WorldWideScience

Sample records for strix varia expanded

  1. Using detection dogs to conduct simultaneous surveys of northern spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina and barred owls (Strix varia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K Wasser

    Full Text Available State and federal actions to conserve northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina habitat are largely initiated by establishing habitat occupancy. Northern spotted owl occupancy is typically assessed by eliciting their response to simulated conspecific vocalizations. However, proximity of barred owls (Strix varia-a significant threat to northern spotted owls-can suppress northern spotted owl responsiveness to vocalization surveys and hence their probability of detection. We developed a survey method to simultaneously detect both species that does not require vocalization. Detection dogs (Canis familiaris located owl pellets accumulated under roost sites, within search areas selected using habitat association maps. We compared success of detection dog surveys to vocalization surveys slightly modified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Draft 2010 Survey Protocol. Seventeen 2 km × 2 km polygons were each surveyed multiple times in an area where northern spotted owls were known to nest prior to 1997 and barred owl density was thought to be low. Mitochondrial DNA was used to confirm species from pellets detected by dogs. Spotted owl and barred owl detection probabilities were significantly higher for dog than vocalization surveys. For spotted owls, this difference increased with number of site visits. Cumulative detection probabilities of northern spotted owls were 29% after session 1, 62% after session 2, and 87% after session 3 for dog surveys, compared to 25% after session 1, increasing to 59% by session 6 for vocalization surveys. Mean detection probability for barred owls was 20.1% for dog surveys and 7.3% for vocal surveys. Results suggest that detection dog surveys can complement vocalization surveys by providing a reliable method for establishing occupancy of both northern spotted and barred owl without requiring owl vocalization. This helps meet objectives of Recovery Actions 24 and 25 of the Revised Recovery Plan for the

  2. Determination of Gastrointestinal Transit Times in Barred Owls ( Strix varia ) by Contrast Fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Grayson A; Williams, Jackie M; Mans, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Contrast imaging studies are routinely performed in avian patients when an underlying abnormality of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is suspected. Fluoroscopy offers several advantages over traditional radiography and can be performed in conscious animals with minimal stress and restraint. Although birds of prey are commonly encountered as patients, little is known about GI transit times and contrast imaging studies in these species, especially owls. Owls are commonly encountered in zoological, educational, and wildlife settings. In this study, 12 adult barred owls ( Strix varia ) were gavage fed a 30% weight-by-volume barium suspension (25 mL/kg body weight). Fluoroscopic exposures were recorded at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes after administration. Overall GI transit time and transit times of various GI organs were recorded. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) overall GI transit time was 60 minutes (IQR: 19-60 minutes) and ranged from 5-120 minutes. Ventricular and small intestinal contrast filling was rapid. Ventricular emptying was complete by a median of 60 minutes (IQR: 30-120 minutes; range: 30-240 minutes), whereas small intestinal emptying was not complete in 9/12 birds by 300 minutes. Median small intestinal contraction rate was 15 per minute (IQR: 13-16 minutes; range: 10-19 minutes). Median overall GI transit time in barred owls is more rapid than mean transit times reported for psittacine birds and red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ). Fluoroscopy is a safe, suitable method for investigating GI motility and transit in this species.

  3. Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) Genome: Divergence with the Barred Owl (Strix varia) and Characterization of Light-Associated Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Zachary R; Henderson, James B; Wall, Jeffrey D; Emerling, Christopher A; Fuchs, Jérôme; Runckel, Charles; Mindell, David P; Bowie, Rauri C K; DeRisi, Joseph L; Dumbacher, John P

    2017-10-01

    We report here the assembly of a northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) genome. We generated Illumina paired-end sequence data at 90× coverage using nine libraries with insert lengths ranging from ∼250 to 9,600 nt and read lengths from 100 to 375 nt. The genome assembly is comprised of 8,108 scaffolds totaling 1.26 × 109 nt in length with an N50 length of 3.98 × 106 nt. We calculated the genome-wide fixation index (FST) of S. o. caurina with the closely related barred owl (Strix varia) as 0.819. We examined 19 genes that encode proteins with light-dependent functions in our genome assembly as well as in that of the barn owl (Tyto alba). We present genomic evidence for loss of three of these in S. o. caurina and four in T. alba. We suggest that most light-associated gene functions have been maintained in owls and their loss has not proceeded to the same extent as in other dim-light-adapted vertebrates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Radiographic evaluation of perching-joint angles in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and barred owls (Strix varia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Glen; Lauer, Susanne K; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N; Hosgood, Giselle; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2009-06-01

    Information on perching-joint angles in birds is limited. Joint immobilization in a physiologic perching angle has the potential to result more often in complete restoration of limb function. We evaluated perching-joint angles in 10 healthy cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), 10 Hispaniolan Amazons (Amazona ventralis), and 9 barred owls (Strix varia) and determined intra- and interobserver variability for goniometric measurements in 2 different radiographic projections. Intra- and interobserver variation was less than 7% for all stifle and intertarsal joint measurements but frequently exceeded 10% for the hip-joint measurements. Hip, stifle, and intertarsal perching angles differed significantly among cockatiels, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and barred owls. The accuracy of measurements performed on straight lateral radiographic projections with superimposed limbs was not consistently superior to measurements on oblique projections with a slightly rotated pelvis. Stifle and intertarsal joint angles can be measured on radiographs by different observers with acceptable variability, but intra- and interobserver variability for hip-joint-angle measurements is higher.

  5. Registro del búho leonado Strix fulvescens en el estado de Oaxaca, México Record of the Fulvous Owl Strix fulvescens in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda Ramírez-Julián

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediante comparaciones acústicas y espectrográficas del búho leonado Strix fulvescens, se determinó su presencia en el noroeste de la sierra Norte de Oaxaca. Este registro constituye la confirmación de su presencia en el estado; amplía 350 km aproximadamente su distribución hacia el noroeste y aumenta a 21 las especies de búhos registradas en Oaxaca.The occurrence of Fulvous Owl Strix fulvescens in the northwestern portion of the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca was determined using aural and spectrographic comparison. This record confirms the presence of Fulvous Owl in the state of Oaxaca, expanding its distribution range to the northwest by about 350 Km, and increasing to 21 species the number of owls recorded in Oaxaca.

  6. Blood parasites in Owls with conservation implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, H.D.; Dumbacher, J.P.; Anderson, N.L.; Keane, J.J.; Valkiunas, G.; Haig, S.M.; Tell, L.A.; Sehgal, R.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis courina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia). An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl. We screened 111 Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and 387 owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites (Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp.). California Spotted Owls had the greatest number of simultaneous multi-species infections (44%). Additionally, sequencing results revealed that the Northern and California Spotted Owl subspecies together had the highest number of Leucocytozoon parasite lineages (n=17) and unique lineages (n=12). This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one leucocytozoon species (L. danilewskyi) has been accepted as valid among all owls, suggesting that L. danilewskyi is a cryptic species. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. West Coast Barred Owls had a lower prevalence of infection (15%) when compared to sympatric Spotted Owls (S. o. caurina 52%, S. o. occidentalis 79%) and Barred Owls from the historic range (61%). Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls. ?? 2008 Ishak et al.

  7. Dispersal movements of juvenile Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Arsenault; Angela Hodgson; Peter B. Stacey

    1997-01-01

    Tail-mounted radio transmitters were attached to 12 juvenile and 3 sub-adult (yearling) Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in southwestern New Mexico from 1993 to 1996. Most juveniles dispersed from their natal territories during September. Intervals between dispersal of siblings ranged from 3 to more than 15 days. Juveniles exhibited...

  8. Albinism in the Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) and other owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentti Alaja; Heimo Mikkola

    1997-01-01

    An incomplete albino Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) was observed in Vesanto and Kajaani, Finland, 1994-1995. The literature pertaining to albinism in owls indicates that total and incomplete albinism has only been reported in 13 different owl species, the Great Gray Owl being the only species with more than five records. Thus six to seven incomplete...

  9. A telemetry study of the social organization of a tawny owl (Strix aluco) population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Bølstad, Mikkel S.

    2004-01-01

    The spatial dispersion and social interactions were studied in 11 neighbouring pairs of radio-tagged tawny owls Strix aluco in a deciduous wood in Denmark from 1998-2001. The numbers and shapes of territories were stable throughout the survey and similar to a mapping made 40 years earlier. The ho...

  10. Food habits of the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) at six nest sites in Washington?s east Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth R. Bevis; Jo Ellen Richards; Gina M. King; Eric E. Hanson

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on 245 pellet samples containing 479 identified prey items collected at six Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) breeding sites in the eastern portion of its range. The majority of prey (biomass) came from four species; northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus), bushy-tailed woodrats (...

  11. Predators control post-fledging mortality in tawny owls, Strix aluco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Despite its recognition as an important source of variation in recruitment probability, the ecological processes leading to mortality between fledging and independence are poorly studied. Accordingly, the proximate and ultimate impact of bottom-up (food limitation) and top-down factors (predators......, pathogens) for individual survival as well as population productivity is largely unknown in most terrestrial birds. Survival and behaviour of 131 radio-tagged tawny owls (Strix aluco) during the post-fledging dependency period were studied for each of three years with high food abundance and three years...... of poor food supply in Danish deciduous woods. To identify the effects of food limitation, 32 young received extra food 2-3 weeks prior to fledging, as opposed to 99 young that were fed by their parents only. Thirty-six percent of the young from control broods died between fledging and independence...

  12. Selection of tawny owl (Strix aluco) flight feather shaft for biomonitoring As, Cd and Pb pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Rita García; Río, Zulema Varela; Ocaña, Alejo Carballeira; Escribano, José Ángel Fernández; Viñas, Jesús Ramón Aboal

    2018-04-07

    In this study, we determined the concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in the shaft of all primary flight feathers from ten tawny owl (Strix aluco) specimens, with the aim of selecting which shaft of the corresponding primary feather should be used in biomonitoring surveys to enable inter-individual comparisons of the levels of these metals. The birds had died between 2006 and 2013 and their bodies were stored in the various Wildlife Recovery Centres in Galicia (NW Spain). The analyses revealed a high degree of inter-shaft variability, mainly in the concentrations of As and Cd. However, it was possible to identify the most representative samples in each case: for As, the shaft of primary flight feather number 5 (S5) (which represented 11% of the total As excreted in all of the primary flight feathers); for Cd, the shaft of primary flight feather number 2 (S2) (11% of the total excreted); and for Pb, the shaft of primary flight feather number 8 (S8) (14% of the total excreted). However, the difficulties associated with the analytical determination of these pollutants in the shaft should be taken into account when this technique is applied in biomonitoring studies.

  13. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis: Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysta H. Rogers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina in California during 2011–2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis. The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  14. Range-wide genetic differentiation among North American great gray owls (Strix nebulosa) reveals a distinct lineage limited to the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Hull; J.J. Keane; W.K. Savage; S.A. Godwin; J. Shafer; E.P. Jepsen; R. Gerhardt; C. Stermer; H.B. Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of regional genetic differentiation are essential for describing phylogeographic patterns and informing management efforts for species of conservation concern. In this context, we investigated genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among great gray owl (Strix nebulosa) populations in western North America, which...

  15. Meta-analysis of California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) territory occupancy in the Sierra Nevada: habitat associations and their implications for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas J. Tempel; John J. Keane; R. J. Gutierrez; Jared D. Wolfe; Gavin M. Jones; Alexander Koltunov; Carlos M. Ramirez; William J. Berigan; Claire V. Gallagher; Thomas E. Munton; Paula A. Shaklee; Sheila A. Whitmore; M. Zachariah Peery

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the occupancy dynamics of 275 California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) territories in 4 study areas in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, from 1993 to 2011. We used Landsat data to develop maps of canopy cover for each study area, which we then used to quantify annual territory-specific habitat...

  16. Influence of primary prey on home-range size and habitat-use patterns of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia J. Zabel; Kevin S. McKelvey; James P. Ward

    1995-01-01

    Correlations between the home-range size of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) and proportion of their range in old-growth forest have been reported, but there are few data on the relationship between their home-range size and prey. The primary prey of spotted owls are wood rats and northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus). Wood...

  17. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool...... to understanding, especially but not exclusively in observational and interview-based studies. Psychodynamic or psychoanalytic approaches to research add an emphasis on unconscious motivational processes in both researchers and research participants that impact research experience and data. Building upon Anglo......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  18. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  19. Antibacterial activity of propolis produced by Frieseomelitta varia Atividade antibacteriana da própolis produzida por Frieseomelitta varia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Aparecida Costa Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To contribute to the development of antibacterial products from propolis produced by native Brazilian bees, twenty-nine samples of propolis collected from hives in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were screened for in vitro activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Among the samples from native Brazilian bees, only that from Frieseomelitta varia (Lepeletier, 1836 inhibited in vitro bacterial growth. Consequently, this propolis underwent fractionation by chromatographic methods monitored through Agar-diffusion assays with these bacteria, which resulted in the isolation and identification of 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (artepillin C, which showed MIC of 62.5 and 250 µg/mL against B. subtilis and S. aureus, respectively. This result indicates the potential of F. varia to produce therapeutic propolis.Para contribuir para o desenvolvimento de produtos antibacterianos obtidos de própolis produzidos por abelhas nativas do Brasil, 29 tipos de própolis coletados de diferentes colméias no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram avaliados quanto à atividade in vitro contra Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, e Staphylococcus aureus. Dentre as amostras de abelhas nativas, somente a de Frieseomelitta varia (Lepeletier, 1836 inibiu, em teste in vitro, o crescimento bacteriano. Consequentemente, essa própolis foi submetida a métodos cromatográficos para o fracionamento biomonitorado por teste de difusão em Agar com as referidas bactérias, o que resultou no isolamento e identificação do ácido 3,5-diprenil-4-hidroxicinâmico (artepelin C, que apresentou CIM de 62,5 e 250 µg/mL frente a B. subtilis e S. aureus, respectivamente. Esses resultados indicam o potencial de F. varia para a produção de própolis terapêutica.

  20. Reticulate evolution in the apogamous Dryopteris varia complex (Dryopteridaceae, subg. Erythrovariae, sect. Variae) and its related sexual species in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kiyotaka; Tono, Akitaka; Fujimoto, Kazuto; Kato, Juntaro; Ebihara, Atsushi; Watano, Yasuyuki; Murakami, Noriaki

    2014-11-01

    Apogamous fern species are often difficult to distinguish from related species because of their continuous morphological variations. To clarify the genetic relationships among the members of the Dryopteris varia complex, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL and the nuclear gene PgiC. We also analyzed the diploid sexual species D. caudipinna and D. chinensis, which have not been included in the complex, but were recently shown to be closely related to the complex in a molecular phylogenetic study. The PgiC sequences of the diploid sexual species, D. varia, D. saxifraga, D. sp. 'protobissetiana' (undescribed diploid sexual species), D. caudipinna, and D. chinensis, were well differentiated and hence designated A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. Thus, the PgiC constitution of apogamous species in the complex was as follows: D. bissetiana, B + C; D. kobayashii, B + C + E); D. pacifica, A + C, A + B + C, or A + C + D; D. sacrosancta, A + C + E; and D. saxifragivaria, B + C. These results suggest that these apogamous species are formed by hybridizations of species including not only the three diploid sexual species of the D. varia complex (A, B, and C) but also the two diploid sexual species D. caudipinna (D) and D. chinensis (E), which do not belong to the complex.

  1. Great gray owls (Strix nebulosa) in Yosemite National Park: on the importance of food, forest structure, and human disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, Joseph J.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.

    2013-01-01

    We studied great gray owls (Strix nebulosa Forster) in Yosemite National Park, California, measuring variables that could potentially influence patterns of occurrence and conservation of this stateendangered species. We found that owl presence was closely tied to habitat (red fir (Abies magnified A. Murray) and the abundance of meadows), prey, and snags across the landscape. We also found that indicators of human recreational activities negatively influenced owl distribution and habitat use. Great gray owls appear to prefer mid-elevation red fir forest with meadows that are drier and more productive in terms of small mammal populations. That these areas also have the highest human activity presents a paradox, both for individual owls and for the future conservation and management of this California endangered species. The extent to which human recreation in natural areas affects animal behavior, species distribution, and productivity is a growing issue in natural area management. We present information that will allow land managers to better understand how existing natural resources, coupled with human recreation, influence the distribution and habitat use of the great gray owl.

