a lower risk of incident IS independent of potential confounders. Adherence to MeD is not related to the risk of incident hemorrhagic stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Polysomnographic indicators of mortality in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponsaing, Laura B; Iversen, Helle K; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to assess polysomnographic indicators of increased mortality risk in patients with stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: We performed polysomnographies in 63 acute stroke/TIA patients. Mortality data were collected from a national database after...... a 19-37-month follow-up period. RESULTS: Of the 57 stroke and 6 TIA patients, 9 stroke patients died during follow-up. All nine had moderate or severe sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs). Binarily divided, the group with the highest apnea hypopnea index (AHI) had an almost 10-fold higher...... mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) 9.71; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.20-78.29; p = 0.033) compared to the patients with the lowest AHI. The patients with the longest versus shortest nocturnal wake time had a higher mortality (HR 8.78; 95 % CI 1.1-71.8; p = 0.0428). Lung disease increased mortality (HR 9...

  19. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Sabine; Fullerton, Heather J.; Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy; Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Goldsby, Robert E.; Packer, Roger J.; Sklar, Charles A.; Bowers, Daniel C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively

  20. Acute Ischemic Stroke and Long-Term Outcome After Thrombolysis: Nationwide Propensity Score-Matched Follow-Up Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, Marie Louise; Simonsen, Claus Z; Hundborg, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data on long-term outcome after intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in ischemic stroke are limited. We examined the risk of long-term mortality, recurrent ischemic stroke, and major bleeding, including intracranial and gastrointestinal bleeding......, in intravenous tPA-treated patients when compared with intravenous tPA eligible but nontreated patients with ischemic stroke. METHODS: We conducted a register-based nationwide propensity score-matched follow-up study among patients with ischemic stroke in Denmark (2004-2011). Cox regression analysis was used...... to compute adjusted hazard ratios for all outcomes. RESULTS: Among 4292 ischemic strokes (2146 intravenous tPA-treated and 2146 propensity score-matched nonintravenous tPA-treated patients), with a follow-up for a median of 1.4 years, treatment with intravenous tPA was associated with a lower risk of long...

  1. Post-ischemic stroke rehabilitation is associated with a higher risk of fractures in older women: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huei Kai; Lin, Shu Man; Yang, Clement Shih Hsien; Liang, Chung Chao; Cheng, Hung Yu

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation can improve physical activity after stroke. However, patients may be more prone to falls and fractures because of balance and gait deficits. Few reports have studied the relationship between rehabilitation and subsequent fractures after ischemic stroke. To investigate whether post-stroke rehabilitation affects fracture risk. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with a newly diagnosed ischemic stroke between 2000 and 2012 were included. After propensity score matching, a total of 8,384 patients were enrolled. Half of the patients (4,192) received post-stroke rehabilitation within 1 month; the other half did not receive any post-stroke rehabilitation. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for fractures among patients with and without rehabilitation within 1 year after ischemic stroke. Patients were further stratified by sex and age (20-64 and ≥65 years). Patients receiving post-stroke rehabilitation had a higher incidence of fracture (6.2 per 100 person-years) than those who did not (4.1 per 100 person-years) after adjustment for sociodemographic and coexisting medical conditions [HR = 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-1.87, p rehabilitation had a significantly higher risk of fracture (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.21-2.17, p = 0.001). Rehabilitation after ischemic stroke is associated with an increased fracture risk in older women.

  2. Homocysteine and Stroke Risk: Modifying Effect of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Folic Acid Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Wang, Xiaobin; He, Mingli; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Huo, Yong; Li, Jianping; Fu, Jia; Huang, Xiao; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Wang, Binyan; Hou, Fan Fan; Sun, Ningling; Cai, Yefeng

    2017-05-01

    Elevated blood homocysteine concentration increases the risk of stroke, especially among hypertensive individuals. Homocysteine is largely affected by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and folate status. Among hypertensive patients, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the association between homocysteine and stroke can be modified by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and folic acid intervention. We analyzed the data of 20 424 hypertensive adults enrolled in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. The participants, first stratified by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype, were randomly assigned to receive double-blind treatments of 10-mg enalapril and 0.8-mg folic acid or 10-mg enalapril only. The participants were followed up for a median of 4.5 years. In the control group, baseline log-transformed homocysteine was associated with an increased risk of first stroke among participants with the CC/CT genotype (hazard ratio, 3.1; 1.1-9.2), but not among participants with the TT genotype (hazard ratio, 0.7; 0.2-2.1), indicating a significant gene-homocysteine interaction ( P =0.008). In the folic acid intervention group, homocysteine showed no significant effect on stroke regardless of genotype. Consistently, folic acid intervention significantly reduced stroke risk in participants with CC/CT genotypes and high homocysteine levels (tertile 3; hazard ratio, 0.73; 0.55-0.97). In Chinese hypertensive patients, the effect of homocysteine on the first stroke was significantly modified by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genotype and folic acid supplementation. Such information may help to more precisely predict stroke risk and develop folic acid interventions tailored to individual genetic background and nutritional status. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Quality of Acute Care and Long-Term Quality of Life and Survival: The Australian Stroke Clinical Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Andrew, Nadine E; Lannin, Natasha A; Middleton, Sandy; Levi, Christopher R; Dewey, Helen M; Grabsch, Brenda; Faux, Steve; Hill, Kelvin; Grimley, Rohan; Wong, Andrew; Sabet, Arman; Butler, Ernest; Bladin, Christopher F; Bates, Timothy R; Groot, Patrick; Castley, Helen; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Anderson, Craig S

    2017-04-01

    Uncertainty exists over whether quality improvement strategies translate into better health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and survival after acute stroke. We aimed to determine the association of best practice recommended interventions and outcomes after stroke. Data are from the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry during 2010 to 2014. Multivariable regression was used to determine associations between 3 interventions: received acute stroke unit (ASU) care and in various combinations with prescribed antihypertensive medication at discharge, provision of a discharge care plan, and outcomes of survival and HRQoL (EuroQoL 5-dimensional questionnaire visual analogue scale) at 180 days, by stroke type. An assessment was also made of outcomes related to the number of processes patients received. There were 17 585 stroke admissions (median age 77 years, 47% female; 81% managed in ASUs; 80% ischemic stroke) from 42 hospitals (77% metropolitan) assessed. Cumulative benefits on outcomes related to the number of care processes received by patients. ASU care was associated with a reduced likelihood of death (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.56) and better HRQoL (coefficient, 21.34; 95% confidence interval, 15.50-27.18) within 180 days. For those discharged from hospital, receiving ASU+antihypertensive medication provided greater 180-day survival (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.52) compared with ASU care alone (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.76). HRQoL gains were greatest for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage who received care bundles involving discharge processes (range of increase, 11%-19%). Patients with stroke who receive best practice recommended hospital care have improved long-term survival and HRQoL. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Traffic-related air pollution exposure and incidence of stroke in four cohorts from Stockholm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korek, Michal J; Bellander, Tom D; Lind, Tomas; Bottai, Matteo; Eneroth, Kristina M; Caracciolo, Barbara; de Faire, Ulf H; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Pershagen, Göran; Penell, Johanna C

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the risk of stroke related to long-term ambient air pollution exposure, in particular the role of various exposure time windows, using four cohorts from Stockholm County, Sweden. In total, 22,587 individuals were recruited from 1992 to 2004 and followed until 2011. Yearly air pollution levels resulting from local road traffic emissions were assessed at participant residences using dispersion models for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Cohort-specific hazard ratios were estimated for time-weighted air pollution exposure during different time windows and the incidence of stroke, adjusted for common risk factors, and then meta-analysed. Overall, 868 subjects suffered a non-fatal or fatal stroke during 238,731 person-years of follow-up. An increment of 20 μg/m(3) in estimated annual mean of road-traffic related NOX exposure at recruitment was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI 0.83-1.61), with evidence of heterogeneity between the cohorts. For PM10, an increment of 10 μg/m(3) corresponded to a hazard ratio of 1.14 (95% CI 0.68-1.90). Time-window analyses did not reveal any clear induction-latency pattern. In conclusion, we found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to NOX and PM10 from local traffic and stroke at comparatively low levels of air pollution.

  5. Paediatric stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-02

    Apr 2, 2011 ... Ischemic Stroke Registry yielded an incidence of 3.3 cases per 100 000 children per year, of ... Neonatal stroke. The newborn period confers the highest risk period for childhood ischaemic stroke. Focal patterns of ischaemic brain injury to the perinatal brain are .... family history of young stroke/ thrombosis.

  6. Impact of heart rate on admission on mortality and morbidity in acute ischaemic stroke patients - results from VISTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, C H; Erdur, H; Grittner, U; Schneider, A; Piper, S K; Scheitz, J F; Wellwood, I; Bath, P M W; Diener, H-C; Lees, K R; Endres, M

    2016-12-01

    Elevated heart rate (HR) is associated with worse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Its predictive value in acute stroke patients is less well established. We investigated the effects of HR on admission in acute ischaemic stroke patients. Using the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA) database, the association between HR in acute stroke patients without atrial fibrillation and the pre-defined composite end-point of (recurrent) ischaemic stroke, transient ischaemic attack (TIA), myocardial infarction (MI) and vascular death within 90 days was analysed. Pre-defined secondary outcomes were the composite end-point components and any death, decompensated heart failure and degree of functional dependence according to the modified Rankin Scale after 90 days. HR was analysed as a categorical variable (quartiles). In all, 5606 patients were available for analysis (mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 13; mean age 67 years; mean HR 77 bpm; 44% female) amongst whom the composite end-point occurred in 620 patients (11.1%). Higher HR was not associated with the composite end-point. The frequencies of secondary outcomes were 3.2% recurrent stroke (n = 179), 0.6% TIA (n = 35), 1.8% MI (n = 100), 6.8% vascular death (n = 384), 15.0% any death (n = 841) and 2.2% decompensated heart failure (n = 124). Patients in the highest quartile (HR> 86 bpm) were at increased risk for any death [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.40 (1.11-1.75)], decompensated heart failure [adjusted hazard ratio 2.20 (1.11-4.37)] and worse modified Rankin Scale [adjusted odds ratio 1.29 (1.14-1.52)]. In acute stroke patients, higher HR (>86 bpm) is linked to mortality, heart failure and higher degree of dependence after 90 days but not to recurrent stroke, TIA or MI. © 2016 EAN.

  7. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Stroke Events and Fatal Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaker, Layal; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the risk of stroke associated with subclinical hypothyroidism. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: Published prospective cohort studies were identified through a systematic search through November 2013 without restrictions in several databases. Unpublished...... studies were identified through the Thyroid Studies Collaboration. We collected individual participant data on thyroid function and stroke outcome. Euthyroidism was defined as TSH levels of 0.45-4.49 mIU/L, and subclinical hypothyroidism was defined as TSH levels of 4.5-19.9 mIU/L with normal T4 levels....... DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We collected individual participant data on 47 573 adults (3451 subclinical hypothyroidism) from 17 cohorts and followed up from 1972-2014 (489 192 person-years). Age- and sex-adjusted pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for participants with subclinical hypothyroidism compared...

  8. Genetic variation in WRN and ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Werner syndrome, a premature genetic aging syndrome, shares many clinical features reminiscent of normal physiological aging, and ischemic vascular disease is a frequent cause of death. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in the WRN gene was associated with risk of ischemic...... were identified in the CCHS. In C1367R (rs1346044) TT homozygotes versus CC/CT, hazard ratios for ischemic stroke were 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.95–1.24; P = 0.22) in the CCHS, 1.16 (1.00–1.33; P = 0.04) in the CGPS, and 1.12 (1.01–1.23; P = 0.02) in studies combined (CCHS + CGPS), with similar...... trends for ischemic cerebrovascular disease (P = 0.06). In meta-analyses including 59,190 individuals in 5 studies, the hazard ratio for ischemic stroke for C1367R TT homozygotes versus CC/CT was 1.14 (1.04–1.25; P = 0.008). Conclusions This study suggests that common genetic variation in WRN...

  9. Prolonged corrected QT interval is predictive of future stroke events even in subjects without ECG-diagnosed left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Joji; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Kario, Kazuomi

    2015-03-01

    We attempted to evaluate whether subjects who exhibit prolonged corrected QT (QTc) interval (≥440 ms in men and ≥460 ms in women) on ECG, with and without ECG-diagnosed left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH; Cornell product, ≥244 mV×ms), are at increased risk of stroke. Among the 10 643 subjects, there were a total of 375 stroke events during the follow-up period (128.7±28.1 months; 114 142 person-years). The subjects with prolonged QTc interval (hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.73) had an increased risk of stroke even after adjustment for ECG-LVH (hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.40). When we stratified the subjects into those with neither a prolonged QTc interval nor ECG-LVH, those with a prolonged QTc interval but without ECG-LVH, and those with ECG-LVH, multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis demonstrated that the subjects with prolonged QTc intervals but not ECG-LVH (1.2% of all subjects; incidence, 10.7%; hazard ratio, 2.70, 95% confidence interval, 1.48-4.94) and those with ECG-LVH (incidence, 7.9%; hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-2.57) had an increased risk of stroke events, compared with those with neither a prolonged QTc interval nor ECG-LVH. In conclusion, prolonged QTc interval was associated with stroke risk even among patients without ECG-LVH in the general population. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Comparing withdrawal and not withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment among patients who died from stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvig E

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eirik Helvig,1 Lars Thomassen,2 Ulrike Waje-Andreassen,2 Halvor Naess3 1Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Jonas Liesgt, Bergen, 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, 3Centre for Age-related Medicine, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, NorwayBackground: In severe stroke, a decision to withdraw life-sustaining treatment is sometimes made in cooperation with the family. The aim of this study was to study the time from withdrawing life-sustaining treatment to death in patients with severe ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke.Methods: In total, 2,506 patients with stroke admitted to Haukeland University Hospital between 2006 and 2011 were prospectively registered in the Bergen NORSTROKE database. Risk factors, stroke severity, etiology, and blood analyses were registered. Retrospectively, the patients' records were examined to determine the number of days from withdrawing all life-sustaining treatment to death in patients who died from severe stroke during the hospital stay.Results: Life-sustaining treatment was withheld in 50 patients with severe stroke. Median time to death after withdrawing life-sustaining treatment was 4 days, and a quarter lived at least 1 week (range =1–11 days. Cox regression analyses showed that short time from withdrawing life-sustaining treatment to death was associated with high age (Hazard ratio [HR] =1.05, P=0.07, male sex (HR =2.9, P=0.01, high C-reactive protein on admission (HR =1.01, P=0.001, and hemorrhagic stroke (versus ischemic stroke, HR =1.5, P=0.03.Conclusion: One week after withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, a quarter of our patients with severe stroke remained alive. Short time to death was associated with high age, male sex, hemorrhagic stroke, and high C-reactive protein on admittance. Keywords: stroke, withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment, prognosis

  11. Association Between Markers of Inflammation and Total Stroke by Hypertensive Status Among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Kotler, Gregory; Everett, Brendan M.; Glynn, Robert J.; Lee, I-Min; Buring, Julie E.; Ridker, Paul M.; Sesso, Howard D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Markers of systemic inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [sICAM-1], and fibrinogen) have been associated with a greater risk of total and ischemic stroke, in addition to elevated blood pressure. However, the role of these inflammatory markers on stroke pathophysiology by hypertension status is uncertain. METHODS Blood samples were collected and assayed for hsCRP, sICAM-1, and fibrinogen among 27,330 initially healthy women from the Women’s Health Study, and women were followed up from 1992 to 2013. Prior to randomization, the baseline questionnaire collected self-reported hypertension status, cardiovascular risk factors, and lifestyle factors. New cases of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke were updated annually through questionnaires and confirmed by medical records according to the National Survey of Stroke criteria. Multivariable Cox models estimated overall associations between each inflammatory marker and stroke and separately stratified by hypertension status. RESULTS We observed 629 incident total strokes over 477,278 person-years. In adjusted analyses, extreme quartiles of hsCRP and sICAM-1 were each associated with a significantly greater risk of total stroke (hsCRP: hazard ratios [HR] = 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39–2.26; sICAM-1: HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.00–1.63). Fibrinogen was not associated with a significantly greater stroke risk. In analyses stratified by hypertension status, elevated hsCRP was associated with a nonstatistically significant greater risk of total stroke among prehypertensive and hypertensive women. CONCLUSIONS These data indicate that hsCRP and sICAM-1 are associated with hypertension status and stroke risk among women. Further work should examine the role of inflammatory markers on ischemic stroke subtypes and clarify mechanisms. PMID:27235695

  12. Ischemic Stroke in Children and Young Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalenakis, Zacharias; Rosengren, Annika; Lappas, Georgios; Eriksson, Peter; Hansson, Per-Olof; Dellborg, Mikael

    2016-02-23

    Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) may be at increased risk of ischemic stroke due to residual shunts, arrhythmias, and other cardiovascular abnormalities. We studied the relative risk and potential factors for developing ischemic stroke in children and young adults with CHD in Sweden. All patients in the Swedish Patient Register with a diagnosis of CHD, born between 1970 and 1993, were identified and compared with 10 controls for each patient, matched for age, sex, and county and randomly selected from the general population. Follow-up data through 2011 were collected for both groups. Of 25 985 children and young adults with CHD (51.5% male, 48.5% female), 140 (0.5%) developed ischemic stroke. The hazard ratio for CHD patients developing ischemic stroke was 10.8 (95% CI, 8.5-13.6) versus controls. All major Marelli groups had significantly increased risk, but because of small CHD-group sizes, only atrial septal defect/patent foramen ovale, double-inlet ventricle, and aortic coarctation displayed significantly increased risk. In multivariate analysis of CHD patients, congestive heart failure carried the highest risk for developing ischemic stroke (hazard ratio 6.9 [95% CI, 4.7-10.3]), followed by hypertension and atrial fibrillation, which were also significantly associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. The risk of developing ischemic stroke was almost 11 times higher in young patients with CHD than in the general population, although absolute risk is low. Cardiovascular comorbidities were strongly associated with the development of ischemic stroke in young CHD patients. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  13. Ethnic Disparities in Ischemic Stroke, Intracerebral Hemorrhage, and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Incidence in The Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyemang, Charles; van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2014-01-01

    . We studied the following stroke subtypes: ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate incidence differences between first-generation ethnic minorities and the Dutch majority population (ethnic Dutch). RESULTS: Compared...... with ethnic Dutch, Surinamese men and women had higher incidence rates of all stroke subtypes combined (adjusted hazard ratios, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-1.50 and 1.34; 1.28-1.41), ischemic stroke (1.68; 1.57-1.81 and 1.57; 1.46-1.68), intracerebral hemorrhage (2.08; 1.82-2.39 and 1.74; 1.......50-2.00), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (1.25; 0.92-1.69 and 1.26; 1.04-1.54). By contrast, Moroccan men and women had lower incidence rates of all stroke subtypes combined (0.42; 0.36-0.48 and 0.37; 0.30-0.46), ischemic stroke (0.35; 0.27-0.45 and 0.34; 0.24-0.49), intracerebral hemorrhage (0.61; 0.41-0.92 and 0.32; 0...

  14. Clinical Effectiveness of Statin Therapy After Ischemic Stroke: Primary Results From the Statin Therapeutic Area of the Patient-Centered Research Into Outcomes Stroke Patients Prefer and Effectiveness Research (PROSPER) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Emily C; Greiner, Melissa A; Xian, Ying; Fonarow, Gregg C; Olson, DaiWai M; Schwamm, Lee H; Bhatt, Deepak L; Smith, Eric E; Maisch, Lesley; Hannah, Deidre; Lindholm, Brianna; Peterson, Eric D; Pencina, Michael J; Hernandez, Adrian F

    2015-10-13

    In patients with ischemic stroke, data on the real-world effectiveness of statin therapy for clinical and patient-centered outcomes are needed to better inform shared decision making. Patient-Centered Research Into Outcomes Stroke Patients Prefer and Effectiveness Research (PROSPER) is a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute-funded research program designed with stroke survivors to evaluate the effectiveness of poststroke therapies. We linked data on patients ≥65 years of age enrolled in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Registry to Medicare claims. Two-year to postdischarge outcomes of those discharged on a statin versus not on a statin were adjusted through inverse probability weighting. Our coprimary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events and home time (days alive and out of a hospital or skilled nursing facility). Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality, all-cause readmission, cardiovascular readmission, and hemorrhagic stroke. From 2007 to 2011, 77 468 patients who were not taking statins at the time of admission were hospitalized with ischemic stroke; of these, 71% were discharged on statin therapy. After adjustment, statin therapy at discharge was associated with a lower hazard of major adverse cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.94), 28 more home-time days after discharge (PStatin therapy at discharge was not associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-1.23). Among statin-treated patients, 31% received a high-intensity dose; after risk adjustment, these patients had outcomes similar to those of recipients of moderate-intensity statin. In older ischemic stroke patients who were not taking statins at the time of admission, discharge statin therapy was associated with lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and nearly 1 month more home time during the 2-year period after hospitalization. © 2015 American Heart Association

  15. Neighborhood socioeconomic status at the age of 40 years and ischemic stroke before the age of 50 years: A nationwide cohort study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Axel C; Li, Xinjun; Holzmann, Martin J; Ärnlöv, Johan; Wändell, Per; Gasevic, Danijela; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-10-01

    Objective We aimed to study the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status at the age of 40 years and risk of ischemic stroke before the age of 50 years. Methods All individuals in Sweden were included if their 40th birthday occurred between 1998 and 2010. National registers were used to categorize neighborhood socioeconomic status into high, middle, and low and to retrieve information on incident ischemic strokes. Hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Results A total of 1,153,451 adults (women 48.9%) were followed for a mean of 5.5 years (SD 3.5 years), during which 1777 (0.30%) strokes among men and 1374 (0.24%) strokes among women were recorded. After adjustment for sex, marital status, education level, immigrant status, region of residence, and neighborhood services, there was a lower risk of stroke in residents from high-socioeconomic status neighborhoods (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.96), and an increased risk of stroke in adults from low-socioeconomic status neighborhoods (hazard ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.27), compared to their counterparts living in middle-socioeconomic status neighborhoods. After further adjustment for hospital diagnoses of hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation prior to the age of 40, the higher risk in neighborhoods with low socioeconomic status was attenuated, but remained significant (hazard ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.23). Conclusions In a nationwide study of individuals between 40 and 50 years, we found that the risk of ischemic stroke differed depending on neighborhood socioeconomic status, which calls for increased efforts to prevent cardiovascular diseases in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods.

  16. Sex Differences in the Association Between Insulin Resistance and Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Among Blacks Without Diabetes Mellitus: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effoe, Valery S; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Echouffo Tcheugui, Justin B; Chen, Haiying; Joseph, Joshua J; Kalyani, Rita R; Bell, Ronny A; Wu, Wen-Chih H; Casanova, Ramon; Bertoni, Alain G

    2017-02-02

    Studies exploring the association between insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular disease in blacks have not been conclusive, especially for coronary heart disease (CHD). The McAuley index and homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) perform differently in predicting cardiovascular disease. We investigated this association in the Jackson Heart Study, a large longitudinal cohort of blacks. IR was estimated for 3565 participants without diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease at baseline using the McAuley index and HOMA-IR, and their associations with incident CHD and stroke (composite outcome) were compared. A lower McAuley index and higher HOMA-IR are indicative of IR. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for incident CHD and/or stroke. There were 158 events (89 CHD-only, 58 stroke-only, and 11 CHD/stroke) over a median follow-up of 8.4 years. After adjustment for demographic factors, the risk of the composite outcome decreased with each SD increase in the McAuley index (hazard ratio 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67-0.96), with no attenuation after further accounting for CHD and stroke risk factors. When considered individually, McAuley index and HOMA-IR were associated with CHD (hazard ratio 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0.92 and hazard ratio 1.33, 95% CI: 1.03-1.72, respectively), but not stroke risk. The logHOMA-IR and CHD association was present in men, but not in women (P interaction =0.01). Both HOMA-IR and the McAuley index demonstrate strong associations with CHD but not stroke risk in blacks. The logHOMA-IR and CHD association was present in men, but not in women. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  17. Associations of estimated Δ-5-desaturase and Δ-6-desaturase activities with stroke risk factors and risk of stroke: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmand, Roya; Kurl, Sudhir; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Virtanen, Jyrki K

    2017-02-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The role of PUFA in reducing the risk of stroke is uncertain. The concentrations of PUFA in the human body are determined both by dietary intake and by activities of desaturase enzymes. Desaturase enzymes have been associated with chronic diseases, but little is known about their association with stroke risk. We investigated the associations of Δ-6-desaturase (D6D) and Δ-5-desaturase (D5D) activities with stroke risk factors and risk of stroke among 1842 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984-1989. ANCOVA and Cox regression models were used for the analyses. Whole serum desaturase activities were estimated as product:precursor ratios - γ-linolenic acid:linoleic acid for D6D and arachidonic acid:dihomo-γ-linolenic acid for D5D. Higher D6D activity was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI, serum insulin and TAG concentrations and worse homoeostatic model assessment (HOMA) indices. In contrast, higher D5D activity was associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI, serum insulin, LDL-cholesterol, TAG and C-reactive protein concentrations, higher HDL-cholesterol concentration, and better HOMA indices. During the mean follow-up of 21·2 years, 202 stroke cases occurred. Neither D6D activity (multivariable-adjusted extreme-quartile hazard ratios (HR) 1·18; 95 % CI 0·80, 1·74) nor D5D activity (HR 1·06; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·60) were associated with stroke risk. In conclusion, higher D5D activity was favourably associated and higher D6D activity unfavourably associated with several stroke risk factors, but not with the risk of incident stroke.

  18. Substitutions of dairy product intake and risk of stroke: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2017-06-12

    Low fat dairy products are part of dietary guidelines to prevent stroke. However, epidemiological evidence is inconclusive with regard to the association between dairy products and stroke. We therefore investigated associations for substitutions between dairy product subgroups and risk of total stroke and stroke subtypes. We included 55,211 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years without previous stroke. Baseline diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Cases were identified through a national register and subsequently verified. The associations were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression. During a median follow-up of 13.4 years, we identified 2272 strokes, of which 1870 were ischemic (318 large artery atherosclerotic, 839 lacunar, 102 cardioembolic, 98 other determined types, 513 of unknown type), 389 were hemorrhages (273 intracerebral, 116 subarachnoid) and 13 of unknown etiology. Substitution of semi-skimmed fermented milk or cheese for whole-fat fermented milk was associated with a higher rate of ischemic stroke [semi-skimmed fermented milk: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.45), cheese: HR = 1.14 (95% CI 0.98-1.31) per serving/day substituted] and substitutions of whole-fat fermented milk for low-fat milk, whole-fat milk or buttermilk were associated with a lower rate [low-fat milk: HR = 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.99), whole-fat milk: HR = 0.84 (95% CI 0.71-0.98) and buttermilk: HR = 0.83 (95% CI 0.70-0.99)]. We observed no associations for substitutions between dairy products and hemorrhagic stroke. Our results suggest that intake of whole-fat fermented milk as a substitution for semi-skimmed fermented milk, cheese, buttermilk or milk, regardless of fat content, is associated with a lower rate of ischemic stroke.

  19. Risk of Ischemic Stroke after Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Lerario

    Full Text Available We aimed to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke after intracranial hemorrhage in patients with atrial fibrillation.Using discharge data from all nonfederal acute care hospitals and emergency departments in California, Florida, and New York from 2005 to 2012, we identified patients at the time of a first-recorded encounter with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage were identified using validated diagnosis codes. Kaplan-Meier survival statistics and Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to evaluate cumulative rates of ischemic stroke and the relationship between incident intracranial hemorrhage and subsequent stroke.Among 2,084,735 patients with atrial fibrillation, 50,468 (2.4% developed intracranial hemorrhage and 89,594 (4.3% developed ischemic stroke during a mean follow-up period of 3.2 years. The 1-year cumulative rate of stroke was 8.1% (95% CI, 7.5-8.7% after intracerebral hemorrhage, 3.9% (95% CI, 3.5-4.3% after subdural hemorrhage, and 2.0% (95% CI, 2.0-2.1% in those without intracranial hemorrhage. After adjustment for the CHA2DS2-VASc score, stroke risk was elevated after both intracerebral hemorrhage (hazard ratio [HR], 2.8; 95% CI, 2.6-2.9 and subdural hemorrhage (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.5-1.7. Cumulative 1-year rates of stroke ranged from 0.9% in those with subdural hemorrhage and a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0, to 33.3% in those with intracerebral hemorrhage and a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 9.In a large, heterogeneous cohort, patients with atrial fibrillation faced a substantially heightened risk of ischemic stroke after intracranial hemorrhage. The risk was most marked in those with intracerebral hemorrhage and high CHA2DS2-VASc scores.

  20. Stroke After Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer: What Is the Risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Erin; Hanna, Timothy P.; Zaza, Khaled; Peng, Yingwei; Hall, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted to determine the risk of ischemic stroke with respect to time, associated with curative radiation therapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: On the basis of data from the Ontario Cancer Registry and regional cancer treatment centers, 14,069 patients were identified with diagnoses of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, larynx, and pharynx who were treated for cure between 1990 and 2010. Hazards of stroke and time to stroke were examined, accounting for the competing risk of death. Stroke risk factors identified through diagnostic and procedural administrative codes were adjusted for in the comparison between treatment regimens, which included surgery alone versus radiation therapy alone and surgery alone versus any exposure to radiation therapy. Results: Overall, 6% of patients experienced an ischemic stroke after treatment, with 5% experiencing a stroke after surgery, 8% after radiation therapy alone, and 6% after any exposure to radiation therapy. The cause-specific hazard ratios of ischemic stroke after radiation therapy alone and after any exposure to radiation therapy compared with surgery were 1.70 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41-2.05) and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.23-1.73), respectively, after adjustment for stroke risk factors, patient factors, and disease-related factors. Conclusions: Radiation therapy was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke compared with surgery alone: for both radiation therapy alone and after all treatment modalities that included any radiation treatment were combined. Because of a shift toward a younger HNSCC patient population, our results speak to the need for adequate follow-up and survivorship care among patients who have been treated with radiation therapy. Advances in treatment that minimize chronic morbidity also require further evaluation.

  1. Stroke After Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer: What Is the Risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Erin [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Hanna, Timothy P. [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Oncology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Zaza, Khaled [Department of Oncology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Peng, Yingwei [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Hall, Stephen F., E-mail: sfh@queensu.ca [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Otolaryngology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted to determine the risk of ischemic stroke with respect to time, associated with curative radiation therapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: On the basis of data from the Ontario Cancer Registry and regional cancer treatment centers, 14,069 patients were identified with diagnoses of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, larynx, and pharynx who were treated for cure between 1990 and 2010. Hazards of stroke and time to stroke were examined, accounting for the competing risk of death. Stroke risk factors identified through diagnostic and procedural administrative codes were adjusted for in the comparison between treatment regimens, which included surgery alone versus radiation therapy alone and surgery alone versus any exposure to radiation therapy. Results: Overall, 6% of patients experienced an ischemic stroke after treatment, with 5% experiencing a stroke after surgery, 8% after radiation therapy alone, and 6% after any exposure to radiation therapy. The cause-specific hazard ratios of ischemic stroke after radiation therapy alone and after any exposure to radiation therapy compared with surgery were 1.70 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41-2.05) and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.23-1.73), respectively, after adjustment for stroke risk factors, patient factors, and disease-related factors. Conclusions: Radiation therapy was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke compared with surgery alone: for both radiation therapy alone and after all treatment modalities that included any radiation treatment were combined. Because of a shift toward a younger HNSCC patient population, our results speak to the need for adequate follow-up and survivorship care among patients who have been treated with radiation therapy. Advances in treatment that minimize chronic morbidity also require further evaluation.

  2. Performance Improvement of a Portable Electric Generator Using an Optimized Bio-Fuel Ratio in a Single Cylinder Two-Stroke Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Hiroaki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an electrical generator using bio-fuel and gasoline blends of different composition as fuel in a single cylinder engine is presented. The effect of an optimized blend ratio of bio-fuel with gasoline on engine performance improvement and thereby on the electrical generator output is studied. Bio-fuels such as ethanol, butanol and methanol are blended with gasoline in different proportions and evaluated for performance. The effects of different bio-fuel/gasoline blending ratios are compared experimentally with that of the gasoline alone using the output power developed by the electric generator as the evaluation parameter. With a composition of 10% ethanol–gasoline, the engine performance is increased up to 6% and with a blending ratio of 20% butanol–gasoline the performance is increased up to 8% compared to the use of 100% gasoline. The investigations are performed on a portable generator used in palm tree harvesting applications.

  3. Impact of proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate on risk of ischaemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke: a result from the Kailuan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Wang, A; Cai, J; Gao, X; Zhou, Y; Luo, Y; Wu, S; Zhao, X

    2015-02-01

    Persons with chronic kidney disease, defined by a reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria, have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease including stroke. However, data from developing countries are limited. Our aim was to assess the relationship between chronic kidney disease and risk of stroke and its subtypes in a community-based population in China. The study was based on 92,013 participants (18-98 years old; 73,248 men and 18,765 women) of the Kailuan study who at baseline were free from stroke and myocardial infarction and had undergone tests for serum creatinine or proteinuria. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula and proteinuria by the urine dipstick result in laboratory databases. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of stroke. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for relevant confounders and results are presented as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a follow-up of 4 years, 1575 stroke events (1128 ischaemic, 406 intracerebral hemorrhagic and 41 subarachnoid hemorrhagic strokes) occurred. After adjustment for variable confounders, patients with proteinuria were found to have increased HRs for the total and subtypes of stroke events (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.35-1.92 for total stroke; HR 1.53; 95% CI 1.24-1.89 for ischaemic stroke; and HR 1.90; 95% CI 1.35-2.67 for hemorrhagic stroke). However, estimated glomerular filtration rate was not associated with incident stroke after adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors. Proteinuria increased the risk of stroke in a general Chinese population. © 2014 EAN.

  4. Increased risk of developing stroke for patients with major affective disorder--a registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Flemming M; Kessing, Lars V

    2004-01-01

    Only a few studies have evaluated depressive disorder as a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. In a hospital discharge register with nation-wide coverage of all hospitals in Denmark we used linkage between the somatic and psychiatric registries to study comorbidity between affective disorders...... and cerebrovascular diseases in hospitalised patients. The main finding of this study was that patients with depression severe enough to be hospitalised, seem to be at an increased risk of developing cerebrovascular disease. The hazard ratio of getting a diagnosis of stroke after initially having been discharged...... and especially the risk of stroke should be considered....

  5. Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Su, Yu-Chieh; Ho, Hsu-Chueh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chou, Pesus; Huang, Yung-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation/chemoradiotherapy-induced carotid stenosis and cerebrovascular events in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can cause severe disability and even death. This study aimed to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in this patient population over more than 10 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: The study cohorts consisted of all patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of NPC (n = 1094), whereas patients hospitalized for an appendectomy during 1997 and 1998 (n = 4376) acted as the control group and surrogate for the general population. Cox proportional hazard model was performed as a means of comparing the stroke-free survival rate between the two cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. Results: Of the 292 patients with ischemic strokes, 62 (5.7%) were from the NPC cohort and 230 (5.3%) were from the control group. NPC patients ages 35–54 had a 1.66 times (95% CI, 1.16–2.86; p = 0.009) higher risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, geographic region, urbanization level of residence, and socioeconomic status. There was no statistical difference in ischemic stroke risk between the NPC patients and appendectomy patients ages 55–64 years (hazard ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56–1.33; p = 0.524) after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions: Young NPC patients carry a higher risk for ischemic stroke than the general population. Besides regular examinations of carotid duplex, different irradiation strategies or using new technique of radiotherapy, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy, should be considered in young NPC patients.

  6. Antiplatelet Regimen for Patients With Breakthrough Strokes While on Aspirin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng; Saver, Jeffrey L; Hong, Keun-Sik; Rao, Neal M; Wu, Yi-Ling; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2017-09-01

    Optimal antiplatelet therapy after an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack while on aspirin is uncertain. We, therefore, conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed (1966 to August 2016) and bibliographies of relevant published original studies to identify randomized trials and cohort studies reporting patients who were on aspirin at the time of an index ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and reported hazard ratio for major adverse cardiovascular events or recurrent stroke associated with a switch to or addition of another antiplatelet agent versus maintaining aspirin monotherapy. Estimates were combined using a random effects model. Five studies with 8723 patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were identified. Clopidogrel was used in 4 cohorts, and ticagrelor was used in 1 cohort. Pooling results showed that addition of or a switch to another antiplatelet agent, versus aspirin monotherapy, was associated with reduced risks of major adverse cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.85) and recurrent stroke (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.92). Each of the strategies of addition of and switching another antiplatelet agent showed benefit versus continued aspirin monotherapy, and studies with regimen initiation in the first days after index event showed more homogenous evidence of benefit. Among patients who experience an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack while on aspirin monotherapy, the addition of or a switch to another antiplatelet agent, especially in the first days after index event, is associated with fewer future vascular events, including stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Effects of Transferring to the Rehabilitation Ward on Long-Term Mortality Rate of First-Time Stroke Survivors: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Min; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2017-12-01

    To assess the long-term health outcomes of acute stroke survivors transferred to the rehabilitation ward. Long-term mortality rates of first-time stroke survivors during hospitalization were compared among the following sets of patients: patients transferred to the rehabilitation ward, patients receiving rehabilitation without being transferred to the rehabilitation ward, and patients receiving no rehabilitation. Retrospective cohort study. Patients (N = 11,419) with stroke from 2005 to 2008 were initially assessed for eligibility. After propensity score matching, 390 first-time stroke survivors were included. None. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess differences in 5-year poststroke mortality rates. Based on adjusted hazard ratios (HRs), the patients receiving rehabilitation without being transferred to the rehabilitation ward (adjusted HR, 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-3.57) and patients receiving no rehabilitation (adjusted HR, 4.00; 95% CI, 2.55-6.27) had significantly higher mortality risk than the patients transferred to the rehabilitation ward. Mortality rate of the stroke survivors was affected by age ≥65 years (compared with age stroke (adjusted HR, 1.55), stroke severity (Stroke Severity Index [SSI] score≥20, compared with SSI scorestroke survivors transferred to the rehabilitation ward had a 5-year mortality rate 2.2 times lower than those who received rehabilitation without transfer to the rehabilitation ward and 4 times lower than those who received no rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cerebral Microbleeds and the Risk of Incident Ischemic Stroke in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puy, Laurent; De Guio, François; Godin, Ophélia; Duering, Marco; Dichgans, Martin; Chabriat, Hugues; Jouvent, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral microbleeds are associated with an increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Recent data suggest that microbleeds may also predict the risk of incident ischemic stroke. However, these results were observed in elderly individuals undertaking various medications and for whom causes of microbleeds and ischemic stroke may differ. We aimed to test the relationship between the presence of microbleeds and incident stroke in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy)-a severe monogenic small vessel disease known to be responsible for both highly prevalent microbleeds and a high incidence of ischemic stroke in young patients. We assessed microbleeds on baseline MRI in all 378 patients from the Paris-Munich cohort study. Incident ischemic strokes were recorded during 54 months. Survival analyses were used to test the relationship between microbleeds and incident ischemic stroke. Three hundred sixty-nine patients (mean age, 51.4±11.4 years) were followed-up during a median time of 39 months (interquartile range, 19 months). The risk of incident ischemic stroke was higher in patients with microbleeds than in patients without (35.8% versus 19.6%, hazard ratio, 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-3.01; P =0.009). These results persisted after adjustment for history of ischemic stroke, age, sex, vascular risk factors, and antiplatelet agents use (hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.26; P =0.02). The presence of microbleeds is an independent risk marker of incident ischemic stroke in CADASIL, emphasizing the need to carefully interpret MRI data. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Stroke Incidence Among Migrant Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyemang, Charles; van Oeffelen, AA; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose—Low socioeconomic status has been linked to high incidence of stroke in industrialized countries; therefore, reducing socioeconomic disparities is an important goal of health policy. The evidence on migrant groups is, however, limited and inconsistent. We assessed socioecon......Background and Purpose—Low socioeconomic status has been linked to high incidence of stroke in industrialized countries; therefore, reducing socioeconomic disparities is an important goal of health policy. The evidence on migrant groups is, however, limited and inconsistent. We assessed...... socioeconomic inequalities in relation to stroke incidence among major ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods—A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted (n=2 397 446) between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2010, among ethnic Dutch and ethnic minority groups. Standardized disposable household...... income was used as a measure of socioeconomic position. Results—Among ethnic Dutch, the incidence of stroke was higher in the low-income group than in the high-income group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.16–1.20). Similar socioeconomic inequalities in stroke incidence were found...

  10. Stress Hyperglycemia and Prognosis of Minor Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack: The CHANCE Study (Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients With Acute Nondisabling Cerebrovascular Events).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuesong; Cai, Xueli; Jing, Jing; Meng, Xia; Li, Hao; Wang, Yongjun; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Wang, David; Johnston, S Claiborne; Wei, Tiemin; Wang, Yilong

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to determine the association between stress hyperglycemia and risk of new stroke in patients with a minor ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. A subgroup of 3026 consecutive patients from 73 prespecified sites of the CHANCE trial (Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients With Acute Nondisabling Cerebrovascular Events) were analyzed. Stress hyperglycemia was measured by glucose/glycated albumin (GA) ratio. Glucose/GA ratio was calculated by fasting plasma glucose divided by GA and categorized into 4 even groups according to the quartiles. The primary outcome was a new stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) at 90 days. We assessed the association between glucose/GA ratio and risk of stroke by multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for potential covariates. Among 3026 patients included, a total of 299 (9.9%) new stroke occurred at 3 months. Compared with patients with the lowest quartile, patients with the highest quartile of glucose/GA ratio was associated with an increased risk of stroke at 3 months after adjusted for potential covariates (12.0% versus 9.2%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.01). Similar results were observed after further adjusted for fasting plasma glucose. We also observed that higher level of glucose/GA ratio was associated with an increased risk of stroke with a threshold of 0.29 using a Cox regression model with restricted cubic spline. Stress hyperglycemia, measured by glucose/GA ratio, was associated with an increased risk of stroke in patients with a minor ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00979589. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Patent Foramen Ovale Closure or Antiplatelet Therapy for Cryptogenic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Lars; Kasner, Scott E; Rhodes, John F; Andersen, Grethe; Iversen, Helle K; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens E; Settergren, Magnus; Sjöstrand, Christina; Roine, Risto O; Hildick-Smith, David; Spence, J David; Thomassen, Lars

    2017-09-14

    The efficacy of closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the prevention of recurrent stroke after cryptogenic stroke is uncertain. We investigated the effect of PFO closure combined with antiplatelet therapy versus antiplatelet therapy alone on the risks of recurrent stroke and new brain infarctions. In this multinational trial involving patients with a PFO who had had a cryptogenic stroke, we randomly assigned patients, in a 2:1 ratio, to undergo PFO closure plus antiplatelet therapy (PFO closure group) or to receive antiplatelet therapy alone (antiplatelet-only group). Imaging of the brain was performed at the baseline screening and at 24 months. The coprimary end points were freedom from clinical evidence of ischemic stroke (reported here as the percentage of patients who had a recurrence of stroke) through at least 24 months after randomization and the 24-month incidence of new brain infarction, which was a composite of clinical ischemic stroke or silent brain infarction detected on imaging. We enrolled 664 patients (mean age, 45.2 years), of whom 81% had moderate or large interatrial shunts. During a median follow-up of 3.2 years, clinical ischemic stroke occurred in 6 of 441 patients (1.4%) in the PFO closure group and in 12 of 223 patients (5.4%) in the antiplatelet-only group (hazard ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09 to 0.62; P=0.002). The incidence of new brain infarctions was significantly lower in the PFO closure group than in the antiplatelet-only group (22 patients [5.7%] vs. 20 patients [11.3%]; relative risk, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.91; P=0.04), but the incidence of silent brain infarction did not differ significantly between the study groups (P=0.97). Serious adverse events occurred in 23.1% of the patients in the PFO closure group and in 27.8% of the patients in the antiplatelet-only group (P=0.22). Serious device-related adverse events occurred in 6 patients (1.4%) in the PFO closure group, and atrial fibrillation occurred in 29

  12. Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Giving Fundraise Planned Giving Corporate Giving Cause Marketing Join your team, your way! The Stroke Challenge ... Your Technology Guide High Blood Pressure and Stroke Importance of Physical Activity See More Multimedia Las minorías ...

  13. Stroke - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100218.htm Stroke - series—Part 1 To use the sharing features ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Ischemic Stroke A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  14. Serum Potassium Is Positively Associated With Stroke and Mortality in the Large, Population-Based Malmö Preventive Project Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Linda S; Mattsson, Nick; Sajadieh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    analyses. There were 2061 incident stroke events and 8709 deaths. Cox regression analyses adjusted for multiple stroke risk factors (age, sex, height, weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, serum sodium, current smoking, prevalent diabetes mellitus, prevalent coronary artery disease......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Low serum potassium is associated with stroke in populations with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus but has not been studied in a mainly healthy population. We aimed to study the relation between serum potassium and incident stroke and mortality......, and treatment for hypertension) were fitted. RESULTS: There was an independent, linear association between serum potassium, per mmol/L increase, and both stroke (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.52; P

  15. Treatment with intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke is associated with reduced bed day use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Thorkild; Schmitz, Marie Louise; Simonsen, Claus Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) on neurological outcome in acute ischemic stroke. It is uncertain whether the improved neurological outcome also translates into less morbidity and lower need for hospi......Introduction: Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) on neurological outcome in acute ischemic stroke. It is uncertain whether the improved neurological outcome also translates into less morbidity and lower need...... for hospital admissions during follow-up. Methods: We conducted a register-based nationwide propensity score-matched follow-up study among ischemic stroke patients in Denmark (2004-2011). IV-tPA-treated patients were propensity-score matched with IV-tPA eligible but non-treated ischemic stroke patients from...... stroke centers not offering tPA. The adjusted Hazard ratio (HR) for first readmission was estimated by multivariable Cox regression among patients who survived the initial stroke admission. Total all-cause bed day use in the first year after stroke admission was determined for patients with a potential...

