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Sample records for strix varia occidentalis

  1. Using detection dogs to conduct simultaneous surveys of northern spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina and barred owls (Strix varia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K Wasser

    Full Text Available State and federal actions to conserve northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina habitat are largely initiated by establishing habitat occupancy. Northern spotted owl occupancy is typically assessed by eliciting their response to simulated conspecific vocalizations. However, proximity of barred owls (Strix varia-a significant threat to northern spotted owls-can suppress northern spotted owl responsiveness to vocalization surveys and hence their probability of detection. We developed a survey method to simultaneously detect both species that does not require vocalization. Detection dogs (Canis familiaris located owl pellets accumulated under roost sites, within search areas selected using habitat association maps. We compared success of detection dog surveys to vocalization surveys slightly modified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Draft 2010 Survey Protocol. Seventeen 2 km × 2 km polygons were each surveyed multiple times in an area where northern spotted owls were known to nest prior to 1997 and barred owl density was thought to be low. Mitochondrial DNA was used to confirm species from pellets detected by dogs. Spotted owl and barred owl detection probabilities were significantly higher for dog than vocalization surveys. For spotted owls, this difference increased with number of site visits. Cumulative detection probabilities of northern spotted owls were 29% after session 1, 62% after session 2, and 87% after session 3 for dog surveys, compared to 25% after session 1, increasing to 59% by session 6 for vocalization surveys. Mean detection probability for barred owls was 20.1% for dog surveys and 7.3% for vocal surveys. Results suggest that detection dog surveys can complement vocalization surveys by providing a reliable method for establishing occupancy of both northern spotted and barred owl without requiring owl vocalization. This helps meet objectives of Recovery Actions 24 and 25 of the Revised Recovery Plan for the

  2. Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) Genome: Divergence with the Barred Owl (Strix varia) and Characterization of Light-Associated Genes.

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    Hanna, Zachary R; Henderson, James B; Wall, Jeffrey D; Emerling, Christopher A; Fuchs, Jérôme; Runckel, Charles; Mindell, David P; Bowie, Rauri C K; DeRisi, Joseph L; Dumbacher, John P

    2017-10-01

    We report here the assembly of a northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) genome. We generated Illumina paired-end sequence data at 90× coverage using nine libraries with insert lengths ranging from ∼250 to 9,600 nt and read lengths from 100 to 375 nt. The genome assembly is comprised of 8,108 scaffolds totaling 1.26 × 109 nt in length with an N50 length of 3.98 × 106 nt. We calculated the genome-wide fixation index (FST) of S. o. caurina with the closely related barred owl (Strix varia) as 0.819. We examined 19 genes that encode proteins with light-dependent functions in our genome assembly as well as in that of the barn owl (Tyto alba). We present genomic evidence for loss of three of these in S. o. caurina and four in T. alba. We suggest that most light-associated gene functions have been maintained in owls and their loss has not proceeded to the same extent as in other dim-light-adapted vertebrates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Blood parasites in Owls with conservation implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis)

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    Ishak, H.D.; Dumbacher, J.P.; Anderson, N.L.; Keane, J.J.; Valkiunas, G.; Haig, S.M.; Tell, L.A.; Sehgal, R.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis courina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia). An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl. We screened 111 Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and 387 owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites (Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp.). California Spotted Owls had the greatest number of simultaneous multi-species infections (44%). Additionally, sequencing results revealed that the Northern and California Spotted Owl subspecies together had the highest number of Leucocytozoon parasite lineages (n=17) and unique lineages (n=12). This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one leucocytozoon species (L. danilewskyi) has been accepted as valid among all owls, suggesting that L. danilewskyi is a cryptic species. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. West Coast Barred Owls had a lower prevalence of infection (15%) when compared to sympatric Spotted Owls (S. o. caurina 52%, S. o. occidentalis 79%) and Barred Owls from the historic range (61%). Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls. ?? 2008 Ishak et al.

  4. Dispersal movements of juvenile Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in New Mexico

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    David P. Arsenault; Angela Hodgson; Peter B. Stacey

    1997-01-01

    Tail-mounted radio transmitters were attached to 12 juvenile and 3 sub-adult (yearling) Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in southwestern New Mexico from 1993 to 1996. Most juveniles dispersed from their natal territories during September. Intervals between dispersal of siblings ranged from 3 to more than 15 days. Juveniles exhibited...

  5. Meta-analysis of California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) territory occupancy in the Sierra Nevada: habitat associations and their implications for forest management

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    Douglas J. Tempel; John J. Keane; R. J. Gutierrez; Jared D. Wolfe; Gavin M. Jones; Alexander Koltunov; Carlos M. Ramirez; William J. Berigan; Claire V. Gallagher; Thomas E. Munton; Paula A. Shaklee; Sheila A. Whitmore; M. Zachariah Peery

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the occupancy dynamics of 275 California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) territories in 4 study areas in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, from 1993 to 2011. We used Landsat data to develop maps of canopy cover for each study area, which we then used to quantify annual territory-specific habitat...

  6. Food habits of the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) at six nest sites in Washington?s east Cascades

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    Kenneth R. Bevis; Jo Ellen Richards; Gina M. King; Eric E. Hanson

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on 245 pellet samples containing 479 identified prey items collected at six Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) breeding sites in the eastern portion of its range. The majority of prey (biomass) came from four species; northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus), bushy-tailed woodrats (...

  7. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis: Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysta H. Rogers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina in California during 2011–2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis. The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  8. Determination of Gastrointestinal Transit Times in Barred Owls ( Strix varia ) by Contrast Fluoroscopy.

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    Doss, Grayson A; Williams, Jackie M; Mans, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Contrast imaging studies are routinely performed in avian patients when an underlying abnormality of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is suspected. Fluoroscopy offers several advantages over traditional radiography and can be performed in conscious animals with minimal stress and restraint. Although birds of prey are commonly encountered as patients, little is known about GI transit times and contrast imaging studies in these species, especially owls. Owls are commonly encountered in zoological, educational, and wildlife settings. In this study, 12 adult barred owls ( Strix varia ) were gavage fed a 30% weight-by-volume barium suspension (25 mL/kg body weight). Fluoroscopic exposures were recorded at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes after administration. Overall GI transit time and transit times of various GI organs were recorded. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) overall GI transit time was 60 minutes (IQR: 19-60 minutes) and ranged from 5-120 minutes. Ventricular and small intestinal contrast filling was rapid. Ventricular emptying was complete by a median of 60 minutes (IQR: 30-120 minutes; range: 30-240 minutes), whereas small intestinal emptying was not complete in 9/12 birds by 300 minutes. Median small intestinal contraction rate was 15 per minute (IQR: 13-16 minutes; range: 10-19 minutes). Median overall GI transit time in barred owls is more rapid than mean transit times reported for psittacine birds and red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ). Fluoroscopy is a safe, suitable method for investigating GI motility and transit in this species.

  9. Influence of primary prey on home-range size and habitat-use patterns of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina)

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    Cynthia J. Zabel; Kevin S. McKelvey; James P. Ward

    1995-01-01

    Correlations between the home-range size of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) and proportion of their range in old-growth forest have been reported, but there are few data on the relationship between their home-range size and prey. The primary prey of spotted owls are wood rats and northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus). Wood...

  10. Genetic differentiation and inferred dynamics of a hybrid zone between Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) and California Spotted Owls (S. o. occidentalis) in northern California

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    Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Tom; Forsman, Eric D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic differentiation among Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies has been established in prior studies. These investigations also provided evidence for introgression and hybridization among taxa but were limited by a lack of samples from geographic regions where subspecies came into close contact. We analyzed new sets of samples from Northern Spotted Owls (NSO: S. o. caurina) and California Spotted Owls (CSO: S. o. occidentalis) in northern California using mitochondrial DNA sequences (mtDNA) and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci to obtain a clearer depiction of genetic differentiation and hybridization in the region. Our analyses revealed that a NSO population close to the northern edge of the CSO range in northern California (the NSO Contact Zone population) is highly differentiated relative to other NSO populations throughout the remainder of their range. Phylogenetic analyses identified a unique lineage of mtDNA in the NSO Contact Zone, and Bayesian clustering analyses of the microsatellite data identified the Contact Zone as a third distinct population that is differentiated from CSO and NSO found in the remainder of the subspecies' range. Hybridization between NSO and CSO was readily detected in the NSO Contact Zone, with over 50% of individuals showing evidence of hybrid ancestry. Hybridization was also identified among 14% of CSO samples, which were dispersed across the subspecies' range in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The asymmetry of hybridization suggested that the hybrid zone may be dynamic and moving. Although evidence of hybridization existed, we identified no F1 generation hybrid individuals. We instead found evidence for F2 or backcrossed individuals among our samples. The absence of F1 hybrids may indicate that (1) our 10 microsatellites were unable to distinguish hybrid types, (2) primary interactions between subspecies are occurring elsewhere on the landscape, or (3) dispersal between the subspecies' ranges is reduced relative to

  11. Radiographic evaluation of perching-joint angles in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and barred owls (Strix varia).

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    Bonin, Glen; Lauer, Susanne K; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N; Hosgood, Giselle; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2009-06-01

    Information on perching-joint angles in birds is limited. Joint immobilization in a physiologic perching angle has the potential to result more often in complete restoration of limb function. We evaluated perching-joint angles in 10 healthy cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), 10 Hispaniolan Amazons (Amazona ventralis), and 9 barred owls (Strix varia) and determined intra- and interobserver variability for goniometric measurements in 2 different radiographic projections. Intra- and interobserver variation was less than 7% for all stifle and intertarsal joint measurements but frequently exceeded 10% for the hip-joint measurements. Hip, stifle, and intertarsal perching angles differed significantly among cockatiels, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and barred owls. The accuracy of measurements performed on straight lateral radiographic projections with superimposed limbs was not consistently superior to measurements on oblique projections with a slightly rotated pelvis. Stifle and intertarsal joint angles can be measured on radiographs by different observers with acceptable variability, but intra- and interobserver variability for hip-joint-angle measurements is higher.

  12. The evolution of mapping habitat for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): A comparison of photo-interpreted, Landsat-based, and lidar-based habitat maps

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    Ackers, Steven H.; Davis, Raymond J.; Olsen, K.; Dugger, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife habitat mapping has evolved at a rapid pace over the last few decades. Beginning with simple, often subjective, hand-drawn maps, habitat mapping now involves complex species distribution models (SDMs) using mapped predictor variables derived from remotely sensed data. For species that inhabit large geographic areas, remote sensing technology is often essential for producing range wide maps. Habitat monitoring for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), whose geographic covers about 23 million ha, is based on SDMs that use Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery to create forest vegetation data layers using gradient nearest neighbor (GNN) methods. Vegetation data layers derived from GNN are modeled relationships between forest inventory plot data, climate and topographic data, and the spectral signatures acquired by the satellite. When used as predictor variables for SDMs, there is some transference of the GNN modeling error to the final habitat map.Recent increases in the use of light detection and ranging (lidar) data, coupled with the need to produce spatially accurate and detailed forest vegetation maps have spurred interest in its use for SDMs and habitat mapping. Instead of modeling predictor variables from remotely sensed spectral data, lidar provides direct measurements of vegetation height for use in SDMs. We expect a SDM habitat map produced from directly measured predictor variables to be more accurate than one produced from modeled predictors.We used maximum entropy (Maxent) SDM modeling software to compare predictive performance and estimates of habitat area between Landsat-based and lidar-based northern spotted owl SDMs and habitat maps. We explored the differences and similarities between these maps, and to a pre-existing aerial photo-interpreted habitat map produced by local wildlife biologists. The lidar-based map had the highest predictive performance based on 10 bootstrapped replicate models (AUC = 0.809 ± 0.011), but the

  13. Telfairia occidentalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... watermelon. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 118: 151-157. Ng SYC (2000). Tissue Culture in disease elimination and micropropagation. Lecture notes: 3rd International Training in Plant. Tissue Culture, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra, Ghana. Okoli BE, Mgbeogu CM (1983). Fluted pumpkin, Telfairia occidentalis:.

  14. Production ecology of Thuja occidentalis

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    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Robert S. Seymour; Laura S. Kenefic

    2010-01-01

    Equations to predict branch and tree leaf area, foliar mass, and stemwood volume were developed from 25 destructively sampled northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) trees, a species whose production ecology has not been studied. Resulting models were applied to a large sample of 296 cored trees from 60 sites stratified across a soil gradient...

  15. Albinism in the Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) and other owls

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    Pentti Alaja; Heimo Mikkola

    1997-01-01

    An incomplete albino Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) was observed in Vesanto and Kajaani, Finland, 1994-1995. The literature pertaining to albinism in owls indicates that total and incomplete albinism has only been reported in 13 different owl species, the Great Gray Owl being the only species with more than five records. Thus six to seven incomplete...

  16. A telemetry study of the social organization of a tawny owl (Strix aluco) population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Bølstad, Mikkel S.

    2004-01-01

    The spatial dispersion and social interactions were studied in 11 neighbouring pairs of radio-tagged tawny owls Strix aluco in a deciduous wood in Denmark from 1998-2001. The numbers and shapes of territories were stable throughout the survey and similar to a mapping made 40 years earlier. The ho...

  17. EVALUATION OF IN VITRO ANTI UROLITHIATIC ACTIVITY OF SENNA OCCIDENTALIS

    OpenAIRE

    *K. Purushotham, P. Nandeeshwar, V. KiranKumar, I.Srikanth, Dr. K. Ramanjaneyulu, J. Himabindhu

    2018-01-01

    The present study was explores that evaluation of in vitro antiurolithiatic activity of Senna occidentalis. It was observed that thehighest calcium oxalate crystals dissolution was observed in the ethanolic extract of Senna occidentalis. It was found that ethanolic extract of Senna occidentalis has more efficient to dissolve calciumoxalate. In this study Neeri was used as standard drug. Key words: Senna Occidentalis, urolithiasis and Ethanolic extract

  18. Utilization of enzyme supplemented Telfairia occidentalis stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight (8) week feeding trial was carried out to assess the use of enzyme natuzyme supplemented Telfairia occidentalis stalk extract as growth inducer in the practical diet for Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. Five isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets at 0 ml of stalk extract and enzyme (TRT 1), 15 ml (TRT 2) and 30 ...

  19. Phytochemistry and antimicrobial activities of Cassia occidentalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of Cassia occidentalis were extracted with ethanol, methanol and water and the extracts used to carryout antimicrobial screening in vitro on staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, shigella spp. Chromatographic separation was carried out on the active extracts and the ...

  20. Cardiotoxicity of Senna occidentalis in sheep (Ovis aries)

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, D.I.S.; Sousa, M.G.; Ramos, A.T.; Maruo, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    The cardiotoxicity of Coffee senna (Senna occidentalis) was investigated in sheep that were fed diets containing its seeds, which are recognized as the most poisonous part of such weed. Dianthrone, the main toxic component of S. occidentalis, is known to impair mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, leading to myofiber degeneration. In this study, fifteen ewes were fed 0%, 2% or 4% of seeds of S. occidentalis for 63 days. Non-specific markers of myocyte injury and electrocardiograms were un...

  1. The evolution of mapping habitat for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): A comparison of photo-interpreted, Landsat-based, and lidar-based habitat maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven H. Ackers; Raymond J. Davis; Keith A. Olsen; Katie M. Dugger

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife habitat mapping has evolved at a rapid pace over the last fewdecades. Beginning with simple, often subjective, hand-drawn maps, habitat mapping now involves complex species distribution models (SDMs) using mapped predictor variables derived from remotely sensed data. For species that inhabit large geographic areas, remote sensing technology is often...

  2. Historical fire and vegetation dynamics in dry forests of the interior Pacific Northwest, USA, and relationships to northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) habitat conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca S.H. Kennedy; Michael C. Wimberly

    2009-01-01

    Regional conservation planning frequently relies on general assumptions about historical disturbance regimes to inform decisions about landscape restoration, reserve allocations, and landscape management. Spatially explicit simulations of landscape dynamics provide quantitative estimates of landscape structure and allow for the testing of alternative scenarios. We used...

  3. Multi-scale Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) nest/roost habitat selection in Arizona and a comparison with single-scale modeling results

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    Brad C. Timm; Kevin McGarigal; Samuel A. Cushman; Joseph L. Ganey

    2016-01-01

    Efficacy of future habitat selection studies will benefit by taking a multi-scale approach. In addition to potentially providing increased explanatory power and predictive capacity, multi-scale habitat models enhance our understanding of the scales at which species respond to their environment, which is critical knowledge required to implement effective...

  4. Hypoglycaemic activity of Telfairia occidentalis in rats | Eseyin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Telfairia occidentalis possess hypoglycemic activity in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats and this could be beneficial in the ethnotherapy of diabetes mellitus. Key words: Telfairia occidentalis; Glibenclamide; Hypoglycaemic activity; Alloxan-induced diabetes. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.

  5. Cardiotoxicity of Senna occidentalis in sheep ( Ovis aries ) | Lopes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dianthrone, the main toxic component of S. occidentalis, is known to impair mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, leading to myofiber degeneration. In this study, fifteen ewes were fed 0%, 2% or 4% of seeds of S. occidentalis for 63 days. Non-specific markers of myocyte injury and electrocardiograms were undertaken at ...

  6. Effects Of Telfairia occidentalis On The Heamatological Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Telfairia occidentalis is a dioecious perennial vine widely used for its medicinal and dietary benefits. The study was designed to evaluate the effect of T. occidentalis on haematological parameters of pregnant rats following oral administration, as well as its effects on the liver and spleen of these rats. Fifteen pregnant Wistar ...

  7. In vitro culture of Telfairia occidentalis under different cytokinins and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Telfairia occidentalis is a tropical vine and has been a good source of iron rich vegetable to man. It is normally propagated through seeds but the seeds are recalcitrant in nature. The vegetative propagation of T. occidentalis has been difficult hence there is a need to develop an in vitro method. Nodal cuttings of T.

  8. Cardiotoxicity of Senna occidentalis in sheep ( Ovis aries ) | Lopes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cardiotoxicity of Coffee senna (Senna occidentalis) was investigated in sheep that were fed diets containing its seeds, which are recognized as the most poisonous part of such weed. Dianthrone, the main toxic component of S. occidentalis, is known to impair mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, leading to myofiber ...

  9. Nutritive evaluation of Telfairia occidentalis leaf protein concentrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf meal (LM), leaf proteins concentrate (LPC) and LPC residues from Telfairia occidentalis were produced, chemically characterized and the protein quality of the LPC evaluated using rats. Five infant weaning foods were formulated using varying combinations of T. occidentalis LPC and soybean meal. These foods were ...

  10. Use of fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis ) leaf powder as feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary Telfairia occidentalis leaf meal on growth, heamatological profile and body composition was investigated in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Fingerlings of about 5 g were fed diets supplemented with four concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20 g kg-1) of T. occidentalis leaf powder for eight weeks. Fish fed ...

  11. Insecticide resistance in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sten Erik

    to have modest value for detecting resistance to methiocarb in field populations of F. occidentalis. The particular host plant of a polyphagous insect population may affect activity of detoxification enzymes and tolerance to insecticides. Another part of this study investigated the possible effects......The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is a serious pest on a wide range of crops throughout the world. In Denmark F. occidentalis is a pest in greenhouses. F. occidentalis is difficult to control with insecticides because of its thigmokinetic behaviour and resistance...... to insecticides. Since F. occidentulis spread to become a worldwide pest in 1980’es, resistance to a number of different insecticides has been shown in many populations of F. occidentalis. This flower thrips has the potential of fast development of resistance owing to the short generation time, high fecundity...

  12. Predators control post-fledging mortality in tawny owls, Strix aluco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Despite its recognition as an important source of variation in recruitment probability, the ecological processes leading to mortality between fledging and independence are poorly studied. Accordingly, the proximate and ultimate impact of bottom-up (food limitation) and top-down factors (predators......, pathogens) for individual survival as well as population productivity is largely unknown in most terrestrial birds. Survival and behaviour of 131 radio-tagged tawny owls (Strix aluco) during the post-fledging dependency period were studied for each of three years with high food abundance and three years...... of poor food supply in Danish deciduous woods. To identify the effects of food limitation, 32 young received extra food 2-3 weeks prior to fledging, as opposed to 99 young that were fed by their parents only. Thirty-six percent of the young from control broods died between fledging and independence...

  13. Registro del búho leonado Strix fulvescens en el estado de Oaxaca, México Record of the Fulvous Owl Strix fulvescens in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda Ramírez-Julián

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediante comparaciones acústicas y espectrográficas del búho leonado Strix fulvescens, se determinó su presencia en el noroeste de la sierra Norte de Oaxaca. Este registro constituye la confirmación de su presencia en el estado; amplía 350 km aproximadamente su distribución hacia el noroeste y aumenta a 21 las especies de búhos registradas en Oaxaca.The occurrence of Fulvous Owl Strix fulvescens in the northwestern portion of the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca was determined using aural and spectrographic comparison. This record confirms the presence of Fulvous Owl in the state of Oaxaca, expanding its distribution range to the northwest by about 350 Km, and increasing to 21 species the number of owls recorded in Oaxaca.

  14. Patterns of host adaptation in Frankliniella occidentalis among vegetable crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current study examined the variation in life table characteristics, and physiological, biochemical, and molecular bases of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) host adaptation patterns. The main objective was to determine whether host availability affects insect preferenc...

  15. Effects of Senna occidentalis on chick bursa of Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tereza C; Gorniak, Silvana L; Oloris, Silvia C S; Raspantini, Paulo C; Haraguchi, Mitsue; Dagli, Maria L Z

    2003-12-01

    Senna occidentalis (L) Link (formerly called Cassia occidentalis) is a toxic leguminous plant found ubiquitously as a contaminant of crops. All parts of the plant are toxic, but most of the S. occidentalis toxicity is found in the seeds. S. occidentalis has been shown to be toxic to several animal species, causing degenerative lesions mainly in muscles. This is the first report describing alterations in chick lymphoid organs caused by S. occidentalis seeds. The objectives of this study were to describe the effects of the treatment with seeds and its fraction external tegument (TE) on the development of chicks and their lymphoid organs bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Chicks that received a commercial ration with 1% TE had reduced body and lymphoid organ weights. The bursa of Fabricius presented reduction in the diameters of the follicles, and in the thickness of the cortical and medullary regions. The spleen presented depleted lymphoid tissue in the white pulp. These results indicate that the active principle of S. occidentalis is more concentrated on its TE fraction, and that it can cause weight loss as well as alterations in the lymphoid organs in chicks. The consequences of these alterations should be further investigated.

  16. Distribution and ecology of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) bacterial symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanbusarakum, Lisa J; Ullman, Diane E

    2009-08-01

    Bacterial populations in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) collected in diverse California environments consisted of two bacterial symbionts: BFo-1 and BFo-2 (B = bacteria, Fo = Frankliniella occidentalis, numbers reflect different types). Dual infections of BFo-1 and BFo-2 were found in 50% of the thrips, 18% had neither bacterium, and 24 and 8% were infected solely with BFo-1 and BFo-2, respectively. No other bacteria consistently infected F. occidentalis. Dual infections occurred more often in male thrips and in thrips of both sexes from southern mountain and valley sites. As average collection year or month minimum temperature decreased, infections of BFo-1, alone or in dual infections, increased significantly. As yearly precipitation increased, infection with BFo-1 alone also increased. F. occidentalis color morphology did not affect bacterial infection. BFo-1 created weak biofilms at 25 and 32 degrees C; BFo-2 made strong biofilms at 25 degrees C and no biofilms at 32 degrees C. When the bacteria were grown in culture together, weak biofilms formed at both temperatures studied, although there was no way to determine what each bacterium contributed to the biofilm. BFo-1 and BFo-2 grew at similar rates at 25 and 30 degrees C. Our data show BFo-1 and BFo-2 occur in natural populations of F. occidentalis and support the hypothesis BFo have a symbiotic relationship with F. occidentalis. Regional differences in bacterial prevalence suggest bacterial infection is associated with environmental conditions, and altitude, temperature, and precipitation may be important factors.

  17. Selection of tawny owl (Strix aluco) flight feather shaft for biomonitoring As, Cd and Pb pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Rita García; Río, Zulema Varela; Ocaña, Alejo Carballeira; Escribano, José Ángel Fernández; Viñas, Jesús Ramón Aboal

    2018-04-07

    In this study, we determined the concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in the shaft of all primary flight feathers from ten tawny owl (Strix aluco) specimens, with the aim of selecting which shaft of the corresponding primary feather should be used in biomonitoring surveys to enable inter-individual comparisons of the levels of these metals. The birds had died between 2006 and 2013 and their bodies were stored in the various Wildlife Recovery Centres in Galicia (NW Spain). The analyses revealed a high degree of inter-shaft variability, mainly in the concentrations of As and Cd. However, it was possible to identify the most representative samples in each case: for As, the shaft of primary flight feather number 5 (S5) (which represented 11% of the total As excreted in all of the primary flight feathers); for Cd, the shaft of primary flight feather number 2 (S2) (11% of the total excreted); and for Pb, the shaft of primary flight feather number 8 (S8) (14% of the total excreted). However, the difficulties associated with the analytical determination of these pollutants in the shaft should be taken into account when this technique is applied in biomonitoring studies.

  18. Evaluation of Orius species for biological control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tommasini, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Key words: Thysanoptera, Frankliniella occidentalis, Heteroptera, Orius leavigatu, Orius majusculu, Orius niger, Orius insidiosus, Biology, Diapause, Biological control.The overall aim of this research was to develop a biological control programme for F. occidentalis through the selection of

  19. The genome of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Robert; Bryant, Doug; Bushakra, Jill M; Vining, Kelly J; Edger, Patrick P; Rowley, Erik R; Priest, Henry D; Michael, Todd P; Lyons, Eric; Filichkin, Sergei A; Dossett, Michael; Finn, Chad E; Bassil, Nahla V; Mockler, Todd C

    2016-09-01

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is an important specialty fruit crop in the US Pacific Northwest that can hybridize with the globally commercialized red raspberry (R. idaeus). Here we report a 243 Mb draft genome of black raspberry that will serve as a useful reference for the Rosaceae and Rubus fruit crops (raspberry, blackberry, and their hybrids). The black raspberry genome is largely collinear to the diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) with a conserved karyotype and few notable structural rearrangements. Centromeric satellite repeats are widely dispersed across the black raspberry genome, in contrast to the tight association with the centromere observed in most plants. Among the 28 005 predicted protein-coding genes, we identified 290 very recent small-scale gene duplicates enriched for sugar metabolism, fruit development, and anthocyanin related genes which may be related to key agronomic traits during black raspberry domestication. This contrasts patterns of recent duplications in the wild woodland strawberry F. vesca, which show no patterns of enrichment, suggesting gene duplications contributed to domestication traits. Expression profiles from a fruit ripening series and roots exposed to Verticillium dahliae shed insight into fruit development and disease response, respectively. The resources presented here will expedite the development of improved black and red raspberry, blackberry and other Rubus cultivars. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effects of Senna occidentalis seeds ingested during gestation on kid behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna occidentalis is a weed toxic to different animal species. Very little is known about the effects of prolonged exposure to low doses of S. occidentalis on developmental toxicology. Thus, the present study proposes an approach to evaluate the perinatal toxicity of S. occidentalis seeds in goats....

  1. Cardiotoxicity of Senna occidentalis in sheep (Ovis aries)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    2016-02-09

    Feb 9, 2016 ... while vacuolar degeneration with structural disarray has been recognized in myocardial samples (Górniak,. 2008). To the best of the authors' knowledge, the cardiotoxicity of S. occidentalis has never been investigated in ovines fed a diet containing increasing levels of dianthrone. Also, the potential use of ...

  2. Aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves reduces blood sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Telfairia Occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) were studied on some haematological indices, sperm parameters and blood glucose in male albino rats. The experiment was divided into two parts. In the first part, twelve (12) male rats were divided into two groups of six (6) rats each.

  3. Nutritional Composition of Telfairia occidentalis leaf grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioactive components of Telfairia occidentalis Hook F. leaf grown in both geoponic (GM) and non-circulating hydroponic (HM) media were assessed. The bioactive components assessed were vitamins, proximate composition and amino acids. Standard procedures were followed in the analyses. The percentage ...

  4. Nutritive evaluation of Telfairia occidentalis leaf protein concentrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... Fractionation led to increase in the gross energy by 22.0% and decrease in the phytate and tannin contents ..... SBM = Soybean meal, LPC = Telfairia occidentalis leaf protein concentrate, SBM = Soybean meal, PCV= Packed cell volume, WBC = White blood cell, RBC = Redblood cell, Hbc = Haemoglobin.

  5. Multiple seedlings in fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis hook. F ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were conducted to identify types of seedlings occurring in Telfairia occidentalis (Hook F.). Attempts were made to trace their origins. Multiple embryos were observed to occur on the embryonic axis in separate and conjoined forms. A set of completely independent twins was found. Morphological differences ...

  6. Synergistic effect of aqueous extract of Telfaria occidentalis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan,. Ibadan ... T. occidentalis leaves is used locally in Nigeria as .... extract alone, CA were administered artesunate alone, while CN were given only water serving as negative control. Tail snips was used to prepare thin blood films.

  7. Growth Response and Susceptibility of Telparia Occidentalis Hook ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... gall rating and egg-mass were highly significant. Fresh shoot weight was negatively correlated with all the measured indices of nematode infection, but they were not significant.. Keywords: Growth, susceptibility, root-knot nematodes, Telfairia occidentalis. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science Vol. 10 2005: pp. 52-58 ...

  8. Cardiotoxicity of Senna occidentalis in sheep (Ovis aries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D.I.S.; Sousa, M.G.; Ramos, A.T.; Maruo, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    The cardiotoxicity of Coffee senna (Senna occidentalis) was investigated in sheep that were fed diets containing its seeds, which are recognized as the most poisonous part of such weed. Dianthrone, the main toxic component of S. occidentalis, is known to impair mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, leading to myofiber degeneration. In this study, fifteen ewes were fed 0%, 2% or 4% of seeds of S. occidentalis for 63 days. Non-specific markers of myocyte injury and electrocardiograms were undertaken at baseline, and at 14, 35, and 63 days after the animals were first fed the diets, while histopathology of heart samples was performed at the very end of the study. Our results showed an increase in serum AST and LDH over time, while CK-MB did not change significantly. Changes that could be ascribed to myocardial damage were not documented in the electrocardiograms. Cardiac histopathology demonstrated only mild-to-moderate vacuolar degeneration, myofiber edema and disarray, structural disorganization, and cellular necrosis. In conclusion, S. occidentalis caused myocardial fiber degeneration in a dose-dependent fashion, but the electrocardiogram was not able to identify these lesions non-invasively. Because the markers of myofiber injury used in this study lack specificity, they may not be used to support cardiac impairment objectively, despite some of them did change over time. PMID:26894038

  9. effect of oral administration of aqueous extract of cassia occidentalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    sodium, chloride and bicarbonate levels in the rats orally administered with 30 mg/kg for 1 – 2 weeks were compared with control rats . However, there was significant increase (P<0.01) in serum potassium levels at 3rd and 4th weeks of experiment. Oral administration of aqueous extract of C. occidentalis seeds at a daily ...

  10. Protective role of Telfairia occidentalis in irradiation-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatments with TOE and VE significantly reversed oxidative stress of irradiated rats when compared with the control rats. In conclusion, supplementation with TOE could reduce radiationinduced biochemical disorders in brain tissues. Keywords: Gamma radiation, oxidative stress, brain, rats and Telfairia occidentalis.

  11. Food items and general condition of Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2017-07-20

    Jul 20, 2017 ... Key words: Food items, Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis, Warri River, condition factor. INTRODUCTION. Hyperopisus bebe of ... Sufficient food intake aids optimal growth in fish, resulting in production increases and ..... the formulation of supplementary diets necessary for mass production. This will help to ...

  12. Synergistic effect of Murraya koenigii and Telfairia occidentalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larger zones of inhibition were observed for M. Koenigii extract than T. occidentalis extract, and larger zones of inhibition were observed by their synergy than on their separate use. Synergistic antibacterial activity of the extract ranged from 0 mm to 20.0 ± 0.03 mm, zone of inhibition of M. koenigii extract ranged from 0 mm ...

  13. Synergistic effect of aqueous extract of Telfaria occidentalis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Resistance to most antimalarial drugs has encouraged the use of herbal preparations along with prescribed orthodox drugs. Objective: this study investigated effect of co-administration of aqueous extract of T. occidentalis leaves, commonly used as antimalarial and haematinic agent in Nigeria, and ...

  14. Influence of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) was investigated on the kidney of adult wistar rats. The crude extract of pumpkin root were given both intraperitoneally and orally to rats respectively. The control group received distilled water throughout the duration of experiment. The administration ...

  15. Fatty Acid Composition Of Cassiatora, Cassia Occidentalis And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid composition of Cassiatora, Cassia occidentalis and Cassia senna species of cassia (Leguminosae subfamily Caesalpinodeae) was analyzed using gas chromatography after conversion to their methyl esters. The distribution of the fattyacids in individual species was calculated from their observed retention ...

  16. Cardiotoxicity of Senna occidentalis in sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D I S; Sousa, M G; Ramos, A T; Maruo, V M

    2016-01-01

    The cardiotoxicity of Coffee senna (Senna occidentalis) was investigated in sheep that were fed diets containing its seeds, which are recognized as the most poisonous part of such weed. Dianthrone, the main toxic component of S. occidentalis, is known to impair mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, leading to myofiber degeneration. In this study, fifteen ewes were fed 0%, 2% or 4% of seeds of S. occidentalis for 63 days. Non-specific markers of myocyte injury and electrocardiograms were undertaken at baseline, and at 14, 35, and 63 days after the animals were first fed the diets, while histopathology of heart samples was performed at the very end of the study. Our results showed an increase in serum AST and LDH over time, while CK-MB did not change significantly. Changes that could be ascribed to myocardial damage were not documented in the electrocardiograms. Cardiac histopathology demonstrated only mild-to-moderate vacuolar degeneration, myofiber edema and disarray, structural disorganization, and cellular necrosis. In conclusion, S. occidentalis caused myocardial fiber degeneration in a dose-dependent fashion, but the electrocardiogram was not able to identify these lesions non-invasively. Because the markers of myofiber injury used in this study lack specificity, they may not be used to support cardiac impairment objectively, despite some of them did change over time.

  17. Cardiotoxicity of Senna occidentalis in sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.I.S. Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The cardiotoxicity of Coffee senna (Senna occidentalis was investigated in sheep that were fed diets containing its seeds, which are recognized as the most poisonous part of such weed. Dianthrone, the main toxic component of S. occidentalis, is known to impair mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, leading to myofiber degeneration. In this study, fifteen ewes were fed 0%, 2% or 4% of seeds of S. occidentalis for 63 days. Non-specific markers of myocyte injury and electrocardiograms were undertaken at baseline, and at 14, 35, and 63 days after the animals were first fed the diets, while histopathology of heart samples was performed at the very end of the study. Our results showed an increase in serum AST and LDH over time, while CK-MB did not change significantly. Changes that could be ascribed to myocardial damage were not documented in the electrocardiograms. Cardiac histopathology demonstrated only mild-to-moderate vacuolar degeneration, myofiber edema and disarray, structural disorganization, and cellular necrosis. In conclusion, S. occidentalis caused myocardial fiber degeneration in a dose-dependent fashion, but the electrocardiogram was not able to identify these lesions non-invasively. Because the markers of myofiber injury used in this study lack specificity, they may not be used to support cardiac impairment objectively, despite some of them did change over time.

  18. Effects of Telfairia Occidentalis Seed Oil on Female Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.T Shittu

    water (control), groups B, C and D received 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg bw of T. occidentalis seed oil respectively. The pattern of estrous ... Sub-group-2 rats were sacrificed and histology of organs and serum levels of LH, FSH and estrogen were assayed. ..... the study of Kowalska, (2008) in which fish oil constituting 3% of the ...

  19. Cadmium uptake by Telfaria Occidentalis Hook F.(cucurbitaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five seedlings of locally purchased Telfairia occidentalis Hook f. (fluted pumpkin) were cultivated in cadmium polluted soils. Leaves of the plant were plucked after 5 weeks of growth from five replicate treatments and an untreated control. These leaves were air-dried, digested and analyzed spectrophotometrically for ...

  20. Control of Frankliniella occidentalis with foliar insecticides, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of selected chemical insecticides against a western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, in ornamental pepper under greenhouse condition. The trial was conducted at United States Horticultural Research Laboratory in Fort Pierce, ...

  1. Range-wide genetic differentiation among North American great gray owls (Strix nebulosa) reveals a distinct lineage limited to the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Hull; J.J. Keane; W.K. Savage; S.A. Godwin; J. Shafer; E.P. Jepsen; R. Gerhardt; C. Stermer; H.B. Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of regional genetic differentiation are essential for describing phylogeographic patterns and informing management efforts for species of conservation concern. In this context, we investigated genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among great gray owl (Strix nebulosa) populations in western North America, which...

  2. Identification of seeds based on molecular markers and secondary metabolites in Senna obtusifolia and Senna occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Renjun; Xia, Pengguo; He, Zhigui; Liu, Yan; Liu, Fenghua; Zhao, Hongguang; Han, Ruilian; Liang, Zongsuo

    2017-11-02

    Senna obtusifolia and Senna occidentalis (Leguminosae), whose seeds have similar appearance and chemical constituents, are easily confused in using their seeds. To elucidate the similarities and differences between S. obtusifolia seeds and S. occidentalis seeds, three molecular markers and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were employed to evaluate the seeds characteristics of these two medicinal herbs. The results showed that selected 3 ISSR and 7 SCoT primers could distinguish S. obtusifolia seeds from S. occidentalis seeds based on the specific band and UPGMA dendrogram. ITS2 sequence indicated that the intra-specific similarity of 20 S. obtusifolia and 16 S. occidentalis was 99.79 and 100.0%, respectively, while the inter-specific similarity between S . obtusifolia and S. occidentalis was 89.58%. Although phylogenetic analysis revealed that these two species had a close relationship, they were assigned to different branches. HPLC fingerprint results showed that seeds of S. obtusifolia and S. occidentalis shared some secondary metabolites, but aurantio-obtusin was not detected in S. occidentalis seeds which could differentiate S. obtusifolia seeds from S. occidentalis seeds. The present study not only compared the seeds characters of S. obtusifolia and S. occidentalis from molecular and secondary metabolites levels, but also provided a convenient method to identify S. obtusifolia seeds and S. occidentalis seeds effectively.

  3. Phytotoxic potential of Senna occidentalis and Senna obtusifolia = Potencial fitotóxico de Senna occidentalis e Senna obtusifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira Peres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic potential of the aerial and underground parts of Senna occidentalis and S. obtusifolia on the germination and initial growth of lettuce and onion. Four concentrations were used of each ethanol extract (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1, with four replications of 50 seeds. From the investigated species, the aerial part of S. occidentalis interfered in onion germination and the aerial part of S. obtusifolia interfered in the germinations of lettuce and onion. The ethanol extract from the aerial and underground parts of the studied species inhibited the root growth of lettuce and onion. The hypocotyl/coleoptile growth in lettuce and onion was inhibited by the extract of S. obtusifolia aerial part and the underground part of S. occidentalis and S. obtusifolia. The results obtained make it possible to infer that the studied species contain substances that influence the germination and growth of the target seedlings.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial fitotóxico das partes aérea e subterrânea de Senna occidentalis e S. obtusifolia sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial de alface e cebola.Utilizaram-se quatro concentrações de cada extrato etanólico (0, 250, 500 e 1000 mg L-1, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Das espécies investigadas, a parte aérea de S. occidentalis interferiu na germinação de cebola e a parte aérea de S. obtusifolia, na germinação de alface e cebola. O extrato etanólico da parte aérea e subterrânea, das espécies em estudo, inibiu o crescimento da raiz de alface e de cebola. O crescimento do hipocótilo/coleóptilo de alface e cebola foi inibido pelo extrato da parte aérea de S. obtusifolia e da subterrânea de S. occidentalis e S. obtusifolia. Os resultados obtidos permitem inferir que as espécies em estudo contêm substâncias que influenciam a germinação e o crescimento das plântulas-alvo.

  4. Toxicity testing of Senna occidentalis seed in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, A C; Weg, R; Calore, E E; Sinhorini, I L; Dagli, M L; Haraguchi, M; Górniak, S L

    2000-12-01

    The effect was investigated of administering ground Senna occidentalis seeds to rabbits in different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3% and 4%) in the ration. The experiment lasted 30 days and the toxic effects of the plant were evaluated on the basis of weight gain, histopathological, biochemical and morphometric parameters, as well as histochemistry and electron microscopy. Animals that received the ration containing 4% ground S. occidentalis seeds gained less weight (p < 0.05) and died in the third week. Histopathology revealed that the heart and liver were the main organs affected, with myocardial necrosis and centrolobular degeneration. There was a reduction in cytochrome oxidase activity in the glycogenolytic fibres, together with muscle atrophy, confirmed by the morphometric studies. Electron microscopy of the liver cells revealed dilated mitochondria, with destruction of the internal cristae.

  5. Food items and general condition of Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total number of 202 specimens, comprising 75 females and 127 male specimens of Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis were caught from Warri River. This gave a 1:1.7 female to male sex ratio. The total length range for male specimens was 189.2 to 355.0 mm and 246.0 to 376.1 mm for females. The body weight range for ...

  6. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R; Whitfield, Anna E; Ullman, Diane E

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses they

  7. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice A Stafford-Banks

    Full Text Available Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (the western flower thrips is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6 to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24% of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the

  8. Mitochondrial myopathy in Senna occidentalis-seed-fed chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, M J; Calore, E E; Haraguchi, M; Górniak, S L; Dagli, M L; Raspantini, P C; Calore, N M; Weg, R

    1997-07-01

    Plants of the genus Senna (formerly Cassia) have been recognized as the cause of a natural and experimental syndrome of muscle degeneration frequently leading to death in animals. Histologically, it demonstrated skeletal and cardiac muscle necrosis, with floccular degeneration and proliferation of sarcolemmal nuclei. Recently, it was described as an experimental model of mitochondrial myopathy in hens chronically treated with Senna occidentalis. Currently, skeletal muscles of chicks intoxicated with seeds of the poisonous plant S. occidentalis were studied by histochemistry and electron microscopy. Since birth, the birds were fed ground dried seeds of this plant with a regular chicken ration at a dose of 4% for 11 days. Microscopic examination revealed, besides muscle-fiber atrophy, lipid storage in most fibers and a moderate amount of cytochrome oxidase-negative fibers. By electron microscopy, enlarged mitochondria with disrupted or excessively branched cristae were seen. This picture was characteristic of mitochondrial myopathy. These findings have hitherto remained unnoticed in skeletal muscle of young birds treated with S. occidentalis.

  9. Toxic peripheral neuropathy of chicks fed Senna occidentalis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calore, E E; Cavaliere, M J; Haraguchi, M; Górniak, S L; Dagli, M L; Raspantini, P C; Calore, N M; Weg, R

    1998-01-01

    Plants of the genus Senna (formerly Cassia) are poisonous to livestock and other laboratory animals, leading to a syndrome of a widespread muscle degeneration, incoordination, recumbence, and death. The main histologic lesion is necrosis of skeletal muscle fibers. Recently, a mitochondrial myopathy with ragged-red and cytochrome oxidase (COX)-negative muscle fibers was recognized in hens chronically intoxicated with parts of seeds of S. occidentalis. The purpose of the present work was to investigate if there was peripheral nerve involvement in the acute intoxication of chicks with S. occidentalis seeds. Teasing of individual fibers revealed signs of extensive axonal damage with myelin ovoids. Ultrathin sections confirmed the axonal damage. Axons were filled with membranes, some residual disorganized filaments, and enlarged mitochondria. In some instances the axon disappeared and there was secondary degeneration of the myelin sheath. The present work is the first description of the neurotoxic effect of S. occidentalis intoxication. Future work should attempt to determine the mechanisms involved in this neuropathy.

  10. Antibacterial activity of propolis produced by Frieseomelitta varia Atividade antibacteriana da própolis produzida por Frieseomelitta varia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Aparecida Costa Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To contribute to the development of antibacterial products from propolis produced by native Brazilian bees, twenty-nine samples of propolis collected from hives in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were screened for in vitro activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Among the samples from native Brazilian bees, only that from Frieseomelitta varia (Lepeletier, 1836 inhibited in vitro bacterial growth. Consequently, this propolis underwent fractionation by chromatographic methods monitored through Agar-diffusion assays with these bacteria, which resulted in the isolation and identification of 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (artepillin C, which showed MIC of 62.5 and 250 µg/mL against B. subtilis and S. aureus, respectively. This result indicates the potential of F. varia to produce therapeutic propolis.Para contribuir para o desenvolvimento de produtos antibacterianos obtidos de própolis produzidos por abelhas nativas do Brasil, 29 tipos de própolis coletados de diferentes colméias no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram avaliados quanto à atividade in vitro contra Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, e Staphylococcus aureus. Dentre as amostras de abelhas nativas, somente a de Frieseomelitta varia (Lepeletier, 1836 inibiu, em teste in vitro, o crescimento bacteriano. Consequentemente, essa própolis foi submetida a métodos cromatográficos para o fracionamento biomonitorado por teste de difusão em Agar com as referidas bactérias, o que resultou no isolamento e identificação do ácido 3,5-diprenil-4-hidroxicinâmico (artepelin C, que apresentou CIM de 62,5 e 250 µg/mL frente a B. subtilis e S. aureus, respectivamente. Esses resultados indicam o potencial de F. varia para a produção de própolis terapêutica.

  11. Reticulate evolution in the apogamous Dryopteris varia complex (Dryopteridaceae, subg. Erythrovariae, sect. Variae) and its related sexual species in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kiyotaka; Tono, Akitaka; Fujimoto, Kazuto; Kato, Juntaro; Ebihara, Atsushi; Watano, Yasuyuki; Murakami, Noriaki

    2014-11-01

    Apogamous fern species are often difficult to distinguish from related species because of their continuous morphological variations. To clarify the genetic relationships among the members of the Dryopteris varia complex, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL and the nuclear gene PgiC. We also analyzed the diploid sexual species D. caudipinna and D. chinensis, which have not been included in the complex, but were recently shown to be closely related to the complex in a molecular phylogenetic study. The PgiC sequences of the diploid sexual species, D. varia, D. saxifraga, D. sp. 'protobissetiana' (undescribed diploid sexual species), D. caudipinna, and D. chinensis, were well differentiated and hence designated A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. Thus, the PgiC constitution of apogamous species in the complex was as follows: D. bissetiana, B + C; D. kobayashii, B + C + E); D. pacifica, A + C, A + B + C, or A + C + D; D. sacrosancta, A + C + E; and D. saxifragivaria, B + C. These results suggest that these apogamous species are formed by hybridizations of species including not only the three diploid sexual species of the D. varia complex (A, B, and C) but also the two diploid sexual species D. caudipinna (D) and D. chinensis (E), which do not belong to the complex.

  12. Muscle degeneration in chicks caused by Senna occidentalis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, M; Gorniak, S L; Calore, E E; Cavaliere, M J; Raspantini, P C; Calore, N M; Dagli, M L

    1998-01-01

    Acute intoxication with Senna occidentalis seeds was studied in chicks. Seven-day-old chicks were fed ground dried seeds of this plant mixed with regular chicken ration at a concentration of 4% by weight for 15 days. Feed intake and body weight were markedly affected and a high level of lethality was observed. Necropsy examination of chicks from the experimental group revealed paleness and atrophy of thoracic muscles. Degenerative and necrotic fibres were observed in skeletal muscle by histological examination. Muscle histochemistry showed accumulation of lipids and numerous acid phosphatase-positive muscle fibres. Electron microscopy revealed atrophic muscle fibres, lipid storage, dilatation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and abnormal mitochondria.

  13. RNA interference tools for the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Vargas, Ismael E; Rotenberg, Dorith; Schneweis, Brandi A; Whitfield, Anna E

    2015-05-01

    The insect order Thysanoptera is exclusively comprised of small insects commonly known as thrips. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is an economically important pest amongst thysanopterans due to extensive feeding damage and tospovirus transmission to hundreds of plant species worldwide. Geographically-distinct populations of F. occidentalis have developed resistance against many types of traditional chemical insecticides, and as such, management of thrips and tospoviruses are a persistent challenge in agriculture. Molecular methods for defining the role(s) of specific genes in thrips-tospovirus interactions and for assessing their potential as gene targets in thrips management strategies is currently lacking. The goal of this work was to develop an RNA interference (RNAi) tool that enables functional genomic assays and to evaluate RNAi for its potential as a biologically-based approach for controlling F. occidentalis. Using a microinjection system, we delivered double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) directly to the hemocoel of female thrips to target the vacuolar ATP synthase subunit B (V-ATPase-B) gene of F. occidentalis. Gene expression analysis using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed significant reductions of V-ATPase-B transcripts at 2 and 3 days post-injection (dpi) with dsRNA of V-ATPase-B compared to injection with dsRNA of GFP. Furthermore, the effect of knockdown of the V-ATPase-B gene in females at these two time points was mirrored by the decreased abundance of V-ATPase-B protein as determined by quantitative analysis of Western blots. Reduction in V-ATPase-B expression in thrips resulted in increased female mortality and reduced fertility, i.e., number of viable offspring produced. Survivorship decreased significantly by six dpi compared to the dsRNA-GFP control group, which continued decreasing significantly until the end of the bioassay. Surviving female thrips injected with dsRNA-V-ATPase-B produced

  14. Great gray owls (Strix nebulosa) in Yosemite National Park: on the importance of food, forest structure, and human disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, Joseph J.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.

    2013-01-01

    We studied great gray owls (Strix nebulosa Forster) in Yosemite National Park, California, measuring variables that could potentially influence patterns of occurrence and conservation of this stateendangered species. We found that owl presence was closely tied to habitat (red fir (Abies magnified A. Murray) and the abundance of meadows), prey, and snags across the landscape. We also found that indicators of human recreational activities negatively influenced owl distribution and habitat use. Great gray owls appear to prefer mid-elevation red fir forest with meadows that are drier and more productive in terms of small mammal populations. That these areas also have the highest human activity presents a paradox, both for individual owls and for the future conservation and management of this California endangered species. The extent to which human recreation in natural areas affects animal behavior, species distribution, and productivity is a growing issue in natural area management. We present information that will allow land managers to better understand how existing natural resources, coupled with human recreation, influence the distribution and habitat use of the great gray owl.

  15. Relative effects of road risk, habitat suitability, and connectivity on wildlife roadkills: the case of tawny owls (Strix aluco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara M; Lourenço, Rui; Mira, António; Beja, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance for reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions, there is still incomplete understanding of factors responsible for high road mortality. In particular, few empirical studies examined the idea that spatial variation in roadkills is influenced by a complex interplay between road-related factors, and species-specific habitat quality and landscape connectivity. In this study we addressed this issue, using a 7-year dataset of tawny owl (Strix aluco) roadkills recorded along 37 km of road in southern Portugal. We used a multi-species roadkill index as a surrogate of intrinsic road risk, and we used a Maxent distribution model to estimate habitat suitability. Landscape connectivity was estimated from least-cost paths between tawny owl territories, using habitat suitability as a resistance surface. We defined 10 alternative scenarios to compute connectivity, based on variation in potential movement patterns according to territory quality and dispersal distance thresholds. Hierarchical partitioning of a regression model indicated that independent variation in tawny owl roadkills was explained primarily by the roadkill index (70.5%) and, to a much lesser extent, by landscape connectivity (26.2%), while habitat suitability had minor effects (3.3%). Analysis of connectivity scenarios suggested that owl roadkills were primarily related to short range movements (habitat quality and landscape connectivity are globally high for the study species. Nevertheless, the study supported the view that functional connectivity should be incorporated whenever possible in roadkill models, as it may greatly increase their power to predict the location of roadkill hotspots.

  16. Effects of inorganic lead on Western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salice, Christopher J., E-mail: chris.salice@ttu.ed [US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Suski, Jamie G., E-mail: jamie.suski@ttu.ed [US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Bazar, Matthew A., E-mail: matthew.bazar@us.army.mi [US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Talent, Larry G., E-mail: larry.talent@okstate.ed [Oklahoma State University, Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Although anthropogenic pollutants are thought to threaten reptilian species, there are few toxicity studies on reptiles. We evaluated the toxicity of Pb as lead acetate to the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). The acute lethal dose and sub-acute (14-day) toxicity studies were used to narrow exposure concentrations for a sub-chronic (60-day) study. In the sub-chronic study, adult and juvenile male lizards were dosed via gavage with 0, 1, 10 and 20 mg Pb/kg-bw/day. Mortality was limited and occurred only at the highest dose (20 mg Pb/kg-bw/d). There were statistically significant sub-lethal effects of 10 and 20 mg Pb/kg-bw/d on body weight, cricket consumption, organ weight, hematological parameters and post-dose behaviors. Of these, Pb-induced changes in body weight are most useful for ecological risk assessment because it is linked to fitness in wild lizard populations. The Western fence lizard is a useful model for reptilian toxicity studies. - The Western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, is sensitive to Pb and is a useful laboratory model for ecotoxicological testing of reptiles.

  17. Effects of inorganic lead on Western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salice, Christopher J.; Suski, Jamie G.; Bazar, Matthew A.; Talent, Larry G.

    2009-01-01

    Although anthropogenic pollutants are thought to threaten reptilian species, there are few toxicity studies on reptiles. We evaluated the toxicity of Pb as lead acetate to the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). The acute lethal dose and sub-acute (14-day) toxicity studies were used to narrow exposure concentrations for a sub-chronic (60-day) study. In the sub-chronic study, adult and juvenile male lizards were dosed via gavage with 0, 1, 10 and 20 mg Pb/kg-bw/day. Mortality was limited and occurred only at the highest dose (20 mg Pb/kg-bw/d). There were statistically significant sub-lethal effects of 10 and 20 mg Pb/kg-bw/d on body weight, cricket consumption, organ weight, hematological parameters and post-dose behaviors. Of these, Pb-induced changes in body weight are most useful for ecological risk assessment because it is linked to fitness in wild lizard populations. The Western fence lizard is a useful model for reptilian toxicity studies. - The Western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, is sensitive to Pb and is a useful laboratory model for ecotoxicological testing of reptiles.

  18. Mercury in Pelecanus occidentalis of the Cispata bay, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saudith Burgos N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assessment the total concentration of mercury in the liver and feathers of Pelecanus occidentalis of the Cispata bay, Colombia. Materials and methods. Mercury concentrations in liver and feather of Pelecanus occidentalis residents in the Cispata bay – Colombia were evaluated by digestion with an acidic mixture of H2SO4–HNO3 and KMnO4 to eliminate organic matter. The concentration of mercury was determined by the Atomic Absorption - Cold Vapor method (CVAAS. Results. Total mercury levels found in this study were higher in feathers (0.31-9.17 mgHg/kg than in the liver (0.63–6.29 mgHg/kg, being higher than those reported in other seabirds studies. Conclusions. The high levels of total mercury in feathers and liver can be explained by the feeding habits of the organisms under study, showing the utility of feathers as a potential non-invasive tool for the monitoring of the ecosystem and thereby preventing the sacrifice of specimens.

  19. Genotoxicity testing of Ambelania occidentalis (Apocynaceae) leaf extract in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L S; Perazzo, F F; Maistro, E L

    2009-04-22

    Ambelania occidentalis is routinely used in folk medicine for treating gastrointestinal disorders, even though there have been no safety trials. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of hydro-alcoholic extracts of this plant in mice; induced DNA damage was assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes and micronucleus induction was assessed in polychromatic erythrocytes from bone marrow. The extract was administered by an oral route at single doses of 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. N-nitroso-N-ethylurea was used as a positive control. The comet assay was performed on peripheral blood leukocytes at 4 and 24 h after treatment, and the micronucleus test was carried out on bone marrow cells collected at 24 and 48 h after treatment. The ratio of polychromatic/normochromatic erythrocytes was scored for cytotoxicity assessment. No increase in the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes from bone marrow or in leukocyte DNA damage was observed. The hydro-alcoholic extracts of A. occidentalis had no mutagenic or cytotoxic effects in the mouse cells.

  20. Coffee Senna (Senna occidentalis) poisoning in cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A T; Kommers, G D; Salles, M S; Wouters, F; de Barros, C S

    1994-12-01

    Four 4-5-y-old cows out of a group of 20 developed a toxic myopathy approximately 10 d after being started on a ration contaminated with 21.5% Senna occidentalis beans. Clinical signs included progressive muscle weakness, incoordination of hindlimbs, reluctance to move, dragging of the tip of the hooves of the hindlimbs, and sternal and lateral recumbency. Gross lesions included white to whitish-yellow discolored areas of several groups of skeletal muscle in various regions of the body, but more markedly in the hindlimbs. Significant histopathological changes were restricted to skeletal muscles with variable degrees of segmental degenerative myopathy associated with reparative events. The earliest change seen at electron microscopy of affected skeletal muscles was mitochondrial swelling. More advanced changes ranged from disruption of sarcoplasm and myofibrils to complete lysis of a myofiber segment and early regeneration. Myocardial fibers had swollen mitochondria, disruption of cristae and dense matrical globules. The epidemiology, clinical data and gross, histopathological, and ultrastructural features of S occidentalis poisoning in cattle are presented.

  1. Cyantraniliprole: a valuable tool for Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, Pablo; Guillén, Juan

    2015-08-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis is a worldwide economically important pest. Scarcity of effective products and cross-resistance issues make resistance to existing insecticides a recurring problem that requires the development of new control tools, such as incorporating novel compounds. Lethal effects of cyantraniliprole on adults and larvae from field and insecticide-resistant populations were evaluated. In addition, the sublethal effects on biological features such as fecundity, fertility, feeding, oviposition and mating were studied. Results obtained for larvae produced LC50 values ranging from 33.4 to 109.2 mg L(-1) , with a low natural variability (3.3-fold) and a LC50 composite value of 52.2 mg L(-1) . The susceptibility for adults was 23-fold lower than for larvae. No evidence of cross-resistance between cyantraniliprole and established insecticides used against thrips was evident. Relevant sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole were demonstrated, including reduced fecundity, fertility, feeding, oviposition and mating success. Low variation in susceptibility across contemporary populations of F. occidentalis and a lack of cross-resistance to other insecticides indicate that cyantraniliprole is a potential candidate in rotation programmes within an insecticide resistance management strategy. The combined sublethal effect on reproduction will have an important impact on population reduction. Available data indicate that cyantraniliprole is likely to be a valuable tool for managing thrips populations. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Acute and subacute toxicity of Cassia occidentalis L. stem and leaf in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mirtes G B; Aragão, Ticiana P; Vasconcelos, Carlos F B; Ferreira, Pablo A; Andrade, Bruno A; Costa, Igor M A; Costa-Silva, João H; Wanderley, Almir G; Lafayette, Simone S L

    2011-06-22

    Cassia occidentalis L. (syn. Senna occidentalis; Leguminosae) has been used as natural medicine in rainforests and tropical regions as laxative, analgesic, febrifuge, diuretic, hepatoprotective, vermifuge and colagogo. Herein, we performed a pre-clinical safety evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of Cassia occidentalis stem and leaf in male and female Wistar rats. In acute toxicity tests, four groups of rats (n=5/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg and general behavior, adverse effects and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity assays, animals received Cassia occidentalis by gavage at the doses of 0.10, 0.50 or 2.5 g/kg/day (n=10/group/sex) for 30 days and biochemical, hematological and morphological parameters were determined. Cassia occidentalis did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death in the acute toxicity test, showing a LD(50) higher than 5 g/kg. Subacute treatment with Cassia occidentalis failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no changes in macroscopical and microscopical aspect of organs were observed in the animals. Our results showed that acute or subacute administration of Cassia occidentalis is not toxic in male and female Wistar rats, suggesting a safety use by humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Variation in preference and performance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on three strawberry cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Touhidur; Spafford, Helen; Broughton, Sonya

    2010-10-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a major pest of strawberry, causing substantial yield loss through direct feeding on the flowers and fruit. Insecticides are the main method used for its control; however, F. occidentalis has developed resistance to insecticides from all major chemical classes. Chemical control is not a long-term strategy and integrated pest management is required. This study determined whether F. occidentalis damage could be reduced by host plant resistance or tolerance in three commercial strawberry cultivars (Fragaria X ananassa [Rosaceae]: 'Albion', 'Camarosa', and 'Camino Real'). Determination of resistance or tolerance to F. occidentalis was based on olfactory response, feeding damage, ovipositional preference, and host suitability for reproduction on leaves. F. occidentalis adults preferred to feed on Camarosa; however, if leaves had been fed on previously by conspecifics, there was no difference in feeding preference. Camarosa was the most preferred cultivar for oviposition, and more eggs were laid by F. occidentalis on Camarosa than either Albion or Camino Real. More larvae hatched and adults were reared from Camarosa than either Albion or Camino Real. The percentage of unhatched eggs, larvae, and pupae that died was highest on Camino Real. Survival rate was highest on Camarosa. Egg incubation, prepupation, pupation, and total developmental periods were shortest on Camarosa, but the larval period was longest on Camarosa. Camarosa was the most favorable cultivar for F. occidentalis population growth on leaves.

  4. Effects of long-term administration of Senna occidentalis seeds on the hematopoietic tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, A V F F; Fock, R A; Górniak, S L

    2015-12-15

    Senna occidentalis (S. occidentalis) is a toxic leguminous plant that contaminates crops and has been shown to be toxic to several animal species. All parts of the plant are toxic, but most of the plant's toxicity is due to its seeds. Despite its toxicity, S. occidentalis is widely used for therapeutic purposes in humans. The aim of the present work was to investigate, for the first time, the effects of the chronic administration of S. occidentalis seeds on hematopoietic organs, including the bone marrow and spleen. Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 10 animals. Rats were treated with diets containing 0% (control), 0.5% (So0.5), 1% (So1), or 2% (So2) S. occidentalis seeds for a period of 90 days. Food and water were provided ad libitum, except to pair-fed (PF) group which received the same amount of ration to those of So2 group, however free of S. occidentalis seeds. It was verified that rats treated with 2% S. occidentalis seeds presented changes in hematological parameters. The blood evaluation also showed a significant decrease of the Myeloid/Erythroid (M/E) ratio. Chronic treatment with S. occidentalis promoted a reduction in the cellularity of both the bone marrow and spleen. Additionally, we observed changes in bone marrow smears, iron stores and spleen hemosiderin accumulation. Histological analyses of bone marrow revealed erythroid hyperplasia which was consistent with the increased reticulocyte count. These findings suggest that the long-term administration of S. occidentalis seeds can promote blood toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Resistance mechanisms and cross-resistance of phoxim-resistant Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yin; Zhou, Xian-Hong; Zhang, An-Sheng; Li, Li-Li; Men, Xing-Yuan; Zhang, Si-Cong; Liu, Yong-Jie; Yu, Yi

    2012-07-01

    To understand the resistance risks of Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande against phoxim, this paper studied the resistance mechanisms of phoxim-resistant F. occidentalis population against phoxim and the cross-resistance of the population against other insecticides. The phoxim-resistant population had medium level cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, and methomyl, low level cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, emamectin-benzoate, and spinosad, but no cross-resistance to acetamiprid and abamectin. The synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), s, s, s-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) had significant synergism (P occidentalis could play an important role in the resistance of the plant against phoxim.

  6. Population abundance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and natural enemies on plant hosts in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa, Renato; Funderburk, Joe; Rodriguez, Fernando; Espinoza, Fernanda; Mound, Laurence

    2009-04-01

    Populations of the invasive Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) are serious pests of agricultural crops in the Aconcagua Valley of central Chile. An extensive survey was conducted of 55 plant species in 24 families to identify plant hosts of F. occidentalis and to determine its relative abundance on each host during each season. A more intensive study was conducted on selected plant species serving as reproductive hosts to determine the population dynamics of F. occidentalis and to evaluate the potential importance of Orius species and other natural enemies for controlling F. occidentalis. Adults of F. occidentalis were active during each season of the year inhabiting the flowers of 91% of the sampled plant species in 22 families, and 86% of these plant species in 19 families served as reproductive hosts. The number of host plant species used was greatest in the spring and least in the winter. All of the hosts except Medicago sativa L. were used only when flowering. Populations of F. occidentalis were significantly aggregated in M. sativa in the terminal buds over the leaves when the host was not flowering, and in the flowers, followed by the terminal buds, followed by the leaves when the host was flowering. Larvae were 1.3-2.3 times more abundant on dates when M. sativa was flowering. There were no identifiable patterns in plant hosts based on endemicity or plant family. Most of the plant species used by F. occidentalis were inferior quality hosts where populations either declined or were stable. Populations of F. occidentalis on low-quality hosts generally escaped predation by Orius species and competition by other species of thrips. Only 25% of the food hosts and 28% of the reproductive hosts for F. occidentalis in the extensive survey, respectively, were host plants for Orius. Parasitoids and other predators were not found to be important in suppressing thrips on any of the plant hosts. Populations of F. occidentalis increased on only a few hosts, including M

  7. Relative effects of road risk, habitat suitability, and connectivity on wildlife roadkills: the case of tawny owls (Strix aluco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its importance for reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions, there is still incomplete understanding of factors responsible for high road mortality. In particular, few empirical studies examined the idea that spatial variation in roadkills is influenced by a complex interplay between road-related factors, and species-specific habitat quality and landscape connectivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we addressed this issue, using a 7-year dataset of tawny owl (Strix aluco roadkills recorded along 37 km of road in southern Portugal. We used a multi-species roadkill index as a surrogate of intrinsic road risk, and we used a Maxent distribution model to estimate habitat suitability. Landscape connectivity was estimated from least-cost paths between tawny owl territories, using habitat suitability as a resistance surface. We defined 10 alternative scenarios to compute connectivity, based on variation in potential movement patterns according to territory quality and dispersal distance thresholds. Hierarchical partitioning of a regression model indicated that independent variation in tawny owl roadkills was explained primarily by the roadkill index (70.5% and, to a much lesser extent, by landscape connectivity (26.2%, while habitat suitability had minor effects (3.3%. Analysis of connectivity scenarios suggested that owl roadkills were primarily related to short range movements (<5 km between high quality territories. Tawny owl roadkills were spatially autocorrelated, but the introduction of spatial filters in the regression model did not change the type and relative contribution of environmental variables. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, results suggest that road-related factors may have a dominant influence on roadkill patterns, particularly in areas like ours where habitat quality and landscape connectivity are globally high for the study species. Nevertheless, the study supported the view that functional connectivity should be

  8. Age of Great Grey Owls Strix nebulosa observed in Scandinavia in 2012 as revealed by digital photos in the national species report archives.