  2. Relative effects of road risk, habitat suitability, and connectivity on wildlife roadkills: the case of tawny owls (Strix aluco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara M; Lourenço, Rui; Mira, António; Beja, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance for reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions, there is still incomplete understanding of factors responsible for high road mortality. In particular, few empirical studies examined the idea that spatial variation in roadkills is influenced by a complex interplay between road-related factors, and species-specific habitat quality and landscape connectivity. In this study we addressed this issue, using a 7-year dataset of tawny owl (Strix aluco) roadkills recorded along 37 km of road in southern Portugal. We used a multi-species roadkill index as a surrogate of intrinsic road risk, and we used a Maxent distribution model to estimate habitat suitability. Landscape connectivity was estimated from least-cost paths between tawny owl territories, using habitat suitability as a resistance surface. We defined 10 alternative scenarios to compute connectivity, based on variation in potential movement patterns according to territory quality and dispersal distance thresholds. Hierarchical partitioning of a regression model indicated that independent variation in tawny owl roadkills was explained primarily by the roadkill index (70.5%) and, to a much lesser extent, by landscape connectivity (26.2%), while habitat suitability had minor effects (3.3%). Analysis of connectivity scenarios suggested that owl roadkills were primarily related to short range movements (habitat quality and landscape connectivity are globally high for the study species. Nevertheless, the study supported the view that functional connectivity should be incorporated whenever possible in roadkill models, as it may greatly increase their power to predict the location of roadkill hotspots.

  3. Partition expanders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavinsky, Dmitry; Pudlák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2017), s. 378-395 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : expanders * pseudo randomness * communication complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00224-016-9738-5

  4. Partition expanders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavinsky, Dmitry; Pudlák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2017), s. 378-395 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : expanders * pseudorandomness * communication complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00224-016-9738-5

  5. Relative effects of road risk, habitat suitability, and connectivity on wildlife roadkills: the case of tawny owls (Strix aluco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its importance for reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions, there is still incomplete understanding of factors responsible for high road mortality. In particular, few empirical studies examined the idea that spatial variation in roadkills is influenced by a complex interplay between road-related factors, and species-specific habitat quality and landscape connectivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we addressed this issue, using a 7-year dataset of tawny owl (Strix aluco roadkills recorded along 37 km of road in southern Portugal. We used a multi-species roadkill index as a surrogate of intrinsic road risk, and we used a Maxent distribution model to estimate habitat suitability. Landscape connectivity was estimated from least-cost paths between tawny owl territories, using habitat suitability as a resistance surface. We defined 10 alternative scenarios to compute connectivity, based on variation in potential movement patterns according to territory quality and dispersal distance thresholds. Hierarchical partitioning of a regression model indicated that independent variation in tawny owl roadkills was explained primarily by the roadkill index (70.5% and, to a much lesser extent, by landscape connectivity (26.2%, while habitat suitability had minor effects (3.3%. Analysis of connectivity scenarios suggested that owl roadkills were primarily related to short range movements (<5 km between high quality territories. Tawny owl roadkills were spatially autocorrelated, but the introduction of spatial filters in the regression model did not change the type and relative contribution of environmental variables. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, results suggest that road-related factors may have a dominant influence on roadkill patterns, particularly in areas like ours where habitat quality and landscape connectivity are globally high for the study species. Nevertheless, the study supported the view that functional connectivity should be

  6. Age of Great Grey Owls Strix nebulosa observed in Scandinavia in 2012 as revealed by digital photos in the national species report archives.

    OpenAIRE

    Solheim, Roar

    2014-01-01

    Record breaking numbers of breeding Great Grey Owls Strix nebulosa were reported in Sweden and Norway in 2010 and 2011, followed by 4105 observations in 2012 as revealed by the national Species archives. Based on locality id numbers, at least 144 individuals were reported with photos which could be used to age the individuals. The majority (76%) of these birds were young birds hatched in 2011 (83% including birds aged probably 2CY). Among dead owls brought to the Natural History Museum in Sto...

  7. Contabilização das variações da necessidade de capital de giro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Seidel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Quando se deseja iniciar uma atividade ou mesmo expandi-la, muito se analisa a necessidade de aplicações em ativos permanentes, mas pouca atenção é dedicada ao "investimento em clientes e estoques". Dessa forma a concessão de prazo para clientes ou a opção por um aumento nos níveis dos estoques, ambos valores contabilizados no ativo circulante, pode significar uma decisão de investimento tão ou mais duradoura do que aquela efetuada em ativos permanentes. A Necessidade de Capital de Giro (NCG, e suas variações, podem levar à falência muitas empresas, principalmente pequenas e médias. Além da preocupação monetária, uma empresa necessita garantir a manutenção de sua estrutura física, permanente e operacional, necessária para suas atividades. O lucro contabilizado através do Custo Corrente Corrigido (CCC, precisa de ajustes para ser considerado totalmente distribuível; sob nosso ponto de vista, as variações da NCG fazem parte desses ajustes. A idéia central deste artigo é a criação de uma Reserva de Capital denominada Reserva das Variações da Necessidade de Capital de Giro (RVNCG como forma de garantir a manutenção do capital físico da empresa, ajustando o lucro passível de distribuição através da contabilização das variações da NCG. Esse artigo está dividido em quatro partes. Na primeira, percorremos o embasamento teórico. No desenvolvimento, segunda parte, traçamos os objetivos, as premissas e descrevemos a criação e a contabilização da RVNCG. Na terceira parte, demonstramos a proposta do artigo através de três exemplos numéricos com os respectivos Balanços Patrimoniais e Demonstrações do Resultado, mostrando a utilização proposta da RVNCG; por fim, na quarta e última parte apresentamos nossas conclusões.When we want to begin or expand an activity, the need to invest in permanent assets is profoundly analyzed, but little attention is given to the investment in clients and inventories

  8. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ A. DE FREITAS PACHECO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  9. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  10. Layouts of Expander Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Sidiropoulos, Anastasios; Wood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Bourgain and Yehudayoff recently constructed $O(1)$-monotone bipartite expanders. By combining this result with a generalisation of the unraveling method of Kannan, we construct 3-monotone bipartite expanders, which is best possible. We then show that the same graphs admit 3-page book embeddings, 2-queue layouts, 4-track layouts, and have simple thickness 2. All these results are best possible.

  11. Genetic differentiation and inferred dynamics of a hybrid zone between Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) and California Spotted Owls (S. o. occidentalis) in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Tom; Forsman, Eric D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic differentiation among Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies has been established in prior studies. These investigations also provided evidence for introgression and hybridization among taxa but were limited by a lack of samples from geographic regions where subspecies came into close contact. We analyzed new sets of samples from Northern Spotted Owls (NSO: S. o. caurina) and California Spotted Owls (CSO: S. o. occidentalis) in northern California using mitochondrial DNA sequences (mtDNA) and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci to obtain a clearer depiction of genetic differentiation and hybridization in the region. Our analyses revealed that a NSO population close to the northern edge of the CSO range in northern California (the NSO Contact Zone population) is highly differentiated relative to other NSO populations throughout the remainder of their range. Phylogenetic analyses identified a unique lineage of mtDNA in the NSO Contact Zone, and Bayesian clustering analyses of the microsatellite data identified the Contact Zone as a third distinct population that is differentiated from CSO and NSO found in the remainder of the subspecies' range. Hybridization between NSO and CSO was readily detected in the NSO Contact Zone, with over 50% of individuals showing evidence of hybrid ancestry. Hybridization was also identified among 14% of CSO samples, which were dispersed across the subspecies' range in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The asymmetry of hybridization suggested that the hybrid zone may be dynamic and moving. Although evidence of hybridization existed, we identified no F1 generation hybrid individuals. We instead found evidence for F2 or backcrossed individuals among our samples. The absence of F1 hybrids may indicate that (1) our 10 microsatellites were unable to distinguish hybrid types, (2) primary interactions between subspecies are occurring elsewhere on the landscape, or (3) dispersal between the subspecies' ranges is reduced relative to

  12. Functionalized expanded porphyrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessler, Jonathan L; Pantos, Patricia J

    2013-11-12

    Disclosed are functionalized expanded porphyrins that can be used as spectrometric sensors for high-valent actinide cations. The disclosed functionalized expanded porphyrins have the advantage over unfunctionalized systems in that they can be immobilized via covalent attachment to a solid support comprising an inorganic or organic polymer or other common substrates. Substrates comprising the disclosed functionalized expanded porphyrins are also disclosed. Further, disclosed are methods of making the disclosed compounds (immobilized and free), methods of using them as sensors to detect high valent actinides, devices that comprise the disclosed compounds, and kits.

  13. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  14. Projeto de variação linguística no Centro-Oeste (VALCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel do Valle Dettoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar o Projeto Variação Linguística no Centro-Oeste (VALCO e sintetizar resultados de pesquisa sociolinguística em áreas geográficas distintas da região Centro-Oeste e em temáticas também distintas. Quatro pesquisas foram realizadas com dados da grande Brasília ou Distrito Federal e analisam os pronomes de segunda pessoa tu/você/cê/ocê. Nestas pesquisas, apresenta-se a ideia central de que a variedade brasiliense em formação está introduzindo a variante tu em seu repertório linguístico, com focalização de um traço marcado no português brasileiro. Duas outras pesquisas foram realizadas com dados da Baixada Cuiabana, Estado do Mato Grosso, e analisam a variação de gênero no plano discursivo e sintagmático. Nestas duas pesquisas, diferentemente, apresentam-se traços linguísticos de natureza semicategórica, em provável situação de extinção, mas evidencia-se que a variação de gênero nos dados analisados é linguisticamente encaixada no sistema da língua portuguesa. Sendo assim, o presente artigo, que se orienta pela Teoria da Variação e da Mudança Linguística, apresenta para a comunidade científica um pouco mais da riqueza da língua portuguesa em terras brasileiras, mais especificamente, no Brasil central tradicional e no Brasil central expandido.

  15. Expanding mediation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2012-01-01

    In his article In Between Us, Yoni van den Eede expands existing theories of mediation into the realm of the social and the political, focusing on the notions of opacity and transparency. His approach is rich and promising, but two pitfalls should be avoided. First, his concept of ‘in-between’ runs

  16. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  17. Expandable LED array interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  18. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  19. O corpo docente masculino: suas variações e (inconformidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Machado Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198464444824 Nesse texto buscamos cartografar, a partir de uma interlocução com autores como Deleuze e Guattari e Nietzsche, o processo de variação-deslocamento-multiplicação do corpo masculino docente, a estética das sensibilidades e os agenciamentos corporais que os encontros pedagógicos inspiram. O corpo-docente-masculino, suas variações e (inconformidades, será tomado como plano de inscrição e veículo das forças afectivas e vibratórias que por ele passa e o coloca em movimento de territorialização, desterritorialização e reterritorialização. Problematizaremos, assim, o lugar do encontro pedagógico como possível dispositivo maquínico, apontando para a ideia de que os agenciamentos produzidos a partir daí operam na criação de experimentações corporais que deslocam o corpo masculino dos lugares consagrados pela norma e o aproxima do corpo-masculino-marginal, prenhe de devires e (desorganizado: corpo sem orgãos. Palavras-chave: corpo, docência, masculinidades, criação.

  20. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  1. The expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    People have always been fascinated with the stars above and the universe that contains them. Over the years, astronomers have developed numerous theories to explain how the universe began, how it works, and what its ultimate fate will be. But all of the scientists' questions are far from answered. The Expanding Universe goes beyond the creation of the universe to explain how scientists think the universe works, grows, and changes, including what great thinkers Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein had to say about its fate. Readers will also learn about how researchers are slowly shedding light on

  2. Variações anatômicas das cavidades paranasais à tomografia computadorizada multislice: o que procurar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Maia Nobre Rocha de Miranda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A tomografia computadorizada multislice é, atualmente, a modalidade de imagem de escolha para a avaliação dos seios paranasais e das estruturas adjacentes. Ela tem sido cada vez mais utilizada para a avaliação das variações anatômicas, identificando-as de forma precisa e com elevados detalhes anatômicos. Algumas variações anatômicas podem predispor a sinusopatias e constituir regiões de alto risco para lesões e complicações durante atos operatórios. Portanto, o reconhecimento dessas variações é de fundamental importância no pré-operatório de cirurgia endoscópica.

  3. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) project is a NASA-industry partnership with Bigelow Aerospace (BA) that has developing the first human-rated expandable...

  4. Tissue expander infections in children: look beyond the expander pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A C; Davison, S P; Manders, E K

    1999-11-01

    Infection of the expander pocket is the most common complication encountered with soft-tissue expansion. It is usually due to direct inoculation with skin flora either at the time of expander insertion or from extrusion of the device. The authors report two cases of infection of tissue expanders in which the children had concomitant infected sites distant from the prosthesis. Etiological bacteria of common pediatric infections like otitis media and pharyngitis were cultured from the infected expander pocket, raising suspicion that translocation of the organism to the expander had occurred. Aggressive antibiotic treatment, removal of the prosthesis, and flap advancement is advocated.

  5. Variação anatômica venosa rara em membros inferiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Andreia de Moraes Silva

    Full Text Available Resumo A anatomia do sistema venoso dos membros inferiores é uma das mais complexas no corpo humano. Devido a essa condição, é de extrema importância saber identificar variações que possam acometê-la, como as malformações congênitas. Em casos de agenesia de veias profundas, como uma malformação vascular rara, o quadro clínico pode manifestar-se com insuficiência venosa crônica, que pode evoluir com edema, hiperpigmentação e úlcera de membro inferior. Assim, em muitos casos, torna-se uma doença incapacitante e de difícil tratamento. Apresenta-se um caso de agenesia de segmento venoso femoropoplíteo no membro inferior direito em paciente de 36 anos de idade, que cursou com edema e varizes de grosso calibre no membro acometido.

  6. Expanding hollow metal rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Harold B [Evans, GA; Imrich, Kenneth J [Grovetown, GA

    2009-03-17

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  7. Expandable pattern casting research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The Expandable Pattern Casting (EPC) Process is a developing foundry technology that allows designers the opportunity to consolidate parts, reduce machining, and minimize assembly operations. An air gauging system was developed for measuring foam patterns; exact shrinkage depended on type and density of the foam. Compaction studies showed that maximum sand densities in cavities and under overhangs are achieved with vibrational amplitudes 0.001-0.004 in., and that sand moved most freely within a few inches of the top free surface. Key to complete mold filling while minimizing casting defects lies in removing the foam decomposition products. The most precise iron castings were made by EPC in four commercial EPC foundries, with attention paid to molding and compaction. EP cast 60-45-12 ductile iron had yield strengths, ultimate strengths, and elastic modulus similar to conventionally cast ductile iron cast from the same ladle.

  8. Expanding or postponing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tanja Dall; Caswell, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    setting. Working with data from 97 team meetings in a social work setting, we identify two patterns of negotiation in talk; expanding and postponing. ‘Expanding’ covers a group of interactional actions involving turn-taking and closure, while ‘postponing’ includes a group of actions whereby assessments......In this paper, we examine patterns of negotiation in multi-party interaction in social work. We draw on Strauss’ theory of negotiated order and a conversation analytical approach, seeking to gain insight into the complex accomplishment of making a decision in an inter-professional and multiparty...... or topics are avoided or made irrelevant. Both are examples of the complex ways in which team members negotiate both the institutional order and the decision to be made in the specific case in situ....

  9. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, B A [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-29

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music-a new type of 'cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson, hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature's code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one's mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great

  10. The Artful Universe Expanded

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, B A

    2005-01-01

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music-a new type of 'cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson, hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature's code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one's mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great beauty. (book review)

  11. The evolution of mapping habitat for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): A comparison of photo-interpreted, Landsat-based, and lidar-based habitat maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackers, Steven H.; Davis, Raymond J.; Olsen, K.; Dugger, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife habitat mapping has evolved at a rapid pace over the last few decades. Beginning with simple, often subjective, hand-drawn maps, habitat mapping now involves complex species distribution models (SDMs) using mapped predictor variables derived from remotely sensed data. For species that inhabit large geographic areas, remote sensing technology is often essential for producing range wide maps. Habitat monitoring for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), whose geographic covers about 23 million ha, is based on SDMs that use Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery to create forest vegetation data layers using gradient nearest neighbor (GNN) methods. Vegetation data layers derived from GNN are modeled relationships between forest inventory plot data, climate and topographic data, and the spectral signatures acquired by the satellite. When used as predictor variables for SDMs, there is some transference of the GNN modeling error to the final habitat map.Recent increases in the use of light detection and ranging (lidar) data, coupled with the need to produce spatially accurate and detailed forest vegetation maps have spurred interest in its use for SDMs and habitat mapping. Instead of modeling predictor variables from remotely sensed spectral data, lidar provides direct measurements of vegetation height for use in SDMs. We expect a SDM habitat map produced from directly measured predictor variables to be more accurate than one produced from modeled predictors.We used maximum entropy (Maxent) SDM modeling software to compare predictive performance and estimates of habitat area between Landsat-based and lidar-based northern spotted owl SDMs and habitat maps. We explored the differences and similarities between these maps, and to a pre-existing aerial photo-interpreted habitat map produced by local wildlife biologists. The lidar-based map had the highest predictive performance based on 10 bootstrapped replicate models (AUC = 0.809 ± 0.011), but the

  12. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO VARIA L.) GENETICLALY ENGINEERED TO EXPRESS A HUMAN METALLOTHIONEIN (HMT) GENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of these studies were two-fold: (1) to determine efficacy of low and high expression hMT gene constructs by assessing accumulation of Cu in shoots of parental and transgenic plants of alfalfa (Medicago varia L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO4 by addit...