  16. Relationship between C-reactive protein and stroke: a large prospective community based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Liu

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that C-reactive protein (CRP was associated with risk of stroke. There were few studies in Asian population, or on stroke subtypes other than ischemic stroke. We thus investigated the relationship between CRP and the risks of all stroke and its subtypes in a Chinese adult population.In the current study, we included 90,517 Chinese adults free of stroke and myocardial infarction at baseline (June 2006 to October 2007 in analyses. Strokes were classified as ischemic stroke (IS, intracranial heamorrhage (ICH and subarachnoid heamorrhage (SAH. High-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP were categorized into three groups: 3 mg/L. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the association between hs-CRP concentrations and all stroke, as well as its subtypes.During a median follow-up time of 49 months, we documented 1,472 incident stroke cases. Of which 1,049 (71.3% were IS, 383 (26.0% were ICH, and 40 (2.7% were SAH. After multivariate adjustment, hs-CRP concentrations ≥1 mg/L were associated with increased risks of all stroke (hs-CRP 1-3 mg/L: hazard ratio (HR 1.17, 95% confidential interval (CI 1.03-1.33; hs-CRP>3 mg/L: HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.46 and IS (hs-CRP 1-3 mg/L: HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.36; hs-CRP>3 mg/L: HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.60, but not with ICH and SAH. Subgroup analyses showed that higher hs-CRP concentration was more prone to be a risk factor for all stroke and IS in non-fatal stroke, male and hypertensive participants.We found that higher hs-CRP concentrations were associated with a higher risk of IS, particularly for non-fatal stroke, male and hypertensive subjects. In contrast, we did not observe significant associations between hs-CRP and ICH/SAH.

  17. Microbleeds, Mortality, and Stroke in Alzheimer Disease: The MISTRAL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedictus, Marije R; Prins, Niels D; Goos, Jeroen D C; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; van der Flier, Wiesje M

    2015-05-01

    Microbleeds are more prevalent in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) compared with the general elderly population. In addition, microbleeds have been found to predict mortality in AD. To investigate whether microbleeds in AD increase the risk for mortality, stroke (including intracerebral hemorrhage), and cardiovascular events. The MISTRAL (do MIcrobleeds predict STRoke in ALzheimer's disease) Study is a longitudinal cohort study within the memory clinic-based Amsterdam Dementia Cohort. We selected all patients with AD with a baseline visit between January 2, 2002, and December 16, 2009, and microbleeds (n = 111) and matched those (1:2) for age, sex, and magnetic resonance imaging scanner to 222 patients with AD without microbleeds. After a minimal follow-up of 3 years, information on all-cause mortality, stroke-related mortality, and cardiovascular mortality was obtained between November 1, 2012, and May 1, 2014. In addition, we obtained information on the occurrence of incident stroke or transient ischemic attack, cardiovascular events, and nursing home admittance. Stroke-related mortality, incident stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients had a mean (SD) age of 71.2 (7.8) years and 127 (42%) were female. Compared with having no microbleeds, microbleeds in lobar locations were associated with an increased risk for stroke-related mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 33.9; 95% CI, 2.5-461.7), whereas nonlobar microbleeds were associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality (HR, 12.0; 95% CI, 3.2-44.7). In addition, lobar microbleeds were associated with an increased risk for incident stroke (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.5-10.1) and nonlobar microbleeds with an increased risk for cardiovascular events (HR, 6.2; 95% CI, 1.5-25.0). Even higher risks for incident stroke and cardiovascular events were found in patients using antithrombotic medication. All 5 patients with an intracerebral hemorrhage had lobar microbleeds at baseline; 4 of them used antithrombotics

  18. Migraine and risk of stroke: a national population-based twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Maria; Sieurin, Johanna; Sjölander, Arvid; Waldenlind, Elisabet; Sjöstrand, Christina; Wirdefeldt, Karin

    2017-10-01

    Numerous studies have indicated an increased risk for stroke in patients with migraine, especially migraine with aura; however, many studies used self-reported migraine and only a few controlled for familial factors. We aimed to investigate migraine as a risk factor for stroke in a Swedish population-based twin cohort, and whether familial factors contribute to an increased risk. The study population included twins without prior cerebrovascular disease who answered a headache questionnaire during 1998 and 2002 for twins born 1935-58 and during 2005-06 for twins born between 1959 and 1985. Migraine with and without aura and probable migraine was defined by an algorithm mapping on to clinical diagnostic criteria according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Stroke diagnoses were obtained from the national patient and cause of death registers. Twins were followed longitudinally, by linkage of national registers, from date of interview until date of first stroke, death, or end of study on 31 Dec 2014. In total, 8635 twins had any migraineous headache, whereof 3553 had migraine with aura and 5082 had non-aura migraineous headache (including migraine without aura and probable migraine), and 44 769 twins had no migraine. During a mean follow-up time of 11.9 years we observed 1297 incident cases of stroke. The Cox proportional hazards model with attained age as underlying time scale was used to estimate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for stroke including ischaemic and haemorrhagic subtypes related to migraine with aura, non-aura migraineous headache, and any migraineous headache. Analyses were adjusted for gender and cardiovascular risk factors. Where appropriate; within-pair analyses were performed to control for confounding by familial factors. The age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratio for stroke related to migraine with aura was 1.27 (95% confidence interval 1.00-1.62), P = 0.05, and 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.91-1.26), P = 0

  19. Severe cerebral white matter lesions in ischemic stroke patients are associated with less time spent at home and early institutionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibolt, Gerli; Curtze, Sami; Melkas, Susanna; Pohjasvaara, Tarja; Kaste, Markku; Karhunen, Pekka J; Oksala, Niku K J; Erkinjuntti, Timo

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions are one imaging surrogate for cerebral small vessel disease. These white matter lesions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in both the general population and ischemic stroke patients. To investigate whether severe white matter lesions in a cohort of ischemic stroke patients are associated with fewer days spent at home and earlier permanent institutionalization. We included 391 consecutive patients aged 55-85 years with ischemic stroke admitted to the Helsinki University Central Hospital (the Stroke Aging Memory cohort) with a 21-year follow-up. Hospitalization and nursing home admissions were reviewed from national registers.white matter lesions were rated using magnetic resonance imaging performed three-months poststroke, dichotomized as none-to-moderate and severe. Kaplan-Meier plots log-rank and binary logistic regression (odds ratio) and Cox multivariable proportional hazards model were used to study the association of white matter lesions with days spent at home and the time of permanent institutionalization. Hazards and odds ratio with their 95% confidence intervals are reported. Severe white matter lesions were associated with fewer days spent at home, and more frequent, and earlier permanent institutionalization (1487 vs. 2354 days; log-rank P institutionalization within five-years (odds ratio 2·29; confidence interval 1·23-4·29), and increased hazards ratio of permanent institutionalization during 21 years of follow-up (1·64; confidence interval 1·119-2·26). After ischemic stroke, patients with severe white matter lesions spend fewer days at home and become permanently institutionalized earlier, especially within the first five-years. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  20. Propensity Score-Based Analysis of Percutaneous Closure Versus Medical Therapy in Patients With Cryptogenic Stroke and Patent Foramen Ovale: The IPSYS Registry (Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzini, Alessandro; Grassi, Mario; Lodigiani, Corrado; Patella, Rosalba; Gandolfo, Carlo; Zini, Andrea; DeLodovici, Maria Luisa; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Del Sette, Massimo; Toriello, Antonella; Musolino, Rossella; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Bovi, Paolo; Adami, Alessandro; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Sessa, Maria; Cavallini, Anna; Marcheselli, Simona; Marco Bonifati, Domenico; Checcarelli, Nicoletta; Tancredi, Lucia; Chiti, Alberto; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Tomelleri, Giampaolo; Spalloni, Alessandra; Giorli, Elisa; Costa, Paolo; Giacalone, Giacomo; Ferrazzi, Paola; Poli, Loris; Morotti, Andrea; Piras, Valeria; Rasura, Maurizia; Simone, Anna Maria; Gamba, Massimo; Cerrato, Paolo; Zedde, Maria Luisa; Micieli, Giuseppe; Melis, Maurizio; Massucco, Davide; Guido, Davide; De Giuli, Valeria; Bonaiti, Silvia; D'Amore, Cataldo; La Starza, Sara; Iacoviello, Licia; Padovani, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    We sought to compare the benefit of percutaneous closure to that of medical therapy alone for the secondary prevention of embolism in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) and otherwise unexplained ischemic stroke, in a propensity scored study. Between 2000 and 2012, we selected consecutive first-ever ischemic stroke patients aged 18 to 45 years with PFO and no other cause of brain ischemia, as part of the IPSYS registry (Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults), who underwent either percutaneous PFO closure or medical therapy for comparative analysis. Primary end point was a composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, or peripheral embolism. Secondary end point was brain ischemia. Five hundred and twenty-one patients qualified for the analysis. The primary end point occurred in 15 patients treated with percutaneous PFO closure (7.3%) versus 33 patients medically treated (10.5%; hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-1.32; P=0.285). The rates of the secondary end point brain ischemia were also similar in the 2 treatment groups (6.3% in the PFO closure group versus 10.2% in the medically treated group; hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.21; P=0.168). Closure provided a benefit in patients aged 18 to 36 years (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.81; P=0.026) and in those with a substantial right-to-left shunt size (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.68; P=0.011). PFO closure seems as effective as medical therapy for secondary prevention of cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Whether device treatment might be more effective in selected cases, such as in patients younger than 37 years and in those with a substantial right-to-left shunt size, deserves further investigation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Anxiety disorders and risk of stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Piñar, M; Ayerbe, L; González, E; Mathur, R; Foguet-Boreu, Q; Ayis, S

    2017-03-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health problem worldwide. However, the evidence on the association between anxiety disorders and risk of stroke is limited. This systematic review and meta-analysis presents a critical appraisal and summary of the available evidence on the association between anxiety disorders and risk of stroke. Cohort studies reporting risk of stroke among patients with anxiety disorders were searched in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, and the Web of Science, from database inception to June 2016. The quality of the studies was assessed using standard criteria. A meta-analysis was undertaken to obtain pooled estimates of the risk of stroke among patients with anxiety disorders. Eight studies, including 950,759 patients, from the 11,764 references initially identified, were included in this review. A significantly increased risk of stroke for patients with anxiety disorders was observed, with an overall hazard ratio: 1.24 (1.09-1.41), P=0.001. No significant heterogeneity between studies was detected and the funnel plot suggested that publication bias was unlikely. Limited evidence suggests that the risk of stroke is increased shortly after the diagnosis of anxiety and that risk of stroke may be higher for patients with severe anxiety. Anxiety disorders are a very prevalent modifiable condition associated with risk of stroke increased by 24%. This evidence could inform the development of interventions for the management of anxiety and the prevention of stroke. Further studies on the risk of stroke in patients with anxiety, and the explanatory factors for this association, are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk of Stroke in Patients With Short-Run Atrial Tachyarrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinya; Lin, Chin-Yu; Chang, Shih-Lin; Chao, Tze-Fan; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Lo, Li-Wei; Chung, Fa-Po; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Liao, Jo-Nan; Te, Abigail Louise D; Chang, Yao-Ting; Chang, Ting-Yung; Wu, Cheng-I; Higa, Satoshi; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2017-12-01

    The risk of stroke in patients with short-run atrial tachyarrhythmia (AT) remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between short-run AT and the stroke and the use of the CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score for the risk stratification. From the registry of 24-hour Holter monitoring, 5342 subjects without known atrial fibrillation or stroke were enrolled. Short-run AT was defined as episodes of supraventricular ectopic beats stroke. Patients with short-run AT had significantly higher stroke rates compared with patients without short-run AT (11.4% versus 8.3%; P strokes per 100 person-years for patients with CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score of 0 and 1 were 0.23 and 0.67, respectively. However, the number of them for patients with CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score of 2, 3, 4, and ≥5 were 1.62, 1.89, 1.30, and 2.91, respectively. In patients with CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score of 0 or 1, age (>61 years old) and burden of premature atrial contractions (>25 beats/d) independently predicted the risk of stroke. In subgroup analyses, short-run AT patients were divided into 3 groups based on their CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc scores: low score (score of 0 [men] or 1 [women]; n=324), intermediate score (score of 1 [men] or 2 [women]; n=275), and high score (score of ≥2 [men] or ≥3 [women]; n=996). When compared with low score, intermediate and high scores were independent predictors for stroke (hazard ratio, 6.165; P stroke. Therefore, the CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score could be used for the risk stratification. Age and burden of premature atrial contractions were independent predictors for stroke in patients with CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score of 0 or 1. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. [Risk factors of stroke among Congolese black hypertensive diabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Ngimbi, R Mombo; Ngoma, D Vangu; Fuele, S Mbungu; Buassa-bu-Tsumbu, B

    2008-02-01

    The relationship between diabetes mellitus and risk of stroke is well established. This risk is more elevated for hypertensive diabetics men. To determine the incidence and the risk factors of stroke among hypertensive diabetics. This prospective study has considered baseline demographic, behavioural and biological parameters collected in 2002 among black Congolese hypertensive diabetics from Kinshasa till the onset of stroke or not in 2006. Out of 492 followed-up patients (279 women, 213 men, 57+/-10 years), 41.9% were old of age > or = 60 years, and 16.5% experienced acute stroke. In univariate analysis, a significant association between age > or = 60 years, cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol intake, diabetes duration > or = 2 years, pulse pressure > or = 60 mmHg, acute bacterian pneumonia, left ventricule hypertrophy, hypertensive retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic foot, diabetic neuropathy, congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure, lack of diabetic treatment compliance and the occurrence of acute stroke. However, multivariate analysis identified only acute bacterian pneumonia, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, chronic renal failure and pulse pressure > or = 60 mmHg as the independent risk factors of stroke onset among these black congolese hypertensive diabetics with the following and respective values of relative risk (hazard ratio): 6,2 (IC 95%: 3.2 to 11.9; P<0.0001), 2,2 (IC 95%: 1.2 to 4.1; P<0.01), 3.6 (IC 95%: 1.9 to 6.8; P<0.0001), 6.4 (IC 95%: 2.9 to 14.1; P<0.01) and 4.1 (IC 95%: 1.6 to 10.3; P<0.0001). The rate of stroke onset is high among these hypertensive diabetics. This is the consequence of independent and respective action of infection, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, chronic renal failure and arterial stiffness.

  4. The influence of high-octane fuel blends on the performance of a two-stroke SI engine with knock-limited-compression ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Bhasker, T.; Nagalingam, B.; Gopalakrishnan, K. V.

    The use of alcohol-gasoline blends enables the favorable features of alcohols to be utilized in spark ignition (SI) engines while avoiding the shortcomings of their application as straight fuels. Eucalyptus and orange oils possess high octane values and are also good potential alternative fuels for SI engines. The high octane value of these fuels can enhance the octane value of the fuel when it is blended with low-octane gasoline. In the present work, 20 percent by volume of orange oil, eucalyptus oil, methanol and ethanol were blended separately with gasoline, and the performance, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics were evaluated at two different compression ratios. The phase separation problems arising from the alcohol-gasoline blends were minimized by adding eucalyptus oil as a cosolvent. Test results indicate that the compression ratio can be raised from 7.4 to 9 without any detrimental effect, due to the higher octane rating of the fuel blends. Knock-limited maximum brake output also increases due to extension of the knock limit. The knock limit is extended by methanol-eucalyptus-ethanol-orange oil blends, in descending order.

  5. Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: A 9-Year Follow-up Nationwide Population Study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Lan eKao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a common form of vertigo and is characterized by episodic dizziness related to changes in head position relative to gravity. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo symptoms can be similar to those of central nervous system vascular diseases. The association between BPPV and ischemic stroke has not yet been investigated. The study cohort consisted of patients who were diagnosed with BPPV at least twice in the previous year as an outpatient or for whom BPPV was the primary diagnosis as an inpatient (n = 4104. An age- and gender-matched sample that excluded patients with a diagnosis of any form of vertigo was selected as the comparison cohort (n = 8397. All cases were followed up from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2008. The demographic characteristics, medical comorbidities and use of medications in both groups were investigated using chi-square tests. A stratified analysis of stroke risk factors was performed to determine the hazard ratios of BPPV. During the 9-year follow-up period, 185 of the 4104 (4.5% subjects with BPPV and 240 of the 8379 (2.9% subjects without BPPV developed ischemic strokes. The crude hazard ratio of BPPV for developing ischemic strokes was 1.708. After adjusting for stroke risk factors, the risk of developing ischemic strokes in BPPV subjects was 1.415-fold higher than the risk among those without BPPV (confidence interval: 1.162-1.732, p = 0.001. After a subgroup analysis stratified according to stroke risk factors, BPPV remained independently associated with a higher risk of developing future ischemic stroke. We conclude that BPPV is independently associated with a risk of subsequent ischemic stroke. More aggressive control of modifiable risk factors for ischemic strokes should be conducted in patients with BPPV.

  6. Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: A 9-Year Follow-Up Nationwide Population Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, Yuan-Yang; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Ma, Hsin-I; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chan, Rai-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common form of vertigo and is characterized by episodic dizziness related to changes in head position relative to gravity. BPPV symptoms can be similar to those of central nervous system vascular diseases. The association between BPPV and ischemic stroke has not yet been investigated. The study cohort consisted of patients who were diagnosed with BPPV at least twice in the previous year as an outpatient or for whom BPPV was the primary diagnosis as an inpatient (n = 4104). An age- and gender-matched sample that excluded patients with a diagnosis of any form of vertigo was selected as the comparison cohort (n = 8397). All cases were followed up from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2008. The demographic characteristics, medical comorbidities, and use of medications in both groups were investigated using chi-square tests. A stratified analysis of stroke risk factors was performed to determine the hazard ratios of BPPV. During the 9-year follow-up period, 185 of the 4104 (4.5%) subjects with BPPV and 240 of the 8379 (2.9%) subjects without BPPV developed ischemic strokes. The crude hazard ratio of BPPV for developing ischemic strokes was 1.708. After adjusting for stroke risk factors, the risk of developing ischemic strokes in BPPV subjects was 1.415-fold higher than the risk among those without BPPV (confidence interval: 1.162–1.732, p = 0.001). After a subgroup analysis stratified according to stroke risk factors, BPPV remained independently associated with a higher risk of developing future ischemic stroke. We conclude that BPPV is independently associated with a risk of subsequent ischemic stroke. More aggressive control of modifiable risk factors for ischemic strokes should be conducted in patients with BPPV. PMID:24917815

  7. Targeting Pioglitazone Hydrochloride Therapy After Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack According to Pretreatment Risk for Stroke or Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Walter N; Viscoli, Catherine M; Dearborn, Jennifer L; Kent, David M; Conwit, Robin; Fayad, Pierre; Furie, Karen L; Gorman, Mark; Guarino, Peter D; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Stuart, Amber; Young, Lawrence H

    2017-11-01

    There is growing recognition that patients may respond differently to therapy and that the average treatment effect from a clinical trial may not apply equally to all candidates for a therapy. To determine whether, among patients with an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and insulin resistance, those at higher risk for future stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) derive more benefit from the insulin-sensitizing drug pioglitazone hydrochloride compared with patients at lower risk. A secondary analysis was conducted of the Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke trial, a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone for secondary prevention. Patients were enrolled from 179 research sites in 7 countries from February 7, 2005, to January 15, 2013, and were followed up for a mean of 4.1 years through the study's end on July 28, 2015. Eligible participants had a qualifying ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack within 180 days of entry and insulin resistance without type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Pioglitazone or matching placebo. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was created using baseline features to stratify patients above or below the median risk for stroke or MI within 5 years. Within each stratum, the efficacy of pioglitazone for preventing stroke or MI was calculated. Safety outcomes were death, heart failure, weight gain, and bone fracture. Among 3876 participants (1338 women and 2538 men; mean [SD] age, 63 [11] years), the 5-year risk for stroke or MI was 6.0% in the pioglitazone group among patients at lower baseline risk compared with 7.9% in the placebo group (absolute risk difference, -1.9% [95% CI, -4.4% to 0.6%]). Among patients at higher risk, the risk was 14.7% in the pioglitazone group vs 19.6% for placebo (absolute risk difference, -4.9% [95% CI, -8.6% to 1.2%]). Hazard ratios were similar for patients below or above the median risk (0.77 vs 0.75; P = .92). Pioglitazone increased weight less among patients at

  8. Cryptogenic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saadatnia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptogenic stroke is defined as brain infarction that is not attributable to a source of definite embolism, large artery atherosclerosis, or small artery disease despite a thorough vascular, cardiac, and serologic evaluation. Despite many advances in our understanding of ischemic stroke, cryptogenic strokes remain a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The pathophysiology of cryptogenic stroke is likely various. Probable mechanisms include cardiac embolism secondary to occult paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, aortic atheromatous disease or other cardiac sources, paradoxical embolism from atrial septal abnormalities such as patent foramen ovale, hypercoagulable states, and preclinical or subclinical cerebrovascular disease.  Cryptogenic stroke is one-fourth among cerebral infarction, but most of them could be ascribed to embolic stroke. A significant proportion of cryptogenic strokes adhere to embolic infarct topography on brain imaging and improvement in our ability to detect paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with cryptogenic stroke has strengthened the idea that these strokes are embolic in nature. a significant proportion of cryptogenic strokes adhere to embolic infarct topography on brain imaging.embolic stroke of undetermined sources(ESUS was planned for unifying embolic stroke of undetermined source.  The etiologies underlying ESUS included minor-risk potential cardioembolic sources, covert paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, cancer-associated coagulopathy and embolism, arteriogenic emboli, and paroxysmal embolism. Extensive evaluation including transesophageal echocardiography and cardiac monitoring for long time could identify the etiology of these patients. Therefore cryptogenic stroke is a diagnosis of exclusion. Compared with other stroke subtypes, cryptogenic stroke tends to have a better prognosis and lower long-term risk of recurrence.

  9. Atrial fibrillation in patients with ischemic stroke: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kruchov Thygesen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Kruchov Thygesen1, Lars Frost2, Kim A Eagle3, Søren Paaske Johnsen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark; 2Silkeborg Hospital and Clinical Institute, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark; 3The Michigan Cardiovascular Research and Reporting Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USABackground: Atrial fibrillation is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, the prognostic impact of atrial fibrillation among patients with stroke is not fully clarified. We compared patient characteristics, including severity of stroke and comorbidity, quality of in-hospital care and outcomes in a cohort of first-time ischemic stroke patients with and without atrial fibrillation.Methods: Based on linkage of public medical databases, we did a population-based follow-up study among 3,849 stroke patients from the County of Aarhus, Denmark admitted in the period of 2003–2007 and prospectively registered in the Danish National Indicator Project.Results: Atrial fibrillation was associated with an adverse prognostic profile but not with an overall poorer quality of in-hospital care. Patients with atrial fibrillation had a longer total length of stay (median: 15 vs 9 days, and were at increased risk of in-hospital medical complications (adjusted relative risk = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.23–1.79 and recurrent stroke (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.93–1.82 when compared with patients without atrial fibrillation. The adjusted hazard ratios for 30 days and one year mortality were 1.55 (95% CI: 1.20–2.01 and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.30–1.85, respectively. Patients not eligible to oral anticoagulant treatment had an increased risk of recurrent stroke (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.19–3.11.Conclusion: Atrial fibrillation is associated with a poor outcome among patients with ischemic stroke particularly among patients, who are not eligible to oral anticoagulant treatment. Keywords: atrial fibrillation, stroke

  10. Effect of race on outcomes (stroke and death) in patients >65 years with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabra, Rajesh; Cram, Peter; Girotra, Saket; Vaughan Sarrazin, Mary

    2015-07-15

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with stroke and death. We sought to determine whether there are any racial differences in the outcomes of death and stroke in patients with AF. We used Medicare administrative data from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2011, to identify 517,941 patients with newly diagnosed AF. Of these, 452,986 patients (87%) were non-Hispanic white, 36,425 (7%) were black, and 28,530 (6%) were Hispanic. The association between race and outcomes of death and stroke were measured using Cox proportional hazard models. Over a median follow-up period of 20.3 months, blacks had a significantly higher hazard of death (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43 to 1.48; p HR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.57 to 1.75; p controlling for pre-existing co-morbidities, the higher hazard of death in blacks was eliminated (HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.93 to 0.96; p HR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.38 to 1.55; p HR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.14; p HR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.29; p HR 0.82; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.84; p controlling for pre-existing co-morbidities, and the relative hazard of stroke was also attenuated (HR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.18; p 65 years with newly diagnosed AF, the risks of death and stroke are higher in blacks and Hispanics compared with whites. The increased risk was eliminated or significantly reduced after adjusting for pre-existing co-morbidities. AF may be a marker for underlying co-morbidities in black and Hispanic patients who may be at a higher mortality risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Fine particulate matter exposure and incidence of stroke: A cohort study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Sun, Shengzhi; Tsang, Hilda; Wong, Chit-Ming; Lee, Ruby Siu-Yin; Schooling, C Mary; Tian, Linwei

    2017-05-02

    We aimed to assess the association of long-term residential exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) with the incidence of stroke and its major subtypes. We ascertained the first occurrence of emergency hospital admission for stroke in a Hong Kong Chinese cohort of 66,820 older people (65+ years) who enrolled during 1998-2001 (baseline) and were followed up to December 31, 2010. High-resolution (1 × 1 km) yearly mean concentrations of PM 2.5 were predicted from local monitoring data and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data using linear regression. Baseline residential PM 2.5 exposure was used as a proxy for long-term exposure. We used Cox proportional hazards to evaluate the risk of incident stroke associated with PM 2.5 exposure adjusted for potential confounders, including individual and neighborhood factors. Over a mean follow-up of 9.4 years, we ascertained 6,733 cases of incident stroke, of which 3,526 (52.4%) were ischemic and 1,175 (17.5%) were hemorrhagic. The hazard ratio for every 10 μg/m 3 higher PM 2.5 concentration was statistically significant at 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.41) for ischemic and non-statistically significant at 0.90 (95% CI 0.70-1.17) for hemorrhagic stroke in fully adjusted model 3. The estimates for ischemic stroke were higher in older participants (>70 years), less educated participants, and in men for current smokers. Long-term PM 2.5 exposure was associated with higher risk of incident ischemic stroke, but the association with incident hemorrhagic stroke was less clear. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Eosinophil Cationic Protein, Carotid Plaque, and Incidence of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Johannes; Söderholm, Martin; Borné, Yan; Nilsson, Jan; Persson, Margaretha; Östling, Gerd; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Engström, Gunnar

    2017-10-01

    ECP (eosinophil cationic protein) is a marker of eosinophil activity and degranulation, which has been linked to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We examined the relationship between ECP, carotid plaque, and incidence of stroke in a prospective population-based cohort. The subjects participated in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study between 1991 and 1994. A total of 4706 subjects with no history of stroke were included (40% men; mean age, 57.5 years). Carotid plaque was determined by B-mode ultrasound of the right carotid artery. Incidence of stroke was followed up during a mean period of 16.5 years in relation to plasma ECP levels. Subjects in the third tertile (versus first tertile) of ECP tended to have higher prevalence of carotid plaque (odds ratio: 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.003-1.39; P =0.044 after multivariate adjustments). A total of 258 subjects were diagnosed with ischemic stroke (IS) during follow-up. ECP was associated with increased incidence of IS after risk factor adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.18; for third versus first tertile; P =0.007). High ECP was associated with increased risk of IS in subjects with carotid plaque. The risk factor-adjusted hazard ratio for IS was 1.86 (95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.63) in subjects with carotid plaque and ECP in the top tertile, compared with those without plaque and ECP in the first or second tertiles. High ECP is associated with increased incidence of IS. The association between ECP and IS was also present in the subgroup with carotid plaque. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Relationship between Kidney Dysfunction and Ischemic Stroke Outcomes: Albuminuria, but Not Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, Is Associated with the Risk of Further Vascular Events and Mortality after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Dong-Geun

    2016-01-01

    Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria are known to be associated with ischemic stroke outcomes. In this study, we investigated the longitudinal relationships of the two markers with mortality, vascular events and functional outcomes in a stroke cohort. A total of 295 patients with acute ischemic stroke were prospectively recruited in a single center between May 2012 and February 2015. Renal dysfunction was defined as a decreased eGFR (albuminuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g). Good functional outcome at 6 months was defined as a modified Rankin scale score ≤ 2, and the occurrence of major vascular events (stroke, acute coronary syndrome or peripheral artery occlusion) or death was monitored. The associations between renal dysfunction and mortality, major vascular events, and 6-month functional outcome were evaluated by the Cox proportional hazards model and logistic regression analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted hazards ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve for composite adverse events (major vascular events or death) was also computed according to the presence or absence of albuminuria. Albuminuria, not eGFR, was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.028; HR 2.15; 95% CI 1.09-4.25) and major vascular events (P = 0.044; HR 2.24; 95% CI 1.02-4.94) in the multivariate Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, atrial fibrillation, previous stroke, alcohol history, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and eGFR. In addition, albuminuria was negatively associated with 6-month functional outcome in the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, atrial fibrillation, previous stroke, alcohol history and eGFR (P = 0.001; OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.20-0.65), but the association disappeared when NIHSS score was

  14. Poststroke Epilepsy Is Associated With a High Mortality After a Stroke at Young Age: Follow-Up of Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke Patients and Unelucidated Risk Factor Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntz, Renate M; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Maaijwee, Noortje A M; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; van Dijk, Ewoud J; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2015-08-01

    Poststroke epilepsy is a common complication after a young stroke. We investigated the association between poststroke epilepsy and mortality. We performed a prospective cohort study among 631 patients with a first-ever transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke, aged 18 to 50 years. Survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard analysis were used to estimate cumulative mortality and hazard ratios for patients with and without epilepsy. After mean follow-up of 12.5 years (SD 8.6), 76 (12.0%) developed poststroke epilepsy. Case fatality was 27.4% for patients with poststroke epilepsy and 2.1% for those without. Poststroke epilepsy was associated with 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-14.0) and long-term mortality (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.9). Epilepsy is a common problem after a young stroke and is associated with an increased short-term and long-term mortality. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Acupuncture Therapy and Incidence of Depression After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Huang, Hsin-Chia; Chang, Hen-Hong; Yang, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Chee-Jen; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Pei-Chun

    2017-06-01

    We investigated whether use of acupuncture within a 3-month poststroke period after hospital discharge is associated with reduced risk of depression. This cohort study included 16 046 patients aged ≥18 years with an initial hospitalization for stroke during 2000 and 2012 in the claims database of a universal health insurance program. Patients who had received acupuncture therapies within 3 months of discharge were defined as acupuncture users (n=1714). All patients were followed up for incidence of depression until the end of 2013. We assessed the association between use of acupuncture and incidence of depression using Cox proportional hazards models in all subjects and in propensity score-matched samples consisting of 1714 pairs of users and nonusers. During the follow-up period, the incidence of depression per 1000 person-years was 11.1 and 9.7 in users and nonusers, respectively. Neither multivariable-adjusted Cox models (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.29) nor the propensity score-matching model (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.42) revealed an association between use of acupuncture and incidence of depression. In patients admitted to hospital for stroke, acupuncture therapy within 3 months after discharge was not associated with subsequent incidence of depression. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Clinical Characteristics of Stroke Occurring while Bathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamasu, Joji; Nakatsukasa, Masashi; Oshima, Takeo; Tomiyasu, Kazuhiro; Mayanagi, Keita; Imai, Akira

    2017-07-01

    Stroke can occur during any human activity. Although cardiac arrests or drowning accidents while bathing have been studied extensively, there are few studies focusing on stroke occurring while bathing. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the clinical characteristics of stroke occurring while bathing and the association between stroke and drowning accidents. Clinical data prospectively acquired between January 2011 and December 2015 on 1939 patients with stroke (1224 cerebral infarctions [CIs], 505 intracerebral hemorrhages [ICHs], and 210 subarachnoid hemorrhages [SAHs]) were reviewed to identify patients who sustained a stroke while bathing. The ratio of bathing-related strokes to strokes occurring during other activities was evaluated. Moreover, the demographics of these 2 groups were compared in each stroke type. Among the 1939 patients, 78 (CI, 32; ICH, 28; and SAH, 18) sustained a stroke while bathing. The ratio of bathing to other activities in the SAH group was the highest (8.6%), followed by the ICH group (5.5%), whereas that in the CI group was the lowest (2.6%). Regardless of stroke type, only a minority of patients were found to have collapsed inside the bathtub. The higher ratio of bathing in hemorrhagic strokes may indicate that there is a small risk of hemorrhagic stroke while bathing in vulnerable subjects. This retrospective study did not establish a causal relationship between bathing and stroke nor identify risk factors, which means that future prospective studies are warranted. The finding that the great majority of bathing-related stroke patients were found to have collapsed outside the bathtub suggests that the involvement of stroke in drowning accidents in the bathtub may be small. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lower Risk of Stroke after Deformity Surgery: Long Term Benefit Demonstrated by a National Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Chung Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the long-term risk of stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity. Specifically, the study addressed the possible protective effect of surgery for spinal deformity against stroke. Methods: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD, a monopolistic national database in Taiwan, this retrospective cohort study analyzed the incidence of stroke in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD in a 11-year period. A total of 13,503 patients, between 55 and 75 years old, were identified for the diagnosis of ASD. The patients were grouped into two: the surgical group (n = 10,439 who received spinal fusion surgery, and the control group (n = 2124 who received other medical treatment. The incidence rates of all subsequent cerebrovascular accidents, including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, were calculated. Hazard ratios for stroke were calculated use a full cohort and a propensity score matched cohort. Adjustments for co-morbidities that may predispose to stroke, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia and coronary heart disease were conducted. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the risk of stroke between the two groups. Results: During the total observation period of 50,450 person-years, the incidence rate of stroke in the surgical group (15.55 per 1000 person-years was significantly lower than that of the control group (20.89 per 1000 person-years, p < 0.001. Stroke was more likely to occur in the control group than in the surgical group (crude hazard ratio 1.34, p < 0.001; adjusted HR 1.28, p < 0.001, by a propensity score matched model. Conclusions: In this national cohort of more than 13,000 ASD patients covering 10 years, stroke was approximately 25% less likely to happen in patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery than those who received medical management. Therefore, spinal fusion surgery may provide a protective effect against stroke

  18. Mortality Reduction for Fever, Hyperglycemia, and Swallowing Nurse-Initiated Stroke Intervention: QASC Trial (Quality in Acute Stroke Care) Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Sandy; Coughlan, Kelly; Mnatzaganian, George; Low Choy, Nancy; Dale, Simeon; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Levi, Chris; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Ward, Jeanette; Cadilhac, Dominique A; McElduff, Patrick; Hiller, Janet E; D'Este, Catherine

    2017-05-01

    Implementation of nurse-initiated protocols to manage fever, hyperglycemia, and swallowing dysfunction decreased death and disability 90 days poststroke in the QASC trial (Quality in Acute Stroke Care) conducted in 19 Australian acute stroke units (2005-2010). We now examine long-term all-cause mortality. Mortality was ascertained using Australia's National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression compared time to death adjusting for correlation within stroke units using the cluster sandwich (Huber-White estimator) method. Primary analyses included treatment group only unadjusted for covariates. Secondary analysis adjusted for age, sex, marital status, education, and stroke severity using multiple imputation for missing covariates. One thousand and seventy-six participants (intervention n=600; control n=476) were followed for a median of 4.1 years (minimum 0.3 to maximum 70 months), of whom 264 (24.5%) had died. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were generally well balanced by group. The QASC intervention group had improved long-term survival (>20%), but this was only statistically significant in adjusted analyses (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-1.07; P =0.13; adjusted HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-0.99; P =0.045). Older age (75-84 years; HR, 4.9; 95% CI, 2.8-8.7; P stroke severity (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.9; P disease (including stroke) was listed either as the primary or secondary cause of death in 80% (211/264) of all deaths. Our results demonstrate the potential long-term and sustained benefit of nurse-initiated multidisciplinary protocols for management of fever, hyperglycemia, and swallowing dysfunction. These protocols should be a routine part of acute stroke care. URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Unique identifier: ACTRN12608000563369. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Cholesterol Levels Are Associated with 30-day Mortality from Ischemic Stroke in Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Kuan; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Hsu, Shih-Pin; Chen, Chih-Hung; Lien, Li-Ming; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Chen, An-Chih; Lin, Huey-Juan; Chi, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Ta-Chang; Sun, Yu; Lee, Siu-Pak; Sung, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Po-Lin; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Chiang, Tsuey-Ru; Lin, Shinn-Kuang; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Ma, Henry; Wen, Chi-Pang; Sung, Fung-Chang; Hsu, Chung Y

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the impact of serum cholesterol levels on 30-day mortality after ischemic stroke in dialysis patients. From the Taiwan Stroke Registry data, we identified 46,770 ischemic stroke cases, including 1101 dialysis patients and 45,669 nondialysis patients from 2006 to 2013. Overall, the 30-day mortality was 1.46-fold greater in the dialysis group than in the nondialysis group (1.75 versus 1.20 per 1000 person-days). The mortality rates were 1.64, .62, 2.82, and 2.23 per 1000 person-days in dialysis patients with serum total cholesterol levels of cholesterol levels of 120-159 mg/dL, the corresponding adjusted hazard ratios of mortality were 4.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-17.4), 8.06 (95% CI = 2.02-32.2), and 6.89 (95% CI = 1.59-29.8) for those with cholesterol levels of cholesterol levels of ≥160 mg/dL or <120 mg/dL on admission are at an elevated hazard of 30-day mortality after ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of Osteopontin, Neopterin, and Myeloperoxidase With Stroke Risk in Patients With Prior Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Peter; Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B

    2017-01-01

    from those without outcome strokes. Time to stroke was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: There was no association between time to stroke and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, resistin, matrix metalloproteinase-9, N-terminal fragment of pro...

  1. Pre-hospital Delay as Determinant of Ischemic Stroke Outcome in an Italian Cohort of Patients Not Receiving Thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denti, Licia; Artoni, Andrea; Scoditti, Umberto; Gatti, Elisa; Bussolati, Chiara; Ceda, Gian Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Pre-hospital delay in acute stroke is critical to the administration of thrombolysis and affects patients' clinical outcome. In this study, the impact of pre-hospital delay on the outcome of ischemic stroke was investigated in an Italian cohort of patients who did not receive thrombolysis. Data from a cohort of 1847 patients, suffering from first-ever ischemic stroke and referred to an in-hospital clinical pathway were analyzed retrospectively. The relationship between pre-hospital delay and 1-month mortality was assessed with adjustment for demographics, premorbid disability, and stroke severity, which was graded according to the Scandinavian Stroke Scale, with higher scores indicating less severity. Five hundred and twelve patients (27.7%) arrived at hospital within 2 hours of symptom onset. A significant correlation was found between early arrival and a reduced risk of 1-month mortality (hazard ratio .65; 95% confidence interval .48-.89; P = .02). There was a significant interaction (P = .01) between pre-hospital delay and the neurological score on mortality in the multivariate model, and the survival advantage of early admission was significant only for patients with scores on the Scandinavian Stroke Scale less than 18 (hazard ratio .54; 95% confidence interval .34-.85; P = .008). Our study suggests that reducing pre-hospital delay can increase the probability of survival in patients with ischemic stroke, especially those who are most severely affected. Even if the patients cannot benefit from thrombolysis, survival rates can be increased provided that they are managed according to standardized care processes. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduced risk of stroke in patients with cardiac arrhythmia receiving traditional Chinese medicine: A nationwide matched retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Sun-Fa; Liao, Chien-Chang; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lane, Hsin-Long; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Chen, Ta-Liang; Chen, Tainsong; Shih, Chun-Chuan

    2016-04-01

    Patients with cardiac arrhythmia were more likely to develop stroke than general population. The therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on the risk of stroke in patients with cardiac arrhythmia was unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk of stroke in patients with cardiac arrhythmia receiving TCM. From the one million cohort of the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified cohort of cardiac arrhythmia included 2029 patients who received TCM treatment in 2000-2004. The matching methods with propensity score was used to select 2029 appropriate control cohort for comparison. Incident events of stroke were identified during the follow-up period at the end of 2010. Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of stroke associated with TCM treatment. During the follow-up period, patients with cardiac arrhythmia who underwent TCM treatment (11.4 per 1000 person-years) had a lower incidence of new-onset stroke than those without TCM treatment (17.7 per 1000 person-years), with an HR of 0.62 (95% CI=0.50-0.78). The association between TCM treatment and decreased new-onset stroke was both significant in women and men. The young patients aged 45-54 years who received TCM had the lowest risk of stroke (HR=0.48, 95% CI=0.27-0.87). Receiving TCM treatment was associated with a lower risk of stroke in patients with cardiac arrhythmia. However, this study was limited by lack of information regarding lifestyles, biochemical profiles, the dose of herbal medicine, and acupuncture points used in treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Incident Ischemic Stroke and Its Atherothrombotic and Cardioembolic Subtypes in 3 US Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Hamidreza; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Shi, Peilin; Longstreth, W T; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Siscovick, David; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Willett, Walter C; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-10-01

    The associations of individual long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with incident ischemic stroke and its main subtypes are not well established. We aimed to investigate prospectively the relationship of circulating eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with risk of total ischemic, atherothrombotic, and cardioembolic stroke. We measured circulating phospholipid fatty acids at baseline in 3 separate US cohorts: CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study), NHS (Nurses' Health Study), and HPFS (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study). Ischemic strokes were prospectively adjudicated and classified into atherothrombotic (large- and small-vessel infarctions) or cardioembolic by imaging studies and medical records. Risk according to fatty acid levels was assessed using Cox proportional hazards (CHS) or conditional logistic regression (NHS, HPFS) according to study design. Cohort findings were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. A total of 953 incident ischemic strokes were identified (408 atherothrombotic, 256 cardioembolic, and 289 undetermined subtypes) during median follow-up of 11.2 years (CHS) and 8.3 years (pooled, NHS and HPFS). After multivariable adjustment, lower risk of total ischemic stroke was seen with higher DPA (highest versus lowest quartiles; pooled hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-0.92) and DHA (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.64-1.00) but not eicosapentaenoic acid (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.77-1.19). DHA was associated with lower risk of atherothrombotic stroke (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.83) and DPA with lower risk of cardioembolic stroke (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.92). Findings in each individual cohort were consistent with pooled results. In 3 large US cohorts, higher circulating levels of DHA were inversely associated with incident atherothrombotic stroke and DPA with cardioembolic stroke. These novel findings suggest differential pathways of benefit for DHA, DPA, and eicosapentaenoic acid. © 2017

  4. The difference between acute coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke risk with regard to gender and age in Finnish and Swedish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, Marjukka; Qiao, Qing; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Söderberg, Stefan; Eliasson, Mats; Stehouwer, Coen D A

    2010-06-01

    We studied the age and gender difference between acute coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke risk and examined the extent to which such a difference may be explained by known risk factors. Data from Finnish and Swedish population-based cohorts including 9278 individuals were collaboratively analysed. Hazards ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease and stroke incidence were estimated using the Cox-proportional hazards model. The incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke was higher in all age groups in men than in women, and the gender difference was more marked for coronary heart disease than for ischaemic stroke. There was a 10-year lag in the development of coronary heart disease and stroke in women compared with men. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for the incidence of coronary heart disease in men and women were 3.87 (2.49-6.02) and 1.71 (1.07-2.74) at age 50-59 years, and 7.22 (4.59-11.36) and 3.49 (2.18-5.57) at age 60-69 years compared with women aged 40-49 years. For ischaemic stroke, they were 2.64 (1.45-4.82) and 2.17 (1.18-3.97) at age 50-59 years, and 5.19 (2.81-9.58) and 4.89 (2.67-8.97) at age 60-69 years, respectively. Acute coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke events appeared approximately 10 years earlier in men than in women, and these rates remained higher in men than in women in all age groups. The gender difference was more marked for coronary heart disease than for ischaemic stroke. This may be taken into account when developing interventions and treatment strategies.

  5. Relationship Between Dietary Vitamin D and Deaths From Stroke and Coronary Heart Disease: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerah, Haytham A; Eshak, Ehab S; Cui, Renzhe; Imano, Hironori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2018-02-01

    There is growing evidence about the importance of vitamin D for cardiovascular health. Therefore, we examined the relationship between dietary vitamin D intake and risk of mortality from stroke and coronary heart disease in Japanese population. A prospective study encompassing 58 646 healthy Japanese adults (23 099 men and 35  547 women) aged of 40 to 79 years in whom dietary vitamin D intake was determined via a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. The median follow-up period was 19.3 years (1989-2009). The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of mortality were calculated using categories of vitamin D intake. During 965 970 person-years of follow-up, 1514 stroke and 702 coronary heart disease deaths were documented. Vitamin D intake was inversely associated with risk of mortality from total stroke especially intraparenchymal hemorrhage but not from coronary heart disease; the multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest (≥440 IU/d) versus lowest (stroke and 0.66 (0.46-0.96; P for trend=0.04) for intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Dietary vitamin D intake seems to be inversely associated with mortality from stroke. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. In-treatment stroke volume predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnebakken, Mai T; Gerdts, Eva; Boman, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    substudy. Results: During follow-up, a total of 91 primary endpoints occurred. At baseline, lower left ventricular stroke volume was associated with smaller body size, female sex, lower left ventricular mass and stress-corrected midwall shortening, higher relative wall thickness and total peripheral...... with higher risk of cardiovascular events {hazard ratio 1.69 per 1 SD (6 ml/m2.04) lower stroke volume [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35–2.11], P mass and concentric geometry and in a secondary model also independent of stress-corrected midwall shortening...... resistance, more concentric left ventricular geometry and impaired diastolic relaxation (all P indexed for height2.04 was associated...