    OpenAIRE

    Solheim, Roar

    2014-01-01

    Record breaking numbers of breeding Great Grey Owls Strix nebulosa were reported in Sweden and Norway in 2010 and 2011, followed by 4105 observations in 2012 as revealed by the national Species archives. Based on locality id numbers, at least 144 individuals were reported with photos which could be used to age the individuals. The majority (76%) of these birds were young birds hatched in 2011 (83% including birds aged probably 2CY). Among dead owls brought to the Natural History Museum in Sto...

  9. Tomato spotted wilt virus infection improves host suitability for its vector Frankliniella occidentalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, P.C.; Joosten, N.N.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peters, D.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection on plant attractiveness for the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) was studied. Significantly more thrips were recovered on infected than were recovered on noninfected pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants in different preference

  10. Lipids Characterization and Industrial Potentials of Pumpkin Seeds (Telfairia occidentalis and Cashew Nuts (Anacardium occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Eddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil from Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale has been extracted and characterized. The lipid content of the Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentalis were 58.41% and 42.15% respectively. The physicochemical parameters of Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale seeds were; boiling point; (58.90, 62.60 °C, melting point; (18.50, 21.80 °C, refractive index; (1.462, 1.498, specific gravity; (0.87, 0.69 saponification value; (91.16, 92.57 iodine value; (51.52, 47.20, acid value; (0.76, 3.74 ester value; (90.40, 88.87, % free fatty acid; (.38, 1.88 and peroxide value; (11.75, 15.23 respectively. Oils from these seeds were found to exhibit the needed potentials for utilization in paint and food industries and as biofuel.

  11. Natural and artificial populations of Frankliniella occidentalis, biotic resistance and pest status

    Science.gov (United States)

    In its native southwestern North America with Mediterranean and semi-arid climates, Frankliniella occidentalis employs an opportunistic life history strategy, with population characteristics that include polyphagy, rapid development, high reproductive potential, vagility, and a competitive breeding ...

  12. Thuya occidentalis CH12 como tratamento alternativo da papilomatose canina

    OpenAIRE

    QUEIROZ, F.F.; RODRIGUES, A.B.F.; DI FILIPPO, P.A.; ALMEIDA, A.J.; SILVEIRA, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO A papilomatose é uma doença de natureza crônica e pode causar tumores epiteliais e na mucosa. Não possui predileção por sexo, raça ou idade, mas comumente aparece em animais jovens. As lesões papilares ocorrem principalmente na mucosa bucal, nos lábios, língua e da faringe, além destes, também são encontradas na forma ocular e cutânea. Este estudo teve como objetivo relatar a eficácia da Thuya occidentalis CH12, uma medicação homeopática de uso comum, no tratamento de cães com papiloma...

  13. Some seasonal carbohydrate fluctuations in coppiced rootstocks of Platanus occidentalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, M.R.; Steinbeck, K.

    Carbohydrate concentrations were determined in 11-year-old rootstocks of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) which had been coppiced on one- or two-year rotations for the preceding eight years. Sixty rootstocks were destructively sampled periodically between September 1976 and April 1977. Root starch concentrations declined erratically from 21 percent of dry weight in autumn to 14 percent by late April. Sugar levels rose from 1.5 percent in autumn to 5 percent in winter and declined to 3 percent in spring. Considerable variation in root starch levels from tree to tree was observed, and differences in starch and sugar concentrations between rootstocks coppiced on an annual or biannual basis were unimportant. These data suggest that while differences in above-ground biomass yields encountered in short rotation coppice forestry are not due to differences in rootstocks carbohydrate concentrations, the total quantity of reserve carbohydrate stored in a root system is probably a controlling factor for sprout regrowth potential.

  14. Identification of seeds based on molecular markers and secondary metabolites in Senna obtusifolia and Senna occidentalis

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Renjun; Xia, Pengguo; He, Zhigui; Liu, Yan; Liu, Fenghua; Zhao, Hongguang; Han, Ruilian; Liang, Zongsuo

    2017-01-01

    Background Senna obtusifolia and Senna occidentalis (Leguminosae), whose seeds have similar appearance and chemical constituents, are easily confused in using their seeds. To elucidate the similarities and differences between S. obtusifolia seeds and S. occidentalis seeds, three molecular markers and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were employed to evaluate the seeds characteristics of these two medicinal herbs. Results The results showed that selected 3 ISSR and 7 SCoT primers ...

  15. Potencial fitotóxico de Senna occidentalis e Senna obtusifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira; Cândido, Ana Carina da Silva; Bonilla, Marilia Bisacotti; Faccenda, Odival; Hess, Sônia Corina

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic potential of the aerial and underground parts of Senna occidentalis and S. obtusifolia on the germination and initial growth of lettuce and onion. Four concentrations were used of each ethanol extract (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1), with four replications of 50 seeds. From the investigated species, the aerial part of S. occidentalis interfered in onion germination and the aerial part of S. obtusifolia interfered in the germinations of lettuce and o...

  16. Thuya occidentalis CH12 como tratamento alternativo da papilomatose canina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. QUEIROZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A papilomatose é uma doença de natureza crônica e pode causar tumores epiteliais e na mucosa. Não possui predileção por sexo, raça ou idade, mas comumente aparece em animais jovens. As lesões papilares ocorrem principalmente na mucosa bucal, nos lábios, língua e da faringe, além destes, também são encontradas na forma ocular e cutânea. Este estudo teve como objetivo relatar a eficácia da Thuya occidentalis CH12, uma medicação homeopática de uso comum, no tratamento de cães com papilomatose. Os resultados positivos puderam ser vistos, em alguns casos, já na primeira semana do tratamento, em outros, após vinte dias, e o desaparecimento total das lesões, na maioria dos casos, ocorreu com quinze dias. Alicerçada no princípio da similitude, a homeopatia apóia-se na observação experimental de que toda substância capaz de provocar determinados sintomas em uma pessoa sadia, é capaz de curar estes mesmos sintomas em uma pessoa enferma. A Thuya occidentalis provou ser eficiente contra lesões de papilomavírus canina, e apresentou resultados rápidos e com um valor econômico acessível.

  17. Mitochondrial metabolism impairment in muscle fibres of rats chronically intoxicated with Senna occidentalis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calore, E E; Weg, R; Haraguchi, M; Calore, N M; Cavaliere, M J; Sesso, A

    2000-08-01

    The chronic administration of S. occidentalis seeds was found to induce a mitochondrial myopathy in hens. This study was undertaken to determine if the chronic treatment with S. occidentalis seeds of rats (as a mammalian model) would induce a mitochondrial myopathy similar to those described in humans and to determine if the histological changes could be correlated with the amount of ingested seeds. Twenty-one days old rats were fed S. occidentalis seeds at different diet concentrations (1, 2, 3%). Rats fed 1% S. occidentalis seeds had only a few COX-negative muscle fibers in the pectoralis major muscle. Rats fed 3% Senna occidentalis seeds had a greater number of COX-negative fibers. Rats fed 2% had an intermediate number of COX-negative fibers. Activity of SDH and NADH-tr were decreased in rats of groups 2% and 3%. Our data indicate that a progressive mitochondrial metabolism impairment can be produced in rats fed S. occidentalis seeds and that this impairment can be correlated with the amount of ingested seeds.

  18. Compatibility of spinosad with predaceous mites (Acari) used to control Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Touhidur; Spafford, Helen; Broughton, Sonya

    2011-08-01

    Spinosad is a biopesticide widely used for control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). It is reported to be non-toxic to several predatory mite species used for the biological control of thrips. Predatory mites Typhlodromips montdorensis (Schicha), Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) and Hypoaspis miles (Berlese) have been used for control of F. occidentalis. This study investigated the impact of direct and residual toxicity of spinosad on F. occidentalis and predatory mites. The repellency of spinosad residues to these predatory mites was also investigated. Direct contact to spinosad effectively reduced the number of F. occidentalis adults and larvae, causing > 96% mortality. Spinosad residues aged 2-96 h were also toxic to F. occidentalis. Direct exposure to spinosad resulted in > 90% mortality of all three mite species. Thresholds for the residual toxicity (contact) of spinosad (LT25 ) were estimated as 4.2, 3.2 and 5.8 days for T. montdorensis, N. cucumeris and H. miles respectively. When mites were simultaneously exposed to spinosad residues and fed spinosad-intoxicated thrips larvae, toxicity increased. Residual thresholds were re-estimated as 5.4, 3.9 and 6.1 days for T. montdorensis, N. cucumeris and H. miles respectively. Residues aged 2-48 h repelled T. montdorensis and H. miles, and residues aged 2-24 h repelled N. cucumeris. Predatory mites can be safely released 6 days after spinosad is applied for the management of F. occidentalis. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. [Resistance risk and resistance stability of Frankliniella occidentalis to imidacloprid, emamectin benzoate, and phoxim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yin; Yu, Yi; Liu, Yong-Jie; Ma, Jing-Yu

    2012-12-01

    In order to effectively control the damage of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Phaseolus vuglaris was dipped with imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate, respectively to select the resistance populations of F. occidentalis from its susceptible population, and the resistance inheritance and resistance risk were analyzed with the resistance reality heredity. After 32, 32, and 24 generations' selection, the F. occidentalis populations obtained 13.8-fold, 29.4-fold and 39.0-fold resistance to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate, respectively. The resistance reality heritability to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate was 0.112, 0.166, and 0.259, respectively. The resistance development rate to emamectin benzoate was the fastest, followed by to phoxim, and to imidacloprid. The higher the resistance levels of the selected populations, the lower the differences between the larva and adult susceptibility to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate. Stopping selection for 12 continuous generations, the resistance level of the selected resistance populations to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate had definite decline, but it was difficult to regain the original susceptibility. F. occidentalis had a greater potential to gain high level resistance to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate. Compared with the resistance of F. occidentalis to phoxim and emamectin benzoate, the resistance to imidacloprid increased slower and decreased faster, and thus, imidacloprid was more appropriate to control F. occidentalis in practice.

  20. Intoxicação por Senna occidentalis (Leg. Caesalpinoideae) em bovinos em pastoreio Poisoning by Senna occidentalis (Leg. Caesalpinoideae) in grazing cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio S.L. Barros; Márcia Regina Silva Ilha; Pedro Soares Bezerra Junior; Ingeborg Maria Langohr; Glaucia Denise Kommers

    1999-01-01

    São descritos três surtos da intoxicação por Senna occidentalis em bovinos em criação extensiva, exclusivamente em pastoreio, durante o outono e início do inverno, em três estabelecimentos do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os bovinos afetados tinham acesso a antigas lavouras de soja ou restevas de lavouras de soja e milho altamente infestados por fedegoso (S. occidentalis). No estabelecimento 1, de um total de 34 novilhas (de aprox. 18 meses de idade), 10 morreram (29,1%); no estabelecimento 2,...

  1. Caracterização das injúrias causadas por Frankliniella occidentalis no morangueiro Injury characterization of Frankliniella occidentalis in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Nondillo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Frankliniella occidentalis tem sido relatada como uma das principais pragas associadas à cultura do morangueiro. No entanto, os sintomas do ataque do inseto não estão caracterizados e, geralmente, atribui-se ao ataque do inseto a presença de frutos deformados. As injúrias causadas por F. occidentalis foram caracterizadas na cultura do morangueiro infestando-se com adultos botões florais e frutos. Para cada órgão (flores e frutos e fase de desenvolvimento, foram utilizados 20 insetos, os quais foram mantidos em gaiolas por cinco dias. Também foi avaliado um tratamento em que foram colocados 20 insetos a cada cinco dias, durante todo o ciclo da cultura. Nas flores, foram constatadas injúrias causadas pela alimentação de F. occidentalis nos estames e no receptáculo floral. Em frutos verdes e maduros, foi observado bronzeamento na base dos frutos, sob o cálice, e ao redor dos aquênios. No tratamento no qual os insetos estiveram presentes durante todo o desenvolvimento dos frutos, foram registrados somente 17,6% destes com mais de 40% da superfície com bronzeamento. Não foi encontrada associação entre a infestação por tripes e a deformação de frutos. A alimentação de F. occidentalis na cultura do morangueiro causa injúrias nos estames e no receptáculo floral e bronzeamento na superfície dos frutos verdes e maduros, sem provocar deformações.Frankliniella occidentalis has been reported as one of the major pests associated with strawberry. However, the symptoms of insect attack are not characterized and their presence are related to deformed fruits. The injury caused by F. occidentalis in strawberries was studied by infesting flowers, unripe and ripe fruits with 20 adult for five days and during all the ripening period inoculating 20 adults each five days. In flowers, it was observed that F. occidentalis feeding caused damage in the stamens and floral receptacle. In the unripe and ripe fruits it was observed russeting on

  2. Life History Characteristics of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Constant and Fluctuating Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Lim, Un Taek

    2015-06-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) are sympatric pests of many greenhouse and field crops in Korea. We compared the influence of constant (27.3°C) and fluctuating temperatures (23.8-31.5°C, with an average of 27.3°C) on the life table characteristics of F. occidentalis and F. intonsa held at a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h and 45±5% relative humidity. The development times of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa were significantly affected by temperature fluctuation, species, and sex. The development time from egg to adult of F. intonsa was shorter than that for F. occidentalis at both constant and fluctuating temperatures. Survival of immature life stages was higher under fluctuating than constant temperature for both thrips species. The total and daily production of first instars was higher in F. intonsa (90.4 and 4.2 at constant temperature, and 95.7 and 3.9 at fluctuating temperatures) than that of F. occidentalis (58.7 and 3.3 at constant temperature, and 60.5 and 3.1 at fluctuating temperatures) under both constant and fluctuating temperatures. The percentage of female offspring was greater in F. intonsa (72.1-75.7%) than in F. occidentalis (57.4-58.7%) under both temperature regimes. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was higher at constant temperature than at fluctuating temperature for both thrips species. F. intonsa had a higher rm value (0.2146 and 0.2004) than did F. occidentalis (0.1808 and 0.1733), under both constant and fluctuating temperatures, respectively. The biological response of F. occidentalis and F. intonsa to constant and fluctuating temperature was found to be interspecifically different, and F. intonsa may have higher pest potential than F. occidentalis based on the life table parameters we are reporting first here. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Intoxication by Senna occidentalis seeds in pregnant goats: prenatal and postnatal evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Ferreira, Marcos; Pfister, James A; Gotardo, André T; Maiorka, Paulo C; Górniak, Silvana L

    2011-03-01

    Senna occidentalis is a weed toxic to different animal species. Very little is known about the effects of prolonged exposure to low doses of S. occidentalis on developmental toxicology. Thus, the present study proposes an approach to evaluate the perinatal toxicity of S. occidentalis seeds in goats. Twenty-one pregnant goats were fed rations containing 0% (control), 1% (So1 group), 2% (So2 group) and 4% (So4 group) mature S. occidentalis seeds from pregnancy detection on day 27 after mating until parturition; weight gains and serum biochemistry were evaluated. Fetuses were evaluated using ultrasonographic measurements; neonates were evaluated by body morphometry, weight gains, and serum biochemistry. Fetal resorption occurred in 2 So4 dams and one dam died. Only a few minor alterations in serum biochemistry occurred in dams and kids; even so one So4 group dam had tissue lesions as vacuolations in hepatocytes and kidneys; necrosis in skeletal and cardiac muscles and for the first time lesions were observed in sciatic nerve cells. No relevant alterations in body morphometry were observed. This study suggests that 4% S. occidentalis seeds is toxic for pregnant goats, but levels of seeds less than 4% have little impact on fetal and post birth body development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Synergism studies with binary mixtures of pyrethroid, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides on Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, Pablo; Espinosa, Pedro J; Quinto, Vicente; Abellán, Jaime; Contreras, Josefina

    2007-01-01

    The major mechanism of resistance to most insecticides in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is metabolic, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) suppressible, mediated by cytochrome-P450 monooxygenases and conferring cross-resistance among insecticide classes. The efficacy of insecticide mixtures of acrinathrin, methiocarb, formetanate and chlorpyrifos was studied by topical exposure in strains of F. occidentalis selected for resistance to each insecticide. The method consisted in combining increasing concentrations of one insecticide with a constant low rate of the second one as synergist. Acrinathrin activity against F. occidentalis was enhanced by carbamate insecticides, methiocarb being a much better synergist than formetanate. Monooxygenase action on the carbamates would prevent degradation of the pyrethroid, hence providing a level of synergism by competitive substrate inhibition. However, the number of insecticides registered for control of F. occidentalis is very limited, and they are needed for antiresistance strategies such as mosaics and rotations. Therefore, a study was made of the synergist effect of other carbamates not used against thrips, such as carbofuran and carbosulfan, against a susceptible strain and a field strain. Neither carbamate showed synergism to acrinathrin in the susceptible strain, but both did in the field strain, carbosulfan being a better synergist than carbofuran. The data obtained indicate that low rates of carbamates could be used as synergists to restore some pyrethroid susceptibility in F. occidentalis. Copyright (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. NMR metabolomics of thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) resistance in Senecio hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, Kirsten A; Choi, Young H; Abdel-Farid, Ibrahim B; Verpoorte, Robert; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2009-02-01

    Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) has become a key insect pest of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Little is known about host plant resistance to thrips. In this study, we investigated thrips resistance in F (2) hybrids of Senecio jacobaea and Senecio aquaticus. We identified thrips-resistant hybrids applying three different bioassays. Subsequently, we compared the metabolomic profiles of these hybrids applying nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The new developments of NMR facilitate a wide range coverage of the metabolome. This makes NMR especially suitable if there is no a priori knowledge of the compounds related to herbivore resistance and allows a holistic approach analyzing different chemical compounds simultaneously. We show that the metabolomes of thrips-resistant and -susceptible hybrids differed considerably. Thrips-resistant hybrids contained higher amounts of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), jacobine, and jaconine, especially in younger leaves. Also, a flavanoid, kaempferol glucoside, accumulated in the resistant plants. Both PAs and kaempferol are known for their inhibitory effect on herbivores. In resistant and susceptible F (2) hybrids, young leaves showed less thrips damage than old leaves. Consistent with the optimal plant defense theory, young leaves contained increased levels of primary metabolites such as sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose, but also accumulated jacaranone as a secondary plant defense compound. Our results prove NMR as a promising tool to identify different metabolites involved in herbivore resistance. It constitutes a significant advance in the study of plant-insect relationships, providing key information on the implementation of herbivore resistance breeding strategies in plants.

  6. Sub-acute intoxication by Senna occidentalis seeds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Ferreira, Marcos; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan; Maiorka, Paulo César; Górniak, Silvana Lima

    2005-04-01

    Senna occidentalis (So) is a weed that grows in pastures along fences and in fields cultivated with cereals such as corn and soybean, and many reports have been showing intoxication with this plant in different animal species. It is also used in many medicinal purposes. The objective of the present study was to better evaluate the toxic effects of prolonged administration of So seeds to rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each, three of them respectively fed rations containing 1%, 2% and 4% So seeds, and the last one (control) fed commercial ration for a period of 2 weeks. Fourteen rats were also used in a pair-feeding (PF) experiment. The rats of the experimental groups showed lethargy, weakness, recumbency, depression and emaciation. Two rats of the 4% group and two of the PF group died during the experiment. Histopathological study showed fiber degenerations in the skeletal (Tibial, pectoral and diaphragm) and cardiac muscles. In the liver parenchyma, was observed vacuolar degeneration and, in the kidney, mild nefrosis in the proximal convoluted tubules. All of these alterations occurred in a dose-dependent fashion. Moderate to severe degeneration and spongiosis in the central nervous system, especially in cerebellum. Electron microscopy revealed mitochondrial lesions in all analyzed tissues.

  7. Effect of Senna occidentalis seeds on immunity in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueza, I M; Latorre, A O; Raspantini, P C F; Raspantini, L E R; Mariano-Souza, D P; Guerra, J L; Górniak, S L

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated possible immunotoxic effects of Senna occidentalis (So) seeds incorporated in broiler chicken rations at different concentrations (0.0%, 0.25%, 0.50% and 0.75%), for 28 or 42 days. We evaluated innate immune function (macrophage activities of spreading, phagocytosis, peroxide and nitric oxide production) and acquired immune function (humoral and cellular immune responses), as well as lymphoid organ weights and pathology. There was enhanced macrophage activity, as hydrogen peroxide production increased (P < 0.05) in cells of birds given 0.75%So, but there were no other pro-inflammatory effects. Birds receiving 0.75% of So in ration for 42 days gained less weight (P < 0.01), and showed a decrease in relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius (P < 0.05) and spleen (P < 0.01). In addition, morphological changes were also noted in these lymphoid organs, with depletion of lymphoid cells on the spleen and bursa of Fabricius, resulting in lower relative weight of both lymphoid organs. No impairment of humoral immune response against Newcastle disease and in cellular immune response after a phytohaemagglutinin challenge was found. It is probable that mitochondrial damage and related apoptosis may be responsible for the enhanced peroxide production and the reduced relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and spleen.

  8. Inheritance of resistance to acrinathrin in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, Pablo; Quinto, Vicente; Fernández, Esther; Grávalos, Carolina; Abellán, Jaime; Cifuentes, Dina

    2008-05-01

    The western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an economically important pest. The genetic basis of acrinathrin resistance was investigated in WFT. The resistant strain, selected in the laboratory for acrinathrin resistance from a pool of thrips populations collected in Almeria (south-eastern Spain), showed a high resistance to acrinathrin (43-fold based on LC(50) values) compared with the laboratory susceptible strain. Mortality data from reciprocal crosses of resistant and susceptible thrips indicated that resistance was autosomal and not influenced by maternal effects. Analysis of probit lines from the parental strains and reciprocal crosses showed that resistance was expressed as a codominant trait. To determine the number of genes involved, a direct test of monogenic inheritance based on the backcrosses suggested that resistance to acrinathrin was probably controlled by one locus. Another approach, which was based on phenotypic variances, showed n(E), or the minimum number of freely segregating genetic factors for the resistant strain, to be 0.79. The results showed that acrinathrin resistance in WFT was autosomal and not influenced by maternal effects, and was expressed as a codominant trait, probably controlled by one locus. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Enhanced fumigant toxicity of p-cymene against Frankliniella occidentalis by simultaneous application of elevated levels of carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janmaat, A.F.; Kogel, de W.J.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of the essential oil component p-cymene was assessed against Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. F occidentalis adult females, first- and second-instar larvae and eggs were exposed for 2, 24 and 48h to combinations of three p-cymene doses and two carbon dioxide

  10. Structure and dendroecology of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct stands south of its contiguous range in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Kincaid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Information on forest structure, growth, and disturbance history is essential for effective forest management in a dynamic landscape. Because most of our research concerning the ecology and growth of Thuja occidentalis comes from sites in northern portions of its range, highly contextual biotic and abiotic factors that affect the species in more southern locales may not be fully accounted for. This research characterized the structural attributes and growth dynamics of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct forest stands south of its contiguous range margin. Methods The Thuja occidentalis forests examined in this research were located in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA, approximately 440 km south of the contiguous range margin of the species. Forest structural attributes were characterized in two Thuja occidentalis forest stands, which are rare in the region. Tree-ring chronologies were used to examine the influences of disturbance and climate on the growth of Thuja occidentalis. Results The forests contained a total of 13 tree species with Thuja occidentalis contributing substantially to the basal area of the sites. Thuja occidentalis stems were absent in the smallest size class, while hardwood species were abundant in the smallest classes. Thuja occidentalis stems also were absent from the < 70 years age class. By contrast, Thuja occidentalis snags were abundant within stands. Growth-release events were distributed across the disturbance chronology and generally affected a small number of trees. The Thuja occidentalis tree-ring chronology possessed an interseries correlation of 0.62 and mean sensitivity of 0.25. The correlation between mean temperature and Thuja occidentalis growth was weak and variable. Growth and moisture variables were more strongly correlated, and this relationship was predominantly positive. Conclusions Structural attributes indicate the forests are in the understory reinitiation stage of forest development

  11. Analysis of expressed sequence tags for Frankliniella occidentalis, the western flower thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, D; Whitfield, A E

    2010-08-01

    Thrips are members of the insect order Thysanoptera and Frankliniella occidentalis (the western flower thrips) is the most economically important pest within this order. F. occidentalis is both a direct pest of crops and an efficient vector of plant viruses, including Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Despite the world-wide importance of thrips in agriculture, there is little knowledge of the F. occidentalis genome or gene functions at this time. A normalized cDNA library was constructed from first instar thrips and 13 839 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained. Our EST data assembled into 894 contigs and 11 806 singletons (12 700 nonredundant sequences). We found that 31% of these sequences had significant similarity (Eoccidentalis and other thrips species with regards to vital biological processes, studying the mechanism of interactions with the viruses harboured and transmitted by the vector, and identifying new insect gene-centred targets for plant disease and insect control.

  12. Insecticide resistance management strategies against the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, Pablo

    2008-11-01

    Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an economically important pest of a wide range of crops grown throughout the world. Insecticide resistance has been documented in many populations of WFT. Biological and behavioural characteristics and pest management practices that promote insecticide resistance are discussed. In addition, an overview is provided of the development of insecticide resistance in F. occidentalis populations and the resistance mechanisms involved. Owing to widespread resistance to most conventional insecticides, a new approach to insecticide resistance management (IRM) of F. occidentalis is needed. The IRM strategy proposed consists of two parts. Firstly, a general strategy to minimise the use of insecticides in order to reduce selection pressure. Secondly, a strategy designed to avoid selection of resistance mechanisms, considering cross-resistance patterns and resistance mechanisms. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Leaf chemistry and foliage avoidance by the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis in glasshouse collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison S Scott; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2011-03-01

    Observational studies on foliage avoidance by the polyphagous thrips species Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) identified six non-host species (Allagopappus dichotomus (Asteraceae), Gardenia posoquerioides (Rubiaceae), Plectranthus aff. barbatus, Plectranthus strigosus, Plectranthus zuluensis (Lamiaceae), and Sclerochiton harveyanus (Acanthaceae) among plants growing within a major glasshouse botanical collection. The effects of sequentially obtained acetone and aqueous methanol leaf extracts on mortality in first instar Frankliniella occidentalis were assessed. The acetone leaf extract of Sclerochiton harveyanus, which had the highest activity against the thrips, yielded four new iridoids, sclerochitonosides A-C, and sclerochitonoside B 4'-methyl ether. Mortality of F. occidentalis was increased on exposure to all four iridoids, and the most active iridoid was sclerochitonoside A (8-epiloganic acid 4'-hydroxyphenylethyl ester). Choice experiments demonstrated that this compound did not significantly deter H. haemorrhoidalis from treated leaf surfaces. The significance of iridoids in the defense mechanism of plants against thrips is discussed.

  14. Development of Near-Isogenic Lines in a Parthenogenetically Reproduced Thrips Species, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guangdi; Wan, Yanran; Li, Xiaoyu; He, Bingqing; Zhang, Youjun; Xu, Baoyun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhou, Xuguo; Wu, Qingjun

    2017-01-01

    Although near-isogenic lines (NILs) can standardize genetic backgrounds among individuals, it has never been applied in parthenogenetically reproduced animals. Here, through multiple rounds of backcrossing and spinosad screening, we generated spinosad resistant NILs in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), with a haplo-diploid reproduction system. The resultant F. occidentalis NIL-R strain maintained a resistance ratio over 30,000-fold, which was comparable to its parental resistant strain, Spin-R. More importantly, F. occidentalis NIL-R shared 98.90% genetic similarity with its susceptible parental strain Ivf03. By developing this toolset, we are able to segregate individual resistance and facilitate the mechanistic study of insecticide resistances in phloem-feeding arthropods, a group of devastating pest species reproducing sexually as well as asexually.

  15. Hepatoencephalopathy syndrome due to Cassia occidentalis (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) seed ingestion in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, J P; Cagnini, D Q; Badial, P R; Pessoa, M A; Del Piero, F; Borges, A S

    2013-03-01

    Cassia occidentalis is a bush from the Leguminosae family, subfamily Caesalpinoideae, and is a toxic plant of veterinary interest due to the occasional contamination of animal rations. This report describes the clinical and histopathological findings of an outbreak of C. occidentalis poisoning in horses. Twenty mares were poisoned after consuming ground corn contaminated with 8% of C. occidentalis seeds. Of the 20 animals affected, 12 died: 8 mares were found dead, 2 died 6 h after the onset of clinical signs compatible with hepatic encephalopathy and the 2 other animals were subjected to euthanasia 12 h after the onset of the clinical signs. The remaining 8 mares presented with mild depression and decreased appetite, but improved with treatment and no clinical sequelae were observed. In 6 animals that underwent a necropsy, an enhanced hepatic lobular pattern was noted and within the large intestine, a large number of seeds were consistently observed. Hepatocellular pericentrolobular necrosis and cerebral oedema were the main histological findings. In one mare, there was mild multifocal semimembranosus rhabdomyocytic necrosis and haemorrhage. Seeds collected from intestinal contents and sifted from the culpable feedstuff were planted. Examination of the leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds of the resultant plants identified C. occidentalis. Horses poisoned by C. occidentalis seeds demonstrate clinical signs associated with hepatoencephalopathy and frequently die suddenly. Lesions primarily involve the liver and secondarily, the central nervous system. Cassia occidentalis poisoning should be considered a differential diagnosis in horses with hepatoencephalopathy and special caution should be taken with horse rations to avoid contamination with seeds of this toxic plant. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Anxiolytic and sedative properties of hydroethanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Y. Ajao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Telfairia occidentalis Hook. f., Cucurbitaceae, is a leafy vegetable used in soup and folk medicine in southern Nigeria. This study was conducted to investigate the anxiolytic and sedative activities of the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of T. occidentalis in mice. The hole-board, elevated plus maze, open-field, light-dark, and social interaction tests were used in this study. T. occidentalis (50-400 mg/kg and diazepam (1 mg/kg were administered p.o. to different groups of mice and appropriate observations were made. T. occidentalis increased the number of sectional crossings (p<0.01 and duration of head dips (p<0.05 at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively; increased number of entries into open arms (p<0.01 at the dose of 100 mg/kg; increased number of central squares crossed (p<0.01 at the dose of 50 mg/kg; and increased number of social interactions (p<0.001 at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. At the dose of 400 mg/kg, T. occidentalis reduced number of head dips and sectional crossings (p<0.01; reduced time spent in open arms and increased time spent in closed arms (p<0.01, 0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; reduced number of assisted rearings (p<0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; increased latency of entry into and time spent in dark box (p<0.01, 0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; and reduced number of social interactions (p<0.001 at the dose of 400 mg/kg. The findings in this study suggest that T. occidentalis possess anxiolytic property at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, and sedative activity at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  17. Anxiolytic and sedative properties of hydroethanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Y. Ajao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telfairia occidentalis Hook. f., Cucurbitaceae, is a leafy vegetable used in soup and folk medicine in southern Nigeria. This study was conducted to investigate the anxiolytic and sedative activities of the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of T. occidentalis in mice. The hole-board, elevated plus maze, open-field, light-dark, and social interaction tests were used in this study. T. occidentalis (50-400 mg/kg and diazepam (1 mg/kg were administered p.o. to different groups of mice and appropriate observations were made. T. occidentalis increased the number of sectional crossings (p<0.01 and duration of head dips (p<0.05 at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively; increased number of entries into open arms (p<0.01 at the dose of 100 mg/kg; increased number of central squares crossed (p<0.01 at the dose of 50 mg/kg; and increased number of social interactions (p<0.001 at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. At the dose of 400 mg/kg, T. occidentalis reduced number of head dips and sectional crossings (p<0.01; reduced time spent in open arms and increased time spent in closed arms (p<0.01, 0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; reduced number of assisted rearings (p<0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; increased latency of entry into and time spent in dark box (p<0.01, 0.001 at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; and reduced number of social interactions (p<0.001 at the dose of 400 mg/kg. The findings in this study suggest that T. occidentalis possess anxiolytic property at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, and sedative activity at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  18. Toxicity of Senna occidentalis seeds in laying hens and its effects on egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotardo, André T; Haraguchi, Mitsue; Raspantini, Paulo C F; Dagli, Maria L Z; Górniak, Silvana L

    2017-06-01

    Senna occidentalis is a toxic leguminous plant found in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world and causes poisoning mainly in confined animals. The seeds are the most toxic part of the plant and may be present in animal rations. The main toxic component of the S. occidentalis seed is a dianthrone, an anthraquinone-derived compound that affects mitochondrial function. This study evaluated the effects on egg production of low-level contamination of the S. occidentalis in the laying hens' diet. Forty-eight one-day-old pullets were randomly allocated into two treatment groups: control, birds that received no experimental treatment; and external and internal tegument (ET/IT), birds that received a diet containing 0.2% of ET/IT of S. occidentalis seeds throughout their life cycle (42 weeks). The birds were monitored for clinical signs of poisoning, and the production and quality of eggs were recorded. Necropsies were conducted at the end of the experimental period. None of the layers showed any clinical signs of poisoning, decreases in feed intake or alterations of the body weight gain. A marked reduction in egg production and, consequently, a lower feed efficiency in ET/IT group were measured. Ovaries were the most affected organ in birds from the ET/IT group, and yolk leaking and dysplasia of the inner layer of the vitelline membrane were observed. S. occidentalis was shown to be toxic for laying hens. Considering these results, it is feasible to assume that the constant presence of low concentrations of S. occidentalis seeds in rations represents a threat to the poultry industry.

  19. Spinosad resistance, esterase isoenzymes and temporal synergism in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Grant A; Gunning, Robin V; Cottage, Emma L A; Borzatta, Valerio; Gobbi, Carlotta

    2014-09-01

    Spinosad has been widely used in Australia to control western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) but spinosad usefulness is now compromised by resistance. Here we studied a highly spinosad resistant strain of F. occidentalis to explore if esterases had a role in spinosad resistance. Enhanced esterase activity in pressured spinosad-resistant F. occidentalis was confirmed via PAGE electrophoresis and estimated to be approximately three times higher than that in a susceptible strain. Spinosad-esterase inhibition data in the resistant strain, showed a concentration effect with significant esterase-spinosad binding occurring at spinosad concentrations from 6.2× 10(-7) to 1.5× 10(-5) M. Similarly, a spinosad-piperonyl butoxide (PBO) inhibition curve showed a concentration effect, with significant esterase-PBO binding occurring in the resistant strain at PBO concentrations between 3.3× 10(-5) M and 8.4× 10(-4) M. No binding of esterase to spinosad or PBO occurred in the susceptible strain. Results of bioassays in which spinosad resistant F. occidentalis were sprayed with a 4h delayed release formulation of cyclodextrin-complexed spinosad with immediately available PBO demonstrated that spinosad resistance was significantly reduced from 577 to 72-fold. With further development the PBO synergism of spinosad using a delayed release formulation, similar to that used here, may provide effective control for spinosad resistant F. occidentalis. Temporal synergism of spinosad may prove to be effective tactic for the control of spinosad resistant F. occidentalis where the main resistance mechanism involved has been confirmed to be esterase based. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Leptophis santamartensis (Serpentes, Colubridae), a junior synonym of Leptophis ahaetulla occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Nelson R.; de Passos, Paulo; Gotte, Steve W.

    2012-01-01

    Leptophis santamartensis, known only from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, is one of the more poorly known species of the genus Leptophis. The characters used for its diagnosis largely overlap with those of other Leptophis, mainly with Leptophis ahaetulla occidentalis, the only other Leptophis known to occur in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. A detailed comparison of L. a. occidentalis with the two known specimens of L. santamartensis leads to the conclusion that the latter should be relegated to the synonymy of the former.

  1. Successful treatment of verruca vulgaris with Thuja occidentalis in a renal allograft recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus-driven verruca vulgaris infection is common in solid organ transplant recipients and increases the risk for squamous cell carcinoma. The available treatment modalities have limited response. We report a renal allograft recipient who presented with multiple warts not responding to cryotherapy and radiosurgery with one turning malignant, needing amputation of the finger. An extract from Thuja occidentalis (White cedar tree cured the resistant warts on the other fingers, leaving only superficial scars and without affecting allograft function. We have reviewed the pharmacological and clinical properties of T. occidentalis.

  2. Cassia occidentalis L.: a review on its ethnobotany, phytochemical and pharmacological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, J P; Arya, Vedpriya; Yadav, Sanjay; Panghal, Manju; Kumar, Sandeep; Dhankhar, Seema

    2010-06-01

    Cassia occidentalis L. is an annual or perennial Ayurvedic plant which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. This weed has been known to possess antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancerous, antimutagenic and hepatoprotective activity. A wide range of chemical compounds including achrosin, aloe-emodin, emodin, anthraquinones, anthrones, apigenin, aurantiobtusin, campesterol, cassiollin, chryso-obtusin, chrysophanic acid, chrysarobin, chrysophanol, chrysoeriol etc. have been isolated from this plant. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the botany, ethnopharmacologyquery, phytochemistry, biological activity and toxicity of the C.occidentalis plant. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Temperature influence on the life cycle and forming of various forms of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

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    O. I. Slobodenyuk

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The research results of forming various forms of the western flower thrips in greenhouse’s vegetable phytocenoses and of the temperature influence on the life cycle of Frankliniella occidentalis are presented. It was established that dark forms of the thrips species predominate in phytocenosis of Lycopersicon genus but light forms of the pest predominate in phytocenosis of Cucumis genus. It was proved experimentally in laboratory that when the temperature decreases, the percentage of the dark forms of Frankliniella occidentalis substantially increases and full development cycle from an egg to imago becomes longer.

  4. Evaluation of Dicyphus hersperus (Heteroptera: Miridae) for biological control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on greenhouse tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, J L; Wang, K

    2006-04-01

    The effectiveness of inoculative releases of the mirid predator Dicyphus hesperus Knight for control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on greenhouse tomatoes was evaluated in terms of suppression of the population densities of F. occidentalis and associated fruit damage in the presence of the predator over two seasonal trials. An inoculative release of one D. hesperus per plant (approximately 0.1:10 predator:prey ratio) at a high F. occidentalis population density (140 thrips per plant) suppressed the thrips population density to a significantly lower level, compared with the nonrelease greenhouse, but not below a thrips level that caused economic fruit damage. As the predator:prey ratio increased to approximately 0.5:10 D. hesperus:F. occidentalis, the mean percentage of the thrips-damaged fruit in the D. hesperus release greenhouse decreased to 1.6%. However, the amount of fruit feeding by D. hesperus was highly correlated to the availability of prey (or predator:prey ratio) under greenhouse conditions. D. hesperus-induced fruit damage occurred when the predator:prey ratio was >1:10 D. hesperus:F. occidentalis. Considering the potential risk of fruit damage by D. hesperus and the need for effective control of F. occidentalis, a 0.5-1:10 D. hesperus:F. occidentalis ratio is recommended when the thrips population density is in the range of 60-150 thrips per plant.

  5. Feeding on Beauveria bassiana-treated Frankliniella occidentalis causes negative effects on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengyong; Gao, Yulin; Xu, Xuenong; Wang, Dengjie; Li, Juan; Wang, Haihong; Wang, Endong; Lei, Zhongren

    2015-07-08

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri are both potential biocontrol agents for their shared host/prey Frankliniella occidentalis. The combination of the two agents may enhance biological control of F. occidentalis if the fungus does not negatively affect N. barkeri. This study evaluated the indirect effects of B. bassiana strain SZ-26 on N. barkeri mediated by F. occidentalis using the age-stage, two-sex life table. When fed on the first instar larvae of F. occidentalis that had been exposed for 12 h to the SZ-26 suspension, the developmental time of preadult N. barkeri was significantly longer, and the longevity and fecundity were significantly lower than that of N. barkeri fed on untreated F. occidentalis. The mean generation time (T), net reproductive rate (R0), finite rate of increase (λ), intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) and predation rates were correspondingly affected. The data showed that B. bassiana has indirect negative effects on N. barkeri population dynamics via influencing their prey F. occidentalis larvae, which indicates that there is a risk in combining B. bassiana with N. barkeri simultaneously for the biocontrol of F. occidentalis. The probable mechanism for the negative effects is discussed.

  6. Efficacy of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Telfairia occidentalis in the attenuation of CCl4-mediated oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Ikpeme Ekei; Ugorji, Udensi Ogbuagu; Adeyinka, Adetayo

    2014-09-01

    To assess the efficacy of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) and Telfairia occidentalis (T. occidentalis) extracts in the attenuation of CCl4-mediated oxidative stress. Seventy-two healthy matured male albino rats weighing between (120±20) g were divided into 6 groups (A-F) in a 2×6 factorial experiment using completely randomized design. Rats in Group A received only water, B received 1 mL/kg CCl4, C received 300 mg/kg, D received 600 mg/kg, E received CCl4+300 mg/kg while F received CCl4+600 mg/kg for each of the extract, respectively. Semen from epididymes was obtained for sperm analysis while blood was obtained through cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis, after the treatment regimen. Our results showed that CCl4 induction elevated aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, globulin levels significantly (Psabdariffa and T. occidentalis extracts at the doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg caused the reversal of these effects significantly. Implicitly, the implication of our results is that H. sabdariffa and T. occidentalis extracts might be ted and optimized for the management of oxidative stress-related organ injuries, including infertility, though further researches are needed. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Flower visitation and oviposition behaviour of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on cucumber plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, E.; Kogel, de W.J.; Balkema-Boomstra, A.; Mollema, C.

    2000-01-01

    Oviposition behaviour of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis(Pergande) on greenhouse cucumber, Cucumis satifus(L.) was investigated. Most eggs were laid in the leaves, along veins and under leaf hairs, with only a few on plant stems and flowers. Oviposition rate was higher during the

  8. A Telfairia Occidentalis Seed-incorporated Diet May Be Useful in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Andropause, a prevalent pathology of men, results from an imbalance in steroid hormone concentrations that often is associated with aging, and reduces the quality of life of the sufferer. This study investigates the usefulness of a diet containing 15% Telfairia occidentalis seeds in the inhibition of the induction of ...

  9. Life history characteristics of Frankliniella occidentalis on cucumber leaves with and without supplemental food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, J.; Ketoja, E.; Vänninen, I.

    2003-01-01

    The development time, fecundity, longevity, and resultant intrinsic growth rate of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) [Thysanoptera: Thripidae] encaged on a cucumber leaf were compared among seven types of food supplied: six pollen species and a mixture of milk powder

  10. Aspects of the biology of Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis in a tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some aspects of the biology of Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis at Idah Area of River Niger were studied between October and December, 2010. A total of 129 fish samples were used for the study. The length-weight relationships were analyzed using the formula W = aLb and transformed to Log W = Log a + b Log L. Stomach ...

  11. The effects of Ostertagia occidentalis somatic antigens on ovine TLR2 and TLR4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BORJI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recognition of helminth-derived pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, including toll like recep­tors (TLRs is the first step towards initiating anti–helminth immune re­sponses.Methods: Using somatic antigens of Ostertagia occidentalis, an important abomasal parasite of ruminants, the expression of ovine TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was analyzed by real-time quatitative reverse-transcrip­tion polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis were prepared to stimulate ovine PBMCs in a time and dose dependent manner.Results: A high expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was observed in PBMCs cultured with somatic antigens of the parasites specially when PBMCs were cultured with 100 µg/ml of somatic antigens and incubated for 2h. Up-regulation of TLR2 expres­sion was more pronounced and evident in our study.Conclsusion: Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis have immunostimulatory and domi­nant role on peripheral immune cells. This study provide for the first time evidence of induction of TLRs in ovine PBMCs by somatic antigen of O. occidentalis

  12. Oxyfluorfen strongly affects Larix occidentalis but minimally affects Sagina procumbens in a bareroot nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jasmine L. Williams; Jeremy R. Pinto; Peng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate oxyfluorfen for control of birdseye pearlwort (Sagina procumbens L.) in a bareroot nursery crop of western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) seedlings. Oxyfluorfen applied at rates up to 0.56 kg a.i./ha in a split-plot experiment with combinations and frequencies of pre- and postemergence sprays gave minimal control of birdseye pearlwort....

  13. Performance and phenology of wild black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm in a common garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lack of genetic diversity in cultivated black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm has been widely recognized as a major factor limiting progress towards breeding improved cultivars. Despite this, little effort has been made since the early twentieth century to systematically collect and ev...

  14. Stable Reference Gene Selection for RT-qPCR Analysis in Nonviruliferous and Viruliferous Frankliniella occidentalis.

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    Chunxiao Yang

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a reliable technique for measuring and evaluating gene expression during variable biological processes. To facilitate gene expression studies, normalization of genes of interest relative to stable reference genes is crucial. The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, the main vector of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, is a destructive invasive species. In this study, the expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes from nonviruliferous and viruliferous F. occidentalis were investigated. Five distinct algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, the ΔCt method, and RefFinder, were used to determine the performance of these genes. geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder identified heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, heat shock protein 60 (HSP60, elongation factor 1 α, and ribosomal protein l32 (RPL32 as the most stable reference genes, and the ΔCt method identified HSP60, HSP70, RPL32, and heat shock protein 90 as the most stable reference genes. Additionally, two reference genes were sufficient for reliable normalization in nonviruliferous and viruliferous F. occidentalis. This work provides a foundation for investigating the molecular mechanisms of TSWV and F. occidentalis interactions.

  15. A new attractant for monitoring western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis in protected crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Zayed S; Greenfield, Bethany Pj; Ficken, Katherine J; Taylor, James Wd; Wood, Martyn; Butt, Tariq M

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of pest populations is an essential component of integrated pest management. An early warning system helps growers decide when best to take control measures, or when to alter them, should a control method prove inadequate. Studies have shown that adding chemical attractants to sticky cards can increase trap catch of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, a global pest of agriculture and horticulture, giving more accurate accounts of population size and dynamics, thus leading to more efficient monitoring. We identify a novel semiochemical to the species, (S)-(-)-verbenone, showing that addition of this compound to sticky traps significantly increased F. occidentalis catch in two geographically distinct populations, infesting two unrelated crops of global economic importance. We validate through field trials that (S)-(-)-verbenone is highly attractive to F.occidentalis and can be used with blue sticky traps to enhance trap catch, leading to better estimations of pest population densities. The compound may be used in other control methods against F.occidentalis such as lure and kill, mass trapping and push-pull.

  16. Within plant interspecific competition does not limit the highly invasive thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Competitive superiority is often cited as the main reason for the success of an invasive species. Although invaded ecosystems are often examined, few have studied areas in which an invasive species has failed to invade. 2. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is a damaging pest ...

  17. Stable Reference Gene Selection for RT-qPCR Analysis in Nonviruliferous and Viruliferous Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxiao; Li, Hui; Pan, Huipeng; Ma, Yabin; Zhang, Deyong; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Zhanhong; Zheng, Changying; Chu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable technique for measuring and evaluating gene expression during variable biological processes. To facilitate gene expression studies, normalization of genes of interest relative to stable reference genes is crucial. The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), the main vector of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), is a destructive invasive species. In this study, the expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes from nonviruliferous and viruliferous F. occidentalis were investigated. Five distinct algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, the ΔCt method, and RefFinder, were used to determine the performance of these genes. geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder identified heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), elongation factor 1 α, and ribosomal protein l32 (RPL32) as the most stable reference genes, and the ΔCt method identified HSP60, HSP70, RPL32, and heat shock protein 90 as the most stable reference genes. Additionally, two reference genes were sufficient for reliable normalization in nonviruliferous and viruliferous F. occidentalis. This work provides a foundation for investigating the molecular mechanisms of TSWV and F. occidentalis interactions.

  18. Growth and Transmission of Gut Bacteria in the Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.J.; Jacobs, G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a polyphagous insect with global distribution, has a permanent association with a near Erwinia species TAC bacterium in its hindgut. Since this bacterium is able to grow outside the thrips, it is a facultative symbiont that is not completely

  19. Fitness Trade-Off Associated With Spinosad Resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wan, Yanran; Yuan, Guangdi; Hussain, Sabir; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Wu, Qingjun

    2017-08-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is an economically important pest of agricultural crops. High resistance has been detected in field populations of F. occidentalis against the insecticide spinosad. In this study, we compared life history traits, body sizes, and feeding behaviors (recorded via an electrical penetration graph) of spinosad-susceptible (Ivf03) and spinosad-resistant (NIL-R) near-isogenic lines of F. occidentalis. Life table analysis showed that NIL-R had reduced female longevity and reduced fecundity. The relative fitness of NIL-R (0.43) was less than half that of Ivf03. NIL-R individuals were smaller than Ivf03 individuals, both in body length and body width at every stage. The number and duration of feeding activities were significantly reduced in NIL-R, with the exception of total duration of long-ingestion probes. These results suggest that there is a fitness trade-off associated with spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis, and that the development of resistance in this pest species may be reduced by rotating spinosad with other pesticides lacking cross-resistance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Use of controlled atmospheres to enhance essential oil fumigant toxicity against Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Janmaat, A.F.; Kogel, de W.J.; Oosterhaven, J.; Peppelenbos, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of selected essential oils was assessed against the Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Adult females and larvae were exposed to combinations of essential oil doses and increased carbon dioxide and decreased oxygen levels. Application of such combinations were

  1. Aspectos étnicos, biológicos e químicos de Senna occidentalis (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. KANEKO; S. KIYOTA; M. LOMBARDO

    2009-01-01

    Senna occidentalis (sin. Cassia occidentalis) é um arbusto perene nativo da América do Sul e distribuída em regiões tropicais ao redor do mundo, frequentemente contaminando pastos e culturas de cereais. Inúmeros estudos demonstraram que esta planta é tóxica para animais. Na medicina popular, tribos americanas, africanas e indianas usam preparações da S. occidentalis como tônico, estomáquico, febrífugo, laxante e antimicrobiano. Diversas propriedades biológicas da espécie já foram comprovadas,...

  2. Taqman real-time quantitative PCR for identification of western flower thrip (Frankliniella occidentalis) for plant quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K S; Lee, S E; Yeh, Y; Shen, G S; Mei, E; Chang, C M

    2010-08-23

    Western flower thrip (Frankliniella occidentalis) is a major global pest of agricultural products. It directly damages crops through feeding, oviposition activity or transmission of several plant viruses. We describe a Taqman real-time quantitative PCR detection system, which can rapidly identify F. occidentalis from thrips larvae to complement the traditional morphological identification. The data showed that our detection system targeted on the ribosomal RNA gene regions of F. occidentalis has high sensitivity and specificity. The rapid method can be used for on-site testing of samples at ports-of-entry in the future.

  3. Biomphalaria occidentalis sp.n. from South America (Mollusca basommatophora pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of South American planorbid snail, Biomphalaria occidentalis, is described. It is indistinguishable from B. tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835, by the characteristics of the shell and of most organs of the genital system. In B. tenagophila there is a pouch on the ventral wall of the vagina (Fig. 4A, vp, absent in B. occidentalis (Fig. 3A, and on the ventral wall of the vagina (Fig. 4A, vp, absent in B. occidentalis (Fig. 3A, and the prepuce is much wider than the penial sheath, its width increasing distalward (Fig. 4, ps,pp, whereas in B. occidentalis the prepuce is wider than the penial sheath but keeps about the same width all along (Fig.3, ps, pp. The two species are biologically separate by absolute reproductive isolation. The geographical distribution of B. occidentalis is shown in Fig. 14. So far it has been found in the Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas (?, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná, and in Paraguay. Its type-locality is Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do sul, where it was collected from several biotopes related to affluents of the Aquiduana river, chiefly Córrego Prosa and Córrego Ceroula. Specimens were deposited in the following malacological collections: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro; Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan; and British Museum (Natural History.É descrita uma nova espécie de molusco planorbídeo sul-americano, Biomphalaria occidentalis, indistinguível da b. tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835 pelos caracteres da concha e da maioria dos órgãos do sistema genital. Na B. tenagophila existe uma bolsa na parede ventral da vagina (Fig. 4A, vp, ausente na B. occidentalis (Fig. 3A, e o prepúcio é muito mais grosso que a bainha do pênis, aumentando de largura na direção distal (Fig.4, ps, pp, ao passo que na B. occidentalis o prepúcio é mais grosso que a bainha do pênis porém seu diâmetro pouco se altera em toda sua extensão (Fig.3, ps

  4. Aspectos étnicos, biológicos e químicos de Senna occidentalis (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. KANEKO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Senna occidentalis (sin. Cassia occidentalis é um arbusto perene nativo da América do Sul e distribuída em regiões tropicais ao redor do mundo, frequentemente contaminando pastos e culturas de cereais. Inúmeros estudos demonstraram que esta planta é tóxica para animais. Na medicina popular, tribos americanas, africanas e indianas usam preparações da S. occidentalis como tônico, estomáquico, febrífugo, laxante e antimicrobiano. Diversas propriedades biológicas da espécie já foram comprovadas, tais como a antibacteriana, antifúngica, antimalárica, antitumoral e hepatoprotetora. As análises fitoquímicas evidenciaram que as antraquinonas, os flavonóides e outros derivados fenólicos são os seus principais constituintes. Esta revisão apresenta dados etnofarmacológicos, químicos e biológicos publicados na literatura sobre S. occidentalis. Palavras-chave: Senna occidentalis. Cassia occidentalis. Fabaceae. Leguminosae. Caesalpinioideae. Fedegoso.

  5. Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, have gut bacteria that are closely related to the symbionts of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Egbert J; van der Wurff, André W G; Jacobs, Gerrit; Breeuwer, Johannes A J

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that many insects have Enterobacteriaceae bacteria in their gut system. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande [Thysanoptera: Thripidae], has a symbiotic relation with Erwinia species gut bacteria. To determine if other Thripidae species have similar bacterial symbionts, the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, was studied because, like F. occidentalis, it is phytophagous. Contrary to F. occidentalis, T. tabaci is endemic in Europe and biotypes have been described. Bacteria were isolated from the majority of populations and biotypes of T. tabaci examined. Bacteria were present in high numbers in most individuals of the populations studied. Like F. occidentalis, T. tabaci contained one type of bacterium that clearly outnumbered all other types present in the gut. This bacterium was identified as an Erwinia species, as was also the case for F. occidentalis. However, its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence differed from the bacteria present in F. occidentalis.

  6. Biological and molecular characterization of a putative new potexvirus infecting Senna occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Jorge A M; Camelo-García, Viviana M; Andrade, Sónia C S; Buriolla, José E; Kitajima, Elliot W; Duarte, Ligia M L

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of, production of polyclonal antibodies against, and development of biological assays for a putative new potexvirus, named senna mosaic virus (SenMV), found infecting Senna occidentalis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The complete genome sequence of SenMV comprises 6775 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail. The genome organization is similar to those of other potexviruses, with five open reading frames coding for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), the triple gene block (TGB 1, 2, and 3) proteins, and coat protein (CP). The virus was transmitted to S. occidentalis by mechanical inoculation and trimming scissors, but not by seeds.

  7. Evaluation of in vitro biological properties of Senna occidentalis (L. Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Lombardo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Senna species have been widely used by American, African and Indian ethic groups mainly in the treatment of feebleness, constipation, liver disorders and skin infections. Senna occidentalis (L. Link is a perennial shrub native to South America and indigenous to tropical regions throughout the world. Current study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts from S. occidentalis prepared from different parts of the plant. Antimicrobial activity was assessed against standard pharmaceutical microorganisms by spectrophotometry and microdilution technique. Escherichia coli was sensitive only to compounds extracted from seeds which may be proteinaceous. A broader antimicrobial spectrum was demonstrated by the hydroalcoholic extract of seeds, mostly against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The in vitro toxicity using mouse fibroblasts indicated that the extract might be a biocompatible ingredient for topical formulations, while the hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts demonstrated to be potentially cytotoxic.

  8. Senna leaf curl virus: a novel begomovirus identified in Senna occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitesh; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Jitendra; Tuli, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    Begomoviruses are whitefly-transmitted, single-stranded DNA viruses that infect a variety of cultivated (crop) and non-cultivated (weed) plants. The present study identified a novel begomovirus and satellites (alpha- and betasatellite) in Senna occidentalis (syn. Cassia occidentalis) showing leaf curl symptoms. The begomovirus shared a maximum sequence identity of 88.6 % with french bean leaf curl virus (JQ866297), whereas the alphasatellite and the betasatellite shared identities of 98 % and 90 % with ageratum yellow vein India alphasatellite (LK054802) and papaya leaf curl betasatellite (HM143906), respectively. No other begomovirus or satellites were detected in the suspected plants. We propose to name the virus "senna leaf curl virus" (SenLCuV).

  9. Predatory mites double the economic injury level of Frankliniella occidentalis in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D J

    2016-01-01

    The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) causes bronzing to strawberry fruit. Management of insecticide-resistant strains relies on the integration of predators with carefully timed use of the few insecticides available. Effective management requires better understanding of economic injury levels (EILs) and the factors that affect them. The densities of F. occidentalis and the predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were manipulated in field experiments. All stages of flower and fruit were susceptible to thrips damage, but larvae caused nearly twice as much damage as adults per individual. The EIL was about four adult thrips per flower in the absence of predators, but increased to over eight at densities of N. cucumeris typical of good establishment in crops. The EIL could be increased by about 0.7 adult thrips per flower for every N. cucumeris per flower. The results were supported by measurements of EILs in commercial crops.

  10. Nicotiana Occidentalis Chloroplast Ultrastructure imaged with Transmission Electron Microscopes Working at Different Accelerating Voltages

    OpenAIRE

    SVIDENSKÁ, Silvie

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to study and compare electron microscopy images of Nicotiana Occidentalis chloroplasts, obtained from two types of transmission electron microscopes,which work with different accelerating voltage of 80kV and 5kV. The two instruments, TEM JEOL 1010 and low voltage electron microscope LVEM5 are employed for experiments. In the first theoretical part, principle of electron microscopy and chloroplast morphology is described. In experimental part, electron microscop...

  11. Germination of Senna Occidentalis link: seed at different osmotic potential levels

    OpenAIRE

    Delachiave Maria Elena Aparecida; Pinho Sheila Zambello de

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of osmotic potential and salinity on the germination of seeds of Senna occidentalis, with and without a change of solutions. The percentage and rates of germination decreased according to decrease of potential, being more drastic when the substitutions of solutions were not made. The largest reductions were observed with the PEG solutions, with and without substitutions. O objetivo da pesquisa foi estudar o efeito de potenciais osmótic...

  12. Germination of Senna Occidentalis link: seed at different osmotic potential levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delachiave Maria Elena Aparecida

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect of osmotic potential and salinity on the germination of seeds of Senna occidentalis, with and without a change of solutions. The percentage and rates of germination decreased according to decrease of potential, being more drastic when the substitutions of solutions were not made. The largest reductions were observed with the PEG solutions, with and without substitutions.

  13. Anatomical structures of vegetative and reproductive organs of Senna occidentalis (Caesalpiniaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    NASSAR, Mohamed Abdel Aziz Ahmed; RAMADAN, Hassan Ramadan Hassan; IBRAHIM, Hend Mohammad Saad

    2014-01-01

    The current investigation is concerned with the histological features of Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (coffee senna plant). The anatomical structure of different vegetative and reproductive organs was investigated weekly or fortnightly, according to the investigated organ, throughout the growing season. Organs studied included the main root, main stem (represented by shoot apex, apical, and median internodes), different foliage leaves developed on the main stem and on lateral shoots (includin...

  14. Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae): A Review of its Pharmaceutical, Pharmacological and Clinical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Naser, Belal; Bodinet, Cornelia; Tegtmeier, Martin; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2005-01-01

    Arbor vitae (Thuja occidentalis L.) is a native European tree widely used in homeopathy and evidence-based phytotherapy. Many reviews and monographs have been published on the herbal substance's description, mode of action and clinical use. However, no comprehensive evidence-based review is available. Therefore, our aim was to search MEDLINE databases and survey manufacturers for further details or unpublished data. This review presents the botany, ethnobotany and phytochemistry, especial...

  15. Parahaploidy of the 'arrhenotokous' predator, Metaseiulus occidentalis (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) demonstrated by X-irradiation of males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Most predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are considered, on karyological evidence, to reproduce by arrhenotoky. The haploid males are reported to have three or four and the diploid females six or eight chromosomes, respectively, according to the species. Evidence is presented which supports the hypothesis that males of Metaseiulus occidentalis (Nesbitt) develop frcm diploid (fertilized) eggs. Unirradiated virgin females mated with males exposed to X-irradiation rates of 13.5, 16.2, 40, 60 and 80 Krads yielded: reduced numbers of F 1 eggs; reduced numbers of F 1 adult sons; no daughters; and sterile F 1 sons. These data, coupled with the fact that M. occidentalis females never deposit eggs unless they have mated, provide strong evidence that males are diploid during at least the initial stages of embryogenesis. Since earlier cytological evidence indicates that adult males are haploid, loss and/or heterochromatization of half of the chromosomes must occur in males. Parahaploidy, not arrhenotoky, is thus the genetic system in M. occidentalis. (Auth.)

  16. Studies on physicochemical and nutritional properties of aerial parts of Cassia occidentalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivam Manikandaselvi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present, work chemical composition and nutritional value of aerial parts of Cassia occidentalis L. was studied. The aerial parts of C. occidentalis possess favorable physicochemical properties with good nutritional value, such as high energy value, crude fibers, and vitamin levels. The X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry data revealed that the sample is rich in minerals, especially in Fe, Ca, K, and Mn. Further, minerals such as Mg, Zn, Cu, Na, P, and S are present in good amount and depicted the nutritional value of the selected material. The plant sample is rich in phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, lignin, tannins, and phenols. The presence of phytochemical constituents was confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profile and high-performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting techniques. The findings stimulate the on-farm cultivation of C. occidentalis on a large scale to relieve the iron deficiency in local community, and it can be used as a dietary supplement to treat anemia.

  17. Refractoriness of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to the Lyme disease group spirochete Borrelia bissettii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R S; Mun, J; Eisen, L; Eisen, R J

    2006-08-01

    The western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, is refractory to experimental infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, one of several Lyme disease spirochetes pathogenic for humans. Another member of the Lyme disease spirochete complex, Borrelia bissettii, is distributed widely throughout North America and a similar, if not identical, spirochete has been implicated as a human pathogen in southern Europe. To determine the susceptibility of S. occidentalis to B. bissettii, 6 naïve lizards were exposed to the feeding activities of Ixodes pacificus nymphs experimentally infected with this spirochete. None of the lizards developed spirochetemias detectable by polymerase chain reaction for up to 8 wk post-tick feeding, infected nymphs apparently lost their B. bissettii infections within 1-2 wk after engorgement, and xenodiagnostic L. pacificus larvae that co-fed alongside infected nymphs did not acquire and maintain spirochetes. In contrast, 3 of 4 naïve deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) exposed similarly to feeding by 1 or more B. bissettii-infected nymphs developed patent infections within 4 wk. These and previous findings suggest that the complement system of S. occidentalis typically destroys B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes present in tissues of attached and feeding I. pacificus nymphs, thereby potentially reducing the probability of transmission of these bacteria to humans or other animals by the resultant adult ticks.