  13. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  14. A variação diatópica no sistema verbal espanhol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Cristina de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-8420.2013v14n2p121 Sob uma abordagem dialetológica, analisamos neste trabalho a variação diatópica no uso das formas simples e composta do pretérito perfeito do indicativo da língua castelhana. O objetivo é verificar a frequência de uso dessas formas verbais em diferentes variedades da língua em questão. Para tanto, fundamentadas em discussões sobre a dialetologia espanhola, apresentamos os resultados da análise de amostra do espanhol escrito de seis grandes regiões dialetais: região da Espanha; do México e América Central; do Caribe; dos Andes; do Chile; e do Rio da Prata. Os resultados sinalizam forte relação entre as variáveis “contexto geográfico” e “forma verbal”. Em síntese: o pretérito perfeito simples é forma mais recorrente em todas as regiões hispano-falantes; no entanto, o pretérito perfeito composto tem frequência mais elevada na amostra madrilenha, se comparada às das regiões de hispano-américa.

  15. Variação linguística e ensino de gramática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edair Maria Görski

    2010-02-01

    O objetivo deste texto é fazer algumas reflexões, a partir de pressupostos sociolinguísticos, sobre certas questões que envolvem variação e mudança linguística, com implicações diretas no ensino da língua. Discutimos os seguintes tópicos: a língua como atividade social e as variedades linguísticas; a questão da norma, do valor social das formas variantes e do preconceito linguístico; e esboçamos algumas sugestões metodológicas para o ensino de gramática, considerando a diversidade linguística e o aprimoramento da competência comunicativa dos alunos. Esses tópicos são abordados tomando como pano de fundo um contraponto entre um ensino gramatical ‘tradicional’ e o papel social da escola, conforme proposto pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais de Língua Portuguesa.

  16. Geografia da mortalidade infantil do Brasil: variações espaciais e desigualdades territoriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivaldo Faria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as variações espaciais e as desigualdades territoriais nos indicadores de mortalidade infantil do Brasil. O estudo foi feito com todos os óbitos infantis e nascidos vivos registrados em sistemas oficiais nos anos de 2012 e 2013 nas 558 microrregiões brasileiras. Os indicadores foram calculados e estimados através do método bayesiano empírico. As características do território foram analisadas através de um indicador multicritério denominado Índice de Privação Social. Os resultados indicaram elevados coeficientes de mortalidade infantil (CMI nas microrregiões dos estados do nordeste e norte do país e fatores associados relacionados à idade da mãe, doenças infecciosas, vazios assistenciais e falta de acompanhamento pré-natal. Nas microrregiões dos estados do sudeste e sul e parte do centro-oeste os CMI são menos elevados e os fatores associados estão mais relacionados com a prematuridade e baixo peso à nascença.

  17. The Expanding Universe: Dark Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, Don [Fermilab; Nord, Brian [Fermilab

    2014-09-01

    In 1998, observations of distant supernovae led physicists that not only was the universe expanding, but the expansion was speeding up. In this article, we describe the evidence for an expanding universe and describe what physicists and cosmologists have learned in the intervening years. The target audience for this article is high school physics teachers and college physics professors at teaching institutions.

  18. Variações anatômicas em Lymnaea columella (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene T. Ueta

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações anatômicas de espécimes de L. columella coletados de diferentes criadouros situados em diversos Municípios do Estado de São Paulo: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. As comparações morfométricas foram baseadas em estudos do aparelho genital, rim e rádula. Foram medidos, para cada criadouro, os comprimentos do conjunto útero-vagina, dueto da espermateca, prepúcio e bainha do pênis. Foram ainda calculados os índices de relação entre bainha do pênis/prepúcio e estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação entre comprimento da concha e comprimento do prepúcio. Cortes longitudiais do complexo peniano foram também objeto de estudo. Em relação a rádula foram determinados o número de fileiras transversais e o número de dentes por fileira, e estabelecida uma fórmula radular aproximada para os diversos criadouros.Soft parts of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied in order to determine morphometric variations. These morphometric cornparisons were made upon reproductive system, kidney and radula of snail samples collected in different municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Length measurementes of uterus, duct of spermatheca, prepuce and penis sheath were taken; the ratio penis sheath/prepuce and correlation coefficients between length of shell and length of prepuce were established. Longitudinal sections of penial complex were also studied. The number of trans verse rows, number of teeth per rows and the length of shell were determined. For each sample, the radular formula was indicated.

  19. A variação no uso do modo subjuntivo no português afro-brasileiro.

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Sônia Moreira Coutinho dos

    2005-01-01

    Apresenta-se nesta dissertação uma descrição da variação no uso das formas do subjuntivo e indicativo em comunidades rurais de descendentes afro-brasileiros. Para isso, tomou-se como base para análise amostras de fala do Corpus base do português afro-brasileiro, do Projeto Vertentes da UFBA. Essa análise partiu do princípio de que a variação presente no português popular do Brasil (PPB), é resultante do intensivo contato entre línguas, sobretudo com as africanas, quando do seu processo de for...

  20. Two common and problematic leucochrysine species - Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia (Schneider) and L. (L.) pretiosa (Banks) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): redescriptions and synonymies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Catherine A; Sosa, Francisco; Albuquerque, Gilberto S

    2013-01-01

    We dedicate this article to the memory of Sergio de Freitas, FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil (deceased, 2012). He was an active and enthusiastic Neuropterist and the cherished mentor and friend of Francisco Sosa. Leucochrysa McLachlan is the largest genus in the Chrysopidae, yet it has received relatively little taxonomic attention. We treat two problematic and common Leucochrysa species - Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia (Schneider, 1851) and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa (Banks, 1910). Both are highly variable in coloration and were described before the systematic importance of chrysopid genitalia was recognized. Recent studies show that these species occur within a large complex of cryptic species and that they have accumulated a number of taxonomic problems. We identify new synonymies for each of the species-for Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) ampla (Walker, 1853), Leucochrysa internata (Walker, 1853), and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) walkerina Navás, 1913; for Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) erminea Banks, 1946. The synonymy of Leucochrysa delicata Navás, 1925 with Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa is stabilized by the designation of a neotype. The following species, which were previously synonymized with Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia or Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa, are reinstated as valid: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) phaeocephala Navás, 1929, Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) angrandi (Navás, 1911), and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) variata (Navás, 1913). To help stabilize Leucochrysa taxonomy, lectotypes are designated for Allochrysa pretiosa and Allochrysa variata. Finally, Leucochrysa vegana Navás, 1917 is considered a nomen dubium.

  1. Flow boiling in expanding microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna

    2017-01-01

    This Brief presents an up to date summary of details of the flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and instability characteristics; two phase flow patterns of expanding microchannels. Results obtained from the different expanding microscale geometries are presented for comparison and addition to that, comparison with literatures is also performed. Finally, parametric studies are performed and presented in the brief. The findings from this study could help in understanding the complex microscale flow boiling behavior and aid in the design and implementation of reliable compact heat sinks for practical applications.

  2. Expanding nail or expanding femur? An adverse event with the expandable intramedullary nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Soham; Riley, Nicholas D; Sivaji, Chellappan K

    2010-01-01

    The expandable intramedullary nail is self-locking and has the advantage of reducing operating time and exposure to ionizing radiation. The nail is recommended for simple diaphyseal fractures involving the middle third of long bones, where the nail can bypass the fracture site by at least 5 cm. We encountered a unique complication with the expandable nail in a simple transverse shaft fracture at the junction of the middle and distal third of the left femur in an otherwise healthy 57-year-old man. The fracture was reduced and a 12-mm expandable nail was inserted. Following full expansion, intraoperative radiographs were obtained prior to closure. After six postoperative weeks, it was noted that the nail expanded the femoral canal, converting a simple fracture to a distally progressing comminuted fracture with a butterfly fragment. A review of the intraoperative radiographs showed slight widening of the medullary canal at the level of the fracture. As the alignment was satisfactory and callus was present, no further surgical intervention was considered. The patient was advised not to bear weight and was provided with a locked knee brace in extension to wear for six weeks. Radiographs at 12 weeks demonstrated good progress of healing with adequate callus and the patient was permitted to bear weight as tolerated and commence knee flexion. The fracture united satisfactorily at four months. This adverse experience emphasizes that caution should be exercised when expanding the nail, with close observation of the medullary canal diameter during the later stages of expansion.

  3. Estudo da variação individual no grito de alerta da arara-azul-grande Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Yoshikazu Cristofoli Ueno

    2007-01-01

    Resumo: A Arara-azul-grande Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus é uma ave ameaçada de extinção, portanto sua individualização em campo é de grande interesse. Suas características gregárias, ausência de dimorfismo sexual e monogamia criam uma disposição natural à existência de reconhecimento individual entre co-específicos. Para que haja reconhecimento individual é preciso que exista variação inter-individual. O grito de alerta em Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus se apresenta como valiosa fonte de estudos...

  4. Padrões de estocagem de esperma e variações cíclicas ovidutais em serpentes Xenodontinae

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Augusto Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Os padrões de estocagem de esperma e as variações morfológicas cíclicas do trato reprodutivo feminino constituem táticas reprodutivas muito pouco estudadas em serpentes neotropicais, se comparadas às serpentes de regiões temperadas. Assim, o presente estudo teve por objetivo caracterizar e compreender as estratégias reprodutivas empregadas por fêmeas de quatro espécies de serpentes brasileiras da subfamília Xenodontinae. Amostras de gônadas e vias genitais foram coletadas em diferentes estaçõ...

  5. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-02-28

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  6. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  7. Efeito das variações de temperatura na transferência de cargas em juntas de pavimentos de concreto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Colim

    Full Text Available Medidas de deflexões com o falling weight deflectometer permitiram a avaliação do comportamento de juntas em pavimentos de concreto simples do ponto de vista de sua eficiência de transferência de cargas (LTE. As investigações mostraram importantes variações nesse parâmetro, quando não há dispositivos de transferência de cargas, entre horários de dias bem como entre estações climáticas distintas (inverno e verão; enquanto que juntas com barras de transferência apresentam, pouca variação nesse parâmetro e encontrando-se em geral entre 90 e 100% de capacidade de transferência, quando há quedas de temperatura, as juntas sem barras chegam a apresentar capacidade de transferência reduzida para 50% no inverno e para 60% no verão. Valores estimados de transferência de carga com um programa de elementos finitos permitiram confirmar a necessidade de tratamento teórico do problema em fases de análise estrutural e projetos de pavimentos de concreto com juntas.

  8. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space....... It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing......, providing a clear game design assignment that involves the formulation of intended player experience and a description of game mechanics. The second layer focuses on game design thinking from six different aspects of game design chosen in relation to the framing of the game design assignment. The third...

  9. Helical screw expander evaluation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, R.

    1982-03-01

    A one MW helical rotary screw expander power system for electric power generation from geothermal brine was evaluated. The technology explored in the testing is simple, potentially very efficient, and ideally suited to wellhead installations in moderate to high enthalpy, liquid dominated field. A functional one MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing, operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000 kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.

  10. Seal-less cryogenic expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, L.E.; Christopher, E.H.

    1987-01-01

    In an expander for use in a split Stirling cycle refrigeration system of the type wherein a displacer moves with reciprocating motion inside an expander housing, and wherein a plunger force and a regenerator force are formed on the displacer, the plunger force cyclically varying and having a time of minimum and maximum plunger force amplitude, and the regenerator force cyclically varying and having a time of minimum and maximum regenerator force amplitude, the improvement is described comprising: (a) means for maintaining displacer forces, such that the maximum plunger force amplitude is substantially equal to the maximum regenerator force amplitude; and (b) means for adjusting a time difference, the time difference being the time between the time of maximum plunger force and the time of maximum regenerator force such that a measure of the cooling power of the refrigeration system is maximized

  11. Variação estacional na qualidade do sêmen de carneiros Lacaune no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneder Rosana Oberst

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucos dados sobre a produção de sêmen da raça Lacaune, no sul do país. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a produção e a qualidade do sêmen de carneiros desta raça, criados no estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Foram utilizados 12 carneiros, de idades entre 1-4 anos, criados em condições intensivas. O sêmen foi colhido por vagina artificial e foram avaliadas as características quantitativas e qualitativas e a circunferência escrotal, do inverno de 2002 até a primavera de 2003. Com exceção da concentração espermática, foram observadas variações estacionais em todas as características estudadas. O volume variou de 1.1 ± 0.4 mL, no inverno de 2002, a 1.5 ± 0.4 mL no outono de 2003. O número total de espermatozóides por ejaculado variou de 4.0 ± 3.3x10(9 (inverno de 2002 a 5.7 ± 3.3x10(9 (verão de 2003. Observou-se variação estacional significativa (P < 0,05 na circunferência escrotal em 2002, bem como variação significativa entre as idades dos animais, no inverno do mesmo ano. Os valores médios da produção espermática observados no verão e o outono foram superiores aos obtidos no inverno e primavera. O verão e outono foram considerados as estações mais indicadas para a utilização de machos da raça Lacaune em programas reprodutivos, no RS. Mais estudos devem ser conduzidos, para a verificação de efeitos estacionais sobre o congelamento do sêmen.

  12. Conservation of ParaHox genes' function in patterning of the digestive tract of the marine gastropod Gibbula varia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiner Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presence of all three ParaHox genes has been described in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but to date one of these three genes, Xlox has not been reported from any ecdysozoan taxa and both Xlox and Gsx are absent in nematodes. There is evidence that the ParaHox genes were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. Colinear expression of the ParaHox genes in anterior, middle, and posterior tissues of several species studied so far suggest that these genes may be responsible for axial patterning of the digestive tract. So far, there are no data on expression of these genes in molluscs. Results We isolated the complete coding sequences of the three Gibbula varia ParaHox genes, and then tested their expression in larval and postlarval development. In Gibbula varia, the ParaHox genes participate in patterning of the digestive tract and are expressed in some cells of the neuroectoderm. The expression of these genes coincides with the gradual formation of the gut in the larva. Gva-Gsx patterns potential neural precursors of cerebral ganglia as well as of the apical sensory organ. During larval development this gene is involved in the formation of the mouth and during postlarval development it is expressed in the precursor cells involved in secretion of the radula, the odontoblasts. Gva-Xolx and Gva-Cdx are involved in gut patterning in the middle and posterior parts of digestive tract, respectively. Both genes are expressed in some ventral neuroectodermal cells; however the expression of Gva-Cdx fades in later larval stages while the expression of Gva-Xolx in these cells persists. Conclusions In Gibbula varia the ParaHox genes are expressed during anterior-posterior patterning of the digestive system. This colinearity is not easy to spot during early larval stages because the differentiated endothelial cells within the yolk permanently migrate to their destinations in the gut. After torsion, Gsx patterns the mouth and foregut

  13. Expanding Business With Effective Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Lehto, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis process was to investigate networking, personal selling and Russian markets in order to create a clear view of what is vital for effective networking in Russia. The objective of the study was to observe the case company´s readiness for expanding operations to Russia as well as analyzing the company´s existing values and how they could be developed further. Additionally the purpose of the thesis was to give recommendations of the factors needed to be developed and suggest...

  14. Variação na concordância verbal com "a gente" no português europeu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Florêncio Rubio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo atestar que a concordância verbal com a forma pronominal a gente constitui fenômeno variável no português europeu. As amostras, estratificadas de forma equânime em relação às variáveis sociais escolaridade, faixa etária e gênero, provém do Corpus de Referência do Português Contemporâneo. Para a análise, recorremos à Teoria da Variação Linguística (LABOV, 1972, 1994. Os resultados apontam, no fenômeno variável, o predomínio do uso da terceira pessoa do singular condicionado pelos fatores linguísticos explicitude do sujeito e tempo e modo verbal e pelos fatores sociais escolaridade, faixa etária e gênero.

  15. Variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro ornamental, Ananas bracteatus Schultes var.striatus (Bromeliaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar a ocorrência de variação somaclonal em A. bracteatus var. striatus, foi realizado um ensaio em que foram estabelecidas in vitro gemas de hastes caulinares de mudas do tipo filhote, submetidas a sete subcultivos e quantificadas, em porcentagem, as médias dos diferentes tipos de mudas. Como resultado, foram constatados três tipos de variantes somaclonais assim classificados e quantificados: A. bracteatus Verde (80,13 %, A. bracteatus Albino (15,93 % e A. bracteatus Variegado (3,94 %. Coletadas ao acaso, vinte mudas de cada tipo de variante som A. bracteatus var. striatusaclonal foram mantidas ex vitro por 160 dias, mantendo suas características variantes.