  7. Cardiovascular events after ischemic stroke in young adults: A prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Karoliina; Siegerink, Bob; Pirinen, Jani; Sinisalo, Juha; Lehto, Mika; Haapaniemi, Elena; Nave, Alexander-Heinrich; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Putaala, Jukka

    2016-05-17

    To study the long-term risk of recurrent cardiac, arterial, and venous events in young stroke patients, and whether these risks differed between etiologic subgroups. The study population comprised 970 patients aged 15-49 years from the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry (HYSR) who had an ischemic stroke in 1994-2007. We obtained follow-up data until 2012 from the Finnish Care Register and Statistics Finland. Cumulative 15-year risks were analyzed with life tables, whereas relative risks and corresponding confidence intervals (CI) were based on hazard ratios (HR) from Cox regression analyses. There were 283 (29.2%) patients with a cardiovascular event during the median follow-up of 10.1 years (range 0.1-18.0). Cumulative 15-year risk for venous events was 3.9%. Cumulative 15-year incidence rate for composite vascular events was 34.0 (95% CI 30.1-38.2) per 1,000 person-years. When adjusted for age and sex, patients with an index stroke caused by high-risk sources of cardioembolism had the highest HR for any subsequent cardiovascular events (3.7; 95% CI 2.6-5.4), whereas the large-artery atherosclerosis group had the highest HR (2.7; 95% CI 1.6-4.6) for recurrent stroke compared with patients with stroke of undetermined etiology. The risk for future cardiovascular events after ischemic stroke in young adults remains high for years after the index stroke, in particular when the index stroke is caused by high-risk sources of cardioembolism or large-artery atherosclerosis. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Risk of Stroke in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhilong; Pei, Zhimin; Yuan, Min; Li, Xueli; Chen, Shenjian; Xu, Lijun

    2015-12-01

    Observational studies, to date, have provided inconsistent findings on whether inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an increased risk of stroke. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association of IBD and its specific subtypes with risk of stroke. We searched electronic databases for studies through May 13, 2015 assessing risk of stroke in patients with IBD. Cohort and case-control studies that reported incident cases of stroke in patients with IBD and a non-IBD control population were eligible. We calculated pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 8 articles (126,493 IBD patients and 4748 cases of stroke) were included in this meta-analysis. The presence of IBD revealed a trend toward a modest increase in the risk of stroke incidence (HR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.16-1.43). After subgroup analysis, Crohn's disease showed an increased risk of stroke incidence (7 studies: HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.13-1.56), and a significant association was also identified in ulcerative colitis (6 studies: HR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31). In addition, this risk is higher in women (6 studies: HR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.24-1.79) than in men (HR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.12-1.32). In the overall analysis we found considerable heterogeneity. Our results show a positive association between IBD and the risk of stroke. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Device Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale after Stroke: Pooled Analysis of Completed Randomized Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David M.; Dahabreh, Issa J.; Ruthazer, Robin; Furlan, Anthony J.; Reisman, Mark; Carroll, John D.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Smalling, Richard W.; Jüni, Peter; Mattle, Heinrich P.; Meier, Bernhard; Thaler, David E

    2015-01-01

    Background The comparative effectiveness of percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) plus medical therapy versus medical therapy alone for cryptogenic stroke is uncertain. Objectives We performed the first pooled analysis of individual participant data from completed randomized trials comparing PFO closure versus medical therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke. Methods We analyzed data on 2 devices (STARFlex and Amplatzer PFO Occluder) evaluated in 3 trials. The primary composite outcome was stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or death; the secondary outcome was stroke. We used log-rank tests and (unadjusted and covariate-adjusted) Cox regression models to compare device closure versus medical therapy. Results Among 2,303 patients, closure was not significantly associated with the primary composite outcome. The difference became significant after covariate adjustment (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.68; p = 0.049). For the outcome of stroke, all comparisons were statistically significant, with unadjusted and adjusted HRs of 0.58 (p = 0.043) and 0.58 (p = 0.044), respectively. In analyses limited to the 2 occluder device trials, the effect of closure was not significant for the composite outcome, but was for the stroke outcome (unadjusted HR: 0.39; p = 0.013. Subgroup analyses did not identify significant heterogeneity of treatment effects. Atrial fibrillation was more common among closure patients. Conclusions Among patients with PFO and cryptogenic stroke, closure reduced recurrent stroke and had a statistically significant effect on the composite of stroke, TIA, and death in adjusted but not unadjusted analyses. PMID:26916479

  10. Effect of beta-blocker therapy on the risk of infections and death after acute stroke--a historical cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko L Maier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections are a frequent cause for prolonged hospitalization and increased mortality after stroke. Recent studies revealed a stroke-induced depression of the peripheral immune system associated with an increased susceptibility for infections. In a mice model for stroke, this immunosuppressive effect was reversible after beta-blocker administration. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of beta-blocker therapy on the risk of infections and death after stroke in humans. METHODS: 625 consecutive patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, admitted to a university hospital stroke unit, were included in this historical cohort study. The effect of beta-blocker therapy on post-stroke pneumonia, urinary tract infections and death was investigated using multivariable Poisson and Cox regression models. RESULTS: 553 (88.3% patients were admitted with ischemic stroke, the remaining 72 (11.7% had a hemorrhagic stroke. Median baseline NIHSS was 8 (IQR 5-16 points. 301 (48.2% patients received beta-blocker therapy. There was no difference in the risk of post-stroke pneumonia between patients with and without beta-blocker therapy (Rate Ratio = 1.00, 95%CI 0.77-1.30, p = 0.995. Patients with beta-blocker therapy showed a decreased risk for urinary tract infections (RR = 0.65, 95%CI 0.43-0.98, p = 0.040. 7-days mortality did not differ between groups (Hazard Ratio = 1.36, 95%CI 0.65-2.77, p = 0.425, while patients with beta-blocker therapy showed a higher 30-days mortality (HR = 1.93, 95%CI 1.20-3.10, p = 0.006. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-blocker therapy did not reduce the risk for post-stroke pneumonia, but significantly reduced the risk for urinary tract infections. Different immune mechanisms underlying both diseases might explain these findings that need to be confirmed in future studies.

  11. Ticagrelor Versus Aspirin in Acute Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Albers, Gregory W; Denison, Hans; Easton, J Donald; Evans, Scott R; Held, Peter; Hill, Michael D; Jonasson, Jenny; Kasner, Scott E; Ladenvall, Per; Minematsu, Kazuo; Molina, Carlos A; Wang, Yongjun; Wong, K S Lawrence; Johnston, S Claiborne

    2017-09-01

    Ticagrelor is an effective antiplatelet therapy among patients with atherosclerotic disease and, therefore, could be more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events among patients with embolic stroke of unknown source (ESUS), which includes patients with ipsilateral stenosis stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack to ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 90 mg twice daily for days 2-90) or aspirin (300 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg daily for days 2-90) within 24 hours of symptom onset. In all patients, investigators informed on the presence of ipsilateral stenosis ≥50%, small deep infarct stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 90 days. ESUS was identified in 4329 (32.8%) patients. There was no treatment-by-ESUS category interaction ( P =0.83). Hazard ratio in ESUS patients was 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.10; P =0.24). However, hazard ratio was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.90; P =0.02) in ESUS patients with ipsilateral stenosis <50% or aortic arch atherosclerosis (n=961) and 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.27; P =0.89) in the remaining ESUS patients (n=3368; P for heterogeneity =0.04). In this post hoc, exploratory analysis, we found no treatment-by-ESUS category interaction. ESUS subgroups have heterogeneous response to treatment (Funded by AstraZeneca). URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01994720. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Recovering after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroke rehabilitation; Cerebrovascular accident - rehabilitation; Recovery from stroke; Stroke - recovery; CVA - recovery ... LIVE AFTER A STROKE Most people will need stroke rehabilitation (rehab) to help them recover after they leave ...

  13. Increased risk of stroke and transient ischemic attack in 5-year survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; van't Veer, Mars B

    2009-01-01

    without radiotherapy). Treatment with chemotherapy was not associated with an increased risk. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were associated with the occurrence of ischemic cerebrovascular disease, whereas smoking and overweight were not. CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated...... Cox regression techniques to study treatment-related factors and other risk factors. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 17.5 years, 96 patients developed cerebrovascular disease (55 strokes, 31 TIAs, and 10 with both TIA and stroke; median age = 52 years). Most......, after prolonged follow-up. The cumulative incidence of ischemic stroke or TIA 30 years after Hodgkin lymphoma treatment was 7% (95% CI = 5% to 8%). Radiation to the neck and mediastinum was an independent risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular disease (hazard ratio = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1 to 5.6 vs...

  14. The effect of medical treatments on stroke risk in asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alice; Shipley, Martin; Markus, Hugh

    2013-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests current best medical treatment may be sufficient to prevent stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. If this is the case, then it is important to determine risk reduction provided by treatments. Using Asymptomatic Carotid Emboli Study (ACES) prospective data, the effect of current treatment and risk factors on future stroke and transient ischemic attack risk were determined. Four-hundred seventy-seven patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis were followed-up every 6 months for 2 years. Changes in risk factors and stroke prevention therapies were reviewed at each visit. Using time-dependent Cox regression, the relationship between current treatment over time was determined and presented as hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for risk of stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cardiovascular death end points. On multivariate analysis, antiplatelets (P=0.001) and lower mean blood pressure (P=0.002) were independent predictors of reduced risk of ipsilateral stroke and transient ischemic attack. Antiplatelets (Pstroke or cardiovascular death. Antiplatelet therapy and blood pressure control are the most important factors in reducing short-term stroke and cardiovascular risk in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. More prospective data are required for medical treatments in asymptomatic carotid stenosis in particular for current statin usage.

  15. Mortality, stroke, and heart failure in atrial fibrillation cohorts after ablation versus propensity-matched cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Julian We; Hunter, Tina D; Hussain, Wajid; March, Jamie L; Wong, Tom; Markides, Vias

    2017-01-01

    We sought to determine from key clinical outcomes whether catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased survival. Using routinely collected hospital data, ablation patients were matched to two control cohorts using direct and propensity score methodology. Four thousand nine hundred ninety-one ablation patients were matched 1:1 with general AF controls without ablation. Five thousand four hundred seven ablation patients were similarly matched to controls who underwent cardioversion. We examined the rates of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (stroke/TIA), heart failure hospitalization, and death. Matched populations had very similar comorbidity profiles, including nearly identical CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc risk distribution ( p =0.6948 and p =0.8152 vs general AF and cardioversion cohorts). Kaplan-Meier models showed increased survival after ablation for all outcomes compared with both control cohorts ( p vs general AF, p =0.0087 for stroke/TIA, p vs cardioversion). Cox regression models also showed improved survival after ablation for all outcomes compared with the general AF cohort (hazard ratio [HR]=0.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.3-0.6, p stroke/TIA; HR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.6, p stroke/TIA; HR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6, p stroke/TIA, and heart failure compared with a matched general AF population and a matched population who underwent cardioversion. Potential confounding of outcomes was minimized by very tight cohort matching.

  16. Association of Cytomegalovirus End-Organ Disease with Stroke in People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Feng Yen

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection might increase the risk of cardiovascular event. However, data on the link between incident stroke and co-infections of CMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are limited and inconsistent. This nationwide population-based cohort study analyzed the association of CMV end-organ disease and stroke among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA.From January 1, 1998, this study identified adult HIV individuals with and without CMV end-organ disease in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. All patients were observed for incident stroke and were followed until December 31, 2012. Time-dependent analysis was used to evaluate associations of CMV end-organ disease with stroke.Of the 22,581 PLWHA identified (439 with CMV end-organ disease and 22,142 without CMV end-organ disease, 228 (1.01% had all-cause stroke during a mean follow-up period of 4.85 years, including 169 (0.75% with ischemic stroke and 59 (0.26% with hemorrhagic stroke. After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, opportunistic infections after HIV diagnosis, and antiretroviral treatment, CMV end-organ disease was found to be an independent risk factor for incident all-cause stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 3.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70 to 5.55. When stroke type was considered, CMV end-organ disease was significantly positively associated with the risk of ischemic stroke (AHR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.49 to 6.62 but not hemorrhagic stroke (AHR, 2.52; 95% CI, 0.64 to 9.91.This study suggested that CMV end-organ disease was an independent predictor of ischemic stroke among PLWHA.

  17. Emerging Risk Factors for Recurrent Vascular Events in Patients With Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yuji; Yamashiro, Kazuo; Tanaka, Ryota; Kuroki, Takuma; Hira, Kenichiro; Kurita, Naohide; Urabe, Takao; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2016-11-01

    Underlying embolic causes diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography could be implicated in mechanisms of embolic stroke of undetermined source. We aimed to explore factors, including underlying embolic causes, related to recurrent vascular events in embolic stroke of undetermined source. Patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for embolic stroke of undetermined source and whose potential embolic sources were examined by transesophageal echocardiography were included. Recurrent vascular events, including ischemic stroke, cardiovascular and peripheral artery diseases, and vascular death, were retrospectively analyzed. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to explore factors, including clinical characteristics, embolic causes on transesophageal echocardiography, and the Calcification in the Aortic Arch, Age, Multiple Infarction score (CAM), based on the degree of aortic arch calcification on chest radiograph (0-3 points), age (≥70 years; 1 point), and multiple infarctions on magnetic resonance imaging (multiple infarcts in 1, 2, or ≥3 territories of large intracranial arteries, 1, 2, or 3 points) associated with recurrent vascular events. A total of 177 patients (age, 64.1±14.2 years; 127 men) were enrolled. Thirty-one patients had recurrent vascular events (follow-up, 3.5±2.7 years; annualized rate, 5.0% per person-year). Among embolic causes on transesophageal echocardiography, incidence of recurrent vascular events was high in patients with large aortic arch plaques (7.5% per person-year). Diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 2.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-5.32; P=0.012) and CAM score grade (hazard ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-4.72; P=0.026) predicted recurrent vascular events. History of diabetes mellitus and the CAM score could be novel risk factors for recurrent vascular events in embolic stroke of undetermined source. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Childhood Stature and Growth in Relation to First Ischemic Stroke or Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjærde, Line Klingen; Truelsen, Thomas Clement; Baker, Jennifer Lyn

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Attained height, an indicator of genetic potential and childhood growth environment, is inversely associated with stroke, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated whether childhood height and growth are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral...... hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: In a cohort of Danish schoolchildren born 1930 to 1989, with measured height from 7 to 13 years, we investigated associations of childhood stature and growth with risks of adult IS and ICH. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with CIs.......90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92]) and with ICH in men (HR=0.89 [95% CI: 0.84-0.94]) but not in women (HR=0.97 [95% CI: 0.91-1.04]). Associations were similar at older childhood ages and were stable throughout the study period. No statistically significant associations for growth from 7 to 13 years were observed...

  19. Residential Proximity to High Traffic Roadways and Post-Stroke Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilker, Elissa H.; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Lue, Shih-Ho; Gold, Diane; Schwartz, Joel; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Living in areas with higher levels of ambient air pollution has been associated with a higher incidence of ischemic stroke and all-cause mortality, but less is known about the relationship between traffic related pollution and long term survival following stroke. Methods We identified consecutive patients admitted to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center with ischemic stroke between 1999 and 2008 and determined distance to the nearest roadway with an average daily traffic count >10,000 vehicles/day. Categories of residential proximity were defined as ≤100 meters (m), 100 to 200, 200 to ≤400 or > 400m from a busy roadway. We identified deaths through June 2012 using the Social Security Death Index and used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for medical history, and socioeconomic factors to calculate hazard ratios for the association between residential proximity to a high traffic roadway and all-cause mortality. Results Among 1683 stroke patients with complete data, there were 950 deaths [median follow-up = 4.6 years]. We observed higher post-stroke mortality among people living closer to high traffic roadways. Patients living ≤100m from high traffic roadways had a 20% (95% CI: 1%, 43%) higher rate of post-stroke mortality than patients living >400m away (p-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this study, living close to a high traffic roadway was associated with an elevated mortality rate. This relationship remained statistically significant after adjustment for individual and neighborhood- level factors, providing evidence that traffic-related pollution is associated with a higher mortality rate among stroke survivors. PMID:23721619

  20. The influence of the day of the week of hospital admission on the prognosis of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Juliana B; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Alencar, Airlane P; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the weekday and weekend distribution of stroke case hospital admissions and their respective prognosis based on a sample from the Estudo de Mortalidade e Morbidade do Acidente Vascular Cerebral (EMMA), a cohort of stroke patients admitted to a community hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We ascertained all consecutive cases of first-time strokes between April 2006 and December 2008 and performed a subsequent one-year follow-up. No association was found between frequency of hospital admissions due to ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes and the specific day of the week on which the admission occurred. However, ten-day and twelve-month case-fatality was higher in hemorrhagic stroke patients admitted at the weekend. We also found that intracerebral hemorrhage patients admitted on weekends had a worse survival rate (50%) compared with those admitted during weekdays (25.6%, P log-rank = 0.03). We found a multivariate hazard ratio of 2.49 (95%CI: 1.10-5.81, P trend = 0.03) for risk of death at the weekend compared to weekdays for intracerebral hemorrhage cases. No difference in survival was observed with respect to the overall sample of stroke or ischemic stroke patients.

  1. Executive function, but not memory, associates with incident coronary heart disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamian, Somayeh; van Buchem, Mark A; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Jukema, J Wouter; Mooijaart, Simon P; Sabayan, Behnam; de Craen, Anton J M

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the association of performance in cognitive domains executive function and memory with incident coronary heart disease and stroke in older participants without dementia. We included 3,926 participants (mean age 75 years, 44% male) at risk for cardiovascular diseases from the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) with Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥24 points. Scores on the Stroop Color-Word Test (selective attention) and the Letter Digit Substitution Test (processing speed) were converted to Z scores and averaged into a composite executive function score. Likewise, scores of the Picture Learning Test (immediate and delayed memory) were transformed into a composite memory score. Associations of executive function and memory were longitudinally assessed with risk of coronary heart disease and stroke using multivariable Cox regression models. During 3.2 years of follow-up, incidence rates of coronary heart disease and stroke were 30.5 and 12.4 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. In multivariable models, participants in the lowest third of executive function, as compared to participants in the highest third, had 1.85-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-2.45) higher risk of coronary heart disease and 1.51-fold (95% CI 0.99-2.30) higher risk of stroke. Participants in the lowest third of memory had no increased risk of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio 0.99, 95% CI 0.74-1.32) or stroke (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.57-1.32). Lower executive function, but not memory, is associated with higher risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Lower executive function, as an independent risk indicator, might better reflect brain vascular pathologies. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Blood pressure-lowering treatment with candesartan in patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusufovic, Mirza; Sandset, Else C; Bath, Philip M W; Berge, Eivind

    2014-11-01

    Early and intensive blood pressure-lowering treatment seems to be beneficial in patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke and high blood pressure. We wanted to see if similar benefits can be shown from a later and more gradual blood pressure lowering, using data from the Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial (SCAST). SCAST was a randomized- and placebo-controlled, double-masked trial of candesartan given for 7 days, in 2029 patients with acute stroke and systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg. We assessed the effects of candesartan in the 274 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, using the trial's 2 coprimary effect variables: the composite vascular end point of vascular death, stroke or myocardial infarction, and functional outcome at 6 months, according to the modified Rankin Scale. We used Cox proportional hazards models and ordinal regression for analysis and adjusted for key, predefined prognostic variables. There was no association between treatment with candesartan and risk of vascular events (17 of 144 [11.8%] versus 13 of 130 [10.0%]; hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-2.83; P=0.41). For functional outcome we found evidence of a negative effect of candesartan (common odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.50; P=0.036). There was no evidence that blood pressure-lowering treatment with candesartan is beneficial during the first week of hemorrhagic stroke. Instead, there were signs that such treatment may be harmful, but this needs to be verified in larger studies. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00120003. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Education, Socioeconomic Status, and Intelligence in Childhood and Stroke Risk in Later Life: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHutchison, Caroline A; Backhouse, Ellen V; Cvoro, Vera; Shenkin, Susan D; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2017-07-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of death, and a common cause of dependency and dementia. Adult vascular risk factors and socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with increased risk, but less is known about early life risk factors, such as education, childhood SES, or intelligence (IQ). We comprehensively searched Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE from inception to November 2015. We included all studies reporting data on >50 strokes examining childhood/premorbid IQ, SES, and education. Two reviewers independently screened full texts and extracted and cross-checked data, including available risk factor adjustments. We meta-analyzed stroke risk using hazard ratios (HR), odds ratios (OR), and mean differences (MD). We tested effects of study and participant characteristics in sensitivity analyses and meta-regression, and assessed heterogeneity and publication bias. We identified 90 studies examining stroke risk and education (79), SES (10), or IQ (nine) including approximately 164,683 stroke and over 5 million stroke-free participants. Stroke risk increased with lower education (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.24, 1.48), SES (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.12, 1.46), and IQ (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.37) in studies reporting point estimates, with similar associations for MD. We found minimal publication bias. Between-study heterogeneity was partly explained by participant age and case ascertainment method. Education, childhood SES, and intelligence have modest but important associations with lifetime stroke, and hence dementia, risks. Future studies distinguishing between the individual and combined effects of education, childhood SES and intelligence are needed to determine the independent contribution of each factor to stroke risk. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B210.

  4. Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unique for each person. Although a majority of functional abilities may be restored soon after a stroke, recovery is an ongoing process. Effects of a Stroke Weakness (hemiparesis) or paralysis (hemiplegia) on one side of the body that may affect the whole ...

  5. Pediatric Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of 3 and 10. In those with SCD, ischemic strokes most often occur in children under the age of 15 and adults over the age of 30, while hemorrhagic strokes most often occur in young adults between the ages of 20 and 30. ...

  6. Association of Breakfast Intake With Incident Stroke and Coronary Heart Disease: The Japan Public Health Center-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yasuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-02-01

    The association between breakfast intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease, including stroke, among Asian people remains unknown. We sought to prospectively investigate whether the omission of breakfast is related to increased risks of stroke and coronary heart disease in general Japanese populations. A total of 82,772 participants (38,676 men and 44,096 women) aged 45 to 74 years without histories of cardiovascular disease or cancer were followed up from 1995 to 2010. Participants were classified as having breakfast 0 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 6, or 7 times/wk. The hazard ratios of cardiovascular disease were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. During the 1 050 030 person-years of follow-up, we documented a total of 4642 incident cases, 3772 strokes (1051 cerebral hemorrhages, 417 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 2286 cerebral infarctions), and 870 coronary heart disease. Multivariable analysis showed that those consuming no breakfast per week compared with those consuming breakfast everyday had hazard ratios (95% confidence interval; P for trend) of 1.14 (1.01-1.27; 0.013) for total cardiovascular disease, 1.18 (1.04-1.34; 0.007) for total stroke, and 1.36 (1.10-1.70; 0.004) for cerebral hemorrhage. Similar results were observed even after exclusion of early cardiovascular events. No significant association between the frequency of breakfast intake and the risk of coronary heart disease was observed. The frequency of breakfast intake was inversely associated with the risk of stroke, especially cerebral hemorrhage in Japanese, suggesting that eating breakfast everyday may be beneficial for the prevention of stroke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. In-hospital stroke recurrence and stroke after transient ischemic attack: frequency and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdur, Hebun; Scheitz, Jan F; Ebinger, Martin; Rocco, Andrea; Grittner, Ulrike; Meisel, Andreas; Rothwell, Peter M; Endres, Matthias; Nolte, Christian H

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to assess the risk of recurrent ischemic events during hospitalization for stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) with optimal current management and to identify associated risk factors. We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients treated for acute ischemic stroke or TIA in 3 stroke units between 2010 and 2013. Recurrent stroke was defined as new persisting (≥24 hours) neurological deficit occurring >24 hours after the index event and not attributable to other causes of neurological deterioration. Cox proportional hazard regression identified risk factors associated with recurrent stroke. The study included 5106 patients. During a median length of stay of 5 days (interquartile range, 4-8), stroke recurrence (or stroke after TIA) occurred in 40 patients (0.8%) and was independently associated with history of TIA, symptomatic carotid stenosis (≥70%), or other determined etiology. Patients with recurrent stroke and other determined etiology had cervical arterial dissection (n=2), primary angiitis of the central nervous system (n=1), giant cell arteritis (n=1), and lung cancer with nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (n=1). In patients with initial TIA or minor stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≤5) recurrence was associated additionally with pneumonia after the inciting ischemic event but before stroke recurrence. Patients with initial stroke and aphasia had a lower stroke recurrence rate and there were no recurrences in patients with lacunar stroke. Recurrence was associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality (17.5% versus 3.1%; Pstroke recurrence was low with optimal current management. Patients with a history of TIA, severe symptomatic carotid stenosis, or uncommon causes of stroke were at higher risk. Pneumonia was associated with a higher risk of stroke recurrence in patients with initial TIA or minor stroke but not in the overall population studied. Aphasia may bias the detection rate by concealing new

  8. Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Stroke; Acute Stroke; Acute Brain Injury; Ischemic Stroke; Hemorrhagic Stroke; Transient Ischemic Attack; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; Cerebral Ischemia; Cerebral Infarction; Cerebral Stroke; Venous Sinus Thrombosis, Cranial

  9. Serum Potassium Is Positively Associated With Stroke and Mortality in the Large, Population-Based Malmö Preventive Project Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Linda S; Mattsson, Nick; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Wollmer, Per; Söderholm, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Low serum potassium is associated with stroke in populations with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus but has not been studied in a mainly healthy population. We aimed to study the relation between serum potassium and incident stroke and mortality in the Malmö Preventive Project, a large cohort with screening in early mid-life and follow-up >25 years. Serum potassium measurements and covariates were available in 21 353 individuals (79% men, mean age 44 years). Mean follow-up time was 26.9 years for stroke analyses and 29.3 years for mortality analyses. There were 2061 incident stroke events and 8709 deaths. Cox regression analyses adjusted for multiple stroke risk factors (age, sex, height, weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, serum sodium, current smoking, prevalent diabetes mellitus, prevalent coronary artery disease, and treatment for hypertension) were fitted. There was an independent, linear association between serum potassium, per mmol/L increase, and both stroke (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.52; P stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage and in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Serum potassium, measured in early mid-life, was linearly associated with both incidence of ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage and all-cause mortality. An interaction with serum sodium implies that factors related to electrolyte balance and incident hypertension may be mediating factors. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-01-01

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation)

  11. Stroke Care 2: Stroke rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langhorne, P.; Bernhardt, J.; Kwakkel, G.

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is a common, serious, and disabling global health-care problem, and rehabilitation is a major part of patient care. There is evidence to support rehabilitation in well coordinated multidisciplinary stroke units or through provision of early supported provision of discharge teams. Potentially

  12. Hazardous Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and hazardous drugs in the workplace. Pharmacy . OSHA Hospital eTool. Reviews safety and health topics related to hazardous drugs including drug handling, administration, storage, and disposal. OSHA has identified worker exposure ...

  13. Prediction of Recurrent Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack After Noncardiogenic Posterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Yilong; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Wang, ChunXue; Pu, Yuehua; Zou, Xinying; Pan, Yuesong; Wong, Ka Sing; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-07-01

    Posterior circulation ischemic stroke (IS) is generally considered an illness with a poor prognosis. However, there are no effective rating scales to predict recurrent stroke following it. Therefore, our aim was to identify clinical or radiological measures that could assist in predicting recurrent cerebral ischemic episodes. We prospectively enrolled 723 noncardiogenic posterior circulation IS patients with onset of symptoms Stroke risk factors, admission symptoms and signs, topographical distribution and responsible cerebral artery of acute infarcts, and any recurrent IS or transient ischemic attack (TIA) within 1 year were assessed. Cox regression was used to identify risk factors associated with recurrent IS or TIA within the year after posterior circulation IS. A total of 40 patients (5.5%) had recurrent IS or TIA within 1 year of posterior circulation IS. Multivariate Cox regression identified chief complaint with dysphagia (hazard ratio [HR], 4.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-10.2; P =0.002), repeated TIAs within 3 months before the stroke (HR, 15.4; 95% CI, 5.55-42.5; P <0.0001), responsible artery stenosis ≥70% (HR, 7.91; 95% CI, 1.00-62.6; P =0.05), multisector infarcts (HR, 5.38; 95% CI, 1.25-23.3; P =0.02), and not on antithrombotics treatment at discharge (HR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.09-8.58; P =0.03) as independent predictors of recurrent IS or TIA. Some posterior circulation IS patients are at higher risk for recurrent IS or TIA. Urgent assessment and preventive treatment should be offered to these patients as soon as possible. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Blood Biomarkers for the Early Diagnosis of Stroke: The Stroke-Chip Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Alejandro; López-Cancio, Elena; Pich, Sara; Penalba, Anna; Giralt, Dolors; García-Berrocoso, Teresa; Ferrer-Costa, Carles; Gasull, Teresa; Hernández-Pérez, María; Millan, Mónica; Rubiera, Marta; Cardona, Pedro; Cano, Luis; Quesada, Helena; Terceño, Mikel; Silva, Yolanda; Castellanos, Mar; Garces, Moisés; Reverté, Silvia; Ustrell, Xavier; Marés, Rafael; Baiges, Joan Josep; Serena, Joaquín; Rubio, Francisco; Salas, Eduardo; Dávalos, Antoni; Montaner, Joan

    2017-09-01

    Stroke diagnosis could be challenging in the acute phase. We aimed to develop a blood-based diagnostic tool to differentiate between real strokes and stroke mimics and between ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in the hyperacute phase. The Stroke-Chip was a prospective, observational, multicenter study, conducted at 6 Stroke Centers in Catalonia. Consecutive patients with suspected stroke were enrolled within the first 6 hours after symptom onset, and blood samples were drawn immediately after admission. A 21-biomarker panel selected among previous results and from the literature was measured by immunoassays. Outcomes were differentiation between real strokes and stroke mimics and between ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Predictive models were developed by combining biomarkers and clinical variables in logistic regression models. Accuracy was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic curves. From August 2012 to December 2013, 1308 patients were included (71.9% ischemic, 14.8% stroke mimics, and 13.3% hemorrhagic). For stroke versus stroke mimics comparison, no biomarker resulted included in the logistic regression model, but it was only integrated by clinical variables, with a predictive accuracy of 80.8%. For ischemic versus hemorrhagic strokes comparison, NT-proBNP (N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide) >4.9 (odds ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-3.71; P 4.7 (odds ratio, 2.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.45; P =0.010), together with age, sex, blood pressure, stroke severity, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension, were included in the model. Predictive accuracy was 80.6%. The studied biomarkers were not sufficient for an accurate differential diagnosis of stroke in the hyperacute setting. Additional discovery of new biomarkers and improvement on laboratory techniques seem necessary for achieving a molecular diagnosis of stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Computed tomography perfusion as a diagnostic tool for seizures after ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koome, Miriam; Thevathasan, Arthur; Yan, Bernard [The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne Brain Centre, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Churilov, Leonid [University of Melbourne, Florey Neuroscience Institutes, Austin Health, Melbourne (Australia); Chen, Ziyuan [The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne Brain Centre, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Tsinghua University, School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Chen, Ziyi [The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne Brain Centre, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Sun Yat-Sen University, First Affiliated Hospital, Guangdong (China); Naylor, Jillian; Kwan, Patrick [The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne Brain Centre, Parkville, VIC (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Melbourne (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Cerebral cortical ischemia is a risk factor for post-stroke seizures. However, the optimal imaging method is unclear. We investigated CT perfusion (CTP) in detecting cortical ischemia and its correlation with post-stroke seizures compared with non-contrast CT (NCCT). We included patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to the Royal Melbourne Hospital between 2009 and 2014. Post-stroke seizure information was collected. Cortical involvement was determined on acute NCCT and CTP (T{sub max}, cerebral blood volume [CBV], and cerebral blood flow [CBF]). The association between cortical involvement detected by different imaging modalities and post-stroke seizures was examined. Three-hundred fifty-two patients were included for analysis. Fifty-nine percent were male, and median age was 73 years (inter-quartile range 61-82). Follow-up was available for 96 %; median follow-up duration was 377 days (inter-quartile range 91-1018 days). Thirteen patients had post-stroke seizures (3.9 %). Cortical involvement was significantly associated with post-stroke seizures across all modalities. CBV had the highest hazard ratio (11.3, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.1-41.2), followed by NCCT (5.3, 95 % CI 1.5-18.0) and CBF (4.2, 95 % CI 1.1-15.2). Sensitivity was highest for T{sub max} (100 %), followed by CBV and CBF (both 76.9 %) and NCCT (63.6 %). Specificity was highest for CBV (77.8 %), then NCCT (75.6 %), CBF (54.0 %), and T{sub max} (29.1 %). Receiver-operating characteristic area under the curve was significantly different between imaging modalities (p < 0.001), CBV 0.77, NCCT 0.70, CBF 0.65, and T{sub max} 0.65. CTP may improve sensitivity and specificity of cortical involvement for post-stroke seizures compared to NCCT. (orig.)

  16. Brain imaging and cognitive predictors of stroke and Alzheimer disease in the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Galit; Beiser, Alexa S; Decarli, Charles; Au, Rhoda; Wolf, Philip A; Seshadri, Sudha

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to vascular risk factors has a gradual deleterious effect on brain MRI and cognitive measures. We explored whether a pattern of these measures exists that predicts stroke and Alzheimer disease (AD) risk. A cognitive battery was administered to 1679 dementia and stroke-free Framingham offspring (age, >55 years; mean, 65.7±7.0) between 1999 and 2004; participants were also free of other neurological conditions that could affect cognition and >90% also had brain MRI examination. We related cognitive and MRI measures to risks of incident stroke and AD ≤10 years of follow-up. As a secondary analysis, we explored these associations in The Framingham Heart Study original cohort (mean age, 67.5±7.3 and 84.8±3.3 years at the cognitive assessment and MRI examination, respectively). A total of 55 Offspring participants sustained strokes and 31 developed AD. Offspring who scored stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-4.85) and AD (HR, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.52-8.52); additional cognitive tests also predicted AD. Participants with low (20 percentile) white matter hyperintensity volume had a higher risk of stroke (HR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.03-3.77 and HR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.51-5.00, respectively) but not AD. Hippocampal volume at the bottom quintile predicted AD in the offspring and original cohorts (HR, 4.41; 95% CI, 2.00-9.72 and HR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.12-5.00, respectively). A stepwise increase in stroke risk was apparent with increasing numbers of these cognitive and imaging markers. Specific patterns of cognitive and brain structural measures observed even in early aging predict stroke risk and may serve as biomarkers for risk prediction.

  17. Self-Reported Stroke Risk Stratification: Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, George; McClure, Leslie A; Moy, Claudia S; Howard, Virginia J; Judd, Suzanne E; Yuan, Ya; Long, D Leann; Muntner, Paul; Safford, Monika M; Kleindorfer, Dawn O

    2017-07-01

    The standard for stroke risk stratification is the Framingham Stroke Risk Function (FSRF), an equation requiring an examination for blood pressure assessment, venipuncture for glucose assessment, and ECG to determine atrial fibrillation and heart disease. We assess a self-reported stroke risk function (SRSRF) to stratify stroke risk in comparison to the FSRF. Participants from the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) were evaluated at baseline and followed for incident stroke. The FSRF was calculated using directly assessed stroke risk factors. The SRSRF was calculated from 13 self-reported questions to exclude those with prevalent stroke and assess stroke risk. Proportional hazards analysis was used to assess incident stroke risk using the FSRF and SRSRF. Over an average 8.2-year follow-up, 939 of 23 983 participants had a stroke. The FSRF and SRSRF produced highly correlated risk scores ( r Spearman =0.852; 95% confidence interval, 0.849-0.856); however, the SRSRF had higher discrimination of stroke risk than the FSRF (c SRSRF =0.7266; 95% confidence interval, 0.7076-0.7457; c FSRF =0.7075; 95% confidence interval, 0.6877-0.7273; P =0.0038). The 10-year stroke risk in the highest decile of predicted risk was 11.1% for the FSRF and 13.4% for the SRSRF. A simple self-reported questionnaire can be used to identify those at high risk for stroke better than the gold standard FSRF. This instrument can be used clinically to easily identify individuals at high risk for stroke and also scientifically to identify a subpopulation enriched for stroke risk. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Long-Term Outcomes of Patent Foramen Ovale Closure or Medical Therapy after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saver, Jeffrey L; Carroll, John D; Thaler, David E; Smalling, Richard W; MacDonald, Lee A; Marks, David S; Tirschwell, David L

    2017-09-14

    Whether closure of a patent foramen ovale reduces the risk of recurrence of ischemic stroke in patients who have had a cryptogenic ischemic stroke is unknown. In a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial, with blinded adjudication of end-point events, we randomly assigned patients 18 to 60 years of age who had a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and had had a cryptogenic ischemic stroke to undergo closure of the PFO (PFO closure group) or to receive medical therapy alone (aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel, or aspirin combined with extended-release dipyridamole; medical-therapy group). The primary efficacy end point was a composite of recurrent nonfatal ischemic stroke, fatal ischemic stroke, or early death after randomization. The results of the analysis of the primary outcome from the original trial period have been reported previously; the current analysis of data from the extended follow-up period was considered to be exploratory. We enrolled 980 patients (mean age, 45.9 years) at 69 sites. Patients were followed for a median of 5.9 years. Treatment exposure in the two groups was unequal (3141 patient-years in the PFO closure group vs. 2669 patient-years in the medical-therapy group), owing to a higher dropout rate in the medical-therapy group. In the intention-to-treat population, recurrent ischemic stroke occurred in 18 patients in the PFO closure group and in 28 patients in the medical-therapy group, resulting in rates of 0.58 events per 100 patient-years and 1.07 events per 100 patient-years, respectively (hazard ratio with PFO closure vs. medical therapy, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31 to 0.999; P=0.046 by the log-rank test). Recurrent ischemic stroke of undetermined cause occurred in 10 patients in the PFO closure group and in 23 patients in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.79; P=0.007). Venous thromboembolism (which comprised events of pulmonary embolism and deep-vein thrombosis) was more common in the PFO closure group

  19. Similarities and differences between coronary heart disease and stroke in the associations with cardiovascular risk factors: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masaaki; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamashita, Kentaro; Li, Yuanying; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Tanabe, Naohito; Wada, Yasuhiko; Wang, Chaochen; Ota, Atsuhiko; Tamakoshi, Koji; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2017-06-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke have common risk factors, but some of these differ in the magnitude or direction of associations between CHD and stroke. We assessed whether the impact of each risk factor differed between CHD and stroke mortality in Asians. In total, 104 910 subjects aged 40-79 years without histories of cancer, CHD and stroke at baseline were followed between 1988 and 2009. Competing-risks analysis was used to test for differences in the associations of each risk factor with two endpoints (CHD and stroke). Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were also calculated for these endpoints to estimate the population impact of each risk factor. During a median 19.1-year follow-up, 1554 died from CHD and 3163 from stroke. The association of hypertension with CHD was similar to that with stroke in terms of the magnitude and direction (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for CHD: 1.63 vs. stroke: 1.73 in men and 1.70 vs. 1.66 in women). Conversely, the magnitude of these associations differed for smoking (CHD: 1.95 vs. stroke: 1.23 in men and 2.45 vs. 1.35 in women) and diabetes (1.49 vs. 1.09 in men and 2.08 vs. 1.39 in women). The highest PAF for CHD was caused by smoking in men and by hypertension in women; that for stroke was caused by hypertension in both sexes. Hypertension associations and PAFs were consistent between CHD and stroke, but not for other risk factors. These findings may be useful to optimize public health intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneously Measured Interarm Blood Pressure Difference and Stroke: An Individual Participants Data Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Mastumoto, Chisa; Kario, Kazuomi; Hoshide, Satoshi; Kita, Yoshikuni; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Maeda, Yasutaka; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Watada, Hirotaka; Munakata, Masanori; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Ito, Norihisa; Nakamura, Michinari; Shoji, Tetsuo; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Yamashina, Akira

    2018-04-09

    We conducted individual participant data meta-analysis to examine the validity of interarm blood pressure difference in simultaneous measurement as a marker to identify subjects with ankle-brachial pressure index blood pressure difference >5 mm Hg as being associated with a significant odds ratio for the presence of ankle-brachial pressure index blood pressure difference >15 mm Hg was associated with a significant Cox stratified adjusted hazard ratio for subsequent stroke (hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-4.60; P blood pressure differences, measured simultaneously in both arms, may be associated with vascular damage in the systemic arterial tree. These differences may be useful for identifying subjects with an ankle-brachial pressure index of blood pressure in both arms at the first visit. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. The impact of green tea and coffee consumption on the reduced risk of stroke incidence in Japanese population: the Japan public health center-based study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Iso, Hiroyasu; Saito, Isao; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Junko; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-05-01

    Few prospective studies have examined the impact of both green tea and coffee consumption on strokes. We investigated the association of the combination of those consumption with stroke incidence in a general population. We studied 82 369 Japanese (aged 45-74 years; without cardiovascular disease [CVD] or cancer in 1995 and 1998 for Cohort I and II, respectively) who received 13 years of mean follow-up through the end of 2007. Green tea and coffee consumption was assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaire at baseline. In the 1 066 718 person-years of follow-up, we documented the incidence of strokes (n=3425) and coronary heart disease (n=910). Compared with seldom drinking green tea, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all strokes were 0.86 (0.78-0.95) and 0.80 (0.73-0.89) in green tea 2 to 3 and ≥ 4 cups/d, respectively. Higher green tea consumption was associated with inverse risks of CVD and strokes subtypes. Compared with seldom drinking coffee, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all strokes were 0.89 (0.80-0.99), 0.80 (0.72-0.90), and 0.81 (0.72-0.91) for coffee 3 to 6 times/week and 1 and ≥ 2 times/day, respectively. Coffee consumption was associated with an inverse risk of CVD and cerebral infarction. Higher green tea or coffee consumption reduced the risks of CVD and stroke subtypes (especially in intracerebral hemorrhage, P for interaction between green tea and coffee=0.04). None of the significant association was observed in coronary heart disease. Higher green tea and coffee consumption were inversely associated with risk of CVD and stroke in general population.

  2. All-Cause Mortality up to and After Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Events in European Middle-Aged Men: The PRIME Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majed, Bilal; Montaye, Michèle; Wagner, Aline; Arveiler, Dominique; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Tafflet, Muriel; Ferrieres, Jean; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Kee, Frank; Evans, Alun; Amouyel, Philippe; Prugger, Christof; Empana, Jean-Philippe

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to investigate prospectively the all-cause mortality risk up to and after coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke events in European middle-aged men. The study population comprised 10 424 men 50 to 59 years of age recruited between 1991 and 1994 in France (N=7855) and Northern Ireland (N=2747) within the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction. Incident CHD and stroke events and deaths from all causes were prospectively registered during the 10-year follow-up. In Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis, CHD and stroke events during follow-up were used as time-dependent covariates. A total of 769 CHD and 132 stroke events were adjudicated, and 569 deaths up to and 66 after CHD or stroke occurred during follow-up. After adjustment for study country and cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratios of all-cause mortality were 1.58 (95% confidence interval 1.18-2.12) after CHD and 3.13 (95% confidence interval 1.98-4.92) after stroke. These findings support continuous efforts to promote both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Risk of stroke in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gin-Yi; Lee, Yu-Ting; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Hsu, Pei; Lin, Ting-Wei; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Liu, Yao-Chung; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2017-12-01

    Cerebrovascular events are a common complication among patients with cancer, increasing morbidity and mortality. However, the association between multiple myeloma and cerebrovascular events remains unclear. We therefore investigated multiple myeloma patients' risk factors for stroke to devise a better stroke-prevention strategy. This study includes consecutive patients 20 years and older who were newly diagnosed with symptomatic multiple myeloma at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, a tertiary medical center, between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2014. The primary outcome was stroke development. Patients with head injuries, brain tumors, brain parenchymal invasions, or antecedent malignancies were excluded. Hazard ratios (HRs) of stroke risk factors for multiple myeloma patients were estimated by Cox proportional regression analysis. Overall, 395 patients with a median age of 70 years were investigated. In the median follow-up period of 18 months, cerebrovascular events occurred in 16 patients, including 10 ischemic strokes and 6 hemorrhagic strokes. The 5-year estimated cumulative incidence rate was 7.45%. In the multivariate analysis, the κ light chain isotype (adjusted HR, 8.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.91-39.8), previous cerebrovascular accidents (adjusted HR, 5.16; 95% CI, 1.48-17.9), and serum creatinine > 2 mg/dL (adjusted HR, 4.21; 95% CI, 1.10-16.0) were identified as independent risk factors for stroke. Subgroup analysis showed that atrial fibrillation (adjusted HR, 8.07) and previous cerebrovascular accident (adjusted HR, 4.89) are significant risk factors for ischemic stroke. Serum creatinine > 2 mg/dL (adjusted HR, 30.6) and previous cerebrovascular accident (adjusted HR, 13.9) are significant for hemorrhagic stroke. Moreover, therapeutic strategies for multiple myeloma were not associated with stroke in our study. This study demonstrates that risk of stroke increases in myeloma patients with a κ light chain isotype, previous

  4. Stroke awareness among inpatient nursing staff at an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Eric E; Meurer, William J; Nance, Dorinda K; Kocan, Mary Jo; Maddox, Kate E; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Skolarus, Lesli E

    2014-01-01

    Because 10% of strokes occur in hospitalized patients, we sought to evaluate stroke knowledge and predictors of stroke knowledge among inpatient and emergency department nursing staff. Nursing staff completed an online stroke survey. The survey queried outcome expectations (the importance of rapid stroke identification), self-efficacy in recognizing stroke, and stroke knowledge (to name 3 stroke warning signs or symptoms). Adequate stroke knowledge was defined as the ability to name ≥2 stroke warning signs. Logistic regression was used to identify the association between stroke symptom knowledge and staff characteristics (education, clinical experience, and nursing unit), stroke self-efficacy, and outcome expectations. A total of 875 respondents (84% response rate) completed the survey and most of the respondents were nurses. More than 85% of respondents correctly reported ≥2 stroke warning signs or symptoms. Greater self-efficacy in identifying stroke symptoms (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.27) and higher ratings for the importance of rapid identification of stroke symptoms (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.002-1.51) were associated with stroke knowledge. Clinical experience, educational experience, nursing unit, and personal knowledge of a stroke patient were not associated with stroke knowledge. Stroke outcome expectations and self-efficacy are associated with stroke knowledge and should be included in nursing education about stroke.