  18. Biotransformation of hexavalent chromium into extracellular chromium(III) oxide nanoparticles using Schwanniomyces occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, Pallavi T; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita S

    2016-03-01

    To demonstrate biotransformation of toxic Cr(VI) ions into Cr2O3 nanoparticles by the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis. Reaction mixtures containing S. occidentalis NCIM 3459 and Cr(VI) ions that were initially yellow turned green after 48 h incubation. The coloration was due to the synthesis of chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles (Cr2O3NPs). UV-Visible spectra of the reaction mixtures showed peaks at 445 and 600 nm indicating (4)A2g → (4)T1g and (4)A2g → (4)T2g transitions in Cr2O3, respectively. FTIR profiles suggested the involvement of carboxyl and amide groups in nanoparticle synthesis and stabilization. The Cr2O3NPs ranged between 10 and 60 nm. Their crystalline nature was evident from the selective area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction patterns. Energy dispersive spectra confirmed the chemical composition of the nanoparticles. These biogenic nanoparticles could find applications in different fields. S. occidentalis mediated biotransformation of toxic Cr(VI) ions into crystalline extracellular Cr2O3NPs under benign conditions.

  19. Effects of long-term administration of Senna occidentalis seeds in the large bowel of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Sidney Roberto; Calore, Edenilson Eduardo; Manzione, Carmem Ruth; Puga, Flavio Rodrigues; Perez, Nilda Maria

    2003-01-01

    Plants of the genus Senna that contain anthranoides derivatives are frequently used as cathartics. Radiological studies have demonstrated that patients with chronic constipation who have used stimulant laxative have colonic redundancy and dilatation more frequently than patients who have not. The objective of the present work was to study morphological and histochemical changes of the lower gut after administration of Senna occidentalis seeds for a long period to rats, as observed in skeletal muscle fibers. Fragments of the lower gut of young and adult rats treated with S. occidentalis seeds (2% for 171 days and 3% for 61 days in the diet) were submitted to histological and histochemical analysis and to densitometry. The most important finding was decreased oxidative enzyme activity in smooth muscle cells and in myenteric neurons of the large bowel. As oxidative metabolism is essential for ATP and energy production, these results suggest that the functional intestinal disturbance caused by the chronic use of Senna occidentalis as a laxative can be due to a metabolic effect involving energy production, which would decrease colonic motility and cause functional colonic dilatation, but without any irreversible anatomic change.

  20. The lysosomal enzymes acid phosphatase and cathepsin D in rats intoxicated with Senna occidentalis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calore, E E; Calore, N M; Weg, R; Cavaliere, M J; Ruckert da Rosa, A; De Souza Dias, S

    1999-04-01

    Chronic administration of Senna occidentalis seeds induces an experimental toxic myopathy characterized by skeletal muscle fibers atrophy, decrease in histochemical activity of cytochrome oxidase, and increase of the acid phosphatase activity in muscle fibres at the light microscopic level. The mechanisms that lead to the increase of this lysosomal enzyme activity are not known and could be related to other biochemical disturbs than the mitochondrial function impairment. The main aim of the present study is to localize the acid phosphatase activity using a cytochemical method at transmission electron microscopy level and to quantify cathepsin D in muscle of rats chronically intoxicated with Senna occidentalis seeds by immunoblotting. Acid phosphatase was observed in lysosomes and over profiles of some organelles apparently not involved by lysosomal membrane. In addition immunoblotting demonstrated a decrease in the content of the precursor and of the mature form of cathepsin D in samples of muscles and liver of intoxicated animals. We concluded that there is a selective increase in acid phosphatase activity in muscle--and maybe in other tissues--of animals intoxicated with Senna occidentalis, that can be related to the skeletal muscle atrophy and the intense decrease in weight gain of these animals. Further studies should be performed to establish the mechanisms of selectivity in increase of lysosomal enzymes in different situations and pathological states.

  1. Muscle atrophy induced in broiler chicks by parts of Senna occidentalis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, M; Calore, E E; Dagli, M L; Cavaliere, M J; Calore, N M; Weg, R; Raspantini, P C; Górniak, S L

    1998-06-01

    Senna occidentalis (formerly Cassia occidentalis) is a common contaminant of agricultural commodities. It is toxic to cattle and poultry, reportedly being responsible for skeletal myodegeneration in these animals. All parts of the plant present toxicity, but the seeds are the most toxic. The toxin(s) responsible for the myodegeneration have not been definitively identified, nor is it known which part of the seeds is most toxic. Intoxication by this plant leads to weight loss with considerable economic repercussions. The effects of the whole seed and of parts of S. occidentalis seeds (1% in commercial feed) were compared on the pectoralis major muscle of broiler chicks intoxicated from birth until 22 days of life. There were severe clinical signals and reduced body weight in birds that received the external tegment of the seed, whereas no adverse effects were observed in birds that received the whole seed or other parts of the seed. Histological and morphometric studies showed an intense muscle fibre atrophy (both type 1 and type 2 fibres were affected) in the group that received 1% external tegment. This study may be the first step to identifying the substance(s) involved in this pathological process.

  2. Identification of the cuticular lipid composition of the Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołebiowski, Marek; Maliński, Edmund; Nawrot, Jan; Szafranek, Janusz; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2007-06-01

    The Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis effectively resists many insecticides, but it can be controlled by the use of bioinsecticides such as entomopathogenic fungi. The epicuticular chemistry of these insects is therefore of great interest, and accordingly, the cuticular lipid composition of F. occidentalis was analysed. It was found that the cuticular lipids of both the adult and larval stages of F. occidentalis consist of two groups of compounds--hydrocarbons and free fatty acids. The same hydrocarbon pattern was found in both adults and larvae, with the exception of n-hentriacontane, which was detected only in adult insects. The following homologous series were identified: n-alkanes from C-25 to C-29 (31) with the marked dominance of odd numbers of carbon atoms, 3-methylalkanes with 26 and 28 carbon atoms, and branched monomethylalkanes (branched at C-9, -11, -13 and -15) with 26, 28 and 30 carbon atoms. The chemical composition of the free fatty acids consists of two homologous series: saturated (C(14:0), C(16:0), C(18:0)) and unsaturated fatty acids (C(16:1) and C(18:1)). This analysis confirmed the lack of potential inhibitors of entomopathogenic fungi in the cuticular lipids of this insect species.

  3. Differential proteomics analysis of Frankliniella occidentalis immune response after infection with Tomato spotted wilt virus (Tospovirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Pamella Akoth; Kiirika, Leonard Muriithi; Lorenz, Christin; Senkler, Jennifer; Braun, Hans-Peter; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2017-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is mainly vectored by Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, and it potentially activates the vector's immune response. However, molecular background of the altered immune response is not clearly understood. Therefore, using a proteomic approach, we investigated the immune pathways that are activated in F. occidentalis larvae after 24 h exposure to TSWV. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing/sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-IEF/SDS/PAGE) combined with mass spectrometry (MS), were used to identify proteins that were differentially expressed upon viral infection. High numbers of proteins were abundantly expressed in F. occidentalis exposed to TSWV (73%) compared to the non-exposed (27%), with the majority functionally linked to the innate immune system such as: signaling, stress response, defense response, translation, cellular lipids and nucleotide metabolism. Key proteins included: 70 kDa heat shock proteins, Ubiquitin and Dermcidin, among others, indicative of a responsive pattern of the vector's innate immune system to viral infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selection of promising fungal biological control agent of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niassy, S; Maniania, N K; Subramanian, S; Gitonga, L M; Mburu, D M; Masiga, D; Ekesi, S

    2012-06-01

    Larval stages of Frankliniella occidentalis are known to be refractory to fungal infection compared with the adult stage. The objective of this study was to identify promising fungal isolate(s) for the control of larval stages of F. occidentalis. Ten isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae and eight of Beauveria bassiana were screened for virulence against second-instar larvae of F. occidentalis. Conidial production and genetic polymorphism were also investigated. Metarhizium anisopliae isolates ICIPE 7, ICIPE 20, ICIPE 69 and ICIPE 665 had the shortest LT(50) values of 8.0-8.9 days. ICIPE 69, ICIPE 7 and ICIPE 20 had the lowest LC(50) values of 1.1 × 10(7), 2.0 × 10(7) and 3.0 × 10(7) conidia ml(-1), respectively. Metarhizium anisopliae isolate ICIPE 69 produced significantly more conidia than M. anisopliae isolates ICIPE 7 and ICIPE 20. Internally transcribed spacers sequences alignment showed differences in nucleotides composition, which can partly explain differences in virulence. These results coupled with the previous ones on virulence and field efficacy against other species of thrips make M. anisopliae isolate ICIPE 69 a good candidate. Metarhizium anisopliae isolate ICIPE 69 can be suggested for development as fungus-based biopesticide for thrips management. © International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe). Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Temporal Genetic Dynamics of an Invasive Species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in an Early Phase of Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Ming; Lou, Heng; Sun, Jing-Tao; Zhu, Yi-Ming; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2015-07-03

    Many species can successfully colonize new areas despite their propagules having low genetic variation. We assessed whether the decreased genetic diversity could result in temporal fluctuations of genetic parameters of the new populations of an invasive species, western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers. This study was conducted in eight localities from four climate regions in China, where F. occidentalis was introduced in the year 2000 and had lower genetic diversity than its native populations. We also tested the level of genetic differentiation in these introduced populations. The genetic diversity of the samples at different years in the same locality was not significantly different from each other in most localities. FST and STRUCTURE analysis also showed that most temporal population comparisons from the same sites were not significantly differentiated. Our results showed that the invasive populations of F. occidentalis in China can maintain temporal stability in genetic composition at an early phase of establishment despite having lower genetic diversity than in their native range.

  6. Cross-resistance and baseline susceptibility of spirotetramat in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Juan; Navarro, Miguel; Bielza, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an economically important pest all over the world. New products against thrips are necessary, as there are few effective compounds exhibiting cross-resistance among them. Lethal effects, cross-resistance, and baseline susceptibility to spirotetramat were evaluated in this study. A new bioassay method for testing thrips against spirotetramat was developed. Spirotetramat showed a significant mortality effect on larvae after 7 d of exposure, but a low effect was observed on adults. Baseline results for larval instars showed LC50 values ranging from 11.59 to 49.81 mg AI/liter, with a low natural variability (3.2-fold). Cross-resistance studies showed overlapping confidence limits of the LC50 values for laboratory-selected (against acrinathrin, methiocarb, formetanate, and spinosad) resistant and susceptible strains, and low resistance factors, from 0.5 to 1.9, suggesting no cross-resistance to conventional insecticides previously used. A slight ovicidal effect (21-40% reduction) was also detected. Despite presenting low effects on adults, spirotetramat showed high but slow efficacy on F. occidentalis larvae. Field populations in southeast Spain showed a consistent susceptibility to spirotetramat. Given the scarcity of effective products and the lack of cross-resistance to other insecticides, spirotetramat can be considered as a good chemical tool to control F. occidentalis.

  7. Demographic analysis of arrhenotokous parthenogenesis and bisexual reproduction of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tianbo; Chi, Hsin; Gökçe, Ayhan; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Bin

    2018-02-20

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a serious pest that is capable of bisexual and arrhenotokous reproduction. In arrhenotokous reproduction, virgin females initially produce male offspring; later, when their sons are sexually mature, the mothers begin bisexual reproduction by carrying out oedipal mating with their sons. Because a virgin female produces many male offspring before oedipal mating occurs, multiple oedipal mating is common. In this study, we investigated the effect of multiple oedipal mating on the population growth of F. occidentalis by using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. In the arrhenotokous cohorts, all unfertilized eggs developed into males. In the bisexual cohorts, the offspring sex ratio was significantly female biased with the mean number of female offspring and male offspring being 72.68 and 29.00, respectively. These were the same as the net reproductive rate of female offspring and male offspring. In arrhenotokous cohorts, the number of males available for oedipal mating significantly affected the production of female offspring. The number of female offspring increased as the number of sons available for oedipal mating increased. Correctly characterizing this unique type of reproduction will provide important information for predicting the timing of future outbreaks of F. occidentalis, as well as aiding in formulating successful management strategies against the species.

  8. Thermal requirements and estimate of the annual number of generations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on strawberry crop; Exigencias termicas e estimativa do numero de geracoes anuais de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) em morangueiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nondillo, Aline; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Pinent, Silvia M.J.; Gitz, Rogerio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fitotecnica. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mails: RS; alinondillo@yahoo.com.br, luredael@ufrgs.br; silviapi@portoweb.com.br; rogitz29@yahoo.com.br; Botton, Marcos [Embrapa Uva e Vinho, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br

    2008-11-15

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is one of the major strawberry pests in southern Brazil. The insect causes russeting and wither in flowers and fruits reducing commercial value. In this work, the thermal requirements of the eggs, larvae and pupae of F. occidentalis were estimated. Thrips development was studied in folioles of strawberry plants at six constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 deg C) in controlled conditions (70 +- 10% R.H. and 12:12 L:D). The number of annual generations of F. occidentalis was estimated for six strawberry production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State based on its thermal requirements. Developmental time of each F. occidentalis stages was proportional to the temperature increase. The best development rate was obtained when insects were reared at 25 deg C and 28 deg C. The lower threshold and the thermal requirements for the egg to adult stage were 9.9 deg C and 211.9 degree-days, respectively. Considering the thermal requirements of F. occidentalis, 10.7, 12.6, 13.1, 13.6, 16.5 and 17.9 generations/year were estimated, respectively, for Vacaria, Caxias do Sul, Farroupilha, Pelotas, Porto Alegre and Taquari producing regions located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. (author)

  9. The Glutathione-S-Transferase, Cytochrome P450 and Carboxyl/Cholinesterase Gene Superfamilies in Predatory Mite Metaseiulus occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wu

    Full Text Available Pesticide-resistant populations of the predatory mite Metaseiulus (= Typhlodromus or Galendromus occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae have been used in the biological control of pest mites such as phytophagous Tetranychus urticae. However, the pesticide resistance mechanisms in M. occidentalis remain largely unknown. In other arthropods, members of the glutathione-S-transferase (GST, cytochrome P450 (CYP and carboxyl/cholinesterase (CCE gene superfamilies are involved in the diverse biological pathways such as the metabolism of xenobiotics (e.g. pesticides in addition to hormonal and chemosensory processes. In the current study, we report the identification and initial characterization of 123 genes in the GST, CYP and CCE superfamilies in the recently sequenced M. occidentalis genome. The gene count represents a reduction of 35% compared to T. urticae. The distribution of genes in the GST and CCE superfamilies in M. occidentalis differs significantly from those of insects and resembles that of T. urticae. Specifically, we report the presence of the Mu class GSTs, and the J' and J" clade CCEs that, within the Arthropoda, appear unique to Acari. Interestingly, the majority of CCEs in the J' and J" clades contain a catalytic triad, suggesting that they are catalytically active. They likely represent two Acari-specific CCE clades that may participate in detoxification of xenobiotics. The current study of genes in these superfamilies provides preliminary insights into the potential molecular components that may be involved in pesticide metabolism as well as hormonal/chemosensory processes in the agriculturally important M. occidentalis.

  10. Senna occidentalis (L.) Link and Senna hirsuta (L.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby: constituents of fruit essential oils and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, Emmanuel E; Thomas, Paul S; Ascrizzi, Roberta; Setzer, William N; Flamini, Guido

    2018-01-18

    Senna occidentalis and S. hirsuta are mostly gathered from the wild for medicinal use and have a disagreeable odour when crushed. The volatile oils isolated from fresh fruits of S. occidentalis and S. hirsuta were subjected to gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and antimicrobial assays. GC and GC-MS analyses permitted the identification of 58 constituents. S. occidentalis oil was dominated by cyperene (10.8%), β-caryophyllene (10.4%), limonene (8.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (6.8%). The main components of S. hirsuta fruit oil were benzyl benzoate (24.7%), τ-cadinol (18.9%), 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (14.6%) and β-caryophyllene (5.1%). S. occidentalis fruit oil exhibited better antimicrobial activity (MIC 78-312 μg/mL) against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger compared with S. hirsuta oil. The compositions and the activities of the fruit essential oils of S. occidentalis and S. hirsuta are reported for the first time.

  11. Thermal requirements and estimate of the annual number of generations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on strawberry crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondillo, Aline; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Pinent, Silvia M.J.; Gitz, Rogerio

    2008-01-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is one of the major strawberry pests in southern Brazil. The insect causes russeting and wither in flowers and fruits reducing commercial value. In this work, the thermal requirements of the eggs, larvae and pupae of F. occidentalis were estimated. Thrips development was studied in folioles of strawberry plants at six constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 deg C) in controlled conditions (70 +- 10% R.H. and 12:12 L:D). The number of annual generations of F. occidentalis was estimated for six strawberry production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State based on its thermal requirements. Developmental time of each F. occidentalis stages was proportional to the temperature increase. The best development rate was obtained when insects were reared at 25 deg C and 28 deg C. The lower threshold and the thermal requirements for the egg to adult stage were 9.9 deg C and 211.9 degree-days, respectively. Considering the thermal requirements of F. occidentalis, 10.7, 12.6, 13.1, 13.6, 16.5 and 17.9 generations/year were estimated, respectively, for Vacaria, Caxias do Sul, Farroupilha, Pelotas, Porto Alegre and Taquari producing regions located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. (author)

  12. [Thermal requirements and estimate of the annual number of generations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on strawberry crop].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondillo, Aline; Redaelli, Luiza R; Botton, Marcos; Pinent, Silvia M J; Gitz, Rogério

    2008-01-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is one of the major strawberry pests in southern Brazil. The insect causes russeting and wither in flowers and fruits reducing commercial value. In this work, the thermal requirements of the eggs, larvae and pupae of F. occidentalis were estimated. Thrips development was studied in folioles of strawberry plants at six constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 degrees C) in controlled conditions (70 +/- 10% R.H. and 12:12 L:D). The number of annual generations of F. occidentalis was estimated for six strawberry production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State based on its thermal requirements. Developmental time of each F. occidentalis stages was proportional to the temperature increase. The best development rate was obtained when insects were reared at 25 masculineC and 28 masculineC. The lower threshold and the thermal requirements for the egg to adult stage were 9.9 masculineC and 211.9 degree-days, respectively. Considering the thermal requirements of F. occidentalis, 10.7, 12.6, 13.1, 13.6, 16.5 and 17.9 generations/year were estimated, respectively, for Vacaria, Caxias do Sul, Farroupilha, Pelotas, Porto Alegre and Taquari producing regions located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  13. Ineficiência da Thuja occidentalis no tratamento dos poxvirus aviários Thuja occidentalis ineficiency in avian poxviruses treatment

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    Thaís Castelo Branco Chaves

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Medicações à base de Tuia (Thuja occidentalis são comuns em tratamentos homeopáticos e fitoterápicos, na medicina humana e veterinária. Suas propriedades imunoestimulantes e antivirais são descritas e sua utilização empírica no tratamento das poxviroses aviárias é recomendada por criadores e veterinários. Para avaliar o potencial terapêutico da Tuia sobre estas infecções, dois grupos (controle e teste de dez aves jovens foram inoculados por escarificação, com uma amostra de campo de poxvírus aviário. As aves inoculadas foram examinadas diariamente, quanto ao início e evolução das lesões, registrando-se o número e tamanho destas, até a cicatrização. Após o surgimento das lesões, o grupo teste recebeu a tintura alcoólica diluída na água de consumo. A análise experimental indicou que, nas condições empregadas, a utilização da Tuia não favoreceu a regressão ou restrição no desenvolvimento das lesões de pele promovidas pela infecção experimental.Arbor Vitae (Thuja occidentalis is widely used in homoeopathic and phytotherapic treatments,either for human or for animals. Its immunestimulating and antiviral properties have been described and its empiric use in the treatment of the avian poxvirosis is recommended by animal breeders and veterinarians. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of Arbor Vitae in these infections, two groups (control and test of 10 young birds were inoculated by scarification with a field sample of avian poxvirus. When lesions were first observed the test group received the Arbor Vitae alcoholic extract diluted in the drinking water. The birds were examined daily, from the beginning and evolution of the lesions to the healing. The results indicated that, in our experimental conditions, the use of T. occidentalis did not favor the regression or restriction in the development of the skin lesions promoted by the experimental infection.

  14. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera, Thripidae em morangueiro Biology and fertility life table of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera, Thripidae in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Nondillo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar aspectos biológicos de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera, Thripidae, considerando que no Brasil quase nada se sabe sobre a fauna de tripes associada à cultura do morangueiro. Larvas recém-eclodidas foram individualizadas em placas de Petri contendo uma flor ou um folíolo de morangueiro, mantidas em câmaras climatizadas (25 ± 1 ºC; 60 ± 10% U.R.; fotofase de 12 horas e observadas diariamente até a morte. A duração média do período de larva-adulto e a viabilidade não diferiram entre os insetos mantidos em flores (8,49 ± 0,18 e 68,52% e folíolos (8,85 ± 0,15 e 75,47%. A fecundidade média diária e a total foram mais elevadas quando flores foram fornecidas como alimento (7,4 ± 0,69 e 70,0 ± 9,18 ovos/fêmea respectivamente, em comparação com folíolos (2,4 ± 0,35 e 8,5 ± 1,13 ovos/fêmea, respectivamente. A duração média, em dias, do período embrionário foi distinta entre os indivíduos mantidos em flores (3,7 ± 0,03 e em folíolos (4,4 ± 0,09. A viabilidade dos ovos depositados sobre flores e folíolos foi de 65,5 ± 0,01 e 74,3 ± 0,03%, respectivamente. Com base na tabela de vida de fertilidade, o desempenho dos indivíduos de F. occidentalis que se desenvolveram em flores foi melhor, com uma geração (ovo-adulto completada a cada 20,92 dias, a 25 °C.This work aimed to study biological aspects of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera, Thripidae considering that almost nothing is known about the thrips fauna associated with strawberry crop. Newly hatched larvae were individualized into Petri dishes, containing a flower or a foliole of strawberry and kept in chambers (25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 10% RH; 12 hours photophase. Daily observations were conducted until the insect death. The average time of the biological cycle (larva-adult and viability did not differ between the insects maintained in flowers (8.49 ± 0.18 and 68.52% and folioles (8.85 ± 0.15 and

  15. Projeto de variação linguística no Centro-Oeste (VALCO

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    Rachel do Valle Dettoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar o Projeto Variação Linguística no Centro-Oeste (VALCO e sintetizar resultados de pesquisa sociolinguística em áreas geográficas distintas da região Centro-Oeste e em temáticas também distintas. Quatro pesquisas foram realizadas com dados da grande Brasília ou Distrito Federal e analisam os pronomes de segunda pessoa tu/você/cê/ocê. Nestas pesquisas, apresenta-se a ideia central de que a variedade brasiliense em formação está introduzindo a variante tu em seu repertório linguístico, com focalização de um traço marcado no português brasileiro. Duas outras pesquisas foram realizadas com dados da Baixada Cuiabana, Estado do Mato Grosso, e analisam a variação de gênero no plano discursivo e sintagmático. Nestas duas pesquisas, diferentemente, apresentam-se traços linguísticos de natureza semicategórica, em provável situação de extinção, mas evidencia-se que a variação de gênero nos dados analisados é linguisticamente encaixada no sistema da língua portuguesa. Sendo assim, o presente artigo, que se orienta pela Teoria da Variação e da Mudança Linguística, apresenta para a comunidade científica um pouco mais da riqueza da língua portuguesa em terras brasileiras, mais especificamente, no Brasil central tradicional e no Brasil central expandido.

  16. Resin duct size and density as ecophysiological traits in fire scars of Pseudotsuga menziesii and Larix occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Stoffel, Markus; Sutherland, Elaine K; Smith, Kevin T; Falk, Donald A

    2014-10-01

    Resin ducts (RDs) are features present in most conifer species as defence structures against pests and pathogens; however, little is known about RD expression in trees following fire injury. This study investigates changes in RD size and density in fire scars of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western larch (Larix occidentalis) as a means to evaluate the ecophysiological significance of traumatic resinosis for tree defence and survival. Transverse and tangential microsections were prepared for light microscopy and image analysis in order to analyse axial and radial RDs, respectively. Epithelial cells of RDs and fusiform rays associated with radial RDs were also examined. RDs were compared between normal xylem and wound xylem at four different section heights along the fire-injured stem. Following fire injury, P. menziesii axial RDs narrowed by 38-43 % in the first year after injury, and the magnitude of this change increased with stem height. Larix occidentalis axial RDs widened by 46-50 % in the second year after injury. Radial RDs were of equivalent size in P. menziesii, but widened by 162-214 % in L. occidentalis. Fusiform rays were larger following fire injury, by 4-14 % in P. menziesii and by 23-38 % in L. occidentalis. Furthermore, axial RD density increased in both species due to the formation of tangential rows of traumatic RDs, especially in the first and second years after injury. However, radial RD density did not change significantly. These results highlight traumatic resinosis as a species-specific response. Pseudotsuga menziesii produce RDs of equivalent or reduced size, whereas L. occidentalis produce wider RDs in both the axial and radial duct system, thereby increasing resin biosynthesis and accumulation within the whole tree. Larix occidentalis thus appears to allocate more energy to defence than P. menziesii. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For

  17. Imidacloprid effects on probing and settling behavior of Frankliniella fusca and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, P Houston; Riley, David G

    2005-10-01

    The effects of tomato, Lycopersicum spp., leaves treated with imidacloprid on probing and settling behavior of Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergrande) were examined using an electrical penetration graph technique and an intact leaf bioassay. For each experiment, thrips were subjected to nontreated plants and plants treated with either of two rates of imidacloprid: 7.81 and 41.55 microg [(AI)] per plant. F. fusca probed less frequently on plants treated with the high rate of imidacloprid compared with the nontreated plants. The duration of F. fusca noningestion probing waveforms and ingestion was shorter on plants treated with the high rate of imidacloprid compared with that on nontreated plants. In contrast, F. occidentalis probed longer and more frequently on plants treated with either the low or high imidacloprid rates compared with nontreated plants. They also ingested more frequently and for longer durations on plants treated with the high rate compared with nontreated plants. The duration and frequency of noningesting probing waveforms were greater on the imidacloprid-treated plants compared with the nontreated plants. F. occidentalis probed and ingested more frequently and for a longer duration than F. fusca on plants treated with the high rate of imidacloprid. F. fusca ingested more frequently and the duration of ingestion was longer than F. occidentalis in untreated plants. F. fusca and F. occidentalis settling behavior differed within the first 30 min in a choice bioassay. F. fusca preferred settling on leaves of nontreated plants, whereas F. occidentalis showed no preference in an intact leaf choice bioassay.

  18. Antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olukemi Adetutu Osukoya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The seeds of Telfairia occidentalis have been known to possess different biological properties and are used in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia to treat many ailments. The plant is particularly noted traditionally for its healing properties and is usually consumed in the form of herbal decoctions/concoctions as a blood tonic, to treat sudden attacks of convulsions, pain, malaria and anaemia. Aims: In the present study, various phytochemical and pharmacological studies were done on the methanolic extract of the seeds of Telfairia occidentalis to evaluate its antioxidant and antinociceptive properties to substantiate its traditional use. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the extract was done according to standard procedures. Antioxidant potential was ascertained using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content assays. Analgesic activity was analyzed using formalin induced paw licking test in albino rats at 100, 200 and 400 mg extract per kg body weight. Statistical Analysis Used: All results extrapolated from the experiments were expressed as mean ± SEM. Data obtained was analyzed statistically using ANOVA (one-way followed by Dennett's posthoc test. Results: Phytochemicals present in the extract were alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroid and anthraquinones. The extract significantly inhibited DPPH scavenging activity with percentage inhibition of 147.3%. The methanolic seed extract of T. occidentalis significantly reduced (P < 0.05 formalin induced paw licking in both neurogenic and inflammatory phases of formalin induced paw licking test, with 35.59 and 78.51% inhibition at 400 mg/kg, in albino rats in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The seed extract in this study significantly reduced formalin induced hind paw licking, and could be used as an analgesic for treatment of pain and also showed marked antioxidant potential.

  19. Sublethal Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on Life Table Parameters of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Reitz, Stuart R; Wang, Haihong; Lei, Zhongren

    2015-06-01

    We assessed effects of parental exposure to Beauveria bassiana on life history traits of subsequent generations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Progeny from individuals that survived fungal exposure as second instars had significantly shorter egg stages, but longer prepupal development times than corresponding untreated controls. However, survivorship to adulthood of these progeny groups did not differ. Although fecundities of the parental types did not differ, the sex ratio of progeny from fungal-treated parents was male-biased, whereas sex ratio of progeny from untreated control parents was even. We calculated life table parameters for the progeny and found that all parameters, except for generation time, were significantly less for the progeny of fungal-treated parents than for progeny of untreated parents. The intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, net reproductive rate, mean generation time, and gross reproductive rate were 0.199 d(-1), 1.229 d(-1), 21.84, 15.48 d, and 27.273, respectively, for progeny of treated thrips, and 0.266 d(-1), 1.316 d(-1), 52.540, 14.92 d, and 70.64, respectively, for progeny of control thrips. Consequently, population projections demonstrated that offspring of parents exposed to B. bassiana would increase their population more slowly than those from untreated parents. These results demonstrate that B. bassiana has sublethal effects that reduce the reproductive success of F. occidentalis and these effects should be taken into account when evaluating its use in management programs for F. occidentalis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Relationship between esterase activity and acrinathrin and methiocarb resistance in field populations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maymó, Ana C; Cervera, Amelia; Dolores Garcerá, M; Bielza, Pablo; Martínez-Pardo, Rafael

    2006-12-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is a serious pest in the south-east of Spain owing to its direct feeding on crops, transmission of the tomato spotted wilt virus and its very high level of resistance to insecticides. Mechanisms of resistance were examined using field populations of F. occidentalis with different susceptibilities to acrinathrin, methiocarb (selective insecticides), endosulfan, metamidophos and deltamethrin (broad-spectrum insecticides). Esterase activity towards alpha-naphthyl acetate and p-nitrophenyl acetate in resistant strains was significantly higher than in the reference strain (MLFOM) for both model substrates. This higher activity was significantly correlated with acrinathrin and methiocarb resistance. Copyright 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of automobile lead pollution on Cassia tora L. and Cassia occidentalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnayya, N.S.R.; Bedi, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of car exhaust lead pollution on pollen germination and seed viability of two roadside weeds. Cassia tora L. and Cassia occidentalis L.. was studied. A decrease in the percentage of pollen germination and seed viability was observed in plants growing near Highway No. 8. With increasing distance from the highway pollen germination and seed viability improved, and at a distance of 60 m from the road the percentage of pollen germination and seed viability became closer to normal. The decrease in pollen germination and reduction in viability were directly proportional to the amount of lead accumulated in the plants.

  2. Effect of roasting regime on phytochemical properties of Senna occidentalis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun A. Olapade

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Senna occidentalis seeds were roasted at varying temperatures of 190, 210 and 230 oC each for 10, 15 and 20 min. Phytochemicals of the roasted seeds were determined using standard methods. The phytochemicals analysed were tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, oxalate and phenolics. Phytochemicals are compounds hypothesized for much of the disease-protection provided by diets high in fruits, vegetables, legumes, cereals and plant-based beverages. This study has clearly shown that roasting time and temperature have significant effects on the seed parameters analyzed. There was an increase in tannin, alkaloid, saponin and phenolic contents and a decrease in the contents of flavonoids and oxalates.

  3. História da descoberta da Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981

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    Lima Laïs Clark

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata da descoberta da Biomphalaria occidentalis, molusco de concha idêntica à da B. tenagophila, vetora natural do Schistosoma mansoni. A reconstrução dessa descoberta, ao mesmo tempo em que chama atenção para o próprio processo da descoberta e para as interveniências de fatores sócio-econômicos, envolve o percurso profissional do malacologista Wladimir Lobato Paraense e demonstra a importância da biologia básica e da sistemática na epidemiologia da esquistossomose mansoni.

  4. Rubus occidentalis: The black raspberry--its potential in the prevention of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Marta; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława

    2016-01-01

    Rubus occidentalis is a black-fruited raspberry originating from North America. Its popularity and demand has been growing over the years, as studies outline its high anthocyanin and ellagitannin content and significance for human health. Interaction between chemical composition and pharmacological activity, mechanisms of action at cellular and molecular levels are all active areas of study. The vast majority of research concerning black raspberries is focused on chemoprevention and anticancer effects. This review summarizes the data on chemical composition and anticancer activity of black raspberry fruits throughout the years.

  5. Cloning and characterization of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase gene from Rubus occidentalis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Seung Sik; An, Byung Chull; Barampuram, Shyamkuma; Kim, Jae Sung; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young [Dept. of Applied Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Senior Industry Cluster Agency, Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) is a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid pathway, which leads a variety of secondary metabolites to participate in differentiation and protection of plant against environmental stresses. In this study, we isolated a full-length cDNA of the C4H gene from a black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.), using a reverse transcriptase-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The full-length cDNA of the RocC4H gene contained a 1,515 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 504 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 57.9 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) value of 9.1. The genomic DNA analysis revealed that RocC4H gene had three exons and two introns. By multiple sequence alignment, RocC4H protein was highly homologous with other plant C4Hs, and the cytochrome P450-featured motifs, such as the heme-binding domain, the T-containing binding pocket motif (AAIETT), the ERR triad, and the tetrapeptide (PPGP) hinge motif, were highly conserved. Southern blot analysis revealed that RocC4H is a single copy gene in R. occidentalis.

  6. Spatial and seasonal trends of a natural population of Biomphalaria occidentalis in northeastern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rumi

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the age of a population of Biomphalaria occidentalis on a pound of Riachuelo river basin, wich is one of the three most important Middle Paraná river affluents in Corrientes province. Samples were drawn from three stations, were spatial and temporal numerical variations of the snail, as well as its relation with different environmental parameters, mainly temperature, rainfall, pH and conductivity, were analyzed. Snail abundance is given in number of individuals/hour. The differences between the three sampling stations, estimated by nonparametric tests, was nonsignificant. A relative scale to the greatest shell diameter was employed to build the age pyramids. Temporal fluctuations of snail abundance correlated negatively with the highest monthly accumulated temperatures (P < 0.05. Although different floristic compositions were observed at the three stations, no significant numerical variations were detected in B. occidentalis spatial distribution. Reproductive activity took place between March-April and November with overlapping cohort system. During summer (December-Febuary mortality increased along with temperature and reproductive activity was not evident.

  7. PCR-RFLP method to distinguish Frankliniella occidentalis, Frankliniella intonsa, Frankliniella pallida and Frankliniella tenuicornis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybylska Arnika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrips from the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera, Thripidae are phytophagous on crops and wild plants. Some of them cause slight economic damage, however, others including F. occidentalis and F. intonsa are responsible for considerable losses in crop production. Moreover, they constitute a double threat for host plants by not only feeding on them but also vectoring viruses, some of which are on the quarantined list of the European Plant Protection Organization. The rapid detection and differentiation between more and less harmful Frankliniella species is, therefore, important in order to combat the pests at the time of their appearance. In this study, we have undertaken to develop a method of detecting F. occidentalis, F. intonsa, F. pallida, and F. tenuicornis. The protocol is based on PCR amplification of ITS1 rDNA fragments of these insects using universal primers pair giving products of slightly distinct length for studied insects. Restriction enzymes digestion which is easy to interpret, allows for visible differentiation of all these Frankliniella species. The method was shown to be species-specific and sensitive. Even single specimens in either the larvae or adult stage could be distinguished.

  8. Distribution of COX-negative mitochondria in myofibers of rats intoxicated with Senna occidentalis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calore, N M P; Calore, E E; Sesso, A; Correia, H; Marcondes, M C S L; Vilela de Almeida, L

    2002-04-01

    We have described that administration of seeds or parts of the seed of Senna occidentalis (coffee senna) for long periods, induces histochemical changes in the skeletal muscles of hens and rats that are characteristic of a mitochondrial myopathy--as decrease of SDH and COX activity, with some COX negative fibers. In this experimental model of mitochondrial myopathy, as in many human mitochondrial diseases, there is a random distribution of COX negative fibers. Some fibers are completely COX negative while others are partially negative and others are completely positive. In the present work we have studied the distribution of COX negative mitochondria at transmission electron microscopy in skeletal muscle of rats in this experimental myopathy. In myofibers of intoxicated animals the expression of COX was heterogeneous. The histochemical reaction was observed in the internal membrane (more evident in mitochondrial cristae) of all mitochondria of some myofibers, while it was almost absent in other myofibers. In these myofibers the great part of the mitochondria were negative for COX reaction while other ones had a weak expression of this enzyme (dot or focal expression of COX). Our results indicated that the COX mitochondrial activity is heterogeneously impaired in myofibers of rats intoxicated with S. occidentalis. These abnormalities remember those observed in some types of human mitochondrial myopathies.

  9. Behavioural responses of Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande larvae to methyl jasmonate and cis-jasmone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Barbara; Koschier, Elisabeth H

    2014-01-01

    The larval stages of Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) cause more direct feeding damage to plants than the adults. We, therefore, investigated the behaviour-modifying effects on second instar larvae of two jasmonic acid derivatives. The artificial application of methyl jasmonate and cis -jasmone, both at 1 % concentration, deterred the larvae from settling in a dual choice bean leaf disc assay. We observed a dose-dependent feeding deterrence of both jasmonates and calculated the concentration required to reduce the feeding damage by 50 % relative to the control treatment (FDC 50 ) for each jasmonate. The feeding damage was reduced by the application of cis -jasmone at 1 % concentration, but not by the jasmonates at the respective FDC 50 in no-choice leaf disc bioassays. However, significantly more larvae left jasmonate-treated whole potted bean plants by migrating to the soil compared with control plants. Our results may be exploited extending behavioural manipulation by using plant compounds in thrips control programmes to the full lifecycle of the pest. Plant compounds could be used in integrated and biological pest management strategies against F. occidentalis in combination with the application of various above and below ground control measures.

  10. Stability of spinosad resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, P; Quinto, V; Grávalos, C; Fernández, E; Abellán, J; Contreras, J

    2008-08-01

    The stability of spinosad resistance in western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), populations with differing initial frequencies of resistance was studied in laboratory conditions. The stability of resistance was assessed in bimonthly residual bioassays in five populations with initial frequencies of 100, 75, 50, 25 and 0% of resistant individuals. There were no consistent changes in susceptibility of the susceptible strain after eight months without insecticide pressure. In the resistant strain, very highly resistant to spinosad (RF50>23,000-fold), resistance was maintained up to eight months without further exposure to spinosad. In the absence of any immigration of susceptible genes into the population, resistance was stable. In the case of the population with different initial frequency of resistant thrips, spinosad resistance declined significantly two months later in the absence of selection pressure. With successive generations, these strains did not change significantly in sensitivity. Spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis declined significantly in the absence of selection pressure and the presence of susceptible WFT. These results suggest that spinosad resistance probably is unstable under field conditions, primarily due to the immigration of susceptible WFT. Factors influencing stability or reversion of spinosad resistance are discussed.

  11. Phytotoxic potential of Senna occidentalis and Senna obtusifolia - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5833 Phytotoxic potential of Senna occidentalis and Senna obtusifolia - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odival Faccenda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic potential of the aerial and underground parts of Senna occidentalis and S. obtusifolia on the germination and initial growth of lettuce and onion. Four concentrations were used of each ethanol extract (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1, with four replications of 50 seeds. From the investigated species, the aerial part of S. occidentalis interfered in onion germination and the aerial part of S. obtusifolia interfered in the germinations of lettuce and onion. The ethanol extract from the aerial and underground parts of the studied species inhibited the root growth of lettuce and onion. The hypocotyl/coleoptile growth in lettuce and onion was inhibited by the extract of S. obtusifolia aerial part and the underground part of S. occidentalisand S. obtusifolia. The results obtained make it possible to infer that the studied species contain substances that influence the germination and growth of the target seedlings.This work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic potential of the aerial and underground parts of Senna occidentalis and S. obtusifolia on the germination and initial growth of lettuce and onion. Four concentrations were used of each ethanol extract (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1, with four replications of 50 seeds. From the investigated species, the aerial part of S. occidentalis interfered in onion germination and the aerial part of S. obtusifolia interfered in the germinations of lettuce and onion. The ethanol extract from the aerial and underground parts of the studied species inhibited the root growth of lettuce and onion. The hypocotyl/coleoptile growth in lettuce and onion was inhibited by the extract of S. obtusifolia aerial part and the underground part of S. occidentalis and S. obtusifolia. The results obtained make it possible to infer that the studied species contain substances that influence the germination and growth of the target seedlings.

  12. Chromosome-scale scaffolding of the black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) genome based on chromatin interaction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) is a niche fruit crop valued for its flavour and potential health benefits. The improvement of fruit and cane characteristics via molecular breeding technologies has been hindered by the lack of a high-quality reference genome. The recently released draft geno...

  13. Resin duct size and density as ecophysiological traits in fire scars of Pseudotsuga menziesii and Larix occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelle Arbellay; Markus Stoffel; Elaine K. Sutherland; Kevin T. Smith; Donald A. Falk

    2014-01-01

    Resin ducts (RDs) are features present in most conifer species as defence structures against pests and pathogens; however, little is known about RD expression in trees following fire injury. This study investigates changes in RD size and density in fire scars of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western larch (Larix occidentalis) as a means to evaluate the...

  14. The status of Bombus occidentalis and B. moderatus in Alaska with special focus on Nosema bombi incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract: Four North American bumble bee species in the subgenus Bombus sensu stricto, including Bombus occidentalis (Hymenoptera: Apidae), are experiencing dramatic declines in population abundance, range and genetic diversity. The prevailing hypothesis concerning their decline is the ‘s...

  15. Development of fine and coarse roots of Thuja occidentalis 'Brabant' in non-irrigated and drip irrigated field plots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Willigen, de P.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aboveground dry mass, total root dry mass and root length density of the fine roots of Thuja occidentalis `Brabant' were determined under non- and drip-irrigated field conditions. Two-dimensional diffusion parameters for dynamic root growth were estimated based on dry mass production of the fine

  16. Phytochemical screening and GC-MS determination of bioactive constituents from methanol leaf extract of Senna occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Mohammad Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the active ingredients presented in methanol extract of Senna occidentalis (S. occidentalis. Methods: Dried powdered leaves of S. occidentalis were extracted with methanol by Soxhlet extraction and the extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening by using standard procedure and methods. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS analysis was performed by comprising a GC-MS (model: QP2010 Plus Shimadzu, Japan comprising an AOC-20i auto-sampler and gas-chromatograph interfaced to a mass spectrometer. Results: The phytochemical study revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycoside, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, anthraquinones and phlobatannins while cardiac glycoside was not detected. GC-MS chromatogram showed nine peaks. A total of 31 compounds were identified when the mass spectra of the constituents was compared with the National Institute Standard and Technology library. The first compounds identified with less retention time (15.929 s were n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and pentadecanoic acid while decanoic acid, decyl ester, ether, octadecyl vinyl, oleic acid, hexyl ester, stearic acid, octadecyl ester and decyl fluoride took the longest retention time (20.600 s for identification. Conclusions: The presence of these compounds in the plant extract may at least be responsible for one of the pharmacological properties of S. occidentalis and thus could be of considerable interest to the development of new drugs.

  17. Life cycle of Cosmolaelaps jaboticabalensis (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) on Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and two factitious food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Grazielle Furtado; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Busoli, Antônio Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto José

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the life cycle of Cosmolaelaps jaboticabalensis Moreira, Klompen and Moraes preying on Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a serious cosmopolitan pest of different crops, as well as on Protorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmatina: Acaridae), prospective factitious foods for the mass rearing of the predator. Experiments were conducted in a chamber at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10 % RH and in the dark. Total immature development (egg-adult) was completed in 12.3 ± 5, 6.6 ± 0.6 and 7.1 ± 0.6 on F. occidentalis, Protorhabditis sp. and T. putrescentiae, respectively. Fecundity and intrinsic rate of increase were higher on Protorhabditis sp. (71.6 ± 9.1 eggs/female; 0.28 female/female/day) than on F. occidentalis (63.8 ± 14.8; 0.23) and T. putrescentiae (43.1 ± 8.9; 0.23). Cosmolaelaps jaboticabalensis reproduces by thelytokous parthenogenesis and its larval stages can be completed without feeding. Protonymphs and deutonymphs can survive in the absence of food for about a month, and adults for almost 2 months. It was concluded that C. jaboticabalensis is a promising biological control agent of F. occidentalis and that it may be mass reared with the use of Protorhabditis sp. or T. putrescentiae.

  18. Continuous exposure to the deterrents cis-jasmone and methyl jasmonate does not alter the behavioural responses of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Barbara; Spangl, Bernhard; Koschier, Elisabeth Helene

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural responses of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a generalist, cell sap-feeding insect species with piercing-sucking mouthparts, after continuous exposure to two deterrent secondary plant compounds are investigated. We compared in choice assays on bean leaf discs, the settling, feeding, and oviposition preferences of F. occidentalis females that had no experience with the two fatty acid derivatives methyl jasmonate and cis -jasmone before testing (naïve thrips) vs. females that had been exposed to the deterrent compounds before testing (experienced thrips). The thrips were exposed to the deterrents at low or high concentrations for varied time periods and subsequently tested on bean leaf discs treated with the respective deterrent at either a low or a high concentration. Frankliniella occidentalis females avoided settling on the deterrent-treated bean leaf discs for an observation period of 6 h, independent of their previous experience. Our results demonstrate that feeding and oviposition deterrence of the jasmonates to the thrips were not altered by continuous exposure of the thrips to the jasmonates. Habituation was not induced, neither by exposure to the low concentration of the deterrents nor by exposure to the high concentration. These results indicate that the risk of habituation to two volatile deterrent compounds after repeated exposure is not evident in F. occidentalis . This makes the two compounds potential candidates to be integrated in pest management strategies.

  19. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is a common pest on grapes and other fresh commodities in the United States, but a quarantined pest in Taiwan. Methyl bromide fumigation has been used to control the thrips on U.S. exported fresh commodities, including organic table grap...

  20. Symbiotic bacteria (Erwinia sp.) in the gut of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) do not affect its ability to transmit tospovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.J.; van de Wetering, F.; van der Hoek, M.M.; Jacobs, G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the most harmful plant viruses and one of its most important vectors is the western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)]. Recently, we reported the close association of Erwinia sp. gut bacteria with this species of

  1. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) mediated competition via induced resistance: Interaction between Gratiana boliviana, Spodoptera exigua and Frankliniella occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a tortoise beetle Gratiana bolivana Spaeth and western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on tropical soda apple (TSA) Solanum viarum Dunal, a relative of tomato. Both S. exigua and G. bolivia...

  2. Intoxicação por Senna occidentalis (Leg. Caesalpinoideae em bovinos em pastoreio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Claudio S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available São descritos três surtos da intoxicação por Senna occidentalis em bovinos em criação extensiva, exclusivamente em pastoreio, durante o outono e início do inverno, em três estabelecimentos do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os bovinos afetados tinham acesso a antigas lavouras de soja ou restevas de lavouras de soja e milho altamente infestados por fedegoso (S. occidentalis. No estabelecimento 1, de um total de 34 novilhas (de aprox. 18 meses de idade, 10 morreram (29,1%; no estabelecimento 2, morreram 9 (4,2% de um total de 212 vacas prenhes e, no estabelecimento 3, morreram 6 (12,0% de um total de 50 animais. O curso clínico variou de 3 a 6 dias, e os sinais clínicos incluíam urina marrom-escura, fraqueza muscular, tremores, andar cambaleante, decúbito esternal e morte. Os animais, mesmo em decúbito, permaneciam alerta e com reflexos normais, alimentando-se e bebendo água até poucas horas antes da morte. No estabelecimento 2, os bovinos começaram a adoecer 7 dias após terem sido retirados do campo infestado pela planta. As principais alterações observadas na necropsia foram áreas claras na musculatura esquelética, principalmente nos músculos dos membros posteriores e estrias esbranquiçadas na musculatura cardíaca. A principal lesão microscópica era de degeneração e necrose nos músculos esqueléticos (miopatia degenerativa tóxica multifocal multifásica. Os dados epidemiológicos, clínicos, de necropsia e histopatológico permitiram concluir pelo diagnóstico de intoxicação por S. occidentalis, nesses três surtos.

  3. O corpo docente masculino: suas variações e (inconformidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Machado Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198464444824 Nesse texto buscamos cartografar, a partir de uma interlocução com autores como Deleuze e Guattari e Nietzsche, o processo de variação-deslocamento-multiplicação do corpo masculino docente, a estética das sensibilidades e os agenciamentos corporais que os encontros pedagógicos inspiram. O corpo-docente-masculino, suas variações e (inconformidades, será tomado como plano de inscrição e veículo das forças afectivas e vibratórias que por ele passa e o coloca em movimento de territorialização, desterritorialização e reterritorialização. Problematizaremos, assim, o lugar do encontro pedagógico como possível dispositivo maquínico, apontando para a ideia de que os agenciamentos produzidos a partir daí operam na criação de experimentações corporais que deslocam o corpo masculino dos lugares consagrados pela norma e o aproxima do corpo-masculino-marginal, prenhe de devires e (desorganizado: corpo sem orgãos. Palavras-chave: corpo, docência, masculinidades, criação.

  4. Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, have gut bacteria that are closely related to the symbionts of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de E.J.; Wurff, van der A.W.G.; Jacobs, G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that many insects have Enterobacteriaceae bacteria in their gut system. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande [Thysanoptera: Thripidae], has a symbiotic relation with Erwinia species gut bacteria. To determine if other Thripidae species have similar

  5. Low temperature phosphine fumigation of pre-chilled iceberg lettuce under insulation cover for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumigation of chilled iceberg lettuce under an insulation cover was studied to develop economical alternatives to conduct low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on exported lettuce. Vacuum cooled commercial iceberg lettuce o...

  6. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  7. Complete genome sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus infecting fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) plants in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, Walter N; Khatabi, Behnam; Fondong, Vincent N; Brown, Judith K

    2016-08-01

    The complete genome sequence was determined and characterized for a previously unreported bipartite begomovirus from fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis, family Cucurbitaceae) plants displaying mosaic symptoms in Cameroon. The DNA-A and DNA-B components were ~2.7 kb and ~2.6 kb in size, and the arrangement of viral coding regions on the genomic components was like those characteristic of other known bipartite begomoviruses originating in the Old World. While the DNA-A component was more closely related to that of chayote yellow mosaic virus (ChaYMV), at 78 %, the DNA-B component was more closely related to that of soybean chlorotic blotch virus (SbCBV), at 64 %. This newly discovered bipartite Old World virus is herein named telfairia mosaic virus (TelMV).

  8. Rootstock mass of coppiced Platanus occidentalis as affected by spacing and rotation length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Nwoboshi, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    The root mass per unit land area for Platanus occidentalis was determined 9 years after planting 1-0 seedlings. Trees had been planted at 0.3 X 1.2, 0.6 X 1.2 and 1.2 X 1.2 m spacings and coppiced after two growing seasons in the field. Rotations of 1, 2, and 7 years were then imposed. Rootstocks coppiced annually had significantly less rootstock mass (16.0 tons/ha) than those harvested on longer cycles. No significant difference was found between the 2- and 7-year rotations, which averaged 22.8 and 25.2 tons of dry rootstock mass per hectare, respectively. Spacing did not affect rootstock mass per unit land area. Rotations of 2 years or longer and relatively wide spacings are recommended for short rotation forestry.

  9. Experimental mitochondrial myopathy induced by chronic intoxication by Senna occidentalis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calore, E E; Cavaliere, M J; Haraguchi, M; Górniak, S L; Dagli, M L; Raspantini, P C; Perez Calore, N M

    1997-02-27

    Histochemical and electron microscopic studies of biceps femoris, pectoralis major and rectus femoris of chronically treated birds with seeds of the poisonous plant Senna occidentalis (0.2% external/internal tegment), were performed. The muscles had similar features of human mitochondrial myopathy as ragged-red fibers, cytochrome-oxidase negative fibers, and weak activity of the oxidative enzymes. Fibers with lipid storage were also present. Acid phosphatase activity in rare muscle fibers was also detected, and represents probably a secondary degenerative process. By electron microscopy, enlarged mitochondria with disrupted or excessively branched cristae were seen. The present study presents a new experimental model of mitochondrial myopathy that may be useful for the best knowledge of this group of diseases and for experimental trials of drugs that could reverse the mitochondrial impairment in the mitochondrial myopathies.

  10. Habitat-specific population structure in native western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Insecta, Thysanoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, P C; Frey, J E

    2010-04-01

    Invasions by pest organisms are among the main challenges for sustainable crop protection. They pose a serious threat to crop production by introducing a highly unpredictable element to existing crop protection strategies. The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Insecta, Thysanoptera) managed to invade ornamental greenhouses worldwide within < 25 years. To shed light on possible genetic and/or ecological factors that may have been responsible for this invasion success, we studied the population genetic structure of western flower thrips in its native range in western North America. Analysis of nucleotide sequence variation and variation at microsatellite loci revealed the existence of two habitat-specific phylogenetic lineages (ecotypes) with allopatric distribution. One lineage is associated with hot/dry climates, the second lineage is restricted to cool/moist climates. We speculate that the ecological niche segregation found in this study may be among the key factors determining the invasion potential of western flower thrips.

  11. Control integrado de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)(Thysanoptera: Thripidae) con insecticidas y liberaciones de Orius insidiosus (Say)(Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) sobre pimiento en invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    Viglianchino, Liliana Ester; Viglianchino, Liliana Ester

    2015-01-01

    El "trips de las flores", Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)(Thysanoptera: thripidae), es el principal vector del virus de la "marchitez manchada del tomate" (TSWV), y la "chinche" Orius insidiosus (Say) es un eficiente predador. Para evaluar el control de F. occidentalis, con insecticidas y liberaciones inoculativas de O. insidiosus en cultivos de pimiento bajo cubierta, durante 2009-2010, se estudió la fluctuación poblacional del predador-presa con las temperaturas reinantes en invernade...

  12. Detecção e monitoramento da resistência do tripes Frankliniella occidentalis ao inseticida espinosade Detection and monitoring of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soller Rais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O tripes Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae é uma das pragas mais importantes em cultivos protegidos, principalmente de plantas ornamentais e hortícolas. Entre os problemas enfrentados pelos agricultores estão a dificuldade de seu controle com o uso de inseticidas devido à sua preferência pelas partes internas das flores e a evolução de resistência aos agroquímicos. O objetivo da pesquisa foi caracterizar a resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade e avaliar a frequência de insetos resistentes ao inseticida, em áreas comerciais de crisântemo de diversos municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Seleções para resistência a espinosade foram realizadas em laboratório, utilizando-se uma população de F. occidentalis, coletada em 2007 de um cultivo comercial de crisântemo em Campinas (SP. No decorrer de sete seleções para resistência, a CL50 de espinosade passou de 8,41 mg i.a. L-1 para 1111 mg i.a. L-1. Comparando-se a linhagem resistente (R (selecionada e a suscetível (S, a razão de resistência (CL50 R/CL50 S atingiu valores de ≈280 vezes. Estabeleceu-se uma concentração discriminatória de 98 mg i.a. L-1 para o monitoramento da resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade. O monitoramento foi realizado coletando-se 19 populações do tripes em áreas comerciais de crisântemo no Estado de São Paulo. Os bioensaios foram realizados com ninfas de segundo ínstar de F. occidentalis, colocadas em arenas de folha de feijão. As aplicações de espinosade, na sua concentração discriminatória, foram realizadas sobre as ninfas em torre de Potter. Os resultados indicaram alta variabilidade entre as populações com relação à suscetibilidade a espinosade. Foram observadas populações com até 40,7% de insetos resistentes. Este é o primeiro relato de resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade no Brasil.The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae is one of the major

  13. Detecção e monitoramento da resistência do tripes Frankliniella occidentalis ao inseticida espinosade Detection and monitoring of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soller Rais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O tripes Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae é uma das pragas mais importantes em cultivos protegidos, principalmente de plantas ornamentais e hortícolas. Entre os problemas enfrentados pelos agricultores estão a dificuldade de seu controle com o uso de inseticidas devido à sua preferência pelas partes internas das flores e a evolução de resistência aos agroquímicos. O objetivo da pesquisa foi caracterizar a resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade e avaliar a frequência de insetos resistentes ao inseticida, em áreas comerciais de crisântemo de diversos municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Seleções para resistência a espinosade foram realizadas em laboratório, utilizando-se uma população de F. occidentalis, coletada em 2007 de um cultivo comercial de crisântemo em Campinas (SP. No decorrer de sete seleções para resistência, a CL50 de espinosade passou de 8,41 mg i.a. L-1 para 1111 mg i.a. L-1. Comparando-se a linhagem resistente (R (selecionada e a suscetível (S, a razão de resistência (CL50 R/CL50 S atingiu valores de ≈280 vezes. Estabeleceu-se uma concentração discriminatória de 98 mg i.a. L-1 para o monitoramento da resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade. O monitoramento foi realizado coletando-se 19 populações do tripes em áreas comerciais de crisântemo no Estado de São Paulo. Os bioensaios foram realizados com ninfas de segundo ínstar de F. occidentalis, colocadas em arenas de folha de feijão. As aplicações de espinosade, na sua concentração discriminatória, foram realizadas sobre as ninfas em torre de Potter. Os resultados indicaram alta variabilidade entre as populações com relação à suscetibilidade a espinosade. Foram observadas populações com até 40,7% de insetos resistentes. Este é o primeiro relato de resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade no Brasil.The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae is one of the major

  14. Detecção e monitoramento da resistência do tripes Frankliniella occidentalis ao inseticida espinosade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soller Rais

    Full Text Available O tripes Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae é uma das pragas mais importantes em cultivos protegidos, principalmente de plantas ornamentais e hortícolas. Entre os problemas enfrentados pelos agricultores estão a dificuldade de seu controle com o uso de inseticidas devido à sua preferência pelas partes internas das flores e a evolução de resistência aos agroquímicos. O objetivo da pesquisa foi caracterizar a resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade e avaliar a frequência de insetos resistentes ao inseticida, em áreas comerciais de crisântemo de diversos municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Seleções para resistência a espinosade foram realizadas em laboratório, utilizando-se uma população de F. occidentalis, coletada em 2007 de um cultivo comercial de crisântemo em Campinas (SP. No decorrer de sete seleções para resistência, a CL50 de espinosade passou de 8,41 mg i.a. L-1 para 1111 mg i.a. L-1. Comparando-se a linhagem resistente (R (selecionada e a suscetível (S, a razão de resistência (CL50 R/CL50 S atingiu valores de ≈280 vezes. Estabeleceu-se uma concentração discriminatória de 98 mg i.a. L-1 para o monitoramento da resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade. O monitoramento foi realizado coletando-se 19 populações do tripes em áreas comerciais de crisântemo no Estado de São Paulo. Os bioensaios foram realizados com ninfas de segundo ínstar de F. occidentalis, colocadas em arenas de folha de feijão. As aplicações de espinosade, na sua concentração discriminatória, foram realizadas sobre as ninfas em torre de Potter. Os resultados indicaram alta variabilidade entre as populações com relação à suscetibilidade a espinosade. Foram observadas populações com até 40,7% de insetos resistentes. Este é o primeiro relato de resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade no Brasil.

  15. Interaction of phytophagous insects with Salmonella enterica on plants and enhanced persistence of the pathogen with Macrosteles quadrilineatus infestation or Frankliniella occidentalis feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Soto-Arias

    Full Text Available Recently, most foodborne illness outbreaks of salmonellosis have been caused by consumption of contaminated fresh produce. Yet, the mechanisms that allow the human pathogen Salmonella enterica to contaminate and grow in plant environments remain poorly described. We examined the effect of feeding by phytophagous insects on survival of S. enterica on lettuce. Larger S. enterica populations were found on leaves infested with Macrosteles quadrilineatus. In contrast, pathogen populations among plants exposed to Frankliniella occidentalis or Myzus persicae were similar to those without insects. However, on plants infested with F. occidentalis, areas of the infested leaf with feeding damage sustained higher S. enterica populations than areas without damage. The spatial distribution of S. enterica cells on leaves infested with F. occidentalis may be altered resulting in higher populations in feeding lesions or survival may be different across a leaf dependent on local damage. Results suggest the possibility of some specificity with select insects and the persistence of S. enterica. Additionally, we demonstrated the potential for phytophagous insects to become contaminated with S. enterica from contaminated plant material. S. enterica was detected in approximately 50% of all M. quadrilineatus, F. occidentalis, and M. persicae after 24 h exposure to contaminated leaves. Particularly, 17% of F. occidentalis, the smallest of the insects tested, harbored more than 10(2 CFU/F. occidentalis. Our results show that phytophagous insects may influence the population dynamics of S. enterica in agricultural crops. This study provides evidence of a human bacterial pathogen interacting with phytophagous insect during plant infestation.

  16. Interaction of phytophagous insects with Salmonella enterica on plants and enhanced persistence of the pathogen with Macrosteles quadrilineatus infestation or Frankliniella occidentalis feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Arias, José Pablo; Groves, Russell; Barak, Jeri D

    2013-01-01

    Recently, most foodborne illness outbreaks of salmonellosis have been caused by consumption of contaminated fresh produce. Yet, the mechanisms that allow the human pathogen Salmonella enterica to contaminate and grow in plant environments remain poorly described. We examined the effect of feeding by phytophagous insects on survival of S. enterica on lettuce. Larger S. enterica populations were found on leaves infested with Macrosteles quadrilineatus. In contrast, pathogen populations among plants exposed to Frankliniella occidentalis or Myzus persicae were similar to those without insects. However, on plants infested with F. occidentalis, areas of the infested leaf with feeding damage sustained higher S. enterica populations than areas without damage. The spatial distribution of S. enterica cells on leaves infested with F. occidentalis may be altered resulting in higher populations in feeding lesions or survival may be different across a leaf dependent on local damage. Results suggest the possibility of some specificity with select insects and the persistence of S. enterica. Additionally, we demonstrated the potential for phytophagous insects to become contaminated with S. enterica from contaminated plant material. S. enterica was detected in approximately 50% of all M. quadrilineatus, F. occidentalis, and M. persicae after 24 h exposure to contaminated leaves. Particularly, 17% of F. occidentalis, the smallest of the insects tested, harbored more than 10(2) CFU/F. occidentalis. Our results show that phytophagous insects may influence the population dynamics of S. enterica in agricultural crops. This study provides evidence of a human bacterial pathogen interacting with phytophagous insect during plant infestation.

  17. Effectiveness of insecticide-treated and non-treated trap plants for the management of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in greenhouse ornamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Shipp, J Les; Jandricic, Sarah; Murphy, Graeme; Short, Mike

    2007-09-01

    The effectiveness of trap cropping as an integrated control strategy against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), was explored in potted chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflora (Tzvelev), greenhouse crops. The efficacy of flowering chrysanthemum trap plants, either treated with the insecticide spinosad or untreated, to regulate F. occidentalis populations was tested at different spatial scales (small cage, large cage and commercial greenhouse) and for different time periods (1 or 4 weeks). It was demonstrated that flowering chrysanthemums as trap plants lower the number of adult F. occidentalis in a vegetative chrysanthemum crop and, as a result, reduce crop damage. In the 4 week large-cage trial and the commercial trial, significant differences between the control and the trap plant treatments started to appear in the third week of the experiment. Larvae were only significantly reduced by the presence of trap plants in the 1 week small-cage trials. There were no significant differences between treatments with spinosad-treated and untreated trap plants in the number of F. occidentalis on the crop. This suggests that there was minimal movement of adult F. occidentalis back and forth between the trap plants and the crop to feed and oviposit. It is concluded that the trap plant strategy is a useful tool for integrated pest management against F. occidentalis in greenhouses. 2007 Crown in the right of Canada

  18. Variações anatômicas das cavidades paranasais à tomografia computadorizada multislice: o que procurar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Maia Nobre Rocha de Miranda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A tomografia computadorizada multislice é, atualmente, a modalidade de imagem de escolha para a avaliação dos seios paranasais e das estruturas adjacentes. Ela tem sido cada vez mais utilizada para a avaliação das variações anatômicas, identificando-as de forma precisa e com elevados detalhes anatômicos. Algumas variações anatômicas podem predispor a sinusopatias e constituir regiões de alto risco para lesões e complicações durante atos operatórios. Portanto, o reconhecimento dessas variações é de fundamental importância no pré-operatório de cirurgia endoscópica.