  16. Variação de conduta cirúrgica em doença degenerativa da coluna lombar

    OpenAIRE

    Novaes,Luís Felipe Pamplona; Risso Neto,Marcelo Ítalo; Veiga,Ivan Guidolin; Pasqualini,Wagner; Cavali,Paulo Tadeu Maia; Landim,Elcio

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: examinar a variação da decisão de tratamento entre cirurgiões de coluna para cinco situações clínicas que envolvam condições degenerativas da coluna lombar e determinar se fatores como tipo de treinamento do cirurgião, experiência e idade são como preditores da tomada de decisões para cada caso. MÉTODOS: dez ortopedistas e dez neurocirurgiões, de diferentes idades, responderam questões sobre a necessidade de cirurgia, opções de via de acesso, realização de descompressão, realização ...

  17. BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIEGATED SCALLOP Chlamys varia (LINNAEUS, 1758. – AS THE BASIS FOR FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Antolović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pectinides are a highly regarded sea product among the consumers. Huge efforts are being made for the development of farming technology. All around the world the local species of the Pectinidae family are being consumed along with some newly introduced species as for example Japanese scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis Jay, 1858. Althougt there are 16 species of shellfish from eastern Adriatic that are offered in Croatian markets, only two species are being farmed. Chlamys varia (variegated scallop is often found in many locations, most often where the s alredy egsist shellfish farming. Many authors believe that farming must be conducted in the hatcheries since the spat settlement on the collectors has proven unsuccessful and dependent of many environmental factors. The research of hatchery cultivation of this species has been described. In most areas where the reproductive cycle has been studied there appear to be two main periods of spawning each year, but the timing can differ between areas, and between years.

  18. Identidades gaúchas : serranos, pampeanos, missioneiros e outras variações em O Tempo e o Vento

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, André

    2007-01-01

    O trabalho aborda as identidades gaúchas representadas por personagens de O Tempo e o Vento na perspectiva de suas variações, focando a diversidade inerente a constituição do tipo humano sul-brasileiro e a pluralidade da formação social rio-grandense, terra fronteiriça e marcada pela mistura de diferentes culturas. Esse traço é marcante no romance histórico de Erico. Está na proposta estética da narrativa: na constituição, arquitetura e desenvolvimento do clã Terra-Cambará. Através da figura ...

  19. Relação entre idade e variação da flexibilidade de bailarinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Huber da Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se o comportamento da flexibilidade, após 8 semanas de aplicação da técnica de alongamento por Facilitação Neuromuscular Proprioceptiva em bailarinas, tem relação com suas idades. A amostra foi obtida de forma intencional, composta por 11 bailarinas na faixa etária de 13 a 16 anos. Realizou-se avaliação da flexibilidade angular dos movimentos de flexão (com o joelho estendido, abdução e rotação externa do quadril através da goniometria e da flexibilidade linear com a Caixa de Sentar e Alcançar de Wells, antes e após o período experimental de oito semanas, com duas intervenções semanais, utilizando a técnica de FNP. Para análise, usou-se estatística descritiva, teste t e correlação linear de Pearson. Adotou-se significância de 5%. Somente a variação da rotação externa e da Caixa de Sentar e Alcançar, durante o período experimental, apresentaram correlação estatisticamente significativa com a idade das bailarinas, porém, essa correlação ainda assim foi bastante fraca. Pode-se perceber que praticamente não houve relação entre a variação da flexibilidade com a idade da amostra.

  20. Influenţa microflorei intestinale asupra variaţiei titrelor de anticorpi postvaccinali contra pseudopestei aviare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STARCIUC Nicolae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigations are based on determining the influence of intestinal microflora variation on the level of postvaccination antibody titers against Newcastle disease. Thus, several chicken groups were vaccinated and implicitly, there were taken samples for making subsequent serological tests in order to determine the antibody titers and also intestinal lavages to determine microflora. As a result, it was determined that the variation of qualitative intestinal microflora is insignificant and the level of maternal antibody titers against Newcastle disease, at the age of one day, is quite high and it is able to protect chickens up to the age of 15-20 days, when the first vaccination is recommended. Rezumat. Investigaţiile se bazează pe determinarea influenţei variaţiei microflorei intestinale asupra nivelului titrelor de anticorpi postvaccinali împotriva bolii Newcastle. Astfel, mai multe loturi de pui au fost supuse vaccinării, implicit s-au recoltat probe pentru testele serologice ulterioare de determinare a titrelor de anticorpi şi lavaje prelevate de la nivel intestinal, pentru determinarea microflorei. S-a stabilit că variaţia microflorei intestinale calitativă este nesemnificativă şi că nivelul titrelor de anticorpi maternali contra pseudopestei aviare, la vârsta de o zi, este destul de mare, capabil să protejeze puii de găină până la o vârstă de aproximativ 15-20 de zile, atunci când se recomandă prima vaccinare la pui.

  1. Variações experimentais: um estudo sobre a narrativa em A trégua, de Primo Levi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Caldas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende contribuir com a discussão sobre a narrativa a partir de uma leitura de A trégua, de Primo Levi. Publicado em 1963, A trégua é o segundo livro de Primo Levi, concluído dezesseis anos após É isto um homem?, e traz uma questão inquietante: por um lado, o livro, ao contar a história do retorno de Primo Levi para sua casa, em Turim, após ser libertado do campo de concentração de Auschwitz, é também uma narrativa de reencontro com a própria humanidade; por outro lado, o autor, no final, admite sua angústia ao reconhecer que o mal de Auschwitz permanecerá para sempre com ele. Portanto, o que muda? Como contar uma narrativa que não elabora uma mudança essencial, mas episódios possivelmente aleatórios? Neste sentido, proponho o conceito de uma narrativa estruturada a partir de “variações experimentais” em torno à experiência de trégua. Formulação retirada de uma das mais marcantes caracterizações do livro, o menino Hurbinek, em cujo nome Levi testemunha, as “variações experimentais” podem ser compreendidas como uma alternativa ao impasse acima entre episódios expressivos e sua relativa incapacidade de gerar alguma mudança significativa no sentido histórico do Holocausto.

  2. Computação simbólica em Maple no cálculo das variações

    OpenAIRE

    Louro, Andreia Marques Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Ao longo desta disserta c~ao vamos explorar o sistema de computa c~ao alg ebrica Maple 9.5, com a nalidade de identi car e ilustrar as suas potencialidades e fraquezas na area do C alculo das Varia c~oes: uma ar ea cl assica da Matem atica que estuda os m etodos que permitem encontrar valores m aximos e min mos de funcionais do tipo integral. Come camos por formular o problema elementar do C alculo das Varia c~oes e por apresentar a resolu c~ao de diversos problemas soluc...

  3. As variações linguísticas em sala de aula: especificidades da Amazônia As variações linguísticas em sala de aula: especificidades da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avany Aparecida GARCIA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problems related to the treatment of linguistic variation in the classroom, compared to a traditional pedagogy that also sees the standard as a reference standard only legitimate language education at the expense of linguistic diversity, taken, in this case, as the parameter of social stigmatization. Therefore aims to disseminate current trends of language education that excels in ensuring the citizens of instruments for social action, through the competent use of language in various situations sociocomunicativas, including those that require the degree of formality. To this end, talks are about theories that the correlation between linguistic and sociocultural phenomena, pointing to factors that emphasize the linguistic and cultural diversity in the Amazon region, particularly in the state of Rondonia, and the implications of these peculiarities in teaching language. It is emphasized, then, the importance of school and teachers to recognize linguistic variations in the raw material for systematic work with the mother tongue, from the identification and description of events, making explicit the social consequences of each choice among various options offered by the language. From this perspective, are related examples of practical activities and proposals that explore the linguistic and cultural variations in classroom.Este artigo aborda a problemática relacionada ao tratamento da variação linguística em sala de aula, frente a uma pedagogia tradicional que, ainda, concebe a norma-padrão como referencial único e legítimo de ensino de língua, em detrimento da diversidade linguística, tomada, nesse caso, como parâmetro de estigmatização social. Visa, assim, disseminar tendências atuais de uma educação linguística que prima pela garantia aos cidadãos dos instrumentos necessários à sua atuação social, por meio do uso competente da linguagem nas diversas situações sociocomunicativas, inclusive nas que

  4. Leak detection with expandable coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Developed and evaluated is a system for leak detection that can be easily applied over separable connectors and that expands into a bubble or balloon if a leak is present. This objective is accomplished by using thin films of Parafilm tape wrapped over connectors, which are then overcoated with a special formulation. The low yield strength and the high elongation of the envelope permit bubble formation if leakage occurs. This system is appropriate for welds and other hardware besides separable connectors. The practical limit of this system appears to be for leaks exceeding 0.000001 cc/sec. If this envelope is used to trap gases for mass spectrometer inspection, leaks in the range of ten to the minus 8th power cc/sec. may be detectable.

  5. OCT Expanded Clinical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Baalen, Mary; Tafreshi, Ali; Patel, Nimesh; Young, Millennia; Mason, Sara; Otto, Christian; Samuels, Brian; Koslovsky, Matthew; Schaefer, Caroline; Taiym, Wafa; hide

    2017-01-01

    Vision changes identified in long duration space fliers has led to a more comprehensive clinical monitoring protocol. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was recently implemented on board the International Space Station in 2013. NASA is collaborating with Heidelberg Engineering to expand our current OCT data analysis capability by implementing a volumetric approach. Volumetric maps will be created by combining the circle scan, the disc block scan, and the radial scan. This assessment may provide additional information about the optic nerve and further characterize changes related microgravity exposure. We will discuss challenges with collection and analysis of OCT data, present the results of this reanalysis and outline the potential benefits and limitations of the additional data.

  6. Instability of expanding bacterial droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Rubio, Leonardo Dominguez; Brady, John F; Aranson, Igor S

    2018-04-03

    Suspensions of motile bacteria or synthetic microswimmers, termed active matter, manifest a remarkable propensity for self-organization, and formation of large-scale coherent structures. Most active matter research deals with almost homogeneous in space systems and little is known about the dynamics of strongly heterogeneous active matter. Here we report on experimental and theoretical studies on the expansion of highly concentrated bacterial droplets into an ambient bacteria-free fluid. The droplet is formed beneath a rapidly rotating solid macroscopic particle inserted in the suspension. We observe vigorous instability of the droplet reminiscent of a violent explosion. The phenomenon is explained in terms of continuum first-principle theory based on the swim pressure concept. Our findings provide insights into the dynamics of active matter with strong density gradients and significantly expand the scope of experimental and analytic tools for control and manipulation of active systems.

  7. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  8. SHEAR ACCELERATION IN EXPANDING FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, F. M. [ZAH, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Duffy, P., E-mail: frank.rieger@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: peter.duffy@ucd.ie [University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2016-12-10

    Shear flows are naturally expected to occur in astrophysical environments and potential sites of continuous non-thermal Fermi-type particle acceleration. Here we investigate the efficiency of expanding relativistic outflows to facilitate the acceleration of energetic charged particles to higher energies. To this end, the gradual shear acceleration coefficient is derived based on an analytical treatment. The results are applied to the context of the relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei. The inferred acceleration timescale is investigated for a variety of conical flow profiles (i.e., power law, Gaussian, Fermi–Dirac) and compared to the relevant radiative and non-radiative loss timescales. The results exemplify that relativistic shear flows are capable of boosting cosmic-rays to extreme energies. Efficient electron acceleration, on the other hand, requires weak magnetic fields and may thus be accompanied by a delayed onset of particle energization and affect the overall jet appearance (e.g., core, ridge line, and limb-brightening).

  9. Ausência de variação da flexibilidade durante o ciclo menstrual em universitárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Christianne Pereira Giesbrecht

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTAÇÃO: Algumas variáveis da aptidão física são marcadamente influenciadas pelas fases do ciclo menstrual (CM; contudo, há pouca informação sobre eventuais modificações na flexibilidade. OBJETIVO: Analisar o comportamento da flexibilidade corporal - global, por articulação e por movimento - em mulheres adultas jovens nas diferentes fases do CM. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se uma amostra de 15 mulheres. O grupo experimental (GE foi constituído de alunas eumenorréicas, enquanto o grupo controle (GC incluía alunas em uso regular havia pelo menos um mês de anticoncepcional oral (AO. Dados referentes ao período menstrual e ao uso de AO foram obtidos através da aplicação de um questionário. A flexibilidade foi avaliada pelo Flexiteste, permitindo uma análise da flexibilidade global (Flexíndice, por articulação, por movimento e em sua variabilidade. Os Flexíndices foram ainda comparados com os correspondentes percentis para gênero e idade. Para a análise estatística das três medidas do GE - fases folicular, ovulatória e lútea - e das duas do GC entre dias cinco e 26 do ciclo, utilizou-se ANOVA ou teste t conforme apropriado. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças na flexibilidade, movimento a movimento ou Flexíndice nas diferentes fases do CM no GE e nas duas medidas do GC (p > 0,05. O percentil do Flexíndice para o GC variou de 14 a 35 e no GE, de 14 a 80. Analisando as articulações e os índices de variabilidade, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas com as fases do CM (p > 0,05, com a exceção do índice de variabilidade distal-proximal entre as fases ovulatória e folicular no GE. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados obtidos não corroboram a impressão empírica de que a flexibilidade varia durante as fases do CM. Não se pode, contudo, afastar a hipótese de que a ausência de variações tenha ocorrido devido a alguma característica da amostra ou por limitações do Flexiteste em identificar mínimas varia

  10. Attitudes toward expanding nurses' authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzman, Hana; Van Dijk, Dina; Eizenberg, Limor; Khaikin, Rut; Phridman, Shoshi; Siman-Tov, Maya; Goldberg, Shoshi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of care procedures previously under the physician's authority have been placed in the hands of registered nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of nurses towards expanding nurses' authority and the relationships between these attitudes and job satisfaction facets, professional characteristics, and demographics. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 in three major medical centers in Israel. Participants included 833 nurses working in 89 departments. Attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority were assessed by self-report questionnaire, as well as job satisfaction facets including perception of professional autonomy, nurse-physician working relations, workload and burnout, perceptions of quality of care, and nursing staff satisfaction at work. Nurses reported positive attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority and moderate attitudes for interpretation of diagnostic tests in selected situations. The results of multivariate regression analyses demonstrate that the nurses' satisfaction from professional autonomy and work relations were the most influential factors in explaining their attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority. In addition, professionally young nurses tend to be more positive regarding changes in nurses' authority. In the Israeli reality of a nurse's shortage, we are witnessing professional transitions toward expansion of the scope of nurses' accountability and decision-making authority. The current research contributes to our understanding of attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority among the nursing staffs. The findings indicate the necessity of redefining the scope of nursing practice within the current professional context.

  11. Variação na cobertura vegetal nativa em São Paulo: um panorama do conhecimento atual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sampaio Farinaci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos em diversos países têm evidenciado a ocorrência de transição florestal, fenômeno em que o aumento da cobertura florestal supera as perdas por desflorestamento. No Brasil, embora o desflorestamento ocorra em maior grau que a expansão das florestas, é possível que em certas regiões essa relação seja inversa. Levantamentos recentes sugerem a tendência do Estado de São Paulo em direção à transição florestal. Com os objetivos de analisar as evidências dessa transição e facilitar o uso da informação já existente, fez-se uma revisão de quatro fontes de dados sobre a variação da cobertura vegetal nativa em São Paulo (Instituto Florestal, SOS Mata Atlântica/INPE, IBGE e CATI/IEA. Os resultados indicaram que as discrepâncias entre esses levantamentos podem, ao menos em parte, ser atribuídas a diferenças metodológicas e de objetivos. Ressaltam-se seus pontos de concordância e discutem-se possibilidades de harmonização dessas informações.

  12. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  13. Efeito das variações biométricas de mudas clonais de eucalipto sobre o crescimento no campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Afonso Mazzei Moura de Assis Figueiredo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da variação de altura e diâmetro de colo de mudas clonais do híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla sobre o crescimento após o plantio nos sítios de Aracruz-ES, Mucuri-BA, Montanha-ES e Carlos Chagas-MG. As classes selecionadas foram: mudas altas e grossas (AG, mudas altas com diâmetro médio (AM, mudas médias com diâmetro grosso (MG, mudas médias com diâmetro médio (MM, mudas pequenas com diâmetro médio (PM e mudas pequenas com diâmetro fino (PF. Os valores dessas classes foram: altura: A (31-40 cm, M (21-30 cm e P (10-20 cm; diâmetro: G (3,1-4,0 mm, M (2,1-3,0 mm e F (1,5-2,0 mm. As mudas, 90 dias após o transplantio nos tubetes e consideradas rustificadas, foram plantadas e as avaliações de altura (H e diâmetro (D, feitas no 1°, 2°, 3°, 6° e 12° meses. A massa de matéria seca de folhas, lenho, casca, galhos e raízes finas, médias e grossas foram avaliadas no sexto mês. Mudas com maiores dimensões de altura e diâmetro apresentaram maior crescimento inicial, mas as diferenças tenderam a diminuir ao longo do tempo. O sítio de Carlos Chagas teve as piores condições para o crescimento das plantas.