  5. Does Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder Increase the Risk of Stroke? A Population-Based Propensity Score-Matched Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chueh-Hung; Wang, Yen-Ho; Huang, Ya-Ping; Pan, Shin-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives A previous population-based study reported an increased risk of stroke after the occurrence of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (ACS), but there were substantial imbalances in the distribution of age and pre-existing vascular risk factors between subjects with ACS and without ACS, which might lead to a confounded association between ACS and stroke. The purpose of the present large-scale propensity score-matched population-based follow-up study was to clarify whether there is an increased stroke risk after ACS. Methods We used a logistic regression model that includes age, sex, pre-existing comorbidities and socioeconomic status as covariates to compute the propensity score. A total of 22025 subjects with at least two ambulatory visits with the principal diagnosis of ACS in 2001 was enrolled in the ACS group. The non-ACS group consisted of 22025, propensity score-matched subjects without ACS. The stroke-free survival curves for these 2 groups were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression with patients matched on propensity score was used to estimate the effect of ACS on the occurrence of stroke. Results During the two-year follow-up period, 657 subjects in the ACS group (2.98%) and 687 in the non-ACS group (3.12%) developed stroke. The hazard ratio (HR) of stroke for the ACS group was 0.93 compared to the non-ACS group (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–1.04, P = 0.1778). There was no statistically significant difference in stroke subtype distribution between the two groups (P = 0.2114). Conclusions These findings indicate that ACS itself is not associated with an increased risk of subsequent stroke. PMID:23185317

  6. Does adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder increase the risk of stroke? A population-based propensity score-matched follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chueh-Hung Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A previous population-based study reported an increased risk of stroke after the occurrence of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (ACS, but there were substantial imbalances in the distribution of age and pre-existing vascular risk factors between subjects with ACS and without ACS, which might lead to a confounded association between ACS and stroke. The purpose of the present large-scale propensity score-matched population-based follow-up study was to clarify whether there is an increased stroke risk after ACS. METHODS: We used a logistic regression model that includes age, sex, pre-existing comorbidities and socioeconomic status as covariates to compute the propensity score. A total of 22025 subjects with at least two ambulatory visits with the principal diagnosis of ACS in 2001 was enrolled in the ACS group. The non-ACS group consisted of 22025, propensity score-matched subjects without ACS. The stroke-free survival curves for these 2 groups were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression with patients matched on propensity score was used to estimate the effect of ACS on the occurrence of stroke. RESULTS: During the two-year follow-up period, 657 subjects in the ACS group (2.98% and 687 in the non-ACS group (3.12% developed stroke. The hazard ratio (HR of stroke for the ACS group was 0.93 compared to the non-ACS group (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.04, P = 0.1778. There was no statistically significant difference in stroke subtype distribution between the two groups (P = 0.2114. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that ACS itself is not associated with an increased risk of subsequent stroke.

  7. Determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke from baryonic Λ{sub b} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Y.K. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Geng, C.Q. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Hunan Normal University, Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications (SICQEA), Changsha (China)

    2017-10-15

    We present the first attempt to extract vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}{sup +}l anti ν{sub l} decay without relying on vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke inputs from the B meson decays. Meanwhile, the hadronic Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}M{sub (c)} decays with M = (π{sup -},K{sup -}) and M{sub c} =(D{sup -},D{sup -}{sub s}) measured with high precisions are involved in the extraction. Explicitly, we find that vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke =(44.6 ± 3.2) x 10{sup -3}, agreeing with the value of (42.11 ± 0.74) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub c}l anti ν{sub l} decays. Furthermore, based on the most recent ratio of vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke / vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the exclusive modes, we obtain vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke = (4.3 ± 0.4) x 10{sup -3}, which is close to the value of (4.49 ± 0.24) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub u}l anti ν{sub l} decays. We conclude that our determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke favor the corresponding inclusive extractions in the B decays. (orig.)

  8. Pediatric stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermann, M.

    2008-01-01

    Stroke in childhood has gained increasingly more attention and is accepted as an important disease in childhood. The reasons for this severe event and the consequences for the rest of the life are totally different than for adults. This is also true for the diagnosis and therapy. This paper gives a comprehensive overview on the characteristics of pediatric stroke to assist radiologists in making a rapid and safe diagnosis in order to identify the underlying disease. (orig.) [de

  9. Long-term heart disease and stroke mortality among former American prisoners of war of World War II and the Korean Conflict: results of a 50-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, W F; Brass, L M

    2001-09-01

    For the first 30 years after repatriation, former American prisoners of war (POWs) of World War II and the Korean Conflict had lower death rates for heart disease and stroke than non-POW veteran controls and the U.S. population, but subsequent morbidity data suggested that this survival advantage may have disappeared. We used U.S. federal records to obtain death data through 1996 and used proportional hazards analysis to compare the mortality experience of POWs and controls. POWs aged 75 years and older showed a significantly higher risk of heart disease deaths than controls (hazard ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.56), and their stroke mortality was also increased, although not significantly (hazard ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.91). These results suggest that circulatory disease sequelae of serious, acute malnutrition and the stresses associated with imprisonment may not appear until after many decades.

  10. Prognostic Significance of Blood Pressure Variability on Beat-to-Beat Monitoring After Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alastair J S; Mazzucco, Sara; Li, Linxin; Rothwell, Peter M

    2018-01-01

    Visit-to-visit and day-to-day blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) predict an increased risk of cardiovascular events but only reflect 1 form of BPV. Beat-to-beat BPV can be rapidly assessed and might also be predictive. In consecutive patients within 6 weeks of transient ischemic attack or nondisabling stroke (Oxford Vascular Study), BPV (coefficient of variation) was measured beat-to-beat for 5 minutes (Finometer), day-to-day for 1 week on home monitoring (3 readings, 3× daily), and on awake ambulatory BP monitoring. BPV after 1-month standard treatment was related (Cox proportional hazards) to recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events for 2 to 5 years, adjusted for mean systolic BP. Among 520 patients, 26 had inadequate beat-to-beat recordings, and 22 patients were in atrial fibrillation. Four hundred five patients had all forms of monitoring. Beat-to-beat BPV predicted recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events independently of mean systolic BP (hazard ratio per group SD, stroke: 1.47 [1.12-1.91]; P =0.005; cardiovascular events: 1.41 [1.08-1.83]; P =0.01), including after adjustment for age and sex (stroke: 1.47 [1.12-1.92]; P =0.005) and all risk factors (1.40 [1.00-1.94]; P =0.047). Day-to-day BPV was less strongly associated with stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29 [0.97-1.71]; P =0.08) but similarly with cardiovascular events (1.41 [1.09-1.83]; P =0.009). BPV on awake ambulatory BP monitoring was nonpredictive (stroke: 0.89 [0.59-1.35]; P =0.59; cardiovascular events: 1.08 [0.77-1.52]; P =0.65). Despite a weak correlation ( r =0.119; P =0.02), beat-to-beat BPV was associated with risk of recurrent stroke independently of day-to-day BPV (1.41 [1.05-1.90]; P =0.02). Beat-to-beat BPV predicted recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events, independently of mean systolic BP and risk factors but short-term BPV on ambulatory BP monitoring did not. Beat-to-beat BPV may be a useful additional marker of cardiovascular risk. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Evidence of perceived psychosocial stress as a risk factor for stroke in adults: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Joanne; Connelly, Lesley; Lawrence, Maggie; Chalmers, Campbell; Joice, Sara; Becker, Clarissa; Dougall, Nadine

    2015-11-12

    Several studies suggest that perceived psychosocial stress is associated with increased risk of stroke; however results are inconsistent with regard to definitions and measurement of perceived stress, features of individual study design, study conduct and conclusions drawn and no meta-analysis has yet been published. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing association between perceived psychosocial stress and risk of stroke in adults.The results of the meta-analysis are presented. Systematic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were undertaken between 1980 and June 2014. Data extraction and quality appraisal was performed by two independent reviewers. Hazard ratios (HR) and odds ratios (OR) were pooled where appropriate. 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis, 10 prospective cohort, 4 case-control design. Overall pooled adjusted effect estimate for risk of total stroke in subjects exposed to general or work stress or to stressful life events was 1.33 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.17, 1.50; P psychosocial stress to be associated with increased risk of fatal stroke (HR 1.45 95 % CI, 1.19,1.78; P = 0.0002), total ischaemic stroke (HR 1.40 95 % CI, 1.00,1.97; P = 0.05) and total haemorrhagic stroke (HR 1.73 95 % CI, 1.33,2.25; P > 0.0001).A sex difference was noted with higher stroke risk identified for women (HR 1.90 95 % CI, 1.4, 2.56: P psychosocial stress is independently associated with increased risk of stroke.

  12. Evaluating clinical effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination in preventing stroke: the CAPAMIS Study, 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Corcoles, Angel; Ochoa-Gondar, Olga; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; de Diego-Cabanes, Cinta; Satue-Gracia, Eva; Vila-Rovira, Angel; Torrente Fraga, Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Cerebrovascular benefits using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) are controversial. This study assessed clinical effectiveness of PPV23 in preventing ischemic stroke in people older than 60 years. We conducted a population-based cohort study involving 27,204 individuals of 60 years or older in Tarragona, Spain, who were prospectively followed from December 01, 2008, until November 30, 2011. Outcomes were neuroimaging-confirmed ischemic stroke, 30-day mortality from stroke, and all-cause death. Pneumococcal vaccination effectiveness was evaluated by Cox regression analyses, estimating hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, and influenza vaccine status. Cohort members were followed for a total of 76,033 person-years, of which 29,065 were for vaccinated subjects. Overall, 343 cases of stroke, 45 deaths from stroke, and 2465 all-cause deaths were observed. Pneumococcal vaccination did not alter the risk of stroke (multivariable HR: 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .83-1.30; P=.752), death from stroke (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: .61-2.13; P=.686), and all-cause death (HR: .97; 95% CI: .89-1.05; P=.448). In analyses focused on people with and without a history of cerebrovascular disease, the PPV23 did not emerge effective in preventing any analyzed event, but influenza vaccine emerged independently associated with a reduced risk of death from stroke (HR: .51; 95% CI: .28-.93; P=.029) and all-cause death (HR: .73; 95% CI: .67-.81; Pvaccine in reducing specific- and all-cause mortality risk in the general population older than 60 years. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of a neuro-intensivist on patients with stroke admitted to a neurosciences intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelas, Panayiotis N; Schultz, Lonni; Conti, Mary; Spanaki, Marianna; Genarrelli, Thomas; Hacein-Bey, Lotfi

    2008-01-01

    Stroke Units improve the outcome in patients with mild to moderate severity strokes. We sought to examine the role that a full-time neurointensivist (NI) might play on the outcomes of patients with more severe strokes admitted to a Neurosciences Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Data regarding 433 stroke patients admitted to a 10-bed university hospital NICU were prospectively collected in two 19-month periods, before and after the appointment of a NI. Outcomes and disposition of patients with ischemic stroke (IS), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were compared between the two periods, using univariate and multivariate analyses. One hundred and seventy-four patients with strokes were admitted in the period before and 259 in the period after the NI. Observed mortality did not differ between the two periods. More patients were discharged home in the after period (75% vs. 54% in the before period (P = 0.003). After adjusting for covariates, the NICU and hospital LOS were shorter for each type of stroke in the after period (Cox proportional hazard ratios, 95% CI were 2.37, 1.4-4.1 and 1.8, 1.04-3 for IS, 1.98, 1.3-3 and 1.2, 0.8-1.9 for ICH, and 1.6, 1.1-2.3 and 1.4, 1.01-2 for SAH, respectively) or for all strokes (1.92, 1.52-2.43 and 1.7, 1.28-2.25 for the first 12 days of hospital admission). The direct patient care offered and the organizational changes implemented by a NI shortened the NICU and hospital LOS and improved the disposition of patients with strokes admitted to a NICU.

  14. Clinical Correlates, Ethnic Differences, and Prognostic Implications of Perivascular Spaces in Transient Ischemic Attack and Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kui-Kai; Li, Linxin; Lovelock, Caroline E; Zamboni, Giovanna; Chan, Tsz-Tai; Chiang, Man-Fung; Lo, Kin-Ting; Küker, Wilhelm; Mak, Henry Ka-Fung; Rothwell, Peter M

    2017-06-01

    Perivascular spaces (PVSs) are considered markers of small vessel disease. However, their long-term prognostic implications in transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke patients are unknown. Ethnic differences in PVS prevalence are also unknown. Two independent prospective studies were conducted, 1 comprising predominantly whites with transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke (OXVASC [Oxford Vascular] study) and 1 comprising predominantly Chinese with ischemic stroke (University of Hong Kong). Clinical and imaging correlates, prognostic implications for stroke and death, and ethnic differences in basal ganglia (BG) and centrum semiovale (CS) PVSs were studied with adjustment for age, sex, vascular risk factors, and scanner strength. Whites with transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke (n=1028) had a higher prevalence of both BG and CS-PVSs compared with Chinese (n=974; >20 BG-PVSs: 22.4% versus 7.1%; >20 CS-PVSs: 45.8% versus 10.4%; P stroke (adjusted hazard ratio compared with 20 PVSs: HR, 1.82; 1.18-2.80; P =0.011) but not intracerebral hemorrhage ( P =0.10) or all-cause mortality ( P =0.16). CS-PVSs were not associated with recurrent stroke ( P =0.57) or mortality ( P =0.072). Prognostic associations were similar in both cohorts. Over and above ethnic differences in frequency of PVSs in transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke patients, BG and CS-PVSs had similar risk factors, but although >20 BG-PVSs were associated with an increased risk of recurrent ischemic stroke, CS-PVSs were not. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Renal dysfunction and long-term risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Martin J; Ahlbäck, Erik; Jeppsson, Anders; Sartipy, Ulrik

    2013-09-30

    Renal dysfunction is associated with increased long-term mortality and incidence of myocardial infarction following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Little is known about the relationship between renal dysfunction and long-term risk of stroke following CABG. All 29 057 patients who underwent primary isolated CABG from 2000 through 2008 in Sweden, with no myocardial infarction within 14 days before surgery and no prior stroke, were included from the SWEDEHEART registry. During a mean follow-up of 4.5 years, there were 1563 (5.4%) first strokes (74% ischemic, 8% hemorrhagic, and 18% unspecified). Glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for stroke in relation to eGFR. Adjusted HR for all stroke in patients with eGFR 45 to 60, 30 to 45 and 15 to 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were; 1.17 (1.03 to 1.34), 1.52 (1.25 to 1.85) and 1.79 (1.20 to 2.65), respectively compared to patients with eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Gender-specific analysis did not show any major differences between men and women. The adjusted risk of hemorrhagic stroke was somewhat higher than for ischemic stroke: HR 2.07 (1.15 to 3.73) vs. 1.55 (1.26 to 1.91), in patients with eGFR 15 to 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Renal dysfunction is associated with increased long-term risk of stroke after primary isolated CABG. The impact of renal dysfunction on risk of stroke appears to be similar for both men and women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Driving After a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Association.org Professionals for Stroke Association.org Shop for Stroke Association.org Support for Stroke Association. ... a wheelchair accessible or modified van, truck or car can provide the assurance you need to feel ...

  17. Thrombolysis in Postoperative Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Nicolas; Hubert, Nikolai Dominik; Backhaus, Roland; Haberl, Roman Ludwig; Hubert, Gordian Jan

    2017-11-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is beneficial in reducing disability in selected patients with acute ischemic stroke. There are numerous contraindications to IVT. One is recent surgery. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety of IVT in patients with postoperative stroke. Data of consecutive IVT patients from the Telemedical Project for Integrative Stroke Care thrombolysis registry (February 2003 to October 2014; n=4848) were retrospectively searched for keywords indicating preceding surgery. Patients were included if surgery was performed within the last 90 days before stroke. The primary outcome was defined as surgical site hemorrhage. Subgroups with major/minor surgery and recent/nonrecent surgery (within 10 days before IVT) were analyzed separately. One hundred thirty-four patients underwent surgical intervention before IVT. Surgery had been performed recently (days 1-10) in 49 (37%) and nonrecently (days 11-90) in 85 patients (63%). In 86 patients (64%), surgery was classified as major, and in 48 (36%) as minor. Nine patients (7%) developed surgical site hemorrhage after IVT, of whom 4 (3%) were serious, but none was fatal. One fatal bleeding occurred remotely from surgical area. Rate of surgical site hemorrhage was significantly higher in recent than in nonrecent surgery (14.3% versus 2.4%, respectively, odds ratio adjusted 10.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.88-61.27). Difference between patients with major and minor surgeries was less distinct (8.1% and 4.2%, respectively; odds ratio adjusted 4.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-25.04). Overall in-hospital mortality was 8.2%. Intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 9.7% and was asymptomatic in all cases. IVT may be administered safely in postoperative patients as off-label use after appropriate risk-benefit assessment. However, bleeding risk in surgical area should be taken into account particularly in patients who have undergone surgery shortly before stroke onset. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Relationship Between Visceral Infarction and Ischemic Stroke Subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Caitlin; Hung, Peter; Patel, Praneil; Gupta, Ajay; Kamel, Hooman

    2018-03-01

    Most cryptogenic strokes are thought to have an embolic source. We sought to determine whether cryptogenic strokes are associated with visceral infarcts, which are usually embolic. Among patients prospectively enrolled in CAESAR (Cornell Acute Stroke Academic Registry), we selected those with a contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomographic scan within 1 year of admission. Our exposure variable was adjudicated stroke subtype per the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification. Our outcome was renal or splenic infarction as assessed by a single radiologist blinded to stroke subtype. We used Fisher exact test and multiple logistic regression to compare the prevalence of visceral infarcts among cardioembolic strokes, strokes of undetermined etiology, and noncardioembolic strokes (large- or small-vessel strokes). Among 227 patients with ischemic stroke and a contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomographic scan, 59 had a visceral infarct (35 renal and 27 splenic). The prevalence of visceral infarction was significantly different among cardioembolic strokes (34.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23.7%-44.6%), strokes of undetermined etiology (23.9%; 95% CI, 15.0%-32.8%), and strokes from large-artery atherosclerosis or small-vessel occlusion (12.5%; 95% CI, 1.8%-23.2%; P =0.03). In multiple logistic regression models adjusted for demographics and vascular comorbidities, we found significant associations with visceral infarction for both cardioembolic stroke (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.2-9.9) and stroke of undetermined source (odds ratio, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.1-10.5) as compared with noncardioembolic stroke. The prevalence of visceral infarction differed significantly across ischemic stroke subtypes. Cardioembolic and cryptogenic strokes were associated with a higher prevalence of visceral infarcts than noncardioembolic strokes. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Alcohol consumption and the risk of morbidity and mortality for different stroke types - a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roerecke Michael

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Observational studies have suggested a complex relationship between alcohol consumption and stroke, dependent on sex, type of stroke and outcome (morbidity vs. mortality. We undertook a systematic review and a meta-analysis of studies assessing the association between levels of average alcohol consumption and relative risks of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes separately by sex and outcome. This meta-analysis is the first to explicitly separate morbidity and mortality of alcohol-attributable stroke and thus has implications for public health and prevention. Methods Using Medical Subject Headings (alcohol drinking, ethanol, cerebrovascular accident, cerebrovascular disorders, and intracranial embolism and thrombosis and the key word stroke, a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CABS, WHOlist, SIGLE, ETOH, and Web of Science databases between 1980 to June 2009 was performed followed by manual searches of bibliographies of key retrieved articles. From twenty-six observational studies (cohort or case-control with ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes the relative risk or odds ratios or hazard ratios of stroke associated with alcohol consumption were reported; alcohol consumption was quantified; and life time abstention (manually estimated where data for current abstainers were given was used as the reference group. Two reviewers independently extracted the information on study design, participant characteristics, level of alcohol consumption, stroke outcome, control for potential confounding factors, risk estimates and key criteria of study quality using a standardized protocol. Results The dose-response relationship for hemorrhagic stroke had monotonically increasing risk for increasing consumption, whereas ischemic stroke showed a curvilinear relationship, with a protective effect of alcohol for low to moderate consumption, and increased risk for higher exposure. For more than 3 drinks on average/day, in general women had

  20. Influenza vaccination reduces hemorrhagic stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Wang, Ta-Jung; Sung, Li-Chin; Kao, Pai-Feng; Yang, Tsung-Yeh; Hao, Wen-Rui; Chen, Chun-Chao; Hsu, Yi-Ping; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2017-04-01

    The risk of hemorrhagic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is low but the consequences of its occurrence are extremely severe. In this study, we investigated the association of influenza vaccination with the risk of hemorrhagic stroke to develop an efficient strategy for reducing this risk in patients with AF. In this study, data were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised all patients who received a diagnosis of AF (n=14,454) before January 1, 2005 (index date) and were followed until December 31, 2012. Propensity scores were calculated using a logistic regression model to determine the effects of vaccination by accounting for covariates that predict receiving the intervention (vaccine). A time-dependent Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) for hemorrhagic stroke in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients with AF. The study population comprised 6570 patients who did (2547 [38.77%]) and did not receive (4023 [61.23%]) influenza vaccination. The adjusted HRs (aHRs) for hemorrhagic stroke were lower in the vaccinated patients than in the unvaccinated patients (influenza season, noninfluenza season, and all seasons: aHRs=0.97 [0.59-1.60], 0.51 [0.30-0.87], and 0.72 [0.50-1.03], respectively). Influenza vaccination exerts dose-response and synergistic protective effects against hemorrhagic stroke in patients with AF who have a high risk of hemorrhagic stroke (i.e., male sex, age≥75years, Charlson comorbidity index ≥3, and hypertension) and reduces the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk of Stroke-Associated Pneumonia With Acid-Suppressive Drugs: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sai-Wai; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yang, Shun-Fa; Yeh, Ying-Tung; Wang, Yu-Hsun; Yeh, Chao-Bin

    2015-07-01

    Acid-suppressive drugs, including histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), are common medications used for treating upper gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, acid-suppressive drugs have been reported to increase the risk of pneumonia in numerous disease populations. However, the relationship between acid-suppressive drugs and stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between acid-suppressive drug usage and pneumonia among patients with stroke by using a nationwide data set. A population-based cohort study was conducted using a data set from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database. Data on patients with new-onset stroke from 2010 to 2011 were collected. Patients with and without acid-suppressive drug usage were followed up to identify the occurrence of any type of pneumonia. We estimated the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) by using the Cox proportional hazards model. The study cohort comprised 7965 patients with new-onset stroke. The incidence of pneumonia was 6.9% (552/7965) and more than 40% (225/552) of patients developed pneumonia within 3 months after an acute stroke. Acid-suppressive drug usage was an independent risk factor of pneumonia. The adjusted HR for the risk of pneumonia in patients with new-onset stroke using acid-suppressive drugs was 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-1.75, P risk of chronic SAP (adjusted HR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.04-2.05). Acid-suppressive drug usage was associated with a slightly increased risk of SAP. Physicians should exercise caution when prescribing acid-suppressive drugs to patients with stroke, particularly at the chronic stage.

  2. Chocolate consumption and risk of stroke among men and women: A large population-based, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jia-Yi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-05-01

    Chocolate consumption may have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health, but evidence from prospective cohort studies is still limited. We aimed to examine the prospective associations between chocolate consumption and risk of stroke among men and women in a large population-based cohort. A total of 38,182 men and 46,415 women aged 44-76 years, and free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at baseline in 1995 and 1998, were followed up until the end of 2009 and 2010, respectively. We obtained data on chocolate consumption for each participant using a self-administrated food frequency questionnaire that included 138 food and beverage items. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of stroke in relation to chocolate consumption. During a median follow-up of 12.9 years, we identified 3558 incident strokes cases (2146 cerebral infarctions and 1396 hemorrhagic strokes). After adjustment for age, body mass index, life styles, dietary intakes, and other risk factors, chocolate consumption was associated with a significant lower risk of stroke in women (HR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99). However, the association in men was not significant (HR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.80-1.10). In addition, the association did not vary by stroke subtypes in either men or women. Findings from this large Japanese cohort supported a significant inverse association between chocolate consumption and risk of developing stroke in women. However, residual confounding could not be excluded as an alternative explanation for our findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Early menopause predicts future coronary heart disease and stroke: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, Melissa; Ouyang, Pamela; Schreiner, Pamela J; Herrington, David M; Vaidya, Dhananjay

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of women. Identifying women at risk of cardiovascular disease has tremendous public health importance. Early menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular disease events in some predominantly white populations, but not consistently. Our objective was to determine if self-reported early menopause (menopause at an age menopause (either natural menopause or surgical removal of ovaries at an age menopause. In survival curves, women with early menopause had worse coronary heart disease and stroke-free survival (log rank P = 0.008 and P = 0.0158). In models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, Multi-ethnic Study Atherosclerosis site, and traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, this risk for coronary heart disease and stroke remained (hazard ratio, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.17-3.70; and hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.11-4.32, respectively). Early menopause is positively associated with coronary heart disease and stroke in a multiethnic cohort, independent of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  4. Renal dysfunction and chronic kidney disease in ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Derek; McCarthy, Christine; Akijian, Layan; Callaly, Elizabeth; Ní Chróinín, Danielle; Horgan, Gillian; Kyne, Lorraine; Duggan, Joseph; Dolan, Eamon; O' Rourke, Killian; Williams, David; Murphy, Sean; O'Meara, Yvonne; Kelly, Peter J

    2017-10-01

    Background and purpose The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) chronic kidney disease (CKD)) in ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) is unknown, as estimates have been based on single-point estimates of renal function. Studies investigating the effect of renal dysfunction (eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 , renal dysfunction) on post-stroke outcomes are limited to hospitalized cohorts and have provided conflicting results. Methods We investigated rates, determinants and outcomes of renal dysfunction in ischemic stroke and TIA in the North Dublin Population Stroke Study. We also investigate the persistence of renal dysfunction in 90-day survivors to determine the prevalence of CKD. Ascertainment included hot and cold pursuit using multiple overlapping sources. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results In 547 patients (ischemic stroke in 76.4%, TIA in 23.6%), the mean eGFR at presentation was 63.7 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (SD 22.1). Renal dysfunction was observed in 44.6% (244/547). Among 90-day survivors, 31.2% (139/446) met criteria for CKD. After adjusting for age and stroke severity, eGFR < 45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (hazard ratio 2.53, p = 0.01) independently predicted 28-day fatality but not at two years. Poor post-stroke functional outcome (Modified Rankin Scale 3-5) at two years was more common in those with renal dysfunction (52.5% vs. 20.6%, p < 0.001). After adjusting for age, stroke severity and pre-stroke disability, renal dysfunction (OR 2.17, p = 0.04) predicted poor functional outcome. Conclusion Renal dysfunction and CKD are common in ischemic stroke and TIA. Renal dysfunction is associated with considerable post-stroke morbidity and mortality. Further studies are needed to investigate if modifiable mechanisms underlie these associations.

  5. Lipoprotein (a) as a risk factor for ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Alexander H; Lange, Kristin S; Leonards, Christopher O; Siegerink, Bob; Doehner, Wolfram; Landmesser, Ulf; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Endres, Matthias; Ebinger, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] harbors atherogenic potential but its role as a risk factor for ischemic stroke remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the relative strength of the association between Lp(a) and ischemic stroke and identify potential subgroup-specific risk differences. A systematic search using the MeSH terms "lipoproteins" OR "lipoprotein a" AND "stroke" was performed in PubMed and ScienceDirect for case-control studies from June 2006 and prospective cohort studies from April 2009 until December 20th 2014. Data from eligible papers published before these dates were reviewed and extracted from previous meta-analyses. Studies that assessed the relationship between Lp(a) levels and ischemic stroke and reported generic data-i.e. odds ratio [OR], hazard ratio, or risk ratio [RR]-were eligible for inclusion. Studies that not distinguish between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and transient ischemic attack were excluded. Random effects meta-analyses with mixed-effects meta-regression were performed by pooling adjusted OR or RR. A total of 20 articles comprising 90,904 subjects and 5029 stroke events were eligible for the meta-analysis. Comparing high with low Lp(a) levels, the pooled estimated OR was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.26-1.57) for case-control studies (n = 11) and the pooled estimated RR was 1.29 (95% CI, 1.06-1.58) for prospective studies (n = 9). Sex-specific differences in RR were inconsistent between case-control and prospective studies. Study populations with a mean age of ≤55 years had an increased RR compared to older study populations. Reported Lp(a) contrast levels and ischemic stroke subtype significantly contributed to the heterogeneity observed in the analyses. Elevated Lp(a) is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke and may be especially relevant for young stroke patients. Sex-specific risk differences remain conflicting. Further studies in these subgroups may be warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  6. The risk of stroke after spinal fusion surgery: a national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jau-Ching; Chen, Yu-Chun; Liu, Laura; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Thien, Peck-Foong; Cheng, Henrich; Lo, Su-Shun

    2012-06-01

    Postoperative stroke is a rare complication of spinal fusion surgery, but its relevant risk and incidence remain unclear. To investigate the incidence and risk of stroke after spinal fusion surgery. Cohort study. All study subjects were extracted from a nationwide representative cohort of one million people from 2000 to 2005. Stroke, including hemorrhagic and ischemic, during the study period. An exposure group of 2,249 subjects who received spinal fusion surgery during the study period was compared with 2,203 control subjects matched by age, sex, and propensity score. All were followed up for 3 years for all kinds of stroke. Demographics, comorbidities, and nonmeasurable covariates were matched between the two groups. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed, with adjustments by Cox regression model. There were 4,452 subjects, including 2,249 spinal fusion patients and 2,203 controls, who were followed up for 12,967 person-years. The incidence rates of any, hemorrhagic, and ischemic strokes were 9.95, 1.21, and 8.86, respectively, per 1,000 person-years in the spinal fusion group and 11.5, 1.69, and 9.93, respectively, in the comparison group. Patients who received spinal fusion surgery were less likely to have any stroke (crude hazard ratio [HR]=0.87, p=.393), hemorrhagic stroke (HR=0.72, p=.473), and ischemic stroke (HR=0.89, p=.582) than the comparison group but without statistical significance. After adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and medications, there were still no significant differences for risks of any, hemorrhagic, and ischemic strokes (adjusted HR=0.89, 1.36, and 0.87; p=.522, .553, and .477, respectively) in the spinal fusion group. Patients receiving spinal fusion surgery have similar incidence rates of having a stroke within 3 years postoperation as those without surgery. Risks of any postoperative stroke are similar or insignificantly lower in the spinal fusion group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Wen Dan Decoction for hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Hua; Huang, Yan-Mei; Ling, Wei; Li, Yang; Wang, Min; Chen, Xiang-Yan; Sui, Yi; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2015-04-01

    The use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in stroke is increasing worldwide. Here we report the existing clinical evidence of the Pinellia Ternata containing formula Wen Dan Decoction (WDD) for the treatment of ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. PubMed, CNKI, Wan Fang database, Cochrane Library and online Clinical Trial Registry were searched up to 26 February 2013 for randomized, controlled clinical trials (RCTs) using WDD as intervention versus Western conventional medicine as control to treat stroke. Clinical outcomes were improvement of the Neurological Functional Deficit Scores (NFDS) and overall therapeutic efficacy rates including rate of cure. Meta-regression analysis using Hedges'g was performed for RCTs with significant heterogeneity. A total of 22 RCTs of ischemic stroke and 4 RCTs of hemorrhagic stroke, involving 2214 patients (1167 used WDD), met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of the 13 RCTs reporting NFDS improvement favored WDD over the control (mean difference=-3.40, 95% confidence intervals [CI]=[-4.64, -2.15]). Rate of overall therapeutic efficacy (odds ratio [OR]=3.39, 95%CI=[1.81, 6.37]) for hemorrhagic stroke were significantly higher in WDD treated patients than the control subjects. In the 1898 patients with ischemic stroke, WDD medication also achieved higher rates of cure (OR=2.22, 95%CI=[1.66, 2.97]) and overall therapeutic efficacy (OR=3.31, 95%CI=[2.54, 4.31]) than the conventional treatment. WDD displays benefits on improvement of neurological function and overall therapeutic efficacy in post-stroke patients. TCM such as WDD may serve as a therapeutic tool of dual actions to explore the common mechanisms underlying cerebral hemorrhage and ischemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stroke while driving: Frequency and association with automobile accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamasu, Joji; Nakatsukasa, Masashi; Tomiyasu, Kazuhiro; Mayanagi, Keita; Nishimoto, Masaaki; Oshima, Takeo; Yoshii, Masami; Miyatake, Satoru; Imai, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular events while driving have occasionally been reported. In contrast, there have been few studies on stroke while driving. Aim The objectives of this study were to (1) report the frequency of stroke while driving and (2) evaluate its association with automobile accidents. Methods Clinical data prospectively acquired between January 2011 and December 2016 on 2145 stroke patients (1301 with ischemic stroke, 585 with intracerebral hemorrhage, and 259 with subarachnoid hemorrhage) were reviewed to identify patients who sustained a stroke while driving. The ratio of driving to performing other activities was evaluated for each stroke type. Furthermore, the drivers' response to stroke was reviewed to understand how automobile accidents occurred. Results Among the 2145 patients, 85 (63 ischemic stroke, 20 intracerebral hemorrhage, and 2 subarachnoid hemorrhage) sustained a stroke while driving. The ratio of driving to performing other activities was significantly higher in ischemic stroke (4.8%) than in intracerebral hemorrhage (3.4%) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (0.8%). A majority of drivers either continued driving or pulled over to the roadside after suffering a stroke. However, 14 (16%) patients were involved in automobile accidents. In most patients, an altered mental status due to severe stroke was the presumed cause of the accident. Conclusion Stroke occurred while driving in 4.0% of all strokes and accidents occurred in 16% of these instances.

  9. Heat Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Sofie Søndergaard; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren; Bestle, Morten Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    and mortality. This case report describes two Danish patients diagnosed with heat stroke syndrome during a heat wave in the summer of 2014. Both patients were morbidly obese and had several predisposing illnesses. However since heat stroke is a rare condition in areas with temperate climate, they were...... not diagnosed until several days after admittance; hence treatment with cooling was delayed. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, where they were treated with an external cooling device and received treatment for complications. Both cases ended fatally. As global warming continues, more heat...

  10. Stroke etiology and collaterals: atheroembolic strokes have greater collateral recruitment than cardioembolic strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, L C; Bouslama, M; Haussen, D C; Grossberg, J A; Dehkharghani, S; Anderson, A; Belagaje, S R; Bianchi, N A; Grigoryan, M; Frankel, M R; Nogueira, R G

    2017-06-01

    Chronic hypoperfusion from athero-stenotic lesions is thought to lead to better collateral recruitment compared to cardioembolic strokes. It was sought to compare collateral flow in stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) versus stroke patients with cervical atherosclerotic steno-occlusive disease (CASOD). This was a retrospective review of a prospectively collected endovascular database. Patients with (i) anterior circulation large vessel occlusion stroke, (ii) pre-treatment computed tomography angiography (CTA) and (iii) intracranial embolism from AF or CASOD were included. CTA collateral patterns were evaluated and categorized into two groups: absent/poor collaterals (CTA collateral score 0-1) versus moderate/good collaterals (CTA collateral score 2-4). CT perfusion was also utilized for baseline core volume and evaluation of infarct growth. A total of 122 patients fitted the inclusion criteria, of whom 88 (72%) had AF and 34 (27%) CASOD. Patients with AF were older (P Collateral scores were lower in the AF group (P = 0.01) with patients having poor collaterals in 28% of cases versus 9% in the CASOD group (P = 0.03). Mortality rates (20% vs. 0%; P = 0.02) were higher in the AF patients whilst rates of any parenchymal hemorrhage (6% vs. 26%; P collaterals (odds ratio 4.70; 95% confidence interval 1.17-18.79; P = 0.03). Atheroembolic strokes seem to be associated with better collateral flow compared to cardioembolic strokes. This may in part explain the worse outcomes of AF-related stroke. © 2017 EAN.

  11. Men Lacking a Caregiver Have Greater Risk of Long-Term Nursing Home Placement After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Justin; Albright, Karen C; Haley, William E; Howard, Virginia J; Roth, David L; Safford, Monika M; Kilgore, Meredith L

    2018-01-01

    Social support can prevent or delay long-term nursing home placement (NHP). The purpose of our study was to understand how the availability of a caregiver can affect NHP after ischemic stroke and how this affects different subgroups differently. Nested cohort study. Nationally based REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Stroke survivors aged 65 to 100 (256 men, 304 women). Data were from Medicare claims from January 2003 to December 2013 and REGARDS baseline interviews conducted from January 2003 to October 2007. Caregiver support was measured by asking, "If you had a serious illness or became disabled, do you have someone who would be able to provide care for you on an on-going basis?" Diagnosis of ischemic stroke was derived from inpatient claims. NHP was determined using a validated claims algorithm for stays of 100 days and longer. Risk was estimated using Cox regression. Within 5 years of stroke, 119 (21.3%) participants had been placed in a nursing home. Risk of NHP was greater in those lacking available caregivers (log-rank P = .006). After adjustment for covariates, lacking an available caregiver increased the risk of NHP after stroke within 1 year by 70% (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.97-2.99) and within 5 years by 68% (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.10-2.58). The effect of caregiver availability on NHP within 5 years was limited to men (HR = 3.15, 95% CI = 1.49-6.67). In men aged 65 and older who have survived an ischemic stroke, the lack of an available caregiver is associated with triple the risk of NHP within 5 years. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Increased Vascular Disease Mortality Risk in Prediabetic Korean Adults Is Mainly Attributable to Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hoon; Kwon, Tae Yeon; Yu, Sungwook; Kim, Nan Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Park, Yousung; Kim, Sin Gon

    2017-04-01

    Prediabetes is a known risk factor for vascular diseases; however, its differential contribution to mortality risk from various vascular disease subtypes is not known. The subjects of the National Health Insurance Service in Korea (2002-2013) nationwide cohort were stratified into normal glucose tolerance (fasting glucose disease and its subtypes-ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke. When adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index, IFG stage 2, but not stage 1, was associated with significantly higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.34) and vascular disease mortality (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.08-1.49) compared with normal glucose tolerance. Among the vascular disease subtypes, mortality from ischemic stroke was significantly higher (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.18-2.18) in subjects with IFG stage 2 but not from ischemic heart disease and hemorrhagic stroke. The ischemic stroke mortality associated with IFG stage 2 remained significantly high when adjusted other modifiable vascular disease risk factors (HR, 1.51; 95% CI: 1.10-2.09) and medical treatments (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.19-2.57). Higher IFG degree (fasting glucose, 110-125 mg/dL) was associated with increased all-cause and vascular disease mortality. The increased vascular disease mortality in IFG stage 2 was attributable to ischemic stroke, but not ischemic heart disease or hemorrhagic stroke in Korean adults. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor: a risk factor for carotid plaque, stroke, and coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Margaretha; Östling, Gerd; Smith, Gustav; Hamrefors, Viktor; Melander, Olle; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the urokinase system could have an important role in atherogenesis and plaque rupture. The relationships among the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), carotid plaque, and incidence of ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD) events were studied in a prospective cohort. Occurrence of carotid plaque and plasma levels of suPAR were assessed in 5166 men and women, aged 45 to 68 years, participating in the Malmö Diet and Cancer study. Incidences of ischemic stroke and CAD were monitored during a mean follow-up of 15 years. Subjects with carotid plaque had significantly higher levels of suPAR compared with those without carotid plaque. suPAR was associated with increased incidence of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [HR] for third versus first tertile, 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.11) and CAD (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.13-2.13) after adjustment for risk factors. The risk factor-adjusted HR for ischemic stroke was 2.21 (95% CI, 1.52-3.22) in subjects with carotid plaque and high suPAR (ie, third tertile) and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.05-2.17) in subjects with carotid plaque and low suPAR compared with those without carotid plaque and low suPAR (reference). High levels of suPAR significantly increased the risk of ischemic stroke and CAD in subjects with carotid plaque. suPAR is associated with increased occurrence of carotid plaque and increased incidence of ischemic stroke and CAD. Presence of both elevated levels of suPAR and carotid plaque increases the risk of ischemic stroke in an additive way.

  14. Increased Risk of Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Strokes in Patients With Splenic Injury and Splenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Chih-Hui; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The spleen is a crucial organ in humans. Little is known about the association between stroke and splenic injury or splenectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of stroke in patients with splenic injury and splenectomy. A nationwide cohort study was conducted by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. For comparison, control patients were selected and matched with splenic injury patients in a ratio of 4:1 according to age, sex, and the year of hospitalization. We analyzed the risks of stroke using a Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis. A total of 11,273 splenic injury patients, including 5294 splenectomized and 5979 nonsplenectomized patients, and 45,092 control patients were included in this study. The incidence rates of stroke were 8.05, 6.53, and 4.25 per 1000 person-years in splenic injury patients with splenectomy, those without splenectomy, and the control cohort, respectively. Compared with the control cohort, splenic injury patients with splenectomy exhibited a 2.05-fold increased risk of stroke (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8–2.34), whereas those without splenectomy exhibited a 1.74-fold increased risk (95% CI 1.51–2). Splenectomy entailed an additional 1.21-fold increased risk of stroke compared with nonsplenectomy in patients with splenic injury. This study revealed that splenic injury and splenectomy were significantly associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. The results of this study may alert physicians and patients to the complications of splenic injury and splenectomy. PMID:26334909

  15. Factor V leiden and ischemic stroke risk: the Genetics of Early Onset Stroke (GEOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedani, Ali G; Cole, John W; Cheng, Yuching; Sparks, Mary J; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Stine, Oscar C; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2013-05-01

    Factor V Leiden (FVL) has been associated with ischemic stroke in children but not in adults. Although the FVL mutation is associated with increased risk for venous thrombosis, its association with ischemic stroke in young adults remains uncertain. Therefore, we examined the association between FVL and ischemic stroke in participants of the Genetics of Early Onset Stroke (GEOS) study. A population-based case control study identified 354 women and 476 men 15 to 49 years of age with first-ever ischemic stroke and 907 controls. Participant-specific data included vascular risk factors, FVL genotype and, for cases, the ischemic stroke subtype by modified Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke criteria. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the entire population and for subgroups stratified by risk factors and ischemic stroke subtype. The frequency of the FVL mutation was similar between ischemic stroke patients (3.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5%-5.1%) and nonstroke controls (3.8%; 95% CI 2.7%-5.2%). This frequency did not change significantly when cases were restricted to patients with stroke of undetermined etiology (4.1%; 95% CI 2.6%-6.4%). Among young adults, we found no evidence for an association between FVL and either all ischemic stroke or the subgroup with stroke of undetermined etiology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Malnutrition risk predicts recovery of full oral intake among older adult stroke patients undergoing enteral nutrition: Secondary analysis of a multicentre survey (the APPLE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Shinta; Okamoto, Takatsugu; Takayama, Masako; Urushihara, Maki; Watanabe, Misuzu; Kiriya, Yumiko; Shintani, Keiko; Nakagomi, Hiromi; Kageyama, Noriko

    2017-08-01

    Whether malnutrition risk correlates with recovery of swallowing function of convalescent stroke patients is unknown. This study was conducted to clarify whether malnutrition risks predict achievement of full oral intake in convalescent stroke patients undergoing enteral nutrition. We conducted a secondary analysis of 466 convalescent stroke patients, aged 65 years or over, who were undergoing enteral nutrition. Patients were extracted from the "Algorithm for Post-stroke Patients to improve oral intake Level; APPLE" study database compiled at the Kaifukuki (convalescent) rehabilitation wards. Malnutrition risk was determined by the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index as follows: severe (malnutrition risks (≥98). Swallowing function was assessed by Fujishima's swallowing grade (FSG) on admission and discharge. The primary outcome was achievement of full oral intake, indicated by FSG ≥ 7. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictive factors, including malnutrition risk, for achieving full oral intake. Estimated hazard risk was computed by Cox's hazard model. Of the 466 individuals, 264 were ultimately included in this study. Participants with severe malnutrition risk showed a significantly lower proportion of achievement of full oral intake than lower severity groups (P = 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, binary logistic regression analysis showed that patients with severe malnutrition risk were less likely to achieve full oral intake (adjusted odds ratio: 0.232, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.047-1.141). Cox's proportional hazard model revealed that severe malnutrition risk was an independent predictor of full oral intake (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.374, 95% CI: 0.166-0.842). Compared to patients who did not achieve full oral intake, patients who achieved full oral intake had significantly higher energy intake, but there was no difference in protein intake and weight change. Severe malnutrition risk independently

  17. Reproductive Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the ability to have children. Something that affects reproductive health is called a reproductive hazard. Examples include: Radiation Metals such as lead and mercury Chemicals such as pesticides Cigarettes Some viruses Alcohol For men, a reproductive hazard can affect the ...