  19. Contabilização das variações da necessidade de capital de giro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Seidel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Quando se deseja iniciar uma atividade ou mesmo expandi-la, muito se analisa a necessidade de aplicações em ativos permanentes, mas pouca atenção é dedicada ao "investimento em clientes e estoques". Dessa forma a concessão de prazo para clientes ou a opção por um aumento nos níveis dos estoques, ambos valores contabilizados no ativo circulante, pode significar uma decisão de investimento tão ou mais duradoura do que aquela efetuada em ativos permanentes. A Necessidade de Capital de Giro (NCG, e suas variações, podem levar à falência muitas empresas, principalmente pequenas e médias. Além da preocupação monetária, uma empresa necessita garantir a manutenção de sua estrutura física, permanente e operacional, necessária para suas atividades. O lucro contabilizado através do Custo Corrente Corrigido (CCC, precisa de ajustes para ser considerado totalmente distribuível; sob nosso ponto de vista, as variações da NCG fazem parte desses ajustes. A idéia central deste artigo é a criação de uma Reserva de Capital denominada Reserva das Variações da Necessidade de Capital de Giro (RVNCG como forma de garantir a manutenção do capital físico da empresa, ajustando o lucro passível de distribuição através da contabilização das variações da NCG. Esse artigo está dividido em quatro partes. Na primeira, percorremos o embasamento teórico. No desenvolvimento, segunda parte, traçamos os objetivos, as premissas e descrevemos a criação e a contabilização da RVNCG. Na terceira parte, demonstramos a proposta do artigo através de três exemplos numéricos com os respectivos Balanços Patrimoniais e Demonstrações do Resultado, mostrando a utilização proposta da RVNCG; por fim, na quarta e última parte apresentamos nossas conclusões.When we want to begin or expand an activity, the need to invest in permanent assets is profoundly analyzed, but little attention is given to the investment in clients and inventories

  20. Variação anatômica venosa rara em membros inferiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Andreia de Moraes Silva

    Full Text Available Resumo A anatomia do sistema venoso dos membros inferiores é uma das mais complexas no corpo humano. Devido a essa condição, é de extrema importância saber identificar variações que possam acometê-la, como as malformações congênitas. Em casos de agenesia de veias profundas, como uma malformação vascular rara, o quadro clínico pode manifestar-se com insuficiência venosa crônica, que pode evoluir com edema, hiperpigmentação e úlcera de membro inferior. Assim, em muitos casos, torna-se uma doença incapacitante e de difícil tratamento. Apresenta-se um caso de agenesia de segmento venoso femoropoplíteo no membro inferior direito em paciente de 36 anos de idade, que cursou com edema e varizes de grosso calibre no membro acometido.

  1. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. N., Onu

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80 mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

  2. Senna occidentalis leaf extract possesses antitrypanosomal activity and ameliorates the trypanosome-induced anemia and organ damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M A; Aliyu, A B; Sallau, A B; Bashir, M; Yunusa, I; Umar, T S

    2010-05-01

    The in vitro and in vivo antitrypanosomal effects of the ethanol extract of Senna occidentalis leaf were investigated. The crude extract exhibited an in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei as it completely eliminated parasites' motility within 10 minutes postincubation with 6.66 mg/ml of effective extract concentration. The extract was further used to treat experimentally T. brucei brucei infected rats at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, beginning on day 5 post infections (p.i.). At the termination of the experiment on Day 11 p.i., the extract significantly (P occidentalis leaf possessed anti-T. brucei brucei activity and could ameliorate the disease-induced anemia and organ damage.

  3. Role of the Insect Supervectors Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis in the Emergence and Global Spread of Plant Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Robert L; Batuman, Ozgur; Webster, Craig G; Adkins, Scott

    2015-11-01

    Emergence of insect-transmitted plant viruses over the past 10-20 years has been disproportionately driven by two so-called supervectors: the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. High rates of reproduction and dispersal, extreme polyphagy, and development of insecticide resistance, together with human activities, have made these insects global pests. These supervectors transmit a diversity of plant viruses by different mechanisms and mediate virus emergence through local evolution, host shifts, mixed infections, and global spread. Associated virus evolution involves reassortment, recombination, and component capture. Emergence of B. tabaci-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses), ipomoviruses, and torradoviruses has led to global disease outbreaks as well as multiple paradigm shifts. Similarly, F. occidentalis has mediated tospovirus host shifts and global dissemination and the emergence of pollen-transmitted ilarviruses. The plant virus-supervector interaction offers exciting opportunities for basic research and global implementation of generalized disease management strategies to reduce economic and environmental impacts.

  4. Soil Chemical Changes and Growth of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F) Resulting from Untreated Petroleum Industry Effluent Application

    OpenAIRE

    , ER Orhue; , V Edosa; , V Eleta

    2016-01-01

    This article revealed the results of the impact of untreated petroleum industry effluent on some soil chemical properties and agronomic characters of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis).A completely randomized design was used. In this greenhouse trial, the following rates of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ml per 5 kg topsoil were used. The chemical properties determined in the soil treated with the effluent appreciated higher when compared to the control. The Exchangeable Acidity however d...

  5. The Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea: Preference between Lettuce Aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3rd instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in laboratory experiments at 25 ? 1? C and 70 ? 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar...

  6. Evaluation and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tao Zheng

    Full Text Available Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR has emerged as a reliable and reproducible technique for studying gene expression analysis. For accurate results, the normalization of data with reference genes is particularly essential. Once the transcriptome sequencing of Frankliniella occidentalis was completed, numerous unigenes were identified and annotated. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of reference genes used in F. occidentalis. In this work, seven candidate reference genes, including actin, 18S rRNA, H3, tubulin, GAPDH, EF-1 and RPL32, were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different experimental conditions using the statistical software programs BestKeeper, geNorm, Normfinder and the comparative ΔCt method. Because the rankings of the reference genes provided by each of the four programs were different, we chose a user-friendly web-based comprehensive tool RefFinder to get the final ranking. The result demonstrated that EF-1 and RPL32 displayed the most stable expression in different developmental stages; RPL32 and GAPDH showed the most stable expression at high temperatures, while 18S and EF-1 exhibited the most stable expression at low temperatures. In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes in F. occidentalis for gene expression profiling under different experimental conditions. The choice of internal standard is very important in the normalization of the target gene expression levels, thus validating and selecting the best genes will help improve the quality of gene expression data of F. occidentalis. What is more, these validated reference genes could serve as the basis for the selection of candidate reference genes in other insects.

  7. Combined effects of temperature and avermectins on life history and stress response of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Bo; Zheng, Yu-Tao; Sun, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jian-Jun; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Temperature and pesticide are two important factors that affect survival, reproduction and other physiological processes of insects. To determine interactions of elevated temperature and avermectins treatment on the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, newly emerged adults were exposed to combinations of three temperatures (21, 26 and 33 °C) and two avermectins concentrations (0, 45 ppm), and survival rate, reproduction, longevity, antioxidant enzymes activities and heat shock proteins (hsps) induction were analyzed. The results showed that the survival, longevity and reproduction of F. occidentalis decreased with increased temperature and avermectins treatment. While elevated temperature and avermectins treatment significantly decreased activity of SOD, activities of POD and GST significantly increased after exposure to elevated temperature, avermectins or their combination. Elevated temperature had no effect on activity of CAT, but it was obviously improved by the combination of temperature and avermectins treatment. Expression analysis of hsps showed that four heat shock proteins (hsp90, hsc702, hsp60 and hop) were up-regulated by the induction of elevated temperature with small fold changes. After treatment with avermectins, expression levels of hsp90, hsc701, hsc702 and hop were significantly up-regulated with increased temperature and higher than those of their respective control at higher temperature. Surprisingly, expression level of hps60 was down-regulated with increased temperature, but the expression level at 21 or 26 °C remained higher than that of control. Overall, our studies suggest that elevated temperature enhance toxicity of avermectins and their combination induced acute oxidative damage to F. occidentalis. Therefore, consideration of temperature in evaluating avermectins toxicity is necessary to make accurate prediction of its effect on F. occidentalis and other insects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictive Models for Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Spread Dynamics, Considering Frankliniella occidentalis Specific Life Processes as Influenced by the Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Akoth Ogada

    Full Text Available Several models have been studied on predictive epidemics of arthropod vectored plant viruses in an attempt to bring understanding to the complex but specific relationship between the three cornered pathosystem (virus, vector and host plant, as well as their interactions with the environment. A large body of studies mainly focuses on weather based models as management tool for monitoring pests and diseases, with very few incorporating the contribution of vector's life processes in the disease dynamics, which is an essential aspect when mitigating virus incidences in a crop stand. In this study, we hypothesized that the multiplication and spread of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV in a crop stand is strongly related to its influences on Frankliniella occidentalis preferential behavior and life expectancy. Model dynamics of important aspects in disease development within TSWV-F. occidentalis-host plant interactions were developed, focusing on F. occidentalis' life processes as influenced by TSWV. The results show that the influence of TSWV on F. occidentalis preferential behaviour leads to an estimated increase in relative acquisition rate of the virus, and up to 33% increase in transmission rate to healthy plants. Also, increased life expectancy; which relates to improved fitness, is dependent on the virus induced preferential behaviour, consequently promoting multiplication and spread of the virus in a crop stand. The development of vector-based models could further help in elucidating the role of tri-trophic interactions in agricultural disease systems. Use of the model to examine the components of the disease process could also boost our understanding on how specific epidemiological characteristics interact to cause diseases in crops. With this level of understanding we can efficiently develop more precise control strategies for the virus and the vector.

  9. Predictive Models for Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Spread Dynamics, Considering Frankliniella occidentalis Specific Life Processes as Influenced by the Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Pamella Akoth; Moualeu, Dany Pascal; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Several models have been studied on predictive epidemics of arthropod vectored plant viruses in an attempt to bring understanding to the complex but specific relationship between the three cornered pathosystem (virus, vector and host plant), as well as their interactions with the environment. A large body of studies mainly focuses on weather based models as management tool for monitoring pests and diseases, with very few incorporating the contribution of vector's life processes in the disease dynamics, which is an essential aspect when mitigating virus incidences in a crop stand. In this study, we hypothesized that the multiplication and spread of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in a crop stand is strongly related to its influences on Frankliniella occidentalis preferential behavior and life expectancy. Model dynamics of important aspects in disease development within TSWV-F. occidentalis-host plant interactions were developed, focusing on F. occidentalis' life processes as influenced by TSWV. The results show that the influence of TSWV on F. occidentalis preferential behaviour leads to an estimated increase in relative acquisition rate of the virus, and up to 33% increase in transmission rate to healthy plants. Also, increased life expectancy; which relates to improved fitness, is dependent on the virus induced preferential behaviour, consequently promoting multiplication and spread of the virus in a crop stand. The development of vector-based models could further help in elucidating the role of tri-trophic interactions in agricultural disease systems. Use of the model to examine the components of the disease process could also boost our understanding on how specific epidemiological characteristics interact to cause diseases in crops. With this level of understanding we can efficiently develop more precise control strategies for the virus and the vector.

  10. Proteomic analysis of Frankliniella occidentalis and differentially expressed proteins in response to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Vargas, I E; Rotenberg, D; Schneweis, D J; Hiromasa, Y; Tomich, J M; Whitfield, A E

    2012-08-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis in a persistent propagative manner. Despite the extensive replication of TSWV in midgut and salivary glands, there is little to no pathogenic effect on F. occidentalis. We hypothesize that the first-instar larva (L1) of F. occidentalis mounts a response to TSWV that protects it from pathogenic effects caused by virus infection and replication in various insect tissues. A partial thrips transcriptome was generated using 454-Titanium sequencing of cDNA generated from F. occidentalis exposed to TSWV. Using these sequences, the L1 thrips proteome that resolved on a two-dimensional gel was characterized. Forty-seven percent of the resolved protein spots were identified using the thrips transcriptome. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) analysis of virus titer in L1 thrips revealed a significant increase in the normalized abundance of TSWV nucleocapsid RNA from 2 to 21 h after a 3-h acquisition access period on virus-infected plant tissue, indicative of infection and accumulation of virus. We compared the proteomes of infected and noninfected L1s to identify proteins that display differential abundances in response to virus. Using four biological replicates, 26 spots containing 37 proteins were significantly altered in response to TSWV. Gene ontology assignments for 32 of these proteins revealed biological roles associated with the infection cycle of other plant- and animal-infecting viruses and antiviral defense responses. Our findings support the hypothesis that L1 thrips display a complex reaction to TSWV infection and provide new insights toward unraveling the molecular basis of this interaction.

  11. Evaluation and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Tao; Li, Hong-Bo; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) has emerged as a reliable and reproducible technique for studying gene expression analysis. For accurate results, the normalization of data with reference genes is particularly essential. Once the transcriptome sequencing of Frankliniella occidentalis was completed, numerous unigenes were identified and annotated. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of reference genes used in F. occidentalis. In this work, seven candidate reference genes, including actin, 18S rRNA, H3, tubulin, GAPDH, EF-1 and RPL32, were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different experimental conditions using the statistical software programs BestKeeper, geNorm, Normfinder and the comparative ΔCt method. Because the rankings of the reference genes provided by each of the four programs were different, we chose a user-friendly web-based comprehensive tool RefFinder to get the final ranking. The result demonstrated that EF-1 and RPL32 displayed the most stable expression in different developmental stages; RPL32 and GAPDH showed the most stable expression at high temperatures, while 18S and EF-1 exhibited the most stable expression at low temperatures. In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes in F. occidentalis for gene expression profiling under different experimental conditions. The choice of internal standard is very important in the normalization of the target gene expression levels, thus validating and selecting the best genes will help improve the quality of gene expression data of F. occidentalis. What is more, these validated reference genes could serve as the basis for the selection of candidate reference genes in other insects.

  12. Croissance de Auchenoglanis occidentalis (Pisces, Claroteidae dans le Delta Central du Niger (Mali, Afrique de l'ouest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niaré, T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth of Auchenoglanis occidentalis (Pisces, Claroteidae in the Central Delta of Niger River Flood Plain (Mali, West Africa. Growth biology of Auchenoglanis occidentalis (Valenciennes, 1840 is studied from individuals monthly sampled on two different annual cycles (1991 and 1997 in the fishing port of Mopti. Individual age of fishes was determined by squelettochronology. Chronological follow-up of relative margin diameter (dr of spine ray section was used for validation of the periodicity of annulus formation. Only one annulus is formed annually. Period of growth recovery shows an individual variability with an early starting up from the lowwater level, in May. The seasonal cycle of growth of this benthic fish, A. occidentalis, depends more on the availability of the trophic resources than of abiotic factors. However, the optimal period of growth always remains the high-water one in this river with flood plain. Fishes condition factor's varies between 1.97±0.27 à 2.57±0.41. Year x season interaction affects this parameter. Growth realized during the first year (189.17±4.57 and 261.25±12.19 mm as well as the later growths depend on hydrological conditions and are influenced by fishing pressure. Presence of 3+ age class fishes shows that demographic structure is not qualitatively modified despite changes arisen in the Delta.

  13. Toxic effects of oral 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Craig A., E-mail: craig.a.mcfarland@us.army.mi [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Quinn, Michael J. [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Boyce, John [Biotechnics, LLC, Hillsborough, NC 27278 (United States); LaFiandra, Emily M.; Bazar, Matthew A. [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Talent, Larry G. [Oklahoma State University, Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Johnson, Mark S. [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The compound 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT) was evaluated under laboratory conditions in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to assess the potential for reptile toxicity. Oral LD{sub 50} values were 1406 and 1867 mg/kg for male and female lizards, respectively. Based on responses from a 14-day subacute study, a 60-day subchronic experiment followed where lizards were orally dosed at 0, 5, 15, 20, 25, 30 mg/kg-d. At day 60, number of days and survivors, food consumption, and change in body weight were inversely related to dose. Signs of toxicity were characterized by anorexia and generalized cachexia. Significant adverse histopathology was observed in hepatic tissue at {>=}15 mg/kg-d, consistent with hepatocellular transdifferentiation. Based on survival, loss of body weight, diminished food intake, changes in liver, kidney, and testes, and increased blood urea nitrogen, these data suggest a LOAEL of 15 mg/kg-d and a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg-d in S. occidentalis. - Research highlights: Oral LD{sub 50} (mg/kg) values were 1406 for male and 1867 for female lizards. Dose-dependent hepatocellular transdifferentiation was observed at {>=}5 mg/kg-d. Chromaturia in 2A-DNT and the parent TNT suggest biomarkers of exposure and effect. Health effects of metabolites support comprehensive ecological risk assessments. - The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a suitable reptile model for assessing the toxicity of energetic compounds and their metabolites.

  14. Toxic effects of oral 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, Craig A.; Quinn, Michael J.; Boyce, John; LaFiandra, Emily M.; Bazar, Matthew A.; Talent, Larry G.; Johnson, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    The compound 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT) was evaluated under laboratory conditions in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to assess the potential for reptile toxicity. Oral LD 50 values were 1406 and 1867 mg/kg for male and female lizards, respectively. Based on responses from a 14-day subacute study, a 60-day subchronic experiment followed where lizards were orally dosed at 0, 5, 15, 20, 25, 30 mg/kg-d. At day 60, number of days and survivors, food consumption, and change in body weight were inversely related to dose. Signs of toxicity were characterized by anorexia and generalized cachexia. Significant adverse histopathology was observed in hepatic tissue at ≥15 mg/kg-d, consistent with hepatocellular transdifferentiation. Based on survival, loss of body weight, diminished food intake, changes in liver, kidney, and testes, and increased blood urea nitrogen, these data suggest a LOAEL of 15 mg/kg-d and a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg-d in S. occidentalis. - Research highlights: → Oral LD 50 (mg/kg) values were 1406 for male and 1867 for female lizards. → Dose-dependent hepatocellular transdifferentiation was observed at ≥5 mg/kg-d. → Chromaturia in 2A-DNT and the parent TNT suggest biomarkers of exposure and effect. → Health effects of metabolites support comprehensive ecological risk assessments. - The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a suitable reptile model for assessing the toxicity of energetic compounds and their metabolites.

  15. Proximate, Anti-Nutrient and Vitamin Composition of Full-Fat and Defatted Seed Flour of Telfairia occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetunde Alozie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to determine the proximate and anti-nutrient composition of full-fat and defatted seed flour of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin using standard procedures. The defatted seed flour (DSF indicated higher protein content (46.55% while the full-fat seed flour (FSF presented a value of 10.20%. The lipid (35.78%, carbohydrate (42.27%, and caloric values (531.90 Kcal/100 g obtained for FSF were respectively higher than values of similar determinations for DSF. The anti-nutritional analyses of the FSF showed slightly higher oxalate content (44.00 mg/100 g while cyanide, phytate and tannin levels were higher in DSF. The vitamin A composition of FSF (9.18 mg/100 g was higher than that of DSF (0.84 mg/100 g while DSF indicated higher vitamin C (74.44 mg/100g content. These results revealed that the seed flour of Telfairia occidentalis contains an appreciable amount of nutrients and vitamins. The levels of toxicants in both FSF and DSF samples were low and below toxic levels. The seed flour of Telfairia occidentalis can be exploited as a cheap and valuable source of vegetable protein in fortified food products formulation.

  16. Esterase isoenzymes and insecticide resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis populations from the south-east region of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soler, Neus; Cervera, Amelia; Moores, Graham D; Martínez-Pardo, Rafael; Garcerá, M Dolores

    2008-12-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is among the most important crop pests in the south-east region of Spain; its increasing resistance to insecticides constitutes a serious problem, and understanding the mechanisms involved is therefore of great interest. To this end, F. occidentalis populations, collected from the field at different locations in south-east Spain, were studied in terms of total esterase activity and esterase isoenzyme pattern. Individual thrips extracts were analysed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and stained for esterase activity with the model substrate alpha-naphthyl acetate. Significant correlations were found between resistance to the insecticides acrinathrin and methiocarb and the presence of a group of three intensely stained bands, named Triplet A. For each individual thrips extract, total esterase activity towards the substrates alpha-naphthyl acetate and alpha-naphthyl butyrate was also measured in a microplate reader. Insects possessing Triplet A showed a significantly higher alpha-naphthyl acetate specific activity and alpha-naphthyl acetate/alpha-naphthyl butyrate activity ratio. This observation allowed a reliable classification of susceptible or resistant insects either by PAGE analysis or by total esterase activity determination. The PAGE and microplate assays described can be used as a monitoring technique for detecting acrinathrin- and methiocarb-resistant individuals among F. occidentalis field populations.

  17. Host plant, temperature, and photoperiod effects on ovipositional preference of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisuekul, C; Riley, D G

    2005-12-01

    Host plant effects of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., and chickweed, Stellaria media (L.) Vill., foliage infected and uninfected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) on the ovipositional preferences of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), were investigated for whole plants in the greenhouse. In addition, the preference for leaf disks from the same host plants was investigated under a range of temperatures, 15-30 degrees C at a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, and at three photoperiods, 6:18, 12:12, and 18:6, at 20 degrees C in no-choice and choice studies conducted in growth chambers. In a choice test, F. fusca oviposited significantly more eggs per whole plant foliage over a 7-d period than F. occidentalis by an average ratio of 3:1 over both tomato and chickweed. The optimum temperature for oviposition of F. occidentalis and F. fusca was 24.5 and 24.9 degrees C, respectively. Both species laid significantly more eggs under the longest daylight hours tested, 18:6, in the choice study. Temperature and photoperiod did not significantly interact in terms of thrips ovipositional preference. Ovipositional preference for chickweed or tomato foliage was different for each thrips species in the choice and no-choice tests. However, both thrips species laid significantly more eggs per square centimeter of leaf area in chickweed than in tomato in the whole plant choice test.

  18. Tomato plant and leaf age effects on the probing and settling behavior of Frankliniella fusca and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, P Houston; Riley, David G

    2008-02-01

    The effect of tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L., plant and leaf age on the probing and settling behavior of Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and F. occidentalis (Pergande) was studied using electrical penetration graph technique and whole plant bioassays. Male and female F. fusca probed and ingested more and for longer periods of time on 3- and 4-wk-old plants compared with 6- and 8-wk-old plants. Female F. fusca probed and ingested more frequently than males in the plant age experiment, but not in the leaf age experiment. F. fusca probed and ingested more frequently on 2- and 4-wk-old leaves compared with 1-wk-old leaves. Plant age did not affect the probing frequency or duration of F. occidentalis; however, males probed and ingested longer than females in the plant age experiment and on the oldest leaf in the leaf age experiment. Both thrips species preferred to settle on 3-wk-old plants. F. fusca preferred to settle on 4-wk-old leaves after settling randomly for an hour. F. occidentalis showed no settling preference relative to leaf age. The preference of F. fusca for young plants suggests that this species could attack tomato plants at a very early stage, which is important for understanding its role as a vector in the transmission of Tospovirus in the field.

  19. Estimating inbreeding rates in Northern Spotted Owls: insights from pedigrees and spatio-demographic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The federally-threatened Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has a substantial influence on management of federal lands. Despite decades of investigation, important details about its status and habits remain unknown. In particular, determining the frequency of inbre...

  20. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO VARIA L.) GENETICLALY ENGINEERED TO EXPRESS A HUMAN METALLOTHIONEIN (HMT) GENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of these studies were two-fold: (1) to determine efficacy of low and high expression hMT gene constructs by assessing accumulation of Cu in shoots of parental and transgenic plants of alfalfa (Medicago varia L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO4 by addit...

  1. Sub-Chronic Toxicity of the Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Hook. f. (Cucurbitaceae in Male Rats

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    Abidemi J. Akindele

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to its nutritional and medicinal values, the leaf of Telfairia occidentalis Hook f. (Cucurbitaceae is consumed in different parts of Nigeria. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis were investigated in this study. Methods: Sixty-four male rats were randomized into four different groups of 16 animals each and were separately administered 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg T. occidentalis orally (p.o. for 60 days. Animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical analyses. Vital organs were harvested and evaluated for in vivo antioxidants and histopathological changes. Results: A significant (p < 0.05 reduction in weight of the testes, compared to the control group, was observed in the group treated with 2000 mg/kg extract. No significant change was observed in the weight of other vital organs relative to the control group. There were significant (p < 0.01 increases in sperm motility and count in the group administered 80 mg/kg extract and significant (p < 0.001 reductions in both parameters at 2000 mg/kg. There were significant increases in the levels of hemoglobin and packed cell volume at 80 and 2000 mg/kg of the extract. In respect of liver function parameters, significant reductions in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels at doses of 400 and 2000 mg/kg relative to control were observed. Compared to control, the extract significantly reduced (p < 0.05 the level of total cholesterol (400 mg/kg and caused a significant increase in the level of high-density lipoprotein (80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg. Significant (p < 0.05 increase in the level of malondialdehyde, decrease in superoxide dismutase level and histopathological abnormalities were observed in the testes at 2000 mg/kg. Upon cessation of treatment with T. occidentalis for 30 days, the observed effects were reversed. Conclusions: The findings showed that the hydroethanolic

  2. An evaluation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) performance on different plant leaves based on life history characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Di; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Fang; Bei, Ya-Wei; Lin, Wen-Cai; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    To compare the performance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and native Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) on cucumber and tomato leaves in laboratory, life history characters were investigated, and life tables were constructed using the method of age-stage, two-sex table life. Compared with tomato leaf, there were shorter total preoviposition period (TPOP), higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher intrinsic rate of increase (r) of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa on cucumber leaf. Meanwhile, on cucumber leaf, the shorter TPOP, higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher value of r were found on population of F. intonsa but on tomato leaf which were found on population of F. occidentalis. From above, cucumber leaf was the preference to population development of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa compared with tomato leaf. Nevertheless, on cucumber leaf, population of F. intonsa would grow faster than that of F. occidentalis, which was the opposite on tomato leaf. As to the population development in fields, much more factors would be taken into account, such as pollen, insecticide resistance, and effects of natural enemies etc. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  3. Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae): A Review of its Pharmaceutical, Pharmacological and Clinical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Belal; Bodinet, Cornelia; Tegtmeier, Martin; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2005-03-01

    Arbor vitae (Thuja occidentalis L.) is a native European tree widely used in homeopathy and evidence-based phytotherapy. Many reviews and monographs have been published on the herbal substance's description, mode of action and clinical use. However, no comprehensive evidence-based review is available. Therefore, our aim was to search MEDLINE databases and survey manufacturers for further details or unpublished data. This review presents the botany, ethnobotany and phytochemistry, especially the different contents of essential oil (Thujone) in relation to different extraction procedures of this medicinal plant. Thuja's antiviral action and immunopharmacological potential, such as stimulatory and co-stimulatory effects on cytokine and antibody production and activation of macrophages and other immunocompetent cells, have been evaluated in numerous in vitro and in vivo investigations. Although no controlled trials have been conducted on Thuja occ alone, many clinical studies have been performed with a herbal medicinal product containing a special extract of Thuja occ and other immunostimulants, demonstrating its therapeutic efficacy and safety in respiratory tract infections.

  4. Floral Biology of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F.

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    Lawrence Stephen FAYEUN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of floral biology is essential to crop improvement. Ten genotypes of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis were observed for floral morphology, phenology and insect visitation for two consecutive years. Functional dioecy of fluted pumpkin was confirmed, whereas none of the studied genotypes was monoecious. Floral structures differed significantly among the genotypes. Both male and female flowers were symmetrical, pentasepalous, fimbriate and non-bright pentapetalous, but male flowers were more numerous. Male inflorescences emerged from 11 to 14 weeks after planting and the female flower buds appeared about 4 weeks later. The flowering period of the male flowers was longer than that of female flowers and both gender flowering periods coincided for a specific interval. It took between 11 to 14 days from bud initiation to anthesis and flowering ceased when there were occurrences of successful fruits set. In both gender flowers petals started unfurling at around 6.00 pm and full bloom was achieved by dawn, while petal shrivelled at sun set (between 6.30 pm to 7.30 pm. The anthers dehisced at anthesis of the male flowers; the pollen grains were whitish and sticky. Only the male flowers have nectar and pollen and this may explain infrequent female flowers visitation. Hover flies (Cheilosia species were the major floral visitors observed.

  5. Biogenic Nanoparticles from Schwanniomyces occidentalis NCIM 3459: Mechanistic Aspects and Catalytic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, Pallavi; Apte, Mugdha; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita

    2016-06-01

    When cells of Schwanniomyces occidentalis NCIM 3459 were incubated with 1 mM tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) or silver nitrate (AgNO3), cell-associated nanoparticles were obtained. Their presence was confirmed by scanning electron microscope observations. The cell-free supernatant (CFS) of the yeast mediated the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. On account of the difficulties associated with the use of cell-bound nanoparticles, further work was restricted to extracellular nanoparticles. It was hypothesized that the CFS contained thermostable biomolecule(s) that mediated metal reduction reactions. Extraction of the CFS with chloroform/methanol (2:1) and subsequent separation by preparative thin layer chromatography led to the activity-guided purification of a glycolipid. The glycolipid was hydrolyzed and the glycone (glucose) and aglycone components (palmitic acid and oleic acid) were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The purified glycolipid mediated the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles that were characterized by using an X-ray diffractometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The extracellular nanoparticles displayed catalytic activities and reduced 4-nitroaniline to benzene-1,4-diamine. This paper thus highlights nanoparticle synthesis by a hitherto unreported yeast culture, identifies the biomolecules involved in the process, and describes a potential application of the nanostructures.

  6. Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae: A Review of its Pharmaceutical, Pharmacological and Clinical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Naser

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arbor vitae (Thuja occidentalis L. is a native European tree widely used in homeopathy and evidence-based phytotherapy. Many reviews and monographs have been published on the herbal substance's description, mode of action and clinical use. However, no comprehensive evidence-based review is available. Therefore, our aim was to search MEDLINE databases and survey manufacturers for further details or unpublished data. This review presents the botany, ethnobotany and phytochemistry, especially the different contents of essential oil (Thujone in relation to different extraction procedures of this medicinal plant. Thuja's antiviral action and immunopharmacological potential, such as stimulatory and co-stimulatory effects on cytokine and antibody production and activation of macrophages and other immunocompetent cells, have been evaluated in numerous in vitro and in vivo investigations. Although no controlled trials have been conducted on Thuja occ alone, many clinical studies have been performed with a herbal medicinal product containing a special extract of Thuja occ and other immunostimulants, demonstrating its therapeutic efficacy and safety in respiratory tract infections.

  7. The effects of low doses of Senna occidentalis seeds on broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, M; Dagli, M L Z; Raspantini, P C; Górniak, S L

    2003-05-01

    The effects of 0.5%, 0.3% and 0.1% w/w concentrations of Senna occidentalis (So) seed mixed with commercial ration were studied in 18 groups of 32 broiler chicks each, from 1 day to 49 days of age. Three groups were fed one of the rations throughout their lives (TL). Three other groups were fed one of the rations from the 1st to the 28th day of life (starter phase, SP), and the final 3 groups were fed one of the rations from the 29th to 49th day (finisher phase, FP). Each experimental group was matched by a control group fed the same diet over the same period but without the inclusion of So. All the animals were killed at 49 days of age, and blood was collected from 10 birds in each group for biochemical studies (ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, UA). A complete necropsy was performed on 3 birds from each group. No significant differences in the biochemical parameters in the serum were found between the control and experimental chicks, but animals treated with 0.5% So in groups FP and TL, gained less weight and chicks that received 0.3% So or 0.5% So in the ration throughout life (TL) had a larger feed conversion ratio. Besides this, degenerative changes were found in the striated skeletal muscle in the chest, in the myocardium and in the liver in the animals that received the higher concentrations of So seeds.

  8. Esterase inhibition by synergists in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soler, Neus; Cervera, Amelia; Quinto, Vicente; Abellán, Jaime; Bielza, Pablo; Martínez-Pardo, Rafael; Garcerá, Maria Dolores

    2011-12-01

    Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is among the most important crop pests in the south-eastern region of Spain. Its increasing resistance to insecticides constitutes a serious problem, and understanding the mechanisms involved is therefore of great interest. Use of synergists to inhibit the enzymes involved in insecticide detoxification is widely used to determine their responsibility for insecticide resistance. However, they do not always act as intended or expected, and caution must be exercised when interpreting synergist results. Laboratory-selected strains of WFT were used to analyse the effects of the synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) and methiocarb on total esterase activity. Significant differences were found, indicating esterase activity inhibition by DEF, a lower effect for methiocarb and a small inhibition of the activity by PBO. Esterase isoenzyme inhibition by these compounds showed a similar result; this assay revealed an extreme sensitivity of Triplet A (resistance-associated esterases) to DEF. In an in vivo assay carried out with these compounds at different incubation times, only DEF caused posterior in vitro esterase activity inhibition, with a maximum effect 1 h after treatment. In this work, only DEF shows true synergistic inhibition of WFT esterases. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effects of heat stress on survival of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J C; Zhang, B; Wang, J P; Li, H G; Wang, S F; Sun, L J; Zheng, C Y

    2014-08-01

    Temperature is known to play a crucial role in the population dynamics of insects. Insects have evolved different mechanisms to resist unfavorable extreme temperatures. In recent years, western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), have caused significant damage to vegetable crops. Because of global warming and expanding areas of vegetable cultivation, a study of the effects of heat stress on these thrips species is warranted. We exposed the various developmental stages of western flower thrips and onion thrips to temperatures of 41, 43, or 45 degrees C for 2, 6, 12, 24, or 36 h to determine the effects of heat stress on survival. Our results showed that the heat resistance of nonadult western flower thrips was greater than that of the nonadult onion thrips, and that the natural heat resistant ability was the primary factor in heat resistance in western flower thrips. In contrast, the heat resistance of adult onion thrips was greater than that of the adult western flower thrips, which was primarily the result of the ability of searching suitable microenvironment that enabled the onion thrips to mitigate the effects of high temperatures more efficiently than the western flower thrips. Our analysis of the differences in heat resistance between western flower thrips and onion thrips provides important information for the development of thermal treatments for controlling western flower thrips and onion thrips.

  10. Habituation in Frankliniella occidentalis to deterrent plant compounds and their blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Barbara; Spangl, Bernhard; Koschier, Elisabeth Helene

    2014-06-01

    Feeding and oviposition deterrence of three secondary plant compounds and their 1:1 blends to adult female Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and the potential for habituation of the thrips to the pure compounds and the 1:1 blends at various concentrations were investigated. In choice assays, we tested dose-dependent feeding and oviposition deterrence of the two fatty acid derivatives methyl jasmonate and cis -jasmone, the phenylpropanoid allylanisole, and their blends when directly applied to bean leaf discs. The concentration required to reduce the feeding damage by 50% relative to the control treatment (FDC 50 ) was lowest for cis -jasmone and highest for allylanisole. The feeding deterrent effect of both jasmonates was increased when blended with allylanisole. Feeding deterrence and oviposition deterrence were strongly correlated. In no-choice assays conducted over four consecutive days, we discovered that dilutions at low concentrations (FDC 15 ) applied to bean leaves resulted in habituation to the deterrents, whereas no habituation occurred at higher concentrations (FDC 50 ). We observed a tendency that the 1:1 blends reduce the probability that thrips habituate to the deterrent compounds. Our results may be useful in the development of integrated crop protection strategies with the implementation of allelochemicals as pest behaviour-modifying agents.

  11. Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) integrated pest management programs for fruiting vegetables in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirozer, Ozan; Tyler-Julian, Kara; Funderburk, Joe; Leppla, Norm; Reitz, Stuart

    2012-12-01

    The spread of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), resulted in the worldwide destabilization of established integrated pest management programs for many crops. Efforts to control the pest and the thrips-vectored tospoviruses with calendar applications of broad-spectrum insecticides have been unsuccessful. The result has been a classic '3-R' situation: resistance to numerous insecticides; resurgence of the western flower thrips populations as a result of natural predators and native competitor thrips being eliminated; replacement by various other pests. This paper reports on integrated pest management programs for fruiting vegetables that are effective, economical, ecologically sound and sustainable. The components include the following: define pest status (economic thresholds); increase biotic resistance (natural enemies and competition); integrate preventive and therapeutic tactics (scouting, ultraviolet-reflective technologies, biological control, compatible insecticides, companion plants and fertility); vertically integrate the programs with other pests; continually communicate latest science-based management tactics with end-users. These programs have been widely implemented in Florida and have significantly improved the management of western flower thrips and thrips-transmitted viruses. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Pyrethrins protect pyrethrum leaves against attack by western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Stoopen, Geert; Wiegers, Gerrie; Mao, Jing; Wang, Caiyun; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2012-04-01

    Pyrethrins are active ingredients extracted from pyrethrum flowers (Tanacetum cinerariifolium), and are the most widely used botanical insecticide. However, several thrips species are commonly found on pyrethrum flowers in the field, and are the dominant insects found inside the flowers. Up to 80% of western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis) adults died within 3 days of initiating feeding on leaves of pyrethrum, leading us to evaluate the role of pyrethrins in the defense of pyrethrum leaves against WFT. The effects of pyrethrins on WFT survival, feeding behavior, and reproduction were measured both in vitro and in planta (infiltrated leaves). The lethal concentration value (LC50) for pyrethrins against WFT adults was 12.9 mg/ml, and pyrethrins at 0.1% (w/v) and 1% (w/v) had significantly negative effects on feeding, embryo development, and oviposition. About 20-70% of WFT were killed within 2 days when they were fed chrysanthemum leaves containing 0.01-1% pyrethrins. Chrysanthemum leaves containing 0.1% or 1% pyrethrins were significantly deterrent to WFT. In a no-choice assay, the reproduction of WFT was reduced significantly when the insects were fed leaves containing 0.1% pyrethrins, and no eggs were found in leaves containing 1% pyrethrins. Our results suggest that the natural concentrations of pyrethrins in the leaves may be responsible for the observed high mortality of WFT on pyrethrum.

  13. Impact of production system on development of insecticide resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, P; Quinto, V; Grávalos, C; Fernández, E; Abellán, J

    2008-10-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become one of the most difficult insects to control in the intensive agriculture of southeastern Spain. However, resistance problems are quite different in two neighboring areas, Murcia and Almeria, with distinct production systems. Thirty-six field populations of western flower thrips from sweet pepper crops were collected in two different dates in Murcia and Almeria in 2005 and 2006. Western flower thrips populations collected were exposed to a diagnostic concentration of spinosad, methiocarb, acrinathrin, and formetanate. The results allowed the recognition of higher levels of resistance in Almeria compared with Murcia throughout the growing season. The mortality at the diagnostic concentration for spinosad (120 ppm) in western flower thrips populations ranged from 34 to 81% in Almeria, and from 73 to 100% in Murcia. The mortalities at the diagnostic concentration to acrinathrin (800 ppm) and formetanate (8000 ppm) were 17-31% in Almeria and 77-100% in Murcia, and 14-41% in Almeria and 48-99% in Murcia, respectively, indicating large geographic variations. Toxicity of methiocarb was higher for western flower thrips populations from both areas. However, mortality at the diagnostic concentration of methiocarb (2000 ppm) varied from 56 to 90% in Almeria, and it was from 94 to 100% in Murcia. The impact of production systems and agricultural practices of each area on the development and stability of insecticide resistance is discussed.

  14. Biotic resistance limits the invasiveness of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburk, Joe; Frantz, Galen; Mellinger, Charles; Tyler-Julian, Kara; Srivastava, Mrittunjai

    2016-04-01

    The spread of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), has resulted in the world-wide destabilization of established integrated pest management programs for many crops. It is hypothesized that frequent exposure to insecticides in intensive agriculture selected for resistant populations, which allowed invasive populations in the eastern USA to overcome biotic resistance from the native community of species. Research conducted in Florida to understand the role of biotic factors in limiting the abundance of the western flower thrips is reviewed. Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) are effective predators that suppress populations of thrips on crop and non-crop hosts in southern and northern Florida. Orius are more effective predators of the western flower thrips than the native flower thrips, F. tritici (Fitch) and F. bispinosa (Morgan). The native species are competitors of the western flower thrips. Excessive fertilization and the use of broad-spectrum insecticides in crop fields further enhances populations of the western flower thrips. Interactions with native species clearly limit the abundance of western flower thrips in Florida, but populations are abundant in fertilized crop fields where application of insecticides excludes predators and competitor species. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Thiamethoxam acts as a target-site synergist of spinosad in resistant strains of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Juan; Bielza, Pablo

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the resistance mechanism towards spinosad in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is an altered target site. Like the neonicotinoids, the spinosyns act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in insects, but at a distinct site. The changes in nAChRs related to spinosad resistance in thrips might involve interaction with neonicotinoids. In this study, the efficacy of spinosad and neonicotinoids, alone and in combination, was evaluated in susceptible and spinosad-resistant thrips strains. The neonicotinoids tested were imidacloprid, thiacloprid, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin. No cross-resistance was shown between spinosad and any of the neonicotinoids. However, an increased toxicity was observed when a mixture of spinosad with thiamethoxam or clothianidin was tested. No synergism was found in the susceptible strains. The more spinosad-resistant the thrips strain, the stronger was the synergism. Data suggest that spinosad and thiamethoxam may interact at the nAChRs in spinosad-resistant thrips, facilitating enhanced insecticidal action. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Characterization of bacterial symbionts in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Western flower thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanbusarakum, Lisa; Ullman, Diane

    2008-11-01

    Many insects have associations with bacteria, although it is often difficult to determine the intricacies of the relationships. In one such case, facultative bacteria have been discovered in a major crop pest and virus vector, the Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Several bacterial isolates have been studied in Netherlands greenhouse thrips populations, with molecular data indicating that these bacteria were similar to Escherichia coli, although biochemical properties suggested these microbes might actually be most similar to plant pathogenic bacteria in the genus Erwinia. We focused on the bacterial flora of the Hawaiian Islands thrips population where these gut bacteria were first reported in 1989. We also analyzed a German population and a 1965 California population preserved in ethanol. Culture and culture-independent techniques revealed a consistent microflora that was similar to the Netherlands isolates studied. The similarity among thrips microbes from multiple populations and environments suggested these bacteria and their hosts share a widespread association. Molecular phylogeny based on the 16S rRNA gene and biochemical analysis of thrips bacteria suggested two distinctive groups of microbes are present in thrips. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed support for one thrips bacterial group having a shared ancestry with Erwinia, whereas the second group of thrips bacteria fell out with E. coli, but without support. Although species-specific relationships were indeterminable due to the conservative nature of 16S, there is strong indication that thrips symbionts belong to two different genera and originated from environmental microbes.

  17. Bulk development and stringent selection of microsatellite markers in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li-Jun; Li, Ze-Min; Wang, Ze-Hua; Zhu, Liang; Gong, Ya-Jun; Chen, Min; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-05-20

    Recent improvements in next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled investigation of microsatellites on a genome-wide scale. Faced with a huge amount of candidates, the use of appropriate marker selection criteria is crucial. Here, we used the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis for an empirical microsatellite survey and validation; 132,251 candidate microsatellites were identified, 92,102 of which were perfect. Dinucleotides were the most abundant category, while (AG)n was the most abundant motif. Sixty primer pairs were designed and validated in two natural populations, of which 30 loci were polymorphic, stable, and repeatable, but not all in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage equilibrium. Four marker panels were constructed to understand effect of marker selection on population genetic analyses: (i) only accept loci with single nucleotide insertions (SNI); (ii) only accept the most polymorphic loci (MP); (iii) only accept loci that did not deviate from HWE, did not show SNIs, and had unambiguous peaks (SS) and (iv) all developed markers (ALL). Although the MP panel resulted in microsatellites of highest genetic diversity followed by the SNI, the SS performed best in individual assignment. Our study proposes stringent criteria for selection of microsatellites from a large-scale number of genomic candidates for population genetic studies.

  18. A variação diatópica no sistema verbal espanhol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Cristina de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-8420.2013v14n2p121 Sob uma abordagem dialetológica, analisamos neste trabalho a variação diatópica no uso das formas simples e composta do pretérito perfeito do indicativo da língua castelhana. O objetivo é verificar a frequência de uso dessas formas verbais em diferentes variedades da língua em questão. Para tanto, fundamentadas em discussões sobre a dialetologia espanhola, apresentamos os resultados da análise de amostra do espanhol escrito de seis grandes regiões dialetais: região da Espanha; do México e América Central; do Caribe; dos Andes; do Chile; e do Rio da Prata. Os resultados sinalizam forte relação entre as variáveis “contexto geográfico” e “forma verbal”. Em síntese: o pretérito perfeito simples é forma mais recorrente em todas as regiões hispano-falantes; no entanto, o pretérito perfeito composto tem frequência mais elevada na amostra madrilenha, se comparada às das regiões de hispano-américa.

  19. Variação linguística e ensino de gramática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edair Maria Görski

    2010-02-01

    O objetivo deste texto é fazer algumas reflexões, a partir de pressupostos sociolinguísticos, sobre certas questões que envolvem variação e mudança linguística, com implicações diretas no ensino da língua. Discutimos os seguintes tópicos: a língua como atividade social e as variedades linguísticas; a questão da norma, do valor social das formas variantes e do preconceito linguístico; e esboçamos algumas sugestões metodológicas para o ensino de gramática, considerando a diversidade linguística e o aprimoramento da competência comunicativa dos alunos. Esses tópicos são abordados tomando como pano de fundo um contraponto entre um ensino gramatical ‘tradicional’ e o papel social da escola, conforme proposto pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais de Língua Portuguesa.

  20. Geografia da mortalidade infantil do Brasil: variações espaciais e desigualdades territoriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivaldo Faria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as variações espaciais e as desigualdades territoriais nos indicadores de mortalidade infantil do Brasil. O estudo foi feito com todos os óbitos infantis e nascidos vivos registrados em sistemas oficiais nos anos de 2012 e 2013 nas 558 microrregiões brasileiras. Os indicadores foram calculados e estimados através do método bayesiano empírico. As características do território foram analisadas através de um indicador multicritério denominado Índice de Privação Social. Os resultados indicaram elevados coeficientes de mortalidade infantil (CMI nas microrregiões dos estados do nordeste e norte do país e fatores associados relacionados à idade da mãe, doenças infecciosas, vazios assistenciais e falta de acompanhamento pré-natal. Nas microrregiões dos estados do sudeste e sul e parte do centro-oeste os CMI são menos elevados e os fatores associados estão mais relacionados com a prematuridade e baixo peso à nascença.

  1. Real-time PCR assay for distinguishing Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips palmi Arnika Przybylska, Żaneta Fiedler, Aleksandra Obrępalska-Stęplowska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylska, Arnika; Fiedler, Żaneta; Frąckowiak, Patryk; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2017-03-01

    Thrips palmi and Frankliniella occidentalis (order Thysanoptera) are thrips species that represent major plant pests. They are polyphagous insects capable of adversely affecting crop production. As such, in the European Union, these thrips species should be regulated as quarantine organisms. T. palmi and F. occidentalis can cause considerable damage to susceptible plants by feeding on them and transmitting several viruses responsible for serious plant diseases. Successful pest control strategies are based on an early, fast, and reliable diagnosis, which precedes the selection of appropriate steps to limit the effects of harmful organisms. We herein describe a novel diagnostic approach that enables the sensitive and species-specific detection (and differentiation) of these pests in a duplex polymerase chain reaction assay, which was adapted for both standard and real-time quantitative assays. Our method is based on the amplification of a 5.8S-internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA fragment that is conserved between T. palmi and F. occidentalis.

  2. Novel cytochrome P450 genes, CYP6EB1 and CYP6EC1, are over-expressed in acrinathrin-resistant Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, D; Chynoweth, R; Guillén, J; De la Rúa, P; Bielza, P

    2012-06-01

    Control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is a serious problem for agriculture all over the world because of the limited range of insecticides that are available. Insecticide resistance in F. occidentalis has been reported for all major insecticide groups. Our previous studies showed that cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification is a major mechanism responsible for insecticide resistance in this pest. Degenerate polymerase chain reaction was used to identify P450 genes that might be involved in acrinathrin resistance, in a laboratory population of F. occidentalis. Associated sequences were classified as belonging to the CYP4 and CYP6 families. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that two genes, CYP6EB1 and CYP6EC1, were over-expressed in adults and L2 larvae of the resistant population, when compared with the susceptible population, suggesting their possible involvement in resistance to acrinathrin.

  3. Variações anatômicas em Lymnaea columella (Mollusca, Gastropoda

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    Marlene T. Ueta

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações anatômicas de espécimes de L. columella coletados de diferentes criadouros situados em diversos Municípios do Estado de São Paulo: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. As comparações morfométricas foram baseadas em estudos do aparelho genital, rim e rádula. Foram medidos, para cada criadouro, os comprimentos do conjunto útero-vagina, dueto da espermateca, prepúcio e bainha do pênis. Foram ainda calculados os índices de relação entre bainha do pênis/prepúcio e estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação entre comprimento da concha e comprimento do prepúcio. Cortes longitudiais do complexo peniano foram também objeto de estudo. Em relação a rádula foram determinados o número de fileiras transversais e o número de dentes por fileira, e estabelecida uma fórmula radular aproximada para os diversos criadouros.Soft parts of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied in order to determine morphometric variations. These morphometric cornparisons were made upon reproductive system, kidney and radula of snail samples collected in different municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Length measurementes of uterus, duct of spermatheca, prepuce and penis sheath were taken; the ratio penis sheath/prepuce and correlation coefficients between length of shell and length of prepuce were established. Longitudinal sections of penial complex were also studied. The number of trans verse rows, number of teeth per rows and the length of shell were determined. For each sample, the radular formula was indicated.

  4. A variação no uso do modo subjuntivo no português afro-brasileiro.

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Sônia Moreira Coutinho dos

    2005-01-01

    Apresenta-se nesta dissertação uma descrição da variação no uso das formas do subjuntivo e indicativo em comunidades rurais de descendentes afro-brasileiros. Para isso, tomou-se como base para análise amostras de fala do Corpus base do português afro-brasileiro, do Projeto Vertentes da UFBA. Essa análise partiu do princípio de que a variação presente no português popular do Brasil (PPB), é resultante do intensivo contato entre línguas, sobretudo com as africanas, quando do seu processo de for...

  5. The Influence of Elevated CO2 Concentration on the Fitness Traits of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ShuQi, He; Ying, Lin; Lei, Qian; ZhiHua, Li; Chao, Xi; Lu, Yang; FuRong, Gui

    2017-06-01

    Development and fecundity were investigated in an invasive alien thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and a related native species, Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom), under high CO2 concentration. Results show that the two thrips species reacted differently toward elevated CO2 concentration. Developmental duration decreased significantly (11.93%) in F. occidentalis at the CO2 concentration of 800 µl/liter; survival rate of all stages also significantly increased (e.g., survival rate of first instar increased 17.80%), adult longevity of both female and male extended (e.g., female increased 2.02 d on average), and both fecundity and daily eggs laid per female were higher at a CO2 concentration of 800 µl/liter than at 400 µl/liter. Developmental duration of F. intonsa decreased, insignificantly, at a CO2 concentration of 800 µl/liter. Unlike F. occidentalis, survival rate of F. intonsa declined considerably at higher CO2 concentration level (e.g., survival rate of first instar decreased 19.70%), adult longevity of both female and male curtailed (e.g., female reduced 3.82 d on average), and both fecundity and daily eggs laid per female were reduced to 24.86 and 0.83, respectively, indicating that there exist significant differences between the two CO2 levels. Results suggest that the population fitness of invasive thrips species might be enhanced with increase in CO2 concentration, and accordingly change the local thrips population composition with their invasion. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A new species of Pseudorobillarda, an endophyte from Thuja occidentalis in Canada, and a key to the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujanovic, Vladimir; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Pseudorobillarda monica sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The endophyte was isolated from living leaves and bark of twigs of a Thuja occidentalis bonsai (>90 years old) at the Montréal Botanical Garden and ornamental trees in Montréal urban plantations. This pycnidial fungus is typical of the genus in morphology but clearly differs from other species in Pseudorobillarda by the distinct size of the conidiomata and the shape and size of conidia and paraphyses. Its taxonomic placement is discussed and a key to the species of Pseudorobillarda is provided.

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of a flavanone-3-hydroxylase gene from rubus occidentalis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; An, Byung Chull; Barampuram, Shyamkumar; Kim, Jae Sung; Chung, Jae Sung [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young [Dept. of Applied Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Senior Industry Cluster Agency, Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H) is one of the key enzymes for the biosynthesis of flavonals, anthocyanins, catechins and proanthocyanins. F3H catalyzes the 3β-hydroxylation of (2S)-flavonones to form (2R, 3R)-dihydroflavonols. In this report, we isolated a full-length cDNA of RocF3H from black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) using a reverse transcriptase-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The full-length cDNA of RocF3H contains a 1,098 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 365 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 41.1 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 5.45. The genomic DNA analysis revealed that the RocF3H gene had three exons and two introns. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the RocF3H with other F3Hs revealed that the protein is highly homologous with various plant species. The conserved amino acids ligating the ferrous iron and the residues participating in the 2-oxoglutarate binding (R-X-S) were found in RocF3H at the similar positions to other F3Hs. Southern blot analysis indicated that RocF3H exist a multi-gene family. The isolation of RocF3H gene will be helpful to further study the role of F3H gene in the biosynthesis of flavonoids in R. occidnetalis.

  8. Yield and utilization of hardwood fiber grown on short rotations. [Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Brown, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    Plantations of broad-leaved tree species harvested in cycles of less than 10 years can help meet man's increasing cellulose and energy needs. A system of growing hardwoods like an agricultural row crop, harvested with equipment equivalent to corn silage cutters and using the ensuing sprout growth as the next crop, was conceived by foresters in Georgia in 1965. Research has focused on the tree species, sites, and cultural practices suited for this concept as well as the biomass yields and the utility of the fiber that was produced. About 70 hectares of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) test plantings have been established in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of Georgia. These species, when given proper care, can be grown successfully on many sites previously deemed unsuitable for hardwood growth. Stumps will resprout throughout the year, ensuring a continuous flow of raw material to the user. The biomass yields from hardwood fields vary with species, site, cultural practices, and rotation age. Fresh weight yields of unfoliated sycamore sprouts grown on an upland site varied from 14.3 tons/ha/yr when harvested annually to 21.8 tons/ha/yr with harvest at age four. When sprouts were harvested every two years, 46 kg/ha/2 yrs of nitrogen, 35 kg calcium, 22 kg potassium, and 6 kg phosphorus were removed in the harvested material. Juvenile American sycamore stump sprouts have been successfully converted into corrugating medium, particleboard, fiberboard, hardboard, and newsprint. It can be cooked by the Kraft and NSSC processes. One-, two-, and four-year-old sycamore sprouts presented no unusual problems in the Kraft process, and yields ranged from 45 to 57 percent with an average yield of 52 percent. Cooking times were relatively short.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of a flavanone-3-hydroxylase gene from rubus occidentalis L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; An, Byung Chull; Barampuram, Shyamkumar; Kim, Jae Sung; Chung, Jae Sung; Cho, Jae Young; Lee, In Chul

    2008-01-01

    Flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H) is one of the key enzymes for the biosynthesis of flavonals, anthocyanins, catechins and proanthocyanins. F3H catalyzes the 3β-hydroxylation of (2S)-flavonones to form (2R, 3R)-dihydroflavonols. In this report, we isolated a full-length cDNA of RocF3H from black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) using a reverse transcriptase-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The full-length cDNA of RocF3H contains a 1,098 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 365 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 41.1 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 5.45. The genomic DNA analysis revealed that the RocF3H gene had three exons and two introns. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the RocF3H with other F3Hs revealed that the protein is highly homologous with various plant species. The conserved amino acids ligating the ferrous iron and the residues participating in the 2-oxoglutarate binding (R-X-S) were found in RocF3H at the similar positions to other F3Hs. Southern blot analysis indicated that RocF3H exist a multi-gene family. The isolation of RocF3H gene will be helpful to further study the role of F3H gene in the biosynthesis of flavonoids in R. occidnetalis

  10. Fungo Metarhizium anisopliae e o controle de Frankliniella occidentalis em alface hidropônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Rogério Biaggioni

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O tripes Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande provoca grandes prejuízos em cultivos comerciais de alface, através do dano direto, durante a alimentação no tecido vegetal, e pela transmissão de virose. O desenvolvimento de novas estratégias de controle da praga em cultivos protegidos vem se tornando necessária em função dos problemas acarretados pelo uso constante de inseticidas químicos. Foi avaliada a eficiência de pulverizações do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin (isolado 1104 nas concentrações 5x10(6 e 1x10(8 conídios ml-1, visando o controle da praga em cultivos de alface hidropônico. A eficiência de controle do fungo nas duas concentrações chegou a 60%, seis dias após a primeira pulverização. Nas parcelas que não receberam o tratamento com o patógeno, observou-se um aumento populacional de 46,5%. Contudo, o número de adultos capturados em armadilhas adesivas foi semelhante para áreas tratadas e não tratadas, devido à alta mobilidade da praga na cultura. Constatou-se também um número crescente de adultos mortos com estruturas do patógeno, nas parcelas pulverizadas com o fungo. A ausência de toxicidade e de período de carência dos fungos entomopatogênicos torna estes microrganismos importantes na substituição de alguns inseticidas químicos na cultura do alface. Estudos mais detalhados sobre a utilização de M. anisopliae em cultivos protegidos são necessários para aplicações em grande escala.

  11. Comparison of life history parameters of two Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) strains in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M-C; Teulon, D A J; Chapman, R B; Butler, R C; Drayton, G M; Philipsen, H

    2010-04-01

    Two strains of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), are reputedly found in New Zealand. One strain was recorded in 1934, and it is most common in flowers of Lupinus arboreus outdoors (lupin strain); the other strain was first recorded in New Zealand in 1992 and is found mostly indoors on greenhouse crops (greenhouse strain). Laboratory studies were conducted to compare the life history parameters of these two strains. Thrips from each strain were fed sucrose solution and capsicum or lupin pollen and reared at 25 degrees C, >60% RH, and 16 L:8 D photoperiod. Significant differences in life history parameters were found. Preoviposition time was significantly shorter, and oviposition rate and fecundity were markedly higher (four-fold) for the greenhouse than for the lupin strain. The lupin strain performed significantly better on the capsicum pollen, laying more than twice as many eggs than on the lupin pollen over a 14-d period. The greenhouse strain development time from larvae to adult was marginally faster (0.7-1.1 d less) than the lupin strain because of a shorter prepupal and a marginally shorter pupal development time. Females of the greenhouse strain lived on average 69% longer than females from the lupin strain. Large differences in the intrinsic growth rate (r(m)) were found, with r(m) being 1.4-1.8 times higher for the greenhouse strain than the lupin strain, depending on pollen source. The results are discussed in relation to different ecological requirements and pest status of the two strains.

  12. Two common and problematic leucochrysine species - Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia (Schneider) and L. (L.) pretiosa (Banks) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): redescriptions and synonymies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Catherine A; Sosa, Francisco; Albuquerque, Gilberto S

    2013-01-01

    We dedicate this article to the memory of Sergio de Freitas, FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil (deceased, 2012). He was an active and enthusiastic Neuropterist and the cherished mentor and friend of Francisco Sosa. Leucochrysa McLachlan is the largest genus in the Chrysopidae, yet it has received relatively little taxonomic attention. We treat two problematic and common Leucochrysa species - Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia (Schneider, 1851) and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa (Banks, 1910). Both are highly variable in coloration and were described before the systematic importance of chrysopid genitalia was recognized. Recent studies show that these species occur within a large complex of cryptic species and that they have accumulated a number of taxonomic problems. We identify new synonymies for each of the species-for Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) ampla (Walker, 1853), Leucochrysa internata (Walker, 1853), and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) walkerina Navás, 1913; for Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) erminea Banks, 1946. The synonymy of Leucochrysa delicata Navás, 1925 with Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa is stabilized by the designation of a neotype. The following species, which were previously synonymized with Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia or Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa, are reinstated as valid: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) phaeocephala Navás, 1929, Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) angrandi (Navás, 1911), and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) variata (Navás, 1913). To help stabilize Leucochrysa taxonomy, lectotypes are designated for Allochrysa pretiosa and Allochrysa variata. Finally, Leucochrysa vegana Navás, 1917 is considered a nomen dubium.

  13. Development and Characterization of 18 Novel EST-SSRs from the Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yue Hong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. For a better understanding of the genetic makeup and migration patterns of F. occidentalis throughout the world, we characterized 18 novel polymorphic EST-derived microsatellites. The mutational mechanism of these EST-SSRs was also investigated to facilitate the selection of appropriate combinations of markers for population genetic studies. Genetic diversity of these novel markers was assessed in 96 individuals from three populations in China (Harbin, Dali, and Guiyang. The results showed that all these 18 loci were highly polymorphic; the number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15, with an average of 5.50 alleles per locus. The observed (HO and expected (HE heterozygosities ranged from 0.072 to 0.707 and 0.089 to 0.851, respectively. Furthermore, only two locus/population combinations (WFT144 in Dali and WFT50 in Guiyang significantly deviated from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE. Pairwise FST analysis showed a low but significant differentiation (0.026 < FST < 0.032 among all three pairwise population comparisons. Sequence analysis of alleles per locus revealed a complex mutational pattern of these EST-SSRs. Thus, these EST-SSRs are useful markers but greater attention should be paid to the mutational characteristics of these microsatellites when they are used in population genetic studies.

  14. The green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea: preference between lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3(rd) instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in laboratory experiments at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar C. carnea larvae readily preyed upon both thrips and aphids, with thrips mortality varying between 40 and 90%, and aphid mortality between 52 and 98%. Chrysoperla carnea had a significant preference for N. ribisnigri at two ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips), but no preference for either prey at the other ratios. There was no significant linear relationship between preference index and prey ratio, but a significant intercept of the linear regression indicated an overall preference of C. carnea for aphids with a value of 0.651 ± 0.054. The possible implications of these findings for control of N. ribisnigri and F. occidentalis by C. carnea are discussed.

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of an Hsp90/70 organizing protein gene from Frankliniella occidentalis (Insecta: Thysanoptera, Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Bo; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2013-05-15

    The heat shock 90/70 organizing protein (Hop), also known as Sti-1 (stress-induced protein-1), is a co-chaperone that usually mediates the interaction of Hsp90 and Hsp70 and has been extensively characterized in mammals and plants. However, its role in insects remains unknown. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a Hop homologue gene from Frankliniella occidentalis (Fohop). The Fohop contains a 1659bp ORF encoding a protein of 552 amino acids with a caculated molecular mass of approximately 62.25kDa, which displays a reasonable degree of identity with the known Hops and shares several canonical motifs, including three tetratricopeptide repeated motif domains (TPR1, TPR2A and TPR2B) and two aspartic acid-proline (DP) repeat motifs (DP1 and DP2). As in other hops, Fohop contains introns, but the number and the position are quite variable. The mRNA expression patterns indicated that Fohop was constitutively expressed throughout the developmental stages, but was obviously upregulated by heat stress both in larvae and adults. Our studies imply that Hop, as in other Hsps, may play an important role in heat shock response of F. occidentalis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Frankliniella fusca and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as Vectors for a Peanut Strain of Tomato Spotted Wilt Orthotospovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Steven P; Heinz, Kevin M; Mitchell, Forrest L

    2018-03-27

    Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (TSWV) is a major disease in peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., across peanut producing regions of the United States and elsewhere. Two thrips, Frankliniella fusca Hinds and Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), are considered important vectors of TSWV in peanut in the Southeast. We compared the efficiency of acquisition (by larvae) and transmission (adults) of both thrips species for TSWV (Texas peanut-strain) to leaf disks of peanut (Florunner), as well as to Impatiens walleriana Hook. f. (Dwarf White Baby) and Petunia hybrida Juss. 'Fire Chief' using double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Both species were competent TSWV vectors in peanut and Impatiens, although F. fusca was the more efficient vector overall, i.e., virus acquisition and transmission rates for F. fusca averaged over several bioassays were 51.7 and 26.6%, respectively, compared with 20.0 and 15.3% for F. occidentalis. Neither species effectively transmitted this TSWV strain to Petunia (i.e., ≤3.6% transmission). We found statistically similar virus acquisition and transmission rates between both sexes for each species. We also detected no differences in TSWV-acquisition and transmission frequency between macropterous and brachypterous (short-wing) forms of F. fusca collected from a field population in south Texas. DAS-ELISA failed to detect low levels of TSWV in a few thrips that subsequently proved to be competent vectors.

  17. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor transmembrane point mutation (G275E) associated with resistance to spinosad in Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puinean, Alin M; Lansdell, Stuart J; Collins, Toby; Bielza, Pablo; Millar, Neil S

    2013-03-01

    High levels of resistance to spinosad, a macrocyclic lactone insecticide, have been reported previously in western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, an economically important insect pest of vegetables, fruit and ornamental crops. We have cloned the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α6 subunit from F. occidentalis (Foα6) and compared the nucleotide sequence of Foα6 from susceptible and spinosad-resistant insect populations (MLFOM and R1S respectively). A single nucleotide change has been identified in Foα6, resulting in the replacement of a glycine (G) residue in susceptible insects with a glutamic acid (E) in resistant insects. The resistance-associated mutation (G275E) is predicted to lie at the top of the third α-helical transmembrane domain of Foα6. Although there is no direct evidence identifying the location of the spinosad binding site, the analogous amino acid in the C. elegans glutamate-gated chloride channel lies in close proximity (4.4 Å) to the known binding site of ivermectin, another macrocyclic lactone pesticide. The functional consequences of the resistance-associated mutation have been examined in the human nAChR α7 subunit. Introduction of an analogous (A272E) mutation in α7 abolishes the modulatory effects of spinosad whilst having no significant effect upon activation by acetylcholine, consistent with spinosad having an allosteric mechanism of action. © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. The NSs protein of tomato spotted wilt virus is required for persistent infection and transmission by Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaria, P; Bosco, L; Vallino, M; Ciuffo, M; Mautino, G C; Tavella, L; Turina, M

    2014-05-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is the type member of tospoviruses (genus Tospovirus), plant-infecting viruses that cause severe damage to ornamental and vegetable crops. Tospoviruses are transmitted by thrips in the circulative propagative mode. We generated a collection of NSs-defective TSWV isolates and showed that TSWV coding for truncated NSs protein could not be transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and immunostaining of individual insects detected the mutant virus in second-instar larvae and adult insects, demonstrating that insects could acquire and accumulate the NSs-defective virus. Nevertheless, adults carried a significantly lower viral load, resulting in the absence of transmission. Genome sequencing and analyses of reassortant isolates showed genetic evidence of the association between the loss of competence in transmission and the mutation in the NSs coding sequence. Our findings offer new insight into the TSWV-thrips interaction and Tospovirus pathogenesis and highlight, for the first time in the Bunyaviridae family, a major role for the S segment, and specifically for the NSs protein, in virulence and efficient infection in insect vector individuals. Our work is the first to show a role for the NSs protein in virus accumulation in the insect vector in the Bunyaviridae family: demonstration was obtained for the system TSWV-F. occidentalis, arguably one of the most damaging combination for vegetable crops. Genetic evidence of the involvement of the NSs protein in vector transmission was provided with multiple approaches.