  14. CÁLCULO DE LOS COSTOS DE CALIDAD EN LA UNIDAD EMPRESARIAL DE BASE PRODUCCIONES VARIAS, CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo de los costos de calidad como elemento integrante del Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, es una necesidad para los directivos de las empresas cubanas, al constituir una técnica identificada como instrumento avanzado de gestión, que permitirá mejorar la competitividad y servir de fuente informativa. Identificar y calcular los costos de calidad, así como proponer planes de medidas, que propicien una disminución de los gastos operativos, lo cual puede ser utilizado como herramienta para mejorar los procesos. La Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias de Cienfuegos presenta el diagnóstico para dar paso al Perfeccionamiento Empresarial y a la certificación de su Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, según la Norma NC-ISO 9001:2008 y el decreto Ley 281, por lo que el objetivo de la investigación fue calcular los costos de calidad por procesos en dicha empresa. Para lograrlo se utilizaron métodos de nivel empírico y técnicas como la observación directa, revisión documental y el trabajo en grupos, lo cual permitió calcular los costos de calidad en todos los procesos. Los resultados alcanzados son aplicables a empresas que operan en la economía cubana y según el modelo económico cubano puesto en práctica a partir del año 2011.

  15. Variação linguística numa zona rural portuguesa: estudo dialetológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeste Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho pretende contribuir para umconhecimento mais pormenorizado de determinadas característicaslinguísticas sujeitas a mudança nos falarespopulares da área geográfica do concelho do Fundão(Portugal, à luz das contribuições da SociolinguísticaVariacionista e da Geografia Linguística. Privilegiando-se,assim, uma abordagem sociolinguística, pretendemos descreveruma variedade do Português Europeu contemporâneo:o falar ou variedade da Beira-Baixa, e, em particular,do Concelho do Fundão. É, deste modo, nosso objetivoexplicitar as circunstâncias em que determinados fonemassão espontaneamente produzidos, avaliar a frequência derealização de variáveis linguísticas previamente selecionadase detetar a sua distribuição em função de grupossociais diversos.Através das quarenta e três entrevistas aplicadas,caracterizaremos os seguintes fenómenos: a monotongaçãodo ditongo ei; a palatalização de /u/ em [y]; a palatalizaçãocondicionada de /a/ em [ε]; a palatalização do /o/ provenienteda monotongação do antigo ditongo [ow] em [ø]; alabialização da vogal /e/ em [oe].Palavras-Chave: Variação, Sociolinguística, FenómenosFonético-Fonológicos.

  16. A variação denominativa nos textos especializados da aromaterapia: o caso da unidade terminológica Alecrim = Rosemary variation within Aromatherapy texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Munhoz Albano

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva discutir a variação da planta Alecrim, no âmbito da denominação científica e popular, na ótica do prescritivismo das teorias da variação linguística. A análise concentra-se nas variantes terminológicas em consonância com seu uso.This article aims to discuss variation with respect to the scientific and common denominations of the Rosemary plant, based on the approach of prescription of the theories of linguistic variation. The analysis focuses on the terminological variants in consonance with their use by experts in the field.

  17. Gramática e escola: considerações sobre variação linguística e ensino de língua portuguesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Biasutti Valadares

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta algumas noções de concepções de gramática, de ensino e de variação linguística; expõe conceitos relativos à gramática e à variação linguística; discute alguns aspectos acerca de ensino de língua portuguesa e gramática na escola, sob a perspectiva das variedades da língua e explicita questões presentes nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais; conclui que a escola ainda vem mantendo o ensino de língua portuguesa centrado em concepções prescritivas.

  18. Estudo da variação do perfil químico de citros com HLB e sadios, buscando informações sobre mecanismo de defesa

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Sayuri Bellete

    2014-01-01

    O presente trabalho descreve o estudo da variação do perfil químico de citros após a inoculação da bactéria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, responsável pelo Huanglongbing (ex-greening) que é uma das doenças mais sérias causadoras de prejuízos na citricultura brasileira. Para isso, inoculou-se a Ca. Liberibacter em mudas de a Valência (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) enxertadas em Swingle (Citrus paradisi X Poncirus trifoliata) e avaliou-se a variação dos metabólitos secundários através do des...

  19. Flexible PVC flame retarded with expandable graphite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, WW

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The utility of expandable graphite as a flame retardant for PVC, plasticized with 60 phr of a phosphate ester, was investigated. Cone calorimeter results, at a radiant flux of 35 kW m 2, revealed that adding only 5 wt.% expandable graphite lowered...

  20. Variação sazonal e interanual na dinâmica populacional de Croton blanchetianus em uma floresta tropical seca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabelle Silva Nascimento

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado em uma área de caatinga em Pernambuco. Buscou-se avaliar a dinâmica de Croton blanchetianus em função da variação de precipitação entre estações climáticas e entre anos. Todos os indivíduos de C. blanchetianus presentes nas parcelas amostradas foram monitorados mensalmente, durante dois anos consecutivos. Houve diferença significativa de novas plântulas de C. blanchetianus entre estações e entre anos. Considerando a variação de precipitação entre anos, o comportamento da população parece ter sofrido pouca influência, pois apenas 14,8% de novas plântulas nessa população podem ser explicados pela variação de precipitação entre estações e entre anos. O poder de explicação da mortalidade pelo modelo linear generalizado foi de 1,4%, considerando a interação entre sazonalidade e variação interanual de precipitação. Diante desse contexto, torna-se necessário uma abordagem mais ampla do ponto de vista ecológico, para avaliar quais fatores ambientais são decisivos e podem estar direcionando o ritmo de renovação dessa população no tempo.

  1. Two common and problematic leucochrysine species – Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa varia (Schneider and L. (L. pretiosa (Banks (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae: redescriptions and synonymies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tauber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Leucochrysa McLachlan is the largest genus in the Chrysopidae, yet it has received relatively little taxonomic attention. We treat two problematic and common Leucochrysa species – Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa varia (Schneider, 1851 and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa pretiosa (Banks, 1910. Both are highly variable in coloration and were described before the systematic importance of chrysopid genitalia was recognized. Recent studies show that these species occur within a large complex of cryptic species and that they have accumulated a number of taxonomic problems. We identify new synonymies for each of the species – for L. (L. varia: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa ampla (Walker, 1853, Leucochrysa internata (Walker, 1853, and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa walkerina Navás, 1913; for L. (L. pretiosa: Leucochrysa erminea Banks 1946. The synonymy of Leucochrysa delicata Navás 1925 with L. (L. pretiosa is stabilized by the designation of a neotype. The following species, which were previously synonymized with L. (L. varia or L. (L. pretiosa, are reinstated as valid: Leucochrysa phaeocephala Navás 1929, Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa angrandi (Navás, 1911, and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa variata (Navás, 1913. Finally, Leucochrysa vegana Navás 1917 is considered a nomen dubium.

  2. O tratamento da diversidade e variação linguísticas em livros didáticos de Português

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Goulart Morais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, analiso como a diversidade e a variação linguísticas são tratadas nos Livros Didáticos de Português (LDP nos anos finais do ensino fundamental, na tentativa de problematizar como as atividades propostas nesses materiais didáticos tematizam conceitos sociolinguísticos importantes, tais como o conceito de norma e as relações entre fala e escrita e oralidade e letramento. As análises dos dados validaram a nossa hipótese de que nos LDP, que circulam atualmente nas escolas brasileiras, ainda predomina a submissão das marcas da diversidade e da variação linguísticas aos processos de normatização da língua, mesmo onde se propõe apresentar e discutir a variação linguística. As análises validaram, também, o nosso entendimento de que tais atividades dos LDP fazem parte do processo de valorização da norma padrão como a única variedade legítima e a modalidade escrita formal como aquela gramaticalmente organizada.

  3. Time to Grow: Year Two Report on ExpandED Schools. A TASC Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traill, Saskia; Brohawn, Katie

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of data from the second year of The After-School Corporation's (TASC's) national demonstration of an expanded school day for elementary and middle school students shows that ExpandED Schools improved school culture, decreased rates of students' chronic absenteeism and helped students develop positive learning habits and attitudes.…

  4. A-coupled-expanding and distributional chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cholsan; Ju, Hyonhui; Chen, Minghao; Raith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The concept of A-coupled-expanding maps is one of the more natural and useful ideas generalized from the horseshoe map which is commonly known as a criterion of chaos. It is well known that distributional chaos is one of the concepts which reflect strong chaotic behavior. In this paper, we focus on the relationship between A-coupled-expanding and distributional chaos. We prove two theorems which give sufficient conditions for a strictly A-coupled-expanding map to be distributionally chaotic in the senses of two kinds, where A is an m × m irreducible transition matrix

  5. Establishment of mouse expanded potential stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Ryan, David J; Wang, Wei; Tsang, Jason Cheuk-Ho; Lan, Guocheng; Masaki, Hideki; Gao, Xuefei; Antunes, Liliana; Yu, Yong; Zhu, Zhexin; Wang, Juexuan; Kolodziejczyk, Aleksandra A; Campos, Lia S; Wang, Cui; Yang, Fengtang; Zhong, Zhen; Fu, Beiyuan; Eckersley-Maslin, Melanie A; Woods, Michael; Tanaka, Yosuke; Chen, Xi; Wilkinson, Adam C; Bussell, James; White, Jacqui; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Reik, Wolf; Göttgens, Berthold; Teichmann, Sarah A; Tam, Patrick P L; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Zou, Xiangang; Lu, Liming; Liu, Pentao

    2017-10-19

    Mouse embryonic stem cells derived from the epiblast contribute to the somatic lineages and the germline but are excluded from the extra-embryonic tissues that are derived from the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm upon reintroduction to the blastocyst. Here we report that cultures of expanded potential stem cells can be established from individual eight-cell blastomeres, and by direct conversion of mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Remarkably, a single expanded potential stem cell can contribute both to the embryo proper and to the trophectoderm lineages in a chimaera assay. Bona fide trophoblast stem cell lines and extra-embryonic endoderm stem cells can be directly derived from expanded potential stem cells in vitro. Molecular analyses of the epigenome and single-cell transcriptome reveal enrichment for blastomere-specific signature and a dynamic DNA methylome in expanded potential stem cells. The generation of mouse expanded potential stem cells highlights the feasibility of establishing expanded potential stem cells for other mammalian species.

  6. Composição química e variação sazonal dos óleos essenciais de Eugenia pyriformis (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanello, Maria É.A.; Wisniewski Jr., Alberto; Simionatto, Edésio L.; Cervi, Armando C.

    2009-01-01

    A composição química dos óleos essenciais obtidos por hidrodestilação de folhas (coletadas entre outubro/2005 e dezembro/2006), flores e frutos de Eugenia pyriformis Camb. (Myrtaceae), foi analisada por CG e CG/EM. Os óleos foram caracterizados pela presença de monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos em quantidades variáveis durante o ano. Nos óleos das folhas os principais componentes foram β-pineno, limoneno, 1,8-cineol e óxido de cariofileno. O teor destes compostos mostrou grande variação sazo...

  7. Caracterização da variação temporal da massa de matéria seca de plantas de milho

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Pinto da Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Com o objetivo de caracterizar a variação temporal da massa de matéria seca de plantas de milho, foram conduzidos experimentos de campo na área experimental do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Universidade de São Paulo em Piracicaba, SP (latitude: 22o42\\'30\\'\\' Sul, longitude: 47o38\\'00\\'\\' Oeste, e altitude: 546 metros), na safra 2003/2004 (semeadura: 20 de setembro de 2003). Foram utilizados três genótipos de milho, BRS-1001, BRS-1010 e BRS-3003, sob condições de sequeiro e irrigado, com...

  8. Variação temporal do gradiente radial de o/h a partir de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, W. J.; Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.

    2003-08-01

    Gradientes radiais de abundância são observados no disco de nossa Galáxia e também em outras galáxias espirais. No caso da Galáxia, o principal problema relativo aos gradientes é sua variação temporal, que constitui um dos principais vínculos aos modelos de evolução química da Galáxia. As nebulosas planetárias são particularmente interessantes no estudo dos gradientes e suas variações, tanto espaciais como temporais. São objetos brilhantes, podendo ser observadas a grandes distâncias, e têm abundâncias relativamente precisas de diversos elementos químicos. Além disso, sendo originadas de estrelas com massas entre 0.8 e 8 massas solares na sequência principal, incluem objetos com idades e populações diferentes, o que as torna especialmente interessantes ao estudo da variação temporal dos gradientes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos resultados recentes sobre a variação temporal do gradiente de O/H a partir de uma amostra contendo cerca de 200 nebulosas, para as quais obtivemos distâncias por métodos estatísticos. As abundâncias foram parcialmente obtidas a partir de observações em Itajubá e La Silla, sendo as restantes obtidas da literatura. Os resultados mostram, pela primeira vez, evidências de um achatamento do gradiente de O/H, de -0.11 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 9 giga-anos ou de -0.08 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 5 giga-anos. Esses valores apresentam um bom acordo com alguns modelos recentes para a evolução química da Galáxia. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  9. Análise das variações anatômicas do canal da mandíbula encontradas em radiografias panorâmicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yza Daniella Nunes Andrade

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: No âmbito da clínica odontológica, o bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior é o mais utilizado; todavia, diversos estudos têm mostrado as mais altas taxas de fracasso, as quais, normalmente, têm como motivo a falha na observação da posição, da forma e da anatomia dos nervos. Essas falhas decorrentes da variação anatômica do nervo alveolar inferior já vêm sendo estudadas na literatura, através de estudos com a análise de radiografias panorâmicas, como proposto neste estudo. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência e a prevalência das variações anatômicas, bem como a correlação das variações do canal da mandíbula com lado e sexo, que podem ocorrer no canal mandibular, por meio de radiografias panorâmicas de pacientes atendidos no Departamento de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram analisadas 1.500 radiografias panorâmicas de pacientes atendidos pelo Departamento de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS. Imagens radiográficas foram observadas sobre um negatoscópio, utilizando-se uma máscara preta ao redor das radiografias, em ambiente com luminosidade apropriada. RESULTADO: Neste estudo, foram observados 5,3% de bifurcações do canal mandibular; 47,5% de canais altos; 16,8% de canais intermediários; 27,1% de canais baixos, e 8,6% de canais com outras variações. CONCLUSÃO: Baseando-se na altura do canal mandibular, houve maior prevalência dos canais altos do que os demais nas mulheres, sendo que não houve diferenças entre os gêneros com relação aos demais tipos e lados afetados. Na classificação dos canais bífidos, não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre homens e mulheres. Observou-se que a maior prevalência foi para canais sem bifurcação.

  10. Bank Directors’ Perceptions of Expanded Auditor's Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boolaky, Pran Krishansing; Quick, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    Subsequent to the financial crisis, standard setters developed suggestions for enhancing the audit function, in order to increase financial stability. One related idea is to expand the audit report disclosed to the public, to ensure that it is fit for purpose. This study investigates the impact...... of expanded audit reports, namely information on the assurance level, materiality levels and key audit matters (KAM), on bank director perceptions of the quality of the financial statements, the audit and the audit report, as well as on their credit approval decisions. We conduct an experiment involving...... a sample of 105 bank directors and use ANCOVA to determine the predictors of bank director perceptions and decisions. Our findings suggest that disclosing the assurance level has a significantly positive impact. In contrast, we cannot demonstrate a material effect of expanding the audit report to include...

  11. Theoretical models for recombination in expanding gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avron, Y.; Kahane, S.

    1978-09-01

    In laser isotope separation of atomic uranium, one is confronted with the theoretical problem of estimating the concentration of thermally ionized uranium atoms. To investigate this problem theoretical models for recombination in an expanding gas and in the absence of local thermal equilibrium have been constructed. The expansion of the gas is described by soluble models of the hydrodynamic equation, and the recombination by rate equations. General results for the freezing effect for the suitable ranges of the gas parameters are obtained. The impossibility of thermal equilibrium in expanding two-component systems is proven

  12. Expanding your horizons in science and mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Through the presentation of its Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics career education conferences for secondary school young women, the Math/Science Network continues its efforts to remove the educational, psychological, and cultural barriers which prevent women from entering math-and science-based careers. The Expanding Your Horizons conferences were presented on 77 college, university and high school campuses across the United States. This year, these unique one day conferences reached 15,500 students, 3,000 parents and educators, and involved 3,000 career women who volunteered their services as conference planners, workshop leaders, speakers, and role models.