  18. BMI increase through puberty and adolescence is associated with risk of adult stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Claes; Bygdell, Maria; Sondén, Arvid; Jern, Christina; Rosengren, Annika; Kindblom, Jenny M

    2017-07-25

    To evaluate the contribution of prepubertal childhood body mass index (BMI) and BMI change through puberty and adolescence, 2 distinct developmental BMI parameters, for risk of adult stroke in men. In this population-based study in Gothenburg, Sweden, men born in 1945-1961 with information on both childhood BMI at age 8 and BMI change through puberty and adolescence (BMI at age 20-BMI at age 8) were followed until December 2013 (n = 37,669). Information on stroke events was retrieved from high-quality national registers (918 first stroke events, 672 ischemic stroke events [IS], 207 intracerebral hemorrhage events [ICH]). BMI increase through puberty and adolescence (hazard ratio [HR] 1.21 per SD increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.28), but not childhood BMI, was independently associated with risk of adult stroke. Subanalyses revealed that BMI increase through puberty and adolescence was associated with both IS (HR per SD increase 1.19; 95% CI 1.11-1.28) and ICH (HR per SD increase 1.29; 95% CI 1.15-1.46). High BMI increase during puberty was strongly associated with increased risk of adult hypertension (odds ratio per SD increase 1.35; 95% CI 1.32-1.39). BMI increase through puberty and adolescence is associated with risk of adult IS and ICH in men. We propose that greater BMI increases during puberty contribute to increased risk of adult stroke at least partly via increased blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Parkinson's disease is related to an increased risk of ischemic stroke-a population-based propensity score-matched follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ping Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The risk of stroke in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD remains controversial. The purpose of this population-based propensity score-matched longitudinal follow-up study was to determine whether there is an increased risk of ischemic stroke after PD. METHODS: We used a logistic regression model that includes age, sex, pre-existing comorbidities and socioeconomic status as covariates to compute the propensity score. A total of 2204 patients with at least two ambulatory visits with the principal diagnosis of PD in 2001 was enrolled in the PD group. The non- PD group consisted of 2204, propensity score-matched subjects without PD. The ischemic stroke-free survival rates of the two groups were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression with patients matched on propensity score was used to estimate the effect of PD on the occurrence of ischemic stroke. RESULTS: During the three-year follow-up period, 328 subjects in the PD group and 156 subjects in the non-PD group developed ischemic stroke. The ischemic stroke-free survival rate of the PD group was significantly lower than that of the non-PD group (P<0.0001. The hazard ratio (HR of stroke for the PD group was 2.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.92 to 2.93, P<0.0001 compared to the non- PD group. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a significantly increased risk of ischemic stroke in PD patients. Further studies are required to investigate the underlying mechanism.

  20. [Physio- and occupational therapy pathways of stroke patients and stroke mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschke, D; Schnitzer, S; Kuhlmey, A; Schenk, L

    2014-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between adherence to clinical guidelines and survival time in the first year after stroke. The sample comprises all clients of the Deutsche BKK, a large German health insurance company, who received acute inpatient care for stroke in 2007, who survived the hospital stay by at least 14 days, and who had motor deficits at the end of their acute treatment (n=1 791). 3 types of treatment that differ in the degree of adherence to clinical guidelines are identified ("Frühreha-Plus">"Standard-Plus">"Nur Akut"). There is a positive relationship between adherence to clinical guidelines and survival time, even when relevant covariates are controlled. The hazard-ratios are 0.49 for "Frühreha-Plus" and 0.65 for "Standard-Plus" compared to "Nur Akut". Healthcare processes should be organized on the basis of cross-sector collaboration and in line with the recommendations of the guidelines. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Echocardiographic Risk Factors for Stroke and Outcomes in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Anticoagulated With Apixaban or Warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinereanu, Dragos; Lopes, Renato D; Mulder, Hillary; Gersh, Bernard J; Hanna, Michael; de Barros E Silva, Pedro G M; Atar, Dan; Wallentin, Lars; Granger, Christopher B; Alexander, John H

    2017-12-01

    Few data exist on the long-term outcomes of patients with spontaneous echo contrast (SEC), left atrial/left atrial appendage (LA/LAA) thrombus, and complex aortic plaque (CAP), in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving oral anticoagulation. We explored the relationship between these 3 echocardiographic findings and clinical outcomes, and the comparative efficacy and safety of apixaban and warfarin for each finding. Patients from the ARISTOTLE trial (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) with SEC, LA/LAA thrombus, or CAP diagnosed by either transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography were compared with patients with none of these findings on transesophageal echocardiography. A total of 1251 patients were included: 217 had SEC, 127 had LA/LAA thrombus, 241 had CAP, and 746 had none. The rates of stroke/systemic embolism were not significantly different among patients with and without these echocardiographic findings (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-3.60 for SEC; hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-6.86 for LA/LAA thrombus; hazard ratio, 2.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-6.85 for CAP). Rates of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death were also not different between patients with and without these findings. For patients with either SEC or CAP, there was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban over warfarin. For patients with LA/LAA thrombus, there was also no significant interaction, with the exception of all-cause death and any bleeding where there was a greater benefit of apixaban compared with warfarin among patients with no LA/LAA thrombus. In anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation and risk factors for stroke, echocardiographic findings do not seem to add to the risk of thromboembolic events. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00412984. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Long-Term Risk of Stroke in Patients With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Thomas; Holzmann, Martin J; Sartipy, Ulrik

    2015-11-09

    We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to investigate the long-term risk of stroke after coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. All patients who underwent primary coronary artery bypass grafting in Sweden from 2000 through 2011 were included from the SWEDEHEART register. We excluded patients with prior stroke, and patients who had a stroke or died within 30 days of surgery. The National Diabetes Register was used to identify patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Incident stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic), and all-cause mortality was obtained by record linkage with the National Patient Register and the Cause of Death register. We used multivariable Cox regression to estimate the risk of stroke in relation to type of diabetes. A total of 53 820 patients (type 1 diabetes [n=714], type 2 diabetes [n=10 054], no diabetes [n=43 052]) were included. During a mean follow-up of 7.4 years (398 337 person-years), in total, 8.0% (n=4296) of the patients had a stroke: 7.3% (n=52) in patients with type 1 diabetes, 9.1% (n=915) in patients with type 2 diabetes, and 7.7% (n=3329) in patients with no diabetes. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) for all stroke was 1.59 (1.20-2.11) in type 1 diabetes, and 1.32 (1.23-1.43) in type 2 diabetes. The long-term risk for stroke after coronary artery bypass grafting was increased in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, compared to patients with no diabetes. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and fatal outcomes in the post-stroke event: a 5-year cohort study in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Vounsia Balti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Determinants of post-acute stroke outcomes in Africa have been less investigated. We assessed the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS and insulin resistance with post-stroke mortality in patients with first-ever-in-lifetime stroke in the capital city of Cameroon (sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Patients with an acute first-stroke event (n = 57 were recruited between May and October 2006, and followed for 5 years for mortality outcome. MetS definition was based on the Joint Interim Statement 2009, insulin sensitivity/resistance assessed via glucose-to-insulin ratio, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostatic model assessment. RESULTS: Overall, 24 (42% patients deceased during follow-up. The prevalence of MetS was higher in patients who died after 28 days, 1 year and 5 years from any cause or cardiovascular-related causes (all p≤0.040. MetS was associated with an increased overall mortality both after 1 year (39% vs. 9% and 5 years of follow-up (55% vs. 26%, p = 0.022. Similarly, fatal events due to cardiovascular-related conditions were more frequent in the presence of MetS both 1 year (37% vs. 9% and 5 years after the first-ever-in-lifetime stroke (43% vs. 13%, p = 0.017. Unlike biochemical measures of insulin sensitivity and resistance (non-significant, in age- and sex-adjusted Cox models, MetS was associated with hazard ratio (95% CI of 2.63 (1.03-6.73 and 3.54 (1.00-12.56 respectively for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality 5 years after stroke onset. CONCLUSION: The Joint Interim Statement 2009 definition of MetS may aid the identification of a subgroup of black African stroke patients who may benefit from intensification of risk factor management.

  4. Early depressed mood after stroke predicts long-term disability: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study (NOMASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Joshua Z; Disla, Norbelina; Moon, Yeseon Park; Paik, Myunghee C; Sacco, Ralph L; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Wright, Clinton B

    2010-09-01

    Depression is highly prevalent after stroke and may influence recovery. We aimed to determine whether depressed mood acutely after stroke predicts subsequent disability and mortality. As part of the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study, a population-based incident stroke case follow-up study performed in a multiethnic urban population, participants were asked about depressed mood within 7 to 10 days after stroke. Participants were followed every 6 months the first 2 years and yearly thereafter for 5 years for death and disability measured by the Barthel Index. We fitted polytomous logistic regression models using a canonical link to examine the association between depressed mood after stroke and disability comparing moderate (Barthel Index 60 to 95) and severe (Barthel Index or=95). Cox proportional hazards models were created to examine the association between depressed mood and mortality. A question about depressed mood within 7 to 10 days after stroke was asked in 340 of 655 patients with ischemic stroke enrolled, and 139 reported that they felt depressed. In multivariate analyses controlling for sociodemographic factors, stroke severity, and medical conditions, depressed mood was associated with a greater odds of severe disability compared with no disability at 1 (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.07 to 7.91) and 2 years (OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.29 to 10.71) after stroke. Depressed mood was not associated with all-cause mortality or vascular death. Depressed mood after stroke is associated with disability but not mortality after stroke. Early screening and intervention for mood disorders after stroke may improve outcomes and requires further research.

  5. Predictive impact of daily physical activity on new vascular events in patients with mild ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yuji; Kawajiri, Hiroyuki; Kamisaka, Kenta; Kamiya, Kuniyasu; Akao, Keigo; Asai, Chikako; Inuzuka, Kana; Yamada, Sumio

    2015-02-01

    Daily physical inactivity is associated with a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, the target level of daily physical activity remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the impact of physical activity on long-term vascular events in patients with mild ischemic stroke. We designed a single hospital-based prospective observational study and studied 166 ischemic stroke patients (mean age: 63.9 ± 9.2) who had a modified Rankin Scale 0-1. We measured the daily step count as a variable of the daily physical activity after three-months from the stroke onset. Other clinical characteristics including age, body mass index, blood pressure, blood laboratory tests, vascular function and medications were also assessed. The primary outcomes were hospitalization due to stroke recurrence, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and peripheral artery disease. Survival curves were calculated by a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and the hazard ratios for recurrences were determined by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. After a median follow-up periods of 1332 days, 34 vascular events (23 stroke recurrences, 11 coronary artery disease) and 7 drop-outs occurred, and the remaining patients were divided into two groups: the without recurrence group (n = 125) and the with recurrence group (n = 34). The daily step count was lower in the nonsurvivor group than in the survivor group. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses revealed that the daily step counts was independent predictors of new vascular events. A daily step count cutoff value of 6025 steps per day was determined by analyzing the receiver-operating characteristics that showed a sensitivity of 69.4% and a specificity of 79.4%. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves after a log-rank test showed a significantly lower event rate in the more than 6025 steps per day group compared with the less than 6025 steps per day group (P = 0.0002). The positive and

  6. Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, and Recurrent Major Cardiovascular and Major Bleeding Events in 19 120 Patients With Recent Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Valcarcel, Jaime; Sissani, Leila; Labreuche, Julien; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Chamorro, Angel; Fisher, Marc; Ford, Ian; Fox, Kim M; Hennerici, Michael G; Mattle, Heinrich P; Rothwell, Peter M; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Vicaut, Eric; Amarenco, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The presumed safety of paracetamol in high-cardiovascular risk patients has been questioned. We determined whether paracetamol or ibuprofen use is associated with major cardiovascular events (MACE) or major bleeding in 19 120 patients with recent ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack of mainly atherothrombotic origin included in the Prevention of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events of ischemic origin with terutroban in patients with a history of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (PERFORM) trial. We performed 2 nested case-control analysis (2153 cases with MACE during trial follow-up and 4306 controls matched on Essen stroke risk score; 809 cases with major bleeding matched with 1616 controls) and a separate time-varying analysis. 12.3% were prescribed paracetamol and 2.5% ibuprofen. Median duration of treatment was 14 (interquartile range 5-145) days for paracetamol and 9 (5-30) days for ibuprofen. Paracetamol, but not ibuprofen, was associated with increased risk of MACE (odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.42) or a major bleeding (odds ratio 1.60, 95% CI 1.26-2.03), with no impact of daily dose and duration of paracetamol treatment. Time-varying analysis found an increased risk of MACE with both paracetamol (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.05-1.43) and ibuprofen (hazard ratio 1.47, 95% CI 1.06-2.03) and of major bleeding with paracetamol (hazard ratio 1.95, 95% CI 1.45-2.62). There was a weak and inconsistent signal for association between paracetamol or ibuprofen and MACE or major bleeding, which may be related to either a genuine but modest effect of these drugs or to residual confounding. http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN66157730. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Stroke awareness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Krarup, Lars-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the awareness of major stroke symptoms and stroke risk factors among the general population in Denmark. Early recognition of stroke warning signs and means of reducing stroke occurrence could improve the treatment and prevention of stroke....

  8. ''Hazardous'' terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of terms (e.g., ''hazardous chemicals,'' ''hazardous materials,'' ''hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to ''hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses ''toxic'' nomenclature

  9. Efficacy of folic acid therapy in primary prevention of stroke among adults with hypertension in China: the CSPPT randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yong; Li, Jianping; Qin, Xianhui; Huang, Yining; Wang, Xiaobin; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Tang, Genfu; Wang, Binyan; Chen, Dafang; He, Mingli; Fu, Jia; Cai, Yefeng; Shi, Xiuli; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Yimin; Sun, Ningling; Li, Xiaoying; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Wang, Jian'an; Yang, Xinchun; Yang, Tianlun; Xiao, Chuanshi; Zhao, Gang; Dong, Qiang; Zhu, Dingliang; Wang, Xian; Ge, Junbo; Zhao, Lianyou; Hu, Dayi; Liu, Lisheng; Hou, Fan Fan

    2015-04-07

    Uncertainty remains about the efficacy of folic acid therapy for the primary prevention of stroke because of limited and inconsistent data. To test the primary hypothesis that therapy with enalapril and folic acid is more effective in reducing first stroke than enalapril alone among Chinese adults with hypertension. The China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, a randomized, double-blind clinical trial conducted from May 19, 2008, to August 24, 2013, in 32 communities in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces in China. A total of 20,702 adults with hypertension without history of stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) participated in the study. Eligible participants, stratified by MTHFR C677T genotypes (CC, CT, and TT), were randomly assigned to receive double-blind daily treatment with a single-pill combination containing enalapril, 10 mg, and folic acid, 0.8 mg (n = 10,348) or a tablet containing enalapril, 10 mg, alone (n = 10,354). The primary outcome was first stroke. Secondary outcomes included first ischemic stroke; first hemorrhagic stroke; MI; a composite of cardiovascular events consisting of cardiovascular death, MI, and stroke; and all-cause death. During a median treatment duration of 4.5 years, compared with the enalapril alone group, the enalapril-folic acid group had a significant risk reduction in first stroke (2.7% of participants in the enalapril-folic acid group vs 3.4% in the enalapril alone group; hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.93), first ischemic stroke (2.2% with enalapril-folic acid vs 2.8% with enalapril alone; HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64-0.91), and composite cardiovascular events consisting of cardiovascular death, MI, and stroke (3.1% with enalapril-folic acid vs 3.9% with enalapril alone; HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69-0.92). The risks of hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.65-1.34), MI (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.60-1.82), and all-cause deaths (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.81-1.10) did not differ significantly between the 2 treatment groups. There were no

  10. Welding hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Welding technology is advancing rapidly in the developed countries and has converted into a science. Welding involving the use of electricity include resistance welding. Welding shops are opened in residential area, which was causing safety hazards, particularly the teenagers and children who eagerly see the welding arc with their naked eyes. There are radiation hazards from ultra violet rays which irritate the skin, eye irritation. Welding arc light of such intensity could damage the eyes. (Orig./A.B.)

  11. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  12. Serum Alkaline Phosphatase, Phosphate, and In-Hospital Mortality in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chongke; You, Shoujiang; Chen, Juping; Zhai, Guojie; Du, Huaping; Luo, Yi; Dong, Xiaofeng; Cao, Yongjun; Liu, Chun-Feng; Zhang, Yonghong

    2018-01-01

    The clinical impacts of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and phosphate on early death are not fully understood in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We examined the associations between serum ALP, phosphate, and in-hospital mortality after ischemic stroke. Serum ALP and phosphate were measured in 2944 ischemic stroke patients from 22 hospitals in Suzhou City from December 2013 to May 2014. Cox proportional hazard models and restricted cubic splines were used to estimate the relationships between serum ALP and phosphate (both as categorical and continuous variables) and risk of in-hospital mortality. During hospitalization, 111 patients (3.7%) died from all causes. After multivariable adjustment, the hazard ratio (HR) of the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of ALP was 2.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.00) for early death. Restricted cubic spline analysis indicated a significant linear association between ALP and death (P-linearity = .017). A U-shaped association of phosphate with in-hospital mortality was observed (P-nonlinearity = .011). Compared with the third quartile of phosphate (1.08-1.21 mmol/L), HRs of the lowest and highest quartiles for early death were 2.17 (1.15-4.08) and 1.70 (.88-3.30), respectively. Sensitivity analyses further confirmed our findings. We observed a graded relationship between serum ALP levels and risk of early death in patients with acute ischemic stroke. There was a U-shaped association between phosphate and all-cause mortality with significantly increased risk among patients with lower phosphate levels. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prediction of Pneumonia in Acute Stroke Patients Using Tongue Pressure Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Masahiro; Hosomi, Naohisa; Ishikawa, Kenichi; Imamura, Eiji; Shishido, Takeo; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Yoshikawa, Mineka; Tsuga, Kazuhiro; Wakabayashi, Shinichi; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2016-01-01

    Swallowing dysfunction caused by stroke is a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia. Tongue pressure measurement is a simple and noninvasive method for evaluating swallowing dysfunction. We have hypothesized that low tongue pressure may be able to predict pneumonia occurrence in acute stroke patients. Tongue pressure was measured using balloon-type equipment in 220 acute stroke patients. The modified Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MASA) score was evaluated independently on the same day. Tongue pressure was measured every week thereafter. An improvement in tongue pressure was observed within the first 2 weeks. Receiver operating curve analysis was performed to determine the ability of tongue pressure to predict modified MASA score tongue pressure was 21.6 kPa (χ2 = 45.82, ptongue pressure was significantly lower in patients with pneumonia than in those without pneumonia. Using a Cox proportional hazard model for pneumonia onset with a cutoff tongue pressure value of 21.6 kPa and adjustment for age, sex, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at admission, the tongue pressure had additional predictive power for pneumonia onset (hazard ratio, 7.95; 95% confidence interval, 2.09 to 52.11; p = 0.0013). In the group with low tongue pressure, 27 of 95 patients showed improvement of tongue pressure within 2 weeks. Pneumonia occurred frequently in patients without improvement of tongue pressure, but not in patients with improvement (31/68 and 2/27, pTongue pressure is a sensitive indicator for predicting pneumonia occurrence in acute stroke patients.

  14. Scavenging ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, P.W.; Toonkel, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Total 90 Sr fallout is adjusted for dry deposition, and scavenging ratios are calculated at Seattle, New York, and Fayetteville, Ark. Stable-lead scavenging ratios are also presented for New York. These ratios show large scatter, but average values are generally inversely proportional to precipitation. Stable-lead ratios decrease more rapidly with precipitation than do those of 90 Sr, a decrease reflecting a lesser availability of lead to the scavenging processes

  15. Hypertensive patients using thiazide diuretics as primary stroke prevention make better functional outcome after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hong-Mo; Lin, Wei Chun; Wang, Cheng-Hsien; Lin, Leng-Chieh

    2014-10-01

    Thiazides have been used for the control of blood pressure and primary prevention of ischemic stroke. No previous studies have assessed the influence of thiazides on functional prognosis after ischemic stroke. Demographics, prestroke conditions, poststroke National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and clinical and laboratory parameters were prospectively registered in 216 Taiwanese patients. One hundred forty patients who completed follow-up 3 months after experiencing ischemic stroke were assessed with the modified Rankin scale as functional prognoses. Twenty-one patients used thiazide to control hypertension before experiencing ischemic stroke. No differences of stroke subtypes and comorbidities before stroke were observed between the 2 groups. The emergency department National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was lesser among thiazide users (4 [2-7] versus 6 [4-16], P = .02). Among 140 patients who completed follow-up in 90 days, thiazide users had more favorable functional status (modified Rankin scale ≤2: 42.4% versus 26.9%, P = .02, odds ratio 3.34, 95%, confidence interval .130-.862). Hypertensive patients treated with thiazides long term had a lesser severity of stroke and better functional outcomes after ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  17. Stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorne, Peter; Bernhardt, Julie; Kwakkel, Gert

    2011-05-14

    Stroke is a common, serious, and disabling global health-care problem, and rehabilitation is a major part of patient care. There is evidence to support rehabilitation in well coordinated multidisciplinary stroke units or through provision of early supported provision of discharge teams. Potentially beneficial treatment options for motor recovery of the arm include constraint-induced movement therapy and robotics. Promising interventions that could be beneficial to improve aspects of gait include fitness training, high-intensity therapy, and repetitive-task training. Repetitive-task training might also improve transfer functions. Occupational therapy can improve activities of daily living; however, information about the clinical effect of various strategies of cognitive rehabilitation and strategies for aphasia and dysarthria is scarce. Several large trials of rehabilitation practice and of novel therapies (eg, stem-cell therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, virtual reality, robotic therapies, and drug augmentation) are underway to inform future practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiple Strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obododimma Oha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This poem playfully addresses the slippery nature of linguistic signification, employing humour and sarcasm in presenting a wide range of human experience. It ironical twists -- and "strokes" (read ambiguously as both a giving a punishment and erotic pleasuring -- move from the naming of location through international discourse of capital to the crumbling relationships between nation states. It reading of the signs of language is tied to the unease and fracture in cultural and political experience.

  19. Increased Risk of Stroke in Patients with Isolated Third, Fourth, or Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsies: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Chu-Peng; Chen, Yung-Tai; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Yang, Chun-Pai; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this nationwide cohort study was to evaluate whether the occurrence of isolated 3rd, 4th or 6th cranial nerve (CN) palsies is associated with a higher risk of ischemic stroke. This study utilized data from Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database during 1995-2012. Subjects aged 20 years or older who had isolated CN 3/4/6 palsies diagnosed by a neurologist or ophthalmologist between January 2000 and December 2011 were included. A set of propensity score matched, randomly sampled patients who had never been diagnosed with CN 3/4/6 palsies were extracted to constitute the control group (cases and controls = 1:4). All subjects were followed until death, loss due to follow-up or completion of the study. Cox proportional hazard regression model stratified by matched pairs was used to estimate the hazards ratio (HR) of ischemic stroke. A total of 657 patients with isolated CN 3/4/6 palsies (61.1% male, mean age 54.8 years) were identified. Compared with control group, the patients with isolated CN 3/4/6 palsies exhibited an increased risk of ischemic stroke (CN3: adjusted HR 3.69 (95% CI 2.20-6.19); CN4: 2.71 (95% CI 1.11-6.64); CN6: 2.15 (95% CI 1.31-3.52)). The association between CN 3/4/6 palsies and ischemic stroke was detected in both separate subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The patients with CN 3/4/6 palsies exhibited an increased risk of developing ischemic stroke. Therefore, isolated ocular motor nerves palsies appear to represent an unrecognized risk factor for ischemic stroke, and these require further confirmation and exploration. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Stroke and Risks of Development and Progression of Kidney Diseases and End-Stage Renal Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Wu

    Full Text Available There is little information about the association between stroke and kidney diseases. We aimed to investigate the impact of stroke on long-term renal outcomes.In this large population-based retrospective cohort study, we identified 100,353 subjects registered in the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2012, including 33,451 stroke patients and 66,902 age-, sex- and Charlson's comorbidity index score-matched controls.The incidence rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD was higher in the stroke than in the control cohort (17.5 vs. 9.06 per 1000 person-years. After multivariate adjustment, the risk of developing CKD was significantly higher in patients with stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-1.50, P<0.001. Subgroup analysis showed that stroke patients <50 years (aHR 1.61, P<0.001 and those with concomitant diabetes mellitus (aHR 2.12, P<0.001, hyperlipidemia (aHR 1.53, P<0.001 or gout (aHR 1.84, P<0.001 were at higher risk of incident CKD. Additionally, the risks of progression to advanced CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD were significantly higher for stroke patients (aHRs, 1.22 and 1.30; P = 0.04 and P = 0.008, respectively, independent of age, sex, comorbidities and long-term medications.Stroke is associated with higher risks for incident CKD, decline in renal function and ESRD. Younger stroke patients, as well as those with concomitant diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia or gout are at greater risk for kidney diseases.

  1. Preventing Stroke Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... die within minutes. Strokes happen more in some populations and geographic areas. Stroke death declines have stalled in 3 out of every 4 states. Blacks have the highest stroke death rates among all ...

  2. Two Kinds of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Two Kinds of Stroke Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... are often a warning sign for future strokes. Stroke Can Affect Anyone Award-winning actress Julie Harris ...

  3. Healthy Living after Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce ... the hospital. Thank goodness, she did. Subscribe to Stroke Connection Get quarterly digital issues plus our monthly ...

  4. Polygenic Risk for Depression Increases Risk of Ischemic Stroke: From the Stroke Genetics Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Qi, Qibin; Dave, Tushar; Mitchell, Braxton D; Jackson, Rebecca D; Liu, Simin; Park, Ki; Salinas, Joel; Dunn, Erin C; Leira, Enrique C; Xu, Huichun; Ryan, Kathleen; Smoller, Jordan W

    2018-03-01

    Although depression is a risk factor for stroke in large prospective studies, it is unknown whether these conditions have a shared genetic basis. We applied a polygenic risk score (PRS) for major depressive disorder derived from European ancestry analyses by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium to a genome-wide association study of ischemic stroke in the Stroke Genetics Network of National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Included in separate analyses were 12 577 stroke cases and 25 643 controls of European ancestry and 1353 cases and 2383 controls of African ancestry. We examined the association between depression PRS and ischemic stroke overall and with pathogenic subtypes using logistic regression analyses. The depression PRS was associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke overall in both European ( P =0.025) and African ancestry ( P =0.011) samples from the Stroke Genetics Network. Ischemic stroke risk increased by 3.0% (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.05) for every 1 SD increase in PRS for those of European ancestry and by 8% (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.13) for those of African ancestry. Among stroke subtypes, elevated risk of small artery occlusion was observed in both European and African ancestry samples. Depression PRS was also associated with higher risk of cardioembolic stroke in European ancestry and large artery atherosclerosis in African ancestry persons. Higher polygenic risk for major depressive disorder is associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke overall and with small artery occlusion. Additional associations with ischemic stroke subtypes differed by ancestry. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Understanding Life After Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelmblink, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Stroke is an acute, neurological dysfunction of vascular origin with sudden occurrence and it influences physical, cognitive and psychological functions. Initial treatment aims at eliminating or reducing the brain damage. Soon, however, the influence of the stroke on the entire life of stroke survivors has to be considered. This thesis explores the meaning of life after stroke to 19 elderly stroke survivors during the first year post stroke. Survivors were interviewed twice and the interviews...

  6. GRECOS Project (Genotyping Recurrence Risk of Stroke): The Use of Genetics to Predict the Vascular Recurrence After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cadenas, Israel; Mendióroz, Maite; Giralt, Dolors; Nafria, Cristina; Garcia, Elena; Carrera, Caty; Gallego-Fabrega, Cristina; Domingues-Montanari, Sophie; Delgado, Pilar; Ribó, Marc; Castellanos, Mar; Martínez, Sergi; Freijo, Marimar; Jiménez-Conde, Jordi; Rubiera, Marta; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Molina, Carlos A; Font, Maria Angels; Grau Olivares, Marta; Palomeras, Ernest; Perez de la Ossa, Natalia; Martinez-Zabaleta, Maite; Masjuan, Jaime; Moniche, Francisco; Canovas, David; Piñana, Carlos; Purroy, Francisco; Cocho, Dolores; Navas, Inma; Tejero, Carlos; Aymerich, Nuria; Cullell, Natalia; Muiño, Elena; Serena, Joaquín; Rubio, Francisco; Davalos, Antoni; Roquer, Jaume; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Martí-Fábregas, Joan; Keene, Keith; Chen, Wei-Min; Worrall, Bradford; Sale, Michele; Arboix, Adrià; Krupinski, Jerzy; Montaner, Joan

    2017-05-01

    Vascular recurrence occurs in 11% of patients during the first year after ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack. Clinical scores do not predict the whole vascular recurrence risk; therefore, we aimed to find genetic variants associated with recurrence that might improve the clinical predictive models in IS. We analyzed 256 polymorphisms from 115 candidate genes in 3 patient cohorts comprising 4482 IS or transient ischemic attack patients. The discovery cohort was prospectively recruited and included 1494 patients, 6.2% of them developed a new IS during the first year of follow-up. Replication analysis was performed in 2988 patients using SNPlex or HumanOmni1-Quad technology. We generated a predictive model using Cox regression (GRECOS score [Genotyping Reurrence Risk of Stroke]) and generated risk groups using a classification tree method. The analyses revealed that rs1800801 in the MGP gene (hazard ratio, 1.33; P =9×10 - 03 ), a gene related to artery calcification, was associated with new IS during the first year of follow-up. This polymorphism was replicated in a Spanish cohort (n=1.305); however, it was not significantly associated in a North American cohort (n=1.683). The GRECOS score predicted new IS ( P =3.2×10 - 09 ) and could classify patients, from low risk of stroke recurrence (1.9%) to high risk (12.6%). Moreover, the addition of genetic risk factors to the GRECOS score improves the prediction compared with previous Stroke Prognosis Instrument-II score ( P =0.03). The use of genetics could be useful to estimate vascular recurrence risk after IS. Genetic variability in the MGP gene was associated with vascular recurrence in the Spanish population. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Randomized controlled trial of early rehabilitation after intracerebral hemorrhage stroke: difference in outcomes within 6 months of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Cadilhac, Dominique A; Andrew, Nadine E; Zeng, Lingxia; Li, Zongfang; Li, Jin; Li, Yan; Yu, Xuewen; Mi, Baibing; Li, Zhe; Xu, Honghai; Chen, Yangjing; Wang, Juan; Yao, Wanxia; Li, Kuo; Yan, Feng; Wang, Jue

    2014-12-01

    Mechanisms, acute management, and outcomes for patients who experience intracerebral hemorrhage may differ from patients with ischemic stroke. Studies of very early rehabilitation have been mainly undertaken in patients with ischemic stroke, and it is unknown if benefits apply to those with intracerebral hemorrhage. We hypothesized that early rehabilitation, within 48 hours of stroke, would improve survival and functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. This was a multicenter, randomized controlled study, with blinded assessment of outcome at 3 and 6 months. Eligible patients were randomized to receive standard care or standard care plus early rehabilitation. Primary outcome includes survival. Secondary outcomes includes health-related quality of life using the 36-item Short Form Questionnaire, function measured with the modified Barthel Index, and anxiety measured with the Zung Self-Rated Anxiety Scale. Two hundred forty-three of 326 patients were randomized (mean age, 59 years; 56% men). At 6 months, patients receiving standard care were more likely to have died (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-15.87); for morbidity outcomes, a 6-point difference in the Physical Component Summary score of the 36-item Short Form Questionnaire (95% CI, 4.2-8.7), a 7-point difference for the Mental Component Summary score (95% CI, 4.5-9.5), a 13-point difference in Modified Barthel Index scores (95% CI, 6.8-18.3), and a 6-point difference in Self-Rating Anxiety Scale scores (95% CI, 4.4-8.3) was reported in favor of the intervention groups. For the first time, we have shown that commencing rehabilitation within 48 hours of intracerebral hemorrhage improves survival and functional outcomes at 6 months after stroke in hospitalized patients in China. http://www.chictr.org/en. Unique identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-13004039. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Simple Techniques Can Help Memory after a Stroke Self-Esteem after Stroke Cognitive Challenges After Stroke Depression Trumps ... spasticity), fatigue and more. Let's Talk About Stroke Fact Sheets Our stroke fact sheets cover treatments, recovery, ...

  9. Impact of preventable risk factors on stroke in the EPICOR study: does gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkova, Slavica; d'Errico, Angelo; Ricceri, Fulvio; Fasanelli, Francesca; Pala, Valeria; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero; Chiodini, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore

    2017-09-01

    The effect of modifiable stroke risk factors in terms of prevented cases remains unclear due to sex-specific disease rate and risk factors prevalence. Our aim was to estimate their impact on stroke by gender through population-attributable fraction (PAF), preventive fraction (PF) and their combination in EPIC-Italian cohort. 43,976 participants, age 34-75, and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (1993-1998) were followed up for almost 11 years. Adjusted hazard ratios and PAF were estimated using Cox models. We identified 386 cases. In males, the burden for stroke was 17% (95% CI 4-28%) for smoking and 14% (95% CI 5-22%) for alcohol consumption. In females, hypertension was carrying the biggest burden with 18% (95% CI 9-26%) followed by smoking 15% (95% CI 7-22%). Their combination was 46% (95% CI 32-58%) in males and 48% (95% CI 35-59%) in females. PF for current smokers was gender unequal [males 21% (95% CI 15-27%) females 9% (95% CI 1-17%)]. Half of strokes are attributable to potentially modifiable factors. The proportion of prevented cases is gender unbalanced, encouraging sex-specific intervention.

  10. Specificities of Ischemic Stroke Risk Factors in Arab-Speaking Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Halim; Sissani, Leila; Labreuche, Julien; Arauz, Antonio; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Bryer, Alain; Chamorro, Angel; Fisher, Marc; Ford, Ian; Fox, Kim M; Hennerici, Michael G; Lavados, Pablo M; Massaro, Ayrton; Mattle, Heinrich P; Munoz Collazos, Mario; Rothwell, Peter M; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Vicaut, Eric; Yamouth, Bassem; Amarenco, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is largely preventable, and therefore, a better understanding of risk factors is an essential step in reducing the population stroke rate and resulting disease burden in Arab countries. We performed 2 separate analyses in 2 similar populations of patients with noncardioembolic ischemic stroke. This first involved 3,635 patients in the Outcomes in Patients with TIA and Cerebrovascular disease (OPTIC) registry (followed for 2 years), with baseline collection of the usual risk factors and 5 socioeconomic variables (unemployment status, residence in rural area, living in fully serviced accommodation, no health-insurance coverage, and low educational level). The second involved patients in the PERFORM trial (n = 19,100 followed up for 2 years), with baseline collection of the usual risk factors and 1 socioeconomic variable (low educational level). The primary outcome was a composite of nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death. Stroke risk factors were more prevalent in patients in Arab countries. The incidence of major cardiovascular events (MACE; age- and gender-adjusted) was higher in Arab countries (OPTIC, 18.5 vs. 13.3%; PERFORM, 18.4 vs. 9.7%; both p ≤ 0.0001). These results remained significant after adjustment on risk factors and were attenuated in OPTIC after further adjustment on socioeconomic variables (hazard ratio 1.24; 95% CI 0.98-1.55; p = 0.07). Key Messages: Patients with ischemic stroke living in Arab countries had a lower mean socioeconomic status, a much higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and a higher rate of MACE compared with patients from non-Arab countries. This finding is partly explained by a higher prevalence of risk factors and also by a high prevalence of poverty and low educational level. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. C-reactive protein and homocysteine predict long-term mortality in young ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naess, Halvor; Nyland, Harald; Idicula, Titto; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine on follow-up and subsequent mortality in young ischemic stroke patients in a population-based study. Young ischemic stroke patients were followed-up on average 6 years after the index stroke. CRP and homocysteine levels were measured and risk factors were recorded, including myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, alcoholism, and cancer. Stroke outcome was measured using the modified Rankin Scale score. Subsequent survival was obtained by examining the official population registry. Cox regression analyses were performed. In total, 198 patients were included in this study (82 [41%] women and 116 [59%] men). The mean age on follow-up was 47.8 years. In total, 36 (18.2%) patients died during the subsequent mean follow-up of 12.4 years. Cox regression analysis revealed that mortality was associated with CRP (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05; P=.001) and homocysteine levels (HR 1.04; P=.02) in patients without dissection. Kaplan-Meier curves grouped by dichotomized CRP (CRP≤1 v >1 mg/L) showed increasing separation between the survival curves, and likewise for dichotomized homocysteine (≤9 v >9 μg/L). There is an independent association between CRP and homocysteine levels obtained several years after ischemic stroke in young adults and subsequent mortality, even when adjusting for traditional risk factors. This association seems to continue for at least 12 years after the measurements. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Body mass index, initial neurological severity and long-term mortality in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Wi-Sun; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Chi Kyung; Kim, Beom Joon; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is believed to increase the risks of ischemic stroke or coronary heart disease; however, regarding outcome after established vascular diseases, recent unexpected evidence has suggested that an increased body mass index (BMI) might have beneficial effects (obesity paradox). The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent association between BMI and long-term mortality after ischemic stroke. A total of 1,592 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were prospectively included through our stroke cohort. In this study, the levels of BMI were classified based on guidelines for the Asian-Pacific population. Initial neurological severity was estimated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Information on mortality was collected until the end of 2009, and the median follow-up period was 4 years. To examine the association between BMI and long-term mortality, we used Cox's proportional regression analysis. During follow-up, 23% of patients died. Linear regression analysis showed that the level of BMI was inversely related to initial neurological severity (p = 0.002). In the model of adjustment of age and gender using Cox's proportional regression analysis, this inverse trend was also significant (reference, normal weight; hazard ratio of underweight, 2.45; overweight, 0.77; obesity, 0.60). However, after adjustment of all covariates, including initial neurological severity, only the harmful effect of underweight remained significant (2.79; 95% CI, 1.92-4.05); however, beneficial effects of overweight and obesity did not. Our study showed that an independent association between BMI and long-term mortality after ischemic stroke was found only in underweight patients. The obesity paradox phenomenon seems to be limited, and might not be interpreted as a direct causal relationship due to a strong association with initial neurological severity. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  14. Combined Effects of Family History of Cardiovascular Disease and Serum C-reactive Protein Level on the Risk of Stroke: A 9.2-year Prospective Study among Mongolians in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheng Bao; Huangfu, Xin Feng; Zhong, Chong Ke; Zhou, Yi Peng; Tian, Yun Fan; Buren, Batu; Xu, Tian; Wang, Ai Li; Li, Hong Mei; Zhang, Ming Zhi; Zhang, Yong Hong

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate the combined effect of a family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and high serum C-reactive protein (CRP) on the stroke incidence in an Inner Mongolian population in China. A prospective cohort study was conducted from June 2002 to July 2012, with 2,544 participants aged 20 years and over from Inner Mongolia, China. We categorized participants into four groups based on the family history of CVD and CRP levels. We adjusted for age; sex; smoking; drinking; hypertension; body mass index; waist circumference; and blood glucose, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Compared with the group with no family history of CVD/low CRP levels, the group with family history of CVD/high CRP levels had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.78 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-3.07; P = 0.039] of stroke, and an HR of 2.14 (95% CI, 1.09-4.20; P = 0.027) of ischemic stroke. The HRs of hemorrhagic stroke for the other three groups were not statistically significant (all P > 0.05). Participants with both a family history of CVD and high CRP levels had the highest stroke incidence, suggesting that high CRP levels may increase stroke risk, especially of ischemic stroke, among individuals with a family history of CVD. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. Cancer in young adults with ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Karoliina; Joensuu, Heikki; Haapaniemi, Elena; Melkas, Susanna; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Putaala, Jukka

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Little is known about cancer among young adults with ischemic stroke. We studied the frequency of cancer and its association with long-term risk of death among young patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. 1002 patients aged 15 to 49 years, registered in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, and with a median follow-up of 10.0 years (interquartile range 6.5-13.8) after stroke were included. Historical and follow-up data were derived from the Finnish Care Register and Statistics Finland. Survival between groups was compared with the Kaplan-Meier life-table method, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with mortality. One or more cancer diagnosis was made in 77 (7.7%) patients, of whom 39 (3.9%) had cancer diagnosed prestroke. During the poststroke follow-up, 41 (53.2%) of the cancer patients died. Median time from prestroke cancer to stroke was 4.9 (1.0-9.5) years and from stroke to poststroke cancer was 6.7 (2.7-10.9) years. Poststroke cancer was associated with age>40 years, heavy drinking, and cigarette smoking. The cumulative mortality was significantly higher among the cancer patients (68.6%, 95% confidence interval 52.0%-85.3%) compared with patients without cancer (19.7%, 95% confidence interval 16.3%-23.2%). Active cancer at index stroke, melanoma, and lung/respiratory tract cancer had the strongest independent association with death during the follow-up when adjusted for known poststroke mortality prognosticators. Cancer, and especially active cancer and no other apparent cause for stroke, is associated with unfavorable survival among young stroke patients. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Long-Term Stroke Risk Due to Partial White-Coat or Masked Hypertension Based on Home and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Measurements: The Ohasama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Michihiro; Asayama, Kei; Kikuya, Masahiro; Inoue, Ryusuke; Metoki, Hirohito; Hosaka, Miki; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Obara, Taku; Ishiguro, Aya; Murakami, Keiko; Matsuda, Ayako; Yasui, Daisaku; Murakami, Takahisa; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka; Ohkubo, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic significance of white-coat hypertension (WCHT) is controversial, and different findings on self-measured home measurements and 24-h ambulatory monitoring make identifying WCHT difficult. We examined whether individuals with partially or completely defined WCHT, as well as masked hypertension, as determined by different out-of-office blood pressure measurements, have a distinct long-term stroke risk. We followed 1464 participants (31.8% men; mean age, 60.6±10.8 years) in the general population of Ohasama, Japan, for a median of 17.1 years. A first stroke occurred in 212 subjects. Using sustained normal blood pressure (events/n=61/776) as a reference, adjusted hazard ratios for stroke (95% confidence intervals; events/n) were 1.38 (0.82-2.32; 19/137) for complete WCHT (isolated office hypertension), 2.16 (1.36-3.43; 29/117) for partial WCHT (either home or ambulatory normotension with office hypertension), 2.05 (1.24-3.41; 23/100) for complete masked hypertension (both home and ambulatory hypertension with office normotension), 2.08 (1.37-3.16; 38/180) for partial masked hypertension (either home or ambulatory hypertension with office normotension), and 2.46 (1.61-3.77; 42/154) for sustained hypertension. When partial WCHT and partial masked hypertension groups were further divided into participants only with home hypertension and those only with ambulatory hypertension, all subgroups had a significantly higher stroke risk (adjusted hazard ratio ≥1.84, P≤0.04). In conclusion, impacts of partial WCHT as well as partial masked hypertension for long-term stroke risk were comparable to those of complete masked hypertension or sustained hypertension. We need both home and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements to evaluate stroke risk accurately. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Association of Childhood Body Mass Index and Change in Body Mass Index With First Adult Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjærde, Line K; Gamborg, Michael; Ängquist, Lars; Truelsen, Thomas C; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2017-11-01

    The incidence of ischemic stroke among young adults is rising and is potentially due to an increase in stroke risk factors occurring at younger ages, such as obesity. To investigate whether childhood body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI are associated with adult ischemic stroke and to assess whether the associations are age dependent or influenced by birth weight. This investigation was a population-based cohort study of schoolchildren born from 1930 to 1987, with follow-up through national health registers from 1977 to 2012 in Denmark. Participants were 307 677 individuals (8899 ischemic stroke cases) with measured weight and height at ages 7 to 13 years. The dates of the analysis were September 1, 2015, to May 27, 2016. Childhood BMI, change in BMI, and birth weight. Ischemic stroke events were divided into early (≤55 years) or late (>55 years) age at diagnosis. The study cohort comprised 307 677 participants (approximately 49% female and 51% male). During the study period, 3529 women and 5370 men experienced an ischemic stroke. At all ages from 7 to 13 years, an above-average BMI z score was positively associated with early ischemic stroke. At age 13 years, a BMI z score of 1 was associated with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.11-1.43) in women and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.10-1.33) in men. No significant associations were found for below-average BMI z scores. Among children with above-average BMI z scores at age 7 years, a score increase of 0.5 from ages 7 to 13 years was positively associated with early ischemic stroke in women (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.20) and in men (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.16). Similarly, among children with below-average BMI z scores at age 7 years, a score increase of 0.5 from ages 7 to 13 years was positively associated with early ischemic stroke in women (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.23) and in men (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18). Adjusting for birth weight minimally affected the associations. Independent of birth weight, above

  18. Anemia is associated with bleeding and mortality, but not stroke, in patients with atrial fibrillation: Insights from the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbrink, B Daan; Alings, Marco; Granger, Christopher B; Alexander, John H; Lopes, Renato D; Hylek, Elaine M; Thomas, Laine; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Hanna, Michael; Keltai, Matyas; Steg, P Gabriel; De Caterina, Raffaele; Wallentin, Lars; van Gilst, Wiek H