  19. De novo transcriptome sequencing in Frankliniella occidentalis to identify genes involved in plant virus transmission and insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Pengjun; Li, Weidi; Zhang, Jinming; Huang, Fang; Yang, Jian; Bei, Yawei; Lu, Yaobin

    2013-05-01

    The western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, a world-wide invasive insect, causes agricultural damage by directly feeding and by indirectly vectoring Tospoviruses, such as Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). We characterized the transcriptome of WFT and analyzed global gene expression of WFT response to TSWV infection using Illumina sequencing platform. We compiled 59,932 unigenes, and identified 36,339 unigenes by similarity analysis against public databases, most of which were annotated using gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. Within these annotated transcripts, we collected 278 sequences related to insecticide resistance. GO and KEGG analysis of different expression genes between TSWV-infected and non-infected WFT population revealed that TSWV can regulate cellular process and immune response, which might lead to low virus titers in thrips cells and no detrimental effects on F. occidentalis. This data-set not only enriches genomic resource for WFT, but also benefits research into its molecular genetics and functional genomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and characterization of 18 novel EST-SSRs from the western flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Ming; Sun, Jing-Tao; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2012-01-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. For a better understanding of the genetic makeup and migration patterns of F. occidentalis throughout the world, we characterized 18 novel polymorphic EST-derived microsatellites. The mutational mechanism of these EST-SSRs was also investigated to facilitate the selection of appropriate combinations of markers for population genetic studies. Genetic diversity of these novel markers was assessed in 96 individuals from three populations in China (Harbin, Dali, and Guiyang). The results showed that all these 18 loci were highly polymorphic; the number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15, with an average of 5.50 alleles per locus. The observed (H(O)) and expected (H(E)) heterozygosities ranged from 0.072 to 0.707 and 0.089 to 0.851, respectively. Furthermore, only two locus/population combinations (WFT144 in Dali and WFT50 in Guiyang) significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Pairwise F(ST) analysis showed a low but significant differentiation (0.026 < F(ST) < 0.032) among all three pairwise population comparisons. Sequence analysis of alleles per locus revealed a complex mutational pattern of these EST-SSRs. Thus, these EST-SSRs are useful markers but greater attention should be paid to the mutational characteristics of these microsatellites when they are used in population genetic studies.

  1. Dental morphology of Talpa europaea and Talpa occidentalis (Mammalia: Insectivora) with a discussion of fossil Talpa in the Pleistocene of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleef-Roders, van J.T.; Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.

    2001-01-01

    A description is given of the last premolar and molars of T. europaea from The Netherlands and T. occidentalis of Spain. The metrical and morphological differences between the dentitions of the two species are small. A review is given of the literature of fossil Talpa in the Pleistocene of Europe.

  2. No transmission of Potato spindle tuber viroid shown in experiments with thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci), honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Enkegaard, Annie; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    and Thrips tabaci by leaf sucking. The F. occidentalis experiments also included feeding on pollen prior to feeding on PSTVd-infected leaf. No thrips-mediated transmission of PSTVd was recorded. The possibility of PSTVd transmission by Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris during their feeding...

  3. Symptoms on apple and pear indicators after back-transmission from Nicotiana occidentalis confirm the identity of apple stem pitting virus with pear vein yellows virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Meer, van der F.A.; Schoen, C.D.; Jongedijk, G.

    1998-01-01

    Isolates of apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) from diseased apple trees were maintained in Nicotiana occidentalis then back-transmitted mechanically from the herbaceous host to apple seedlings and indexed by double budding on apple and pear indicators for the following syndromes: apple stem pitting,

  4. Back-transmission of a virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple and pear indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Jongedijk, G.; Meer, van der F.

    1995-01-01

    The successful back-transmission of the mechanically transmissible virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows, from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple seedlings "Golden Delicious" under greenhouse conditions is reported. This result enabled a field experiment where isolates of apple

  5. Cuticles of Mariopteris occidentalis White nov. emend. from the Middle Pennsylvanian of Oklahoma (USA), and a new type of climber hook for mariopteroid pteridosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, M; Taylor, T N.; Taylor, E L.; Axsmith, B J.; Kerp, H

    2001-04-01

    Cuticles of Mariopteris occidentalis are described from the Desmoinesian (Middle Pennsylvanian) of Oklahoma (USA). This species, like other mariopteroids, had a vine- to liana-like growth habit and climbed with specialized climber hooks. However, M. occidentalis is different from other mariopteroids in having small recurved hooks on the abaxial surfaces of the pinna axes. The diagnosis for M. occidentalis White 1899 is emended based on additional macroscopical observations and data on the epidermal anatomy; a lectotype is designated. M. occidentalis is compared with Pseudomariopteris cordato-ovata from the Stephanian and Autunian of Europe and North America, a taxon which is considered very similar and may be related. Although the two taxa indeed display similarities, significant evidence for a closer relationship could not be found. Finally, some features, e.g. marginal water pits and the stomatal structure, are considered with regard to their palaeoautecological significance where they are interpreted as adaptations to special physiological requirements of a vine- to liana-like life form.

  6. Rearing Glypta Fumiferanae [hym.:Ichneumonida] on a multivoltine laboratory colony of the Western Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura Occidentalis) [LEP.:Tortricidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Rappaport; Marion Page

    1985-01-01

    Methods were devloped for rearing Glypta fumiferanae Viereck on a nondiapausing laboratory colony of the western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman. Both host and parasite are univoltine and undergo diapause in nature. In this study, the parasite's voltinism was synchronized with that of a nondiapausing...

  7. Evaluating elevated levels of crown dieback among northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) trees in Maine and Michigan: a summary of evaluation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna Randolph; William A. Bechtold; Randall S. Morin; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of crown condition data for the 2006 national technical report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, exposed clusters of phase 3 plots (by the Forest Inventory and Analysis [FIA] Program of the Forest Service) with northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) crown dieback...

  8. Mosquitocidal and antiplasmodial activity of Senna occidentalis (Cassiae) and Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Maruthamalai hills against Anopheles stephensi and Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Aarthi, Narayanan; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Higuchi, Akon; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Nicoletti, Marcello; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Each year, mosquito-borne diseases infect nearly 700 million people, resulting to more than 1 million deaths. In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal, pupicidal, and smoke toxicity of Senna occidentalis and Ocimum basilicum leaf extracts against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Furthermore, the antiplasmodial activity of plant extracts was evaluated against chloroquine (CQ)-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. In larvicidal and pupicidal experiments, S. occidentalis LC50 ranged from 31.05 (I instar larvae) to 75.15 ppm (pupae), and O. basilicum LC50 ranged from 29.69 (I instar larvae) to 69 ppm (pupae). Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against adults showed that S. occidentalis and O. basilicum coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the pyrethrin-based positive control (38, 52, and 42%, respectively). In antiplasmodial assays, Senna occidentalis 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) were 48.80 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 54.28 μg/ml (CQ-r), while O. basilicum IC50 were 68.14 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 67.27 μg/ml (CQ-r). Overall, these botanicals could be considered as potential sources of metabolites to build newer and safer malaria control tools.

  9. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Wu

    Full Text Available Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×10(7 mL(-1conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×10(7 conidia mL(-1 of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite.

  10. Occurrence of the western flower thrips, Franklliniella occidentalis, and potential predators on host plants in near-orchard habitats of Washington and Oregon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred thirty species of native and introduced plants growing in uncultivated land adjacent to apple and pear orchards of central Washington and northern Oregon were sampled for the presence of the western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), 1895 and potential thrips pred...

  11. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengyong; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Yaping; Wang, Endong; Xu, Xuenong; Lei, Zhongren

    2014-01-01

    Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×10(7) mL(-1)conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius) barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×10(7) conidia mL(-1) of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite.

  12. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) as influenced by Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) developmental stage and host plant stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenhuis, R; Shipp, J L

    2005-10-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes were investigated as an alternative biological control strategy for western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in ornamental greenhouse crops, by using potted chrysanthemum as a model crop. The susceptibility of various life stages of F. occidentalis to different concentrations of the nematode Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) was investigated in petri dish bioassays. This was followed with trials using potted chrysanthemums comparing the efficacy of nematode application to plants in vegetative (exposed habitat) versus flowering (cryptic habitat) stages. In both trials, the effect of the wetting agent Agral 90 (nonylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol), which is used in combination with the nematode spray, on F. occidentalis mortality was assessed. In petri dish trials, the prepupae and pupae were the most susceptible developmental stages of F. occidentalis to infection by S. feltiae. First and second instars were killed by very high rates of nematodes (> or =20,000 infective juveniles per milliliter), but corrected mortality was only approximately 28-37%. No significant mortality was observed for adult thrips. Results from the petri dish trials were confirmed on chrysanthemum plants. Foliar application of S. feltiae did not result in significant mortality in larvae or adults. No significant differences in efficacy were detected by application of nematodes on vegetative versus flowering chrysanthemum. Agral 90 had a significant impact on mortality on the first stage larvae and prepupae in the petri dish trials but not in the plant trials. Thrips control by S. feltiae in greenhouses may be partly or completely due to prepupal and pupal mortality.

  13. Manipulation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (Tospovirus) Via the Host Plant Nutrients to Enhance Its Transmission and Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalileh, Sheida; Ogada, Pamella Akoth; Moualeu, Dany Pascal; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2016-10-01

    Earlier studies have shown that Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) influences the biology, performance, and behavioral patterns of its vector Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande. In this study, using Capsicum annuum L. as the host plant, we aimed to determine the manipulation of F. occidentalis by TSWV through switching of the diet (+ or -TSWV) during vector's development. Behavioral patterns, fitness, as well as vector performance were evaluated. The specific parameters investigated included longevity/survival, fecundity, development time, feeding, and preferential behavior. F. occidentalis were reared on either TSWV-infected (exposed) or healthy leaves (non-exposed) throughout their larval stages. The emerging adults were then individually transferred to either healthy or TSWV-infected leaf disks. This resulted into four treatments, consisting of exposed or non-exposed thrips reared on either infected or healthy leaf disks as adults. All F. occidentalis exposed to TSWV in their larval stages had shorter development time regardless of the adults' diet. Whereas, the ones that were later reared on healthy leaf disks as adults recorded the highest longevity and reproduction rate. Furthermore, adults of F. occidentalis that were exposed to TSWV in their larval stages showed preference toward healthy leaf disks (-TSWV), whereas the non-exposed significantly preferred the infected leaf disks (+TSWV). These are further indications that TSWV modifies the nutritional content of its host plants, which influences vector's biology and preferential behavior, in favor of its multiplication and dispersal. The findings offer additional explanation to the often aggressive spread of the virus in crop stands. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  14. Population dynamics of the California spotted owl in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Blakesley; M.E. Seamans; M.M. Connor; A.B. Franklin; G.C. White; R.J. Gutierrez; J.E. Hines; J.D. Nichols; T.E. Munton; D.W.H. Shaw; J.J. Keane; G.N. Steger; T.L. McDonald

    2010-01-01

    The California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is the only spotted owl subspecies not listed as threatened or endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act despite petitions to list it as threatened. We conducted a meta-analysis of population data for 4 populations in the southern Cascades and Sierra Nevada, California,...

  15. Estudo da variação individual no grito de alerta da arara-azul-grande Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Yoshikazu Cristofoli Ueno

    2007-01-01

    Resumo: A Arara-azul-grande Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus é uma ave ameaçada de extinção, portanto sua individualização em campo é de grande interesse. Suas características gregárias, ausência de dimorfismo sexual e monogamia criam uma disposição natural à existência de reconhecimento individual entre co-específicos. Para que haja reconhecimento individual é preciso que exista variação inter-individual. O grito de alerta em Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus se apresenta como valiosa fonte de estudos...

  16. Padrões de estocagem de esperma e variações cíclicas ovidutais em serpentes Xenodontinae

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Augusto Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Os padrões de estocagem de esperma e as variações morfológicas cíclicas do trato reprodutivo feminino constituem táticas reprodutivas muito pouco estudadas em serpentes neotropicais, se comparadas às serpentes de regiões temperadas. Assim, o presente estudo teve por objetivo caracterizar e compreender as estratégias reprodutivas empregadas por fêmeas de quatro espécies de serpentes brasileiras da subfamília Xenodontinae. Amostras de gônadas e vias genitais foram coletadas em diferentes estaçõ...

  17. Impact of sulfur on density of Tetranychus pacificus (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in a central California vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Sulfur is the oldest and most widely used fungicide in the vineyards of California, where it is used for control of powdery mildew (Uncinula necator [Schw.] Burr). For decades, sulfur use has been associated with outbreaks of Tetranychus pacificus McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) on cultivated grapes in the San Joaquin Valley. I undertook large-scale field studies to test this association, to evaluate the impact of sulfur on Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbit) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a major predator of T. pacificus, and to determine if timing of sulfur applications with respect to grape bloom has an impact on T. pacificus density. The studies took place in a 32 ha vineyard in Fresno County, and all fungicide applications were made with commercial-scale equipment. In 1998 a 'high sulfur' treatment, a combination of wettable sulfur and sulfur dust, was compared to 'low sulfur,' in which demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides partially substituted for sulfur. In 1999 treatments were 'sulfur,' 'DMI,' 'sulfur pre-bloom' (here sulfur was applied prior to grape bloom, in late May, and then DMIs were applied until mid-season) and 'sulfur post-bloom' (the reverse of 'sulfur pre-bloom'). In each year, the T. pacificus population increase came after the end of fungicide applications, and results clearly show a relationship between sulfur use and T. pacificus density. In 1998, mean T. pacificus density was 2.7 times higher and mean G. occidentalis density 2.5 times higher in 'high sulfur' compared to 'low sulfur.' In 1999, the highest T. pacificus counts were in the 'sulfur' and 'sulfur pre-bloom' treatments, 4.8 times higher than 'sulfur post-bloom' and 2 times higher than 'DMIs.' Density of G. occidentalis was 2.3 times as high in 'sulfur' or 'sulfur pre-bloom' than 'DMIs.' The predator/prey ratio was not significantly different among treatments in 1998, but in 1999 it was highest in the 'sulfur pre-bloom' treatment. In 1999, density of Homeopronematus anconai (Baker) (Acari

  18. The α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit of Frankliniella occidentalis is not involved in resistance to spinosad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenjie; Liu, Qiulei; Tian, Lixia; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Miguel, Keri San; Funderburk, Joe; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2014-05-01

    Insects evolve resistance which constrains the sustainable use of insecticides. Spinosyns, a class of environmentally-friendly macrolide insecticides, is not an exception. The mode of inheritance and the mechanisms of resistance to spinosad (the most common spinosyn insecticide) in Frankliniella occidentalis (Western flower thrips, WFT) were investigated in this study. Resistance (170,000-fold) was autosomal and completely recessive. Recent studies showed that deletion of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit gene resulted in strains of Drosophila melanogaster, Plutella xylostella and Bactrocera dorsalis that are resistant to spinosad, indicating that nAChRα6 subunit maybe important for the toxic action of this insecticide. Conversely, a G275E mutation of this subunit in F. occidentalis was recently proposed as the mechanism of resistance to spinosad. We cloned and characterized nAChRα6 from three susceptible and two spinosad resistant strains from China and the USA. The Foα6 cDNA is 1873bp and the open reading frame is 1458bp which encodes 485 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 53.5-kDa, the 5' and 3' UTRs are 121 and 294bp, respectively. There was no difference in the cDNA sequence between the resistant and susceptible thrips, suggesting the G275E mutation does not confer resistance in these populations. Ten isoforms of Foα6, arising from alternative splicing, were isolated and did not differ between the spinosad-susceptible and resistant strains. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed Foα6 was highly expressed in the first instar larva, pupa and adult, and the expression levels were 3.67, 2.47, 1.38 times that of the second instar larva. The expression level was not significantly different between the susceptible and resistant strains. These results indicate that Foα6 is not involved in resistance to spinosad in F. occidentalis from China and the USA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification, genomic organization and expression profiles of four heat shock protein genes in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Xing; Li, Hong-Bo; Zheng, Yu-Tao; Shi, Liang; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-04-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is an important invasive pest with a strong tolerance for extreme temperatures; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate thermotolerance in this insect remain unclear. In this study, four heat shock protein genes were cloned from F. occidentalis and named Fohsp90, Fohsc701, Fohsc702 and Fohsp60. These four Hsps exhibited typical characteristics of heat shock proteins. Subcellular localization signals and phylogenetic analysis indicated that FoHsp90 and FoHsc701 localize to the cytosol, whereas FoHsc702 and FoHsp60 were located in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, respectively. Analysis of genomic sequences revealed the presence of introns in the four genes (three, four, seven, and five introns for Fohsp90, Fohsc701, Fohsc702 and Fohsp60, respectively). Both the number and position of introns in these four genes were quite different from analogous genes in other species. qRT-PCR indicated that the four Fohsps were detected in second-stage larvae, one-day-old pupae, and one-day-old adults, and mRNA expression levels were lowest in larvae and highest in pupae. Fohsc701 and Fohsc702 possessed similar expression patterns and were not induced by cold or heat stress. Expression of Fohsp60 was significantly elevated by heat, and Fohsp90 was rapidly up-regulated after exposure to both cold and heat stress. Exposure to -8°C had no effect on expression of the four Fohsps; however, expression of Fohsp90 and Fohsp60 was highest after a 2-h incubation at 39°C. Furthermore, cold and heat hardening led to significant up-regulation of the four Fohsps compared to their respective controls. Collectively, our results indicate that the four FoHsps contribute to insect development and also function in rapid cold or heat hardening; furthermore, FoHsp90 and FoHsp60 contribute to thermotolerance in F. occidentalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling co-occurrence of northern spotted and barred owls: accounting for detection probability differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Larissa L.; Reid, Janice A.; Forsman, Eric D.; Nichols, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Barred owls (Strix varia) have recently expanded their range and now encompass the entire range of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). This expansion has led to two important issues of concern for management of northern spotted owls: (1) possible competitive interactions between the two species that could contribute to population declines of northern spotted owls, and (2) possible changes in vocalization behavior and detection probabilities of northern spotted owls induced by presence of barred owls. We used a two-species occupancy model to investigate whether there was evidence of competitive exclusion between the two species at study locations in Oregon, USA. We simultaneously estimated detection probabilities for both species and determined if the presence of one species influenced the detection of the other species. Model selection results and associated parameter estimates provided no evidence that barred owls excluded spotted owls from territories. We found strong evidence that detection probabilities differed for the two species, with higher probabilities for northern spotted owls that are the object of current surveys. Non-detection of barred owls is very common in surveys for northern spotted owls, and detection of both owl species was negatively influenced by the presence of the congeneric species. Our results suggest that analyses directed at hypotheses of barred owl effects on demographic or occupancy vital rates of northern spotted owls need to deal adequately with imperfect and variable detection probabilities for both species.

  1. Efeito das variações de temperatura na transferência de cargas em juntas de pavimentos de concreto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Colim

    Full Text Available Medidas de deflexões com o falling weight deflectometer permitiram a avaliação do comportamento de juntas em pavimentos de concreto simples do ponto de vista de sua eficiência de transferência de cargas (LTE. As investigações mostraram importantes variações nesse parâmetro, quando não há dispositivos de transferência de cargas, entre horários de dias bem como entre estações climáticas distintas (inverno e verão; enquanto que juntas com barras de transferência apresentam, pouca variação nesse parâmetro e encontrando-se em geral entre 90 e 100% de capacidade de transferência, quando há quedas de temperatura, as juntas sem barras chegam a apresentar capacidade de transferência reduzida para 50% no inverno e para 60% no verão. Valores estimados de transferência de carga com um programa de elementos finitos permitiram confirmar a necessidade de tratamento teórico do problema em fases de análise estrutural e projetos de pavimentos de concreto com juntas.

  2. Biología del trips frankliniella occidentalis (pegande) (thysanoptera: thripidae) sobre crisantemo chrysanthemum morifolium l. bajo condiciones de laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas, Estrella; Corredor, Dario

    2011-01-01

    La especie Frankliniella occidentalis (Pegande) se encontró causando daño a flores de crisantemo en una empresa de laSabana de Bogotá. Se estudió su biología bajo condiciones de laboratorio (24,31 ± 2,50C y 66,36 ± 12% H.R.). El rango deduración en días de su ciclo de vida fue: huevo 4-5, ninfa de primer instar 3-4, ninfa de segundo instar 5-8, prepupa 4-6, pupa 3-5 y los adultos alcanzaron una longevidad entre 60 y 121 días. Esta especie presentó partenogénesis de tipo arrenotoquia; de las h...

  3. NMR-based metabolomic investigation of bioactivity of chemical constituents in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Giusti, M Monica; Johnson, Jodee L; Rinaldi, Peter L; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Bomser, Joshua A; Miller, A Raymond; Hardy, James K; Reese, R Neil

    2014-02-26

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) (BR) fruit extracts with differing compound profiles have shown variable antiproliferative activities against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. This study used partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis to develop a high-resolution (1)H NMR-based multivariate statistical model for discerning the biological activity of BR constituents. This model identified specific bioactive compounds and ascertained their relative contribution against cancer cell proliferation. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside were the predominant contributors to the extract bioactivity, but salicylic acid derivatives (e.g., salicylic acid glucosyl ester), quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, methyl ellagic acid derivatives (e.g., methyl ellagic acetyl pentose), and citric acid derivatives also contributed significantly to the antiproliferative activity of the berry extracts. This approach enabled the identification of new bioactive components in BR fruits and demonstrates the utility of the method for assessing chemopreventive compounds in foods and food products.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) contains triplicate putative control regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dankan; Tang, Yunxia; Xue, Xiaofeng; Wang, Minghua; Liu, Fengquan; Fan, Jiaqin

    2012-09-10

    To investigate the features of the control region (CR) and the gene rearrangement in the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Thysanoptera insects, we sequenced the whole mt genome of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). The mt genome is a circular molecule with 14,889 nucleotides and an A+T content of 76.6%, and it has triplicate putative CRs. We propose that tandem duplication and deletion account for the evolution of the CR and the gene translocations. Intramitochondrial recombination is a plausible model for the gene inversions. We discuss the excessive duplicate CR sequences and the transcription of the rRNA genes, which are distant from one another and from the CR. Finally, we address the significance of the complicated mt genomes in Thysanoptera for the evolution of the CR and the gene arrangement of the mt genome. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preferences of the peripheral olfactory system of Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis towards stereoisomers of common plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Zayed S; Butt, Tariq M

    Stereochemistry plays a significant role in structure-activity relationships of messenger chemicals. The ability to distinguish between enantiomers and geometric isomers, however, may be limited to certain stereoisomeric substances, depending on the receiver. In this study, we assessed the preference of the peripheral olfactometry system of Western Flower Thrips, F. occidentalis towards ubiquitously expressed host compounds, with a goal of establishing whether particular stereoisomers enhance host odour recognition. We demonstrate that the peripheral olfactory system of a highly polyphagous thysanopteran insect has evolved to become highly sensitive to a type of green leaf volatile, which is highly ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. We show that there is a significantly greater antennal response to the cis isomer, more so than the isomerisation by-product trans -3-hexen-1-ol. We demonstrate that the antennae of a highly polyphagous insect are capable of detecting common plant secondary metabolites in both enantiomeric forms.

  6. Within-Crop Air Temperature and Humidity Outcomes on Spatio-Temporal Distribution of the Key Rose Pest Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Hicham; Pizzol, Jeannine; Senoussi, Rachid; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Poncet, Christine; Boulard, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is a key pest of various crops worldwide. In this study, we analyse the dependence of the infestation of this pest on spatially distributed micro climatic factors in a rose greenhouse. Despite the importance of this subject, the few existing studies have been realized in laboratory rather than in greenhouse conditions. However, recent progress on greenhouse microclimate characterisation has highlighted the strong indoor climate heterogeneity that may influence the within-crop pest distribution. In this study, both microclimate (air temperature and humidity) and thrips distribution were simultaneously mapped in a rose greenhouse. The measurements were sensed in a horizontal plane situated at mid-height of the rose crop inside the greenhouse. Simultaneously, thrips population dynamics were assessed after an artificial and homogeneous infestation of the rose crop. The spatio-temporal distribution of climate and thrips within the greenhouse were compared, and links between thrips infestation and climatic conditions were investigated. A statistical model was used to define the favourable climate conditions for thrips adults and larvae. Our results showed that (i) the air temperature and air humidity were very heterogeneously distributed within the crop, (ii) pest populations aggregated in the most favourable climatic areas and (iii) the highest population density of thrips adults and larvae were recorded at 27°C and 22°C for temperature and 63% and 86% for humidity, respectively. These findings confirm, in real rose cropping conditions, previous laboratory studies on the F. occidentalis climatic optimum and provide a solid scientific support for climatic-based control methods against this pest.

  7. Actividad de rastreo en Boa constrictor occidentalis (Serpentes: Boidae, un mecanismo de localización de la especie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Cervantes, Raquel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se experimentó sobre la habilidad de Boa constrictor occidentalis para discriminar y seguir olores feromonales conespecíficos y heteroespecíficos. Las hembras presentaron elevada frecuencia de extrusiones de lengua hacia los estímulos de olor de piel de macho, piel de hembra y glándula de hembra, mostrando un mayor desplazamiento hacia el estímulo piel de hembra. Los machos respondieron con un incremento en el número de lengüeteos y búsqueda activa de los rastros frente a las secreciones de macho. Ambos sexos manifestaron preferencia por los olores conespecíficos aumentando la intensidad del lengüeteo y el seguimiento activo de rastros, mientras que exhibieron una marcada disminución de la frecuencia de extrusiones de lengua y escaso desplazamiento frente al estímulo heteroespecífico. Los resultados sugieren la estrecha relación existente entre la identificación de un estímulo mediante el lengüeteo y la actividad de rastreo. The ability in adult Boa constrictor occidentalis to discriminate between species and sexes and follow pheromonal trails was tested. Females presented elevated tongue flick rate (T.F.R. to male skin odor, female skin odor and female cloacal secretion. Trailing activity was higher to female skin odor. Males answered with elevated T.F.R. and exhibited active movements and searching of trails to their own secretions —male skin and male cloacal musk—. Both sexes had preferences to conespecific stimuli showing higher T.F.R. and active trailing while they were not interested in heterospecific trails presenting lower T.F.R. and limited movements. Results suggest the relationship between stimuli recognition by tongue flicking and trailing activity.

  8. Demonstration of an adaptive response to preconditioning Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) to sublethal doses of spinosad: a hormetic-dose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Youhui; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun; Gao, Xiwu; Wu, Qingjun

    2015-07-01

    Sublethal doses of some insecticides have been reported to either stimulate or reduce the survival and fecundity of insects. Many sublethal-effect studies have been conducted after exposure of only one generation to sublethal insecticides, and there is little information about the sublethal effects on insects after long-term exposure to sublethal insecticides. In this study, changes in biological characteristics were investigated in spinosad-susceptible (Spin-S) and sublethal-spinosad-treated (Spin-Sub) strains of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) after exposure to their corresponding sublethal concentrations of spinosad. The results showed that for the Spin-S strain, the LC10 concentration of spinosad slightly affected the biotic fitness both in parents and offspring of F. occidentalis. The LC25 concentration of spinosad prolonged the development time, reduced the fecundity, and significantly reduced the intrinsic rate of increase, the net reproductive rate and the finite rate of increase in the Spin-S strain. However, the negative effects were not as pronounced in the offspring (F1 generation) as in the parent generation. For the Spin-Sub strain, the LC10 and LC25 concentrations of spinosad had little negative effect on the development and fecundity, and no significant difference was found between the effects of the LC10 and LC25 treatments on the Spin-Sub strain. The Spin-Sub strain exhibited a shorter developmental time, and larger intrinsic rates of increase and net reproductive rates, compared with the corresponding treatments of the Spin-S strain. These findings combined with our previous studies suggest that the biotic fitness increased in the Spin-Sub strain and the strain became more adaptable to sublethal doses of spinosad, compared with the Spin-S strain. Physiological and biochemical adaptation may contribute to these changes after long treatment times at sublethal doses.

  9. Within-Crop Air Temperature and Humidity Outcomes on Spatio-Temporal Distribution of the Key Rose Pest Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Fatnassi

    Full Text Available Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande is a key pest of various crops worldwide. In this study, we analyse the dependence of the infestation of this pest on spatially distributed micro climatic factors in a rose greenhouse. Despite the importance of this subject, the few existing studies have been realized in laboratory rather than in greenhouse conditions. However, recent progress on greenhouse microclimate characterisation has highlighted the strong indoor climate heterogeneity that may influence the within-crop pest distribution. In this study, both microclimate (air temperature and humidity and thrips distribution were simultaneously mapped in a rose greenhouse. The measurements were sensed in a horizontal plane situated at mid-height of the rose crop inside the greenhouse. Simultaneously, thrips population dynamics were assessed after an artificial and homogeneous infestation of the rose crop. The spatio-temporal distribution of climate and thrips within the greenhouse were compared, and links between thrips infestation and climatic conditions were investigated. A statistical model was used to define the favourable climate conditions for thrips adults and larvae. Our results showed that (i the air temperature and air humidity were very heterogeneously distributed within the crop, (ii pest populations aggregated in the most favourable climatic areas and (iii the highest population density of thrips adults and larvae were recorded at 27°C and 22°C for temperature and 63% and 86% for humidity, respectively. These findings confirm, in real rose cropping conditions, previous laboratory studies on the F. occidentalis climatic optimum and provide a solid scientific support for climatic-based control methods against this pest.

  10. Efeito fitotóxico do óleo volátil de Cleome guianensis Aubl. sobre o crescimento inicial de Senna occidentalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.S.S. VENTURA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Aleloquímicos são substâncias liberadas por certas espécies vegetais no ambiente que influenciam a germinação e o desenvolvimento de outras plantas. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o potencial fitotóxico de Cleome guianensis Aubl., bem como determinar o grau de estresse oxidativo causado em Senna occidentalis L. Para isso, o óleo das folhas de C. guianensis, nas concentrações 0,5 µg/mL, 1,0 µg/mL, 2,5 µg/mL e 5,0 µg/mL, em solução de 5 ml foi testado em bioensaios de germinação e de crescimento da raiz primária e do hipocótilo de S. occidentalis. Os indivíduos de S. occidentalis foram macerados, homogeneizados e submetidos a ensaios de quantificação da catalase, peroxidase, SOD e de peroxidação lipídica. Os resultados indicam que todas as concentrações do óleo volátil causaram um efeito negativo sobre a germinação e crescimento de S. occidentalis. Na concentração 5,0 µg/mL, houve 56% de inibição da germinação e 83% de inibição de crescimento do hipocótilo. Ainda, o óleo aumentou a atividade das enzimas induzidas pelo estresse oxidativo catalase, peroxidase e superóxido dismutase (SOD. Quanto à peroxidação lipídica, o óleo nas concentrações 1,0 µg/mL, 2,5 µg/mL e 5,0 µg/mL aumentou a produção de malondialdeído. Sendo assim, conclui-se que C. guianensis apresenta aleloquímicos que influenciam na germinação e no crescimento de S. occidentalis, além de aumentar a atividade das enzimas catalase, peroxidase, SOD e a produção de malondialdeído em S. occidentalis. Dessa forma, sugere-se a realização de estudos sobre o perfil químico do óleo a fim de descobrir as substâncias responsáveis por tais resultados e consolidar o potencial fitotóxico de C. guianensis.

  11. Summer weeds as hosts for Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and as reservoirs for tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Noah D; Walgenbach, J F; Kennedy, G G

    2005-12-01

    In North Carolina, Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) is vectored primarily by the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). TSWV overwinters in winter annual weeds from which it is spread to susceptible crops in spring. Because most susceptible crops are destroyed after harvest before winter weeds emerge in the fall, infected summer weeds are thought to be the principal source for spread of TSWV to winter annual weeds in fall. A survey of summer weeds associated with TSWV-susceptible crops in the coastal plain of North Carolina conducted between May and October revealed that relatively few species were commonly infected with TSWV and supported populations of F. fusca or F. occidentalis. F. occidentalis made up > 75% of vector species collected from 15 summer weed species during 2002. The number of F. occidentalis and F. fusca immatures collected from plant samples varied significantly among plant species. Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, Mollugo verticillata L., Cassia obtusifolia L., and Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats supported the largest numbers of immature F. occidentalis. Richardia scabra L., M. verticillata, and Ipomoea hederacea (L.) supported the largest numbers of F. fusca immatures. TSWV was present at 16 of 17 locations, and naturally occurring infections were found in 14 of 29 weed species tested. Five of the TSWV-infected species have not previously been reported as hosts of TSWV (A. palmeri, Solidago altissima L., Ipomoea lacunosa L., I. purpurea, and Phytolacca americana L.). Estimated rates of infection were highest in I. purpurea (6.8%), M. verticillata (5.3%), and I. hederacea (1.9%). When both the incidence of infection by TSWV and the populations of F. occidentalis and F. fusca associated with each weed species are considered, the following summer weed species have the potential to act as significant sources for

  12. Variação estacional na qualidade do sêmen de carneiros Lacaune no Brasil

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    Eneder Rosana Oberst

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucos dados sobre a produção de sêmen da raça Lacaune, no sul do país. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a produção e a qualidade do sêmen de carneiros desta raça, criados no estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Foram utilizados 12 carneiros, de idades entre 1-4 anos, criados em condições intensivas. O sêmen foi colhido por vagina artificial e foram avaliadas as características quantitativas e qualitativas e a circunferência escrotal, do inverno de 2002 até a primavera de 2003. Com exceção da concentração espermática, foram observadas variações estacionais em todas as características estudadas. O volume variou de 1.1 ± 0.4 mL, no inverno de 2002, a 1.5 ± 0.4 mL no outono de 2003. O número total de espermatozóides por ejaculado variou de 4.0 ± 3.3x10(9 (inverno de 2002 a 5.7 ± 3.3x10(9 (verão de 2003. Observou-se variação estacional significativa (P < 0,05 na circunferência escrotal em 2002, bem como variação significativa entre as idades dos animais, no inverno do mesmo ano. Os valores médios da produção espermática observados no verão e o outono foram superiores aos obtidos no inverno e primavera. O verão e outono foram considerados as estações mais indicadas para a utilização de machos da raça Lacaune em programas reprodutivos, no RS. Mais estudos devem ser conduzidos, para a verificação de efeitos estacionais sobre o congelamento do sêmen.

  13. Conservation of ParaHox genes' function in patterning of the digestive tract of the marine gastropod Gibbula varia

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    Steiner Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presence of all three ParaHox genes has been described in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but to date one of these three genes, Xlox has not been reported from any ecdysozoan taxa and both Xlox and Gsx are absent in nematodes. There is evidence that the ParaHox genes were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. Colinear expression of the ParaHox genes in anterior, middle, and posterior tissues of several species studied so far suggest that these genes may be responsible for axial patterning of the digestive tract. So far, there are no data on expression of these genes in molluscs. Results We isolated the complete coding sequences of the three Gibbula varia ParaHox genes, and then tested their expression in larval and postlarval development. In Gibbula varia, the ParaHox genes participate in patterning of the digestive tract and are expressed in some cells of the neuroectoderm. The expression of these genes coincides with the gradual formation of the gut in the larva. Gva-Gsx patterns potential neural precursors of cerebral ganglia as well as of the apical sensory organ. During larval development this gene is involved in the formation of the mouth and during postlarval development it is expressed in the precursor cells involved in secretion of the radula, the odontoblasts. Gva-Xolx and Gva-Cdx are involved in gut patterning in the middle and posterior parts of digestive tract, respectively. Both genes are expressed in some ventral neuroectodermal cells; however the expression of Gva-Cdx fades in later larval stages while the expression of Gva-Xolx in these cells persists. Conclusions In Gibbula varia the ParaHox genes are expressed during anterior-posterior patterning of the digestive system. This colinearity is not easy to spot during early larval stages because the differentiated endothelial cells within the yolk permanently migrate to their destinations in the gut. After torsion, Gsx patterns the mouth and foregut

  14. Variação na concordância verbal com "a gente" no português europeu

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    Cássio Florêncio Rubio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo atestar que a concordância verbal com a forma pronominal a gente constitui fenômeno variável no português europeu. As amostras, estratificadas de forma equânime em relação às variáveis sociais escolaridade, faixa etária e gênero, provém do Corpus de Referência do Português Contemporâneo. Para a análise, recorremos à Teoria da Variação Linguística (LABOV, 1972, 1994. Os resultados apontam, no fenômeno variável, o predomínio do uso da terceira pessoa do singular condicionado pelos fatores linguísticos explicitude do sujeito e tempo e modo verbal e pelos fatores sociais escolaridade, faixa etária e gênero.

  15. Variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro ornamental, Ananas bracteatus Schultes var.striatus (Bromeliaceae.

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    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar a ocorrência de variação somaclonal em A. bracteatus var. striatus, foi realizado um ensaio em que foram estabelecidas in vitro gemas de hastes caulinares de mudas do tipo filhote, submetidas a sete subcultivos e quantificadas, em porcentagem, as médias dos diferentes tipos de mudas. Como resultado, foram constatados três tipos de variantes somaclonais assim classificados e quantificados: A. bracteatus Verde (80,13 %, A. bracteatus Albino (15,93 % e A. bracteatus Variegado (3,94 %. Coletadas ao acaso, vinte mudas de cada tipo de variante som A. bracteatus var. striatusaclonal foram mantidas ex vitro por 160 dias, mantendo suas características variantes.

  16. Variação de conduta cirúrgica em doença degenerativa da coluna lombar

    OpenAIRE

    Novaes,Luís Felipe Pamplona; Risso Neto,Marcelo Ítalo; Veiga,Ivan Guidolin; Pasqualini,Wagner; Cavali,Paulo Tadeu Maia; Landim,Elcio

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: examinar a variação da decisão de tratamento entre cirurgiões de coluna para cinco situações clínicas que envolvam condições degenerativas da coluna lombar e determinar se fatores como tipo de treinamento do cirurgião, experiência e idade são como preditores da tomada de decisões para cada caso. MÉTODOS: dez ortopedistas e dez neurocirurgiões, de diferentes idades, responderam questões sobre a necessidade de cirurgia, opções de via de acesso, realização de descompressão, realização ...

  17. BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIEGATED SCALLOP Chlamys varia (LINNAEUS, 1758. – AS THE BASIS FOR FARMING

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    Nenad Antolović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pectinides are a highly regarded sea product among the consumers. Huge efforts are being made for the development of farming technology. All around the world the local species of the Pectinidae family are being consumed along with some newly introduced species as for example Japanese scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis Jay, 1858. Althougt there are 16 species of shellfish from eastern Adriatic that are offered in Croatian markets, only two species are being farmed. Chlamys varia (variegated scallop is often found in many locations, most often where the s alredy egsist shellfish farming. Many authors believe that farming must be conducted in the hatcheries since the spat settlement on the collectors has proven unsuccessful and dependent of many environmental factors. The research of hatchery cultivation of this species has been described. In most areas where the reproductive cycle has been studied there appear to be two main periods of spawning each year, but the timing can differ between areas, and between years.

  18. Identidades gaúchas : serranos, pampeanos, missioneiros e outras variações em O Tempo e o Vento

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, André

    2007-01-01

    O trabalho aborda as identidades gaúchas representadas por personagens de O Tempo e o Vento na perspectiva de suas variações, focando a diversidade inerente a constituição do tipo humano sul-brasileiro e a pluralidade da formação social rio-grandense, terra fronteiriça e marcada pela mistura de diferentes culturas. Esse traço é marcante no romance histórico de Erico. Está na proposta estética da narrativa: na constituição, arquitetura e desenvolvimento do clã Terra-Cambará. Através da figura ...

  19. Thujone-Rich Fraction of Thuja occidentalis Demonstrates Major Anti-Cancer Potentials: Evidences from In Vitro Studies on A375 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Raktim; Mandal, Sushil Kumar; Dutta, Suman; Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Crude ethanolic extract of Thuja occidentalis (Fam: Cupressaceae) is used as homeopathic mother tincture (TOΦ) to treat various ailments, particularly moles and tumors, and also used in various other systems of traditional medicine. Anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing properties of TOΦ and the thujone-rich fraction (TRF) separated from it have been evaluated for their possible anti-cancer potentials in the malignant melanoma cell line A375. On initial trial by S-diphenyltetrazolium brom...

  20. Compatibility assessment between four ethanolic plant extracts with a bug predator Orius horvathi (Reuter (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae used for controlling the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

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    Razavi Nooshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande attacks a large number of crop plants. The current insecticides have caused resistance in insects and have caused outbreaks of thrips. In many instances, alternative methods of insect management and natural products, offer adequate pest control and pose fewer hazards. Several species of minute pirate bugs of the genus Orius play a significant role in the biological control of a large number of thrips species, such as F. occidentalis. In this study, the insecticidal activity of four ethanolic plant extracts (Cercis siliquastrum L., Calendula officinalis L., Peganum harmala L., Melia azedarach L. in integration with Orius horvathi (Reuter were evaluated for controlling F. occidentalis. The present research aimed to find plant extracts with a good impact on F. occidentalis but which have fewer side effects on O. horvathi. The results showed that P. harmala extract can be considered compatible with the natural enemy for controlling thrips. When the predatory bugs O. horvathi, were released three days after P. harmala extract spraying, the integration was more effective. While the P. harmala plant extract plays an important role in thrips control, it is necessary to consider the specified time interval between the application of the P. harmala plant extract and the release of the O. horvathi predatory bugs. The ethanolic extract of M. azedarach caused a balance between the pest population and the natural enemy. This result is very important in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program because this ethanolic extract of M. azedarach had lower side effects on the natural enemy. This means that an integration of plant derived chemicals and the natural enemy, O. horvathi, can effectively control thrips.

  1. X-ray Irradiation Control of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the Exportation of Freshly Cut Lily Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Yun, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2017-04-01

    Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) is the most representative bulb flower, and it is the third most important flower in the flower industry of South Korea after rose and chrysanthemum. To determine the efficacy of X-ray irradiation for use in quarantine processing, two species of flower thrips (Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)) were placed in the top, middle, and bottom locations of lily boxes and irradiated with different X-ray doses. After irradiation with an X-ray dose of 150 Gy, the egg hatching of the two flower thrips was completely inhibited at every location in the lily boxes, and the irradiated F. intonsa and F. occidentalis nymphs failed to emerge as adult in every location of the lily boxes. When the adults were irradiated at 150 Gy, the fecundity of the two flower thrips was markedly lower than that of the untreated control groups. The F1 generation failed to hatch at the top and middle locations, whereas the F1 generation of both F. intonsa and F. occidentalis was not suppressed at the bottom locations, even at 200 Gy. However, hatching was perfectly inhibited at 300 Gy of X-ray irradiation. Also, X-rays did not affect the postharvest physiology of cut lilies. Therefore, a minimum dose of 300 Gy is recommended for the control of F. intonsa and F. occidentalis for the exportation of lily. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Relação entre idade e variação da flexibilidade de bailarinas

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    Aline Huber da Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se o comportamento da flexibilidade, após 8 semanas de aplicação da técnica de alongamento por Facilitação Neuromuscular Proprioceptiva em bailarinas, tem relação com suas idades. A amostra foi obtida de forma intencional, composta por 11 bailarinas na faixa etária de 13 a 16 anos. Realizou-se avaliação da flexibilidade angular dos movimentos de flexão (com o joelho estendido, abdução e rotação externa do quadril através da goniometria e da flexibilidade linear com a Caixa de Sentar e Alcançar de Wells, antes e após o período experimental de oito semanas, com duas intervenções semanais, utilizando a técnica de FNP. Para análise, usou-se estatística descritiva, teste t e correlação linear de Pearson. Adotou-se significância de 5%. Somente a variação da rotação externa e da Caixa de Sentar e Alcançar, durante o período experimental, apresentaram correlação estatisticamente significativa com a idade das bailarinas, porém, essa correlação ainda assim foi bastante fraca. Pode-se perceber que praticamente não houve relação entre a variação da flexibilidade com a idade da amostra.

  3. Influenţa microflorei intestinale asupra variaţiei titrelor de anticorpi postvaccinali contra pseudopestei aviare

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    STARCIUC Nicolae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigations are based on determining the influence of intestinal microflora variation on the level of postvaccination antibody titers against Newcastle disease. Thus, several chicken groups were vaccinated and implicitly, there were taken samples for making subsequent serological tests in order to determine the antibody titers and also intestinal lavages to determine microflora. As a result, it was determined that the variation of qualitative intestinal microflora is insignificant and the level of maternal antibody titers against Newcastle disease, at the age of one day, is quite high and it is able to protect chickens up to the age of 15-20 days, when the first vaccination is recommended. Rezumat. Investigaţiile se bazează pe determinarea influenţei variaţiei microflorei intestinale asupra nivelului titrelor de anticorpi postvaccinali împotriva bolii Newcastle. Astfel, mai multe loturi de pui au fost supuse vaccinării, implicit s-au recoltat probe pentru testele serologice ulterioare de determinare a titrelor de anticorpi şi lavaje prelevate de la nivel intestinal, pentru determinarea microflorei. S-a stabilit că variaţia microflorei intestinale calitativă este nesemnificativă şi că nivelul titrelor de anticorpi maternali contra pseudopestei aviare, la vârsta de o zi, este destul de mare, capabil să protejeze puii de găină până la o vârstă de aproximativ 15-20 de zile, atunci când se recomandă prima vaccinare la pui.

  4. Variações experimentais: um estudo sobre a narrativa em A trégua, de Primo Levi

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    Pedro Caldas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende contribuir com a discussão sobre a narrativa a partir de uma leitura de A trégua, de Primo Levi. Publicado em 1963, A trégua é o segundo livro de Primo Levi, concluído dezesseis anos após É isto um homem?, e traz uma questão inquietante: por um lado, o livro, ao contar a história do retorno de Primo Levi para sua casa, em Turim, após ser libertado do campo de concentração de Auschwitz, é também uma narrativa de reencontro com a própria humanidade; por outro lado, o autor, no final, admite sua angústia ao reconhecer que o mal de Auschwitz permanecerá para sempre com ele. Portanto, o que muda? Como contar uma narrativa que não elabora uma mudança essencial, mas episódios possivelmente aleatórios? Neste sentido, proponho o conceito de uma narrativa estruturada a partir de “variações experimentais” em torno à experiência de trégua. Formulação retirada de uma das mais marcantes caracterizações do livro, o menino Hurbinek, em cujo nome Levi testemunha, as “variações experimentais” podem ser compreendidas como uma alternativa ao impasse acima entre episódios expressivos e sua relativa incapacidade de gerar alguma mudança significativa no sentido histórico do Holocausto.

  5. Computação simbólica em Maple no cálculo das variações

    OpenAIRE

    Louro, Andreia Marques Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Ao longo desta disserta c~ao vamos explorar o sistema de computa c~ao alg ebrica Maple 9.5, com a nalidade de identi car e ilustrar as suas potencialidades e fraquezas na area do C alculo das Varia c~oes: uma ar ea cl assica da Matem atica que estuda os m etodos que permitem encontrar valores m aximos e min mos de funcionais do tipo integral. Come camos por formular o problema elementar do C alculo das Varia c~oes e por apresentar a resolu c~ao de diversos problemas soluc...

  6. Temporal and spatial distribution of Ixodes pacificus and Dermacentor occidentalis (Acari: Ixodidae) and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Contra Costa County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, V L; Beesley, C

    1993-05-01

    The seasonal activity and spatial distribution of adult and immature Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls and Dermacentor occidentalis Marx were determined along trails and on hillsides in two parks in Contra Costa County, CA. I. pacificus and D. occidentalis adults were most numerous in January and May, respectively. Adult ticks were significantly more abundant along heavily vegetated trails than on open grassy hillsides, and on the uphill versus the downhill side of trails. Five species of rodents were captured, and numbers of I. pacificus and D. occidentalis larvae per rodent were highest in May-June and July, respectively. Few nymphs were recovered either by flagging or from captured rodents. An average of 2.2 and 2.8% of the I. pacificus adults collected from the two parks were infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner. The greatest risk of contracting Lyme disease from adult I. pacificus in these two Contra Costa County parks is during the winter months, especially while hiking near the uphill side of trails.

  7. The 50 distal amino acids of the 2AHP homing protein of Grapevine fanleaf virus elicit a hypersensitive reaction on Nicotiana occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Isabelle R; Vigne, Emmanuelle; Berthold, François; Komar, Véronique; Lemaire, Olivier; Fuchs, Marc; Schmitt-Keichinger, Corinne

    2018-03-01

    Avirulence factors are critical for the arm's race between a virus and its host in determining incompatible reactions. The response of plants to viruses from the genus Nepovirus in the family Secoviridae, including Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), is well characterized, although the nature and characteristics of the viral avirulence factor remain elusive. By using infectious clones of GFLV strains F13 and GHu in a reverse genetics approach with wild-type, assortant and chimeric viruses, the determinant of necrotic lesions caused by GFLV-F13 on inoculated leaves of Nicotiana occidentalis was mapped to the RNA2-encoded protein 2A HP , particularly to its 50 C-terminal amino acids. The necrotic response showed hallmark characteristics of a genuine hypersensitive reaction, such as the accumulation of phytoalexins, reactive oxygen species, pathogenesis-related protein 1c and hypersensitivity-related (hsr) 203J transcripts. Transient expression of the GFLV-F13 protein 2A HP fused to an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) tag in N. occidentalis by agroinfiltration was sufficient to elicit a hypersensitive reaction. In addition, the GFLV-F13 avirulence factor, when introduced in GFLV-GHu, which causes a compatible reaction on N. occidentalis, elicited necrosis and partially restricted the virus. This is the first identification of a nepovirus avirulence factor that is responsible for a hypersensitive reaction in both the context of virus infection and transient expression. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  8. Sternal gland structures in males of bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti, and Poinsettia thrips, Echinothrips americanus, in comparison with those of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Stephanie; Subramanian, Sevgan; Niassy, Saliou; Moritz, Gerald B

    2015-09-01

    Sternal pores are important features for identification of male thrips, especially within the subfamily Thripinae. They vary in shape, size and distribution even between species of one genus. Their functional role is speculated to be that of sex- and/or aggregation pheromone production. Yet, sexual aggregations are not reported in Echinothrips americanus, known to have sternal pores, while we observed aggregations in Megalurothrips sjostedti, previously reported to lack them. We examined the sternal glands and pores of the thripine species E. americanus and M. sjostedti males, in comparison with those of Frankliniella occidentalis using light microscopy, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Pore plates of F. occidentalis were ellipsoid and medial on sternites III-VII, while in E. americanus they were distributed as multiple micro pore plates on sternites III-VIII. In M. sjostedti they appeared as an extremely small pore in front of the posterior margin of each of sternites IV-VII. Pore plate and pore plate area were distributed similarly on sternites III-VII in F. occidentalis. However, in E. americanus the total pore plate area increased significantly from sternites III to VIII. Ultrastructure of cells associated with sternal glands showed typical characteristics of gland cells that differ in size, shape and number. The function of sternal glands is further discussed on the basis of morphological comparisons with other thrips species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. As variações linguísticas em sala de aula: especificidades da Amazônia As variações linguísticas em sala de aula: especificidades da Amazônia

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    Avany Aparecida GARCIA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problems related to the treatment of linguistic variation in the classroom, compared to a traditional pedagogy that also sees the standard as a reference standard only legitimate language education at the expense of linguistic diversity, taken, in this case, as the parameter of social stigmatization. Therefore aims to disseminate current trends of language education that excels in ensuring the citizens of instruments for social action, through the competent use of language in various situations sociocomunicativas, including those that require the degree of formality. To this end, talks are about theories that the correlation between linguistic and sociocultural phenomena, pointing to factors that emphasize the linguistic and cultural diversity in the Amazon region, particularly in the state of Rondonia, and the implications of these peculiarities in teaching language. It is emphasized, then, the importance of school and teachers to recognize linguistic variations in the raw material for systematic work with the mother tongue, from the identification and description of events, making explicit the social consequences of each choice among various options offered by the language. From this perspective, are related examples of practical activities and proposals that explore the linguistic and cultural variations in classroom.Este artigo aborda a problemática relacionada ao tratamento da variação linguística em sala de aula, frente a uma pedagogia tradicional que, ainda, concebe a norma-padrão como referencial único e legítimo de ensino de língua, em detrimento da diversidade linguística, tomada, nesse caso, como parâmetro de estigmatização social. Visa, assim, disseminar tendências atuais de uma educação linguística que prima pela garantia aos cidadãos dos instrumentos necessários à sua atuação social, por meio do uso competente da linguagem nas diversas situações sociocomunicativas, inclusive nas que

  10. Ausência de variação da flexibilidade durante o ciclo menstrual em universitárias

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    Chaves Christianne Pereira Giesbrecht

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTAÇÃO: Algumas variáveis da aptidão física são marcadamente influenciadas pelas fases do ciclo menstrual (CM; contudo, há pouca informação sobre eventuais modificações na flexibilidade. OBJETIVO: Analisar o comportamento da flexibilidade corporal - global, por articulação e por movimento - em mulheres adultas jovens nas diferentes fases do CM. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se uma amostra de 15 mulheres. O grupo experimental (GE foi constituído de alunas eumenorréicas, enquanto o grupo controle (GC incluía alunas em uso regular havia pelo menos um mês de anticoncepcional oral (AO. Dados referentes ao período menstrual e ao uso de AO foram obtidos através da aplicação de um questionário. A flexibilidade foi avaliada pelo Flexiteste, permitindo uma análise da flexibilidade global (Flexíndice, por articulação, por movimento e em sua variabilidade. Os Flexíndices foram ainda comparados com os correspondentes percentis para gênero e idade. Para a análise estatística das três medidas do GE - fases folicular, ovulatória e lútea - e das duas do GC entre dias cinco e 26 do ciclo, utilizou-se ANOVA ou teste t conforme apropriado. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças na flexibilidade, movimento a movimento ou Flexíndice nas diferentes fases do CM no GE e nas duas medidas do GC (p > 0,05. O percentil do Flexíndice para o GC variou de 14 a 35 e no GE, de 14 a 80. Analisando as articulações e os índices de variabilidade, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas com as fases do CM (p > 0,05, com a exceção do índice de variabilidade distal-proximal entre as fases ovulatória e folicular no GE. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados obtidos não corroboram a impressão empírica de que a flexibilidade varia durante as fases do CM. Não se pode, contudo, afastar a hipótese de que a ausência de variações tenha ocorrido devido a alguma característica da amostra ou por limitações do Flexiteste em identificar mínimas varia

  11. Ozone injury on cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata) and crown-beard (Verbesina occidentalis) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappelka, A.H.; Neufeld, H.S.; Davison, A.W.; Somers, G.L.; Renfro, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-level ozone causes deleterious effects to cutleaf coneflower and crown-beard in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. -Incidence and severity of visible foliar ozone injury on cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) and crown-beard (Verbesina occidentalis Walt.) were determined along selected trails at three locations in Great Smoky Mountains National Park during the summers of 2000 and 2001: Clingmans Dome, Cherokee Orchard Road and Purchase Knob. Cutleaf coneflower exhibited a greater amount of foliar injury than crown-beard each year of the 2-year study. Incidence and severity of injury was significantly greater for cutleaf coneflower growing near the edge of the Clingmans Dome trail than in the interior of the stand. Injury was greater at Clingmans Dome than Purchase Knob (70% vs. 40% ozone-injured plants, respectively), coincident with greater ozone exposures. In contrast to Clingmans Dome, there were no differences in injury between plants growing near- and off-trail at Purchase Knob. Differences in sensitivity to ozone were not observed for crown-beard growing near the edge compared with the interior of the stand adjacent to the Cherokee Orchard Road Loop. Ozone injury was greatest on the lower leaves for both species sampled with over 95% of the injured leaves occurring on the lower 50% of the plant. This is the first report of foliar ozone injury on these plant species in situ, in the Park, illustrating the great variability in symptom expression with time, and within and between populations

  12. Recruitment in Swarm-Founding Wasps: Polybia occidentalis Does not Actively Scent-Mark Carbohydrate Food Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scent marking food resources is expected to enhance foraging efficiency reducing search time. Many social bees exhibit this behavior, but scent-marking is absent in social wasps, except for Vespa mandarinia. We tested for scent marking in the swarm-founding wasp, Polybia occidentalis. This wasp has moderately large colonies and utilizes resources that are concentrated in time and space, making scent marking profitable. Also, this wasp uses chemical markings to lead nestmates to a new nest site during swarm emigration, making it possible that it could use the same behavior to recruit nestmates to a food source. Foragers from 11 colonies were given a choice between a previously visited feeder and an unvisited one, both containing a rich, unscented sucrose solution. There was no difference in the number of visits to the two treatments. However, some individuals chose the feeder on one side more often. We conclude that foragers of this species of wasp do not use odor marks left behind by nestmates to find food, but they do exhibit the tendency, when returning to a food source that has not been depleted, to choose a resource based on its relative position, presumably by using visual cues.

  13. Performance of a newly isolated salt-tolerant yeast strain Pichia occidentalis G1 for degrading and detoxifying azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Shao, Yifan; Ning, Shuxiang; Tan, Liang

    2017-06-01

    A salt-tolerant yeast named G1 which could decolorize various azo dyes was recently isolated and identified as Pichia occidentalis. Systematic researches on characterization, degradation pathway, detoxification effects and enzymes analysis of this yeast were done. The results showed that the optimal metabolism and growth parameters for strain G1 were: 2.0gL -1 glucose, 0.6gL -1 ammonium sulfate, 0.08gL -1 yeast extract, 30gL -1 NaCl, 160rmin -1 , 30°C and pH 5.0. More than 98% of 50mgL -1 Acid Red B (ARB) could be decolorized within 16h under the optimal conditions. Additionally, strain G1 degraded and obviously detoxified ARB through a possible pathway successively consisting of decolorization, deamination/desulfonation and TCA cycle processes. Moreover, NADH-DCIP reductase was estimated as the key reductase for decolorization and ligninases including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase were important oxidoreductases for further degradation of decolorization intermediates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of new and old pesticides on Orius armatus (Gross) - an Australian predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Sonya; Harrison, Jessica; Rahman, Touhidur

    2014-03-01

    Orius armatus (Gross) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Australian glasshouse grown sweet pepper. The failure of O. armatus to establish in some glasshouses has been attributed to the use of newer, more non-selective pesticides, some of which are regarded to be compatible with integrated pest management. The residual toxicity (via direct and indirect contact) of several older and newer chemistry pesticides were evaluated. In addition, the effect of several systemic insecticides through insecticide-treated food-chain uptake was tested. Older chemistry pesticides (methamidophos, dimethoate) were toxic to Orius armatus, except pirimicarb which was non-toxic. Newer chemistry pesticides differed in their suitability. Abamectin was toxic to adults and nymphs. Chlorantraniliprole, imidacloprid and spirotetramat were non-toxic. Spinosad and spinetoram were moderately toxic to O. armatus. Spinosad also reduced fecundity by 20% compared to the untreated control. Pymetrozine was non-toxic, but females exposed to treated beans produced 30% fewer eggs and 20% fewer nymphs hatched compared to the untreated control. The selective pesticides do not necessarily facilitate the conservation of beneficials, and further assessment of the various developmental stages and other sub-lethal effects of chlorantraniliprole, imidacloprid, pymetrozine, spinetoram, and spirotetramat is recommended. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of repeated exposure to malathion on growth, food consumption, and locomotor performance of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holem, Ryan R.; Hopkins, William A.; Talent, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of repeated pollutant exposure on growth, locomotor performance, and behavior have rarely been evaluated in reptiles. We administered three doses of malathion (2.0, 20, or 100 mg/kg body weight) to western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) over an 81 day period. Eight and 23% mortality occurred at 20 and 100 mg/kg (p = 0.079) and 85% of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group exhibited clinical symptoms of poisoning. Growth, food consumption, body condition index, and terrestrial locomotor performance were not significantly influenced by malathion. However, arboreal sprint velocity was significantly reduced in lizards receiving 100 mg/kg. Fifty percent of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group also refused to sprint in the arboreal setting (p = 0.085). Based on these results, arboreal locomotor performance was the most sensitive metric of exposure we evaluated. Further study of compounds such as malathion is warranted due to highly variable application rates and exposure scenarios. - Repeated exposure of western fence lizards to malathion caused reduced arboreal performance and some mortality but growth, food consumption, and terrestrial performance were not affected

  16. POTENCIAL FITOTÓXICO DE Pterodon polygalaeflorus BENTH (LEGUMINOSAE SOBRE Acanthospermum australe (LOEFL. O. KUNTZE E Senna occidentalis (L. LINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALDENIR JOSÉ BELINELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were synthesize and characterize the allelopatic activity of 6a,7bdi-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-oic acid derivatives, isolated from seeds of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth (Leguminosae. The compound characterization processes involve in infrared spectrometry (IR and hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR including experiments in double dimensions (COSY 1H 1H, HMQC and HMBC. Allellopathic effects were evaluated by bioassays, carried out at controlled 25 °C temperature and photoperiod (12h light/12h dark, during 72 hours. Sample concentrations of 1,0, 100,0 and 1000,0 mg.L-1 were tested. Senna occidentalis (fedegoso and Acanthospermum australe (carrapichinho were used as the target weed plants. Was observed that the allelopatic effect of the compounds increased as a function of the enhancement of concentration, thus showing a relation dose dependence. The N-ethyl-6a-acethoxy- 7b-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-amide and N,N-diethyl-6a-acethoxy-7b-hydroxyvouacapan 17b-amide were the derivatives that present the biggest inhibitory effect on seed germination and root growth of fedegoso and carrapichinho. Therefore, these compounds represent the most allelochemical potential against these weeds.

  17. Borrelia, Coxiella, and Rickettsia in Carios capensis (Acari: Argasidae) from a brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) rookery in South Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Will K; Loftis, Amanda D; Sanders, Felicia; Spinks, Mark D; Wills, William; Denison, Amy M; Dasch, Gregory A

    2006-01-01

    Argasid ticks are vectors of viral and bacterial agents of humans and animals. Carios capensis, a tick of seabirds, infests the nests of brown pelicans, Pelecanus occidentalis, and other ground nesting birds along the coast of South Carolina. This tick is associated with pelican nest abandonment and could pose a threat to humans visiting pelican rookeries if visitors are exposed to ticks harboring infectious agents. We collected ticks from a pelican rookery on Deveaux Bank, South Carolina and screened 64 individual ticks, six pools of larvae, and an egg mass for DNA from Bartonella, Borrelia, Coxiella, and Rickettsia by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. Ticks harbored DNA from "Borrelia lonestari", a novel Coxiella sp., and three species of Rickettsia, including Rickettsia felis and two undescribed Rickettsia spp. DNA from the Coxiella and two undescribed Rickettsia were detected in unfed larvae that emerged in the laboratory, which implies these agents are transmitted vertically by female ticks. We partially characterize the novel Coxiella by molecular means.

  18. Chromosome-scale scaffolding of the black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) genome based on chromatin interaction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibran, Rubina; Dzierzon, Helge; Bassil, Nahla; Bushakra, Jill M; Edger, Patrick P; Sullivan, Shawn; Finn, Chad E; Dossett, Michael; Vining, Kelly J; VanBuren, Robert; Mockler, Todd C; Liachko, Ivan; Davies, Kevin M; Foster, Toshi M; Chagné, David

    2018-01-01

    Black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis L.) is a niche fruit crop valued for its flavor and potential health benefits. The improvement of fruit and cane characteristics via molecular breeding technologies has been hindered by the lack of a high-quality reference genome. The recently released draft genome for black raspberry (ORUS 4115-3) lacks assembly of scaffolds to chromosome scale. We used high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) and Proximity-Guided Assembly (PGA) to cluster and order 9650 out of 11,936 contigs of this draft genome assembly into seven pseudo-chromosomes. The seven pseudo-chromosomes cover ~97.2% of the total contig length (~223.8 Mb). Locating existing genetic markers on the physical map resolved multiple discrepancies in marker order on the genetic map. Centromeric regions were inferred from recombination frequencies of genetic markers, alignment of 303 bp centromeric sequence with the PGA, and heat map showing the physical contact matrix over the entire genome. We demonstrate a high degree of synteny between each of the seven chromosomes of black raspberry and a high-quality reference genome for strawberry ( Fragaria vesca L.) assembled using only PacBio long-read sequences. We conclude that PGA is a cost-effective and rapid method of generating chromosome-scale assemblies from Illumina short-read sequencing data.