  13. Aspectos micromorfológicos da interface adesiva em função da variação no preparo do espécime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABOIA Vicente de Paulo Aragão

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi mostrar os diferentes padrões micromorfológicos da interface adesiva que podem ser encontrados em fragmentos de um mesmo espécime em função da variação de fatores durante o processamento dos mesmos para análise em MEV. Para isso, cilindros de resina foram cimentados na dentina da superfície oclusal de terceiros molares inclusos recém-extraídos e posteriormente seccionados longitudinalmente para observação no MEV. Os resultados obtidos indicaram uma grande variação no direcionamento e comprimento dos "tags". Isso indica a necessidade de uma padronização dos sítios de dentina, angulação de seccionamento dos espécimes e escolha de fragmentos a serem visualizados, a fim de evitar possíveis erros de interpretação ao se analisar a eficiência da penetração dos sistemas adesivos.

  14. Variação da densidade básica da madeira de progênies de Eucalyptus urophylla em dois locais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Mourão Brasil

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Estudou-se neste trabalho a variação da densidade básica da madeira entre procedências e progênies de eucalipto plantados em duas localidades. As progênies de Eucalyptus urophylla originárias da ilha de Timor na Indonésia foram plantadas em Belo Oriente (MG e Linhares (ES no delineamento de blocos compactos em famílias (compact family blocks com 3 repetições no espaçamento de 3,0 x 2,0m. Após 4 anos as  árvores  foram amostradas ao nível do DAP com a sonda Pressler e sua densidade básica determinada pelo método do máximo teor de umidade. Os resultados mostraram que as progênies tiveram  comportamento similar nos dois locais. A maior variação entre progênies ocorreu naquelas provenientes da região Oebaha II. Os valores médios de densidade básica* das progênies não foram diferentes das procedências brasileiras utilizadas como testemunhas no experimento.

  15. Proteinas do liquido cefalorraqueano: II. Valores normais das frações proteicas obtidas por eletroforese (variações ligadas a cor, sexo e idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. Singer Vermes

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediante dosagens de proteínas totais e eletroforese sobre acetato de celulose de 213 amostras de LCR normal, obtidas por punção da cisterna magna, foram efetuados estudos para verificação de variações ligadas à cor, sexo e idade. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que: 1. não existem diferenças ligadas à cor no proteinograma do LCR; 2. em crianças, os fatores sexo e idade não influem nos valores estudados; 3. as taxas de proteínas totais e frações protéicas do LCR normal de criança diferem das de homens e de mulheres; 4. em adultos ocorrem variações ligadas ao sexo no proteinograma do LCR; 5. em adultos, proteínas totais e todas frações protéicas, quando expressas em mg/100 ml, aumentam com o avançar da idade. Foram estabelecidas, para a metodologia usada, as taxas fisiológicas do proteinograma do LCR de crianças, homens e mulheres, separadamente.

  16. Circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homburg, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the dynamics of skew product maps defined by circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps. We construct an open class of such systems that are robustly topologically mixing and for which almost all points in the same fiber converge under iteration. This property follows from the

  17. Strengthening youth friendly health services through expanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening youth friendly health services through expanding method choice to include long-acting reversible contraceptives for Ethiopian youth. ... Odds of adopting LARCs at pre-intervention (0.70); rose to 1.30 for the post-intervention phase (p-value <0.0001); comparing intervention to non-intervention study arms.

  18. Expanding economic opportunities in protracted displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Takahashi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Welcome progress has been made towards realising commitments made by international donors and host country governments to expand economic opportunities for Syrian refugees and host communities in neighbouring countries. However targets and commitments also bring new challenges, and evidence must underpin new policies.

  19. Expanded austenite; crystallography and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The identity of expanded austenite as developing during low temperature nitriding and/or carburizing of austenitic stainless steel has been under debate since the very first observation of this phase. In the present article recent results obtained with i) homogeneous samples of various uniform co...

  20. Expanded austenite, crystallography and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The identity of expanded austenite as developing during low temperature nitriding and/or carburising of austenitic stainless steel has been under debate since the very first observation of this phase. In the present article, recent results obtained with (a) homogeneous samples of various uniform ...

  1. Expanding Arts Education in a Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Haeryun; Piro, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a way to expand the study of arts education within new contexts of technology and globalization. Drawing upon theories that have informed arts and aesthetic education in the past, the authors suggest new applications for these ideas to ensure that arts education sustains its significance in twenty-first-century society. The…

  2. FDA Expands Abiraterone Approval for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The FDA has expanded the approval of abiraterone (Zytiga) to treat men with metastatic prostate cancer. The agency approved abiraterone, in combination with prednisone, for men whose cancer that is responsive to hormone-blocking treatments (also known as castration-sensitive) and is at high risk of progressing.

  3. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sulfonated graphene; expanded porphyrins; heterogeneous catalysis; solid acid; non-covalent interaction. 1. Introduction. Graphene, an important allotropic member of carbon, has received much attention owing to its interest- ing properties in material science with wide range of applications in energy devices, electronics, ...

  4. Expanding the applicability of Heallth Technology Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Eva; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the presentation is to expand the foundations of input into policy decision making relying on health technology assessments (HTA). HTAs are primarily based on systematic reviews (SR) and thereby mostly on randomized controlled trials (RCT). RCTs can be distinguished on a continuu...

  5. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe. J S Bagla. Jasjeet Bagla works at the. Harish-Chandra Research. Institute, Allahabad. His research is mainly on cosmology and he is interested in all areas of physics. Keywords. Cosmology, Big Bang, expan- sion of universe. H ubble's nam e is associated closely w ith ...

  6. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 3. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe. J S Bagla. General Article Volume 14 Issue 3 March 2009 pp 216-225. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/014/03/0216-0225 ...

  7. Women Engineering Faculty: Expanding the Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greni, Nadene Deiterman

    2006-01-01

    The purpose for this case study was to explore the features of undergraduate engineering departmental and college support that influenced the persistence of women students. Women engineering faculty members were among the participants at three Land Grant universities in the Midwest. The data revealed the theme, Expanding the Pipeline, and…

  8. CLASSICS WHY THE UNIVERSE IS EXPANDING

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    accuracy, to the product of the particle velocity u and the time t: r = ut. But this is nothing other than Hubble's law of the expanding Universe. Rewriting the formula as u = (1/t)r and putting 1/t = H (Hubble's constant), we obtain u = Hr. So, the two principal similarities of a chemical explosion and the “Big Bang” are: cooling.

  9. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic catalysts and ...

  10. Heptaphyrins: Expanded porphyrins with seven heterocyclic rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    -mail: tkc@iitk.ac.in ... The syntheses of expanded porphyrins continue to attract the attention of chemists because of their diverse .... The aromatic nature of the heptaphyrins, 7–9, was proved by various analytical methods. The Soret-like ...

  11. Heptaphyrins: Expanded porphyrins with seven heterocyclic rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ring inversion. 1. Introduction. The syntheses of expanded porphyrins continue to attract the attention of chemists because of their diverse biological applications such as: anion receptors, photosensitizing agents, MRI contrast agents1 etc. They are also of interest, theoretically, to study the fundamental property of aromaticity ...

  12. Technical Note: Effect of Incorporating Expanded Polystyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Workability which is an important property of concrete, aects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction leads to reduction in both strength and durability of concrete. In this research work, the effect of incorporation of expanded polystyrene aggregate granules in concrete was ...

  13. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Cosmology, Big Bang, expan- sion of universe. H ubble's nam e is associated closely w ith the idea of an expanding universe as he discovered the relation between the recession velocity and the distances of galaxies. H ubble also did a lot of pioneering w ork on the distribution of galaxies in the universe. In this article we ...

  14. Properties of extruded expandable breadfruit products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried breadfruit was extruded with a twin screw extruder to develop a value-added expanded fruit product. This research studied the effects of barrel temperature (120-160°C), moisture content (13-25%), feeding rate (13-25 kg/h) and screw speed (115-175rpm) on physicochemical properties (bulk densit...

  15. Expanding Your Horizons Conference in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Chromek-Burckhart, Doris

    2011-01-01

    CERN and its experiments participated in Expanding Your Horizons (EYH) in Science and Mathematics conference in Geneva on 12th November. EYH nurture girls' interest in science and math courses to encourage them to consider careers in science, technology, engineering, and math.

  16. Expanded Core Curriculum: 12 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeier, Keri; Blankenship, Karen; Hatlen, Phil

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated changes in teachers' and parents' understanding and implementation of or philosophy on the implementation of the content areas of the expanded core curriculum for students who are visually impaired. The results demonstrated some changes since the original survey results were reported in 1998 and a discrepancy between the…

  17. Heat expanded starch-based compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Gregory M; Klamczynski, Artur K; Holtman, Kevin M; Shey, Justin; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Berrios, Jose; Wood, Delilah; Orts, William J; Imam, Syed H

    2007-05-16

    A heat expansion process similar to that used for expanded bead polystyrene was used to expand starch-based compositions. Foam beads made by solvent extraction had the appearance of polystyrene beads but did not expand when heated due to an open-cell structure. Nonporous beads, pellets, or particles were made by extrusion or by drying and milling cooked starch slurries. The samples expanded into a low-density foam by heating 190-210 degrees C for more than 20 s at ambient pressures. Formulations containing starch (50-85%), sorbitol (5-15%), glycerol (4-12%), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL, 5-15%), and water (10-20%) were studied. The bulk density was negatively correlated to sorbitol, glycerol, and water content. Increasing the EVAL content increased the bulk density, especially at concentrations higher than 15%. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) increased the bulk density more than EVAL. The bulk density was lowest in samples made of wheat and potato starch as compared to corn starch. The expansion temperature for the starch pellets decreased more than 20 degrees C as the moisture content was increased from 10 to 25%. The addition of EVAL in the formulations decreased the equilibrium moisture content of the foam and reduced the water absorption during a 1 h soaking period.

  18. Refrigeration generation using expander-generator units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Koryagin, A. V.; Baidakova, Yu. O.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of using the expander-generator unit (EGU) to generate refrigeration, along with electricity were considered. It is shown that, on the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows using the EGU, one can provide the refrigeration supply of the different consumers: ventilation and air conditioning plants and industrial refrigerators and freezers. The analysis of influence of process parameters on the cooling power of the EGU, which depends on the parameters of the gas expansion process in the expander and temperatures of cooled environment, was carried out. The schematic diagram of refrigeration generation plant based on EGU is presented. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU; beneficial use of the heat delivered to gas from the flow being cooled in equipment operating on gas; energy production along with refrigeration generation, which makes it possible to create, using EGU, the trigeneration plants without using the energy power equipment. It is shown that the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows, which can be obtained by using the EGU on existing technological decompression stations of the transported gas, allows providing the refrigeration supply of various consumers. The information that the refrigeration capacity of an expander-generator unit not only depends on the parameters of the process of expansion of gas flowing in the expander (flow rate, temperatures and pressures at the inlet and outlet) but it is also determined by the temperature needed for a consumer and the initial temperature of the flow of the refrigeration-carrier being cooled. The conclusion was made that the expander-generator units can be used to create trigeneration plants both at major power plants and at small energy.

  19. Variação genética entre e dentro de populações de candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre as espécies indicadas para a restauração da vegetação arbórea em sítios degradados no sul de Minas Gerais, destaca-se a candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeish, que ocorre naturalmente em solos pobres e pedregosos, além de possuir atributos relativos à durabilidade natural da madeira e à qualidade de óleo essencial para uso na farmacologia. O sucesso da recuperação dessas áreas está relacionado com a rapidez com que a vegetação é restabelecida. Assim, a busca de genótipos superiores e adaptados, que possam rapidamente recolonizar a área, é de grande importância econômica e ambiental. Neste estudo, foram coletadas sementes de polinização livre de 27 matrizes em duas populações de candeia distintas, São Tomé das Letras e Carrancas, localizadas no Estado de Minas Gerais. Após a germinação, as mudas foram repicadas para tubetes e arranjadas em blocos casualizados completos, com três repetições. Três meses após a repicagem, foi avaliada a variação entre e dentro das populações. Verificou-se, pela análise de variância, que existem diferenças significativas entre e dentro de populações para o caráter diâmetro do caule. As variações entre as progênies foram significativas dentro da população de São Tomé das Letras para o diâmetro, e, dentro da população de Carrancas, para o caráter altura total das mudas. Porém, para a seleção de genótipos, é necessário maior tempo de avaliação, visto que grande parte da variação apresentada na fase de mudas pode ser decorrente do efeito materno, o qual não é transmitido para a geração seguinte.

  20. Variação do volume de gotas de colírios lubrificantes disponíveis no mercado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorugo Silvestre Nascimento

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a variação intra e interexaminadores do volume de gotas dispensados de frascos de colírios lubrificantes disponíveis no mercado. Métodos: Foram estudados cinco frascos de colírios lubrificantes e dezenove voluntários participaram deste estudo. A massa média de gotas de 20µl dos colírios foi obtida utilizando micropipeta e balança de precisão e como padrão para comparação com a massa das gotas obtidas pelos voluntários. Cinco gotas de cada frasco foram pesadas individualmente com o tubo de colírio perpendicular à balança, usando o primeiro e segundo dedos da mão direita, de forma que a pressão fosse aplicada somente no meio do frasco. Os experimentos foram realizados em uma sala climatizada a temperatura ambiente (21±1°C. Resultados: Todos os frascos de colírios apresentaram variação estatisticamente significante das massas das gotas obtidas pelos examinadores quando comparadas com a massa média padrão de 0,0182±0,0014g, com exceção da comparação entre os dados do colírio A com o colírio D, que não apresentou variação estatisticamente significante. Conclusão: O presente estudo demonstra a ausência de uniformidade das gotas dispensadas pelos frascos de colírios disponíveis no mercado e a sua inadequação à real necessidade, uma vez que as gotas dispensadas são maiores do que o indicado. Esse fato torna-se um problema quando se trata de período de tratamento prolongado, especialmente com colírios dispendiosos como os indicados para a terapêutica do glaucoma. Nesse sentido, a padronização das gotas de colírios se faz necessária.

  1. Variações fisiológicas da pressão do líquido cefalorraqueano na cisterna magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spina-França

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available É feito estudo de revisão das variações fisiológicas da pressão do LCR ao nível da cisterna magna (punção suboccipital. Em relação à série de 1.500 pacientes com afecções do sistema nervoso e sem sintomatologia de hipotensão ou de hipertensão intracraniana, a pressão média normal do LCR ao nível da cisterna magna foi de 11,9 cm de água (paciente calmo, decúbito lateral horizontal. As variações fisiológicas de pressão, segundo os achados, têm como limites os valôres de 4,1 e 19,7 cm de água. Êsses valôres permitem caracterizar, para a cisterna magna, a existência de hipotensão do LCR quando a pressão fôr menor ou igual a 4 cm de água; a hipertensão é caracterizada por valores iguais ou maiores do que 20 cm de água. A pressão do LCR ao nível da cisterna magna é menor do que no fundo de saco lombar. Para série de 276 pacientes o valor médio achado para êste último nível foi de 16,7 cm de água (decúbito lateral horizontal. A diferença entre as médias foi altamente significativa. Não foram verificadas modificações da pressão do LCR ao nível da cisterna magna que pudessem ser relacionadas ao sexo. Sem que representassem dados de interêsse para a prática, foram verificadas variações ligadas à côr e à idade dos pacientes. Em média a pressão do LCR se mostrou menor entre pacientes prêtos e amarelos que entre os brancos e os mulatos. Um declínio do valor médio da pressão foi verificado à medida em que aumentava a idade dos pacientes. Êste declínio mostrou-se maior para o grupo de pacientes com idade acima de 60 anos.

  2. Inextendibility of expanding cosmological models with symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafermos, Mihalis [University of Cambridge, Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WB (United Kingdom); Rendall, Alan D [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2005-12-07

    A new criterion for inextendibility of expanding cosmological models with symmetry is presented. It is applied to derive a number of new results and to simplify the proofs of existing ones. In particular, it shows that the solutions of the Einstein-Vlasov system with T{sup 2} symmetry, including the vacuum solutions, are inextendible in the future. The technique introduced adds a qualitatively new element to the available tool-kit for studying strong cosmic censorship. (letter to the editor)

  3. Expanding the senses of drawing through colour

    OpenAIRE

    Moutinho, Natacha Antão; Durão, Maria João

    2013-01-01

    By equating the creative use of colour with the disciplinary boundaries of architecture, this paper integrates observations, reflections and insights on a variety of alternative graphic strategies, and also expands the meanings attached to a drawing when the significance of colour is highlighted within the creative process of architectural design. Through the observations of numerous drawings from Portuguese architects we have already detected several functions or uses of colour in the design...

  4. Expanding roles for GILT in immunity

    OpenAIRE

    West, Laura Ciaccia; Cresswell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT), a thioredoxin-related oxidoreductase, functions in MHC class II-restricted antigen processing and MHC class I-restricted cross-presentation by reducing disulfide bonds of endocytosed proteins and facilitating their unfolding and optimal degradation. However, recent reports have greatly expanded our understanding of GILT’s function. Several studies of GILT and antigen processing have shown that the influence of GILT on the peptide re...