    2017-03-01

    Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are prone to cardiovascular events and anticoagulation-related bleeding complications. We hypothesized that patients with anemia are at increased risk for these outcomes. We performed a post hoc analysis of the ARISTOTLE trial, which included >18,000 patients with AF randomized to warfarin (target international normalized ratio, 2.0-3.0) or apixaban 5 mg twice daily. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to determine if anemia (defined as hemoglobin ARISTOTLE population. Patients with anemia were older, had higher mean CHADS 2 and HAS-BLED scores, and were more likely to have experienced previous bleeding events. Anemia was associated with major bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.92; 95% CI, 1.62-2.28; P<.0001) and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.46-1.93; P<.0001) but not stroke or systemic embolism (adjusted HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.70-1.21). The benefits of apixaban compared with warfarin on the rates of stroke, mortality, and bleeding events were consistent in patients with and without anemia. Chronic anemia is associated with a higher incidence of bleeding complications and mortality, but not of stroke, in anticoagulated patients with AF. Apixaban is an attractive anticoagulant for stroke prevention in patients with AF with or without anemia. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  20. Prediction of atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke using P-wave signal averaged electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodogawa, Kenji; Seino, Yoshihiko; Ohara, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Meiso; Miyauchi, Yasushi; Katoh, Takao; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is highly prevalent in patients with ischemic stroke, but the diagnosis is often difficult. This study consisted of 68 stroke patients in sinus rhythm without history of AF. All patients underwent P-wave signal-averaged electrocardiography (P-SAECG), echocardiography, 24-h Holter monitoring, and measurement of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations at admission. An abnormal P-SAECG was found in 34 of 68 stroke patients. In the follow-up period of 11 ± 4 months, AF developed in 17 patients (AF group). The remaining 51 patients were classified as the non-AF group. The prevalence of atrial late potentials (ALP) on P-SAECG, and the number of premature atrial contractions (PACs) were significantly higher in the AF group than those in the non-AF group (88.2% vs 37.3%; p<0.001, 149 ± 120 vs 79 ± 69; p=0.030, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in age, left atrial dimension, or BNP concentrations between both groups. Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that the presence of ALP (risk ratio 11.15; p=0.002) and frequent PACs (more than 100/24h) (risk ratio 4.53; p=0.007) had significant correlation to the occurrence of AF. ALP may be a novel predictor of AF in stroke patients. P-SAECG should be considered in stroke of undetermined etiology. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ischaemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation with chronic kidney disease undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pak-Hei; Huang, Duo; Yip, Pok-Siu; Hai, Jojo; Tse, Hung-Fat; Chan, Tak-Mao; Lip, Gregory Y H; Lo, Wai-Kei; Siu, Chung-Wah

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the ischaemic stroke risk and benefit of warfarin therapy for stroke prevention in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) with concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF). Our objective was to determine the risk of ischaemic stroke in a 'real-world' cohort of PD patients with AF, and clinical benefit or harm of aspirin and warfarin. This is a single-centred observational study of Chinese patients with non-valvular AF. Hospitalizations with ischaemic stroke and intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) were recorded. Of 9810 patients from a hospital-based AF registry, 271 CKD patients on PD with AF (76.8 ± 12.5 years, CHA2DS2-VASc: 3.69 ± 1.83, and HAS-BLED: 2.07 ± 0.97) were identified. Amongst these PD patients, 24.7% received warfarin; 31.7% received aspirin; and 43.5% received no antithrombotic therapy. Amongst patients with no antithrombotic therapy, annual incidence of ischaemic stroke in PD patients was comparable with those non-CKD counterparts (9.32 vs. 9.30%/year). Similar to non-CKD patients, annual incidence of ischaemic stroke increased with increasing CHA2DS2-VASc score (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0-1: 5.76 vs. 5.70%/year, P = 1.00; and CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 2: 10.80 vs. 9.94%/year, P = 0.78). Amongst PD patients, warfarin therapy was associated with lower risk of ischaemic stroke compared with aspirin [Hazard ratio (HR): 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.66, P = 0.01] and no therapy (HR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.65, P = 0.01), but not associated with a higher risk of ICH. In CKD patients on PD with AF, who had similar ischaemic stroke risk as non-CKD counterparts, warfarin therapy is associated with reduction in risk of ischaemic stroke without a higher risk of ICH. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Hemorrhagic stroke the first 30 days after an acute myocardial infarction: incidence, time trends and predictors of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsell-Gerdin, Emil; Graipe, Anna; Ögren, Joachim; Jernberg, Tomas; Mooe, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is a rare but serious complication after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aims of our study were to establish the incidence, time trends and predictors of risk for hemorrhagic stroke within 30 days after an AMI in 1998-2008. We collected data from the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions (RIKS-HIA). All patients with a myocardial infarction 1998-2008 were included, n=173,233. The data was merged with the National Patient Register in order to identify patients suffering a hemorrhagic stroke. To identify predictors of risk we used Cox models. Overall the incidence decreased from 0.2% (n=94) in 1998-2000 to 0.1% (n=41) in 2007-2008. In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction the corresponding incidences were 0.4% (n=76) in 1998-2000 and 0.2% (n=21) in 2007-2008, and after fibrin specific thrombolytic treatment 0.6% and 1.1%, respectively, with a peak of 1.4% during 2003-2004. In total 375 patients (0.22%) suffered a hemorrhagic stroke within 30 days of the AMI. The preferred method of reperfusion changed from thrombolysis to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Older age (hazard ratio (HR) >65-≤ 75 vs ≤ 65 years 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38-2.45), thrombolysis (HR 6.84, 95% CI 5.51-8.48), history of hemorrhagic stroke (HR 12.52, CI 8.36-18.78) and prior hypertension (HR 1.52, CI 1.23-1.86) independently predicted hemorrhagic stroke within 30 days. The rate of hemorrhagic stroke within 30 days of an AMI has decreased by 50% between 1998 and 2008. The main reason is the shift in reperfusion method from thrombolysis to PCI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sugar- and Artificially Sweetened Beverages and the Risks of Incident Stroke and Dementia: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Aparicio, Hugo J; Satizabal, Claudia L; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Seshadri, Sudha; Jacques, Paul F

    2017-05-01

    Sugar- and artificially-sweetened beverage intake have been linked to cardiometabolic risk factors, which increase the risk of cerebrovascular disease and dementia. We examined whether sugar- or artificially sweetened beverage consumption was associated with the prospective risks of incident stroke or dementia in the community-based Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort. We studied 2888 participants aged >45 years for incident stroke (mean age 62 [SD, 9] years; 45% men) and 1484 participants aged >60 years for incident dementia (mean age 69 [SD, 6] years; 46% men). Beverage intake was quantified using a food-frequency questionnaire at cohort examinations 5 (1991-1995), 6 (1995-1998), and 7 (1998-2001). We quantified recent consumption at examination 7 and cumulative consumption by averaging across examinations. Surveillance for incident events commenced at examination 7 and continued for 10 years. We observed 97 cases of incident stroke (82 ischemic) and 81 cases of incident dementia (63 consistent with Alzheimer's disease). After adjustments for age, sex, education (for analysis of dementia), caloric intake, diet quality, physical activity, and smoking, higher recent and higher cumulative intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks were associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, all-cause dementia, and Alzheimer's disease dementia. When comparing daily cumulative intake to 0 per week (reference), the hazard ratios were 2.96 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-6.97) for ischemic stroke and 2.89 (95% confidence interval, 1.18-7.07) for Alzheimer's disease. Sugar-sweetened beverages were not associated with stroke or dementia. Artificially sweetened soft drink consumption was associated with a higher risk of stroke and dementia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Increased Risk of Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Strokes in Patients With Splenic Injury and Splenectomy: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Chih-Hui; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    The spleen is a crucial organ in humans. Little is known about the association between stroke and splenic injury or splenectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of stroke in patients with splenic injury and splenectomy.A nationwide cohort study was conducted by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. For comparison, control patients were selected and matched with splenic injury patients in a ratio of 4:1 according to age, sex, and the year of hospitalization. We analyzed the risks of stroke using a Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis.A total of 11,273 splenic injury patients, including 5294 splenectomized and 5979 nonsplenectomized patients, and 45,092 control patients were included in this study. The incidence rates of stroke were 8.05, 6.53, and 4.25 per 1000 person-years in splenic injury patients with splenectomy, those without splenectomy, and the control cohort, respectively. Compared with the control cohort, splenic injury patients with splenectomy exhibited a 2.05-fold increased risk of stroke (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-2.34), whereas those without splenectomy exhibited a 1.74-fold increased risk (95% CI 1.51-2). Splenectomy entailed an additional 1.21-fold increased risk of stroke compared with nonsplenectomy in patients with splenic injury.This study revealed that splenic injury and splenectomy were significantly associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. The results of this study may alert physicians and patients to the complications of splenic injury and splenectomy.

  5. Leukocytosis in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H

    1999-01-01

    Leukocytosis is a common finding in the acute phase of stroke. A detrimental effect of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has been suggested, and trials aiming at reducing the leukocyte response in acute stroke are currently being conducted. However, the influence of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has...

  6. Stroke: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when blood flow to your ... cells start dying. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...

  7. Baseline Quality of Life and Risk of Stroke in the ALLHAT Study (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tanzila; Auchus, Alexander P; Oparil, Suzanne; Wright, Clinton B; Wright, Jackson; Furlan, Anthony J; Sila, Cathy A; Davis, Barry R; Pressel, Sara; Yamal, Jose-Miguel; Einhorn, Paula T; Lerner, Alan J

    2017-11-01

    The visual analogue scale is a self-reported, validated tool to measure quality of life (QoL). Our purpose was to determine whether baseline QoL predicted strokes in the ALLHAT study (Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) and evaluate determinants of poststroke change in QoL. In the ALLHAT study, among the 33 357 patients randomized to treatment arms, 1525 experienced strokes; 1202 (79%) strokes were nonfatal. This study cohort includes 32 318 (97%) subjects who completed the baseline visual analogue scale QoL estimate. QoL was measured on a visual analogue scale and adjusted using a Torrance transformation (transformed QoL [TQoL]). Kaplan-Meier curves and adjusted proportional hazards analyses were used to estimate the effect of TQoL on the risk of stroke, on a continuous scale (0-1) and by quartiles (≤0.81, >0.81≤0.89, >0.89≤0.95, >0.95). We analyzed the change from baseline to first poststroke TQoL using adjusted linear regression. After adjusting for multiple stroke risk factors, the hazard ratio for stroke events for baseline TQoL was 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.98) per 0.1 U increase. The lowest baseline TQoL quartile had a 20% increased stroke risk (hazard ratio=1.20 [95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.44]) compared with the reference highest quartile TQoL. Poststroke TQoL change was significant within all treatment groups ( P ≤0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that baseline TQoL was the strongest predictor of poststroke TQoL with similar results for the untransformed QoL. The lowest baseline TQoL quartile had a 20% higher stroke risk than the highest quartile. Baseline TQoL was the only factor that predicted poststroke change in TQoL. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000542. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: findings from Tuscan FADOI Stroke Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Masotti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite vitamin K antagonists (VKAs are considered the first choice treatment for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF, literature shows their underuse in this context. Since data about VKAs use prior and after acute stroke lack, the aim of this study was to focus on management of anticoagulation with VKAs in this context. Data were retrieved from Tuscan FADOI Stroke Registry, an online data bank aimed to report on characteristics of stroke patients consecutively admitted in Internal Medicine wards in 2010 and 2011. In this period 819 patients with mean age 76.5±12.3 years were enrolled. Data on etiology were available for 715 of them (88.1%, 87% being ischemic and 13% hemorrhagic strokes. AF was present in 238 patients (33%, 165 (69.3% having a known AF before hospitalization, whereas 73 patients (31.7% received a new diagnosis of AF. A percentage of 89% of strokes in patients with known AF were ischemic and 11% hemorrhagic. A percentage of 86.7% of patients with known AF had a CHADS2 ≥2, but only 28.3% were on VKAs before hospitalization. A percentage of 78.8% of patients treated with VKAs before stroke had an international normalized ratio (INR ≤2.0; 68.7% of patients with VKAs-related hemorrhagic strokes had INR ≤3.0. Combined endpoint mortality or severe disability in patients with ischemic stroke associated with AF was present in 47%, while it was present in 19.30% and 19.20% of atherothrombotic and lacunar strokes, respectively. At hospital discharge, VKAs were prescribed in 25.9% of AF related ischemic stroke patients. AF related strokes are burdened by severe outcome but VKAs are dramatically underused in patients with AF, even in higher risk patients. Efforts to improve anticoagulation in this stroke subtype are warranted.

  9. Adapting the Home After a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis Stroke ... after a Stroke Adapting the Home after a Stroke Caregiver Introduction What is Aphasia? Stroke Recovery Guides ...

  10. Development and Validation of a Predictive Model for Functional Outcome After Stroke Rehabilitation: The Maugeri Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrutinio, Domenico; Lanzillo, Bernardo; Guida, Pietro; Mastropasqua, Filippo; Monitillo, Vincenzo; Pusineri, Monica; Formica, Roberto; Russo, Giovanna; Guarnaschelli, Caterina; Ferretti, Chiara; Calabrese, Gianluigi

    2017-12-01

    Prediction of outcome after stroke rehabilitation may help clinicians in decision-making and planning rehabilitation care. We developed and validated a predictive tool to estimate the probability of achieving improvement in physical functioning (model 1) and a level of independence requiring no more than supervision (model 2) after stroke rehabilitation. The models were derived from 717 patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to build each model. Then, each model was prospectively validated in 875 patients. Model 1 included age, time from stroke occurrence to rehabilitation admission, admission motor and cognitive Functional Independence Measure scores, and neglect. Model 2 included age, male gender, time since stroke onset, and admission motor and cognitive Functional Independence Measure score. Both models demonstrated excellent discrimination. In the derivation cohort, the area under the curve was 0.883 (95% confidence intervals, 0.858-0.910) for model 1 and 0.913 (95% confidence intervals, 0.884-0.942) for model 2. The Hosmer-Lemeshow χ 2 was 4.12 ( P =0.249) and 1.20 ( P =0.754), respectively. In the validation cohort, the area under the curve was 0.866 (95% confidence intervals, 0.840-0.892) for model 1 and 0.850 (95% confidence intervals, 0.815-0.885) for model 2. The Hosmer-Lemeshow χ 2 was 8.86 ( P =0.115) and 34.50 ( P =0.001), respectively. Both improvement in physical functioning (hazard ratios, 0.43; 0.25-0.71; P =0.001) and a level of independence requiring no more than supervision (hazard ratios, 0.32; 0.14-0.68; P =0.004) were independently associated with improved 4-year survival. A calculator is freely available for download at https://goo.gl/fEAp81. This study provides researchers and clinicians with an easy-to-use, accurate, and validated predictive tool for potential application in rehabilitation research and stroke management. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive substances in hospital laboratories is discussed and the attendant hazards and necessary precautions examined. The new legislation under the Health and Safety at Work Act which, it is proposed, will replace existing legal requirements in the field of health and safety at work by a system of regulations and approved codes of practice designed to maintain or improve the standards of health, safety and welfare already established, is considered with particular reference to protection against ionising radiations. (UK)

  12. Atrial fibrillation and risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christine Benn; Gerds, Thomas A.; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Although the relation between stroke risk factors and stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has been extensively examined, only few studies have explored the association of AF and the risk of ischaemic stroke/systemic thromboembolism/transient ischaemic attack (stroke....../TE/TIA) in the presence of concomitant stroke risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: From nationwide registries, all persons who turned 50, 60, 70, or 80 from 1997 to 2011 were identified. Persons receiving warfarin were excluded. The absolute risk of stroke/TE/TIA was reported for a 5-year period, as was the absolute risk...... ratios for AF vs. no AF according to prior stroke and the number of additional risk factors. The study cohort comprised of 3 076 355 persons without AF and 48 189 with AF. For men aged 50 years, with no risk factors, the 5-year risk of stroke was 1.1% (95% confidence interval 1.1-1.1); with AF alone 2...

  13. Insulin resistance and risk of ischemic stroke among nondiabetic individuals from the northern Manhattan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundek, Tatjana; Gardener, Hannah; Xu, Qiang; Goldberg, Ronald B; Wright, Clinton B; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Disla, Norbelina; Paik, Myunghee C; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L

    2010-10-01

    Whether insulin resistance predicts ischemic stroke (IS) is still a matter of debate. To determine the association between insulin resistance (IR) and risk of first ischemic stroke in a large, multiethnic, stroke-free cohort without diabetes. Prospective, population-based cohort study. Longitudinal epidemiologic study. A cohort of 1509 nondiabetic participants from the Northern Manhattan Study (mean [SD] age, 11 [10] years; 64.2% women; 58.9% Hispanics). Insulin sensitivity, expressed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin sensitivity (HOMA index = [fasting insulin × fasting glucose] / 22.5). Insulin resistance was defined by a HOMA-IR index in the top quartile (Q4). Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the effect of HOMA-IR on the risk of incident IS, myocardial infarction (MI), vascular death, and combined outcomes (IS, MI, and vascular death). The mean (SD) HOMA-IR was 2.3 (2.1), and Q4 was at least 2.8. During mean follow-up of 8.5 years, vascular events occurred in 180 participants; 46 had fatal or nonfatal IS, 45 had fatal or nonfatal MI, and 121 died of vascular causes. The HOMA-IR Q4 vs less than Q4 significantly predicted the risk of IS only (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-5.99) but not other vascular events. This effect was independent of sex, race/ethnicity, traditional vascular risk factors, and metabolic syndrome and its components. Insulin resistance estimated using the HOMA is a marker of increased risk of incident stroke in nondiabetic individuals. These findings emphasize the need to better characterize individuals at increased risk for IS and the potential role of primary preventive therapies targeted at IR.

  14. Childhood Stature and Growth in Relation to First Ischemic Stroke or Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjærde, Line Klingen; Truelsen, Thomas Clement; Baker, Jennifer Lyn

    2018-03-01

    Attained height, an indicator of genetic potential and childhood growth environment, is inversely associated with stroke, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated whether childhood height and growth are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In a cohort of Danish schoolchildren born 1930 to 1989, with measured height from 7 to 13 years, we investigated associations of childhood stature and growth with risks of adult IS and ICH. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with CIs separately for women and men. Among 311 009 individuals, 10 412 were diagnosed with IS and 2546 with ICH. Height at 7 years was inversely and significantly associated with IS in both sexes (per z score, equivalent to ≈5.2 cm in women and 5.1 cm in men; women: HR=0.89 [95% CI: 0.87-0.92]; men: HR=0.90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92]) and with ICH in men (HR=0.89 [95% CI: 0.84-0.94]) but not in women (HR=0.97 [95% CI: 0.91-1.04]). Associations were similar at older childhood ages and were stable throughout the study period. No statistically significant associations for growth from 7 to 13 years were observed for IS or ICH. Short stature at 7 to 13 years is significantly associated with increased risks of IS in both sexes and with ICH in men. Growth during this period of childhood is not significantly associated with either of these stroke subtypes, suggesting that underlying mechanisms linking height with risks of stroke may exert their influence already by early childhood. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Cardiac Outcomes After Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: Effects of Pioglitazone in Patients With Insulin Resistance Without Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lawrence H; Viscoli, Catherine M; Curtis, Jeptha P; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Schwartz, Gregory G; Lovejoy, Anne M; Furie, Karen L; Gorman, Mark J; Conwit, Robin; Abbott, J Dawn; Jacoby, Daniel L; Kolansky, Daniel M; Pfau, Steven E; Ling, Frederick S; Kernan, Walter N

    2017-05-16

    Insulin resistance is highly prevalent among patients with atherosclerosis and is associated with an increased risk for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. The IRIS trial (Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke) demonstrated that pioglitazone decreased the composite risk for fatal or nonfatal stroke and MI in patients with insulin resistance without diabetes mellitus, after a recent ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. The type and severity of cardiac events in this population and the impact of pioglitazone on these events have not been described. We performed a secondary analysis of the effects of pioglitazone, in comparison with placebo, on acute coronary syndromes (MI and unstable angina) among IRIS participants. All potential acute coronary syndrome episodes were adjudicated in a blinded fashion by an independent clinical events committee. The study cohort was composed of 3876 IRIS participants, mean age 63 years, 65% male, 89% white race, and 12% with a history of coronary artery disease. Over a median follow-up of 4.8 years, there were 225 acute coronary syndrome events, including 141 MIs and 84 episodes of unstable angina. The MIs included 28 (19%) with ST-segment elevation. The majority of MIs were type 1 (94, 65%), followed by type 2 (45, 32%). Serum troponin was 10× to 100× upper limit of normal in 49 (35%) and >100× upper limit of normal in 39 (28%). Pioglitazone reduced the risk of acute coronary syndrome (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.94; P =0.02). Pioglitazone also reduced the risk of type 1 MI (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.96; log-rank P =0.03), but not type 2 MI (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-1.91; P =0.87). Similarly, pioglitazone reduced the risk of large MIs with serum troponin >100× upper limit of normal (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-0.87; P =0.02), but not smaller MIs. Among patients with insulin resistance without diabetes mellitus

  16. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of mathematical biology. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- ... his practice of oral and maxillofacial surgery, and he developed a mask using the concept of golden ratio. The mask is called the. Marquardt beauty mask (Figure 1) [1]. Keywords.

  17. Blood Pressure Control and Risk of Stroke or Systemic Embolism in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Results From the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Meena P; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Wojdyla, Daniel; Thomas, Laine; Alexander, John H; Hylek, Elaine M; Hanna, Michael; Bahit, M Cecilia; Lopes, Renato D; De Caterina, Raffaele; Erol, Cetin; Goto, Shinya; Lanas, Fernando; Lewis, Basil S; Husted, Steen; Gersh, Bernard J; Wallentin, Lars; Granger, Christopher B

    2015-12-01

    Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and hypertension are at high risk for stroke. Previous studies have shown elevated risk of stroke in patients with AF who have a history of hypertension (regardless of blood pressure [BP] control) and in patients with elevated BP. We assessed the association of hypertension and BP control on clinical outcomes. In ARISTOTLE (n=18 201), BP was evaluated as history of hypertension requiring treatment and elevated BP (systolic ≥140 and/or diastolic ≥90 mm Hg) at study entry and any point during the trial. Hazard ratios (HRs) were derived from Cox proportional hazards models including BP as a time-dependent covariate. A total of 15 916 (87.5%) patients had a history of hypertension requiring treatment. In patients with elevated BP measurement at any point during the trial, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was significantly higher (HR, 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-1.86), as was hemorrhagic stroke (HR 1.85; 95% CI, 1.26-2.72) and ischemic stroke (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.18-1.90). Rates of major bleeding were lower in patients with a history of hypertension (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.98) and nonsignificantly lower in patients with elevated BP at study entry (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.77-1.03). The benefit of apixaban versus warfarin on preventing stroke or systemic embolism was consistent among patients with and without a history of hypertension (P interaction=0.27), BP control at baseline (P interaction=0.43), and BP control during the trial (P interaction=0.97). High BP measurement at any point during the trial was independently associated with a substantially higher risk of stroke or systemic embolism. These results strongly support efforts to treat elevated BP as an important strategy to optimally lower risk of stroke in patients with AF. URL: https://ClinicalTrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00412984. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. Airplane stroke syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humaidan, Hani; Yassi, Nawaf; Weir, Louise; Davis, Stephen M; Meretoja, Atte

    2016-07-01

    Only 37 cases of stroke during or soon after long-haul flights have been published to our knowledge. In this retrospective observational study, we searched the Royal Melbourne Hospital prospective stroke database and all discharge summaries from 1 September 2003 to 30 September 2014 for flight-related strokes, defined as patients presenting with stroke within 14days of air travel. We hypothesised that a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an important, but not the only mechanism, of flight-related stroke. We describe the patient, stroke, and flight characteristics. Over the study period, 131 million passengers arrived at Melbourne airport. Our centre admitted 5727 stroke patients, of whom 42 (0.73%) had flight-related strokes. Flight-related stroke patients were younger (median age 65 versus 73, p<0.001), had similar stroke severity, and received intravenous thrombolysis more often than non-flight-related stroke patients. Seven patients had flight-related intracerebral haemorrhage. The aetiology of the ischaemic strokes was cardioembolic in 14/35 (40%), including seven patients with confirmed PFO, one with atrial septal defect, four with atrial fibrillation, one with endocarditis, and one with aortic arch atheroma. Paradoxical embolism was confirmed in six patients. Stroke related to air travel is a rare occurrence, less than one in a million. Although 20% of patients had a PFO, distribution of stroke aetiologies was diverse and was not limited to PFO and paradoxical embolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Body mass index in early and middle adult life: prospective associations with myocardial infarction, stroke and diabetes over a 30-year period: the British Regional Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Christopher G; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Wathern, Andrea K; Lennon, Lucy; Papacosta, Olia; Cook, Derek G; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H

    2015-09-15

    Adiposity in middle age is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes; less is known about the impact of adiposity from early adult life. We examined the effects of high body mass index (BMI) in early and middle adulthood on myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and diabetes risks. A prospective cohort study. 7735 men with BMI measured in middle age (40-59 years) and BMI ascertained at 21 years from military records or participant recall. 30-year follow-up data for type 2 diabetes, MI and stroke incidence; Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the effect of BMI at both ages on these outcomes, adjusted for age and smoking status. Among 4846 (63%) men (with complete data), a 1 kg/m(2) higher BMI at 21 years was associated with a 6% (95% CI 4% to 9%) higher type 2 diabetes risk, compared with a 21% (95% CI 18% to 24%) higher diabetes risk for a 1 kg/m(2) higher BMI in middle age (hazard ratio (HR) 1.21, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.24). Higher BMI in middle age was associated with a 6% (95% CI 4% to 8%) increase in MI and a 4% (95% CI 1% to 7%) increase in stroke; BMI at 21 years showed no associations with MI or stroke risk. Higher BMI at 21 years of age is associated with later diabetes incidence but not MI or stroke, while higher BMI in middle age is strongly associated with all outcomes. Early obesity prevention may reduce later type 2 diabetes risk, more than MI and stroke. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Associations of serum n-3 and n-6 PUFA and hair mercury with the risk of incident stroke in men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmand, Roya; Kurl, Sudhir; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Virtanen, Jyrki K

    2016-05-28

    PUFA have been associated with lower risk of CVD, but less is known about their association with stroke risk. Fish, a major source of n-3 PUFA, may also contain methylmercury, which has been associated with higher risk of CVD and attenuation of the benefits of long-chain n-3 PUFA. We investigated the associations of serum n-3 and n-6 PUFA and hair Hg with risk of stroke in men. A total of 1828 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984-1989 were studied. Cox regression models were used for the analyses. During the mean follow-up of 21·2 years, 202 stroke cases occurred, of which 153 were ischaemic strokes. After adjustment for age and examination year, the only statistically significant association among the n-3 and n-6 PUFA was observed between the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid and risk of haemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio in the highest v. the lowest quartile 0·33; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·86; P trend=0·03). However, further adjustments attenuated the association to statistically non-significant. Hair Hg was not associated with stroke risk, but among those with hair Hg above the median level, higher serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentrations were associated with a higher risk of ischaemic stroke. In our cohort of men, serum n-3 or n-6 PUFA or hair Hg were not associated with stroke risk; however, the interaction between Hg and long-chain n-3 PUFA with regard to ischaemic stroke risk warrants further investigation.

  1. Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke About 1.5 million heart attacks and strokes ... the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Cholesterol Salt Video: Know Your ...

  2. Tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  3. CHA2DS2-VASc Score (Congestive Heart Failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 [Doubled], Diabetes Mellitus, Prior Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack [Doubled], Vascular Disease, Age 65-74, Female) for Stroke in Asian Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Korean Nationwide Sample Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Yang, Pil-Sung; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Kim, Jong-Youn; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Joung, Boyoung; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2017-06-01

    The CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc stroke score (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 (doubled), diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (doubled), vascular disease, age 65-74, female) is used in most guidelines for risk stratification in atrial fibrillation (AF), but most data for this score have been derived in Western populations. Ethnic differences in stroke risk may be present. Our objective was to investigate risk factors for stroke in AF and application of the CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score in an Asian AF population from Korea. A total of 5855 oral anticoagulant-naive nonvalvular AF patients aged ≥20 years were enrolled from Korea National Health Insurance Service Sample cohort from 2002 to 2008 and were followed up until December 2013. The incidence rates (per 100 person-years) of ischemic stroke were 3.32 in the total population, being 0.23 in low-risk (CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score 0 [male] or 1 [female]) and 4.59 in high-risk patients (CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc ≥2). Incidence rates of ischemic stroke or the composite thromboembolism end point showed a clear increase with increasing CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score. On multivariable analysis, significant associations between CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc risk factors and ischemic stroke were observed; however, the significance of vascular disease or diabetes mellitus was attenuated after multivariate adjustment, and female sex (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.84) had a lower risk of ischemic stroke than males. Patients who were categorized as low risk consistently had an event rate Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Microalbuminuria indicates long-term vascular risk in patients after acute stroke undergoing in-patient rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Dirk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients in neurologic in-patient rehabilitation are at risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular events. Microalbuminuria (MAU is frequent and an important risk predictor but has not been validated in in-patient rehabilitation. We therefore aimed to examine MAU as an indicator of risk and predictor of vascular events in a prospective study. Methods The INSIGHT (INvestigation of patients with ischemic Stroke In neuroloGic reHabiliTation registry is the first to provide large scale data on 1,167 patients with acute stroke (χ2 or Mann–Whitney-U Test. Relative risks (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using log-binominal models. To evaluate the association between MAU and new vascular events as well as mortality, we calculated hazard ratios (HR using Cox proportional hazard regression. Results A substantial proportion of patients was MAU positive at baseline (33.1%. Upon univariate analysis these patients were about 4 years older (69 vs. 65 years; p 2; p = 0.03 and increased waist circumference (79.5 vs. 50.4% for women [p  Conclusions INSIGHT demonstrated a significant association between MAU and polyvascular disease and further supports previous findings that MAU predicts cardio-/cerebrovascular events in patients recovering from ischemic stroke. This biomarker may also be used in patients during neurologic in-patient rehabilitation, opening a window of opportunity for early intervention in this patient group at increased risk for recurrent events.

  5. Outcomes among patients with direct enteral vs nasogastric tube placement after acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joundi, Raed A; Saposnik, Gustavo; Martino, Rosemary; Fang, Jiming; Porter, Joan; Kapral, Moira K

    2018-02-13

    To compare complications, disability, and long-term mortality of patients who received direct enteral tube vs nasogastric tube feeding alone after acute stroke. We used the Ontario Stroke Registry to identify patients who received direct enteral tubes (DET; gastrostomy or jejunostomy) or temporary nasogastric tubes (NGT) alone during hospital stay after acute ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage from July 1, 2003, to March 31, 2013. We used propensity matching to compare groups from discharge and evaluated discharge disability, institutionalization, complications, and mortality, with follow-up over 2 years, and with cumulative incidence functions used to account for competing risks. Among 1,448 patients with DET placement who survived until discharge, 1,421 were successfully matched to patients with NGT alone. Patients with DET had reduced risk of death within 30 days after discharge (9.7% vs 15.3%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-0.75), but this difference was eliminated after matching on length of stay and discharge disability (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.70-1.17). Patients with DET had higher rates of severe disability at discharge (modified Rankin Scale score 4-5; 89.6% vs 78.4%), discharge to long-term care (38.0% vs 16.1%), aspiration pneumonia (14.4% vs 5.1%) and other complications, and mortality at 2 years (41.1% vs 35.9%). Patients with DET placement after acute stroke have more severe disability at discharge compared to those with NGT placement alone, and associated higher rates of institutionalization, medical complications, and long-term mortality. These findings may inform goals of care discussions and decisions regarding long-term tube feeding after acute stroke. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. The association of atopy with incidence of ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is a systemic inflammatory disease that could theoretically affect the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes through inflammatory pathways or mast cell-induced coronary spasm. Whether allergy is associated with an increased risk of CVD and diabetes is largely unknown. We investigated the association between atopy as assessed by IgE sensitization, a well-accepted biomarker of allergy, and incidence of ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes in five Danish population-based cohorts. A total of 14,849 participants were included in the study. Atopy was defined as serum-specific IgE positivity to inhalant allergens. The Danish National Diabetes Register enabled identification of incident diabetes. Likewise, the Danish Registry of Causes of Death and the Danish National Patient Register provided information on fatal and non-fatal ischemic heart disease and stroke. Data were analyzed by Cox regression analyses with age as underlying time axis and adjusted for study cohort, gender, education, body mass index, alcohol intake, smoking habits, physical activity during leisure time, serum lipids, and blood pressure. The prevalence of atopy was 26.9 % (n = 3,994). There were 1,170, 817, and 1,063 incident cases of ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes, respectively (median follow-up 11.2 years). The hazard ratios, HRs (95 % confidence intervals, CIs) for atopics versus non-atopics: for ischemic heart disease (HR 1.00, 95 % CI 0.86, 1.16), stroke (HR 1.18, 95 % CI 0.99, 1.41), and diabetes (HR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.91, 1.23). Our results did not support the hypothesis that atopy is associated with higher risk of ischemic heart disease, stroke, or diabetes. However, a small-moderately increased risk cannot be excluded from our data.

  7. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to ... of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are Hazardous Air Pollutants? Health and ...

  8. Stroke outcome in clinical trial patients deriving from different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Myzoon; Atula, Sari; Bath, Philip M W; Grotta, James; Hacke, Werner; Lyden, Patrick; Marler, John R; Sacco, Ralph L; Lees, Kennedy R

    2009-01-01

    Stroke incidence and outcome vary widely within and across geographical locations. We examined whether differences in index stroke severity, stroke risk factors, mortality, and stroke outcome across geographical locations remain after adjusting for case mix. We analyzed 3284 patients from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). We used logistic regression to examine the incidence of mild index stroke, functional, and neurological outcomes after accounting for age, medical history, year of trial recruitment, and initial stroke severity in the functional and neurological outcome analyses. We examined mortality between geographical regions using a Cox proportional hazards model, accounting for age, initial stroke severity, medical history, and year of trial recruitment. Patients enrolled in the USA and Canada had the most severe index strokes. Those recruited in Austria and Switzerland had the best functional and neurological outcomes at 90 days (P<0.05), whereas those enrolled in Germany had the worst functional outcome at 90 days (P=0.013). Patients enrolled in Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Finland, Germany, Greece, Israel, Spain, and Portugal had a significantly better survival rate when compared with those enrolled in USA and Canada. Patients enrolled in trials after 1998 had more severe index strokes, with no significant difference in outcome compared with those enrolled before 1998. We identified regional variations in index stroke severity, outcome, and mortality for patients enrolled in ischemic stroke clinical trials over the past 13 years that were not fully explained by case mix. Index stroke severity was greater in patients enrolled after 1998, with no significant improvement in outcomes compared to those enrolled before 1998.

  9. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progesterone and estrogen are two steroid hormones whose exposure may decrease the risk and delay the onset of ischemic stroke. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasma level of progesterone, estrogen and ratio of progesterone/estrogen in ischemic stroke patients. The plasma levels of ...

  10. The impact of diabetes on coronary heart disease differs from that on ischaemic stroke with regard to the gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderberg Stefan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the diabetes related CVD risk between men and women of different ages. Methods Hazards ratios (HRs (95%CI for acute CHD and ischaemic stroke events were estimated based on data of Finnish and Swedish cohorts of 5111 women and 4167 men. Results 182 (3.6% women and 348 (8.4% men had CHD and 129 (2.5% women and 137 (3.3% men ischaemic stroke events. The multivariate adjusted HRs for acute CHD at age groups of 40–49, 50–59 and 60–69 years were 1.00 (1.94, 1.78 (4.23, 3.75 (8.40 in women (men without diabetes and 4.35 (5.40, 5.49 (9.54 and 8.84 (13.76 in women (men with diabetes. The corresponding HRs for ischaemic stroke were 1.00 (1.26, 2.48 (2.83 and 5.17 (5.11 in women (men without diabetes and 4.14 (4.91, 3.32 (6.75 and 13.91 (18.06 in women (men with diabetes, respectively. Conclusion CHD risk was higher in men than in women but difference reduced in diabetic population. Diabetes, however, increased stroke risk more in men than in women.

  11. Incidence and Risk Factors of Stroke or Systemic Embolism in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iguchi, Moritake; Tezuka, Yuji; Ogawa, Hisashi

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a heterogeneous syndrome, but the effect of the type and severity of HF on the incidence of stroke or systemic embolism (SE) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients is unclear.Methods and Results:The Fushimi AF Registry is a community-based prospective survey of AF ...... of HF in patients with AF. The incidence of stroke/SE was markedly increased in the 30 days after admission for HF, but compensated 'stable' HF did not appear to confer an independent risk.......BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a heterogeneous syndrome, but the effect of the type and severity of HF on the incidence of stroke or systemic embolism (SE) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients is unclear.Methods and Results:The Fushimi AF Registry is a community-based prospective survey of AF....... On multivariate analysis, the incidence of stroke/SE was not associated with pre-existing HF (hazard ratio (HR), 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.92-1.64) or each criterion for the definition of pre-existing HF, but was associated with high B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal proBNP levels (above...

  12. Electrostatic hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Luttgens, Günter; Luttgens, Gnter; Luttgens, G Nter

    1997-01-01

    In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries. The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

  13. Risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in adults with polymyositis and dermatomyositis: a general population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sharan K; Choi, Hyon K; Sayre, Eric C; Aviña-Zubieta, J Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Limited data are available on the risk of cardiovascular disease in DM and PM. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of incident myocardial infarction (MI) and ischaemic stroke in adults with incident PM/DM at the general population level. We assembled a retrospective cohort of all adults with incident PM/DM in British Columbia, and we matched up to 10 adults randomly selected from the general population. We estimated the incidence rates (IRs) per 1000 person-years for MI and stroke. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs), adjusting for potential confounders. Among 774 new cases of inflammatory myopathies, 424 had PM (59% female, mean age 60 years) and 350 had DM (65% female, mean age 56 years). IRs for MI and stroke in PM were 22.52 and 10.15 events per 1000 person-years, respectively, vs 5.50 and 5.58 events in the comparison cohort, respectively. Fully adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 3.89 (95% CI: 2.28, 6.65) for MI and 1.76 (95% CI: 0.91, 3.40) for stroke. The age-, sex- and entry time-matched HRs for MI and stroke were highest in the first year after PM diagnosis (6.51, [95% CI: 3.15, 13.47] and 3.48 [95% CI: 1.26, 9.62], respectively). Similar trends were seen for DM. Our study demonstrates that PM and DM are both associated with an increased risk of MI but not ischaemic stroke. Our findings support increased vigilance in cardiovascular prevention, surveillance and risk modification in adults with PM and DM. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Test Your Stroke Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9-1-1. Which of the following are risk factors for stroke? High blood pressure Heart disease Smoking High cholesterol Diabetes Show Answer All of these are risk factors for stroke. If you smoke - quit. If you have high ...

  15. Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More The Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia Click a letter below to get a brief ... of cardiovascular terms from our Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia and get links to in-depth information. A ...

  16. Stroke Connection Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Submit A Story Edit Module Show Tags Stroke Rehabilitation Two-Part Series Making the Best Decisions at ... first part of a two-part series on stroke rehab, we offer guidance for the decision-making process ...

  17. Stroke (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your friend. Being around friends can help with healing. Preventing Strokes Some strokes can be prevented in ... Why Does Hair Turn Gray? What Are Wrinkles? Alzheimer Disease Your Brain & Nervous System Why Exercise Is ...

  18. Stroke Trials Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Trials Registry Clinical Trials Interventions Conditions Sponsors ... a clinical trial near you Welcome to the Stroke Trials Registry Our registry of clinical trials in ...

  19. Efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin among elderly patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily, Oral, Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Jonathan L; Hankey, Graeme J; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Piccini, Jonathan P; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Patel, Manesh R; Breithardt, Günter; Singer, Daniel E; Becker, Richard C; Hacke, Werner; Paolini, John F; Nessel, Christopher C; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Califf, Robert M; Fox, Keith A A

    2014-07-08

    Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is common in elderly patients, who face an elevated risk of stroke but difficulty sustaining warfarin treatment. The oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban was noninferior to warfarin in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily, Oral, Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF). This prespecified secondary analysis compares outcomes in older and younger patients. There were 6229 patients (44%) aged ≥75 years with atrial fibrillation and ≥2 stroke risk factors randomized to warfarin (target international normalized ratio=2.0-3.0) or rivaroxaban (20 mg daily; 15 mg if creatinine clearance <50 mL/min), double blind. The primary end point was stroke and systemic embolism by intention to treat. Over 10 866 patient-years, older participants had more primary events (2.57% versus 2.05%/100 patient-years; P=0.0068) and major bleeding (4.63% versus 2.74%/100 patient-years; P<0.0001). Stroke/systemic embolism rates were consistent among older (2.29% rivaroxaban versus 2.85% warfarin per 100 patient-years; hazard ratio=0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-1.02) and younger patients (2.00% versus 2.10%/100 patient-years; hazard ratio=0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.19; interaction P=0.313), as were major bleeding rates (≥75 years: 4.86% rivaroxaban versus 4.40% warfarin per 100 patient-years; hazard ratio=1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.34; <75 years: 2.69% versus 2.79%/100 patient-years; hazard ratio=0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.19; interaction P=0.336). Hemorrhagic stroke rates were similar in both age groups; there was no interaction between age and rivaroxaban response. Elderly patients had higher stroke and major bleeding rates than younger patients, but the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban relative to warfarin did not differ with age, supporting rivaroxaban as an alternative for the elderly. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Impact of libido at 2 weeks after stroke on risk of stroke recurrence at 1-year in a chinese stroke cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Huai-Wu; Wang, Chun-Xue; Luo, Ben-Yan; Ruan, Jie; Zhang, Ning; Shi, Yu-Zhi; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Yi-Long; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Juan; Zhao, Xing-Quan; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2015-05-20

    There were few studies on the relation between changes in libido and incidence of stroke recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between libido decrease at 2 weeks after stroke and recurrent stroke at 1-year. It is a multi-centered, prospective cohort study. The 14 th item of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 was used to evaluate changes of libido in poststroke patients at 2 weeks. Stroke recurrence was defined as an aggravation of former neurological functional deficit, new local or overall symptoms, or stroke diagnosed at re-admission. Among 2341 enrolled patients, 1757 patients had completed follow-up data, 533 (30.34%) patients had decreased libido at 2 weeks, and 166 (9.45%) patients had recurrent stroke at 1-year. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, compared with patients with normal libido, the odds ratio (OR) of recurrent stroke in patients with decreased libido was reduced by 41% (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40-0.87). The correlation was more prominent among male patients (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.31-0.85) and patients of ≥60 years of age (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.35-0.93). One out of three stroke patients in mainland China has decreased libido at 2 weeks after stroke. Decreased libido is a protective factor for stroke recurrence at 1-year, which is more prominent among older male patients.

  1. [Genetics of ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendtner, A; Dichgans, M

    2013-02-01

    Stroke is one of the most widespread causes of mortality und disability worldwide. Around 80 % of strokes are ischemic and different forms of intracranial bleeding account for the remaining cases. Monogenic stroke disorders are rare but the diagnosis may lead to specific therapeutic consequences for the affected patients who are predominantly young. In common sporadic stroke, genetic factors play a role in the form of susceptibility genes. Their discovery may give rise to new therapeutic options in the future.

  2. Hemorrhagic Stroke in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan M.D., Lori C.; Hillis M.D., Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately half of stroke in childhood. Unlike arterial ischemic stroke, there are no consensus guidelines to assist in the evaluation and treatment of these children. We review the literature on the evaluation, treatment, etiology and neurologic outcome of hemorrhagic stroke in children. Important differences between pediatric and adult hemorrhage are highlighted, as treatment guidelines for adults may not be applicable in all cases. Needed future research ...

  3. Trends in the incidence of ischaemic stroke in young adults between 1985 and 2011: the Dijon Stroke Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjot, Yannick; Daubail, Benoit; Jacquin, Agnès; Durier, Jérôme; Osseby, Guy-Victor; Rouaud, Olivier; Giroud, Maurice

    2014-05-01

    Recent data have suggested that stroke incidence in young people may be rising. In this population-based study, we aimed to determine whether the incidence of stroke in people aged stroke (ischaemic stroke, spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage, and undetermined stroke) occurring in Dijon, France, from 1985 to 2011 were prospectively collected from a population-based registry. Incidence rates were calculated and temporal trends were analysed by age groups and stroke subtypes using a Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR). Risk factors and premorbid treatments were analysed. Over the 27-year study period, 4506 patients were recorded (53% women, mean age 74.6±14.4, 10.1% aged stroke incidence was noted, as was a rise in ischaemic stroke in individuals aged ischaemic stroke in people aged disease and treatment options in the population and among practitioners leading to more frequent referrals for specialised care, and improvements in stroke diagnosis. Stroke prevention must be encouraged even in young adults.