  19. Field-evolved resistance to insecticides in the invasive western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-Hua; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Li, Bing-Yan; Chen, Jin-Cui; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Gao, Yu-Lin; Reitz, Stuart; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    To understand the current status of insecticide resistance of the invasive western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, in China, the responses of six field populations to six commonly used insecticides, i.e. spinosad, spinetoram, cyantraniliprole, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and pyriproxyfen, were evaluated in comparison with a susceptible laboratory strain. Field populations tended to be less susceptible than the laboratory strain. The population from Shouguang, Shandong Province, showed the lowest levels of susceptibility. A 15.64-fold and 17.29-fold resistance to spinosad and spinetoram was detected in the Shouguang population. A 11.74-fold and 13.64-fold resistance to cyantraniliprole was detected in populations from Daxing in the Beijing area and Shouguang. All populations showed a low level of resistance to imidacloprid, acetamiprid and pyriproxyfen, except for the Shouguang population, which was 127.58-fold more resistant to pyriproxyfen. Variations in resistance to the tested insecticides were observed among the sampled population. Spinosad and spinetoram were the most efficient insecticides and are recommended for use in an integrated management programme. Resistance management strategies should be implemented to reduce the potential for resistance evolving. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Repellency of essential oils to Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as affected by type of oil and polymer release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Isabelle; Hollingsworth, Robert G; Salmieri, Stéphane; Lacroix, Monique

    2012-08-01

    Eight essential oils [0.125-1.0% (vol:vol) in acetone] were separately deposited on leaf disks to evaluate their potential to repel western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), adult females. Two of the best-performing essential oils were incorporated into polymer matrices of methyl cellulose or alginate [0.5 or 1% (wt:vol)] to verify the potential of the polymer to extend repellency of oils over time (24-120 h). Results showed that at a concentration of 0.5%, Thymus vulgaris L. (common thyme) and Satureja montana L. (winter savory) were the most repellent essential oils. For these two treatments, no western flower thrips were counted on treated leaf disks 60 min after the start of the test. T. serpyllum and O. compactum also showed repellency values > or = 90% at this concentration. With both the alginate and methyl cellulose polymers, the incorporation of polymers into treatment solutions containing 0.5% concentrations of S. montana and T. serpyllum resulted in higher repellency compared with treatment solutions lacking these polymers for a minimum of 3 d. For the alginate polymer, differences associated with polymer concentrations were most dramatic. High repellency was maintained for 4 d when a 0.5% concentration of the alginate was used in combination with a 0.5% concentration of S. montana. The use of repellent oils with polymers that extend their repellency may prove useful for both pre- and postharvest applications in flower crops.

  1. Resistance to spinosad in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in greenhouses of south-eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, Pablo; Quinto, Vicente; Contreras, Josefina; Torné, María; Martín, Alberto; Espinosa, Pedro J

    2007-07-01

    Susceptibility to spinosad of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), from south-eastern Spain was determined. LC(50) values of the field populations without previous exposure to spinosad collected in Murcia in 2001 and 2002 ranged from 0.005 to 0.077 mg L(-1). The populations collected in Almeria in 2003 in greenhouses were resistant to spinosad (LC(50) > 54 mg L(-1)) compared with the authors' highly susceptible laboratory strain. The highly sensitive laboratory strain leads to very high resistance ratios for the field populations (>13 500), but these ratios do not necessarily mean resistance problems and control failures (spinosad field rate 90-120 mg L(-1)). The populations collected in Murcia from some greenhouses in 2004 were also resistant to spinosad (RF > 3682). Spinosad overuse, with more than ten applications per crop, produced these resistant populations in some greenhouses. Spinosad showed no cross-resistance to acrinathrin, formetanate or methiocarb in laboratory strains selected for resistance towards each insecticide. Correlation analysis indicated no cross-resistance among spinosad and the other three insecticides in 13 field populations and in nine laboratory strains. The synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) and diethyl maleate (DEM) did not enhance the toxicity of spinosad to the resistant strains, indicating that metabolic-mediated detoxification was not responsible for the spinosad resistance. These findings suggest that rotation with spinosad may be an effective resistance management strategy. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Variação na cobertura vegetal nativa em São Paulo: um panorama do conhecimento atual

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    Juliana Sampaio Farinaci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos em diversos países têm evidenciado a ocorrência de transição florestal, fenômeno em que o aumento da cobertura florestal supera as perdas por desflorestamento. No Brasil, embora o desflorestamento ocorra em maior grau que a expansão das florestas, é possível que em certas regiões essa relação seja inversa. Levantamentos recentes sugerem a tendência do Estado de São Paulo em direção à transição florestal. Com os objetivos de analisar as evidências dessa transição e facilitar o uso da informação já existente, fez-se uma revisão de quatro fontes de dados sobre a variação da cobertura vegetal nativa em São Paulo (Instituto Florestal, SOS Mata Atlântica/INPE, IBGE e CATI/IEA. Os resultados indicaram que as discrepâncias entre esses levantamentos podem, ao menos em parte, ser atribuídas a diferenças metodológicas e de objetivos. Ressaltam-se seus pontos de concordância e discutem-se possibilidades de harmonização dessas informações.

  3. Effects of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook F. Methanol Leaf Extract on the Haematological Indices and Histomorphology of the Endometrium and Liver of Female Albino Rats

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    Chidozie Nwabuisi OKOYE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administration of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook f. methanol leaf extract on some hematological indices and histomorphology of the uterus and liver of female albino rats. Acute toxicity study of the extract was performed with female rats, following standard procedure. They were randomly assigned into 3 groups. The first group (A served as the untreated control and received distilled water, while the second group (B and third (C received 200 and 800 mg/kg mg/kg body weight of the methanol leaf extract of T. occidentalis respectively. Administration of the extract was done daily via the oral route for 21 days. Blood was collected for hematological evaluation at weekly intervals. Hematological parameters assessed were the packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cell (RBC count, hemoglobin concentration (HB and total white blood cell (TWBC count. At the end of the study period uterine and liver tissues were excised and prepared for histological examination. Results showed that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in the mean PCV, RBC and HB values of the treatment groups, but only at the end of the second week of administration of the extract. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05 in the mean total WBC throughout the duration of the study. Histological examination of uterine and liver tissues of the different groups did not show any lesions. It was concluded that the T. occidentalis leaf methanolic extract does not adversely affect the reproductive functions of the uterus.

  4. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria amazonica and Biomphalaria occidentalis from Manso Dam, Mato Grosso, Brazil to infection with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available As well as malaria and yellow fever, schistosomiasis is one of the main endemic diseases associated to environments which suffered some impact related to the development of great economic projects, as for example the construction of hydroelectric power stations. Aiming to investigate the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance in the area which suffered impact from the Manso hydroelectric power station a survey was performed during the period of 2002 to 2003 and revealed the occurrence of populations of Biomphalaria amazonica and Biomphalaria occidentalis. Studies on parasite-mollusc compatibility were undertaken using five B. amazonica colonies (Barão de Melgaço, Poconé, Santo Antônio do Leverger, and Chapada dos Guimarães, in the Manso and Casca rivers, and four B. occidentalis colonies (Cuiabá, Santo Antônio do Leverger, and Chapada dos Guimarães, in the Água Fria district and Casca river were exposed to miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni. Of 257 snails of B. amazonica used, 17 became infected (infection index of 6.61% and all specimens of B. occidentalis proved unsusceptible. According to the strains used, of the 158 snails exposed to BH miracidia, 6 became infected (3.79%; of the 44 exposed to SJ miracidia, 6 became infected (13.63%; and of the 55 snails of B. amazonica exposed to EC miracidia, 5 became infected (9.09%. These results point out the low possibility of introduction of schistosomiasis in those areas, but we believe it can not be discarded as due the presence of B. amazonica.

  5. Genetic variation among interconnected populations of Catostomus occidentalis: Implications for distinguishing impacts of contaminants from biogeographical structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, A.; Anderson, S.L.; Kuivila, K.M.; Roach, J.L.; May, B.

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants can affect survivorship, recruitment, reproductive success, mutation rates and migration, and may play a significant role in the partitioning of genetic variation among exposed and nonexposed populations. However, the application of molecular population genetic data to evaluate such influences has been uncommon and often flawed. We tested whether patterns of genetic variation among native fish populations (Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis) in the Central Valley of California were consistent with long-term pesticide exposure history, or primarily with expectations based on biogeography. Field sampling was designed to rigorously test for both geographical and contamination influences. Fine-scale structure of these interconnected populations was detected with both amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and microsatellite markers, and patterns of variation elucidated by the two marker systems were highly concordant. Analyses indicated that biogeographical hypotheses described the data set better than hypotheses relating to common historical pesticide exposure. Downstream populations had higher genetic diversity than upstream populations, regardless of exposure history, and genetic distances showed that populations from the same river system tended to cluster together. Relatedness among populations reflected primarily directions of gene flow, rather than convergence among contaminant-exposed populations. Watershed geography accounted for significant partitioning of genetic variation among populations, whereas contaminant exposure history did not. Genetic patterns indicating contaminant-induced selection, increased mutation rates or recent bottlenecks were weak or absent. We stress the importance of testing contaminant-induced genetic change hypotheses within a biogeographical context. Strategic application of molecular markers for analysis of fine-scale structure, and for evaluating contaminant impacts on gene pools, is

  6. Expression patterns of a circadian clock gene are associated with age-related polyethism in harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis

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    Ingram Krista K

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in sociogenomics allow for comparative analyses of molecular mechanisms regulating the development of social behavior. In eusocial insects, one key aspect of their sociality, the division of labor, has received the most attention. Age-related polyethism, a derived form of division of labor in ants and bees where colony tasks are allocated among distinct behavioral phenotypes, has traditionally been assumed to be a product of convergent evolution. Previous work has shown that the circadian clock is associated with the development of behavior and division of labor in honeybee societies. We cloned the ortholog of the clock gene, period, from a harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex occidentalis and examined circadian rhythms and daily activity patterns in a species that represents an evolutionary origin of eusociality independent of the honeybee. Results Using real time qPCR analyses, we determined that harvester ants have a daily cyclic expression of period and this rhythm is endogenous (free-running under dark-dark conditions. Cyclic expression of period is task-specific; foragers have strong daily fluctuations but nest workers inside the nest do not. These patterns correspond to differences in behavior as activity levels of foragers show a diurnal pattern while nest workers tend to exhibit continuous locomotor activity at lower levels. In addition, we found that foragers collected in the early fall (relative warm, long days exhibit a delay in the nightly peak of period expression relative to foragers collected in the early spring (relative cold, short days. Conclusion The association of period mRNA expression levels with harvester ant task behaviors suggests that the development of circadian rhythms is associated with the behavioral development of ants. Thus, the circadian clock pathway may represent a conserved 'genetic toolkit' that has facilitated the parallel evolution of age-related polyethism and task allocation in

  7. Draft Genomes, Phylogenetic Reconstruction, and Comparative Genomics of Two Novel Cohabiting Bacterial Symbionts Isolated from Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facey, Paul D; Méric, Guillaume; Hitchings, Matthew D; Pachebat, Justin A; Hegarty, Matt J; Chen, Xiaorui; Morgan, Laura V A; Hoeppner, James E; Whitten, Miranda M A; Kirk, William D J; Dyson, Paul J; Sheppard, Sam K; Del Sol, Ricardo

    2015-07-15

    Obligate bacterial symbionts are widespread in many invertebrates, where they are often confined to specialized host cells and are transmitted directly from mother to progeny. Increasing numbers of these bacteria are being characterized but questions remain about their population structure and evolution. Here we take a comparative genomics approach to investigate two prominent bacterial symbionts (BFo1 and BFo2) isolated from geographically separated populations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Our multifaceted approach to classifying these symbionts includes concatenated multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) phylogenies, ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST), construction of whole-genome phylogenies, and in-depth genomic comparisons. We showed that the BFo1 genome clusters more closely to species in the genus Erwinia, and is a putative close relative to Erwinia aphidicola. BFo1 is also likely to have shared a common ancestor with Erwinia pyrifoliae/Erwinia amylovora and the nonpathogenic Erwinia tasmaniensis and genetic traits similar to Erwinia billingiae. The BFo1 genome contained virulence factors found in the genus Erwinia but represented a divergent lineage. In contrast, we showed that BFo2 belongs within the Enterobacteriales but does not group closely with any currently known bacterial species. Concatenated MLSA phylogenies indicate that it may have shared a common ancestor to the Erwinia and Pantoea genera, and based on the clustering of rMLST genes, it was most closely related to Pantoea ananatis but represented a divergent lineage. We reconstructed a core genome of a putative common ancestor of Erwinia and Pantoea and compared this with the genomes of BFo bacteria. BFo2 possessed none of the virulence determinants that were omnipresent in the Erwinia and Pantoea genera. Taken together, these data are consistent with BFo2 representing a highly novel species that maybe related to known Pantoea. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by

  8. Variation in Tomato spotted wilt virus titer in Frankliniella occidentalis and its association with frequency of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Dorith; Krishna Kumar, Nallur K; Ullman, Diane E; Montero-Astúa, Mauricio; Willis, David K; German, Thomas L; Whitfield, Anna E

    2009-04-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted in a persistent propagative manner by Frankliniella occidentalis, the western flower thrips. While it is well established that vector competence depends on TSWV acquisition by young larvae and virus replication within the insect, the biological factors associated with frequency of transmission have not been well characterized. We hypothesized that the number of transmission events by a single adult thrips is determined, in part, by the amount of virus harbored (titer) by the insect. Transmission time-course experiments were conducted using a leaf disk assay to determine the efficiency and frequency of TSWV transmission following 2-day inoculation access periods (IAPs). Virus titer in individual adult thrips was determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) at the end of the experiments. On average, 59% of adults transmitted the virus during the first IAP (2 to 3 days post adult-eclosion). Male thrips were more efficient at transmitting TSWV multiple times compared with female thrips of the same cohort. However, females harbored two to three times more copies of TSWV-N RNA per insect, indicating that factors other than absolute virus titer in the insect contribute to a successful transmission event. Examination of virus titer in individual insects at the end of the third IAP (7 days post adult-eclosion) revealed significant and consistent positive associations between frequency of transmission and virus titer. Our data support the hypothesis that a viruliferous thrips is more likely to transmit multiple times if it harbors a high titer of virus. This quantitative relationship provides new insights into the biological parameters that may influence the spread of TSWV by thrips.

  9. Efeito das variações biométricas de mudas clonais de eucalipto sobre o crescimento no campo

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    Fábio Afonso Mazzei Moura de Assis Figueiredo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da variação de altura e diâmetro de colo de mudas clonais do híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla sobre o crescimento após o plantio nos sítios de Aracruz-ES, Mucuri-BA, Montanha-ES e Carlos Chagas-MG. As classes selecionadas foram: mudas altas e grossas (AG, mudas altas com diâmetro médio (AM, mudas médias com diâmetro grosso (MG, mudas médias com diâmetro médio (MM, mudas pequenas com diâmetro médio (PM e mudas pequenas com diâmetro fino (PF. Os valores dessas classes foram: altura: A (31-40 cm, M (21-30 cm e P (10-20 cm; diâmetro: G (3,1-4,0 mm, M (2,1-3,0 mm e F (1,5-2,0 mm. As mudas, 90 dias após o transplantio nos tubetes e consideradas rustificadas, foram plantadas e as avaliações de altura (H e diâmetro (D, feitas no 1°, 2°, 3°, 6° e 12° meses. A massa de matéria seca de folhas, lenho, casca, galhos e raízes finas, médias e grossas foram avaliadas no sexto mês. Mudas com maiores dimensões de altura e diâmetro apresentaram maior crescimento inicial, mas as diferenças tenderam a diminuir ao longo do tempo. O sítio de Carlos Chagas teve as piores condições para o crescimento das plantas.

  10. CÁLCULO DE LOS COSTOS DE CALIDAD EN LA UNIDAD EMPRESARIAL DE BASE PRODUCCIONES VARIAS, CIENFUEGOS

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    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo de los costos de calidad como elemento integrante del Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, es una necesidad para los directivos de las empresas cubanas, al constituir una técnica identificada como instrumento avanzado de gestión, que permitirá mejorar la competitividad y servir de fuente informativa. Identificar y calcular los costos de calidad, así como proponer planes de medidas, que propicien una disminución de los gastos operativos, lo cual puede ser utilizado como herramienta para mejorar los procesos. La Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias de Cienfuegos presenta el diagnóstico para dar paso al Perfeccionamiento Empresarial y a la certificación de su Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, según la Norma NC-ISO 9001:2008 y el decreto Ley 281, por lo que el objetivo de la investigación fue calcular los costos de calidad por procesos en dicha empresa. Para lograrlo se utilizaron métodos de nivel empírico y técnicas como la observación directa, revisión documental y el trabajo en grupos, lo cual permitió calcular los costos de calidad en todos los procesos. Los resultados alcanzados son aplicables a empresas que operan en la economía cubana y según el modelo económico cubano puesto en práctica a partir del año 2011.

  11. Variação linguística numa zona rural portuguesa: estudo dialetológico

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    Maria Celeste Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho pretende contribuir para umconhecimento mais pormenorizado de determinadas característicaslinguísticas sujeitas a mudança nos falarespopulares da área geográfica do concelho do Fundão(Portugal, à luz das contribuições da SociolinguísticaVariacionista e da Geografia Linguística. Privilegiando-se,assim, uma abordagem sociolinguística, pretendemos descreveruma variedade do Português Europeu contemporâneo:o falar ou variedade da Beira-Baixa, e, em particular,do Concelho do Fundão. É, deste modo, nosso objetivoexplicitar as circunstâncias em que determinados fonemassão espontaneamente produzidos, avaliar a frequência derealização de variáveis linguísticas previamente selecionadase detetar a sua distribuição em função de grupossociais diversos.Através das quarenta e três entrevistas aplicadas,caracterizaremos os seguintes fenómenos: a monotongaçãodo ditongo ei; a palatalização de /u/ em [y]; a palatalizaçãocondicionada de /a/ em [ε]; a palatalização do /o/ provenienteda monotongação do antigo ditongo [ow] em [ø]; alabialização da vogal /e/ em [oe].Palavras-Chave: Variação, Sociolinguística, FenómenosFonético-Fonológicos.

  12. A variação denominativa nos textos especializados da aromaterapia: o caso da unidade terminológica Alecrim = Rosemary variation within Aromatherapy texts

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    Neide Munhoz Albano

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva discutir a variação da planta Alecrim, no âmbito da denominação científica e popular, na ótica do prescritivismo das teorias da variação linguística. A análise concentra-se nas variantes terminológicas em consonância com seu uso.This article aims to discuss variation with respect to the scientific and common denominations of the Rosemary plant, based on the approach of prescription of the theories of linguistic variation. The analysis focuses on the terminological variants in consonance with their use by experts in the field.

  13. Gramática e escola: considerações sobre variação linguística e ensino de língua portuguesa

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    Flávio Biasutti Valadares

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta algumas noções de concepções de gramática, de ensino e de variação linguística; expõe conceitos relativos à gramática e à variação linguística; discute alguns aspectos acerca de ensino de língua portuguesa e gramática na escola, sob a perspectiva das variedades da língua e explicita questões presentes nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais; conclui que a escola ainda vem mantendo o ensino de língua portuguesa centrado em concepções prescritivas.

  14. Estudo da variação do perfil químico de citros com HLB e sadios, buscando informações sobre mecanismo de defesa

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Sayuri Bellete

    2014-01-01

    O presente trabalho descreve o estudo da variação do perfil químico de citros após a inoculação da bactéria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, responsável pelo Huanglongbing (ex-greening) que é uma das doenças mais sérias causadoras de prejuízos na citricultura brasileira. Para isso, inoculou-se a Ca. Liberibacter em mudas de a Valência (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) enxertadas em Swingle (Citrus paradisi X Poncirus trifoliata) e avaliou-se a variação dos metabólitos secundários através do des...

  15. Variação sazonal e interanual na dinâmica populacional de Croton blanchetianus em uma floresta tropical seca

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    Izabelle Silva Nascimento

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado em uma área de caatinga em Pernambuco. Buscou-se avaliar a dinâmica de Croton blanchetianus em função da variação de precipitação entre estações climáticas e entre anos. Todos os indivíduos de C. blanchetianus presentes nas parcelas amostradas foram monitorados mensalmente, durante dois anos consecutivos. Houve diferença significativa de novas plântulas de C. blanchetianus entre estações e entre anos. Considerando a variação de precipitação entre anos, o comportamento da população parece ter sofrido pouca influência, pois apenas 14,8% de novas plântulas nessa população podem ser explicados pela variação de precipitação entre estações e entre anos. O poder de explicação da mortalidade pelo modelo linear generalizado foi de 1,4%, considerando a interação entre sazonalidade e variação interanual de precipitação. Diante desse contexto, torna-se necessário uma abordagem mais ampla do ponto de vista ecológico, para avaliar quais fatores ambientais são decisivos e podem estar direcionando o ritmo de renovação dessa população no tempo.

  16. Two common and problematic leucochrysine species – Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa varia (Schneider and L. (L. pretiosa (Banks (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae: redescriptions and synonymies

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    Catherine Tauber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Leucochrysa McLachlan is the largest genus in the Chrysopidae, yet it has received relatively little taxonomic attention. We treat two problematic and common Leucochrysa species – Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa varia (Schneider, 1851 and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa pretiosa (Banks, 1910. Both are highly variable in coloration and were described before the systematic importance of chrysopid genitalia was recognized. Recent studies show that these species occur within a large complex of cryptic species and that they have accumulated a number of taxonomic problems. We identify new synonymies for each of the species – for L. (L. varia: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa ampla (Walker, 1853, Leucochrysa internata (Walker, 1853, and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa walkerina Navás, 1913; for L. (L. pretiosa: Leucochrysa erminea Banks 1946. The synonymy of Leucochrysa delicata Navás 1925 with L. (L. pretiosa is stabilized by the designation of a neotype. The following species, which were previously synonymized with L. (L. varia or L. (L. pretiosa, are reinstated as valid: Leucochrysa phaeocephala Navás 1929, Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa angrandi (Navás, 1911, and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa variata (Navás, 1913. Finally, Leucochrysa vegana Navás 1917 is considered a nomen dubium.

  17. O tratamento da diversidade e variação linguísticas em livros didáticos de Português

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    Cláudia Goulart Morais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, analiso como a diversidade e a variação linguísticas são tratadas nos Livros Didáticos de Português (LDP nos anos finais do ensino fundamental, na tentativa de problematizar como as atividades propostas nesses materiais didáticos tematizam conceitos sociolinguísticos importantes, tais como o conceito de norma e as relações entre fala e escrita e oralidade e letramento. As análises dos dados validaram a nossa hipótese de que nos LDP, que circulam atualmente nas escolas brasileiras, ainda predomina a submissão das marcas da diversidade e da variação linguísticas aos processos de normatização da língua, mesmo onde se propõe apresentar e discutir a variação linguística. As análises validaram, também, o nosso entendimento de que tais atividades dos LDP fazem parte do processo de valorização da norma padrão como a única variedade legítima e a modalidade escrita formal como aquela gramaticalmente organizada.

  18. An Endangered Arboreal Specialist, the Western Ringtail Possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis, Shows a Greater Genetic Divergence across a Narrow Artificial Waterway than a Major Road.

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    Kaori Yokochi

    Full Text Available The fragmentation of habitats by roads and other artificial linear structures can have a profound effect on the movement of arboreal species due to their strong fidelity to canopies. Here, we used 12 microsatellite DNA loci to investigate the fine-scale spatial genetic structure and the effects of a major road and a narrow artificial waterway on a population of the endangered western ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis in Busselton, Western Australia. Using spatial autocorrelation analysis, we found positive genetic structure in continuous habitat over distances up to 600 m. These patterns are consistent with the sedentary nature of P. occidentalis and highlight their vulnerability to the effects of habitat fragmentation. Pairwise relatedness values and Bayesian cluster analysis also revealed significant genetic divergences across an artificial waterway, suggesting that it was a barrier to gene flow. By contrast, no genetic divergences were detected across the major road. While studies often focus on roads when assessing the effects of artificial linear structures on wildlife, this study provides an example of an often overlooked artificial linear structure other than a road that has a significant impact on wildlife dispersal leading to genetic subdivision.

  19. Estudos hematológico e hormonal de frangos de corte tratados com contaminantes do milho: Crotalaria spectabilis e Senna occidentalis

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    Ana Paula Massae Nakage

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Crotalaria spectabilis (crotalária e a Senna occidentalis (fedegoso can grow in corn fields and during harvesting this cereal can be contaminated with the seeds of those plants which presents toxicity to animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the erythrocytes morphometric parameters, haematological variables and plasma hormones concentrations of broilers chickens fed rations of two energy levels to which were added 0,1% e 0,5% of Crotalaria spectabilis e a Senna occidentalis seeds, respectively. One hundred and eighty broilers chicks were divided into 6 groups according to a factorial analysis 3 x 2 (control, crotalaria and fedegoso as main treatments and two energy levels, 2,900 and 3,200 kcal ME/kg of ration. The results of this experiment showed that the crotalaria toxin reduced the number of the red blood cells, the haematocrit and mean corpuscular volume (MCV with no effect on the morphometric studied parameters. These seeds due to its hepatic toxicity induced a high incidence of ascites. The fedegoso seeds were not able to induce ascite in the broilers.

  20. Thrips developmental stage-specific transcriptome response to tomato spotted wilt virus during the virus infection cycle in Frankliniella occidentalis, the primary vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneweis, Derek J; Whitfield, Anna E; Rotenberg, Dorith

    2017-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis in a circulative-propagative manner. Little is known about thrips vector response to TSWV during the infection process from larval acquisition to adult inoculation of plants. Whole-body transcriptome response to virus infection was determined for first-instar larval, pre-pupal and adult thrips using RNA-Seq. TSWV responsive genes were identified using preliminary sequence of a draft genome of F. occidentalis as a reference and three developmental-stage transcriptomes were assembled. Processes and functions associated with host defense, insect cuticle structure and development, metabolism and transport were perturbed by TSWV infection as inferred by ontologies of responsive genes. The repertoire of genes responsive to TSWV varied between developmental stages, possibly reflecting the link between thrips development and the virus dissemination route in the vector. This study provides the foundation for exploration of tissue-specific expression in response to TSWV and functional analysis of thrips gene function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aydın ili çilek alanlarında Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera Thripidae)’nin popülasyon dalgalanmaları

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIM, Eyyüp Mennan; BAŞPINAR, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Çalışma 2011-2012 yılları arasında Aydın ilinin Merkez ve İncirliova ilçelerindeki iki adet çilek bahçesinde yürütülmüştür. Çalışma süresince haftalık olarak bu bahçelere gidilmiş ve gerek çiçek ve gereksede atrap yardımıyla elde edilen thripsler incelenmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergende) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) yaygın tür olarak belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca F. occidentalis bireylerinin nisan ayı başında görüldüğü ve popülasyonun arttığı saptanmıştır. Popülasyon hazira...

  2. Búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande(thysanoptera: thripidae, sobre Dendranthema grandijlorum en el municipio de Piendamo, cauca.

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    Castro V. Ulises

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En la empresa "Flores del Cauca" en el municipio de Piendamó a 1S00 m.s.n.m. con temperatura promedia de 18° C y HR de SO ± 5%, se hizo una búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de F. occidentalis (Thysanóptera: Thripidae sobre eras experimentales de Dendranthema grandiflorum libres de control químico. La búsqueda se extendió a los hospedantes alternos del tisanóptero en áreas aledañas al cultivo. Semanalmente se cosechaban plantas de crisantemo, se llevaban al laboratorio para la recolección de thrips y sus enemigos naturales nativos. En el laboratorio se realizaron bioensayos para probar la acción depredadora de algunos de los enemigos de F. occídentalis que fueron encontrados en crisantemo. Se encontraron los siguientes enemigos naturales nativos: El hemíptero Orius sp. (Anthocoridae. los ácaros Amblyseius herbjcolus. Euseius naindaimei y Thyplodromalus peregrinus (Phytoseiidae, larvas de Chrysopidae; los thrips leptothirs sp. y Haplotrips gowdeyi (Phlaeothripidae, un ácaro de la familia Ascidae; difereflles especies de arañas; larvas de la familia Coccinellidae y adultos de F. occidentalis infectados por hongos no identificados.

  3. Potencial alelopático da parte aérea de Senna occidentalis (L. Link (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae: bioensaios em laboratório Allelopathic potential of aerial parts of Senna occidentalis (L. Link (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae: Laboratory bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carina da Silva Cândido

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A bioatividade das frações semipurificadas (hexânica, acetato de etila e etanol-água do extrato etanólico das partes aérea de S. occidentalis foi avaliada através de ensaios de germinação e de crescimento de Lactuca sativa (alface, Lycopersicon esculentum (tomate, Allium cepa (cebola e Triticum aestivum (trigo, em laboratório. Foram utilizadas três concentrações (250, 500, 1000 mg L-1 de cada fração e um controle não tratado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Os bioensaios de germinação revelaram que todas as frações atrasaram a germinação de alface, tomate e cebola, e as frações hexânica e acetato de etila reduziram a germinabilidade de tomate e cebola. Nos bioensaios de crescimento, a fração hexânica estimulou o crescimento da raiz e inibiu o crescimento do hipocótilo das eudicotiledôneas. A mesma fração inibiu o crescimento da raiz e do coleóptilo das monocotiledôneas. A fração acetato de etila inibiu o crescimento da raiz das plântulas-alvo e o hipocótilo/coleóptilo de tomate e cebola. A fração etanol-água estimulou o crescimento da raiz de tomate e do hipocótilo de alface e inibiu o crescimento da raiz de cebola e trigo e, também, do coleóptilo de cebola, na concentração de 1000 mg L-1. Nos bioensaios com herbicidas comerciais foram observados efeitos semelhantes àqueles obtidos na germinação pelas frações e no crescimento pelas frações hexânica e acetato de etila. Na cromatografia em camada delgada, foram detectados terpenos na fração hexânica, compostos fenólicos e alcalóides na fração acetato de etila. A análise espectrofotométrica revelou que a fração acetato de etila possui o maior conteúdo de compostos fenólicos e flavonóides.The bioactivity of semipurified fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol-water obtained from S. occidentalis aerial-part ethanol extract was evaluated by germination and growth bioassays using Lactuca sativa (lettuce, Lycopersicon

  4. Composição química e variação sazonal dos óleos essenciais de Eugenia pyriformis (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanello, Maria É.A.; Wisniewski Jr., Alberto; Simionatto, Edésio L.; Cervi, Armando C.

    2009-01-01

    A composição química dos óleos essenciais obtidos por hidrodestilação de folhas (coletadas entre outubro/2005 e dezembro/2006), flores e frutos de Eugenia pyriformis Camb. (Myrtaceae), foi analisada por CG e CG/EM. Os óleos foram caracterizados pela presença de monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos em quantidades variáveis durante o ano. Nos óleos das folhas os principais componentes foram β-pineno, limoneno, 1,8-cineol e óxido de cariofileno. O teor destes compostos mostrou grande variação sazo...

  5. Caracterização da variação temporal da massa de matéria seca de plantas de milho

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Pinto da Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Com o objetivo de caracterizar a variação temporal da massa de matéria seca de plantas de milho, foram conduzidos experimentos de campo na área experimental do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Universidade de São Paulo em Piracicaba, SP (latitude: 22o42\\'30\\'\\' Sul, longitude: 47o38\\'00\\'\\' Oeste, e altitude: 546 metros), na safra 2003/2004 (semeadura: 20 de setembro de 2003). Foram utilizados três genótipos de milho, BRS-1001, BRS-1010 e BRS-3003, sob condições de sequeiro e irrigado, com...

  6. Variação temporal do gradiente radial de o/h a partir de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, W. J.; Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.

    2003-08-01

    Gradientes radiais de abundância são observados no disco de nossa Galáxia e também em outras galáxias espirais. No caso da Galáxia, o principal problema relativo aos gradientes é sua variação temporal, que constitui um dos principais vínculos aos modelos de evolução química da Galáxia. As nebulosas planetárias são particularmente interessantes no estudo dos gradientes e suas variações, tanto espaciais como temporais. São objetos brilhantes, podendo ser observadas a grandes distâncias, e têm abundâncias relativamente precisas de diversos elementos químicos. Além disso, sendo originadas de estrelas com massas entre 0.8 e 8 massas solares na sequência principal, incluem objetos com idades e populações diferentes, o que as torna especialmente interessantes ao estudo da variação temporal dos gradientes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos resultados recentes sobre a variação temporal do gradiente de O/H a partir de uma amostra contendo cerca de 200 nebulosas, para as quais obtivemos distâncias por métodos estatísticos. As abundâncias foram parcialmente obtidas a partir de observações em Itajubá e La Silla, sendo as restantes obtidas da literatura. Os resultados mostram, pela primeira vez, evidências de um achatamento do gradiente de O/H, de -0.11 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 9 giga-anos ou de -0.08 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 5 giga-anos. Esses valores apresentam um bom acordo com alguns modelos recentes para a evolução química da Galáxia. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  7. Análise das variações anatômicas do canal da mandíbula encontradas em radiografias panorâmicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yza Daniella Nunes Andrade

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: No âmbito da clínica odontológica, o bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior é o mais utilizado; todavia, diversos estudos têm mostrado as mais altas taxas de fracasso, as quais, normalmente, têm como motivo a falha na observação da posição, da forma e da anatomia dos nervos. Essas falhas decorrentes da variação anatômica do nervo alveolar inferior já vêm sendo estudadas na literatura, através de estudos com a análise de radiografias panorâmicas, como proposto neste estudo. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência e a prevalência das variações anatômicas, bem como a correlação das variações do canal da mandíbula com lado e sexo, que podem ocorrer no canal mandibular, por meio de radiografias panorâmicas de pacientes atendidos no Departamento de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram analisadas 1.500 radiografias panorâmicas de pacientes atendidos pelo Departamento de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS. Imagens radiográficas foram observadas sobre um negatoscópio, utilizando-se uma máscara preta ao redor das radiografias, em ambiente com luminosidade apropriada. RESULTADO: Neste estudo, foram observados 5,3% de bifurcações do canal mandibular; 47,5% de canais altos; 16,8% de canais intermediários; 27,1% de canais baixos, e 8,6% de canais com outras variações. CONCLUSÃO: Baseando-se na altura do canal mandibular, houve maior prevalência dos canais altos do que os demais nas mulheres, sendo que não houve diferenças entre os gêneros com relação aos demais tipos e lados afetados. Na classificação dos canais bífidos, não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre homens e mulheres. Observou-se que a maior prevalência foi para canais sem bifurcação.

  8. Short Communication: Evaluation of the chemical composition of essential oil of Thuja occidentalis leaves grown in Peshawar, Pakistan by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Siddique, Muhammad; Rahman, Inayat-Ur; Kanwal, Farina

    2016-11-01

    Essential oil extracted from the fresh leaves of Thuja occidentalis were evaluated for its chemical composition employing GC-MS. Total of twenty nine components were identified and determined quantitatively using the area normalization procedure. Alpha-pinene and (+)-4-carene were found in high amount with a percentage concentration of 54.78 and 11.28 respectively. Other compounds which yielded appreciable amounts are: alpha-cedrol (6.87%), terpinolene (5.88%), p-menth-1-en-8-ol acetate (5.21%), beta-myrcene (4.04%), beta-pinene (2.26%), germacrene D (1.72%), sabinene (1.65%) and D-Limonene (1.62%).

  9. Nonanthocyanin secondary metabolites of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruits: identification by HPLC-DAD, NMR, HPLC-ESI-MS, and ESI-MS/MS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Reese, R Neil; Smiljanic, Danijela; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Blakeslee, Joshua J; Riedl, Kenneth M; Rinaldi, Peter L

    2013-12-11

    Nonanthocyanin secondary metabolites potentially contributing to the antiproliferative bioactivity of black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis L.) fruits were extracted in ethyl acetate and isolated by semipreparative and analytical HPLC and analyzed by NMR, HPLC-ESI-MS, and ESI-MS/MS techniques. Here we present complete and partial structures of a variety of the chemical entities such as quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, myricetin glucoside, dihydrokaempferol glucoside, benzoic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, epicatechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-coumaryl glucoside, p-coumaryl sugar ester, ellagic acid, methyl ellagic acid acetylpentose, methyl ellagic acid valerylpentose, trans-piceid, phloretin glucoside (phloridzin), dihydrosinapic acid, salicylic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester, a salicylic acid derivative without attached sugar, p-alkylphenyl glucoside, and a citric acid derivative. To our knowledge, 15 of these compounds were not previously reported in black raspberry fruits.

  10. Prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii between first instar western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and nymphs of the twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

    2010-01-01

    The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysalis spider mite protonymphs and active and chrysalis spider mite deutonymphs. The study was done in the laboratory on bean leaf discs at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH. Amblyseius swirskii had a clear preference for thrips compared to both spider mite protonymphs and deutonymphs. About twice as many thrips as spider mites were consumed. Amblyseius swirskii did not show a preference between active and chrysalis stages of spider mites.

  11. Thujone-Rich Fraction of Thuja occidentalis Demonstrates Major Anti-Cancer Potentials: Evidences from In Vitro Studies on A375 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raktim Biswas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude ethanolic extract of Thuja occidentalis (Fam: Cupressaceae is used as homeopathic mother tincture (TOΦ to treat various ailments, particularly moles and tumors, and also used in various other systems of traditional medicine. Anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing properties of TOΦ and the thujone-rich fraction (TRF separated from it have been evaluated for their possible anti-cancer potentials in the malignant melanoma cell line A375. On initial trial by S-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, both TOΦ and TRF showed maximum cytotoxic effect on A375 cell line while the other three principal fractions separated by chromatography had negligible or no such effect, because of which only TRF was further characterized and subjected to certain other assays for determining its precise anti-proliferative and apoptotic potentials. TRF was reported to have a molecular formula of C10H16O with a molecular weight of 152. Exposure of TRF of Thuja occidentalis to A375 cells in vitro showed more cytotoxic, anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects as compared with TOΦ, but had minimal growth inhibitory responses when exposed to normal cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cell. Furthermore, both TOΦ and TRF also caused a significant decrease in cell viability, induced inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential collapse, increase in ROS generation, and release of cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation, all of which are closely related to the induction of apoptosis in A375 cells. Thus, TRF showed and matched all the anti-cancer responses of TOΦ and could be the main bio-active fraction. The use of TOΦ in traditional medicines against tumors has, therefore, a scientific basis.

  12. Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Thus, seeds are scarce and expensive at time of planting. .... Expressions of dummy variables for factors affecting income from telfairia leaf producers. ... 70 – 89% (high). 28. 56.0. 90 and above (very high). 6. 12.0. Total. 50. 100.0. The main Telfairia market in Makurdi is the Railway. Market where 74% of ...

  13. Aspectos micromorfológicos da interface adesiva em função da variação no preparo do espécime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABOIA Vicente de Paulo Aragão

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi mostrar os diferentes padrões micromorfológicos da interface adesiva que podem ser encontrados em fragmentos de um mesmo espécime em função da variação de fatores durante o processamento dos mesmos para análise em MEV. Para isso, cilindros de resina foram cimentados na dentina da superfície oclusal de terceiros molares inclusos recém-extraídos e posteriormente seccionados longitudinalmente para observação no MEV. Os resultados obtidos indicaram uma grande variação no direcionamento e comprimento dos "tags". Isso indica a necessidade de uma padronização dos sítios de dentina, angulação de seccionamento dos espécimes e escolha de fragmentos a serem visualizados, a fim de evitar possíveis erros de interpretação ao se analisar a eficiência da penetração dos sistemas adesivos.

  14. Variação da densidade básica da madeira de progênies de Eucalyptus urophylla em dois locais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Mourão Brasil

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Estudou-se neste trabalho a variação da densidade básica da madeira entre procedências e progênies de eucalipto plantados em duas localidades. As progênies de Eucalyptus urophylla originárias da ilha de Timor na Indonésia foram plantadas em Belo Oriente (MG e Linhares (ES no delineamento de blocos compactos em famílias (compact family blocks com 3 repetições no espaçamento de 3,0 x 2,0m. Após 4 anos as  árvores  foram amostradas ao nível do DAP com a sonda Pressler e sua densidade básica determinada pelo método do máximo teor de umidade. Os resultados mostraram que as progênies tiveram  comportamento similar nos dois locais. A maior variação entre progênies ocorreu naquelas provenientes da região Oebaha II. Os valores médios de densidade básica* das progênies não foram diferentes das procedências brasileiras utilizadas como testemunhas no experimento.

  15. Proteinas do liquido cefalorraqueano: II. Valores normais das frações proteicas obtidas por eletroforese (variações ligadas a cor, sexo e idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. Singer Vermes

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediante dosagens de proteínas totais e eletroforese sobre acetato de celulose de 213 amostras de LCR normal, obtidas por punção da cisterna magna, foram efetuados estudos para verificação de variações ligadas à cor, sexo e idade. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que: 1. não existem diferenças ligadas à cor no proteinograma do LCR; 2. em crianças, os fatores sexo e idade não influem nos valores estudados; 3. as taxas de proteínas totais e frações protéicas do LCR normal de criança diferem das de homens e de mulheres; 4. em adultos ocorrem variações ligadas ao sexo no proteinograma do LCR; 5. em adultos, proteínas totais e todas frações protéicas, quando expressas em mg/100 ml, aumentam com o avançar da idade. Foram estabelecidas, para a metodologia usada, as taxas fisiológicas do proteinograma do LCR de crianças, homens e mulheres, separadamente.

  16. Variação genética entre e dentro de populações de candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre as espécies indicadas para a restauração da vegetação arbórea em sítios degradados no sul de Minas Gerais, destaca-se a candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeish, que ocorre naturalmente em solos pobres e pedregosos, além de possuir atributos relativos à durabilidade natural da madeira e à qualidade de óleo essencial para uso na farmacologia. O sucesso da recuperação dessas áreas está relacionado com a rapidez com que a vegetação é restabelecida. Assim, a busca de genótipos superiores e adaptados, que possam rapidamente recolonizar a área, é de grande importância econômica e ambiental. Neste estudo, foram coletadas sementes de polinização livre de 27 matrizes em duas populações de candeia distintas, São Tomé das Letras e Carrancas, localizadas no Estado de Minas Gerais. Após a germinação, as mudas foram repicadas para tubetes e arranjadas em blocos casualizados completos, com três repetições. Três meses após a repicagem, foi avaliada a variação entre e dentro das populações. Verificou-se, pela análise de variância, que existem diferenças significativas entre e dentro de populações para o caráter diâmetro do caule. As variações entre as progênies foram significativas dentro da população de São Tomé das Letras para o diâmetro, e, dentro da população de Carrancas, para o caráter altura total das mudas. Porém, para a seleção de genótipos, é necessário maior tempo de avaliação, visto que grande parte da variação apresentada na fase de mudas pode ser decorrente do efeito materno, o qual não é transmitido para a geração seguinte.

  17. Variação do volume de gotas de colírios lubrificantes disponíveis no mercado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorugo Silvestre Nascimento

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a variação intra e interexaminadores do volume de gotas dispensados de frascos de colírios lubrificantes disponíveis no mercado. Métodos: Foram estudados cinco frascos de colírios lubrificantes e dezenove voluntários participaram deste estudo. A massa média de gotas de 20µl dos colírios foi obtida utilizando micropipeta e balança de precisão e como padrão para comparação com a massa das gotas obtidas pelos voluntários. Cinco gotas de cada frasco foram pesadas individualmente com o tubo de colírio perpendicular à balança, usando o primeiro e segundo dedos da mão direita, de forma que a pressão fosse aplicada somente no meio do frasco. Os experimentos foram realizados em uma sala climatizada a temperatura ambiente (21±1°C. Resultados: Todos os frascos de colírios apresentaram variação estatisticamente significante das massas das gotas obtidas pelos examinadores quando comparadas com a massa média padrão de 0,0182±0,0014g, com exceção da comparação entre os dados do colírio A com o colírio D, que não apresentou variação estatisticamente significante. Conclusão: O presente estudo demonstra a ausência de uniformidade das gotas dispensadas pelos frascos de colírios disponíveis no mercado e a sua inadequação à real necessidade, uma vez que as gotas dispensadas são maiores do que o indicado. Esse fato torna-se um problema quando se trata de período de tratamento prolongado, especialmente com colírios dispendiosos como os indicados para a terapêutica do glaucoma. Nesse sentido, a padronização das gotas de colírios se faz necessária.

  18. Variações fisiológicas da pressão do líquido cefalorraqueano na cisterna magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spina-França

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available É feito estudo de revisão das variações fisiológicas da pressão do LCR ao nível da cisterna magna (punção suboccipital. Em relação à série de 1.500 pacientes com afecções do sistema nervoso e sem sintomatologia de hipotensão ou de hipertensão intracraniana, a pressão média normal do LCR ao nível da cisterna magna foi de 11,9 cm de água (paciente calmo, decúbito lateral horizontal. As variações fisiológicas de pressão, segundo os achados, têm como limites os valôres de 4,1 e 19,7 cm de água. Êsses valôres permitem caracterizar, para a cisterna magna, a existência de hipotensão do LCR quando a pressão fôr menor ou igual a 4 cm de água; a hipertensão é caracterizada por valores iguais ou maiores do que 20 cm de água. A pressão do LCR ao nível da cisterna magna é menor do que no fundo de saco lombar. Para série de 276 pacientes o valor médio achado para êste último nível foi de 16,7 cm de água (decúbito lateral horizontal. A diferença entre as médias foi altamente significativa. Não foram verificadas modificações da pressão do LCR ao nível da cisterna magna que pudessem ser relacionadas ao sexo. Sem que representassem dados de interêsse para a prática, foram verificadas variações ligadas à côr e à idade dos pacientes. Em média a pressão do LCR se mostrou menor entre pacientes prêtos e amarelos que entre os brancos e os mulatos. Um declínio do valor médio da pressão foi verificado à medida em que aumentava a idade dos pacientes. Êste declínio mostrou-se maior para o grupo de pacientes com idade acima de 60 anos.

  19. The California spotted owl: current state of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Gutiérrez; Patricia N. Manley; Peter A. Stine

    2017-01-01

    This conservation assessment represents a comprehensive review by scientists of the current scientific knowledge about the ecology, habitat use, population dynamics, and current threats to the viability of the California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). It is based primarily on peer-reviewed published information with an emphasis on new scientific...

  20. Nest reuse by Northern Spotted Owls on the east slope of the Cascade Range, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan G. Sovern; Margaret Taylor; Eric D. Forsman

    2011-01-01

    During a long-term demography study of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the eastern Cascade Range of Washington State in 1989 to 2008, we documented 276 nests of Northern Spotted Owls at 73 different territories. Of these nests, 90.2% were on platforms, mostly in clumps of deformed limbs caused by dwarf mistletoe (primarily...

  1. The scientific basis for modeling Northern Spotted Owl habitat: A response to Loehle, Irwin, Manly, and Merrill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey R. Dunk; Brian Woodbridge; Elizabeth M. Glenn; Raymond J. Davis; Katherine Fitzgerald; Paul Henson; David W. LaPlante; Bruce G. Marcot; Barry R. Noon; Martin G. Raphael; Nathan H. Schumaker; Brendan. White

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recently revised the recovery plan (USFWS, 2011) and designated Critical Habitat (USFWS, 2012a) for the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). The Critical Habitat designation was based in part on a map of relative habitat suitability that was developed by USFWS (2011, 2012b) for this purpose. Loehle...

  2. The utility strategic surveys for rare and little-known species under the Northwest Forest Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanna H. Olson; Kelli J. Van Norman; Robert D. Huff

    2007-01-01

    Management of over 400 rare species thought to be associated with late successional and old-growth forest conditions on U.S. federal lands within the range of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) included a four-pronged "survey-and-manage" approach in 1994–2004 and 2006-2007, which included predisturbance surveys,...

  3. Northwest Forest Plan—the first 10 years (1994–2003): status and trends of northern spotted owl populations and habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Lint

    2005-01-01

    This report presents results from monitoring spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) populations and habitat during the first 10 years of implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan). Estimated population decline ranged from 0 to 10 percent across study areas (weighted average of 3.4 percent) annually. The average annual rate of decline...

  4. Methods for measuring populations of arboreal rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey; Brian L. Biswell; Joseph W. Witt

    1991-01-01

    Three arboreal rodents are sensitive indicators of forest ecosystem function in the Pacific Northwest. The northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) is mycophagous, cavity-nesting, and a major prey of the spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). The red tree vole (Phenacomys longicaudus) is restricted to trees...

  5. Estimating canopy cover in forest stands used by Mexican spotted owls: Do stand-exam routines provide estimates comparable to field-based techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Regis H. Cassidy; William M. Block

    2008-01-01

    Canopy cover has been identified as an important correlate of Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) habitat, yet management guidelines in a 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recovery plan for the Mexican spotted owl did not address canopy cover. These guidelines emphasized parameters included in U.S. Forest Service stand exams, and...

  6. Models for mapping potential habitat at landscape scales: an example using northern spotted owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. McComb; Michael T. McGrath; Thomas A. Spies; David. Vesely

    2002-01-01

    We are assessing the potential for current and alternative policies in the Oregon Coast Range to affect habitat capability for a suite of forest resources. We provide an example of a spatially explicit habitat capability model for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina)to illustrate the approach we are taking to assess potential changes...

  7. Food habits of Mexican Spotted Owls in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey

    1992-01-01

    The Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis) is most common in mature and old-growth coniferous forests throughout much of its range (Forsman et al. 1984, Laymon 1988, Ganey and Balda 1989a, Thomas et al. 1990). Proximate factors underlying habitat selection in Spotted Owls are understood poorly. Abundance and availability of food, however, may be a key...

  8. West nile virus anti-body surveillance in three Sierra Nevada raptors of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Hull; J.J. Keane; L.A. Tell; H.B. Ernest

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection has caused high levels of mortality in North American hawks and owls. To investigate the extent of infection among raptors of conservation concern in the Sierra Nevada, we tested 62 Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), 209 Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis), and 22 Great Gray Owls (...

  9. Science verses political reality in delisting criteria for a threatened species: The Mexican spotted owl experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary C. White; William M. Block; Joseph L. Ganey; William H. Moir; James P. Ward; Alan B. Franklin; Steven L. Spangle; Sarah E. Rinkevich; J. Robert Vahle; Frank P. Howe; James L. Dick

    1999-01-01

    The Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in April 1993 (USDI 1993). Concomitant with the listing of the owl, a recovery team was appointed to develop a plan to recover the owl, allowing for its removal from the list of threatened and endangered species. The recovery plan - "the...

  10. Survival and reproduction of radio-marked adult spotted owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.C. Foster; E.D. Forsman; E.C. Meslow; G.S. Miller; J.A. Reid; F.F. Wagner; A.B. Carey; J.B. Lint

    1992-01-01

    We compared survival, reproduction, and body mass of radio-marked and non radio-marked spotted owls (Strix occidentalis) to determine if backpack radios influenced reproduction or survival. In most study areas and years, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in survival of males and females or in survival of radio-marked versus banded owls. There...

  11. Spotted owl roost and nest site selection in northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Blakesley; A.B. Franklin; R.J. Gutierrez

    1992-01-01

    We directly observed roost and nest site selection in a population of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in northwestern California during 1985-89. Because of potential biases caused by use of radio telemetry in previous studies, we examined habitat use relative to habitat availability at a level not previously reported for spotted...

  12. The contribution of federal and nonfederal habitat to persistence of the northern spotted owl on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington: report of the reanalysis team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard S. Holthausen; Martin G. Raphael; Kevin S. McKelvey; Eric D. Forsman; Edward E. Starkey; D. Erran. Seaman

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed likely patterns of distribution and persistence of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) on the Olympic Peninsula. Analysis focused on the effects of Federal habitat under provisions of the Northwest Forest Plan; additional benefits to the owl population of different levels of habitat retention on non-Federal lands; effects of establishing a...

  13. An apparent case of long-distance breeding dispersal by a Mexican spotted owl in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Jeffrey S. Jenness

    2013-01-01

    The Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) is widely but patchily distributed throughout the southwestern United States and the Republic of Mexico (Gutiérrez and others 1995, Ward and others 1995). This owl typically occurs in either rocky canyonlands or forested mountain and canyon systems containing mixed-conifer or pine-oak (Pinus spp. - Quercus spp.)...

  14. Application of Bayesian methods to habitat selection modeling of the northern spotted owl in California: new statistical methods for wildlife research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard B. Stauffer; Cynthia J. Zabel; Jeffrey R. Dunk

    2005-01-01

    We compared a set of competing logistic regression habitat selection models for Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in California. The habitat selection models were estimated, compared, evaluated, and tested using multiple sample datasets collected on federal forestlands in northern California. We used Bayesian methods in interpreting...

  15. Transposição e variação na poesia gráfica e espacial de Salette Tavares

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Rui

    2007-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objectivo apresentar uma leitura da poesia gráfica e espacial de Salette Tavares à luz dos processos de intersemiose que esta articula, na frequente transposição entre texto, sons, imagens e objectos. A produção da autora é enquadrada com o experimentalismo literário português da segunda metade do século XX, movimento profícuo na construção de formas poemáticas de carácter híbrido, em que se verificam processos de transposição e variação semelhantes aos observados na auto...

  16. Caracterização do lenho e variação radial de Pittosporum undulatum Vent. (pau-incenso)

    OpenAIRE

    Longui, Eduardo Luiz; Romeiro, Diego; Silva, Morgana Tramontini da; Ribeiro, Ariane; Gouveia, Tatiana Cestini; Lima, Israel Luiz de; Florsheim, Sandra Monteiro Borges

    2011-01-01

    Estudou-se o lenho de Pittosporum undulatum do Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren, objetivando-se sua caracterização, investigar a variação radial da anatomia e densidade básica, suas correlações e discutir os resultados em um contexto ecológico. Empregaram-se as metodologias usuais para anatomia e densidade da madeira. As características anatômicas corroboram com o descrito para o gênero, ressalta-se a presença de camadas de crescimento, não mencionada na literatura. O diâmetro das fibras não a...

  17. Variação da composição e toxicidade do material particulado ao longo do dia na cidade de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Garcia Martins

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo avalia os efeitos adversos na saúde causados pelas variações na composição do material particulado em curtos períodos de tempo. Para tanto, foram determinados Black Carbon (BC), massa e composição elementar do PM2.5 coletado em dois diferentes períodos, Dia e Noite, na cidade de São Paulo. Além das análises químicas, gravimetria, análise de reflectância e espectrometria por fluorescência de Raios-X, foram realizados testes toxicológicos de contagem de micronúcleos utilizando ressu...

  18. Dupla variação anatômica vascular em um único indivíduo: estudo morfométrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Regina Ruiz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Variações anatômicas são pequenas diferenças morfológicas congênitas que aparecem nos diferentes sistemas orgânicos, as quais não acarretam prejuízo ou distúrbio funcional para o indivíduo. No que diz respeito aos vasos sanguíneos, alterações no desenvolvimento embriológico podem gerar duplicidade de vasos, agenesia ou ocasionar o surgimento de artérias e o desembocar de veias fora da descrição anatômica padrão. Relato de caso: Foi observada dupla variação anatômica vascular em um indivíduo durante uma dissecação de rotina no Laboratório de Anatomia do Centro Universitário São Camilo. A artéria renal principal tinha origem na parte abdominal da artéria aorta seguindo até sua entrada no hilo renal, porém, em vez de um trajeto retilíneo a partir da aorta, a mesma possuía um trajeto descendente e bem angulado. A partir da artéria renal principal surgia uma artéria polar aberrante que entrava no polo inferior do rim direito. Em um nível mais inferior, na altura da bifurcação da aorta, originava-se outra artéria polar aberrante que entrava no hilo renal, seguindo um trajeto retilíneo até o polo inferior do rim direito. A artéria hepática comum originava-se no tronco celíaco seguindo até sua entrada na porta do fígado. A artéria mesentérica superior possuía origem no tronco celíaco. A artéria hepática direita originava-se na artéria mesentérica superior. Conclusão: O estudo das variações anatômicas constitui-se tarefa árdua em virtude das inúmeras expressões diferentes que ocorrem no corpo humano, porém, o conhecimento dessas variações é de extrema valia para a clínica e o planejamento cirúrgico, garantindo a precisão e evitando complicações pós-cirúrgicas ou diagnósticos errôneos.

  19. Fast Identification of Radical Scavengers from Securigera varia by Combining 13C-NMR-Based Dereplication to Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sientzoff, Pacôme; Hubert, Jane; Janin, Coralie; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Harakat, Dominique; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul

    2015-08-14

    Securigera varia (Fabaceae) is a common herbaceous perennial plant widely growing in Europe and Asia and purposely established for erosion control, roadside planting, and soil rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to determine the radical scavenging activity of a crude methanol extract of S. varia aerial parts by using the free radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and to rapidly identify the compounds involved in this activity. The crude extract was initially separated in five fractions on Diaion HP20 resin and the most active part was fractionated by Centrifugal Partition Extraction (CPE). Known compounds were directly identified by a (13)C-NMR-based dereplication method. Semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography purification experiments were further performed to identify unknown or minor active compounds. As a result, one new (13) and twelve known flavonoid glycosides together with three nitropropanoylglucopyranoses were isolated, including astragalin (1), kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), trifolin (4), isoquercitrin (5), hyperoside (6), isovitexin (7), isoorientin (8), isovitexin 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (10), luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (11), apigenin 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (12), apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (13), 6-O-(3-nitropropanoyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (14), coronillin (16) and coronarian (15). 120 mg of the most active compound isoorientin against the free radical DPPH was recovered by CPE with an HPLC purity of 99%.

  20. Fast Identification of Radical Scavengers from Securigera varia by Combining 13C-NMR-Based Dereplication to Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacôme Sientzoff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Securigera varia (Fabaceae is a common herbaceous perennial plant widely growing in Europe and Asia and purposely established for erosion control, roadside planting, and soil rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to determine the radical scavenging activity of a crude methanol extract of S. varia aerial parts by using the free radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and to rapidly identify the compounds involved in this activity. The crude extract was initially separated in five fractions on Diaion HP20 resin and the most active part was fractionated by Centrifugal Partition Extraction (CPE. Known compounds were directly identified by a 13C-NMR-based dereplication method. Semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography purification experiments were further performed to identify unknown or minor active compounds. As a result, one new (13 and twelve known flavonoid glycosides together with three nitropropanoylglucopyranoses were isolated, including astragalin (1, kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (2, kaempferol-3,4′-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, trifolin (4, isoquercitrin (5, hyperoside (6, isovitexin (7, isoorientin (8, isovitexin 4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (9, apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (10, luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (11, apigenin 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (12, apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (13, 6-O-(3-nitropropanoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (14, coronillin (16 and coronarian (15. 120 mg of the most active compound isoorientin against the free radical DPPH was recovered by CPE with an HPLC purity of 99%.

  1. Identification, expression profiling and fluorescence-based binding assays of a chemosensory protein gene from the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Ke; Lei, Zhong-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR strategies, we cloned and identified a new chemosensory protein (FoccCSP) from the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, a species for which no chemosensory protein (CSP) has yet been identified. The FoccCSP gene contains a 387 bp open-reading frame encoding a putative protein of 128 amino acids with a molecular weight of 14.51 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.41. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues at the N-terminus, as well as the typical four-cysteine signature found in other insect CSPs. As FoccCSP is from a different order of insect than other known CSPs, the GenBank FoccCSP homolog showed only 31-50% sequence identity with them. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed and revealed that FoccCSP is in a group with CSPs from Homopteran insects (e.g., AgosCSP4, AgosCSP10, ApisCSP, and NlugCSP9), suggesting that these genes likely developed from a common ancestral gene. The FoccCSP gene expression profile of different tissues and development stages was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The results of this analysis revealed this gene is predominantly expressed in the antennae and also highly expressed in the first instar nymph, suggesting a function for FoccCSP in olfactory reception and in particular life activities during the first instar nymph stage. We expressed recombinant FoccCSP protein in a prokaryotic expression system and purified FoccCSP protein by affinity chromatography using a Ni-NTA-Sepharose column. Using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (1-NPN) as a fluorescent probe in fluorescence-based competitive binding assay, we determined the binding affinities of 19 volatile substances for FoccCSP protein. This analysis revealed that anisic aldehyde, geraniol and methyl salicylate have high binding affinities for FoccCSP, with KD values of 10.50, 15.35 and 35.24 μM, respectively. Thus, our study indicates that FoccCSP may play an important role in regulating the

  2. Identification, expression profiling and fluorescence-based binding assays of a chemosensory protein gene from the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ke Zhang

    Full Text Available Using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR strategies, we cloned and identified a new chemosensory protein (FoccCSP from the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, a species for which no chemosensory protein (CSP has yet been identified. The FoccCSP gene contains a 387 bp open-reading frame encoding a putative protein of 128 amino acids with a molecular weight of 14.51 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.41. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues at the N-terminus, as well as the typical four-cysteine signature found in other insect CSPs. As FoccCSP is from a different order of insect than other known CSPs, the GenBank FoccCSP homolog showed only 31-50% sequence identity with them. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed and revealed that FoccCSP is in a group with CSPs from Homopteran insects (e.g., AgosCSP4, AgosCSP10, ApisCSP, and NlugCSP9, suggesting that these genes likely developed from a common ancestral gene. The FoccCSP gene expression profile of different tissues and development stages was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The results of this analysis revealed this gene is predominantly expressed in the antennae and also highly expressed in the first instar nymph, suggesting a function for FoccCSP in olfactory reception and in particular life activities during the first instar nymph stage. We expressed recombinant FoccCSP protein in a prokaryotic expression system and purified FoccCSP protein by affinity chromatography using a Ni-NTA-Sepharose column. Using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (1-NPN as a fluorescent probe in fluorescence-based competitive binding assay, we determined the binding affinities of 19 volatile substances for FoccCSP protein. This analysis revealed that anisic aldehyde, geraniol and methyl salicylate have high binding affinities for FoccCSP, with KD values of 10.50, 15.35 and 35.24 μM, respectively. Thus, our study indicates that FoccCSP may play an important role in

  3. Fibromyalgia patients' quality of life and pain intensity variation Variação da intensidade da dor e da qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibromialgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Martinez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: One of the most reported issues on the Fibromyalgia syndrome is the pain intensity variation and its impact on patients' life quality. OBJECTIVES: 1 to establish the correlation among pain, anxiety and depression intensity perception; 2 to determine whether there is a correlation between pain intensity variation and the impact of fibromyalgia on patients' quality of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A study was carried out with 21 patients, who received a diary to register their perceptions on pain, anxiety and depression intensity. The patients have made this procedure three times a day, for a fifteen-day period. The impact on life quality was measured by the the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionaire (FIQ. RESULTS: It was observed a significant variation on pain intensity during the day periods. There was not a significant variation for anxiety and depression through the day periods. It was not observed any significant correlation between pain and depression or pain and anxiety intensity perception at any time of the day, during the study period. When considering the whole study period, it was observed that there was a correlation between pain and anxiety and pain and depression in the morning. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that there is a significant pain variation through the day periods and there is a correlation between pain and anxiety and pain and depression in the morning. There is a significant correlation of life quality with pain in the morning, anxiety in the afternoon and evening; and depression in all periods of the day.INTRODUÇÃO: Uma das questões mais relatadas é a variação da intensidade da dor no decorrer do dia e seu impacto na qualidade de vida. OBJETIVOS: Estabelecer a correlação entre a percepção da intensidade da dor, da ansiedade e da depressão e determinar a correlação entre a variação da intensidade da dor e o impacto na qualidade de vida. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudou-se 21 pacientes com fibromialgia. As

  4. Effects of experimental removal of barred owls on population demography of northern spotted owls in Washington and Oregon—2016 progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Dugger, Katie M.; Lewicki, Krista E.; Simon, David C.

    2017-04-13

    Evidence indicates that competition with invasive barred owls (Strix varia) is causing rapid declines in populations of northern spotted owls (S. occidentalis caurina), and that the long-term persistence of spotted owls may be in question without additional management intervention. A pilot study in California showed that removal of barred owls in combination with habitat conservation may be able to slow or even reverse population declines of spotted owls at local scales, but it remains unknown whether similar results can be obtained in areas with different forest conditions and a greater density of barred owls. In 2015, we implemented a before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design on three study areas in Oregon and Washington with at least 20 years of pre-treatment demographic data on spotted owls to determine if removal of barred owls can improve localized population trends of spotted owls. Here, we report on research accomplishments and preliminary results from the first 21 months (March 2015–December 2016) of the planned 5-year experiment.