  5. Strings, Fivebranes and an Expanding Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Khuri, Ramzi R.; Pokotilov, Andriy

    2002-01-01

    It was recently shown that velocity-dependent forces between parallel fundamental strings moving apart in a $D-$dimensional spacetime implied an accelerating expanding universe in $D-1$-dimensional space-time. Exact solutions were obtained for the early time expansion in $D=5,6$. Here we show that this result also holds for fundamental strings in the background of a fivebrane, and argue that the feature of an accelerating universe would hold for more general $p$-brane-seeded models.

  6. Expanding Policy Imagination in Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature in political economy seeks to capture an essential insight into the evolution of political and economic systems to provide a foundation for policy advice. This article suggests that attempts to nut out the kernels of change often restrict rather than expand policy imagination...... be implemented. Historical sociology provides a way to generate information about contextual constellations through two "tonics": intentional rationality and social mechanisms. With the assistance of these tonics, historical sociology widens political economy's policy imagination....

  7. Characterization of commercial expandable graphite fire retardants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, Walter Wilhelm, E-mail: walter.focke@up.ac.za; Badenhorst, Heinrich; Mhike, Washington; Kruger, Hermanus Joachim; Lombaard, Dewan

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Expandable graphite is less well-ordered than its graphite bisulfate progenitor. • It includes graphite oxide as a randomly interstratified phase. • CO{sub 2}, CO and SO{sub 2} are released during thermal-driven exfoliation. - Abstract: Thermal analysis and other techniques were employed to characterize two expandable graphite samples. The expansion onset temperatures of the expandable graphite's were ca. 220 °C and 300 °C respectively. The key finding is that the commercial products are not just pure graphite intercalation compounds with sulfuric acid species intercalated as guest ions and molecules in between intact graphene layers. A more realistic model is proposed where graphite oxide-like layers are also randomly interstratified in the graphite flakes. These graphite oxide-like layers comprise highly oxidized graphene sheets which contain many different oxygen-containing functional groups. This model explains the high oxygen to sulfur atomic ratios found in both elemental analysis of the neat materials and in the gas generated during the main exfoliation event.

  8. Intermittency Statistics in the Expanding Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, M. E.; Parashar, T. N.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    The solar wind is observed to be turbulent. One of the open questions in solar wind research is how the turbulence evolves as the solar wind expands to great distances. Some studies have focused on evolution of the outer scale but not much has been done to understand how intermittency evolves in the expanding wind beyond 1 AU (see [1,2]). We use magnetic field data from Voyager I spacecraft from 1 to 10AU to study the evolution of statistics of magnetic discontinuities. We perform various statistical tests on these discontinuities and make connections to the physical processes occurring in the expanding wind.[1] Tsurutani, Bruce T., and Edward J. Smith. "Interplanetary discontinuities: Temporal variations and the radial gradient from 1 to 8.5 AU." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 84.A6 (1979): 2773-2787.[2] Greco, A., et al. "Evidence for nonlinear development of magnetohydrodynamic scale intermittency in the inner heliosphere." The Astrophysical Journal 749.2 (2012): 105.

  9. Transposição e variação na poesia gráfica e espacial de Salette Tavares

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Rui

    2007-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objectivo apresentar uma leitura da poesia gráfica e espacial de Salette Tavares à luz dos processos de intersemiose que esta articula, na frequente transposição entre texto, sons, imagens e objectos. A produção da autora é enquadrada com o experimentalismo literário português da segunda metade do século XX, movimento profícuo na construção de formas poemáticas de carácter híbrido, em que se verificam processos de transposição e variação semelhantes aos observados na auto...

  10. Caracterização do lenho e variação radial de Pittosporum undulatum Vent. (pau-incenso)

    OpenAIRE

    Longui, Eduardo Luiz; Romeiro, Diego; Silva, Morgana Tramontini da; Ribeiro, Ariane; Gouveia, Tatiana Cestini; Lima, Israel Luiz de; Florsheim, Sandra Monteiro Borges

    2011-01-01

    Estudou-se o lenho de Pittosporum undulatum do Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren, objetivando-se sua caracterização, investigar a variação radial da anatomia e densidade básica, suas correlações e discutir os resultados em um contexto ecológico. Empregaram-se as metodologias usuais para anatomia e densidade da madeira. As características anatômicas corroboram com o descrito para o gênero, ressalta-se a presença de camadas de crescimento, não mencionada na literatura. O diâmetro das fibras não a...

  11. Variação da composição e toxicidade do material particulado ao longo do dia na cidade de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Garcia Martins

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo avalia os efeitos adversos na saúde causados pelas variações na composição do material particulado em curtos períodos de tempo. Para tanto, foram determinados Black Carbon (BC), massa e composição elementar do PM2.5 coletado em dois diferentes períodos, Dia e Noite, na cidade de São Paulo. Além das análises químicas, gravimetria, análise de reflectância e espectrometria por fluorescência de Raios-X, foram realizados testes toxicológicos de contagem de micronúcleos utilizando ressu...

  12. Dupla variação anatômica vascular em um único indivíduo: estudo morfométrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Regina Ruiz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Variações anatômicas são pequenas diferenças morfológicas congênitas que aparecem nos diferentes sistemas orgânicos, as quais não acarretam prejuízo ou distúrbio funcional para o indivíduo. No que diz respeito aos vasos sanguíneos, alterações no desenvolvimento embriológico podem gerar duplicidade de vasos, agenesia ou ocasionar o surgimento de artérias e o desembocar de veias fora da descrição anatômica padrão. Relato de caso: Foi observada dupla variação anatômica vascular em um indivíduo durante uma dissecação de rotina no Laboratório de Anatomia do Centro Universitário São Camilo. A artéria renal principal tinha origem na parte abdominal da artéria aorta seguindo até sua entrada no hilo renal, porém, em vez de um trajeto retilíneo a partir da aorta, a mesma possuía um trajeto descendente e bem angulado. A partir da artéria renal principal surgia uma artéria polar aberrante que entrava no polo inferior do rim direito. Em um nível mais inferior, na altura da bifurcação da aorta, originava-se outra artéria polar aberrante que entrava no hilo renal, seguindo um trajeto retilíneo até o polo inferior do rim direito. A artéria hepática comum originava-se no tronco celíaco seguindo até sua entrada na porta do fígado. A artéria mesentérica superior possuía origem no tronco celíaco. A artéria hepática direita originava-se na artéria mesentérica superior. Conclusão: O estudo das variações anatômicas constitui-se tarefa árdua em virtude das inúmeras expressões diferentes que ocorrem no corpo humano, porém, o conhecimento dessas variações é de extrema valia para a clínica e o planejamento cirúrgico, garantindo a precisão e evitando complicações pós-cirúrgicas ou diagnósticos errôneos.

  13. Fast Identification of Radical Scavengers from Securigera varia by Combining 13C-NMR-Based Dereplication to Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sientzoff, Pacôme; Hubert, Jane; Janin, Coralie; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Harakat, Dominique; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul

    2015-08-14

    Securigera varia (Fabaceae) is a common herbaceous perennial plant widely growing in Europe and Asia and purposely established for erosion control, roadside planting, and soil rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to determine the radical scavenging activity of a crude methanol extract of S. varia aerial parts by using the free radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and to rapidly identify the compounds involved in this activity. The crude extract was initially separated in five fractions on Diaion HP20 resin and the most active part was fractionated by Centrifugal Partition Extraction (CPE). Known compounds were directly identified by a (13)C-NMR-based dereplication method. Semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography purification experiments were further performed to identify unknown or minor active compounds. As a result, one new (13) and twelve known flavonoid glycosides together with three nitropropanoylglucopyranoses were isolated, including astragalin (1), kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), trifolin (4), isoquercitrin (5), hyperoside (6), isovitexin (7), isoorientin (8), isovitexin 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (10), luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (11), apigenin 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (12), apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (13), 6-O-(3-nitropropanoyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (14), coronillin (16) and coronarian (15). 120 mg of the most active compound isoorientin against the free radical DPPH was recovered by CPE with an HPLC purity of 99%.

  14. Fast Identification of Radical Scavengers from Securigera varia by Combining 13C-NMR-Based Dereplication to Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacôme Sientzoff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Securigera varia (Fabaceae is a common herbaceous perennial plant widely growing in Europe and Asia and purposely established for erosion control, roadside planting, and soil rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to determine the radical scavenging activity of a crude methanol extract of S. varia aerial parts by using the free radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and to rapidly identify the compounds involved in this activity. The crude extract was initially separated in five fractions on Diaion HP20 resin and the most active part was fractionated by Centrifugal Partition Extraction (CPE. Known compounds were directly identified by a 13C-NMR-based dereplication method. Semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography purification experiments were further performed to identify unknown or minor active compounds. As a result, one new (13 and twelve known flavonoid glycosides together with three nitropropanoylglucopyranoses were isolated, including astragalin (1, kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (2, kaempferol-3,4′-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, trifolin (4, isoquercitrin (5, hyperoside (6, isovitexin (7, isoorientin (8, isovitexin 4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (9, apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (10, luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (11, apigenin 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (12, apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (13, 6-O-(3-nitropropanoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (14, coronillin (16 and coronarian (15. 120 mg of the most active compound isoorientin against the free radical DPPH was recovered by CPE with an HPLC purity of 99%.

  15. Expanding Technological Frames Towards Mediated Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Scupola, Ada; Fitzgerald, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth analysis of technological and social factors leading to the successful adoption of groupware in a virtual team in educational setting. Drawing on a theoretical framework based on the concept of technological frames, we conducted an action research study to analyze...... the chronological sequence of events leading to groupware adoption. We argue that groupware adoption can be conceptualized as a three-step process of expanding and aligning individual technological frames towards groupware: The first step comprises activities facilitating participants in articulation and evaluation...... collaborative practice and use of technology, and that this activity cannot take place at the outset....

  16. Expanding the Bethe/Gauge dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullimore, Mathew; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Lukowski, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    We expand the Bethe/Gauge dictionary between the XXX Heisenberg spin chain and 2d N = (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories to include aspects of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. We construct the wave functions of off-shell Bethe states as orbifold defects in the A-twisted supersymmetric gauge theory and study their correlation functions. We also present an alternative description of off-shell Bethe states as boundary conditions in an effective N = 4 supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Finally, we interpret spin chain R-matrices as correlation functions of Janus interfaces for mass parameters in the supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  17. Historical Notes on the Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Michael J.; Belenkyi, Ari; Nussbaumer, Harry; Peacock, John

    2014-01-01

    The article Measuring the Hubble constant by Mario Livio and Adam Riess (Physics Today, October 2013, page 41) reviewed studies of the expanding universe from the 1920s to the present. Although the history of the subject underwent considerable compression to fit the length of a magazine article, we think it may leave a misleading impression of some of the key steps to our current understanding. We therefore offer the following clarifications. Most significantly, papers by Arthur Eddington and by Willem de Sitter in 1930, who successfully promoted Georges Lematres 1927 article for the Scientific Society of Brussels, effected a paradigm shift in interpretation of extragalactic redshifts in 1930. Before then, the astronomical community was generally unaware of the existence of nonstatic cosmological solutions and did not broadly appreciate that redshifts could be thought of locally as Doppler shifts in an expanding matter distribution. Certainly, in 1929 Edwin Hubble referred only to the de Sitter solution of 1917. At the time, the relation between distance and redshift predicted in that model was generally seen purely as a manifestation of static spacetime curvature.

  18. Fibromyalgia patients' quality of life and pain intensity variation Variação da intensidade da dor e da qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibromialgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Martinez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: One of the most reported issues on the Fibromyalgia syndrome is the pain intensity variation and its impact on patients' life quality. OBJECTIVES: 1 to establish the correlation among pain, anxiety and depression intensity perception; 2 to determine whether there is a correlation between pain intensity variation and the impact of fibromyalgia on patients' quality of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A study was carried out with 21 patients, who received a diary to register their perceptions on pain, anxiety and depression intensity. The patients have made this procedure three times a day, for a fifteen-day period. The impact on life quality was measured by the the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionaire (FIQ. RESULTS: It was observed a significant variation on pain intensity during the day periods. There was not a significant variation for anxiety and depression through the day periods. It was not observed any significant correlation between pain and depression or pain and anxiety intensity perception at any time of the day, during the study period. When considering the whole study period, it was observed that there was a correlation between pain and anxiety and pain and depression in the morning. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that there is a significant pain variation through the day periods and there is a correlation between pain and anxiety and pain and depression in the morning. There is a significant correlation of life quality with pain in the morning, anxiety in the afternoon and evening; and depression in all periods of the day.INTRODUÇÃO: Uma das questões mais relatadas é a variação da intensidade da dor no decorrer do dia e seu impacto na qualidade de vida. OBJETIVOS: Estabelecer a correlação entre a percepção da intensidade da dor, da ansiedade e da depressão e determinar a correlação entre a variação da intensidade da dor e o impacto na qualidade de vida. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudou-se 21 pacientes com fibromialgia. As

  19. A Rapidly Expanding Bose-Einstein Condensate: An Expanding Universe in the Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, S.; Kumar, A.; Jacobson, T.; Spielman, I. B.; Campbell, G. K.

    2018-04-01

    We study the dynamics of a supersonically expanding, ring-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate both experimentally and theoretically. The expansion redshifts long-wavelength excitations, as in an expanding universe. After expansion, energy in the radial mode leads to the production of bulk topological excitations—solitons and vortices—driving the production of a large number of azimuthal phonons and, at late times, causing stochastic persistent currents. These complex nonlinear dynamics, fueled by the energy stored coherently in one mode, are reminiscent of a type of "preheating" that may have taken place at the end of inflation.

  20. Variação no conteúdo de beta-glucanas em cultivares brasileiros de aveia Beta-glucan content variation in brasilian oat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M. de SÁ

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o crescente interesse em alimentos funcionais e nutracêuticos, a aveia (Avena sativa L. tem se destacado, devido ao seu teor de fibras alimentares e principalmente às beta-glucanas. As (1,3(1,4-beta-D-glucanas, fibras alimentares na maioria solúveis, atuam na redução do colesterol em indivíduos com hipercolesterolemia. Existem estudos para determinar as causas de variação do teor desta fibra em aveia, porém, pouco se sabe sobre a aveia cultivada no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se existem diferenças no conteúdo de beta-glucanas entre cultivares brasileiros e se há variação na porcentagem desta fibra devido ao ano de cultivo. Os cultivares IAC7, UFRGS14, UPF16 e UPF17 (3 amostras de cada, e ainda três amostras do cultivar IAC7 para cada ano de cultivo (97 e 98, foram analisados segundo os métodos da AACC (American Association of Cereal Chemists. Os teores médios (peso seco de beta-glucanas foram 6,50% (IAC7, 4,30% (UFRGS14, 3,51% (UPF16 e 3,78% (UPF17, com erro padrão de ±0,084 e coeficiente de variação de 7,89 %. Observou-se efeito significativo dos cultivares (p=0,03 e grande variabilidade entre as amostras (p=0,0001. O cultivar IAC7 apresentou média de beta-glucanas de 5,11% em 97 e 6,50 % em 98 (erro padrão ±0,14; CV=10,53% e observou-se efeito significativo do ano de cultivo.With the increasing interest in functional foods and nutraceuticals, oats (Avena sativa L. have received special attention because of their dietary fiber contents, and specially of their beta-glucans. The mostly soluble dietary fibers (1,3(1,4-beta-D-glucans, reduce serum cholesterol in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. There are studies about the causes of variation in the contents of this fiber in oats, however, very little is known about Brazilian cultivars. The objective of this work was to verify if there were differences in the beta-glucan contents among brazilian cultivars and if there was variation in the

  1. As variações da forma do sifão carotídeo na arteriografia cerebral: estudo sobre 120 casos não tumorais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mattos Pimenta

    1954-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de 120 arteriogramas de pacientes em que foi comprovada a inexistência de lesão que ocupa espaço intracraniano, permitiu o reconhecimento de várias formas de sifão carotídeo normal. Foi assim possível fazer uma classificação anatômica dos vários tipos e concluir que a forma do sifão não permite, sozinha, fazer o diagnóstico topográfico de tumores intracranianos. É importante reconhecer exatamente os limites do sifão, a fim de localizar, precisamente, os aneurismas da carótida interna. Do exposto podemos tirar duas ordens de conclusões: 1 Conclusões anatômicas - O sifão carotídeo normal não apresenta grande número de variações de forma, podendo ser reconhecidos dois tipos básicos: angulados e arredondados. Os primeiros subdividem-se em angulados com ramos oblíquos (ângulo agudo ou ângulo obtuso e angulados com um ramo horizontal (superior ou inferior. Os segundos (arredondados dividem-se em três subtipos: semi-elíptico, em alça (horizontal ou oblíquo e em S (superior, inferior ou duplo. Nos grupos e subgrupos cada segmento do sifão pode apresentar variação no comprimento e espessura, como é evidente à observação dos esquemas. 2 Conclusões neurocirúrgicas - A existência de grande número de formas consideradas como normais de sifão carotídeo leva à conclusão de que não é possível basear o diagnóstico de tumor, ou melhor, de lesão que ocupa espaço intracraniano, exclusivamente pela imagem arteriográfica do sifão. As variações fisiológicas do sifão, somadas às das artérias do grupo silviano e da cerebral anterior, trazem dificuldades diagnosticas que obrigam o neurocirurgião a procurar o maior número de indícios para fazer a interpretação correta do exame. Assim sendo, na rotina neurocirúrgica é aconselhável que os arteriogramas sejam feitos pelo menos em duas posições: perfil e ântero-posterior. E' importante reconhecer bem os limites do sifão para se estabelecer

  2. A study of ion-exchange chromatography in an expanded bed for bovine albumin recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Severo Jr.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of bed expansion on BSA adsorption on Amberlite IRA 410 ion-exchange resin was studied. The hydrodynamic behavior of an expanded bed adsorption column on effects of the biomolecules and salt addition and temperature were studied to optimize the conditions for BSA recovery on ion-exchange resin. Residence time distribution showed that HEPT, axial dispersion and the Pecletl number increased with temperature and bed height, bed voidage and linear velocity. The binding capacity of the resin increased with bed height. The Amberlite IRA 410 ion-exchange showed an affinity for BSA with a recovery yield of 78.36 % of total protein.No presente trabalho foi estudado o efeito da expansão do leito sobre a adsorção de BSA na resina de troca iônica Amberlite IRA 410. O comportamento hidrodinâmico de uma coluna de adsorção em leito expandido sob efeito da adição de biomoléculas, sal e variação da temperatura também foi estudado para obter as condições ótimas de recuperação da BSA sob a resina de troca iônica. A distribuição do tempo de residência mostrou que a HEPT, a dispersão axial e o número de Pecletl aumentaram com a temperatura, altura do leito, porosidade do leito e velocidade linear. A capacidade de ligação da resina aumentou com a expansão do leito. A resina de troca iônica Amberlite IRA 410 mostrou ter afinidade pela BSA, com uma recuperação de 78,36 % da proteína total.