  4. Community-based case-control study of childhood stroke risk associated with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christine K; Sidney, Stephen; Fullerton, Heather J

    2015-02-01

    A better understanding of the stroke risk factors in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) could inform stroke prevention strategies. We analyzed pediatric stroke associated with CHD in a large community-based case-control study. From 2.5 million children (aged hemorrhagic strokes and randomly selected age- and facility-matched stroke-free controls (3 per case). We determined exposure to CHD (diagnosed before stroke) and used conditional logistic regression to analyze stroke risk factors. CHD was identified in 15 of 412 cases (4%) versus 7 of 1236 controls (0.6%). Cases of childhood stroke (occurring between ages 29 days to 20 years) with CHD had 19-fold (odds ratio, 19; 95% confidence interval 4.2-83) increased stroke risk compared to controls. History of CHD surgery was associated with >30-fold (odds ratio, 31; confidence interval 4-241) increased risk of stroke in children with CHD when compared with controls. After excluding perioperative strokes, the history of CHD surgery still increased the childhood stroke risk (odds ratio, 13; confidence interval 1.5-114). The majority of children with stroke and CHD were outpatients at the time of stroke, and almost half the cases who underwent cardiac surgery had their stroke >5 years after the most recent procedure. An estimated 7% of ischemic and 2% of hemorrhagic childhood strokes in the population were attributable to CHD. CHD is an important childhood stroke risk factor. Children who undergo CHD surgery remain at elevated risk outside the perioperative period and would benefit from optimized long-term stroke prevention strategies. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Clinical characteristics of stroke occurring in the toilet: Are older adults more vulnerable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamasu, Joji; Tomiyasu, Kazuhiro; Miyatake, Satoru; Mayanagi, Keita; Yoshii, Masami; Nakatsukasa, Masashi

    2018-02-01

    While autonomic imbalance during defecation/micturition can cause hemodynamic instability, stroke occurring in the toilet has rarely been investigated. The objective of the present study was to clarify the frequency and clinical characteristics of toilet-related stroke. Clinical data prospectively acquired between January 2011 and December 2015 on 1939 patients with acute stroke (1224 cerebral infarctions [CI], 505 intracerebral hemorrhages [ICH] and 210 subarachnoid hemorrhages [SAH]) were reviewed to identify patients with a toilet-related stroke. For each stroke type, the ratios of stroke occurring during defecation/micturition to those occurring during other activities were calculated. Subsequently, how patients with toilet-related stroke were brought to medical attention was investigated. Whether older patients (aged >65 years) had an elevated ratio of toilet-related stroke was investigated in each stroke type. A total of 108 patients (41 CI, 37 ICH and 30 subarachnoid hemorrhages) sustained a stroke in the toilet. The ratio of toilet-related stroke was highest in subarachnoid hemorrhages (14.3%), followed by ICH (7.3%). Circadian differences existed among the three stroke types: toilet-related CI were more likely to occur in the night-time than ICH. Patients with toilet-related CI were significantly more likely to sustain cardioembolic stroke. In all three stroke types, toilet-related stroke in CI, but not in hemorrhagic strokes. The toilet is a closed space where stroke occurs disproportionately frequently. Effort to reduce the incidence of toilet-related strokes is warranted, as early patient detection is not always feasible. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 250-255. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Retinal fractals and acute lacunar stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ning; Liew, Gerald; Lindley, Richard I; Liu, Erica Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Hand, Peter; Baker, Michelle; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Y

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether retinal fractal dimension, a quantitative measure of microvascular branching complexity and density, is associated with lacunar stroke. A total of 392 patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke had retinal fractal dimension measured from digital photographs, and lacunar infarct ascertained from brain imaging. After adjusting for age, gender, and vascular risk factors, higher retinal fractal dimension (highest vs lowest quartile and per standard deviation increase) was independently and positively associated with lacunar stroke (odds ratio [OR], 4.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-12.17 and OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.20-2.84, respectively). Increased retinal microvascular complexity and density is associated with lacunar stroke.

  7. Suicide after a stroke: a population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To establish whether there are increased rates of suicide after a stroke and the degree to which any increase is related to gender, age at stroke, diagnosis, duration of hospitalisation, and time since stroke. DESIGN: Cross linkage of national registers for hospitalisations...... cases of suicide were identified. MAIN RESULTS: Annual incidence rates, both observed and expected, together with standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were computed based on annual population and suicide statistics, stratified by age and gender. The overall annual incidence rate of suicide in the cohort.......76) for patients under 50 years of age group and were least for patients 80 years or older (1.3; 0.95, 1.79). There was no clear relation to stroke diagnosis. Suicides were negatively related to duration of hospitalisation, being lowest for those hospitalised for more than three months (0.88; 0.65, 1...

  8. Stroke in SSA: Review of current literature concerning the incidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... stroke patients were on average 24 years younger than their HIV-negative counterparts [27]. In the same study HIV-positive patients had a lower incidence of common cardiovascular risk factors, further suggesting the causal link between HIV and ischemic stroke. The. Risk Factors. White. Black. Odds Ratio.

  9. Apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack: a subgroup analysis of the ARISTOTLE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, J Donald; Lopes, Renato D; Bahit, M Cecilia; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Granger, Christopher B; Wallentin, Lars; Alings, Marco; Goto, Shinya; Lewis, Basil S; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Hanna, Michael; Mohan, Puneet; Alexander, John H; Diener, Hans-Christoph

    2012-06-01

    In the ARISTOTLE trial, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was reduced by apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients with AF and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) have a high risk of stroke. We therefore aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin in prespecified subgroups of patients with and without previous stroke or TIA. Between Dec 19, 2006, and April 2, 2010, patients were enrolled in the ARISTOTLE trial at 1034 clinical sites in 39 countries. 18,201 patients with AF or atrial flutter were randomly assigned to receive apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin (target international normalised ratio 2·0-3·0). The median duration of follow-up was 1·8 years (IQR 1·4-2·3). The primary efficacy outcome was stroke or systemic embolism, analysed by intention to treat. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding in the on-treatment population. All participants, investigators, and sponsors were masked to treatment assignments. In this subgroup analysis, we estimated event rates and used Cox models to compare outcomes in patients with and without previous stroke or TIA. The ARISTOTLE trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NTC00412984. Of the trial population, 3436 (19%) had a previous stroke or TIA. In the subgroup of patients with previous stroke or TIA, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was 2·46 per 100 patient-years of follow-up in the apixaban group and 3·24 in the warfarin group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·76, 95% CI 0·56 to 1·03); in the subgroup of patients without previous stroke or TIA, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was 1·01 per 100 patient-years of follow-up with apixaban and 1·23 with warfarin (HR 0·82, 95% CI 0·65 to 1·03; p for interaction=0·71). The absolute reduction in the rate of stroke and systemic embolism with apixaban versus warfarin was 0·77 per 100 patient-years of follow-up (95% CI -0·08 to 1·63) in patients with

  10. Functional Gain After Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation: Correlates and Impact on Long-Term Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrutinio, Domenico; Monitillo, Vincenzo; Guida, Pietro; Nardulli, Roberto; Multari, Vincenzo; Monitillo, Francesco; Calabrese, Gianluigi; Fiore, Pietro

    2015-10-01

    Prediction of functional outcome after stroke rehabilitation (SR) is a growing field of interest. The association between SR and survival still remains elusive. We sought to investigate the factors associated with functional outcome after SR and whether the magnitude of functional improvement achieved with rehabilitation is associated with long-term mortality risk. The study population consisted of 722 patients admitted for SR within 90 days of stroke onset, with an admission functional independence measure (FIM) score of stroke onset to rehabilitation admission (PStroke Scale score at rehabilitation admission (P<0.001), and aphasia (P=0.021) were independently associated with FIM gain. The R2 of the model was 0.275. During a median follow-up of 6.17 years, 36.9% of the patients died. At multivariable Cox analysis, age (P<0.0001), coronary heart disease (P=0.018), atrial fibrillation (P=0.042), total cholesterol (P=0.015), and total FIM gain (P<0.0001) were independently associated with mortality. The adjusted hazard ratio for death significantly decreased across tertiles of increasing FIM gain. Several factors are independently associated with functional gain after SR. Our findings strongly suggest that the magnitude of functional improvement is a powerful predictor of long-term mortality in patients admitted for SR. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Revised Framingham Stroke Risk Score, Nontraditional Risk Markers, and Incident Stroke in a Multiethnic Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Peter; Longstreth, Will; Herrington, David; Yeboah, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    Limited data exist on the performance of the revised Framingham Stroke Risk Score (R-FSRS) and the R-FSRS in conjunction with nontraditional risk markers. We compared the R-FSRS, original FSRS, and the Pooled Cohort Equation for stroke prediction and assessed the improvement in discrimination by nontraditional risk markers. Six thousand seven hundred twelve of 6814 participants of the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) were included. Cox proportional hazard, area under the curve, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination increment analysis were used to assess and compare each stroke prediction risk score. Stroke was defined as fatal/nonfatal strokes (hemorrhagic or ischemic). After mean follow-up of 10.7 years, 231 of 6712 (3.4%) strokes were adjudicated (2.7% ischemic strokes). Mean stroke risks using the R-FSRS, original FSRS, and Pooled Cohort Equation were 4.7%, 5.9%, and 13.5%. The R-FSRS had the best calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit, χ 2 =6.55; P =0.59). All risk scores were predictive of incident stroke. C statistics of R-FSRS (0.716) was similar to Pooled Cohort Equation (0.716), but significantly higher than the original FSRS (0.653; P =0.01 for comparison with R-FSRS). Adding nontraditional risk markers individually to the R-FSRS did not improve discrimination of the R-FSRS in the area under the curve analysis, but did improve category-less net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination increment for incident stroke. The addition of coronary artery calcium to R-FSRS produced the highest category-less net reclassification improvement (0.36) and integrated discrimination increment (0.0027). Similar results were obtained when ischemic strokes were used as the outcome. The R-FSRS downgraded stroke risk but had better calibration and discriminative ability for incident stroke compared with the original FSRS. Nontraditional risk markers modestly improved the discriminative ability of the R-FSRS, with

  12. CHA2DS2-VASc score for ischaemic stroke risk stratification in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with and without atrial fibrillation: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Syun; Lin, Cheng-Li

    2018-04-01

    We conducted this nationwide cohort study to identify the performance of CHA2DS2-VASc score for ischaemic stroke risk stratification in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients whether they had comorbid atrial fibrillation (AF) or not. Using the longitudinal health insurance database 2000, patients aged ≥20 years with newly diagnosed COPD from 2000 to 2011 with at least three claims for outpatient and/or hospitalization visits were identified. A total of 1492 COPD patients with AF and 50 343 COPD patients without AF were included in this study. We calculated the CHA2DS2-VASc score-specific incidence density rates of ischaemic stroke with person-years in each cohort. Cox models were conducted to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ischaemic stroke risk in COPD patients with and without concomitant AF. The predictive performance of CHA2DS2-VASc score with regard to ischaemic stroke events was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (C-statistic). COPD patients with a higher CHA2DS2-VASc score were more likely to develop ischaemic stroke whether or not AF was present. Moreover, the C-statistics of CHA2DS2-VASc score in predicting ischaemic stroke in COPD patients with and without AF were 0.58 (95% CI = 0.55-0.62) and 0.71(95% CI = 0.70-0.72), respectively. Our study is the first to show that the performance of CHA2DS2-VASc score in predicting ischaemic stroke is better for COPD patients without AF than for COPD patients with AF.

  13. Short-term hypertension management in community is associated with long-term risk of stroke and total death in China: A community controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zengwu; Hao, Guang; Wang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Chen, Weiwei; Zhu, Manlu

    2016-11-01

    It is not fully clear whether the effect of short-term management in community can reduce the long-term risk of stroke OBJECTIVES:: To evaluate whether short-term hypertension management is associated with long-term incidence of stroke and total death in community health centers in China. Community controlled trail. Six community health centers (4 active, 2 control) in China, patients with hypertension. Patients were treated with normally therapy method. Patients were treated oriented by the Guideline for hypertension management. Two centers (Hebei and Zhejiang) from the Hypertension Control in Community (HCC) Project, which was conducted from 2005 to 2008, were randomly selected for this study. Four thousand hypertensive patients from these centers, who were under management for one year in the baseline, were followed up in 2013. The electronic health record system (2005-2008) was used to identify 2000 hypertensive patients, who were not included in HCC but lived in comparable community health center in the same province, as the control group. All baseline and follow-up data were collected using standardized questionnaires for stroke outcomes. Stroke. Of the 6000 participants, 3787 (63.1%) were eligible for analysis. At the time of follow-up, the average BP was kept in the lower level than that in baseline, and the control rate was 59.3%. After propensity-score matching, 110 strokes (2.0% vs 4.6%) and 141 deaths (1.4% vs 3.8%) were noted in the matched intervention and control groups (1078 pairs), respectively. Patients in the intervention group were less likely to experience a stroke or die than those in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26-0.62, P stroke in hypertensive patients.

  14. Dietary intakes consistent with the DASH dietary pattern reduce blood pressure increase with age and risk for stroke in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Svetkey, Laura P; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Chin; Wang, Christine; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2013-01-01

    The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet has been proven to effectively lower blood pressure(BP), and associate with a lower cardiovascular disease and stroke risk in mainly non-Asians. Further, it is unclear if adhering to the DASH target nutrients has similar BP impact as adhering to the recommended DASH food groups. Associations between adherence to DASH foods or nutrients and BP or stroke risk were assessed in 1420 and 2061 Taiwanese adults from 1989 to 2002, respectively. The DASH food score (p=0.053), dairy(p=0.030) and calcium (p=0.020) intake were significantly and inversely associated with follow up systolic BP change in univariate analyses. Both dairy (p=0.020) and calcium (p=0.001) also showed a consistent inverse association with systolic BP change in multivariate analysis. None of the factors examined was associated with diastolic BP change. Both DASH nutrient score and magnesium intakes were significantly associated with the hazard ratio (HR) for total stroke in an inverse relationship. The HR of total stroke comparing the highest to the lowest tertile was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41-0.98, p=0.037) for the DASH nutrient score, and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.40-0.97,p=0.030) for magnesium intake. Similar findings were observed for DASH nutrient score (p=0.011) and magnesium intake (p=0.043) with the HR for ischemic stroke. The HR for total and ischemic stroke for calcium intake also showed a borderline trend (p=0.071 and 0.051, respectively). In conclusion, adhering to the DASH diet is beneficial for long term BP control and reduction of stroke risk in this Chinese population.

  15. [Association of obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors with stroke the Japan Arteriosclerosis Longitudinal Study--Existing Cohorts Combined (JALS-ECC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yasuo; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Sato, Shinichi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Kitamura, Akihiko; Saito, Isao; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kawano, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Ando, Takashi; Taguri, Masataka; Haradai, Akiko; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2011-12-01

    To assess the relationship between metabolic risk factors and the incidence of stroke stratified by obesity, by conducting a meta-analysis using individual participant data from prospective cohort studies. A total of 19,173 individuals from 10 cohort studies participated at baseline after 1985. Metabolic risk factors were defined using the established criteria in Japan. Participants were subdivided into five categories according to the levels of risk factors and obesity defined by BMI > or = 25 (kg/m2). Multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the incidence of stroke and the population attributable risk (PAR) were estimated by Poisson regression. During an average 7.1-year follow-up period, 374 stroke events occurred. Hypertension was highest among the risk factors not concerned with BMI stratification. The HR for stroke was 2.48 (95% CI: 1.75-3.5) for BMI or = 25 with 0 or 1 factor and 3.26 (2.11-5.02) with 2 or more. The HR was significantly elevated in all categories with one or more risk factors. The PAR was highest in the category of BMI or = 25 with 0 or 1 and 2 or more risk factors were 8.1% and 8.0%. Similar results were found from the analyses of different stroke subtypes. The HR was found to be significantly elevated with the number of risk factors both with and without obesity. The attributable risk for stroke was larger in the non-obese group. Therefore, public health intervention based only on obesity may miss many of those at high risk of stroke so the focus should not only be on obesity but also cardiovascular risk factors.

  16. Evidence to Maintain the Systolic Blood Pressure Treatment Threshold at 140 mm Hg for Stroke Prevention: The Northern Manhattan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuanhui; Della-Morte, David; Rundek, Tatjana; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L

    2016-03-01

    In 2014, the Eighth Joint National Committee revised the target maximum systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 140 to 150 mm Hg in patients aged ≥60 years without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease. The evidence from cohort studies supporting this change was sparse, particularly among US minority populations. In the Northern Manhattan Study, 1750 participants aged ≥60 years and free of stroke, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease had SBP measured at baseline and were annually followed up for incident stroke. Mean age at baseline was 72±8 years, 63% were women, 48% Hispanic, 25% non-Hispanic white, and 25% non-Hispanic black. Among all participants, 40% were on antihypertensive medications; 43% had SBP Hg, 20% had 140 to 149 mm Hg, and 37% had ≥150 mm Hg. Over a median follow-up of 13 years, 182 participants developed stroke. The crude stroke incidence was greater among individuals with SBP≥150 mm Hg (10.8 per 1000 person-years) and SBP 140 to 149 (12.3) than among those with SBPHg had an increased risk of stroke (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.6) compared with those with SBP Hg. The increased stroke risk was most notable among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. Raising the SBP threshold from 140 to 150 mm Hg as a new target for hypertension treatment in older individuals without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease could have a detrimental effect on stroke risk reduction, especially among minority US populations. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. estimated glomerular filtration rate and risk of survival in acute stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... independence and the common odds ratio with stroke severity as a layering variable. Results: No significant ... Conclusion: Independent of stroke severity, GFR is a surrogate in the assessment of the risk of survival in acute ..... outcome of acute stroke in the University College. Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria.

  18. Sex Disparities in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2015-01-01

    between 2003 and 2012 (N=79 617), and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. Information was available on age, sex, marital status, stroke severity, stroke subtype, socioeconomic status, and cardiovascular risk profile. We studied only deaths due to the index stroke, with the assumption that death.......5%) or 1 month (6.9%), respectively. After the age of 60 years, women had more severe strokes than men. Up to ages in the mid-60s, no difference in the risk of death from stroke was seen between the 2 sexes. For people aged >65 years, however, the risk gradually became greater in men than in women...

  19. Evaluation of stroke services in Anglia stroke clinical network to examine the variation in acute services and stroke outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Abraham

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is the third leading cause of death in developed countries and the leading cause of long-term disability worldwide. A series of national stroke audits in the UK highlighted the differences in stroke care between hospitals. The study aims to describe variation in outcomes following stroke and to identify the characteristics of services that are associated with better outcomes, after accounting for case mix differences and individual prognostic factors. Methods/Design We will conduct a cohort study in eight acute NHS trusts within East of England, with at least one year of follow-up after stroke. The study population will be a systematically selected representative sample of patients admitted with stroke during the study period, recruited within each hospital. We will collect individual patient data on prognostic characteristics, health care received, outcomes and costs of care and we will also record relevant characteristics of each provider organisation. The determinants of one year outcome including patient reported outcome will be assessed statistically with proportional hazards regression models. Self (or proxy completed EuroQol (EQ-5D questionnaires will measure quality of life at baseline and follow-up for cost utility analyses. Discussion This study will provide observational data about health service factors associated with variations in patient outcomes and health care costs following hospital admission for acute stroke. This will form the basis for future RCTs by identifying promising health service interventions, assessing the feasibility of recruiting and following up trial patients, and provide evidence about frequency and variances in outcomes, and intra-cluster correlation of outcomes, for sample size calculations. The results will inform clinicians, public, service providers, commissioners and policy makers to drive further improvement in health services which will bring direct benefit to the patients.

  20. Burden and outcome of prevalent ischemic brain disease in a national acute stroke registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koton, Silvia; Tsabari, Rakefet; Molshazki, Noa; Kushnir, Moshe; Shaien, Radi; Eilam, Anda; Tanne, David

    2013-12-01

    Previous overt stroke and subclinical stroke are frequent in patients with stroke; yet, their clinical significance and effects on stroke outcome are not clear. We studied the burden and outcome after acute ischemic stroke by prevalent ischemic brain disease in a national registry of hospitalized patients with acute stroke. Patients with ischemic stroke in the National Acute Stroke Israeli prospective hospital-based registry (February to March 2004, March to April 2007, and April to May 2010) with information on previous overt stroke and subclinical stroke per computed tomography/MRI (n=3757) were included. Of them, a subsample (n=787) was followed up at 3 months. Logistic regression models were computed for outcomes in patients with prior overt stroke or subclinical stroke, compared with patients with first stroke, adjusting for age, sex, vascular risk factors, stroke severity, and clinical classification. Two-thirds of patients had a prior overt stroke or subclinical stroke. Death rates were similar for patients with and without prior stroke. Adjusted odds ratios (OR; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for disability were increased for patients with prior overt stroke (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03-1.66) and subclinical stroke (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.16-1.82). Relative odds of Barthel Index≤60 for patients with prior overt stroke (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.14-3.68) and with prior subclinical stroke (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.15-3.64) were twice higher than for patients with a first stroke. ORs for dependency were significantly increased for patients with prior overt stroke (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.19-3.20) but not for those with subclinical stroke (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.84-2.19). In our national cohort of patients with acute ischemic stroke, nearly two thirds had a prior overt stroke or subclinical stroke. Risk of poor functional outcomes was increased for patients with prior stroke, both overt and subclinical.

  1. Dietary patterns are associated with incident stroke and contribute to excess risk of stroke in Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Suzanne E; Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Newby, PK; Howard, George; Howard, Virginia J; Locher, Julie L; Kissela, Brett M; Shikany, James M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Black Americans and residents of the Southeastern United States, are at increased risk of stroke. Diet is one of many potential factors proposed that might explain these racial and regional disparities. Methods Between 2003–2007, the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study enrolled 30,239 black and white Americans aged 45 years or older. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis and foods from food frequency data. Incident strokes were adjudicated using medical records by a team of physicians. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk of stroke. Results Over 5.7 years, 490 incident strokes were observed. In a multivariable-adjusted analysis, greater adherence to the Plant-based pattern was associated with lower stroke risk (HR=0.71; 95% CI=0.56–0.91; ptrend=0.005). This association was attenuated after addition of income, education, total energy intake, smoking, and sedentary behavior. Participants with a higher adherence to the Southern pattern experienced a 39% increased risk of stroke (HR=1.39; 95% CI=1.05, 1.84), with a significant (p = 0.009) trend across quartiles. Including Southern pattern in the model mediated the black-white risk of stroke by 63%. Conclusions These data suggest that adherence to a Southern style diet may increase the risk of stroke while adherence to a more plant-based diet may reduce stroke risk. Given the consistency of finding a dietary impact on stroke risk across studies, discussing nutrition patterns during risk screening may be an important step in reducing stroke. PMID:24159061

  2. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  3. Registration of acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Mehnert, Frank; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The validity of the registration of patients in stroke-specific registries has seldom been investigated, nor compared with administrative hospital discharge registries. The objective of this study was to examine the validity of the registration of patients in a stroke-specific registry...... (The Danish Stroke Registry [DSR]) and a hospital discharge registry (The Danish National Patient Registry [DNRP]). METHODS: Assuming that all patients with stroke were registered in either the DSR, DNRP or both, we first identified a sample of 75 patients registered with stroke in 2009; 25 patients...... in the DSR, 25 patients in the DNRP, and 25 patients registered in both data sources. Using the medical record as a gold standard, we then estimated the sensitivity and positive predictive value of a stroke diagnosis in the DSR and the DNRP. Secondly, we reviewed 160 medical records for all potential stroke...

  4. Sleep and Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Padma Srivastav

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian variations in conjunction with sleep-related heart rhythm changes and sleepdisordered breathing (SDB are contributing risk factors for stroke. Strong scientificevidence now exists indicating that SDB contributes to systemic hypertension, aprominent risk factor for stroke, and compelling circumstantial evidence is presentsuggesting that SDB raises the risk for development of stroke through other circulatorymechanisms as well. Preliminary evidence indicates that post-stroke patients have ahigher prevalence of SDB, which is likely to compromise their rehabilitation outcomes.Since SDB is modifiable with the application of CPAP and other treatment modalities,there is practical value in investigating patients at risk of stroke or post stroke forpresence of SDB. Successful application of CPAP or BiPAP therapy may improve theoutcome in both instances.Key words : Sleep, Stroke, SDB, CPAP

  5. Uric acid predicts mortality and ischaemic stroke in subjects with diastolic dysfunction: the Tromsø Study 1994-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvik, Jon V; Schirmer, Henrik; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Storhaug, Hilde M; Jenssen, Trond G; Eriksen, Bjørn O; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Wilsgaard, Tom; Solbu, Marit D

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether serum uric acid predicts adverse outcomes in persons with indices of diastolic dysfunction in a general population. We performed a prospective cohort study among 1460 women and 1480 men from 1994 to 2013. Endpoints were all-cause mortality, incident myocardial infarction, and incident ischaemic stroke. We stratified the analyses by echocardiographic markers of diastolic dysfunction, and uric acid was the independent variable of interest. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated per 59 μmol/L increase in baseline uric acid. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models showed that uric acid predicted all-cause mortality in subjects with E/A ratio 1.5 (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.09-2.09, P for interaction between E/A ratio category and uric acid = 0.02). Elevated uric acid increased mortality risk in persons with E-wave deceleration time 220 ms (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.12 and HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26, respectively; P for interaction = 0.04). Furthermore, in participants with isovolumetric relaxation time ≤60 ms, mortality risk was higher with increasing uric acid (HR 4.98, 95% CI 2.02-12.26, P for interaction = 0.004). Finally, elevated uric acid predicted ischaemic stroke in subjects with severely enlarged left atria (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.03-2.53, P for interaction = 0.047). Increased uric acid was associated with higher all-cause mortality risk in subjects with echocardiographic indices of diastolic dysfunction, and with higher ischaemic stroke risk in persons with severely enlarged left atria.

  6. Temporal Trends in Sex Differences With Regard to Stroke Incidence: The Dijon Stroke Registry (1987-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Marie; Delpont, Benoit; Daubail, Benoit; Blanc, Christelle; Durier, Jérôme; Giroud, Maurice; Béjot, Yannick

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated temporal trends in stroke incidence between men and women to determine whether changes in the distribution of vascular risk factors have influenced sex differences in stroke epidemiology. Patients with first-ever stroke including ischemic stroke, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and undetermined stroke between 1987 and 2012 were identified through the population-based registry of Dijon, France. Incidence rates were calculated for age groups, sex, and stroke subtypes. Sex differences and temporal trends (according to 5-year time periods) were evaluated by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with Poisson regression. Four thousand six hundred and fourteen patients with a first-ever stroke (53.1% women) were recorded. Incidence was lower in women than in men (112 versus 166 per 100 000/y; IRR, 0.68; P stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. From 1987 to 2012, the lower incidence of overall stroke in women was stable (IRR ranging between 0.63 and 0.72 according to study periods). When considering stroke subtype, a slight increase in the incidence of ischemic stroke was observed in both men (IRR, 1.011; 95% confidence interval, 1.005-1.016; P =0.001) and women (IRR, 1.013; 95% confidence interval, 1.007-1.018; P =0.001). The sex gap in incidence remained unchanged in ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. Conversely, the lower subarachnoid hemorrhage incidence in women vanished with time because of an increasing incidence. The sex gap in stroke incidence did not change with time except for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Despite lower rates, more women than men experience an incident stroke each year because of a longer life expectancy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in different acute stroke subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukasovic, Ines; Tesija-Kuna, Andrea; Topic, Elizabeta; Supanc, Visnja; Demarin, Vida; Petrovcic, Marija

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine serum levels of selected matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their natural inhibitors (TIMPs) in the acute phase of different stroke types subdivided according to the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP) classification and the possibility of discriminating stroke types according to their levels. The study included 126 patients with acute stroke within the first 24 h of symptom onset, and 124 healthy volunteers. The stroke group had lower MMP-2 concentrations and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratios (pnegative correlation of MMP-2 levels with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio was recorded in all stroke subtypes except for TACI. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed similar discriminating power for MMP-9 levels and Barthel index in the differential diagnosis of TACI. High MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio (odds ratio 3.263) was associated with TACI. Our results demonstrate that the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio may provide information to help in assessing stroke patients in the future as a baseline biomarker of infarct extent.

  8. Laboratory tests as short-term correlates of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sughrue, Trevor; Swiernik, Michael A; Huang, Yang; Brody, James P

    2016-07-21

    The widespread adoption of electronic health records provides new opportunities to better predict which patients are likely to suffer a stroke. Using electronic health records, we assessed the correlation of different laboratory tests to future occurrences of a stroke. We examined the electronic health records of 2.4 million people over a two year time span. These records contained 26,964 diagnoses of stroke. Using Cox regression analysis, we measured whether any one of 1796 different laboratory tests were effectively correlated with a future diagnosis of stroke. We identified 38 different laboratory tests that had significant short-term (two year) prognostic value for a future diagnosis of stroke. For each of the 38 laboratory tests we also compiled the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, and relative risk ratio that the test confers. Several dozen laboratory tests are effective short-term correlates of stroke.

  9. Predictors of Stroke After Transient Ischemic Attack in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Laura L; Watson, Christopher G; Kapur, Kush; Danehy, Amy R; Rivkin, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) in children has received far less attention compared with TIA in adults. The risk factors of stroke after TIA in children are relatively unknown. We aimed to determine the percentage of children who have stroke after TIA and the risk factors associated with stroke after TIA. We searched the medical records at Boston Children's Hospital for the year 2010 to find children who were evaluated for TIA to determine associated risk factors of stroke after TIA. We included children who were evaluated in 2009 through 2010 for TIA and had magnetic resonance imaging. We examined follow-up imaging through August 2014 for subsequent stroke. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for factors in our cohort who are associated with stroke after presentation with TIA. We identified 63 children who experienced a TIA. The mean time of imaging follow-up was 4.5 years after TIA presentation. Of the 63 children, 10 (16%) developed radiological evidence of ischemic cerebral injury within the follow-up period. Four of the 10 (6%) demonstrated diffusion abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging at TIA presentation, whereas 8 (13%) had a stroke after their TIA. Arteriopathy, female sex, and autoimmune disorders were significantly associated with stroke after TIA. In our cohort of children, stroke occurred after TIA at a rate similar to that seen in adults, but the risk factors for stroke after TIA in children are different. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Strokes are possible complications of cannabinoids use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Valérie; Jouanjus, Emilie

    2017-05-01

    It is critically important to identify all factors that may play a role in the recent increase of the incidence of stroke among the young population. Considering the worldwide use of cannabinoids (cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids), the recent legalization of their consumption in some countries, and their supposed involvement in cardiovascular events, we evaluated their role in the occurrence of neurovascular complications among the young. Ninety-eight patients were described in the literature as having a cannabinoids-related stroke (85 after cannabis use and 13 after synthetic cannabinoids). The distribution by type of stroke was as follows: 4 patients with an undetermined type of stroke, 85 with an ischemic stroke and/or a transient ischemic attack, and 9 with a hemorrhagic stroke. The mean age of patients was 32.3±11.8years (range 15-63), and the majority of them were male with a sex ratio of 3.7:1. Cannabis was often smoked with tobacco in 66% of cases. Most of the patients with cannabinoids-related strokes were chronic cannabis users in 81% of cases, and for 18% of them, there was a recent increase of the amount of cannabis consumption during the days before the occurrence of stroke. Even if the prognosis of stroke was globally favorable in 46% of cases, with no or few sequelae, 5 patients died after the neurovascular event. One striking element reported in the majority of the reports was a temporal relationship between cannabinoids use, whether natural or synthetic, and the occurrence of stroke. However, a temporal correlation does not mean causation, and other factors may be involved. Cannabis may be considered as a risk factor of stroke until research shows evidence of an underlying mechanism that, alone or in association with others, contributes to the development of stroke. As of today, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction triggered by cannabinoids use may be a convincing mechanism of stroke in 27% of cases. Indeed, despite the widespread use of

  11. COMPUTERS HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Augustynek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, over 12.6 million Polish users of the Web registered. On the average, each of them spent 21 hours and 37 minutes monthly browsing the Web. That is why the problems of the psychological aspects of computer utilization have become an urgent research subject. The results of research into the development of Polish information society carried out in AGH University of Science and Technology, under the leadership of Leslaw H. Haber, in the period from 2000 until present time, indicate the emergence dynamic changes in the ways of computer utilization and their circumstances. One of the interesting regularities has been the inverse proportional relation between the level of computer skills and the frequency of the Web utilization.It has been found that in 2005, compared to 2000, the following changes occurred:- A significant drop in the number of students who never used computers and the Web;- Remarkable increase in computer knowledge and skills (particularly pronounced in the case of first years student- Decreasing gap in computer skills between students of the first and the third year; between male and female students;- Declining popularity of computer games.It has been demonstrated also that the hazard of computer screen addiction was the highest in he case of unemployed youth outside school system. As much as 12% of this group of young people were addicted to computer. A lot of leisure time that these youths enjoyed inducted them to excessive utilization of the Web. Polish housewives are another population group in risk of addiction to the Web. The duration of long Web charts carried out by younger and younger youths has been another matter of concern. Since the phenomenon of computer addiction is relatively new, no specific therapy methods has been developed. In general, the applied therapy in relation to computer addition syndrome is similar to the techniques applied in the cases of alcohol or gambling addiction. Individual and group

  12. Adult stroke registry in West Africa: Profile of 334 in-patients in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Aiwansoba Imarhiagbe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Profiling of stroke types in sub-Saharan Africa until recently has been done in part with the clinical diagnosis, where neuroimaging is not affordable or accessible. Objective: To profile all first-ever stroke using cranial computed tomography (CT scan. Methods: Three hundred and thirty-four first-ever stroke had demographic data as well as the duration of admission or time to event (outcome, stroke type and severity, volume of hemorrhage in cases of parenchymal hemorrhage captured from the stroke unit register. Operationally outcome was defined as discharge to follow-up or discharge against medical advice (DAMA or all-cause in-hospital mortality, stroke type was defined by cranial CT as cerebral infarct or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke severity was defined by the Canadian Neurological Scale (CNS and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS. Data were analyzed as appropriate. Results: Mean age was 62.63 ± 14.90 years, comprising 190 (56.9% males and 144 (43.1% females. Mean duration of admission was 12.91 ± 11.38 days. Totally, 251 had cerebral infarct (75.15%, 81 (24.25% had ICH, 2 (0.60% had subarachnoid hemorrhage. A total of 177 (51.19% were discharged to follow-up, 15 (4.50% were DAMA with acute case fatality of 148 (44.31%. Mean CNS score was 2.85 ± 2.57 and mean NIHSS was 17.29 ± 5.15. Age, time to outcome and NIHSS were the predictors of outcome (survival or discharged to follow-up and all-cause mortality (odds ratio [OR] =1.043, P = 0.016, OR = 0.923, P = 0.001, OR = 2.467, P < 0.001 respectively and NIHSS was the only predictor of survival (hazard ratio = 0.872, P < 0.001. Conclusion: This neuroimaging profiling of acute stroke type and outcome is expected to be an improvement over reviews based largely on the presumptive diagnosis.

  13. Ethnic disparities in incidence of stroke subtypes: Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, Valery; Carter, Kristie; Hackett, Maree; Barber, P Alan; McNaughton, Harry; Dyall, Lorna; Chen, Mei-hua; Anderson, Craig

    2006-02-01

    Limited population-based data exist on differences in the incidence of major pathological stroke types and ischaemic stroke subtypes across ethnic groups. We aimed to provide such data within the large multi-ethnic population of Auckland, New Zealand. All first-ever cases of stroke (n=1423) in a population-based register in 940 000 residents (aged 15 years) in Auckland, New Zealand, for a 12-month period in 2002-2003, were classified into ischaemic stroke, primary intracerebral haemorrhage (PICH), subarachnoid haemorrhage, and undetermined stroke, according to standard definitions and results of neuroimaging/necropsy (in over 90% of cases). Ischaemic stroke was further classified into five subtypes. Ethnicity was self-identified and grouped as New Zealand (NZ)/European, Maori/Pacific, and Asian/other. Incidence rates were standardised to the WHO world population by the direct method, and differences in rates between ethnic groups expressed as rate ratios (RRs), with NZ/European as the reference group. In NZ/European people, ischaemic stroke comprised 73%, PICH 11%, and subarachnoid haemorrhage 6%, but PICH was higher in Maori/Pacific people (17%) and in Asian/other people (22%). Compared with NZ/European people, age-adjusted RRs for PICH were 2.7 (95% CI 1.8-4.0) and 2.3 (95% CI 1.4-3.7) among Maori/Pacific and Asian/other people, respectively. The corresponding RR for ischaemic stroke was greater for Maori/Pacific people (1.7 [95% CI 1.4-2.0]), particularly embolic stroke, and for Asian/other people (1.3 [95% CI 1.0-1.7]). The onset of stroke in Maori/Pacific and Asian/other people began at significantly younger ages (62 years and 64 years, respectively) than in NZ/Europeans (75 years; p<0.0001). There were ethnic differences in the risk factor profiles (such as age, sex, hypertension, cardiac disease, diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking status, overweight) for the stroke types and subtypes. Compared to NZ/Europeans, Maori/Pacific and Asian/other people are

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors and 5-year mortality in the Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of cardiovascular risk factors has improved over the recent years and may have improved survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the up-to-date prognostic significance of cardiovascular risk factors for 5-year survival in a large unselected ischemic stroke...... population. METHODS: We studied 905 ischemic stroke patients from the community-based Copenhagen Stroke Study. Patients had a CT scan and stroke severity was measured by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale on admission. A comprehensive evaluation was performed by a standardized medical examination...... by Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusted for age, gender, stroke severity, and risk factor profile. RESULTS: In Kaplan-Meier analyses atrial fibrillation (AF), ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and previous stroke were associated with increased mortality, while smoking and alcohol intake were...

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and 5-year Mortality in the Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of cardiovascular risk factors has improved over the recent years and may have improved survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the up-to-date prognostic significance of cardiovascular risk factors for 5-year survival in a large unselected ischemic stroke...... population. METHODS: We studied 905 ischemic stroke patients from the community-based Copenhagen Stroke Study. Patients had a CT scan and stroke severity was measured by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale on admission. A comprehensive evaluation was performed by a standardized medical examination...... by Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusted for age, gender, stroke severity, and risk factor profile. RESULTS: In Kaplan-Meier analyses atrial fibrillation (AF), ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and previous stroke were associated with increased mortality, while smoking and alcohol intake were...

  16. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  17. Stroke in Commercial Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Velasco, Rodrigo; Masjuan, Jaime; DeFelipe, Alicia; Corral, Iñigo; Estévez-Fraga, Carlos; Crespo, Leticia; Alonso-Cánovas, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Stroke on board aircraft has been reported in retrospective case series, mainly focusing on economy class stroke syndrome. Data on the actual incidence, pathogenesis, and prognosis of stroke in commercial flights are lacking. A prospective registry was designed to include all consecutive patients referred from an international airport (40 million passengers a year) to our hospital with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and onset of symptoms during a flight or immediately after landing. Forty-four patients (32 ischemic strokes and 12 transient ischemic attacks) were included over a 76-month period (January 2008 to April 2014). The estimated incidence of stroke was 1 stroke in 35 000 flights. Pathogeneses of stroke or transient ischemic attack were atherothrombotic in 16 (36%), economy class stroke syndrome in 8 (18%), cardioembolic in 7 (16%), arterial dissection in 4 (9%), lacunar stroke in 4 (9%), and undetermined in 5 (12%) patients. Carotid stenosis >70% was found in 12 (27%) of the patients. Overall prognosis was good, and thrombolysis was applied in 44% of the cases. The most common reason for not treating patients who had experienced stroke onset midflight was the delay in reaching the hospital. Only 1 patient with symptom onset during the flight prompted a flight diversion. We found a low incidence of stroke in the setting of air travel. Economy class stroke syndrome and arterial dissection were well represented in our sample. However, the main pathogenesis was atherothrombosis with a high proportion of patients with high carotid stenosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Chitsaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injectors are at risk of infections endocarditis, which carries risk for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage usually occurs after rupture of a septic (mycotic aneurysm. Heroine users can are also at risk for hemorrhagic stroke secondary to liver failure with deranged clotting and to heroin nephropathy with uremia or malignant hypertension. In some heroin users the drug it self is directly causal due to vasculitis, hypersensitivity and immunologic changes. Embolization of foreign material to brain due to mixed of heroine with quinine can cause cerebral embolism. AMPHETAMINE AND other psychostimulants: In abuser of amphetamine hemorrhagic stroke can occur, oral, intravenous, nasal, and inhalational routes of administration have been reported. Most were chronic user, but in several patients, stroke followed a first exposure. Some of amphetamine induced intracranial hemorrhages are secondary to acute hypertension, some to cerebral vacuities, and some to a combination of two. Decongestants and diet pills: Phenylpropanolamine (PPA, an amphetamine – like drug, in decongestants and diet pills, induce acute hypertension, sever headache, psychiatric symptoms, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Ephedrine and pseudo ephedrine are present in decongestants and bronchodilators and induce headache, tachyarrhythmia, hypertensive emergency, and hemorrhagic and occlusive stroke. Ecstasy, 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamin (MDMA with amphetamine like can

  19. Impact of cigarette smoking on the relationship between body mass index and coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of 3264 stroke and 2706 CHD events in 378579 individuals in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated levels of body mass index (BMI and smoking are well established lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke. If these two risk factors have a synergistic relationship, rigorous lifestyle modification may contribute to greater reduction in cardiovascular burden than previously expected. Methods A pooled analysis of individual participant data from 38 cohorts, involving 378,579 participants. Hazards ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for BMI by cigarette smoking status were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Results During a mean follow-up of 3.8 years, 2706 CHD and 3264 strokes were recorded. There was a log-linear, positive relationship of BMI with CHD and stroke in both smokers and non-smokers with evidence of a synergistic effect of smoking on the association between BMI and CHD only: HRs (95% CIs associated with a 2 kg/m2 higher BMI were 1.13 (1.10 – 1.17 in current smokers and 1.09 (1.06 – 1.11 in non-smokers (p-value for interaction = 0.04. Conclusion Smoking amplifies the positive association between BMI and CHD but not stroke. If confirmed, these results suggest that effective strategies that target smoking cessation and weight loss are likely to have a greater impact than anticipated on reducing the burden of CHD.

  20. Sequential strokes in a hyperacute stroke unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesalingam, Jeban; Buddha, Sandeep; Carlton-Jones, Anoma L; Nicholas, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Vasculitis is a rare, but treatable condition that can present to hyperacute stroke units. Thrombolysis does not treat the underlying pathology, and a rapidly evolving clinical picture drives clinical decision often before all the investigation results are available.

  1. Is it important to classify ischaemic stroke?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iqbal, M

    2012-02-01

    Thirty-five percent of all ischemic events remain classified as cryptogenic. This study was conducted to ascertain the accuracy of diagnosis of ischaemic stroke based on information given in the medical notes. It was tested by applying the clinical information to the (TOAST) criteria. Hundred and five patients presented with acute stroke between Jan-Jun 2007. Data was collected on 90 patients. Male to female ratio was 39:51 with age range of 47-93 years. Sixty (67%) patients had total\\/partial anterior circulation stroke; 5 (5.6%) had a lacunar stroke and in 25 (28%) the mechanism of stroke could not be identified. Four (4.4%) patients with small vessel disease were anticoagulated; 5 (5.6%) with atrial fibrillation received antiplatelet therapy and 2 (2.2%) patients with atrial fibrillation underwent CEA. This study revealed deficiencies in the clinical assessment of patients and treatment was not tailored to the mechanism of stroke in some patients.

  2. Alpha-linolenic acid intake and 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in 20,000 middle-aged men and women in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette de Goede

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether intake of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, the plant-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, could prevent cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. We examined the associations of ALA intake with 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke in the Netherlands. METHODS: Data were collected from a general population of 20,069 generally healthy men and women, aged 20 to 65 years. Habitual diet was assessed at baseline (1993-1997 with a validated 178-item food frequency questionnaire. Incidences of CHD and stroke were assessed through linkage with mortality and morbidity registers. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated with multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, gender, lifestyle, and dietary factors. RESULTS: During 8-13 years of follow-up, we observed 280 incident CHD events (19% fatal and 221 strokes (4% fatal. Intakes of energy-adjusted ALA in quintiles ranged from less than 1.0 g/d in the bottom quintile (Q1 to more than 1.9 g/d in the top quintile (Q5. ALA intake was not associated with incident CHD, with HRs varying between 0.89 and 1.01 (all p>0.05 in Q2-Q5 compared with the bottom quintile of ALA intake. For incident stroke, however, participants in Q2-Q5 had a 35-50% lower risk compared with the reference group. HRs were 0.65 (0.43-0.97, 0.49 (0.31-0.76, 0.53 (0.34-0.83, and 0.65 (0.41-1.04 for Q2-Q5 respectively. CONCLUSION: In this general Dutch population, ALA intake was not associated with incident CHD. The data suggested that a low intake of ALA may be a risk factor for incident stroke. These results warrant confirmation in other population-based studies and in trials.

  3. Alpha-linolenic acid intake and 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in 20,000 middle-aged men and women in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Janette; Verschuren, W M Monique; Boer, Jolanda M A; Kromhout, Daan; Geleijnse, Johanna M

    2011-03-25

    Whether intake of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the plant-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), could prevent cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. We examined the associations of ALA intake with 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in the Netherlands. Data were collected from a general population of 20,069 generally healthy men and women, aged 20 to 65 years. Habitual diet was assessed at baseline (1993-1997) with a validated 178-item food frequency questionnaire. Incidences of CHD and stroke were assessed through linkage with mortality and morbidity registers. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated with multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, gender, lifestyle, and dietary factors. During 8-13 years of follow-up, we observed 280 incident CHD events (19% fatal) and 221 strokes (4% fatal). Intakes of energy-adjusted ALA in quintiles ranged from less than 1.0 g/d in the bottom quintile (Q1) to more than 1.9 g/d in the top quintile (Q5). ALA intake was not associated with incident CHD, with HRs varying between 0.89 and 1.01 (all p>0.05) in Q2-Q5 compared with the bottom quintile of ALA intake. For incident stroke, however, participants in Q2-Q5 had a 35-50% lower risk compared with the reference group. HRs were 0.65 (0.43-0.97), 0.49 (0.31-0.76), 0.53 (0.34-0.83), and 0.65 (0.41-1.04) for Q2-Q5 respectively. In this general Dutch population, ALA intake was not associated with incident CHD. The data suggested that a low intake of ALA may be a risk factor for incident stroke. These results warrant confirmation in other population-based studies and in trials.