  5. Feasibility of transesophageal echocardiography in birds without cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Pariaut, Romain; Nevarez, Javier G; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-03-01

    To establish a technique of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in birds without cardiac disease and describe the imaging planes obtained. Validation study. 18 birds including 3 pigeons (Columbia livia), 3 barred owls (Strix varia), 2 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 1 goose (Anser anser), 1 mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), 1 Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata), 2 brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), 2 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 2 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and 1 military macaw (Ara militaris). For each bird, anesthesia was induced and maintained by use of isoflurane. A pediatric, multiplane transesophageal ultrasound probe was passed into the esophagus and adjusted to the level of the heart for echocardiography. Probe positions were recorded via fluoroscopy, and associated imaging planes were described. TEE was performed successfully in all birds except the pelicans, 1 Hispaniolan Amazon parrot, and the red-fronted macaws. Five imaging planes of the heart were consistently viewed from 3 positions of the probe (identified as caudal, middle, and cranial positions relative to the cardiac silhouette). M-mode echocardiography of the left ventricle and the aortic root was performed. Color flow and spectral Doppler ultrasonographic images of in- and outflow regions were obtained. One Hispaniolan Amazon parrot died as a result of esophageal perforation. TEE examination of birds was feasible and provided a larger number of imaging planes with better resolution and details than those typically achieved via a transcoelomic approach. However, TEE should be performed with caution in psittacines.

  6. Growth Response of Northern White-Cedar (Thuja occidentalis to Natural Disturbances and Partial Cuts in Mixedwood Stands of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Ruel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis is a species of high commercial and ecological value, the abundance of which has been declining since the middle of the 19th century. Very little information regarding its silviculture in mixedwood stands is currently available, even though a significant portion of wood resources comes from these stands. The present study is a retrospective analysis of white-cedar growth in partially harvested mixedwood stands of western Quebec, Canada. Eight stands distributed across two regions were analyzed. Dendrochronological approaches examined long-term diameter growth for sample white-cedar trees and stems of associated species. These approaches were used to reconstruct stand characteristics at the time of harvesting, together with local harvesting intensity. The study demonstrated white-cedar’s capacity to maintain good growth for long periods of time and at large tree sizes. Accession to the upper canopy positions occurs through repeated episodes of suppression/release, most of which seem to be associated with spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana outbreaks. White-cedar response to partial harvesting varies with tree size, residual basal area and species composition. Growth response was generally stronger for small trees, even though large trees still maintained the best diameter growth. Growth of white-cedar was negatively affected by an increase in softwood proportion in basal area. Growth responses to harvesting could be sustained for a period of 20 years.

  7. East versus West: organic contaminant differences in brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) eggs from South Carolina, USA and the Gulf of California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Anderson, Daniel W.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.; Stuckey, Joyce E.

    2015-01-01

    Brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) were listed as endangered in the United States in 1970, largely due to reproductive failure and mortality caused by organochlorine contaminants, such as DDT. The southeast population, P.o. carolinensis, was delisted in 1985, while the west coast population, P.o. californicus, was not delisted until 2009. As fish-eating coastal seabirds, brown pelicans may serve as a biomonitors. Organic contaminants were examined in brown pelican eggs collected from the Gulf of California in 2004 and South Carolina in 2005 using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Contaminants were compared using all individual data as well as statistically pooled samples to provide similar sample sizes with little difference in results. Principal components analysis separated the Gulf of California brown pelican eggs from the South Carolina eggs based on contaminant patterns. The South Carolina population had significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordanes, dieldrin and mirex, while the Gulf of California eggs had higher levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). With the exception of dieldrin and brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) 47, this pattern was observed for mussel and oyster tissues from these regions, indicating the need for further study into the differences between east and west coast brown pelican populations and ecosystem contamination patterns.

  8. Impaired terrestrial and arboreal locomotor performance in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) after exposure to an AChE-inhibiting pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuRant, Sarah E.; Hopkins, William A.; Talent, Larry G.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effects of a commonly used AChE-inhibiting pesticide on terrestrial and arboreal sprint performance, important traits for predator avoidance and prey capture, in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Lizards were exposed to carbaryl (2.5, 25, and 250 μg/g) and were raced before and 4, 24, and 96 h after dosing. In the terrestrial setting, exposure to low concentrations of carbaryl had stimulatory effects on performance, but exposure to the highest concentration was inhibitory. No stimulatory effects of carbaryl were noted in the arboreal environment and performance in lizards was reduced after exposure to both the medium and highest dose of carbaryl. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to high concentrations of carbaryl can have important sublethal consequences on fitness-related traits in reptiles and that arboreal locomotor performance is a more sensitive indicator of AChE-inhibiting pesticide poisoning than terrestrial locomotor performance. - Exposure to an acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticide alters locomotor performance in western fence lizards

  9. East versus West: organic contaminant differences in brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) eggs from South Carolina, USA and the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Pol, Stacy S; Anderson, Daniel W; Jodice, Patrick G R; Stuckey, Joyce E

    2012-11-01

    Brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) were listed as endangered in the United States in 1970, largely due to reproductive failure and mortality caused by organochlorine contaminants, such as DDT. The southeast population, P.o. carolinensis, was delisted in 1985, while the west coast population, P.o. californicus, was not delisted until 2009. As fish-eating coastal seabirds, brown pelicans may serve as a biomonitors. Organic contaminants were examined in brown pelican eggs collected from the Gulf of California in 2004 and South Carolina in 2005 using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Contaminants were compared using all individual data as well as statistically pooled samples to provide similar sample sizes with little difference in results. Principal components analysis separated the Gulf of California brown pelican eggs from the South Carolina eggs based on contaminant patterns. The South Carolina population had significantly (PGulf of California eggs had higher levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). With the exception of dieldrin and brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) 47, this pattern was observed for mussel and oyster tissues from these regions, indicating the need for further study into the differences between east and west coast brown pelican populations and ecosystem contamination patterns. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Intoxicação espontânea por Senna occidentalis em javalis (Sus scrofa ferus no estado de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação por Senna occidentalis em javalis no Estado de Goiás. De um rebanho de 80 javalis, 15 adoeceram e um morreu. Os sinais clínicos observados foram apatia, prostração, ataxia, tremores musculares, incoordenação, relutância em mover-se, decúbito esternal ou lateral, paresia e paralisia espástica, principalmente dos membros pélvicos. As principais alterações macroscópicas consistiam de palidez moderada a acentuada da musculatura esquelética dos membros pélvicos e torácicos e no lombo, especialmente nos músculos da coxa. Microscopicamente, observou-se degeneração e necrose flocular, multifocal, leve a moderada, monofásica, com fragmentação de fibras na musculatura esquelética. Nos cortes transversais, havia fibras musculares tumefeitas e hipereosinofílicas. Adicionalmente, havia degeneração microvacuolar hepatocelular difusa, leve a moderada. A atividade sérica da CK estava acentuadamente elevada em dois javalis avaliados e da TGO aumentou em um javali afetado.

  11. A male-predominant cuticular hydrocarbon, 7-methyltricosane, is used as a contact pheromone in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniran, Oladele A; Sudhakar, Akella V S; Drijfhout, Falko P; Dublon, Ian A N; Hall, David R; Hamilton, James G C; Kirk, William D J

    2013-04-01

    In a laboratory bioassay, adult female Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) spent more time near filter paper disks that had been exposed to adult males than near unexposed disks; this effect was not observed on disks exposed to adult females. The response could only partly be explained by the known male-produced aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, suggesting the presence of an unknown male-produced compound. In gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses, 7-methyltricosane was detected on disks exposed to males, but not on disks exposed to females. Extracts of cuticular lipids also showed relatively large amounts of 7-methyltricosane on males, whereas only trace amounts were found on females and none on larvae. Bioassays of synthetic 7-methyltricosane showed that adults responded only after contact. The response to this compound was clearly different from that to n-tricosane or hexane-only controls. Females that contacted 7-methyltricosane on glass beads stayed in the vicinity and frequently raised the abdomen, a behavior that rejects mating attempts by males. Males stayed in the vicinity and wagged the abdomen sideways, a behavior used in fighting between males. This is the first identification of a contact pheromone in the order Thysanoptera.

  12. Variação no conteúdo de beta-glucanas em cultivares brasileiros de aveia Beta-glucan content variation in brasilian oat cultivars

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    Roberta M. de SÁ

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o crescente interesse em alimentos funcionais e nutracêuticos, a aveia (Avena sativa L. tem se destacado, devido ao seu teor de fibras alimentares e principalmente às beta-glucanas. As (1,3(1,4-beta-D-glucanas, fibras alimentares na maioria solúveis, atuam na redução do colesterol em indivíduos com hipercolesterolemia. Existem estudos para determinar as causas de variação do teor desta fibra em aveia, porém, pouco se sabe sobre a aveia cultivada no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se existem diferenças no conteúdo de beta-glucanas entre cultivares brasileiros e se há variação na porcentagem desta fibra devido ao ano de cultivo. Os cultivares IAC7, UFRGS14, UPF16 e UPF17 (3 amostras de cada, e ainda três amostras do cultivar IAC7 para cada ano de cultivo (97 e 98, foram analisados segundo os métodos da AACC (American Association of Cereal Chemists. Os teores médios (peso seco de beta-glucanas foram 6,50% (IAC7, 4,30% (UFRGS14, 3,51% (UPF16 e 3,78% (UPF17, com erro padrão de ±0,084 e coeficiente de variação de 7,89 %. Observou-se efeito significativo dos cultivares (p=0,03 e grande variabilidade entre as amostras (p=0,0001. O cultivar IAC7 apresentou média de beta-glucanas de 5,11% em 97 e 6,50 % em 98 (erro padrão ±0,14; CV=10,53% e observou-se efeito significativo do ano de cultivo.With the increasing interest in functional foods and nutraceuticals, oats (Avena sativa L. have received special attention because of their dietary fiber contents, and specially of their beta-glucans. The mostly soluble dietary fibers (1,3(1,4-beta-D-glucans, reduce serum cholesterol in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. There are studies about the causes of variation in the contents of this fiber in oats, however, very little is known about Brazilian cultivars. The objective of this work was to verify if there were differences in the beta-glucan contents among brazilian cultivars and if there was variation in the

  13. As variações da forma do sifão carotídeo na arteriografia cerebral: estudo sobre 120 casos não tumorais

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    A. Mattos Pimenta

    1954-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de 120 arteriogramas de pacientes em que foi comprovada a inexistência de lesão que ocupa espaço intracraniano, permitiu o reconhecimento de várias formas de sifão carotídeo normal. Foi assim possível fazer uma classificação anatômica dos vários tipos e concluir que a forma do sifão não permite, sozinha, fazer o diagnóstico topográfico de tumores intracranianos. É importante reconhecer exatamente os limites do sifão, a fim de localizar, precisamente, os aneurismas da carótida interna. Do exposto podemos tirar duas ordens de conclusões: 1 Conclusões anatômicas - O sifão carotídeo normal não apresenta grande número de variações de forma, podendo ser reconhecidos dois tipos básicos: angulados e arredondados. Os primeiros subdividem-se em angulados com ramos oblíquos (ângulo agudo ou ângulo obtuso e angulados com um ramo horizontal (superior ou inferior. Os segundos (arredondados dividem-se em três subtipos: semi-elíptico, em alça (horizontal ou oblíquo e em S (superior, inferior ou duplo. Nos grupos e subgrupos cada segmento do sifão pode apresentar variação no comprimento e espessura, como é evidente à observação dos esquemas. 2 Conclusões neurocirúrgicas - A existência de grande número de formas consideradas como normais de sifão carotídeo leva à conclusão de que não é possível basear o diagnóstico de tumor, ou melhor, de lesão que ocupa espaço intracraniano, exclusivamente pela imagem arteriográfica do sifão. As variações fisiológicas do sifão, somadas às das artérias do grupo silviano e da cerebral anterior, trazem dificuldades diagnosticas que obrigam o neurocirurgião a procurar o maior número de indícios para fazer a interpretação correta do exame. Assim sendo, na rotina neurocirúrgica é aconselhável que os arteriogramas sejam feitos pelo menos em duas posições: perfil e ântero-posterior. E' importante reconhecer bem os limites do sifão para se estabelecer

  14. TEACHERS’ ACCOUNTS OF LANGUAGE VARIATIONS Relatos de Professores sobre Variações Lingüísticas Não-Padrão

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    João A. Telles

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on teachers' stigmatizing perspectives of their students' nonstandard varieties of Portuguese. Theoretically, the study was grounded on Personal Construct Psychology, Perspective Transformation in Teacher Education, Transformative Bidialectalism and Critical Language Awareness. The objectives were to jointly access and assess the teachers’ implicit theories about nonstandard language and to verify to what extent these theories affected their classroom pedagogy. My research questions turned to how the participating teachers understood nonstandard language; and to how their understandings are reflected on their language teaching. The viewing of the teachers’ videotaped classes and Repertory Grid activities inspired reflective conversations with the two teacher participants on their language and classroom experiences. These conversations were audio-recorded, transcribed and their analysis followed the thematizing approach of Hermeneutic Phenomenology. The study revealed teachers’ implicit theories about language variation defining pedagogies based on deficit and standard grammar perspectives. These pedagogies are in constant interaction with the teachers’ lived experiences, the contextual restrictions of schools and the limitations of teacher education programs.O presente trabalho trata das perspectivas estigmatizantes que duas professoras de língua portuguesa trazem em relação às variações lingüísticas não-padrão de seus alunos. Teoricamente, meu estudo se embasa na Psicologia dos Construtos Pessoais, Transformação de Perspectivas na Educação de Professores, Bi-dialetalismo Transformador e Sensibilidade Crítica à Linguagem. Meus objetivos foram acessar e ponderar sobre as teorias implícitas das professoras sobre linguagem não-padrão e verificar como tais teorias afetam suas pedagogias. Suas aulas foram gravadas em vídeo e atividades com Mapas do Repertório de seus conceitos sobre língua portuguesa

  15. O trabalho com a variação linguística na sala de aula: reflexão e uso

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    Joseli Rezende Thomaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A compreensão do conceito de norma, bem como a distinção entre norma padrão, norma gramatical e norma culta podem nos ajudar a desfazer alguns equívocos cometidos há muito no ensino de Língua Portuguesa sobre o “certo” e “errado” em língua e viabilizar o trabalho com a pedagogia da variação linguística na escola. O presente trabalho faz, então, um breve histórico da construção do conceito de gramática, mostrando como e por que se construiu, ao longo da cultura ocidental, a ideologia do padrão ligado ao "melhor" em linguagem. Em seguida, discorro sobre a pesquisa empreendida e os procedimentos metodológicos utilizados. Apresento, por fim, as contribuições para o ensino de língua materna possíveis de se alcançar a partir de um trabalho de reflexão sociolinguística. A partir da concepção dialógica da linguagem (BAKTIN, 2006 e do modelo de descrição e interpretação do fenômeno linguístico no contexto social de comunidades urbanas de grande impacto na Linguística contemporânea (LABOV, 1974, desenvolvi uma pesquisa-ação com alunos do 7° ano de uma escola da rede particular de ensino da cidade brasileira de Juiz de Fora (MG, usuários de uma das variedades urbanas prestigiadas da língua portuguesa. A análise contrastiva de estruturas dos diferentes dialetos presentes no contínuo rural-urbano, bem como nos contínuos de monitoração estilística e de oralidade letramento (BORTONI-RICARDO, 2004 permitiu fazê-los entender esse complexo fenômeno, natural em todas as línguas. Na verdade, o que é necessário é que a escola desenvolva uma pedagogia da variação linguística sensível às diferenças sociolinguísticas e culturais dos alunos, mas isso requer compreensão e mudança radical na postura de professores, alunos e da sociedade em geral.

  16. Variação sazonal do fluxo de calor no solo dentro de um manguezal tropical Seazonal variation of soil heat flux within tropical mangrove

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    Marcos A. L. Moura

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os manguezais são ecossistemas de grande importância em virtude da sua biodiversidade, embora ainda pouco estudados. O fluxo de calor no solo (FCS é uma propriedade que interfere no microclima de um ecossistema e depende de vários fatores. Um estudo experimental foi realizado em um manguezal no município de Marechal Deodoro, Alagoas, no período de outubro/2004 a outubro/2005, com o objetivo de caracterizar a variação sazonal do FCS; para isto, uma estação meteorológica automática foi montada em uma torre micrometeorológica para registrar diferentes elementos do tempo e clima, de forma contínua. Especificamente, para medição do FCS a 10 cm de profundidade utilizou-se uma bateria de três fluxímetros modelo HFT3 (Campbell Scientific, EUA no sentido de que a interferência da não uniformidade do solo nas medições fosse minimizada. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram influência da radiação solar, precipitação e da maré sobre a variação diária e sazonal do FCS, além de grande diferença de amplitude diária do FCS entre os períodos chuvoso (9 W m-2 e seco (36 W m-2.Mangrove swamps are highly important ecosystems due to their biodiversity, but they still are little studied. Soil heat fluxes (SHF is one of the proprieties that interfere in the ecosystem microclimate and depends on lots of factors. An experimental study was carried out in a mangrove forest in the Marechal Deodoro city, in the State of Alagoas, from October/2004 to October/2005, with the aim of describing the SHF seasonal variation. To this end, an automatic weather station was assembled in a micrometeorological tower to register the data continuously. To measure SHF in 10 cm depth one battery with three (3 fluximeter model HFT3 (Campbell Scientific, EUA was used so that the soil uniformity interference in the measurements was reduced. The obtained results showed influence of solar radiation, rainfall and tidal wave in the daily and seasonal SHF variation. A

  17. Variação da Cor da Madeira de Teca em Função da Densidade e do Teor de Extrativos

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    Rosilei Aparecida Garcia

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da densidade e do teor de extrativos na variação da cor da madeira de teca (Tectona grandis L. f. proveniente de plantios de diferentes espaçamentos. As análises colorimétricas foram realizadas nas faces radial e tangencial das madeiras de cerne e alburno com o espectrofotômetro CM 2600d no espaço de cor L*a*b*. A densidade e o teor de extrativos foram determinados segundo as normas ASTM D2395 e ASTM D1105. A madeira do maior espaçamento de plantio apresentou maior densidade e maior teor de extrativos. Na seção radial, as madeiras de cerne de maior densidade apresentaram mais pigmento amarelo, enquanto que na seção tangencial elas são mais escuras e apresentam menos pigmento amarelo. As madeiras de alburno de maior densidade são mais escuras e apresentam mais pigmento vermelho em ambas as seções. As madeiras mais escuras e com mais pigmento vermelho apresentaram um maior teor de extrativos.

  18. Uso del hábitat por Boa constrictor occidentalis (Serpentes: Boidae durante la estación seca en Córdoba, Argentina

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    Attademo, Andrés

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available El análisis sobre el uso del hábitat es una herramienta fundamental para la conservación y el manejo de las poblaciones silvestres. Cuantificar los cambios en el uso de recursos asociados con la reproducción puede ofrecer una idea de las fuerzas selectivas que actúan sobre los organismos durante esta fase crítica de su historia de vida. Se ha observado en distintas especies de ofidios que hembras grávidas frecuentan hábitats distintos de los que utilizan hembras no grávidas y machos, por lo que la selección de un ambiente en particular podría estar influenciado por el comportamiento reproductivo. En el presente trabajo evaluamos el uso del hábitat en Boa constrictor occidentalis mediante radiorastreo a nivel de microhábitat durante la estación seca en la localidad de El Quemado, Departamento Pocho, Córdoba. Se marcaron mediante radiotransmisores 14 individuos adultos: 5 hembras reproductivas, 4 hembras no reproductivas y 5 machos reproductivos. Las diferencias en el uso del hábitat observadas en las lampalaguas en función de la condición reproductiva durante la estación seca, reflejarían diferencias en los requerimientos para la termorregulación. El uso que las hembras reproductivas hacen del hábitat les permitiría seleccionar sitios que brinden buenos lugares para asolearse permitiendo obtener temperaturas mayores y óptimas para el desarrollo de los embriones. Habitat use analysis is a basic tool for the conservation and management of wild populations. Quantifying the changes in the use of resources associated with reproduction can offer an insight into the selective forces acting on organisms in this critical phase of life history. Reproduction condition often has obvious effects on habitat use. Reproductive individual females have been observed in habitats different from those frequented by males and non reproductive females. In this study, we evaluate the differential use of habitats in Boa constrictor occidentalis

  19. Life Table Parameters and Consumption Rate of Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt on Avocado Red Mite Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae Parámetros de Tabla de Vida y Tasa de Consumo de Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant y Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt, sobre la Arañita Roja del Palto Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae

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    Tommy Rioja S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The avocado red mite Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor is the major leaf pest in Chile’s avocado orchards. Itaffects leaf physiology and makes it necessary to seek new natural enemies to interact with low population densities of O. yothersi. The potentiality of three predator mites: Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt was evaluated under laboratory conditions (27 ± 1.93ºC, 87 ± 3.61% H.R. and 16:8 (L:D photoperiod on avocado leaf disks Persea americana Mill. var. Hass (Ø = 5 cm by separately feeding eggs, immature, and adult females of O. yothersi, and registering postembryonic development, consumption, as well as life table parameters. The postembryonic development of C. picanus was significantly lower (5.46 days compared to both A. graminis (7.33 days and G. occidentalis (8.69 days which were fed with immature O. yothersi. The life table parameters of C. picanus were net reproductive rate R0 = 25.41, finite rate of increase λ = 1.29, and Mean Generation Time T = 12.46. The Net Intrinsic Rate of Increase (r m was significantly higher for C. picanus (r m = 0.25 in contrast with G. occidentalis (r m = 0.19, while A. graminis showed r m = -0.06 indicating that its population didn’t have descendants. Under laboratory conditions, r m registered by C. picanus is an indicator of its predatory potential to control O. Yothersi. It can be assumed that the pest population reduction pattern could be maintained under field conditions.En Chile la arañita roja del palto Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor es la plaga más importante a nivel foliar en huertos comerciales afectando la fisiología de la hoja, siendo necesario la búsqueda de nuevos enemigos naturales que interactúen a bajas densidades poblacionales de O. yothersi. Se evaluó en condiciones de laboratorio (27±1,93ºC, 87±3,61 % H.R. y un fotoperíodo de 16:8 (L:O sobre discos de hojas de palto Persea americana Mill. var. Hass (Ø = 5

  20. Etnoarcheologia dei paesaggi alpini di alta quota nelle Alpi occidentali: un bilancio preliminare / Ethnoarchaeology of Western Alpine upland landscapes: preliminary results

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    Francesco Carrer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lo studio dell’interazione tra gruppi umani e ambiente montano è centrale nell’attuale ricerca archeologica. L’etnoarcheologia contribuisce analizzando questa interazione nei contesti moderni e contemporanei, con lo scopo di creare modelli analogici per interpretare il passato e di comprendere più a fondo le strategie umane storiche e attuali. Il progetto EthWAL (Etnoarcheologia dei paesaggi alpini di alta quota nelle Alpi occidentali, nato nel 2013, si pone come punto di riferimento per lo studio delle attività umane nelle alte quote alpine in epoca moderna e contemporanea. È un progetto multidisciplinare (unisce i metodi archeologici a quelli etnografici e storiografici, alle analisi spaziali e alle analisi dei suoli e multiscalare (dalla piccola alla grande scala. Particolare attenzione è data alle capanne pastorali tradizionali. I risultati di questo progetto saranno utili all’archeologia e permetteranno la valorizzazione delle caratteristiche culturali dei paesaggi di alta montagna. The study of the interaction between human groups and mountain environment is crucial for archaeological research. Ethnoarchaeology contributes the analysis of this interaction in modern and contemporary contexts, aimed at creating analogical models for interpreting the past and understanding human strategies in historical and modern periods. The EthWAL project (Ethnoarchaeology of Western Alpine upland Landscapes, started in 2013, and aims to be a reference for the study of human activities in the alpine uplands during the modern and contemporary age. This is a multidisciplinary (associating archaeological methods to ethnography, historiography, spatial analysis and soil analysis and multiscalar project (small to large scale. Specific attention is given to traditional pastoral huts. The results of this project will be useful for archaeology and contribute to the management of cultural heritage in high altitude landscapes.

  1. Unraveling the relative importance of oral and dermal contaminant exposure in reptiles: insights from studies using the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis).

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    Weir, Scott M; Talent, Larry G; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition of significant data deficiencies, reptiles remain a relatively understudied taxon in ecotoxicology. To conduct ecological risk assessments on reptiles frequently requires using surrogate taxa such as birds, but recent research suggests that reptiles have significantly different exposure profiles and toxicant sensitivity. We exposed western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, to the same quantities of three model chemicals via oral (gavage) and dermal (ventral skin application) exposure for either 24 or 48 hours. Three phthalate esters (di-methyl phthalate [DMP], di-iso-butyl phthalate [DIBP], and di-n-octyl phthalate [DNOP]) were chosen as model chemicals because they represent a gradient of lipophilicity but are otherwise structurally similar. Overall, the more lipophilic phthalates (DIBP and DNOP) were found to have higher concentrations in tissues than the less lipophilic DMP. Significant differences in tissue concentrations between DIBP and DNOP were tissue-dependent, suggesting that delivery to a site of action following exposure is not only a simple function of lipophilicity. In dermal treatments, DMP usually had fewer detections (except in ventral skin samples), suggesting that lipophilicity (log Kow>2) is a requirement for uptake across the skin. In general, tissue residues were greater in oral treatments than dermal treatments (significant in adipose and liver tissue), but differences were driven strongly by differences in DMP which did not appear to be absorbed well across skin. When differences in tissue residue concentrations between oral and dermal exposure did occur, the difference was not drastic. Taken together these results suggest that dermal exposure should be considered in risk assessments for reptilian receptors. Dermal exposure may be an especially important route for reptiles as their ectothermic physiology translates to lower energetic demands and dietary exposure compared to birds and mammals.

  2. Unraveling the Relative Importance of Oral and Dermal Contaminant Exposure in Reptiles: Insights from Studies Using the Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Scott M.; Talent, Larry G.; Anderson, Todd A.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition of significant data deficiencies, reptiles remain a relatively understudied taxon in ecotoxicology. To conduct ecological risk assessments on reptiles frequently requires using surrogate taxa such as birds, but recent research suggests that reptiles have significantly different exposure profiles and toxicant sensitivity. We exposed western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, to the same quantities of three model chemicals via oral (gavage) and dermal (ventral skin application) exposure for either 24 or 48 hours. Three phthalate esters (di-methyl phthalate [DMP], di-iso-butyl phthalate [DIBP], and di-n-octyl phthalate [DNOP]) were chosen as model chemicals because they represent a gradient of lipophilicity but are otherwise structurally similar. Overall, the more lipophilic phthalates (DIBP and DNOP) were found to have higher concentrations in tissues than the less lipophilic DMP. Significant differences in tissue concentrations between DIBP and DNOP were tissue-dependent, suggesting that delivery to a site of action following exposure is not only a simple function of lipophilicity. In dermal treatments, DMP usually had fewer detections (except in ventral skin samples), suggesting that lipophilicity (log Kow>2) is a requirement for uptake across the skin. In general, tissue residues were greater in oral treatments than dermal treatments (significant in adipose and liver tissue), but differences were driven strongly by differences in DMP which did not appear to be absorbed well across skin. When differences in tissue residue concentrations between oral and dermal exposure did occur, the difference was not drastic. Taken together these results suggest that dermal exposure should be considered in risk assessments for reptilian receptors. Dermal exposure may be an especially important route for reptiles as their ectothermic physiology translates to lower energetic demands and dietary exposure compared to birds and mammals. PMID

  3. Effects of Added Lipids on Digestibility and Nitrogen Balance in Oiled Common Murres ( Uria aalge ) and Western Grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ) Fed Four Formulations of a Critical Care Diet.

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    Duerr, Rebecca S; Klasing, Kirk C

    2017-06-01

    Nutritional support is a primary therapy administered to oiled animals during responses to oil spills, but data informing nutritional decision-making during events are limited. In this study, 44 common murres ( Uria aalge ) and 6 Western grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ), naturally oiled by oceanic seeps off the coast of Ventura and Santa Barbara Counties, CA, USA, were assigned to 1 of 4 groups fed diets with varying levels (6.8% [no added oil], 11%, and 20%) and types (salmon, corn) of oil added to a partially purified basal diet. Birds used in the study ranged from extremely emaciated to thin body condition (62%-80% wild bird mean body mass). Acid-insoluble ash was used as an indigestible dietary marker to quantify nitrogen retention, apparent nitrogen digestibility, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, energy digestibility, fat retention, fat digestibility, and estimated fat excretion. Fat excretion is important in these species because once birds have been cleaned they are at risk of plumage recontamination from excreted fat during care. Lower fat diets resulted in lower fat excretion but higher nitrogen retention, higher apparent nitrogen digestibility, and higher apparent metabolizable energy. Decreases in nitrogen retention were significantly related to increases in fat excretion. Regardless of diet, energy digestibility significantly declined with declines in body mass, suggesting severity of emaciation reduced a birds' ability to extract energy from food. Energy digestibility was highest in the 11% (low) salmon oil diet; hence, this diet had the highest effective energy content despite a lower gross kcal/kg diet. Diets fed during oil spills historically have had high fat concentrations to provide maximum caloric support. Results of this study suggest that lower fat diets may be more efficacious for nutritionally depleted seabirds. This study provides valuable data to guide clinical decision making regarding nutritional support during oil

  4. Early development and life cycle of Contracaecum multipapillatum s.l. from a brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

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    Valles-Vega, Isabel; Molina-Fernández, Dolores; Benítez, Rocío; Hernández-Trujillo, Sergio; Adroher, Francisco Javier

    2017-08-09

    The initial developmental stages of Contracaecum multipapillatum (von Drasche, 1882) Lucker, 1941 sensu lato were studied using eggs obtained from the uteri of female nematodes (genetically identified) found in a brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis from Bahía de La Paz (Gulf of California, Mexico). Optical microscopy revealed a smooth or slightly rough surface to the eggs. Egg dimensions were approximately 53 × 43 µm, although after the larvae had developed inside, egg size increased to 66 × 55 µm. Hatching and survival of the larvae were greater at 15°C than at 24°C, and increased salinity resulted in a slight increase in hatching but seemed to reduce survival at 24°C, but not at 15°C. The recently hatched larvae measured 261 × 16 µm within their sheath. When placed in culture medium, the larvae grew within their sheath, and a small percentage (~2%) exsheathed completely (314 × 19 µm). The larvae continued to grow and develop once they had exsheathed, attaining mean dimensions of 333 × 22 µm. Although they did not moult during culture, optical microscopy revealed a morphology typical of third-stage larvae. Finally, the genetic identity between the larval parasites collected from mullet Mugil curema and adult female parasites collected from the brown pelican suggests a life cycle of C. multipapillatum in which the mullet are involved as intermediate/paratenic hosts and the brown pelicans as final hosts in the geographical area of Bahía de La Paz.

  5. Genetic structure of brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis in the northern Gulf of Mexico in the context of human management and disturbance.

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    Brock Geary

    Full Text Available Environmental disturbances, both natural and anthropogenic, have the capacity to substantially impact animal behavior and abundance, which can in turn influence patterns of genetic diversity and gene flow. However, little empirical information is available on the nature and degree of such changes due to the relative rarity of longitudinal genetic sampling of wild populations at appropriate intervals. Addressing this knowledge gap is therefore of interest to evolutionary biologists, policy makers, and managers. In the past half century, populations of the brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis in the southeastern United States have been exposed to regional extirpations, translocations, colony losses, and oil spills, but potential impacts on genetic diversity and population structure remain unknown. To investigate the cumulative impacts of recent disturbances and management actions, we analyzed seven microsatellite loci using genetic samples collected from 540 nestlings across twelve pelican colonies from two time periods, corresponding to before (n = 305 and after (n = 235 the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Pre-2010 populations in Texas were significantly differentiated from Louisiana, Alabama, and Florida populations to the east, with reintroduced populations in southeastern Louisiana having less genetic diversity than sites in Texas, consistent with a recent bottleneck. In contrast, there was no evidence of a geographic component to genetic structure among colonies sampled after the spill, consistent with increased dispersal among sites following the event. This pattern may be associated with reduced philopatry in response to colony abandonment in the areas most heavily impacted by the Deepwater Horizon event, though other factors (e.g., rehabilitation and translocation of oiled birds or colony loss due to erosion and tropical storms were likely also involved. Future monitoring is necessary to determine if bottlenecks and loss of genetic

  6. Construction of black (Rubus occidentalis) and red (R. idaeus) raspberry linkage maps and their comparison to the genomes of strawberry, apple, and peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushakra, J M; Stephens, M J; Atmadjaja, A N; Lewers, K S; Symonds, V V; Udall, J A; Chagné, D; Buck, E J; Gardiner, S E

    2012-07-01

    The genus Rubus belongs to the Rosaceae and is comprised of 600-800 species distributed world-wide. To date, genetic maps of the genus consist largely of non-transferable markers such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms. An F(1) population developed from a cross between an advanced breeding selection of Rubus occidentalis (96395S1) and R. idaeus 'Latham' was used to construct a new genetic map consisting of DNA sequence-based markers. The genetic linkage maps presented here are constructed of 131 markers on at least one of the two parental maps. The majority of the markers are orthologous, including 14 Rosaceae conserved orthologous set markers, and 60 new gene-based markers developed for raspberry. Thirty-four published raspberry simple sequence repeat markers were used to align the new maps to published raspberry maps. The 96395S1 genetic map consists of six linkage groups (LG) and covers 309 cM with an average of 10 cM between markers; the 'Latham' genetic map consists of seven LG and covers 561 cM with an average of 5 cM between markers. We used BLAST analysis to align the orthologous sequences used to design primer pairs for Rubus genetic mapping with the genome sequences of Fragaria vesca 'Hawaii 4', Malus × domestica 'Golden Delicious', and Prunus 'Lovell'. The alignment of the orthologous markers designed here suggests that the genomes of Rubus and Fragaria have a high degree of synteny and that synteny decreases with phylogenetic distance. Our results give unprecedented insights into the genome evolution of raspberry from the putative ancestral genome of the single ancestor common to Rosaceae.

  7. A genetic linkage map of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) and the mapping of Ag(4) conferring resistance to the aphid Amphorophora agathonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushakra, Jill M; Bryant, Douglas W; Dossett, Michael; Vining, Kelly J; VanBuren, Robert; Gilmore, Barbara S; Lee, Jungmin; Mockler, Todd C; Finn, Chad E; Bassil, Nahla V

    2015-08-01

    We have constructed a densely populated, saturated genetic linkage map of black raspberry and successfully placed a locus for aphid resistance. Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) is a high-value crop in the Pacific Northwest of North America with an international marketplace. Few genetic resources are readily available and little improvement has been achieved through breeding efforts to address production challenges involved in growing this crop. Contributing to its lack of improvement is low genetic diversity in elite cultivars and an untapped reservoir of genetic diversity from wild germplasm. In the Pacific Northwest, where most production is centered, the current standard commercial cultivar is highly susceptible to the aphid Amphorophora agathonica Hottes, which is a vector for the Raspberry mosaic virus complex. Infection with the virus complex leads to a rapid decline in plant health resulting in field replacement after only 3-4 growing seasons. Sources of aphid resistance have been identified in wild germplasm and are used to develop mapping populations to study the inheritance of these valuable traits. We have constructed a genetic linkage map using single-nucleotide polymorphism and transferable (primarily simple sequence repeat) markers for F1 population ORUS 4305 consisting of 115 progeny that segregate for aphid resistance. Our linkage map of seven linkage groups representing the seven haploid chromosomes of black raspberry consists of 274 markers on the maternal map and 292 markers on the paternal map including a morphological locus for aphid resistance. This is the first linkage map of black raspberry and will aid in developing markers for marker-assisted breeding, comparative mapping with other Rubus species, and enhancing the black raspberry genome assembly.

  8. Olfactory Response of the Predatory Bug Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae) to the Aggregation Pheromone of Its Prey, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaello, Teresa; Casas, José L; Pineda, Ana; de Alfonso, Ignacio; Marcos-García, M Ángeles

    2017-10-01

    Herbivore natural enemies base their foraging decision on information cues from different trophic levels but mainly from plant odors. However, the second trophic level (i.e., the herbivorous prey) may also provide reliable infochemical cues for their natural enemies. We have evaluated the role of the aggregation pheromone from Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) as a potential kairomone for its natural enemy, the predatory bug Orius laevigatus (Fieber). For this purpose, we have analyzed the response of O. laevigatus to (R)-lavandulyl acetate and neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, the two major components of the thrips aggregation pheromone. These compounds have been offered to O. laevigatus adult females and nymphs of the predatory bugs both in separate and as specific (1:1 or 1:2.3) blends, in experiments involving a dual choice Y-tube olfactometer. None of the compounds attracted adults or nymphs when they were individually supplied. Conversely, they were significantly attracted to both adults and nymphs when offered as a blend. A 1:2.3 (R)-lavandulyl acetate:neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate blend was attractive to both nymphs and adults, while a 1:1 blend elicited response only in nymphs. These results suggest that specific blends of these compounds from the aggregation pheromone may be used as an attractant to O. laevigatus. The results of this work highlight the importance of studying olfactory responses of natural enemies for a better understanding of their foraging behavior. Potential uses of these results in future studies are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A soluble form of the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) glycoprotein G(N) (G(N)-S) inhibits transmission of TSWV by Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, A E; Kumar, N K K; Rotenberg, D; Ullman, D E; Wyman, E A; Zietlow, C; Willis, D K; German, T L

    2008-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is an economically important virus that is transmitted in a persistent propagative manner by its thrips vector, Frankliniella occidentalis. Previously, we found that a soluble form of the envelope glycoprotein G(N) (G(N)-S) specifically bound thrips midguts and reduced the amount of detectable virus inside midgut tissues. The aim of this research was to (i) determine if G(N)-S alters TSWV transmission by thrips and, if so, (ii) determine the duration of this effect. In one study, insects were given an acquisition access period (AAP) with G(N)-S mixed with purified virus and individual insects were assayed for transmission. We found that G(N)-S reduced the percent of transmitting adults by eightfold. In a second study, thrips were given an AAP on G(N)-S protein and then placed on TSWV-infected plant material. Individual insects were assayed for transmission over three time intervals of 2 to 3, 4 to 5, and 6 to 7 days post-adult eclosion. We observed a significant reduction in virus transmission that persisted to the same degree throughout the time course. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of virus titer in individual insects revealed that the proportion of thrips infected with virus was reduced threefold when insects were preexposed to the G(N)-S protein as compared to no exposure to protein, and nontransmitters were not infected with virus. These results demonstrate that thrips transmission of a tospovirus can be reduced by exogenous viral glycoprotein.

  10. Thiamethoxam resistance selected in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): cross-resistance patterns, possible biochemical mechanisms and fitness costs analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cong-Fen; Ma, Shao-Zhi; Shan, Cai-Hui; Wu, Shun-Fan

    2014-09-01

    The western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important pest of various crops in the world, has invaded China since 2003. To understand the risks and to determine possible mechanisms of resistance to thiamethoxam in WFT, a resistant strain was selected under the laboratory conditions. Cross-resistance and the possible biochemical resistance mechanisms were investigated in this study. A 15.1-fold thiamethoxam-resistant WFT strain (TH-R) was established after selection for 55 generations. Compared with the susceptible strain (TH-S), the selected TH-R strain showed extremely high level cross-resistance to imidaclothiz (392.1-fold) and low level cross-resistance to dinotefuran (5.7-fold), acetamiprid (2.9-fold) and emamectin benzoate (2.1-fold), respectively. No cross-resistance to other fourteen insecticides was detected. Synergism tests showed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) produced a high synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the TH-R strain (2.6- and 2.6-fold respectively). However, diethyl maleate (DEM) did not act synergistically with thiamethoxam. Biochemical assays showed that mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities and carboxylesterase (CarE) activity of the TH-R strain were 2.8- and 1.5-fold higher than that of the TH-S strain, respectively. When compared with the TH-S strain, the TH-R strain had a relative fitness of 0.64. The results show that WFT develops resistance to thiamethoxam after continuous application and thiamethoxam resistance had considerable fitness costs in the WFT. It appears that enhanced metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and CarE was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the WFT. The use of cross-resistance insecticides, including imidaclothiz and dinotefuran, should be avoided for sustainable resistance management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Parnassiana nova : LVIII. Parnassiidae varia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1983-01-01

    Kürzlich erhielten wir mehrere Exemplare von Parnassius nomion Hübner, die in Asia orientalis, Mongolia borealis, 150 km südlich Ulan-Bator an einigen Flugplätzen erbeutet wurden. Davon zeigt eine Serie aus Bajon Samon, Culut, 1300 m, 25.viii. 1980, konstante und einheitliche Merkmale, die die

  12. Análisis espacial de las poblaciones de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande en un cultivo de fresa bajo cubierta, como soporte en las decisiones de manejo integrado de plagas Spatial analisis of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande populations in a covered strawberry crop as a support for integrated pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florez Elkin

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estableció la dependencia espacial de Frankliniella
    occidentalis (Pergande en un cultivo de fresa bajo cubierta en la Sabana de Bogotá. Se monitorearon las poblaciones de trips por doce semanas, en un área de 8 x 13 cuadrantes (cada cuadrante tenia un área de 8 x 4 m, tomando tres flores por cuadrante. El análisis de datos fue hecho con los programas Surfer y GS+/386, usados en geoestadística, los cuales se basan en el análisis de semivariogramas y correlogramas. Analizamos O;45; 90 y 135 grados de direccionalidad. Se encontraron dependencias espaciales
    en tres de las doce semanas y éstas indicaron que la dependencia espacial de las poblaciones de trips demostraron limites de uno hasta seis cuadrantes y fueron más frecuentes en O y 45 grados de direccionalidad. No se observó dependencia a 90 grados. Inicialmente, las colonias de trips fueron agregadas, pero cambiaron su disposición espacial al azar a través del tiempo, debido a que los individuos se mueven invadiendo otros cuadrantes. Finalmente, discutimos las importancia de la dependencia espacial de las poblaciones como una herramienta para el manejo de plagas.Spatial dependence of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande in a covered strawberry crop was established at Bogota plateau. Thrips populations were monitored for 12 weeks in an area of eight by 13 quadrants (each quadrant of 8 x 4 m, taking three flowers per quadrant. Data analysis was done with Surfer and GS+/386 programs. Geostatistics, based on semivariogram and correlogram analyses were used. There were analyzed O, 45, 90, and 135 degreed of directionality. Spatial dependence were found in three ofthe twelve
    weeks and they indicated that spatial dependence of thrips
    populations showed boundaries from one to six quadrants and were more frequent in Oand 45 degrees of directionality. No dependence was observed at 90 degrees. InitialIy, the thrips colonies were aggregated but, in time, changed this

  13. Proteinas do liquido cefalorraqueano: III. Valores normais das imuneglobulinas G, A e M (variações ligadas a cor, sexo e idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. Singer Vermes

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada inicialmente revisão de literatura a respeito dos resultados obtidos na determinação das taxas de imuneglobulinas do LCR normal, mediante diferentes métodos, assim como da influência dos fatores cor, sexo e idade, nestes valores. Mediante imunodifusão radial foram determinados os níveis de IgG, IgA e IgM do LCR normal de 115, 78 e 45 pessoas, respectivamente. Todas as amostras de LCR foram obtidas por punção sub-occipital (LCR-SO. Os resultados destas determinações permitiram concluir que: a as taxas médias de IgG, IgA e IgM do LCR de pretos ou pardos não diferem daquelas de brancos; b não existem variações ligadas ao sexo, nem à idade, em crianças com 1 a 11 anos, nas taxas das imuneglobulinas estudadas, no LCR; c os níveis fisiológicos em crianças com 1 a 11 anos, para IgG variam entre 0,21 e 2,93 mg/100 ml; os teores absolutos médios de IgG de crianças são inferiores àqueles encontrados em adultos; os níveis percentuais médios de IgG de crianças não diferem daqueles de adultos; d as taxas de IgA do LCR de crianças, tanto em valores absolutos como relativos, são, em média, inferiores àquelas encontradas em adultos, não ultrapassando, em condições normais, 0,15 mg/100 ml (0,7% do total protéico; e em adultos, não se observam variações ligadas ao sexo, nem à idade, nos níveis das imuneglobulinas estudadas, no LCR-SO; as taxas normais de IgG encontradas no LCR-SO de adultos são de 0,51 a 4,00 mg/100 ml; em crianças e adultos, as taxas fisiológicas desta imuneglobulina, em termos percentuais, são de 3 a 12%; o LCR-SO normal de adultos contém IgA em concentrações de até 0,32 mg/100 ml (0,9% do total protéico; f a IgM encontra-se no LCR-SO normal, tanto de crianças como de adultos, em níveis muito baixos, não ultrapassando 0,2 mg/100 ml (0,25% do total protéico.

  14. Expansão urbana e variações mesoclimáticas em João Pessoa, PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liése Carneiro Sobreira

    Full Text Available A cidade de João Pessoa, na Paraíba, vem sendo submetida, nos últimos anos, a um forte crescimento urbano. Nesse contexto, este trabalho verificou entre as décadas de 1980 e 2000 variações climáticas significativas que possam ser correlacionadas com o crescimento urbano. Para tanto, utilizaram-se imagens de satélite nos anos de 1977 e 2009 para o cálculo da área edificada, bem como foram utilizadas séries de dados das variáveis climáticas: precipitação pluviométrica e temperatura do ar, colhidas em duas estações instaladas na malha urbana, e uma terceira, tomada como estação de referência, fora da malha urbana. Para a caracterização do crescimento da cidade, utilizaram-se dados quantitativos da população residente constantes dos censos demográficos de 1872 a 2009. Para a verificação do ritmo do comportamento da série temporal de temperatura e precipitação foram gerados gráficos da temperatura média e do acumulado mensal dos meses correspondentes aos trimestres mais quentes e menos quentes do período de 1984 a 2008. Dos resultados obtidos do tratamento e análise dos dados pode-se verificar que a temperatura do ar da cidade aumentou nos últimos 26 anos, havendo-se detectado que as temperaturas do ar sofreram elevações mais expressivas nos meses do trimestre mais quente, fato que pode ser correlacionado com a expansão da malha urbana.

  15. Improving yield and water use efficiency of apple trees through intercrop-mulch of crown vetch (Coronilla varia L.) combined with different fertilizer treatments in the Loess Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, W.; Li, Y.; Gong, Q.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, Z.; Zhai, B.; Wang, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Improving water use efficiency (WUE) and soil fertility is relevant for apple production in drylands. The effects of intercrop-mulch (IM) of crown vetch (Coronilla varia L.) combined with different fertilizer treatments on WUE of apple trees and soil fertility of apple orchards were assessed over three years (2011, 2013 and 2014). A split-plot design was adopted, in which the main treatments were IM and no intercrop-mulch (NIM). Five sub-treatments were established: no fertilization (CK); nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer (NP); manure (M); N, P and potassium fertilizer (NPK); and NPK fertilizer combined with manure (NPKM). Due to mowing and mulching each month during July–September, the evapotranspiration for IM was 17.3% lower than that of NIM in the dry year of 2013. Additionally, the soil water storage of NPKM treatment was higher than that of CK during the experimental period. Thus, single fruit weight and fruit number per tree increased with IM and NPKM application. Moreover, applying NPKM with IM resulted in the highest yield (on average of three years), which was 73.25% and 130.51% greater than that of CK in IM and NIM, respectively. The WUE of NPKM combined with IM was also the highest in 2013 and 2014 (47.69 and 56.95% greater than applying IM alone). In addition, due to application of IM combined with NPKM, soil organic matter was increased by 25.8% compared with that of CK (in NIM). Additionally, application of IM combined with NPKM obtained more economic net return, compared to other combinations. Therefore, applying NPKM with IM is recommended for improving apple production in this rain-fed agricultural area.

  16. Influência da icterícia colestática na variação ponderal em modelo experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Souza Vasconcellos

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da icterícia colestática na variação ponderal. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 64 ratos adultos, distribuídos em seis grupos: F1 (n=6 - fêmeas normais, F2 (n=6 - fêmeas laparotomizadas, F3 (n=20 - fêmeas ictéricas, M1 (n=6 - machos normais, M2 (n=6 - machos laparotomizados, M3 (n=20 - machos ictéricos. A icterícia foi obtida com ligadura e secção do ducto biliopancreático. Os pesos dos animais foram registrados semanalmente, durante sete semanas. No 14º dia de experimento, dosaram-se as bilirrubinas séricas e os hormônios gonadais. Após a sétima semana, realizou-se estudo histológico do fígado. RESULTADOS: Os animais dos grupos F3 e M3 apresentaram bilirrubinas elevadas e diminuição da massa corpórea, quando comparados com os demais grupos. As diferenças ponderais foram significativas a partir da quarta semana entre as fêmeas e da quinta semana entre os machos. Nos animais ictéricos houve aumento do estradiol e diminuição da progesterona e da testosterona total. Septos de fibroses perivenular e periportal, colangite e hiperplasia de ductos biliares ocorreram no fígado dos animais ictéricos. Nenhum animal apresentou cirrose. CONCLUSÃO: Ocorreu redução do peso corpóreo murino em presença de icterícia colestática em ambos os sexos.

  17. Ancoragens e variações nas representações sociais da corrupção Anchoring and variations in the social representations of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Poeschl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinam-se neste artigo as representações da corrupção de inquiridos portugueses e procuram-se identificar variações consoante os grupos sociais e os contextos geral, global ou nacional em que o fenómeno é considerado. Verificou-se que a “corrupção em geral” é representada por práticas e motivos que reflectem um julgamento moral e por grupos e actividades ilegais, tal como acontece em relação à corrupção ao nível global. Esta tem ainda uma dimensão geopolítica, enquanto a corrupção ao nível nacional é entendida de forma particularizada, realçando-se casos e situações específicas muitas vezes divulgados pelos media.In this paper, we examine the representations of corruption of Portuguese respondents and attempt to identify variations according to different social groups and to the general, global, or national contexts in which the phenomenon is considered. We found that “corruption, in general”, is represented by practices and motives that reflect a moral judgment, and by illegal groups and activities, as is also the case for corruption at the global level. Corruption at the global level also has a geopolitical dimension, whereas corruption at the national level is seen in a particularized way, highlighting cases and situations often debated in the media.

  18. Variação da sensibilidade de populações de Phakopsora pachyrhizi a fungicidas inibidores da desmetilação no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Ariana Xavier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante as safras 2008/09, 2009/10 e 2010/11 foi monitorada a sensibilidade do fungo Phakopsora pachyrhizi aos fungicidas tebuconazol, ciproconazol, metconazol e protioconazol (inibidores da desmetilação, IDMs. Folhas destacadas de soja foram tratadas com os fungicidas em doses variando de zero a 32 mg L-1 (tebuconazol, ciproconazol e metconazol e zero a 8 mg L-1 (protioconazol e inoculadas com esporos de P. pachyrhizi provenientes de lavouras de soja de diferentes regiões produtoras. As folhas inoculadas foram incubadas em placas de Petri com papel umedecido, a 23°C ± 2ºC, e a severidade da ferrugem estimada 15 dias após a inoculação. Foram determinadas as doses efetivas para reduzir 50% da severidade da doença (DE50. O fungicida protioconazol apresentou a maior atividade intrínseca, com valores de DE50 variando de 0,000001 mg L-1 a 0,39 mg L-1. Os valores de DE50variaram de 0,001 mg L-1 a 1,49 mg L-1 para tebuconazol; 0,001 mg L-1 a 3,27 mg L-1 para ciproconazol e 0,004 mg L-1 a 3,89 mg L-1 para metconazol. As medianas de DE50 para todos os fungicidas avaliados foram inferiores a 0,5 mg L-1, nas três safras. As correlações (r entre as DE50 dos quatro fungicidas foram significativas (p<0,05, mostrando a existência de resistência cruzada entre os fungicidas. A variação nos valores de DE50 no monitoramento mostra uma coexistência de populações com diferentes níveis de sensibilidade aos IDMs no campo.

  19. Associação entre dois diferentes tipos de estrangulamento com a variação da pressão intraocular em atletas de jiu-jitsu

    OpenAIRE

    Scarpi,Marinho Jorge; Conte,Marcelo; Rossin,Reginaldo Alexandre; Skubs,Renato; Lenk,Rudolf Eberhard; Brant,Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação entre dois diferentes tipos de estrangulamento com a variação da pressão intraocular em atletas de jiu-jitsu. MÉTODO: Estudo observacional em grupo de 9 atletas de jiu-jitsu, com mínimo 6 meses de treinamento, sexo masculino, idades entre 20 e 30 anos, sem presença de lesões físicas e do bulbo ocular. Buscou-se associação entre a variação da pressão intraocular e os estrangulamentos Frontal da Guarda (E1) e Frontal da Montada (E2). A pressão intraocular foi de...

  20. Ophiuroidea das regiões antartica e subantartica: 2. variação em Gorgonocephalus chílensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae Ophiuroidea from antarctic and subantarctic regions: 2. variation on Gorgonocephalus chilensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gouveia Monteiro

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 198 exemplares de Gorgonocephalus chilensis das regiões antártica e subantartica, tendo-se em vista a variação de caracteres morfológicos externos. Foi constatada uma grande variação nas características morfológicas externas, que parece independer de localização geográfica.A revision is presented on the variability of the ornamentation and other extermal morphological aspects of Gorgonocephalus chilensis. The samples were obtained along the period of 1962 to 1972 by the R/V "Hero" and "Eltanin" (USARP and by the R/V "Almirante Saldanha" from the Brazilian Navy.

  1. Detecção de Leishmania por PCR e suas variações (seminested PCR e PCR em tempo real), em fragmentos de pele e de baço de cães com leishmaniose visceral.

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares

    2013-01-01

    A detecção do DNA de Leishmania spp, pela Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) e suas variações, surgem como alternativas para o diagnóstico da LVC, por serem métodos altamente sensíveis e específicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a PCR e suas variações (Seminested PCR e PCR em tempo real) utilizando amostras de pele e de baço de 60 cães soropositivos (RIFI e ELISA). Os animais foram agrupados considerando a forma clínica, sendo classificados como assintomáticos (CA; n=20), oligossi...

  2. Variação sazonal na prevalência de distúrbios hipertensivos da gestação entre primigestas do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Vettorazzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A hipertensão é uma das mais graves patologias gestacionais, levando a um aumento importante da morbimortalidade materna e perinatal. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a correlação entre o número de internações hospitalares em primigestas com distúrbios hipertensivos na gestação e variação sazonal. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo ecológico entre todas as primigestas com idade gestacional maior de 20 semanas que internaram no Centro Obstétrico do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre num período de 12 meses. A frequência de internações por distúrbios hipertensivos foi comparada nos diferentes meses e estações do ano e também em relação à temperatura média e mínima do dia da internação e da semana anterior. Resultados: Foram estudadas 1.327 primigestas com idade média de 20,7 anos e idade gestacional média de 38,6 semanas. Entre estas, 232 (17,5% apresentaram alteração na pressão arterial, sendo que 9,7% apresentaram pré-eclâmpsia (PE e 7,5% outros distúrbios hipertensivos da gestação. Não houve associação significativa entre a frequência de internações por distúrbios hipertensivos e a temperatura média ou mínima do dia ou da semana anterior à internação. Ao longo do ano, ocorreu variação significativa (p < 0,05 na frequência de internações por pré-eclâmpsia, sendo esta maior no mês de setembro (15,1% das internações, marcando a transição entre o inverno e primavera. Conclusão: As variações da temperatura têm influência no número de internações por hipertensão na gestação, sendo essa informação útil no planejamento do sistema de saúde e da disponibilidade de leitos hospitalares.    Introduction: Hypertension is one of the most severe pregnancy disorders, leading to a significant increase of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the correlation of the number of hospital admissions of primiparous women with

  3. Variação morfológica de pegadas de roedores arborícolas e cursoriais do Cerrado Footprint morphological variation of arboreal and cursorial rodents of the Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Nícholas F. de Camargo; Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves; Alexandre R. T. Palma

    2008-01-01

    Considerando que os roedores possuem diversas formas de locomoção, o presente estudo apresenta e discute variações na forma das pegadas anteriores e posteriores de sete espécies [Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887), Necromys lasiurus (Lund, 1840), Oecomys bicolor (Tomes, 1860), Oecomys concolor (Wagner, 1845), Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818), Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814) e Rhipidomys macrurus (Gervais, 1855)], utilizando técnicas de morfometria geométrica e análises discriminantes. As ...

  4. Variação anatômica radial do lenho de açoita-cavalo (Luehea divaricata) e sua influência na densidade aparente. Radial variation of wood anatomy in açoita-cavalo (Luehea divaricata) and its influence on the specific gravity.

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Luiz LONGUI; Israel Luiz de LIMA; Sandra Monteiro Borges FLORSHEIM; Alaor BUFOLO

    2009-01-01

    Variações entre as dimensões e frequênciasdas células da madeira existem entre espéciesdiferentes, entre indivíduos da mesma espécie ouainda dentro da mesma árvore nas direções radial eaxial. Essa variação influencia diretamente nadensidade aparente e consequentemente no uso dasdiferentes madeiras. O presente estudo determinoua variação anatômica radial e sua influência nadensidade aparente no lenho de árvores de Luehea divaricata, a partir de amostras coletadas no DAP,por meio de método dest...

  5. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral

  6. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Madhav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m of that observed in the core populations (15 m. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82 than in the peripheral (Nb = 48 populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short

  7. Wood Anatomy and Insect Defoliator Systems: Is there an anatomical response to sustained feeding by the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis) on Douglas-fir (Pseudotusga menziesii)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, Jodi; Gärtner, Holger; Alfaro, René; Smith, Dan

    2013-04-01

    The western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) is the most widespread and destructive defoliator of coniferous forests in western North America, and has a long-term coexistence with its primary host tree, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco). Western spruce budworm (WSB) outbreaks usually last for several years, and cause reductions in annual growth, stem defects, and regeneration delays. In British Columbia, the WSB is the second most damaging insect after the mountain pine beetle, and sustained and/or severe defoliation can result in the mortality of host trees. Numerous studies have used tree rings to reconstruct WSB outbreaks across long temporal scales, to evaluate losses in stand productivity, and examine isotope ratios. Although some studies have looked at the impacts of artificial defoliation on balsam fir in eastern North America, there has been no prior research on how WSB outbreaks affect the anatomical structure of the stem as described by intra-annual wood density and potential cell size variations. The objective of this study was to anatomically examine the response of Douglas-fir to sustained WSB outbreaks in two regions of southern British Columbia. We hypothesize that the anatomical intra-annual characteristics of the tree rings, such as cell wall thickness, latewood cell size, and/or lumen area changes during sustained WSB outbreaks. To test this hypothesis we sampled four permanent sample plots in coastal and dry interior sites, which had annually resolved defoliation data collected over a 7-12 year period. At each site diameter-at-breast height (cm), height (m), and crown position were recorded and three increment cores were extracted from 25 trees. Increment cores were prepared to permit anatomical and x-ray density analyses. For each tree, a 15µm thick micro section was cut from the radial plane. Digital images of the micro sections were captured and processed. In each annual ring, features such as cell lumen area (µm2

  8. Ecuación para el cálculo del volumen del árbol para Pinus occidentalis Sw., en el plan sierra, República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Montalvo Guerrero

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La inminente alza de los costos de la materia prima que es utilizada por la industria forestal dominicana requiere ineludiblemente que la actividad forestal de hoy cuente con tablas de volumen, capaces de estimar con la mayor exactitud posible, el volumen de los árboles y de rodales que proveen esa materia prima. La exactitud en la estimación es imprescindible para que un buen proceso de planificación racional de manejo de bosques ocurra. En este estudio se presenta una ecuación para estimar el volumen y posteriormente elaborar la tabla de cubicación de la madera en pie de los árboles de Pinus occidentalis, Sw., utilizados por el Plan Sierra y provenientes del manejo para la reordenación de los bosques naturales de su área de influencia. Se compara la ecuación obtenida en el estudio, con la generada por (Gil y Cuevas, 1986 y utilizada para la construcción de la tabla de cubicación que se utiliza desde hace 14 años. Se pretende, si los estadígrafos así lo indican, sustituir la tabla existente ya que las muestras para ésta fueron tomadas en rodales cuyos árboles poseen características específicas y difieren en su desarrollo (son más pequeños y de menor grosor de los del resto del área de influencia del Plan Sierra, ya que fueron tomadas en una zona de vida con características edáficas y climatológicas diferentes al resto del área de influencia del Plan Sierra. La muestra para la tabla existente fue de 40 árboles. Para el presente estudio se muestrearon 191 árboles representativos de las tres diferentes zonas de vida que ocurren en La Sierra.

  9. Variação da pressão intraocular no exercício resistido realizado em duas diferentes posições

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sander Soares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Verificar a variação da PIO no exercício resistido na posição sentada e em decúbito dorsal. Métodos Foram avaliados 14 voluntários do Centro de Atividades Físicas do Banco de Olhos de Sorocaba (BOS Fit. Os critérios de exclusão adotados foram: I opacidade de meios; II alteração de volume do bulbo ocular ou ausência de bulbo ocular; III PIO maior do que 21mmHg; IV idade inferior 20 e superior a 40 anos; V tempo de prática de treinamento resistido inferior a 30 dias. Inicialmente foi realizado o teste de predição no exercício leg press para determinar o percentual de carga para o respectivo exercício durante o experimento. Os voluntários foram submetidos a duas intervenções separadas em um intervalo de 72 horas, ambas com o mesmo volume e intensidade no exercício leg press, ou seja, 3 séries de 15 repetições com 60% 1RM, tempo de intervalo entre as séries de 60 segundos e velocidade moderada, de acordo com as seguintes posições: P1 leg-press executado na posição sentada e P2 leg press na posição em decúbito dorsal. A PIO foi obtida utilizando o tonômetro de Perkins em três momentos: M1 imediatamente antes do exercício; M2 imediatamente após a terceira série; M3 três minutos após a finalização da terceira série. Resultados Em ambas as posições houve queda significativa da PIO após o exercício (M2, permanecendo significativamente reduzida após três minutos de recuperação (M3. Contudo, não houve diferença da PIO segundo a posição (P1 e P2, independentemente do momento de aferição (M1, M2 e M3. Conclusão Houve queda da PIO decorrente ao exercício resistido e não foi verificada resposta diferencial da PIO de acordo com a posição do exercício.

  10. Fatores edáficos e as variações florísticas de um trecho de Mata Ciliar do Rio Gualaxo do Norte, Mariana, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda de Sena Gonçalves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a correlação entre a distribuição de espécies arbóreas ciliares do rio Gualaxo do Norte (S20°16'31,9" W43°26'15,3" e S20°16'30,6" W43°26'07,3" com fatores edáficos, assim como se existem espécies de ocorrência restrita à área de depleção ciliar que possam ser indicadas para recuperação de matas ciliares. As parcelas foram alocadas em 1 ha dividido em três blocos com declividades distintas. Todos os indivíduos com circunferência do tronco a 1,30 m do solo igual ou superior a 15 cm foram registrados e identificados. Foram coletadas cinco amostras simples de solo em cada parcela para análises químicas de fertilidade. A ordenação dos dados de solo e vegetação foi realizada pela análise de correspondência canônica (CCA, que indicou que variações na fertilidade, na acidez do solo e na altitude estavam influenciando a distribuição da vegetação arbórea ao longo do gradiente topográfico. Albizia hassleri, Bathysa meridionalis, Cariniana estrelensis, Casearia gossypiosperma, Casearia sp., Cecropia hololeuca, Himatanthus lancifolius, Luehea grandiflora, Picramnia sp., Platypodium elegans, Pseudopiptadenia contorta, Tibouchina candoleana e Virola oleifera são espécies adaptadas a condições edáficas com elevada acidez e fertilidade muito baixa, apresentando potencial para utilização em projetos de recuperação de áreas degradadas, principalmente de encostas e topo de morros. Já Casearia sylvestris, Dalbergia villosa, Dendropanax cuneatus, Machaerium aculeatum, Machaerium stiptatum, Ocotea odorifera, Ocotea pulchella, Rollinea longifolia, Schinus terebinthifolius, Tibouchina granulosa, Vernonia piptocarphoides e Vismia sp. estavam correlacionadas com solos menos ácidos, mais férteis e mais próximos ao rio, apresentando potencial para a restauração florestal em áreas ciliares.