  4. CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN DEPRESSIVE MANIFESTATIONS AND MORPHOLOGICAL LESION CHARACTERISTICS IN PATIENTS WITH STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanovic Zlatan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge of etiopathogenesis of post-stroke depressive phenomena contributes to early diagnostics which shortens recovery to a great extent and suits the social and professional rehabilitation of patients, if followed by proper psycho/pharmacotherapy. The aim of this work is to research dependence of depressive manifestations considering the size and anatomical localization of lesion. Subjects and Methods: The research included 118 patients with stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computerized axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression were carried out by the method of random selection 11–40 days after stroke. Correlation analysis was made by simple linear/nonlinear regression and Cox’s hazard regression model. Results: Negative correlation was observed between the intensity of depressive manifestations and the size of cerebrovascular lesion (Spearman’s r= – 0.263, P= 0.004. By means of Cox’s regression model we determined 4.389 times higher risk for depression occurrence in female patients (P< 0.001, as well as higher risk due to lobus limbicus structure damages (hazard ratio eb(HR = 2.661, P= 0.019. Conclusion: Lower intensity of depressive manifestations with larger cerebrovascular lesions, we have explained by activation of reparation mechanisms with energy savings and decrease (due to neurological deficits of afferent peripheral sensations which antecedent the occurrence of emotions (James-Lange peripheral theory of emotions.

  5. Impact of Stroke Center Certification on Mortality After Ischemic Stroke: The Medicare Cohort From 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Shumei; Schold, Jesse D; Uchino, Ken

    2017-09-01

    An increasing number of hospitals have been certified as primary stroke centers (PSCs). It remains unknown whether the action toward PSC certification has improved the outcome of stroke care. This study aimed to understand whether PSC certification reduced stroke mortality. We examined Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged ≥65 years who were hospitalized between 2009 and 2013 for ischemic stroke. Hospitals were classified into 3 groups: new PSCs, the hospitals that received initial PSC certification between 2009 and 2013 (n=634); existing PSCs, the PSCs certified before 2009 (n=785); and non-SCs, the hospitals that have never been certified as PSCs (n=2640). Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the mortality among the 3 groups. Existing PSCs were significantly larger than new PSCs as reflected by total number of beds and annual stroke admission ( P stroke certification may reduce stroke mortality and overcome the disadvantage of being smaller hospitals. Further study of other outcome measures will be useful to improve stroke system of care. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Blood Pressure Control: Stroke and Stroke Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christoph Diener

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for primary and secondary stroke prevention.All antihypertensive drugs are effective in primary prevention: the risk reduction for stroke is 30—42%. However, not all classes of drugs have the same effects: there is some indication that angiotensin receptor blockers may be superior to other classes of antihypertensive drugs in stroke prevention.Seventy-five percent of patients who present to hospital with acute stroke have elevated blood pressure within the first 24—48 hours. Extremes of systolic blood pressure (SBP increase the risk of death or dependency. The aim of treatment should be to achieve and maintain the SBP in the range 140—160 mmHg. However, fast and drastic blood pressure lowering can have adverse consequences.The PROGRESS trial of secondary prevention with perindopril + indapamide versus placebo + placebo showed a decrease in numbers of stroke recurrences in patients given both active antihypertensive agents, more impressive for cerebral haemorrhage.There were also indications that active treatment might decrease the development of post-stroke dementia.

  7. Intravenous Thrombolysis in Unknown-Onset Stroke: Results From the Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, Laura; Ahmed, Niaz; Thomalla, Götz; Lozano, Manuel; Malojcic, Branko; Wani, Mushtaq; Millán, Mònica; Tomek, Ales; Dávalos, Antoni

    2017-03-01

    Stroke patients with unknown onset (UKO) are excluded from thrombolytic therapy. We aim to study the safety and efficacy of intravenous alteplase in ischemic stroke patients with UKO of symptoms compared with those treated within 4.5 hours in a large cohort. Data were analyzed from 47 237 patients with acute ischemic stroke receiving intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator in hospitals participating in the Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry between 2010 and 2014. Two groups were defined: (1) patients with UKO (n=502) and (2) patients treated within 4.5 hours of stroke onset (n=44 875). Outcome measures were symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage per Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke on the 22 to 36 hours post-treatment neuroimaging and mortality and functional outcome assessed by the modified Rankin Scale at 3 months. Patients in UKO group were significantly older, had more severe stroke at baseline, and longer door-to-needle times than patients in the ≤4.5 hours group. Logistic regression showed similar risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-2.67) and no significant differences in functional independency (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2; adjusted odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-1.10), but higher mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.41) in the UKO group compared with the ≤4.5 hours group. Patients treated within 4.5 hours showed reduced disability over the entire range of modified Rankin Scale compared with the UKO group (common adjusted odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.65). Our data suggest no excess risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage but increased mortality and reduced favorable outcome in patients with UKO stroke compared with patients treated within the approved time window. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Acupuncture for acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mangmang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Shihong

    2018-03-30

    Sensory stimulation via acupuncture has been reported to alter activities of numerous neural systems by activating multiple efferent pathways. Acupuncture, one of the main physical therapies in Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been widely used to treat patients with stroke for over hundreds of years. This is the first update of the Cochrane Review originally published in 2005. To assess whether acupuncture could reduce the proportion of people with death or dependency, while improving quality of life, after acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group trials register (last searched on February 2, 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Ovid (CENTRAL Ovid; 2017, Issue 2) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to February 2017), Embase Ovid (1974 to February 2017), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) EBSCO (1982 to February 2017), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED; 1985 to February 2017), China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (1998 to February 2017), and the VIP database (VIP Chinese Science Journal Evaluation Reports; 1989 to February 2017). We also identified relevant trials in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (last searched on Feburuary 20, 2017), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (last searched on April 30, 2017), and Clinicaltrials.gov (last searched on April 30, 2017). In addition, we handsearched the reference lists of systematic reviews and relevant clinical trials. We sought randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture started within 30 days from stroke onset compared with placebo or sham acupuncture or open control (no placebo) in people with acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, or both. Needling into the skin was required for acupuncture. Comparisons were made versus (1) all controls (open control or sham acupuncture), and (2) sham acupuncture controls. Two review authors applied

  9. Predictors of stroke - associated mortality in Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Tonduangu, K; Muyeno, K; Phanzu, M; Kebolo Baku, A; Muvova, D; Lelo, T; Odio, W; Lukoki, L; Bikangi Nkiabungu, F; Kilembe, M; Tshiamala, P; Katalay, L; Mwema, M; Muyembe, T

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the association of the stroke-related mortality with gender, age, ethnicity, social class, blood pressure, fibrinogen, selected clinical data and meteorologic parameters in hospitalized Africans. A series of 1032 consecutively hospitalized incident cases of acute stroke between 1987 and 1991 was studied. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to estimate the risk (odds ratio=OR) of stroke mortality for meteorologic parameters on the month before the accident onset and selected sociodemophysiological variables on the day of admission. The variables significantly associated with stroke mortality in multivariate analysis were male sex (OR= 2.3 [1.3 - 4.1]), low social class (OR= 2.0 [1.2 - 4.0]), migrant tribes (OR= 1.7 [1.5 - 1.8]), ischemic stroke (OR= 1.4 [1.2 - 1.6]), heart rate >=100 bpm (OR= 1.1 [1.0 - 1.2]), age > or =60 years (OR= 1.03 [1.01 - 1.06]), systolic blood pressure> 160 mmHg (OR= 1. 02 [1.01 - 1.03]), and fibrinogen > or =400 mg/dl (OR= 1.01 [1.002 - 1. 02]). However, diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg and global radiation< 340 Cal/cm(2)/day were significantly (p< 0.05) and inversely associated with stroke mortality. Our results indicate that male sex, older age, low social class, migration, ischemic stroke and higher baseline levels of heart rate, systolic blood pressure and fibrinogen are significant predictors of stroke mortality, but lower global radiation and higher diastolic blood pressure are inversely linked.

  10. Knowledge of Stroke Risk Factors among Stroke Survivors in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Vincent-Onabajo; Taritei Moses

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of stroke risk factors is expected to reduce the incidence of stroke?whether first-ever or recurrent. This study examined knowledge of stroke risk factors and its determinants among stroke survivors. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of consenting stroke survivors at two physiotherapy facilities in Nigeria was carried out. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained and knowledge of stroke risk factors (defined as the ability to mention at least one correct risk fac...

  11. European Stroke Science Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattle, Heinrich P.; Brainin, Michael; Chamorro, Angel; Diener, Hans Christoph; Hacke, Werner; Leys, Didier; Norrving, Bo; Ward, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The European Stroke Organisation (ESO) held its first European Stroke Science Workshop in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (15-17 December 2011). Stroke experts based in Europe were invited to present and discuss their current research. The scope of the workshop was to review the most recent findings of selected topics in stroke, to exchange ideas, to stimulate new research and to enhance collaboration between European stroke research groups. Seven scientific sessions were held, each starting with a keynote lecture to review the state of the art of the given topic, followed by 4 or 5 short presentations by experts. They were asked to limit their presentations to 10 slides containing only recent information. The meeting was organized by the executive committee of the ESO (Heinrich Mattle, chairman, Michael Brainin, Angel Chamorro, Werner Hacke, Didier Leys) and supported by the European Stroke Conference (Michael Hennerici). In this article we summarize the main contents of this successful workshop. PMID:22836350

  12. Risk of Symptomatic Stroke After Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Cohort Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van, E-mail: i.w.vandijk@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pal, Helena J.H. van der [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Os, Rob M. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roos, Yvo B.W.E.M. [Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sieswerda, Elske [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dalen, Elvira C. van; Ronckers, Cécile M. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, Huib N. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kremer, Leontien C.M. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Long-term childhood cancer survivors are at high risk of late adverse effects, including stroke. We aimed to determine the cumulative incidence of clinically validated symptomatic stroke (transient ischemic attack [TIA], cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH]) and to quantify dose-effect relationships for cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and supradiaphragmatic radiation therapy (SDRT). Methods and Materials: Our single-center study cohort included 1362 survivors of childhood cancer that were diagnosed between 1966 and 1996. Prescribed CRT and SDRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Multivariate Cox regression models were used to analyze the relationship between the EQD{sub 2} and stroke. Results: After a median latency time of 24.9 years and at a median age of 31.2 years, 28 survivors had experienced a first stroke: TIA (n=5), infarction (n=13), and ICH (n=10). At an attained age of 45 years, the estimated cumulative incidences, with death as competing risk, among survivors treated with CRT only, SDRT only, both CRT and SDRT, and neither CRT nor SDRT were, respectively, 10.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5%-17.0%), 5.4% (95% CI, 0%-17.0%), 12.5% (95% CI, 5.5%-18.9%), and 0.1% (95% CI, 0%-0.4%). Radiation at both locations significantly increased the risk of stroke in a dose-dependent manner (hazard ratios: HR{sub CRT} 1.02 Gy{sup −1}; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03, and HR{sub SDRT} 1.04 Gy{sup −1}; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05). Conclusions: Childhood cancer survivors treated with CRT, SDRT, or both have a high stroke risk. One in 8 survivors treated at both locations will have experienced a symptomatic stroke at an attained age of 45 years. Further research on the pathophysiologic processes involved in stroke in this specific group of patients is needed to enable the development of tailored secondary prevention strategies.

  13. Red cell distribution width in relation to incidence of stroke and carotid atherosclerosis: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Söderholm

    Full Text Available Increased red cell distribution width (RDW has been related to poor prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease, and is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in the general population. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if RDW is associated with increased incidence of stroke and its subtypes in individuals from the general population.Red cell distribution width was measured in 26,879 participants (16,561 women and 10,318 men aged 45-73 years without history of coronary events or stroke, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Incidences of total stroke and stroke subtypes over a mean follow-up of 15.2 years were calculated in relation to sex-specific quartiles of RDW. The presence of carotid plaque and intima-media thickness, as assessed by ultrasound, was studied in relation to RDW in a randomly selected subcohort (n = 5,309.Incidences of total stroke (n = 1,869 and cerebral infarction (n = 1,544 were both increased in individuals with high RDW. Hazard ratios (HRs in the highest compared to the lowest quartile were 1.31 for total stroke (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.54, p for trend = 0.004 and 1.32 for cerebral infarction (95% CI: 1.10-1.58, p for trend = 0.004 after adjustment for stroke risk factors and hematological parameters. The adjusted HR for intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 230 was 1.44 (95% CI: 0.90-2.30 and the HR for subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 75 was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.43-2.07, in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of RDW. Red cell distribution width was positively associated with intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (p for trend = 0.011.Red cell distribution width in the highest quartile was associated with increased incidence of total stroke and cerebral infarction. There was no significant association between RDW and incidence of intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  14. Risk of Symptomatic Stroke After Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Cohort Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van; Pal, Helena J.H. van der; Os, Rob M. van; Roos, Yvo B.W.E.M.; Sieswerda, Elske; Dalen, Elvira C. van; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Oldenburger, Foppe; Leeuwen, Flora E. van; Caron, Huib N.; Koning, Caro C.E.; Kremer, Leontien C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Long-term childhood cancer survivors are at high risk of late adverse effects, including stroke. We aimed to determine the cumulative incidence of clinically validated symptomatic stroke (transient ischemic attack [TIA], cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH]) and to quantify dose-effect relationships for cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and supradiaphragmatic radiation therapy (SDRT). Methods and Materials: Our single-center study cohort included 1362 survivors of childhood cancer that were diagnosed between 1966 and 1996. Prescribed CRT and SDRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD 2 ). Multivariate Cox regression models were used to analyze the relationship between the EQD 2 and stroke. Results: After a median latency time of 24.9 years and at a median age of 31.2 years, 28 survivors had experienced a first stroke: TIA (n=5), infarction (n=13), and ICH (n=10). At an attained age of 45 years, the estimated cumulative incidences, with death as competing risk, among survivors treated with CRT only, SDRT only, both CRT and SDRT, and neither CRT nor SDRT were, respectively, 10.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5%-17.0%), 5.4% (95% CI, 0%-17.0%), 12.5% (95% CI, 5.5%-18.9%), and 0.1% (95% CI, 0%-0.4%). Radiation at both locations significantly increased the risk of stroke in a dose-dependent manner (hazard ratios: HR CRT 1.02 Gy −1 ; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03, and HR SDRT 1.04 Gy −1 ; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05). Conclusions: Childhood cancer survivors treated with CRT, SDRT, or both have a high stroke risk. One in 8 survivors treated at both locations will have experienced a symptomatic stroke at an attained age of 45 years. Further research on the pathophysiologic processes involved in stroke in this specific group of patients is needed to enable the development of tailored secondary prevention strategies.

  15. Common genetic markers and prediction of recurrent events after ischemic stroke in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzini, A; Grassi, M; Del Zotto, E; Lodigiani, C; Ferrazzi, P; Spalloni, A; Patella, R; Giossi, A; Volonghi, I; Iacoviello, L; Magoni, M; Rota, L L; Rasura, M; Padovani, A

    2009-09-01

    Scarce information is available on the usefulness of new prediction markers for identifying young ischemic stroke patients at highest risk of recurrence. The predictive effect of traditional risk factors as well as of the 20210A variant of prothrombin gene, the 1691A variant of factor V gene, and the TT677 genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene on the risk of recurrence was investigated in a hospital-based cohort study of 511 ischemic stroke patients younger than 45 years followed up for a mean of 43.4 months. Outcome measures were fatal/nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or TIA. Risk prediction was assessed with the use of the concordance c (c index), and the Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI). The risk of recurrence increased with increasing number of traditional factors (hazard ratio [HR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.57-3.35 for subjects with 1 factor: HR 5.25, 95% CI 2.45-11.2 for subjects with 2), as well as with that of predisposing genotypes (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.33-2.89 for subjects carrying 1 at-risk genotype; HR 3.83, 95% CI 1.76-8.34 for those carrying 2). The c statistics increased significantly when the genotypes were included into a model with traditional risk factors (0.696 vs 0.635, test z = 2.41). The NRI was also significant (NRI = 0.172, test z = 2.17). Addition of common genetic variants to traditional risk factors may be an effective method for discriminating young stroke patients at different risk of future ischemic events.

  16. Apixaban in Comparison With Warfarin in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Valvular Heart Disease: Findings From the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avezum, Alvaro; Lopes, Renato D; Schulte, Phillip J; Lanas, Fernando; Gersh, Bernard J; Hanna, Michael; Pais, Prem; Erol, Cetin; Diaz, Rafael; Bahit, M Cecilia; Bartunek, Jozef; De Caterina, Raffaele; Goto, Shinya; Ruzyllo, Witold; Zhu, Jun; Granger, Christopher B; Alexander, John H

    2015-08-25

    Apixaban is approved for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. However, the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial included a substantial number of patients with valvular heart disease and only excluded patients with clinically significant mitral stenosis or mechanical prosthetic heart valves. We compared the effect of apixaban and warfarin on rates of stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, and death in patients with and without moderate or severe valvular heart disease using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Of the 18 201 patients enrolled in ARISTOTLE, 4808 (26.4%) had a history of moderate or severe valvular heart disease or previous valve surgery. Patients with valvular heart disease had higher rates of stroke or systemic embolism and bleeding than patients without valvular heart disease. There was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban over warfarin in patients with and without valvular heart disease in reducing stroke and systemic embolism (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.97 and HR, 0.84; 95%, CI 0.67-1.04; interaction P=0.38), causing less major bleeding (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.04 and HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.55-0.77; interaction P=0.23), and reducing mortality (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.84-1.22 and HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96; interaction P=0.10). More than a quarter of the patients in ARISTOTLE with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation had moderate or severe valvular heart disease. There was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban over warfarin in reducing stroke or systemic embolism, causing less bleeding, and reducing death in patients with and without valvular heart disease. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00412984. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Cross-level interaction between individual socioeconomic status and regional deprivation on overall survival after onset of ischemic stroke: National health insurance cohort sample data from 2002 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong Shin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The literature on stroke mortality and neighborhood effect is characterized by studies that are often Western society-oriented, with a lack of racial and cultural diversity. We estimated the effect of cross-level interaction between individual and regional socioeconomic status on the survival after onset of ischemic stroke. Methods: We selected newly diagnosed ischemic stroke patients from 2002 to 2013 using stratified representative sampling data of 1,025,340 subjects. A total of 37,044 patients over the 10 years from 2004 to 2013 had newly diagnosed stroke. We calculated hazard ratios (HR of 12- and 36-month mortality using the Cox proportional hazard model, with the reference group as stroke patients with high income in advantaged regions. Results: For the middle income level, the patients in advantaged regions showed low HRs for overall mortality (12-month HR 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–1.44; 36-month HR 1.25; 95% CI, 1.14–1.37 compared to the others in disadvantaged regions (12-month HR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.19–1.56; 36-month HR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.17–1.44. Interestingly, for the low income level, the patients in advantaged regions showed high HRs for overall mortality (12-month HR 1.27; 95% CI, 1.13–1.44; 36-month HR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.22–1.46 compared to the others in disadvantaged regions (12-month HR 1.25; 95% CI, 1.09–1.43; 36-month HR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.18–1.44. Conclusion: Although we need to perform further investigations to determine the exact mechanisms, regional deprivation, as well as medical factors, might be associated with survival after onset of ischemic stroke in low-income patients.

  18. Acute stroke imaging research roadmap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.; Hacke, Werner; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kloska, Stephan P.; Koehrmann, Martin; Koroshetz, Walter; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lees, Kennedy R.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Ostergaard, Leif; Powers, William J.; Provenzale, James; Schellinger, Peter; Silbergleit, Robert; Sorensen, Alma Gregory; Wardlaw, Joanna; Warach, Steven

    The recent "Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment" meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  19. Irregularity and lack of p-waves in short tachycardia episodes predict atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Linda S B; Persson, Anders P; Wollmer, Per; Juul-Möller, Steen; Juhlin, Tord; Engström, Gunnar

    2018-02-12

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is defined as an irregular supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) without p-waves, with a duration >30s. It is not known whether AF characteristics in shorter SVT episodes predict AF and stroke. To determine if irregularity and lack of p-waves, alone or in combination, at short SVT episodes increased the risk of incident AF and ischemic stroke. The population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer study includes 24hECG screening of 377 AF-free individuals (mean age 64.5 years, 43% men) who were prospectively followed for >13 years. There were 65 AF events and 25 ischemic stroke events during follow-up. Subjects with an SVT episode ≥5 beats were identified and the longest SVT episode was assessed for irregularity and lack of p-waves. The association between SVT classification and AF and stroke was assessed using multivariable adjusted Cox regression. Incidence of AF increased with increasing abnormality of the SVTs. The risk-factor adjusted hazards ratio (HR) for AF was 4.95 (95%CI 2.06-11.9, pSVT episodes without p-waves (HR 14.2 (95%CI 3.76-57.6, pSVT episodes at detected at 24hECG screening are associated with incident AF and ischemic stroke. Short irregular SVTs without p-waves likely represent early stages of AF or atrial myopathy. 24hECG could identify subjects suitable for primary prevention efforts. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Body Mass Index and Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with excess mortality and morbidity, mortality is lower in obese than in normal weight stroke patients (the obesity paradox). Studies now indicate that obesity is not associated with increased risk of recurrent stroke in the years after first stroke. We studied the ...... the association between body mass index (BMI) and stroke patient's risk of having a history of previous stroke (recurrent stroke)....

  1. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  2. Obesity increases risk of ischemic stroke in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew B; Cole, John W; McArdle, Patrick F; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Ryan, Kathleen A; Sparks, Mary J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2015-06-01

    Body mass index has been associated with ischemic stroke in older populations, but its association with stroke in younger populations is not known. In light of the current obesity epidemic in the United States, the potential impact of obesity on stroke risk in young adults deserves attention. A population-based case-control study design with 1201 cases and 1154 controls was used to investigate the relationship of obesity and young onset ischemic stroke. Stroke cases were between the ages of 15 and 49 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between body mass index and ischemic stroke with and without adjustment for comorbid conditions associated with stroke. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)) was associated with an increased stroke risk (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-1.94) although this increased risk was highly attenuated and not statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. These results indicate that obesity is a risk factor for young onset ischemic stroke and suggest that this association may be partially mediated through hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other variables associated with these conditions. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Hazard reduction in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2008-01-01

    The release of hazardous substances is a matter of concern for nanotechnology. This may include some nanoparticles, reactants, by-products, and solvents. The use of low-hazard solvents may reduce the hazards from nanoparticle production and nanomaterial processing. The hazards of inorganic

  4. CFD analysis of the scavenging process in marine two-stroke diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik Herland; Hult, Johan; Nogenmyr, Karl-Johan

    2014-01-01

    /charge before the subsequent compression stroke. This implies that the scavenging process is integral to engine performance as it influence the initial condition for the combustion process, thus affecting the fuel economy, power output and emission of hazardous gases. Two-stroke diesel engines for marine......The scavenging process is an integral part of any two-stroke internal combustion engine regardless of being spark ignited (SI) or compression ignited (CI). The scavenging process is responsible for replacing the burned gas from the combustion process from the previous working stroke with fresh air...

  5. Baseline oxidative defense and survival after 5-7 years among elderly stroke patients at nutritional risk: Follow-up of a randomized, nutritional intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Per O; Ha, Lisa; Blomhoff, Rune; Hauge, Truls; Veierød, Marit B

    2015-08-01

    Patients at nutritional risk are particularly vulnerable to adverse outcomes of acute stroke. We previously found that increased energy- and protein intervention improved short-term survival among stroke patients with the highest baseline antioxidant capacity. We now examined survival of these patients after 5-7 years. We studied 165 patients >65 years admitted to hospital for acute stroke and enrolled in a randomized nutritional intervention study in 2005-2007. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the associations between all-cause mortality (through 2011) and baseline plasma levels of antioxidant markers (glutathione reducing capacity, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C and total carotenoids). We found no significant difference (P = 0.86) in survival between the intervention and control group. Among the tested antioxidant markers, plasma levels above the median for total carotenoids were associated with reduced risk of death in the intervention group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.71). Hospitalized patients that received enhanced dietary energy- and protein after acute stroke and with baseline plasma total carotenoids above median level, had reduced risk of death after 5-7 years. Further trials testing intervention with diets rich in antioxidants are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact on clinical and cost outcomes of a centralized approach to acute stroke care in London: a comparative effectiveness before and after model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Maree Hunter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In July 2010 a new multiple hub-and-spoke model for acute stroke care was implemented across the whole of London, UK, with continuous specialist care during the first 72 hours provided at 8 hyper-acute stroke units (HASUs compared to the previous model of 30 local hospitals receiving acute stroke patients. We investigated differences in clinical outcomes and costs between the new and old models. METHODS: We compared outcomes and costs 'before' (July 2007-July 2008 vs. 'after' (July 2010-June 2011 the introduction of the new model, adjusted for patient characteristics and national time trends in mortality and length of stay. We constructed 90-day and 10-year decision analytic models using data from population based stroke registers, audits and published sources. Mortality and length of stay were modelled using survival analysis. FINDINGS: In a pooled sample of 307 patients 'before' and 3156 patients 'after', survival improved in the 'after' period (age adjusted hazard ratio 0.54; 95% CI 0.41-0.72. The predicted survival rates at 90 days in the deterministic model adjusted for national trends were 87.2% 'before' % (95% CI 86.7%-87.7% and 88.7% 'after' (95% CI 88.6%-88.8%; a relative reduction in deaths of 12% (95% CI 8%-16%. Based on a cohort of 6,438 stroke patients, the model produces a total cost saving of £5.2 million per year at 90 days (95% CI £4.9-£5.5 million; £811 per patient. CONCLUSION: A centralized model for acute stroke care across an entire metropolitan city appears to have reduced mortality for a reduced cost per patient, predominately as a result of reduced hospital length of stay.

  7. Association between arterial calcifications and nonlacunar and lacunar ischemic strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Anouk C; Fonville, Susanne; Zadi, Taihra; van Hattem, Antonius M G; Saiedie, Ghesrouw; Koudstaal, Peter J; van der Lugt, Aad

    2014-03-01

    Nonlacunar cerebral infarcts are presumed to be caused by thromboembolism from the heart or extracranial arteries, whereas lacunar infarcts are thought to be caused by small vessel disease. We investigated to what extent arterial calcifications differ between nonlacunar and lacunar ischemic strokes. We studied 820 consecutive patients with transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation who underwent multidetector computed tomography angiography and had no rare cause of stroke. The presence of likely cardioembolic pathogenesis was determined according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. The remaining 708 patients were categorized as nonlacunar or lacunar strokes, either transient ischemic attacks or strokes, based on clinical symptoms corrected by brain imaging results. We measured volume of calcifications in the aortic arch, symptomatic extracranial and intracranial carotid artery using multidetector computed tomography angiography. The difference in calcifications between nonlacunar and lacunar strokes was assessed with a multivariable logistic regression analysis. We adjusted for degree of symptomatic carotid artery stenosis and cardiovascular risk factors. We found an independent association between volume of aortic arch calcifications and nonlacunar ischemic strokes (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.11 [1.02-1.21]). No independent associations between extracranial and intracranial carotid artery calcifications and nonlacunar strokes were present. The only difference we found between nonlacunar and lacunar strokes was a higher calcification volume in the aortic arch in nonlacunar strokes. Our findings only partially confirm the notion of distinct etiologies and suggest that the potential role of other plaque components, plaque morphology, and aortic arch calcifications in ischemic stroke subtypes awaits further evaluation.

  8. Smoking and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markidan, Janina; Cole, John W; Cronin, Carolyn A; Merino, Jose G; Phipps, Michael S; Wozniak, Marcella A; Kittner, Steven J

    2018-05-01

    There is a strong dose-response relationship between smoking and risk of ischemic stroke in young women, but there are few data examining this association in young men. We examined the dose-response relationship between the quantity of cigarettes smoked and the odds of developing an ischemic stroke in men under age 50 years. The Stroke Prevention in Young Men Study is a population-based case-control study of risk factors for ischemic stroke in men ages 15 to 49 years. The χ 2 test was used to test categorical comparisons. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio for ischemic stroke occurrence comparing current and former smokers to never smokers. In the first model, we adjusted solely for age. In the second model, we adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, race, education, hypertension, myocardial infarction, angina, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index. The study population consisted of 615 cases and 530 controls. The odds ratio for the current smoking group compared with never smokers was 1.88. Furthermore, when the current smoking group was stratified by number of cigarettes smoked, there was a dose-response relationship for the odds ratio, ranging from 1.46 for those smoking ischemic stroke among young men. Although complete smoking cessation is the goal, even smoking fewer cigarettes may reduce the risk of ischemic stroke in young men. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Immune interventions in stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Liu, Qiang; Anrather, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory and immune responses in the brain can shape the clinical presentation and outcome of stroke. Approaches for effective management of acute stroke are sparse and many measures for brain protection fail, but our ability to modulate the immune system and modify the disease progression of multiple sclerosis is increasing. As a result, immune interventions are currently being explored as therapeutic interventions in acute stroke. In this Review, we compare the immunological features of acute stroke with those of multiple sclerosis, identify unique immunological features of stroke, and consider the evidence for immune interventions. In acute stroke, microglia activation and cell death products trigger an inflammatory cascade that damages vessels and the parenchyma within minutes to hours of the ischaemia or haemorrhage. Immune interventions that restrict brain inflammation, vascular permeability and tissue oedema must be administered rapidly to reduce acute immune-mediated destruction and to avoid subsequent immunosuppression. Preliminary results suggest that the use of drugs that modify disease in multiple sclerosis might accomplish these goals in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Further elucidation of the immune mechanisms involved in stroke is likely to lead to successful immune interventions. PMID:26303850

  10. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  11. National Stroke Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Event Join a Stroke Challenge Team Comeback Trail Tell Your Story Community Presentations Faces of Stroke Volunteer With Us ... in a video presentation. Watch Video ... to feel the right side of her body. Kathryn’s friends performed the FAST exam and soon ...

  12. Diagnostic neuroimaging in stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarenwattananon, A.; Khandji, A.; Brust, J.C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Since the development of cerebral angiography 60 years ago, there has been a proliferation of increasingly sophisticated, expensive, and, fortunately, safe imaging techniques for patients with cerebrovascular disease. In addition, occlusive and hemorrhagic stroke are now recognized as having a wide variety of possible causes. This chapter addresses the different imaging options available for particular kinds of stroke

  13. The Optimal Golf Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchinger, Mikael; Durigen, Susan; Dahl, Johan Rambech

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a preliminary investigation into aspects of the game of golf. A series of models is proposed for the golf stroke, the momentum transfer between club and ball and the flight of the ball.Numerical and asymptotic solutions are presented reproducing many of the features observed...... in the golf stroke of a professional golfer....

  14. The quality of prehospital ischemic stroke care: compliance with guidelines and impact on in-hospital stroke response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostema, John Adam; Nasiri, Mojdeh; Chassee, Todd; Reeves, Mathew J

    2014-01-01

    A number of emergency medical services (EMSs) performance measures for stroke have been proposed to promote early stroke recognition and rapid transportation to definitive care. This study examined performance measure compliance among EMS-transported stroke patients and the relationship between compliance and in-hospital stroke response. Eight quality indicators were derived from American Stroke Association guidelines. A prospective cohort of consecutive, EMS-transported patients discharged from 2 large Midwestern stroke centers with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke was identified. Data were abstracted from hospital and EMS records. Compliance with 8 prehospital quality indicators was calculated. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed to measure the association between prehospital compliance and a binary outcome of door-to-computed tomography (CT) time less than or equal to 25 minutes. Over the 12 month study period, 186 EMS-transported ischemic stroke patients were identified. Compliance was highest for prehospital documentation of a glucose level (86.0%) and stroke screen (78.5%) and lowest for on-scene time less than or equal to 15 minutes (46.8%), hospital prenotification (56.5%), and transportation at highest priority (55.4%). After adjustment for age, time from symptom onset, and stroke severity, transportation at highest priority (odds ratio [OR], 13.45) and hospital prenotification (OR, 3.75) were both associated with significantly faster door-to-CT time. No prehospital quality metric was associated with tissue-plasminogen activator delivery. EMS transportation at highest priority and hospital prenotification were associated with faster in-hospital stroke response and represent logical targets for EMS quality improvement efforts. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute ischemic stroke update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kathleen; Orr, Sean; Briand, Mary; Piazza, Carolyn; Veydt, Annita; McCoy, Stacey

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States and is the number one cause of long-term disability. Legislative mandates, largely the result of the American Heart Association, American Stroke Association, and Brain Attack Coalition working cooperatively, have resulted in nationwide standardization of care for patients who experience a stroke. Transport to a skilled facility that can provide optimal care, including immediate treatment to halt or reverse the damage caused by stroke, must occur swiftly. Admission to a certified stroke center is recommended for improving outcomes. Most strokes are ischemic in nature. Acute ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous group of vascular diseases, which makes targeted treatment challenging. To provide a thorough review of the literature since the 2007 acute ischemic stroke guidelines were developed, we performed a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1, 2004-July 1, 2009) for relevant English-language studies. Results (through July 1, 2009) from clinical trials included in the Internet Stroke Center registry were also accessed. Results from several pivotal studies have contributed to our knowledge of stroke. Additional data support the efficacy and safety of intravenous alteplase, the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke since 1995. Due to these study results, the American Stroke Association changed its recommendation to extend the time window for administration of intravenous alteplase from within 3 hours to 4.5 hours of symptom onset; this recommendation enables many more patients to receive the drug. Other findings included clinically useful biomarkers, the role of inflammation and infection, an expanded role for placement of intracranial stents, a reduced role for urgent carotid endarterectomy, alternative treatments for large-vessel disease, identification of nontraditional risk factors, including risk factors for women, and newly published pediatric stroke guidelines. In addition, new devices for

  16. The Danish Stroke Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Ingeman, Annette; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Stroke Registry is to monitor and improve the quality of care among all patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) treated at Danish hospitals. STUDY POPULATION: All patients with acute stroke (from 2003) or TIA (from 2013) treated...... at Danish hospitals. Reporting is mandatory by law for all hospital departments treating these patients. The registry included >130,000 events by the end of 2014, including 10,822 strokes and 4,227 TIAs registered in 2014. MAIN VARIABLES: The registry holds prospectively collected data on key processes...... of care, mainly covering the early phase after stroke, including data on time of delivery of the processes and the eligibility of the individual patients for each process. The data are used for assessing 18 process indicators reflecting recommendations in the national clinical guidelines for patients...

  17. Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism in prognosis of minor stroke or TIA patients with declined eGFR on dual antiplatelet therapy: CHANCE substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Zhou, Yilun; Pan, Yuesong; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Wang, David; Wang, Chunxue; Li, Hao; Johnston, S Claiborne; Meng, Xia; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2018-03-08

    Clopidogrel resistance is prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Genetic polymorphism is considered to be the most important factor that influences clopidogrel resistance. Limited data exist as to the role of pharmacogenetics in prognosis of stroke patients with impaired renal function on clopidogrel. We sought to explore whether decreased kidney function alters the association between CYP2C19 genetic variants and clinical outcome in patients with minor stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) receiving clopidogrel therapy. A total of 1476 participants on clopidogrel-aspirin treatment with genotyping results in High-Risk Patients with Acute Nondisabling Cerebrovascular Events (CHANCE) trial were categorized by quintiles of renal function estimated by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and were stratified according to the possession of CYP2C19 loss-of-function (LOF) alleles: carriers and non-carriers. Patients were followed up and clinical outcomes were evaluated. The primary efficacy outcome was new stroke. The secondary efficacy outcome was combined vascular events (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death). The safety outcome was bleeding event. CYP2C19 LOF carriers had higher odds of new stroke than non-carriers (10.4% versus 2.4 %, hazard ratio [HR], 5.30; 95% CI, 1.51-18.3, P = 0.009) in the lowest quintile of renal function group with eGFR < 75 ml/min/1.73 m 2 but not in the other four higher quintiles. Similar results were observed for the ischemic stroke and combined vascular events. There was no significant difference in the individual outcomes of bleeding in carriers compared with non-carriers in any renal function group. Among patients with minor stroke or TIA taking clopidogrel-aspirin treatment, CYP2C19 LOF carrier state was associated with higher risk of new stroke in those with eGFR < 75 ml/min/1.73 m 2 . This observation supports that the evaluation of CYP2C19 LOF

  18. Stroke mimic diagnoses presenting to a hyperacute stroke unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ang; Cloud, Geoffrey C; Pereira, Anthony C; Moynihan, Barry J

    2016-10-01

    Stroke services have been centralised in several countries in recent years. Diagnosing acute stroke is challenging and a high proportion of patients admitted to stroke units are diagnosed as a non-stroke condition (stroke mimics). This study aims to describe the stroke mimic patient group, including their impact on stroke services. We analysed routine clinical data from 2,305 consecutive admissions to a stroke unit at St George's Hospital, London. Mimic groupings were derived from 335 individual codes into 17 groupings. From 2,305 admissions, 555 stroke mimic diagnoses were identified (24.2%) and 72% of stroke mimics had at least one stroke risk factor. Common mimic diagnoses were headache, seizure and syncope. Medically unexplained symptoms and decompensation of underlying conditions were also common. Median length of stay was 1 day; a diagnosis of dementia (p=0.028) or needing MRI (p=0.006) was associated with a longer stay. Despite emergency department assessment by specialist clinicians and computed tomography brain, one in four suspected stroke patients admitted to hospital had a non-stroke diagnosis. Stroke mimics represent a heterogeneous patient group with significant impacts on stroke services. Co-location of stroke and acute neurology services may offer advantages where service reorganisation is being considered. © Royal College of Physicians 2016. All rights reserved.

  19. Post-stroke depression among stroke survivors attending two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The burden of stroke worldwide is increasing rapidly. There is paucity of data on post-stroke depression (PSD) among stroke survivors in Uganda, despite the high prevalence of PSD reported elsewhere. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we assessed adult participants with confirmed first stroke with a ...

  20. Perception of stroke among patients with stroke | Ajayi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perception of patients to stroke is variable. The aim of this study was to determine the perception of stroke among stroke patients. The study was carried out between January 2004 - December 2004 on all the patients presenting with features of stroke at the Federal Medical Center Ido, Nigeria. Data were collected by ...

  1. Cerebrorenal interaction and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Beyond the original meaning of chronic kidney disease (CKD) as high-risk state for future dialysis, CKD is now known as an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Stroke is a major player of cardiovascular disease and has deep two-way relationships with CKD. CKD is an evident risk factor for stroke. Meta-analyses of cohort studies and trials indicate that proteinuria/albuminuria increases the risk of stroke by 71-92%, and reduced glomerular filtration rate increases the risk by 43%. In addition, CKD has a strong relationship with subclinical brain damage including white matter changes, microbleeds, cognitive impairment, and carotid atherosclerosis. CKD is prevalent in acute stroke patients; patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate stroke patients and 39% of total intracerebral hemorrhage patients in our institute. Acute and chronic management of stroke are influenced by CKD. Therapeutic effects of several antithrombotic and thrombolytic agents, including recently-developed novel oral anticoagulants, are affected by renal function. Moreover, reduced glomerular filtration rate is independently associated with increased 1- and 10-year mortalities in the end. Stroke also has deep relationships with end-stage kidney disease. Stroke occurs much more commonly in dialysis patients than general population or CKD patients without need for dialysis. The triggers of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in patients with end-stage kidney disease include special characteristics unique to dialysis, such as drastic hemodynamic change, dialysate and anticoagulants, and vascular calcification. As cohorts of dialysis patients become older, more hypertensive, and more diabetic than before, stroke become more prevalent and more serious events in dialysis clinics. Now, clinicians should have much interest in the association between CKD and cerebrovascular diseases, so-called the cerebro-renal interaction. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Predictors of Thrombolysis Administration in Mild Stroke: Florida-Puerto Rico Collaboration to Reduce Stroke Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asdaghi, Negar; Wang, Kefeng; Ciliberti-Vargas, Maria A; Gutierrez, Carolina Marinovic; Koch, Sebastian; Gardener, Hannah; Dong, Chuanhui; Rose, David Z; Garcia, Enid J; Burgin, W Scott; Zevallos, Juan Carlos; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Romano, Jose G

    2018-03-01

    Mild stroke is the most common cause for thrombolysis exclusion in patients acutely presenting to the hospital. Thrombolysis administration in this subgroup is highly variable among different clinicians and institutions. We aim to study the predictors of thrombolysis in patients with mild ischemic stroke in the FL-PR CReSD registry (Florida-Puerto Rico Collaboration to Reduce Stroke Disparities). Among 73 712 prospectively enrolled patients with a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke or TIA from January 2010 to April 2015, we identified 7746 cases with persistent neurological symptoms and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≤5 who arrived within 4 hours of symptom onset. Multilevel logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations was used to identify independent predictors of thrombolytic administration in the subgroup of patients without contraindications to thrombolysis. We included 6826 cases (final diagnosis mild stroke, 74.6% and TIA, 25.4%). Median age was 72 (interquartile range, 21); 52.7% men, 70.3% white, 12.9% black, 16.8% Hispanic; and median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, 2 (interquartile range, 3). Patients who received thrombolysis (n=1281, 18.7%) were younger (68 versus 72 years), had less vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia), had lower risk of prior vascular disease (myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, and previous stroke), and had a higher presenting median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (4 versus 2). In the multilevel multivariable model, early hospital arrival (arrive by 0-2 hours versus ≥3.5 hours; odds ratio [OR], 8.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.76-13.98), higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.77-1.98), aphasia at presentation (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.12-1.62), faster door-to-computed tomography time (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.53-2.15), and presenting to an academic hospital (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.39-2.95) were

  3. Can diffusion tensor imaging predict the functional outcome of supra-tentorial stroke?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Takahiro; Ishizaki, Ken-ichi; Yura, Shigeki

    2005-01-01

    We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess wallerian degeneration of the pyramidal tract after the onset of supra-tentorial stroke, and correlation of the extent of Wallerian degeneration with the motor function at 3 months after stroke. Twenty eight patients with supra-tentorial acute stroke were examined, two weeks and one month after stroke by DTI. We measured fractional anisotropy (FA) of affected side/unaffected side (FA ratio) in the cerebral peduncle. We used modified Rankin Scale (mRS) for assessment of motor function at 3 months after stroke. FA ratio was significantly reduced at 2 weeks after stroke (0.833±0.146) compared to on admission (0.979±0.0797). But no significant change of FA ratio was seen between two weeks and one month after stroke in 7 cases examined (0.758±0.183 vs. 0.754±0.183). In all patients in whom the FA ratio was under 0.8 at 2 weeks after stroke, motor function showed poor recovery (mRS 4 and 5) at 3 months after stroke. When FA ratio was over 0.8 at 2 weeks after stroke, motor function at 3 months after stroke showed good recovery (mRS 0 to 3) expect for three elderly patients. With the use of DTI, Wallerian degeneration could be detected in the corticospinal tracts at midbrain level during the early phase of supra-tentorial stroke. We conclude that DTI may be useful for early prediction of motor function prognosis in patients with supra-tentorial acute stroke. (author)

  4. How are household economic circumstances affected after a stroke? The Psychosocial Outcomes In StrokE (POISE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essue, Beverley M; Hackett, Maree L; Li, Qiang; Glozier, Nick; Lindley, Richard; Jan, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    Stroke is associated with severe economic consequences. This is the first study to investigate in younger survivors the household economic burden of stroke. A multicenter, 3-year prospective cohort study was conducted of younger (18-65 years) survivors in Australia. Pre- and poststroke patterns of income and hardship were evaluated and multivariable logistic regression identified the predictors of economic hardship after stroke. Four hundred fourteen participants were followed up over 12 months after stroke. The variables that independently predicted economic hardship after stroke were: female (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.52-5.70), hazardous alcohol consumption (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.00-5.20), manual occupation (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.07-3.30), lack of health insurance (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.12-3.60), and prior hardship (OR, 3.93; 95% CI, 2.12-7.29), whereas concessional status (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26-0.95) and more social contacts per week (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98-1.00) reduced hardship likelihood. Higher prestroke income did not buffer hardship after stroke nor did clinical, health service, or disability factors. Policies to reduce inequalities after stroke would be best aimed at socioeconomic targets.

  5. Stroke Risk among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Zhejiang: A Population-Based Prospective Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to explore the incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM based on the long-term surveillance data in Zhejiang, China, during 2007 to 2013. Materials and Methods. During January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013, a total of 327,268 T2DM and 307,984 stroke patients were registered on Diabetes and Stroke Surveillance System, respectively. Stroke subtypes were classified according to standard definitions of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and ischemic stroke. The incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes was calculated by standardized incidence ratio (SIRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs compared with general population. Results. The incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes among patients with T2DM was significantly higher than in general population. Stroke risk was found significantly increased with an SIR of 3.87 (95% CI 3.76–3.99 and 3.38 (95% CI 3.27–3.48 in females and males, respectively. The excess risk of stroke was mainly attributable to the significantly higher risk of cerebral infarctions with the risk for T2DM being four times that for general population. Conclusions. The relationship between stroke and T2DM was strong, especially in female. The incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes among patients with T2DM was up to 3-fold higher than in general population in Zhejiang province, especially the subtype of cerebral infarctions.

  6. Risk for Major Bleeding in Patients Receiving Ticagrelor Compared W