  11. Effect of seasonal variation in Sálvia allelopathy potential / Efeito da variação sazonal no potencial alelopático de Sálvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Tatiana Araujo da Cruz-Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis and the accumulation of the chemical composites that have allelopathy characteristics in Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae are resulting from the secondary plant metabolism. The present work had as objective to analyze the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of fresh leaves of Sálvia collected during the seasons, obtained by decoction, static infusion and grinding, on the germination and development of seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. The experiment had 20 treatments (concentrations 0; 7.5; 15; 22.5 and 30%. The results had been submitted to the Tukey test, to the level at 5% probability. The appraised variables, germination percentage, the germination speed index (GSI, the growth of shoot and roots and abnormality formation of seedlings did not present a pattern of allelopathy in the different seasons, indicating a possible alteration in the plant metabolism in function of the seasonal variation in the plant ambient.A biossíntese e o acúmulo dos compostos químicos que conferem a característica alelopática em Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae são resultantes do metabolismo secundário do vegetal. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de folhas frescas de Sálvia coletadas durante as estações do ano, obtidos por decocção, maceração estática, infusão e trituração sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L., totalizando 20 tratamentos nas concentrações 0; 7,5; 15; 22,5 e 30%. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos ao teste de Tukey, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. As variáveis avaliadas, porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, crescimento da parte aérea e das raízes e formação de plântulas anormais não apresentaram um padrão de resposta alelopática nas diferentes estações do ano, indicando possível alteração no metabolismo vegetal em função da varia

  12. Análise da variação do desempenho de empresas brasileiras Analysis of variation in the performance of Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Thiago Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a influência dos ciclos econômicos no desempenho das firmas. Dados sobre uma amostra representativa de firmas de capital aberto, atuantes em 18 setores da economia, foram coletados por um período de vinte e três anos (1986-2008. Os resultados encontrados corroboram os estudos anteriores ao atribuírem maior importância aos fatores associados às características da firma, mesmo considerando um período de análise com maior número de anos e, por conseguinte, com a contribuição de um elevado numero de variáveis macroeconômicas, tais como crises e diferentes planos econômicos. Porém, foi possível confirmar que intervalos de tempo maiores de análise tendem a reduzir o efeito da firma, e que as contribuições do efeito ano em particular apesar de corroborarem os resultados obtidos nos estudos anteriores, em termos absolutos, relativamente apresentam uma grande variação. O mesmo fenômeno é observado quando se verifica a interação entre ano e ramo de negócios, implicando que diferentes ramos são afetados de maneira desigual pelas variáveis macroeconômicas em períodos de tempo mais longos.

    This paper analyzes the influence of economic cycles on the performance of firms. Data on a representative sample of open capital traded firms, operating in eighteen sectors of the economy, were collected for a period of twenty-three years (1986-2008. The results corroborate previous studies to give greater importance to factors associated with characteristics of the firm, even though a period of analysis with more years and, therefore, the contribution of a large number of macroeconomic variables, such as crises and different economic plans. However, it was possible to confirm that longer intervals of analysis tend to reduce the effect of the firm, and that the contributions of the effect in particular years, although

  13. Wood owls of the genera Strix and Ciccaba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous, K.H.

    1964-01-01

    "... speaking here as a taxonomist to taxonomists, I am certainly no less than respectful toward the noble art of classification" (Léon Croizat, 1958, p. 119). In considering a thorough systematic study a necessity before entering into zoogeographical theories, the author feels he may expect the

  14. EVALUATION OF VARIOUS FACIAL ANTHROPOMETRIC PROPORTIONS IN INDIAN AMERICAN WOMEN. Evaluación de varias proporciones antropométricas en mujeres indio-americanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthy Marx Sadacharan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El equililbrio y la armonía de los diferentes rasgos de la cara son esenciales para el cirujano quien debe analizar la cara para poder planificar su tratamiento. La evaluación de la cara femenina se puede hacer por medio de medidas lineales, angulares y proporciones. El propósito de esta investigación es examinar  varias proporciones faciales en las mujeres aborígenes americanas y compararlas con las normas de las personas indias (de India y las personas caucásicas. Tambien queriamos saber si estas normas satisfacen las proporciones de oro y de plata. Las medidas faciales antropometricas se tomaron utillizando un calibre digital en cien estudiantes aborigenes americanas (18-30 años en la Universidad Americana de Antigua (AUA. Un conjunto de proporciones faciales fue calculado y comparado con las normas de las mujeres de la India y de las mujeres caucásicas. Los coeficientes de variación de las proporciones también se calcularon. Todas las proporciones faciales fueron similares con los informes anteriores sobre las mujeres de la India. La mayoría de las proporciones tenian pequeñas coeficientes de variación haciéndolas así muy confiables, debido a la reducción en la variabilidad de las muestras. El indice de altura de la parte superior de la cara,  la altura facial mandíbulo-inferior y la altura biocular de la parte superior de la cara se acercaban todos a las proporciones de oro mientras el indice nasal era casi una proporción de plata. Habian diferencias significativas en la mayoría de los resultados cuando se comparaban las estadísticas de los indios y las personas caucásicas utilizando evaluaciones desapareadas. Las estadís-ticas actuales de las proporciones faciales pueden ser utilizadas como valores de referencia para las mujeres aborígenes de América. The balance and harmony of various facial features are essential to surgeon who requires facial analysis in the diagnosis and treatment planning. The evaluation of

  15. Significados que construyen niños, padres de familia y docentes vinculados a varias instituciones escolares de la ciudad de Bogotá sobre infancia, familia y escuela en el marco de la globalización

    OpenAIRE

    Teresita Bernal Romero; Jorge Mario Jaramillo; Liliana Mendoza Ramos; María Angélica Pérez Serna; Ana María Suárez Reyes

    2009-01-01

    Esta investigación estuvo dirigida a indagar sobre los significados construidos por niños, padres de familia y profesores acerca de la infancia, la familia y la escuela en el contexto de la globalización. Se aplicó una encuesta a un grupo de 73 niños y niñas, 52 padres de familia y 52 docentes que se encontraban vinculados a varias instituciones escolares de la ciudad de Bogotá. Los resultados mostraron convergencias y divergencias entre los tres grupos de participantes, en cuanto a la forma ...

  16. Estudo da variação da concentração de metano no biogás produzido a partir das águas residuárias do café

    OpenAIRE

    Prado,Marco Antônio Calil; Campos,Cláudio Milton Montenegro; Silva,Julia Ferreira da

    2010-01-01

    A água residuária do café (ARC), originada no processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro, produz quantidade considerável de biogás que pode e deve ser utilizado como fonte de energia alternativa e complementar. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a variação da concentração de metano do biogás produzido a partir das ARC, por tratamento anaeróbio, em reator UASB, em escala laboratorial. As amostras foram coletadas durante 86 dias. As análises da concentração de metano foram realizadas por cromatografia gás-...

  17. Demanda energética e eficiência da distribuição de sementes de milho sob variação de velocidade e condição de solo

    OpenAIRE

    Mahl,Denise; Gamero,Carlos A.; Benez,Sérgio H.; Furlani,Carlos E. A.; Silva,Antônio R. B.

    2004-01-01

    O trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a demanda energética e a eficiência da distribuição de sementes de uma semeadora-adubadora para semeadura direta, submetida à variação de velocidade e condições de solo, na semeadura da cultura do milho. O estudo foi desenvolvido em um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico, na Fazenda Experimental Lageado, no município de Botucatu - SP. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com oito repetições, combinando-se três velocidades de deslocamento (4,4...

  18. Avaliação hidrodinâmica de reator UASB submetido à variação cíclica de vazão Hydrodynamic evaluation of a UASB reactor submitted to cyclical flowrate variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Querne de Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Um reator UASB em escala piloto (160 l foi usado com o objetivo de estudar seu comportamento hidrodinâmico quando submetido a variações cíclicas senoidais da vazão afluente. Os ensaios foram realizados com traçador eosina Y para as condições operacionais: vazão média afluente constante e igual a 16 l.h-1 e tempo de detenção hidráulica de 10 h (ensaios 1 e 2, e para vazão afluente submetida à variação senoidal de 40% (ensaios 3 e 4 e de 60% (ensaio 5. A variação da concentração do traçador no efluente foi ajustada pelos modelos teóricos de dispersão de fluxo e de reatores em série. O reator UASB apresentou comportamento similar ao de reator de mistura completa para vazão média afluente constante e similar ao reator de fluxo pistonado com a aplicação das variações senoidais cíclicas, sendo que o modelo de pequena dispersão apresentou melhor ajuste matemático.A bench scale UASB reactor (160 l was used in stimulus-response assays in order to evaluate its behaviour when submitted to cyclical sinusoidal variations of the influent flow rate. Assays were carried out with eosin Y as the tracer in different operational conditions: constant mean influent flow rate of 16 l.h-1 and hydraulic residence time of 10 h (assays 1 and 2, and influent flow rate submitted to sinusoidal variation of 40% (assays 3 and 4 and 60% (assay 5. The variation of tracer concentration in the effluent was adjusted by the theoretical models of dispersion (low and high and N-continuous stirred tank reactors in series. Complete mixture behaviour was noted to the application of the constant influent flow rate and a plug flow one to the application of the cyclical sinusoidal variations of the influent flow rate. The low dispersion model demonstrated the best mathematical adjustment in the RTD.

  19. As variações na comunidade de Odonata (Insecta) em córregos podem ser explicadas pelo Paradoxo do Plâncton? Explicando a riqueza de espécies pela variabilidade ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Junior, José Max Barbosa; Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos; Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso; Pinto, Nelson Silva; Universidade Federal de Goiás; Juen, Leandro; Universidade Federal do Pará

    2013-01-01

    A teoria do Paradoxo do Plâncton postula que ambientes que apresentam flutuações temporais periódicas apresentariam alta diversidade de espécie, uma vez que essas flutuações impediriam a ocorrência da exclusão competitiva. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a variação da comunidade de Odonata adulto na Bacia do Rio Suiá-Miçú, testando a hipótese de que locais que apresentam variá...

  20. Biología del Trips Frankliniella Occidentalis (Pegande) (Thysanoptera: thripidae) sobre Crisantemo Chrysanthemum morifolium l. bajo condiciones de laboratorio Developmentaland reproductive biology of Frankliniella Occidentslis (Pegande) (Thysanoptera: thripidae) on Chrysanthemum

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas Estrella; Corredor Dario

    1989-01-01

    La especie Frankliniella occidentalis (Pegande) se encontró causando daño a flores de crisantemo en una empresa de la
    Sabana de Bogotá. Se estudió su biología bajo condiciones de laboratorio (24,31 ± 2,50C y 66,36 ± 12% H.R.). El rango de
    duración en días de su ciclo de vida fue: huevo 4-5, ninfa de primer instar 3-4, ninfa de segundo instar 5-8, prepupa 4-6, pupa 3-5 y los adultos alcanzaron una longevidad entre 60 y 121 días. Esta especie presentó partenogénesis de tip...

  1. Análise da variação do tempo dedicado ás viagens urbanas da população de Manaus – AM, em função do modo de transporte utilizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Leite

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ausência de planejamento, característica da maioria dos bairros de Manaus deixou como herança um sistema viário incompatível com o tamanho atual da cidade. Neste artigo busca-se analisar a variação do tempo dedicado às viagens urbanas em Manaus em função de três diferentes modos de transporte: ônibus, micro-ônibus e automóvel. Receptores do Sistema de Posicionamento Global (GPS e recursos de um Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG foram utilizados para levantar e tratar os dados das viagens urbanas realizadas. Considera-se (por tudo o que o trabalho permitiu concluir, que a metodologia adotada foi bastante consistente para o reconhecimento da variação de desempenho de modos de transporte investigados. Os percursos mais longos permitiram melhor desempenho que os mais curtos, notadamente influenciado pela área central da cidade, que registrou os trechos mais lentos para os três modos.

  2. Variação das dimensões características e da forma dos frutos de café durante o processo de secagem Variation of characteristic dimensions and forms of coffee fruits during drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Corrêa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da variação do teor de umidade nas dimensões e propriedades físicas-esfericidade e circularidade do fruto do café das espécies arabica e canephora, de diferentes variedades. Os resultados obtidos permitiram afirmar que a redução do teor de umidade afeta de forma acentuada as características físicas do fruto do cafeeiro das espécies e variedades estudadas, indicando que são importantes as variações das dimensões do fruto ao longo do processo de secagem e, ainda, que as expressões matemáticas ajustadas aos dados obtidos representaram de forma satisfatória os fenômenos estudados.The present work had as objective to evaluate the effect of moisture content variation on dimensions and physical properties (sphericity and roundness of coffee fruit of the arabica and canephora species, for different varieties. The obtained results show that the reduction of moisture content affects in an accentuated way the physical characteristics of coffee fruit of the studied species and varieties, indicating that the variations of dimensions of the fruit along the drying process are important. Further, the mathematical expressions adjusted to the data were satisfactory for the studied phenomena.

  3. Variação espaço-temporal e efeito do ciclo lunar na ictiofauna estuarina: evidências para o estuário do Rio Joanes – Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Amorim Reis-Filho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n2p111 Dados de abundância, biomassa, comprimento, riqueza, diversidade e equitatibilidade da ictiofauna estuarina do Rio Joanes foram obtidos para investigar o efeito do ciclo lunar e da variação espaço-temporal na ictiofauna. Foram capturados 1.497 peixes, pesando 7.760g, pertencentes a 48 espécies de 22 famílias. As análises de comunidade indicaram não haver diferença significativa avaliando o efeito da lua, contudo, a lua minguante foi responsável por maiores capturas. A composição e estrutura da comunidade variaram com o tipo de sedimento e vegetação de manguezal, onde maior número de espécies e maior número de indivíduos preferiram sedimento lamoso em áreas com vegetação marginal preservada. Agrupamentos baseados nos dados de abundância não seguiram variações temporais de longo período, porém peixes com nichos similares em relação ao uso do habitat preferiram determinadas áreas de acordo com o tipo de sedimento.

  4. Somaclonal variation in micropropagated Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I plantlets (Heliconiaceae Variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Helicônia, Heliconia Bihai cv. Lobster Claw I (Heliconiaceae

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    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of somaclonal variation is described in various cultures of agronomic interest. Such variation can be of benefit in the development of new flower varieties. In this study, the occurrence of somaclonal variation in micropropagated changes of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I was investigated. Stem apexes were introduced in MS culture media with the addition of 2.5 mg L-1 of benzylaminopure (BAP and 500 mg L-1 of sodium cefotaxime. After selecting the apex stem, it was sub-cultivated in MS media and supplemented with 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP to induce side buds. To conduct the trial, 2,000 plants were selected and compared with plants originated from rhizomes. To calculate the percentage of the variants, the plant stature, the form and color of leaves and pseudostem were evaluated. The plants with buds presenting the same type of variation were considered as variants. The occurrence of three types of somaclonal variants was observed: Variation of the Chlorophyll in the Leaf, Low Stature Variant and Pseudostem and Petiole Color Variant, the latter with ornamental potential. The somaclonal variation rate for Heliconia bihai cv Lobster Claw I, under the proposed conditions, was 61.40%.A ocorrência de variação somaclonal é descrita em diversas culturas de interesse agronômico. A floricultura pode beneficiar-se dessa variabilidade, com a obtenção de novas variedades. Nesse trabalho, estudou-se a ocorrência de variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I. Ápices caulinares foram introduzidos em meio de cultivo MS com adição de 2,5 mg L-1 de benzilaminopurina (BAP e 500 mg L-1 de cefotaxima sódica. Após a seleção do ápice caulinar, o explante foi subcultivado em meio MS suplementado com 4,0 mg L-1 de BAP para indução de brotações. Foram selecionadas, ao acaso, 2.000 mudas e comparadas com mudas originadas de rizomas, para compor o ensaio. No cálculo da porcentagem dos variantes

  5. Guias de execução para memorização aplicados à interpretação das Variações Abegg, de Robert Schumann 

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    Bibiana Bragagnolo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa testou duas aplicações do protocolo de memorização através de guias de execução, proposto por Chaffin, Imreh e Crawford (2002, nas Variações Abegg, de Robert Schumann. A primeira aplicação do protocolo teve como finalidade a memorização da peça e a execução da mesma em público, visando uma performance sem falhas de memória. A segunda aplicação adotou uma visão diferenciada do protocolo e buscou aprimorar a interpretação da peça através da criação de uma conduta para memorização, em que os guias de execução foram utilizados como focos de atenção durante a performance, tendo como objetivos: (1 testar os guias de execução expressivos como focos de atenção durante a performance e sua influência na produção do som e (2 investigar a potencialidade do timbre e da manipulação temporal como fonte dos guias de execução expressivos nas Variações Abegg. A metodologia contou com o suporte de um diário de estudo e testes das aplicações em quatro apresentações públicas. Nestas apresentações, o número de falhas de memória por parte da intérprete e primeira autora deste trabalho foi praticamente nulo. Realizamos também uma análise comparativa de aspectos de manipulação do tempo e timbre entre duas gravações de performances públicas das Variações Abegg, através do software Sonic Visualiser, com o intuito de verificar o resultado sonoro efetivo da utilização das guias. Os resultados desta pesquisa, além de comprovarem a eficácia da conduta por nós desenvolvida, tendo por base o protocolo supracitado, revelaram a possibilidade de utilização dos guias expressivos no aprimoramento da interpretação musical, principalmente na segunda aplicação da conduta de memorização.

  6. The roles of competition and habitat in the dynamics of populations and species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackulic, Charles Brandon; Reid, Janice; Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.; Davis, Raymond; Forsman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The role of competition in structuring biotic communities at fine spatial scales is well known from detailed process-based studies. Our understanding of competition's importance at broader scales is less resolved and mainly based on static species distribution maps. Here, we bridge this gap by examining the joint occupancy dynamics of an invading (barred owl: Strix varia) and a resident species (Northern spotted owl: Strix occidentalis caurina) in a 1000 km2 study area over a 22 - year period. Past studies of these competitors have focused on the dynamics of one species at a time, hindering efforts to parse out the roles of habitat and competition and to forecast the future of the resident species. In addition, while these studies accounted for the imperfect detection of the focal species, no multiseason analysis of these species has accounted for the imperfect detection of the secondary species, potentially biasing inference. We analyze survey data using models that combine the general multistate-multiseason occupancy modeling framework with autologistic modeling - allowing us to account for important aspects of our study system. We find that local extinction probability increases for each species when the other is present; however, the effect of the invader on the resident is greater. Although the species prefer different habitats, these habitats are highly correlated at the patch scale and the impacts of invader on the resident are greatest in patches that would otherwise be optimal. As a consequence, competition leads to a weaker relationship between habitat and Northern spotted owl occupancy. Colonization and extinction rates of the invader are closely related to neighborhood occupancy, and over the first half of the study the availability of colonists limited the rate of population growth. Competition is likely to exclude the resident species both through its immediate effects on local extinction, and by indirectly lowering colonization rates as Northern

  7. Registro de variação cromática em escorpião Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello (1922: principal espécie de interesse médico no BrasilRegistration of chromatic variation in Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello (1922:major species of medical interest in Brazil

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    Guilherme Carneiro Reckziegel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O Tityus serrulatus apresenta ampla distribuição no Brasil, sendo o escorpião responsável pela maior parte de acidentes potencialmente graves. Objetivo: Relatar a ocorrência de um exemplar com variação cromática de Tityus. Comunicação: Foi capturada uma fêmea do escorpião Tityus serrulatus, com variação cromática no Estado de Minas Gerais, Município do Prata, Bairro Esperança (19°18’18.91”S; 48°55’3.62”O. Conclusão: É registrado o primeiro caso de variação cromática em T. serrulatus.

  8. Variação e mudança na expressão do dativo em comunidades rurais goianas e suas relações com as origens do Português Brasileiro

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    André Marques do Nascimento

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Investiga-se, neste trabalho, a regularidade subjacente à variação no uso de formas introdutoras de complementos dativos de verbos bitransitivos, em amostras de fala de comunidades rurais goianas. Busca-se, através do referencial teórico-metodológico da Sociolingüística Variacionista, verificar quais fatores lingüísticos e extralingüísticos que atuam na alternância entre as formas a~para~Ø para a expressão de conteúdo dativo, além de relacionar o fenômeno ao debate sobre as origens do português brasileiro.

  9. Variação sazonal, espacial e lunar do ictioplâncton e do microplástico nos diferentes habitats do estuário do Rio Goiana(Resex Acaú-Goiana PE/PB)

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, André Ricardo de Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Estuários são considerados ambientes importantes por promover refúgio, alimentação, reprodução e crescimento, além de servir como possíveis habitats de berçário para muitas espécies de peixes. Estudos sobre os padrões de movimento da comunidade ictioplanctônica dentro do ecossistema estuarino são de grande importância para entender como as espécies utilizam os recursos disponíveis para completar os seus ciclos de vida através das variações temporais e espaciais das diferentes f...

  10. Variações de normalidade e patologias bucais em crianças com deficiência, assistidas em um Centro Odontológico Especializado do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    França, Diurianne Caroline Campos [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    O conhecimento epidemiológico regionalizado das doenças bucais nas populações é essencial para um planejamento efetivo na prevenção destas doenças. No Brasil são poucas as pesquisas sobre etiologia e prevalência das lesões bucais em crianças com deficiências. Portanto, a proposta deste estudo clínico epidemiológico descritivo foi analisar as principais variações de normalidade e patologias bucais em 293 crianças com deficiência na faixa etária de zero a 12 anos de idade, atendidas em primeira...

  11. Variação sazonal no número de capturas de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Sturnira lilium (É. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1810 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae no estrato superior de um remanescente de Mata Atlântica no sul do Brasil

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    Fernando Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n3p131 O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a ocorrência de variações sazonais no número de captura de Artibeus lituratus e Sturnira lilium nos estratos superiores de remanescente de Mata Atlântica, no sul do Brasil. O estudo foi desenvolvido no município de Pedras Grandes, extremo sul de Santa Catarina. Os quirópteros foram capturados com redes de neblina, instaladas no dossel e sub-dossel. Para verificar se houve diferença no número de capturas entre as estações, utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado (χ2 com nível de significância de 0,05 e, quando necessário, qui-quadrados (χ2 parciais. Artibeus lituratus apresentou diferenças significativas entre as estações, com o maior número de capturas ocorrendo no outono. Em S. lilium, não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas. A variação sazonal observada para A. lituratus, pode estar relacionado a sua dieta baseada principalmente em frutos que apresentam variação sazonal em sua disponibilidade. Para S. lilium além da dieta, baseada principalmente em plantas que não apresentam variações sazonais na disponibilidade de frutos, a altimetria da área de estudo e suas variações de temperatura parecem também explicar a ausência de variação sazonal.

  12. Variações anuais na produção de frutos e sementes de Castanheira-do-Brasil (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl., Lecythidaceae em florestas nativas de Roraima

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    Helio Tonini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar as variações anuais na produção de frutos e sementes entre populações e indivíduos em castanhais nativos de Roraima. Os dados foram obtidos em cinco parcelas permanentes de 300 m x 300 m instaladas nos Municípios de Caracaraí e São João da Baliza. Nas parcelas permanentes, todas as castanheiras com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP superior ou igual a 10 cm foram identificadas, medidas e numeradas através de placas de alumínio presas aos fustes por pregos. Durante o período de queda dos frutos (março a julho, as árvores foram visitadas em duas ocasiões no meio e no final desse período, e os frutos contados, abertos e pesados com balança de gancho digital com precisão de 50 g. A produção de frutos e sementes varia entre populações e indivíduos e a maioria não produz frutos todos os anos. No ano de maior produção, um castanhal chega a produzir 52 vezes mais do que em anos de baixa. Nos locais estudados, a produção total concentra-se em um pequeno número de indivíduos com um ano de pico de produção (mast-year.

  13. Análise Empírica dos Impactos dos Accruals na Variação do Capital Circulante Líquido: um estudo no setor de siderurgia e metalurgia

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    Romualdo Douglas Colauto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo demonstra os impactos dos accruals na variação do capital circulante líquido em companhias abertas do setor de siderurgia e metalurgia. Para constatação de evidências empíricas, utilizou-se como população-alvo as Sociedades Anônimas Abertas apresentadas entre as 500 Maiores e Melhores Empresas, segundo critério da Revista Exame na edição de 2003. A amostra extraída da população foi do tipo intencional não probabilística, com 7 empresas representativas do setor de Siderurgia e Metalurgia. O estudo é delineado como descritivo utilizando-se as técnicas de cluster e intervalo interpercentil para categorizar os dados necessários para as inferências. Os resultados ajudam a melhorar qualidade da informação contábil ao mostrar que os accruals provocam alterações no resultado do período, mas não infl uenciam, simultaneamente, o fluxo financeiro das atividades operacionais das empresas. Coefi cientes de correlações entre o resultado contábil do período ajustado pelos accruals e a variação do capital circulante líquido não apresentaram homogeneidade nos setores observados, mas denotaram significância estatística.

  14. Calibração de sondas capacitivas, funções físico-hídricas e variação do armazenamento de água em um argissolo cultivado com palma forrageira

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    Jorge Torres de Araújo Primo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, realizar a calibração de três sondas capacitivas, visando a utilizá-las na definição de funções físico-hídricas e na análise da variação espacial e temporal do conteúdo (q e do armazenamento de água, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, cultivado com três clones de palma forrageira, no Semiárido pernambucano. O estudo foi executado numa área experimental situada em Serra Talhada, PE. Para isso, foi realizada a calibração de três sondas capacitivas, usando-se dados de densidade aparente do solo, de umidade gravimétrica e de frequências relativas, em cinco condições de umidade do solo. Aplicou-se o método do perfil instantâneo, para determinação do fluxo vertical de água, e do potencial matricial de água no solo. Em seguida, analisou-se a variação espaço-temporal do q e do armazenamento de água no solo. As medidas de frequência relativa das sondas capacitivas apresentaram elevada relação com os dados de q (R2 > 0,87. A partir do método do perfil instantâneo, foi possível determinar as funções da condutividade hidráulica e do potencial total de água no solo, em relação ao q, com elevados coeficientes de determinação (R2 > 0,91. Não houve diferenças significativas do q entre os clones de palma forrageira.

  15. Novos registros geográficos e variação na coloração de Dendropsophus pseudomeridianus (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Adriano Lima Silveira

    2011-06-01

    No presente trabalho são apresentados novos registros de Dendropsophus pseudomeridianus no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, obtidos através de amostragens em campo em diversas áreas de Mata Atlântica no estado. Também são apresentadas variações na coloração da espécie. Dendropsophus pseudomeridianus foi coletada em localidades da baixada litorânea no norte do Rio de Janeiro e na região metropolitana da capital, em localidades mais interioranas no noroeste do estado, na Serra do Desengano e no vale do Paraíba do Sul na divisa com Minas Gerais. A espécie foi encontrada em brejos em áreas de floresta estacional semidecidual e floresta ombrófila densa. Os novos registros fornecem uma ampliação significativa da distribuição geográfica conhecida de D. pseudomeridianus, preenchem lacunas dessa distribuição e evidenciam que a espécie é amplamente distribuída pelo estado. Os espécimes coletados exibiram variação na coloração, com dorso apresentando apenas pontuações e pequenas manchas marrons, barras oblíquas e mancha interocular ou extensa mancha em forma de “X”, e o lábio superior ornamentado com pontuações, barras ou manchas circulares de cor branca.

  16. Variação da microbiota natural e de pseudomonas aeruginosa em água mineral não carbonatada embalada em diferentes materiais durante o armazenamento a 30°c ± 1°c

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    Mirtha Nelly Uboldi Eiroa

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Garrafas de PVC, polipropileno e vidro adequadamente limpas e sanificadas foram enxaguadas e enchidas com água mineral de uma fonte localizada no município de Lindóia-SP, e a seguir armazenadas a 30°C ± 1°C. Foram enumerados os microrganismos heterotróficos totais nos meios Ágar Padrão para Contagem e Ágar R2A imediatamente após engarrafamento. A variação da contaminação foi seguida através de exames periódicos. A variação da população de Pseudomonas aeruginosa foi estudada inoculando garrafas contendo água mineral com uma suspensão de P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145 de maneira a se obter uma contaminação de aproximadamente 10² UFC/ml. A população da bactéria foi avaliada periodicamente durante o tempo de armazenamento usando o meio Ágar Pseudomonas P. Houve aumento da população dos microrganismos heterotróficos totais nos primeiros 30 dias de armazenamento para depois diminuir de maneira irregular e ficar aproximadamente constante até completar 6 meses de observação. As contagens de P. aeruginosa aumentaram sensivelmente nas 2 primeiras semanas de estocagem diminuindo ligeiramente a seguir até atingir níveis próximos ao inicial. Não foram constatadas diferenças entre os 3 tipos de materiais de embalagem comparados.

  17. A variação de preposições com verbo ir de movimento em comunidades rurais do semiárido baiano A variação de preposições com verbo ir de movimento em comunidades rurais do semiárido baiano

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    Hilmara Moura de JESUS

    2012-06-01

    ística Variacionista, o presente estudo é direcionado para descrever o fenômeno da variação que envolve as preposições a, para e em introduzidas pelo verbo ir de movimento e analisar os fatores condicionantes (linguísticos e sociolinguísticos do uso dessas preposições. Os resultados apontam indícios de uma mudança praticamente concluída, visto ter-se encontrado apenas seis ocorrências com a preposição a. Dentre as 582 ocorrências que constituem os corpora, destacam-se 418 realizações com a variante para (71% e 164 com a variante em (29%. O programa estatístico Goldvarb 2001 selecionou as variáveis grau de definitude do nome locativo, permanência no local, pessoa do discurso, comunidade, tempo verbal, sexo/gênero, escolaridade, (indeterminação do sujeito e narratividade do discurso como as determinantes na regência variável do verbo ir de movimento.

  18. Toxic essential oils. Part V: Behaviour modulating and toxic properties of thujones and thujone-containing essential oils of Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Genčić, Marija S; Stojanović, Nikola M; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Stojiljković, Nenad I

    2017-07-01

    Neurotoxic thujones (α- and β-diastereoisomers) are common constituents of plant essential oils. In this study, we employed a statistical approach to determine the contribution of thujones to the overall observed behaviour-modulating and toxic effects of essential oils (Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.) containing these monoterpene ketones. The data from three in vivo neuropharmacological tests on rats (open field, light-dark, and diazepam-induced sleep), and toxicity assays (brine shrimp, and antimicrobial activity against a panel of microorganisms), together with the data from detailed chemical analyses, were subjected to a multivariate statistical treatment to reveal the possible correlation(s) between the content of essential-oil constituents and the observed effects. The results strongly imply that the toxic and behaviour-modulating activity of the oils (hundreds of constituents) should not be associated exclusively with thujones. The statistical analyses pinpointed to a number of essential-oil constituents other than thujones that demonstrated a clear correlation with either the toxicity, antimicrobial effect or the activity on CNS. Thus, in addition to the thujone content, the amount and toxicity of other constituents should be taken into consideration when making risk assessment and determining the regulatory status of plants in food and medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A scanning electron microscopy study of early development in vitro of Contracaecum multipapillatum s.l. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from a brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) from the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Fernández, Dolores; Valles-Vega, Isabel; Hernández-Trujillo, Sergio; Adroher, Francisco Javier; Benítez, Rocío

    2017-10-01

    Eggs obtained from the uteri of female nematodes, genetically identified as Contracaecum multipapillatum s.l., found in a brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) from Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California, Mexico, were used to study the early developmental stages of this anisakid by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Egg dimensions were approximately 54 × 45 μm measured by SEM. Observation of the eggs revealed an outer surface of fibrous appearance. The newly hatched larvae were ensheathed and highly motile. Observation with SEM showed that the sheaths of the larvae were striated and revealed an excretory pore and a cleft near the anterior end of the sheath, presumably to facilitate the opening of the sheath for the emergence of the larva. The hatched larvae were placed in nutritive culture medium, where they grew within their sheath, some exsheathing completely 2 weeks later. The surface patterns of the sheath and the cuticle of the exsheathed larvae were clearly different. Although they did not moult during culture, SEM revealed a morphology typical of third-stage larvae of Contracaecum from fish, as previously observed by optical microscopy. Thus, we suggest that newly hatched larvae from eggs of C. multipapillatum are third larval stage but with sheath of the second larval stage, as occuring in other anisakids.

  20. Influência da variação da liquidez na precificação de ativos: análise em painel do mercado brasileiro no período de janeiro de 2000 a junho de 2008

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    Kelmara Mendes Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A influência da liquidez para o retorno dos ativos vem sendo amplamente pesquisada nos últimos anos, tanto do ponto de vista dos ativos individuais quanto do ponto de vista da liquidez de mercado. Este trabalho tem por objetivo principal avaliar a influência da variação da liquidez na precificação das ações. Como medidas de liquidez foram utilizadas as variações na quantidade de títulos, na quantidade de negócios e no volume financeiro, bem como estas variáveis ponderadas pelo índice Bovespa e também estas variáveis defasadas. A amostra é composta pelas ações negociadas na Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo. Foram coletados dados mensais para o período de janeiro de 2000 a junho de 2008. Os resultados mostraram que o retorno dos ativos é influenciado positivamente pelo retorno do índice Bovespa e pelas variações de liquidez. Geralmente, são as empresas com menores níveis de liquidez que apresentam as maiores variações positivas da própria liquidez e, consequentemente, terão retornos mais elevados.

  1. Determinação da variação da viscosidade intrínseca do poli (tereftalato de etileno de embalagens Determination of intrinsic viscosity variation for polyethyelene terephthalate's bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro D. Mancini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de embalagens de poli(tereftalato de etileno -PET- para acondicionamento de refrigerantes, água mineral, sucos concentrados e óleos comestíveis apresenta polímeros de diferentes tipos, que foram desenvolvidos para personalizar o atendimento a clientes desejosos de propriedades melhores e mais específicas, principalmente em termos de massa molar. No caso do PET, assim como na indústria da reciclagem do polímero, o ensaio de viscosidade intrínseca é muito usado para determinar a massa molar. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de viscosidade intrínseca de PET advindo de embalagens de várias marcas de refrigerantes, sucos e óleos de soja. Amostras de cada embalagem foram dissolvidas em solução de fenol-tetracloroetano (60:40 em peso e o fluxo das mesmas em um viscosímetro Cannon-Fenske a 30 °C para medir a viscosidade relativa, que foi convertido para viscosidade intrínseca. Os resultados mostraram uma variação no valor da propriedade conforme se variava o volume, tipo e a marca do produto envasado. Para as 21 amostras analisadas, os resultados variaram de 0,70 a 0,79 dL/g. Portanto, uma melhor seleção das embalagens pode ajudar os recicladores na obtenção de produtos melhores, com menor variação na massa molar. Os valores de densidade obtidos apresentaram uma pequena variação, que torna-se maior quando transformados em cristalinidade.The market of polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles presents polymers of different types, which have been developed in order to provide the client with products with improved properties, mainly in respect of molar mass. In the case of PET, as well as in the recycling industry of this polymer, the test of intrinsic viscosity is widely used to determine molar mass. This study presents the results of intrinsic viscosity and density for PET bottles of soft-drinks, juices and soy-bean oils. Samples of each bottle were dissolved in 60-40 phenol-tetrachloroethane solution and flowed

  2. Updating the ranking of the coefficients of variation from maize experiments=Atualização da proposta de classificação dos coeficientes de variação para a cultura do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Moreira Rezende

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to update the ranking of the coefficients of variation (CVs from maize experiments and evaluate the accuracy of the data from the latest Brazilian publications. We rank-ordered the CVs for grain yield, plant and ear heights, number of ears per plant, and weight of commercial ears, except for the weight of 100 grains. The data were obtained from 143 scientific papers published from 2005 to 2010. The classification was based on the average (m and standard deviation (SD and the CVs were ranked as low, intermediate, high and very high. All of the random variables had the CVs normally distributed. For most of the traits, we observed a large difference between the ranks from Scapim and Pimentel Gomes. In summary, the coefficients of variation have to be classified for each variable, significant improvement occurred in the accuracy of the national maize experiments in the last 15 years, and they still require periodic updating.O objetivo desse trabalho foi fazer a atualização na proposta de classificação dos coeficientes de variação (CV para a cultura do milho e avaliar a qualidade dos dados dos artigos mais recentes publicados no Brasil. Os CV das diferentes variáveis aleatórias foram obtidos a partir da consulta de 143 artigos científicos publicados de 2005 e 2010. As faixas de classificação dos (CV foram baseadas na média (m e no desvio-padrão (DP da seguinte forma: baixo; médio; alto; muito alto. Todos os cv das variáveis aleatórias apresentaram distribuição normal. Foi possível observar que para a maioria dos caracteres avaliados houve uma grande diferença entre a classificação proposta e a de Pimentel-Gomes. Houve melhoria significativa na qualidade experimental na cultura do milho para os principais caracteres produtividade de grãos, alturas de planta e espiga, número de espigas por planta e peso de espigas comerciais, sendo a única exceção o peso de 100 grãos. Conclui-se que as faixas

  3. Variações do ciclo anual da temperatura da superfície do mar no pacífico tropical Annual cycle variations of sea surface temperature in the tropical pacific

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    Renato Orrú Pedroso Gerólamo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Variações do ciclo anual da Temperatura da Superfície do Mar (TSM do Pacífico Tropical entre 20ºN e 20ºS, para o período de 1854 a 2006, foram estudadas usando análises de ondaletas. O estudo mostrou que o ciclo anual, considerando-se a variância para em torno de 1 ano, de TSM possui variabilidade interanual e interdecenal. Existem indicações de que a maior parte das variações interanuais no ciclo anual de TSM das áreas do hemisfério Norte (HN e do hemisfério Sul (HS, está relacionada ao ciclo do El Niño-Oscilação Sul (ENOS. A maioria dos picos da Média por Escalas da Potência localizada da ondaleta (MEPO para a escala entre 0,7 e 1,2 anos, para as áreas de ambos os hemisférios, coincide com extremos do ENOS. Os Espectros da Potência Global (EPGs mostraram variância máxima do ciclo anual de TSM entre 120ºE e 140ºE na faixa do HN (entre equador e 20ºN, e variância crescente da linha da data para leste com o máximo entre 100ºW e 80ºW na faixa do HS (entre equador e 20ºS. Portanto, o ciclo anual de TSM apresenta variações entre os HN e HS com a máxima variância localizando-se no hemisfério leste para o HN e no hemisfério oeste para o HS.Annual cycle variations of the sea surface temperature (SST in the Tropical Pacific Ocean between 20ºN and 20ºS for the period from 1854 to 2006 were studied using wavelet analysis. The study showed that the SST annual cycle, considered the variance around 1 year, contains interannual and interdecadal variabilities. There are indications that most of the SST annual cycle variations at Northern Hemisphere (NH and at Southern Hemisphere (SH areas is related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO cycle. Most peaks of the localized Scale Average Power (SAP for the 0.7-1.2 year scale for the areas on both hemispheres coincides with ENSO extremes. The Wavelet Power Spectra (WPS shows maximum variance of the SST annual cycle between 120ºE and 140ºE for the northern

  4. Novo método de classificação de coeficientes de variação para a cultura do arroz de terras altas A new method of variation coefficient classification for upland rice crop

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    Nilce Helena de Araújo Diniz Costa

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação de coeficientes de variação (CV como medida de precisão em experimentos tem sido realizada em diversas culturas, com alguns trabalhos propondo métodos para obtenção de faixas de classificação de CV, e outros trabalhos definindo as faixas de classificação, sempre com base na média e no desvio-padrão dos CVs, e pressupondo que os mesmos têm distribuição normal, o que nem sempre é verdadeiro. Este trabalho teve por objetivo propor um método para definir faixas de classificação de CV, independentemente da distribuição que possam apresentar; o método é baseado no uso da mediana (Md e do pseudo-sigma (PS. Utilizaramse, para este estudo, dados de 110 experimentos com arroz de terras altas, delineados em blocos completos casualizados, blocos incompletos generalizados, e reticulados quadrados, selecionandose os caracteres relacionados às doenças, ao acamamento, ao rendimento de grãos e a alguns componentes da produção. Foram construídas faixas de classificação de CV de cada caráter estudado, de forma geral e considerando o delineamento experimental empregado em experimentos com 30 a 100 tratamentos. O método proposto é eficiente para a definição de faixas dos CVs, independentemente de sua distribuição, e a variação nos valores do CV evidencia a importância de se considerar não só a variável em estudo, mas também o delineamento experimental utilizado. Experimentos que apresentaram menores CVs foram aqueles em que se empregaram os Delineamentos de Blocos Incompletos. As variáveis relacionadas às doenças e ao acamamento apresentam maiores coeficientes de variação.The assessment of coefficients of variation (CV as a measure of precision in experiments has been done for various crops, and some researchers have proposed a methodology to get classification bands of CV, and others defining the classification bands itself; based on the mean and on the standard deviation of the CV, assuming that they

  5. Variação do potencial total da água em uma toposseqüência de solos de tabuleiro, durante dois anos Total water potential variation in a soil table land topsequence, during two years

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    Luciano da Silva Souza

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quinzenalmente, em 1996 e 1997, a variação do potencial total da água ao longo do tempo, em solos de uma toposseqüência de tabuleiro localizada em Sapeaçu, BA. Esta toposseqüência tinha as seguintes características: a comprimento de 190 m; b declividade média de 0,097 m m-1; c cultivo com laranja; d Latossolo Amarelo argissólico coeso, no terço superior; e Argissolo Amarelo coeso, no terço médio; f Argissolo Acinzentado não coeso, no terço inferior. A umidade do solo foi medida com sonda de nêutrons, nas profundidades de 0,30, 0,70, 1,10 e 1,50 m. Com base nas respectivas curvas de retenção, obteve-se o potencial matricial e, em seguida, o potencial total da água, para cada solo, profundidade e tempo. A camada coesa dificulta o fluxo de água no solo, tanto no processo de molhamento como no de secamento. Em conseqüência, o potencial total da água em solos com camada coesa varia bruscamente na camada mais superficial, ao longo do tempo, e mais lentamente nas camadas mais profundas. Em solo não coeso, a variação brusca do potencial ocorre apenas na camada mais superficial. O limite de tensão de água no solo de -1.500 kPa como sendo o ponto de murchamento permanente não se aplica à cultura dos citros.The objective of this work was to evaluate, fortnightly, during 1996/1997, the total soil water potential variation in a tableland topsequence in Sapeaçu county, BA, Brazil. This topsequence had the following characteristics: a length of 190 m; b slope of 0.097 m m-1; c orange as growing crop; d the upper third with a cohesive argisolic Yellow Latosol; e the middle third with a cohesive Yellow Argisol; and f the lower third with a non-cohesive Gray Argisol. Soil water was estimated by neutron probe at depths of0.30, 0.70, 1.10, and 1.50 m. Based on water retention curves, matric potential and, in sequence, total soil water potential were determined, for each soil and depth in

  6. Variação no Índice de Massa Corporal em Usuárias de Terapia de Reposição Hormonal Variations in the Body Mass Index in Users of Hormone Replacement Therapy

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    José Alaércio de Toledo Lima-Junior

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos da terapia de reposição hormonal sobre o índice de massa corporal de mulheres na pós-menopausa. Casuística e Métodos: foram avaliadas retrospectivamente, por um período de três anos, 166 usuárias e 136 não-usuárias de reposição hormonal, acompanhadas no Ambulatório de Menopausa do Centro de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, avaliando-se a variação desse parâmetro ao final de cada ano em relação ao inicial. A análise dos dados foi realizada usando-se o testechi², o teste t de Student e o teste de Mann-Whitney para amostras independentes. Resultados: não foram observadas variações significativas no índice de massa corporal, quando se compararam as usuárias e não-usuárias durante os três anos de observação. Conclusão: a terapia de reposição hormonal não produziu alterações no índice de massa corporal em mulheres adequadamente acompanhadas durante o seu uso.Purpose: to evaluate the effects of hormone replacement therapy on the body mass index of postmenopausal women. Methods: for this purpose, 166 users and 136 non-users of hormone replacement were evaluated retrospectively during a period of three years. All women were assisted at the Menopause Outpatient Clinic of CAISM - UNICAMP, where the variations in this parameter were evaluated at the end of each year in relation to the initial parameters. The data analysis was performed through chi² test, Student's t test, and Mann-Whitney test. Results: we observed no significant variations in the body mass index, when comparing users and non-users during the three years of observation. Conclusion: hormone replacement therapy did not produce changes in this parameter in women properly assisted during its use.

  7. Variação da contagem de células somáticas em vacas leiteiras de acordo com patógenos da mastite Somatic cell counts variation in dairy cows according to mastitis pathogens

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    G.N. Souza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de patógenos da mastite sobre a contagem de células somáticas (CCS em leite. Foram coletadas 3.987 amostras de leite de 2.657 animais oriundos de 24 rebanhos leiteiros localizados nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Minas Gerais. As amostras de leite foram usadas para CCS e identificação de patógenos da mastite. Estatísticas descritivas, teste T para amostras independentes e modelo linear generalizado foram usados para análise dos dados. O modelo linear generalizado identificou os efeitos de rebanho, animal dentro de rebanho, ordem de parto, estação do ano e infecção intramamária causada por Streptococcus agalactiae e Streptococcus spp. que não S. agalactiae como significativos na variação da CCS. O efeito de animal dentro de rebanho foi maior que o efeito de rebanho. S. agalactiae foi o patógeno responsável pelo maior aumento da CCS em vacas e apresentou em média 1.520.000 células/mL. Foi observado efeito específico dos patógenos na variação da CCS.The influence of mastitis pathogens on variation of milk somatic cell count (SCC was evaluated. Three thousand nine hundred eighty-seven milk samples were colected from 2,657 dairy cows in 24 herds located in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. The milk samples were used to SCC and identification of mastitis pathogens. Descriptive statistics, T test for independent samples, and generalized linear model were used to data analysis. The generalized linear model identified the effects of herd, animal within herd, parity, year season, intramammary infection, and infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus spp. except S. agalactiae as significant on SCC variation. The effect of animal within herd was higher than the effect of herd. S. agalactiae was the pathogen responsible for higher SCC increasing and presented the average of 1,520,000 cells/mL. The specific effect on SCC variation was observed in the study.

  8. Instituições participativas e desenho institucional: algumas considerações sobre a variação da participação no Brasil democrático

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    Leonardo Avritzer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor analisa as instituições participativas (orçamentos participativos, conselhos de políticas e planos diretores municipais surgidas na democracia brasileira recente e aponta para suas diferenças devidas a desenhos institucionais diferenciados. Estes variam na maneira como a participação se organiza; na maneira como o Estado se relaciona com a participação e na maneira como a legislação exige do governo a implementação ou não da participação e o autor mostra esta variação através da análise destas práticas em diferentes cidades brasileiras (Porto Alegre, São Paulo, Belo Horizonte e Salvador. A análise dos diferentes desenhos participativos mostra que o orçamento participativo é a prática mais democratizante, mas também a mais vulnerável à vontade da sociedade política; indica ainda a importância da variação do contexto para a efetividade da participação.The author analyses the participative institutions (participative budgets, local councils of politics and managing plans emerged in the recent Brazilian democracy and he points to their differences due the distinct institutional designs. These institutions vary in the way as the participation is organized; in the way as the State is related to the participation and in the way the law imposes the government to adopt participative formula. The author shows this variation in different Brazilian cities (Porto Alegre, São Paulo, Belo Horizonte e Salvador and the analysis shows that the participative budget is the more democratic but also the most vulnerable form that suffers the pressure of political society. The analysis also indicates the importance of the context variation for the effectiveness of the participation.

  9. Genetic variations among passion fruit species using rapd markers Variação genética entre espécies de maracujá utilizando marcadores rapd

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    Ana Paula de Andrade Aukar

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been evaluated the genetic variability through the use of RAPD molecular markers on the following passionflower species: Passiflora amethystina, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. coccinea, P. serrato digitata, P. foetida, P. maliformis, P. alata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. macrocarpa, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. suberosa, P. ligularis, P. capsularis, P. edulis Sims and its botanical variety P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. In this research work, the analyses of the random amplified polymorphic DNA products (RAPD were employed to estimate the genetic diversity and the taxonomic linkage within the species above. The total of 21 primers were used in this study which generated 270 different polymorphic products. It was possible to detect that the Passiflora species had shown a similarity of 17,3%, and between Passiflora edulis Sims and Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa a similarity of 34,35% has been found. The rate of similarity within edulis specie is low, making it clear that a large variability between the yellow and the purple forms exists.Foram avaliadas as variações genéticas através de marcadores moleculares RAPD, as seguintes espécies de maracujá: Passiflora amethystina, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. coccinea, P. serrato digitata, P. foetida, P. maliformis, P. alata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. macrocarpa, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. suberosa, P. ligularis, P. capsularis, P. edulis Sims e sua variedade botânica P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. Neste estudo, a análise dos produtos da amplificação ao acaso do DNA polimórfico (RAPD foi usada para estimar a diversidade genética e as relações taxonômicas entre as espécies. Foram utilizados 21 "primers", que produziram um total de 270 bandas polimórficas. Verificou-se que as espécies de Passiflora apresentaram uma média de similaridade de 17,3%, e entre Passiflora edulis Sims e Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa, de 34,35%. Pode-se perceber que o valor de

  10. Significados que construyen niños, padres de familia y docentes vinculados a varias instituciones escolares de la ciudad de Bogotá sobre infancia, familia y escuela en el marco de la globalización

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    Teresita Bernal Romero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación estuvo dirigida a indagar sobre los significados construidos por niños, padres de familia y profesores acerca de la infancia, la familia y la escuela en el contexto de la globalización. Se aplicó una encuesta a un grupo de 73 niños y niñas, 52 padres de familia y 52 docentes que se encontraban vinculados a varias instituciones escolares de la ciudad de Bogotá. Los resultados mostraron convergencias y divergencias entre los tres grupos de participantes, en cuanto a la forma de significar la infancia y las interacciones escolares y familiares en la actualidad. En términos generales, se observó que los niños y, en menor grado, los padres de familia tienden a una valoración positiva de los cambios asociados con la globalización, mientras que los profesores se inclinan hacia posturas más críticas. El estrato socioeconómico sirvió como variable moderadora en algunos de los significados expresados por los tres grupos de participantes en el estudio. Se discute sobre las implicaciones de estos resultados, haciendo especial énfasis en las demandas y retos que afronta la escuela en el marco de la globalización.

  11. Avaliação cronológica da variação no volume globular sanguíneo de bovinos leiteiros Cronological evaluation of variation in packed cell volume on dairy cattle

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    Wilmar Sachetin Marçal

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores avaliaram a variação no volume globular sangüíneo de 321 bovinos da raça Holandês preta e branca, sadios e criados em granjas leiteiras no Estado de São Paulo. Todos os animais trabalhados na presente pesquisa eram sadios, não reagentes ao vírus da Leucose Bovina, livres de hemoparasitas, brucelose e tuberculose. O volume globular sangüíneo foi efetuado através do método do hematócrito com tubos capilares. Os resultados mostram haver influência da idade sobre o volume globular sangüíneo, com valores médios encontrados de 30,12 ± 2,72%.The packet cell volume was evaluated by the authors in 321 healthy female Holstein cattle raised at Campinas dairy region. São Paulo State. All the animais used in this assay were healthy and free of Leucosis, Tuberculosis, Brucellosis and blood parasites. The packed cell volume has been studied by method of hematocrit with capilary tubos. The results showed an influence of age on packed cell volume with average reference values of 30.12 ± 2.72%.

  12. Efeito da variação do consumo de cimento em argamassas de revestimento produzidas com base nos conceitos de mobilidade e empacotamento de partículas

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    Marcel Hark Maciel

    Full Text Available Resumo A redução do consumo de cimento na composição de argamassas de revestimento é uma alternativa para a diminuição do impacto ambiental provocado na cadeia de produção do ligante. A utilização de materiais cimentícios suplementares (supplementary cementitious materials - SCM e a dosagem com base nos conceitos de empacotamento e mobilidade de partículas são estratégias que podem resultar nas propriedades projetadas tanto no estado fresco quanto endurecido. O objetivo deste trabalho foi ilustrar a influência da alteração no consumo de ligante nas propriedades no estado fresco e endurecido de argamassas de revestimento mantendo-se constante a distribuição de tamanho de partículas, o que resultou em porosidade de empacotamento com insignificante variação. O consumo de cimento variou de 8% a 16% em massa, com adição de filler calcário como SCM, sendo que a consistência foi a mesma devido à alteração dos teores de água nas argamassas. Os resultados indicaram que a redução no consumo de cimento afeta negativamente as propriedades no estado endurecido, mas ainda assim atendem às exigências estabelecidas para esse tipo de revestimento.

  13. A elevação das vogais pertônicas no português do Brasil: processo(s de variação estável

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    Callou, Dinah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresenta-se a análise, em tempo aparente e em tempo real, da harmonização vocálica no Rio de Janeiro, realizada segundo o modelo laboviano. Demonstra-se que não se trata, apesar do baixo percentual de aplicação, de um caso de perda de regra, mas de uma variação estável, indicativa de faixa etária. Salienta-se a necessidade de diferençar regras de assimilação fonológica e de assimilação acústica, assim como de pesquisa experimental de produção e percepção, para verificar que traço opõe os fonemas /u/e/o/, para uma melhor compreensão do comportamento assimétrico de /i/e/u/ como propulsores do processo de elevação das vogais médias pretônicas

  14. Hospital clinical trial: Homeopathy (Agraphis nutans 5CH, Thuya occidentalis 5CH, Kalium muriaticum 9CH and Arsenicum iodatum 9CH) as adjuvant, in children with otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero-Escalas, M F; Jimenez-Antolin, J; Lassaletta, L; Diaz-Saez, G; Gavilán, J

    2016-09-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) is the most common cause of paediatric hearing loss. No single treatment has proved its effectiveness. There is a lack of evidence-based medicine studies in the area of homeopathy. A prospective randomized, double blinded interventional placebo control study was conducted. Patients, from 2 months to 12 years, with OME diagnosed by pneumatic otoscopy (PNO) and tympanometry, were randomized into two groups. Both groups received aerosol therapy (mucolytics and corticosteroids). In addition, the experimental group (EG) received homeopathy (Agraphis nutans 5CH, Thuya Occidentalis 5CH, Kalium muriaticum 9CH and Arsenicum iodatum), and the placebo group (PG) placebo, both of them for 3 months. Patients were evaluated by PNO examination and tympanometry at baseline, at 45 and 90 days. 97 patients were enrolled. In the EG, 61.9% of individuals were cured (PNO went from negative in the 1st visit to positive in the 3rd visit) compared with 56.8% of patients treated with placebo. 4.8% of patients in the EG suffered a recurrence (positive PNO in the 2nd visit changed to negative in the 3rd visit) while 11.4% did in the PG. No significant difference was found. Adverse events were distributed similarly, except in the case of upper respiratory tract infections, which were less frequent in EG (3 vs. 13, p: 0.009). The homeopathic scheme used as adjuvant treatment cannot be claimed to be an effective treatment in children with OME. EUDRACT number: 2011-006086-17, PROTOCOL code: 55005646. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biología del Trips Frankliniella Occidentalis (Pegande (Thysanoptera: thripidae sobre Crisantemo Chrysanthemum morifolium l. bajo condiciones de laboratorio Developmentaland reproductive biology of Frankliniella Occidentslis (Pegande (Thysanoptera: thripidae on Chrysanthemum

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    Cardenas Estrella

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available La especie Frankliniella occidentalis (Pegande se encontró causando daño a flores de crisantemo en una empresa de la
    Sabana de Bogotá. Se estudió su biología bajo condiciones de laboratorio (24,31 ± 2,50C y 66,36 ± 12% H.R.. El rango de
    duración en días de su ciclo de vida fue: huevo 4-5, ninfa de primer instar 3-4, ninfa de segundo instar 5-8, prepupa 4-6, pupa 3-5 y los adultos alcanzaron una longevidad entre 60 y 121 días. Esta especie presentó partenogénesis de tipo arrenotoquia; de las hembras fecundadas se obtuvo una generación
    de 87,5% hembras y 12% machos. La fecundidad por partenogénesis fue de 325,7 huevos por hembra y la sexual de
    303,1 huevos por hembra.F. occidentelis (Pegande was found to be an important pest in chrysanthemum green houses at the Bogotá Plateau.
    We studied its biology under lab conditions (24 ± 2.50C and 66 ± 12% R.H.. Its life cycle was egg 4-5 days, first instar nymph 3-4 days, second instar nymph 5-3 day prepupa 4-6 days, pupa 3-5 days and the adults had a longevity between 60 and 121
    days. Females reproduce by parthenogenesis (Arrhenotoky in the absence of males. Fertilized females produced 87.5% females and 12% males. Fecundity of parthenogenetic females was 325.7 eggs per female. Fecundity of sexually reproduced females was 303.1 eggs per female.

  16. Small relief shape variations influence spatial variability of soil chemical attributes Pequenas variações das formas de relevo influenciam a variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos do solo

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    Zigomar Menezes de Souza

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Soils with small variations in relief and under the same management system present differentiated spatial variabilities of their attributes. This variability is a function of soil position in the landscape, even if the relief has little expression. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of relief shape and depth on spatial variability of soil chemical attributes in a Typic Hapludox cultivated with sugar cane at two landscape compartments. Soil samples were collected in the intercrossing points of a grid, in the traffic line, at 0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m depths, comprising a set of 100 georeferenced points. The spatial variabilities of pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, cation exchange capacity and base saturation were quantified. Small relief shape variations lead to differentiated variability in soil chemical attributes as indicated by the dependence on pedoform found for chemical attributes at both 0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m depths. Because of the higher variability, it is advisable to collect large number of samples in areas with concave and convex shapes. Combining relief shapes and geostatistics allows the determination of areas with different spatial variability for soil chemical attributes.Solos submetidos ao mesmo sistema de manejo em locais com pequena variação de relevo, manifestam variabilidade espacial diferenciada de seus atributos. Esta variabilidade é condicionada pela posição dos solos na paisagem ou no declive, mesmo que o relevo seja de pequena expressão. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da forma do relevo na variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos em um latossolo cultivado com cana-de-açúcar em dois compartimentos da paisagem. Os solos foram amostrados nos pontos de cruzamento de uma malha, com intervalos regulares de 10 m, perfazendo um total de 100 pontos, nas profundidades de 0-0,2 m e 0,6-0,8 m. Foi avaliado a variabilidade espacial do pH, fósforo (P, potássio (K, cálcio (Ca, magnésio (Mg, acidez

  17. Variação morfológica de pegadas de roedores arborícolas e cursoriais do Cerrado Footprint morphological variation of arboreal and cursorial rodents of the Cerrado

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    Nícholas F. de Camargo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que os roedores possuem diversas formas de locomoção, o presente estudo apresenta e discute variações na forma das pegadas anteriores e posteriores de sete espécies [Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887, Necromys lasiurus (Lund, 1840, Oecomys bicolor (Tomes, 1860, Oecomys concolor (Wagner, 1845, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814 e Rhipidomys macrurus (Gervais, 1855], utilizando técnicas de morfometria geométrica e análises discriminantes. As variáveis de forma das pegadas foram relacionadas com a topologia filogenética e os modos de locomoção das espécies para verificar a influência de fatores históricos e ecológicos na morfologia das pegadas. A forma das pegadas dos roedores arborícolas (curtas e largas foi claramente distinta dos cursoriais (estreitas e alongadas. As reclassificações das pegadas anteriores (Kappa = 0,72 e posteriores (Kappa = 0,88 das espécies foram consideradas substanciais e quase perfeitas, respectivamente. As pegadas posteriores discriminaram melhor as espécies além de indicarem os níveis de atividade arborícola e cursorial dos roedores. Efeitos alométricos foram observados nas análises das pegadas anteriores (13% e posteriores (3%. O modo de locomoção explicou 90,3% da variação na forma nas pegadas dos roedores (p = 0,02, indicando convergência nos padrões morfológicos nas pegadas das espécies de roedores arborícolas e cursoriais.Considering that species of rodents have different means of locomotion, this study presents and discusses variations on the anterior and posterior footprints shape of seven species [Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887, Necromys lasiurus (Lund, 1840, Oecomys bicolor (Tomes, 1860, Oecomys concolor (Wagner, 1845, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814 and Rhipidomys macrurus (Gervais, 1855], using geometric morphometrics and discriminant analyses. Shape variables were related to phylogenetic

  18. Seasonal growth variation of peach palms cultivated in containers under subtropical conditions Variação estacional do crescimento em pupunheiras cultivadas em recipientes em condição subtropical

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    Maria Luiza Sant'Anna Tucci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is grown in the São Paulo State, Brazil, under climate seasonal variation conditions, mainly temperature and rainfal with possible effects on plant physiology. Recently, due to a higher interest in carrying out physiological experiments on the species, there has been a requirement for more controlled experimental conditions. Therefore, with the aim of studying the seasonal variation of peach palm growth for heart-of-palm production, as well as the possibility of growing them until harvest in pots, for future utilization in physiological experiments, this work was carried out in Campinas, SP, Brazil, with 40 spineless peach palms. One year after seed germination, seedlings were transplanted to 80 L plastic pots, spaced 2 x 1 m, arranged in four rows of ten plants. All plants had vegetative growth evaluated monthly by measurements of main stem height, number of functional leaves, number of offshoots and length of leaf raquis. Seasonal variations were observed in terms of height and diameter growth as well as raquis length of the youngest leaf and in the evolution of the number of leaves. After two years, plants had an average height of 230 cm, six functional leaves and 11.7 offshoots. Positive correlations (P A pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth é cultivada no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, sob condições de variação estacional do clima, particularmente temperatura e precipitação pluviométrica, com possíveis efeitos na fisiologia das plantas. Recentemente, devido ao crescente interesse em se realizar experimentos sobre a fisiologia da espécie, tem havido necessidade de cultivá-la sob condições experimentais mais controladas. Com o objetivo de estudar a variação estacional do crescimento de pupunheiras, bem como a possibilidade de cultivá-las em recipientes até a colheita, para a realização de futuros experimentos fisiológicos, foi executado este trabalho, em Campinas, SP, com 40 pupunheiras

  19. Variação de terpenos em Hyptis suaveolens e seu papel na defesa contra herbívoros The role of terpene variation in Hyptis suaveolens in the defense against herbivores

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    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Acompanhou-se o desenvolvimento de populações de Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit. (Labiatae em três localidades paulistas: Horto Florestal de Sumaré, Câmpus da UNICAMP (Campinas e Fazenda Santa Genebra (Distrito de Barão Geraldo, Campinas, em 1981-83. Em cada local, escolheu-se uma população exposta à luz e outra, à sombra, com o objetivo de verificar em que fase do ciclo de vida as populações se tornavam mais suscetíveis ao ataque de herbívoros; de estimar a abundância dos herbívoros naturais e seus efeitos nas populações e a conseqüência da variação química dos monoterpenos que nelas ocorrem sobre os herbívoros. As populações tornavam-se mais suscetíveis aos herbívoros no período que antecedia a floração. Não se observou forte ataque de herbívoros nessa fase, embora se apresentassem em maior densidade. Os resultados sugerem que a variação na composição química possa afetar o desenvolvimento de herbívoros generalistas. No entanto, o Pyrausta insignatalis Guenée (Lep.-Pyralidae-Pyraustinae, provavelmente bem adaptado à planta, parece não ter sido afetado por esses terpenos. Não se detectaram diferenças entre populações expostas ao sol ou à sombra. Tais resultados apóiam a idéia de que a variabilidade química dentro de populações vegetais é importante estratégia de defesa contra herbívoros, dificultando-lhes a especialização.Populations of Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit. (Labiatae were accompanied during their development in three sites: Horto Florestal de Sumaré, Campus of UNICAMP (Campinas, and Fazenda Santa Genebra (Distrito de Barão Geraldo, Campinas, all in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1981 through 1983. At each site, a population exposed to full sunlight and another in the shade were studied. The objective was to evaluate, during plant development, the period when they were more susceptible to attack by herbivores; to consider the abundance of herbivores, and the role of variation

  20. Variações sazonais da migração de Myzus persicaeem Campinas nos anos de 1967 a 1969 Seazonal variation of Myzus persicae migrations at Campinas, during the years of 1967 to 1969

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    C. L. Costa

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar as variações sazonais do número de migrantes de Myzus persicae (Sulz. em Campinas, foram utilizadas armadilhas de dois tipos, para a sua coleta: a de sucção e a de água. Fêmeas vivíparas, partenogenéticas, aladas, da espécie, foram coletadas em todas as semanas durante os anos de 1967, 1968 e 1969. A presença de alguns raros machos foi também registrada. A armadilha de água coletou sempre maior número de indivíduos do que a de sucção, durante todo o período de observações. Entretanto, as curvas que representam as variações semanais e mensais do número de migrantes da espécie, construídas com as amostras obtidas por ambos os tipos de armadilhas, têm a mesma forma. As maiores migrações se deram nos meses de maio a setembro. A proporção de exemplares de M. persicae em relação ao total das espécies coletadas foi sempre maior na armadilha de água do que na de sucção.A study was made of the seazonal variations in the numbers of migrants of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer at Campinas, State of São Paulo, by sampling aerial populations from 1967 through 1969, with a suction trap and a yellow water trap. Weekly catches were recorded for both traps and summed up to give month totals. Alate viviparous parthenogenetic females of Myzus persicae were caught every week of the years of 1967 to 1969. This is an evidence that in the Campinas region (22° 50' S there was no limiting factor to suppress parthenogenetic reproduction and inhibit flight during the period of observations. However, the trapping of males seems to indicate that an holocyclic multiplication of Myzus persicae may also exist. Where the oviparous female or other morphs of the species does also accur at Campinas, is not known. The period when most of migration took place as revealed by samples taken by both traps occurred from May to September. The yellow water trap caught more Myzus persicae than the suction trap, but curves of annual