  3. 46 CFR 56.30-15 - Expanded or rolled joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... design conditions and where adequate provisions are made to prevent separation of the joint. Specific... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expanded or rolled joints. 56.30-15 Section 56.30-15... APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-15 Expanded or rolled joints. (a) Expanded or...

  4. TEACHERS’ ACCOUNTS OF LANGUAGE VARIATIONS Relatos de Professores sobre Variações Lingüísticas Não-Padrão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. Telles

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on teachers' stigmatizing perspectives of their students' nonstandard varieties of Portuguese. Theoretically, the study was grounded on Personal Construct Psychology, Perspective Transformation in Teacher Education, Transformative Bidialectalism and Critical Language Awareness. The objectives were to jointly access and assess the teachers’ implicit theories about nonstandard language and to verify to what extent these theories affected their classroom pedagogy. My research questions turned to how the participating teachers understood nonstandard language; and to how their understandings are reflected on their language teaching. The viewing of the teachers’ videotaped classes and Repertory Grid activities inspired reflective conversations with the two teacher participants on their language and classroom experiences. These conversations were audio-recorded, transcribed and their analysis followed the thematizing approach of Hermeneutic Phenomenology. The study revealed teachers’ implicit theories about language variation defining pedagogies based on deficit and standard grammar perspectives. These pedagogies are in constant interaction with the teachers’ lived experiences, the contextual restrictions of schools and the limitations of teacher education programs.O presente trabalho trata das perspectivas estigmatizantes que duas professoras de língua portuguesa trazem em relação às variações lingüísticas não-padrão de seus alunos. Teoricamente, meu estudo se embasa na Psicologia dos Construtos Pessoais, Transformação de Perspectivas na Educação de Professores, Bi-dialetalismo Transformador e Sensibilidade Crítica à Linguagem. Meus objetivos foram acessar e ponderar sobre as teorias implícitas das professoras sobre linguagem não-padrão e verificar como tais teorias afetam suas pedagogias. Suas aulas foram gravadas em vídeo e atividades com Mapas do Repertório de seus conceitos sobre língua portuguesa

  5. O trabalho com a variação linguística na sala de aula: reflexão e uso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseli Rezende Thomaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A compreensão do conceito de norma, bem como a distinção entre norma padrão, norma gramatical e norma culta podem nos ajudar a desfazer alguns equívocos cometidos há muito no ensino de Língua Portuguesa sobre o “certo” e “errado” em língua e viabilizar o trabalho com a pedagogia da variação linguística na escola. O presente trabalho faz, então, um breve histórico da construção do conceito de gramática, mostrando como e por que se construiu, ao longo da cultura ocidental, a ideologia do padrão ligado ao "melhor" em linguagem. Em seguida, discorro sobre a pesquisa empreendida e os procedimentos metodológicos utilizados. Apresento, por fim, as contribuições para o ensino de língua materna possíveis de se alcançar a partir de um trabalho de reflexão sociolinguística. A partir da concepção dialógica da linguagem (BAKTIN, 2006 e do modelo de descrição e interpretação do fenômeno linguístico no contexto social de comunidades urbanas de grande impacto na Linguística contemporânea (LABOV, 1974, desenvolvi uma pesquisa-ação com alunos do 7° ano de uma escola da rede particular de ensino da cidade brasileira de Juiz de Fora (MG, usuários de uma das variedades urbanas prestigiadas da língua portuguesa. A análise contrastiva de estruturas dos diferentes dialetos presentes no contínuo rural-urbano, bem como nos contínuos de monitoração estilística e de oralidade letramento (BORTONI-RICARDO, 2004 permitiu fazê-los entender esse complexo fenômeno, natural em todas as línguas. Na verdade, o que é necessário é que a escola desenvolva uma pedagogia da variação linguística sensível às diferenças sociolinguísticas e culturais dos alunos, mas isso requer compreensão e mudança radical na postura de professores, alunos e da sociedade em geral.

  6. Variação sazonal do fluxo de calor no solo dentro de um manguezal tropical Seazonal variation of soil heat flux within tropical mangrove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. L. Moura

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os manguezais são ecossistemas de grande importância em virtude da sua biodiversidade, embora ainda pouco estudados. O fluxo de calor no solo (FCS é uma propriedade que interfere no microclima de um ecossistema e depende de vários fatores. Um estudo experimental foi realizado em um manguezal no município de Marechal Deodoro, Alagoas, no período de outubro/2004 a outubro/2005, com o objetivo de caracterizar a variação sazonal do FCS; para isto, uma estação meteorológica automática foi montada em uma torre micrometeorológica para registrar diferentes elementos do tempo e clima, de forma contínua. Especificamente, para medição do FCS a 10 cm de profundidade utilizou-se uma bateria de três fluxímetros modelo HFT3 (Campbell Scientific, EUA no sentido de que a interferência da não uniformidade do solo nas medições fosse minimizada. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram influência da radiação solar, precipitação e da maré sobre a variação diária e sazonal do FCS, além de grande diferença de amplitude diária do FCS entre os períodos chuvoso (9 W m-2 e seco (36 W m-2.Mangrove swamps are highly important ecosystems due to their biodiversity, but they still are little studied. Soil heat fluxes (SHF is one of the proprieties that interfere in the ecosystem microclimate and depends on lots of factors. An experimental study was carried out in a mangrove forest in the Marechal Deodoro city, in the State of Alagoas, from October/2004 to October/2005, with the aim of describing the SHF seasonal variation. To this end, an automatic weather station was assembled in a micrometeorological tower to register the data continuously. To measure SHF in 10 cm depth one battery with three (3 fluximeter model HFT3 (Campbell Scientific, EUA was used so that the soil uniformity interference in the measurements was reduced. The obtained results showed influence of solar radiation, rainfall and tidal wave in the daily and seasonal SHF variation. A

  7. Painful Na-channelopathies: an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Stephen G

    2013-07-01

    The universe of painful Na-channelopathies--human disorders caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels--has recently expanded in three dimensions. We now know that mutations of sodium channels cause not only rare genetic 'model disorders' such as inherited erythromelalgia and channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain but also common painful neuropathies. We have learned that mutations of NaV1.8, as well as mutations of NaV1.7, can cause painful Na-channelopathies. Moreover, recent studies combining atomic level structural models and pharmacogenomics suggest that the goal of genomically guided pain therapy may not be unrealistic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ergodic theory of expanding thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Thurston maps are topological generalizations of postcritically-finite rational maps. This book provides a comprehensive study of ergodic theory of expanding Thurston maps, focusing on the measure of maximal entropy, as well as a more general class of invariant measures, called equilibrium states, and certain weak expansion properties of such maps. In particular, we present equidistribution results for iterated preimages and periodic points with respect to the unique measure of maximal entropy by investigating the number and locations of fixed points. We then use the thermodynamical formalism to establish the existence, uniqueness, and various other properties of the equilibrium state for a Holder continuous potential on the sphere equipped with a visual metric. After studying some weak expansion properties of such maps, we obtain certain large deviation principles for iterated preimages and periodic points under an additional assumption on the critical orbits of the maps. This enables us to obtain general eq...

  9. Expanding Greenland’s Glacial Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Anders Anker

    Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet and adjecent glaciers and ice caps has accelerated within the last decades, and these changes are accurately observed using a variety of different data products. However, the observational era is relatively short offering little insight into past dynamics....... On order to expand the glacial history of Greenland, this thesis explores physical and geological archives for evidence of the glaciers’ past response to climatic variations. Using aerial photographs, the dynamic history of the Greenland Ice Sheet is extended back to 1900 C.E. Glacier changes covering...... the entire 20th century show rapid and widespread responses to climate change. On a longer time-scale is the Holocene history of Helheim Glacier reconstructed using evidence of glacial presence accumulated in lake sediments...

  10. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expanding Policy Imagination in Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature in political economy seeks to capture an essential insight into the evolution of political and economic systems to provide a foundation for policy advice. This article suggests that attempts to nut out the kernels of change often restrict rather than expand policy imagination...... capacity to see political, social, and economic changes that do not conform to conventional theories, as well as distorting our understanding of how the contemporary world works. What policymakers want, more than prediction or recitation of conventional theories, is context to understand how policy can...... be implemented. Historical sociology provides a way to generate information about contextual constellations through two "tonics": intentional rationality and social mechanisms. With the assistance of these tonics, historical sociology widens political economy's policy imagination....

  12. Extremozymes: expanding the limits of biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M W; Perler, F B; Kelly, R M

    1995-07-01

    The study of enzymes isolated from organisms inhabiting unconventional ecosystems has led to the realization that biocatalysis need not be constrained to mild conditions and can be considered at pH's, temperatures, pressures, ionic and solvent environments long thought to be destructive to biomolecules. Parallel to this, it has been demonstrated that even conventional enzymes will catalyze reactions in solvents other than water. However, the intrinsic basis for biological function under extreme conditions is only starting to be addressed, as are associated applications. This was the focus of a recent NSF/NIST-sponsored workshop on extremozymes. Given the information acquired from the study of extremozymes, modification of enzymes to improve their ranges of stability and activity remains a possibility. Ultimately, by expanding the range of conditions suitable for enzyme function, new opportunities to use biocatalysis will be created.

  13. Particles formation in an expanding plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescoute, E.; Hallo, L.; Chimier, B.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Stenz, C. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., CELIA, CNRS-CEA, 33 - Talence (France); Hebert, D.; Chevalier, J.M.; Rullier, J.L.; Palmier, S. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France)

    2009-08-15

    Interaction of a laser beam with a target generates a high velocity expanding plasma plume, solid debris and liquid nano- and micro-particles. They are produced from plasma recombination and vapor condensation and can be deposited on optical elements located nearby the target. Two distinct kinds of particles were observed depending on the temperature achieved in the plasma plume: large micrometer-size fragments for temperatures lower than the critical temperature, and very small nanometer-size particles for higher temperatures. The paper presents experimental observations of fragments and nano-particles in plasma plumes and a comparison with models. A good agreement has been found for nano-particle sizes and distributions. This simple modeling can also be used for nuclei production in the nanosecond time scale. Our estimates show that particle size can be correlated to laser wavelength and fluences.

  14. The Expanded Very Large Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Rick

    2012-10-01

    The Expanded Very Large Array Project, begun in 2001, is now completed -- on time, on budget, and ``on spec.'' The major goal of the project was to multiply the key observational capabilities of the Very Large Array -- the world's most powerful, versatile, and productive radio telescope -- by a factor of at least an order of magnitude by implementation of modern technologies. The result of the project is an operationally new telescope -- renamed the Jansky Very Large Array -- which is capable of new science unimagined in 1980, when the original VLA was completed. In this talk, I will review the goals of the project, and describe the new capabilities of the Jansky Very Large Array. Already, the array is providing fabulous new insights into the physics of the universe,and I will spend the majority of the time describing examples of new results.

  15. Cosmic strings in an expanding spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Burd, A.B.

    1987-04-01

    We investigate the stability of a static, infinitely long and straight vacuum string solution under inhomogeneous axisymmetric time-dependent perturbations. We find it to be perturbatively stable. We further extend our work by finding a string solutions in an expanding Universe. The back reaction of the string on the gravitational field has been ignored. The background is assumed to be a Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. By numerically integrating the field equations in a radiation and matter dominated models, we discover oscillatory solutions. The possible damping of these oscillations is discussed. For late times the solution becomes identical to the static one studied in the first part of the paper. 19 refs., 8 figs

  16. Ultrasonic velocity measurements in expanded liquid mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Inutake, M.; Fujiwaka, S.

    1977-10-01

    In this paper we present the first results of the sound velocity measurements in expanded liquid mercury. The measurements were made at temperatures up to 1600 0 C and pressures up to 1700 kg/cm 2 by means of an ultrasonic pulse transmission/echo technique which was newly developed for such high temperature/pressure condition. When the density is larger than 9 g/cm 3 , the observed sound velocity decreases linearly with decreasing density. At densities smaller than 9 g/cm 3 , the linear dependence on the density is no longer observed. The observed sound velocity approaches a minimum near the liquid-gas critical point (rho sub(cr) asymptotically equals 5.5 g/cm 3 ). The existing theories for sound velocity in liquid metals fail to explain the observed results. (auth.)

  17. Roots Air Management System with Integrated Expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stretch, Dale [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Wright, Brad [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fortini, Matt [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fink, Neal [Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Ramadan, Bassem [Kettering Univ., Flint, MI (United States); Eybergen, William [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2016-07-06

    PEM fuel cells remain an emerging technology in the vehicle market with several cost and reliability challenges that must be overcome in order to increase market penetration and acceptance. The DOE has identified the lack of a cost effective, reliable, and efficient air supply system that meets the operational requirements of a pressurized PEM 80kW fuel cell as one of the major technological barriers that must be overcome. This project leveraged Roots positive displacement development advancements and demonstrated an efficient and low cost fuel cell air management system. Eaton built upon its P-Series Roots positive displacement design and shifted the peak efficiency making it ideal for use on an 80kW PEM stack. Advantages to this solution include: • Lower speed of the Roots device eliminates complex air bearings present on other systems. • Broad efficiency map of Roots based systems provides an overall higher drive cycle fuel economy. • Core Roots technology has been developed and validated for other transportation applications. Eaton modified their novel R340 Twin Vortices Series (TVS) Roots-type supercharger for this application. The TVS delivers more power and better fuel economy in a smaller package as compared to other supercharger technologies. By properly matching the helix angle with the rotor’s physical aspect ratio, the supercharger’s peak efficiency can be moved to the operating range where it is most beneficial for the application. The compressor was designed to meet the 90 g/s flow at a pressure ratio of 2.5, similar in design to the P-Series 340. A net shape plastic expander housing with integrated motor and compressor was developed to significantly reduce the cost of the system. This integrated design reduced part count by incorporating an overhung expander and motor rotors into the design such that only four bearings and two shafts were utilized.

  18. Interactive Exploration for Continuously Expanding Neuron Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyu; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Lu, Aidong; Zhang, Shaoting

    2017-02-15

    This paper proposes a novel framework to help biologists explore and analyze neurons based on retrieval of data from neuron morphological databases. In recent years, the continuously expanding neuron databases provide a rich source of information to associate neuronal morphologies with their functional properties. We design a coarse-to-fine framework for efficient and effective data retrieval from large-scale neuron databases. In the coarse-level, for efficiency in large-scale, we employ a binary coding method to compress morphological features into binary codes of tens of bits. Short binary codes allow for real-time similarity searching in Hamming space. Because the neuron databases are continuously expanding, it is inefficient to re-train the binary coding model from scratch when adding new neurons. To solve this problem, we extend binary coding with online updating schemes, which only considers the newly added neurons and update the model on-the-fly, without accessing the whole neuron databases. In the fine-grained level, we introduce domain experts/users in the framework, which can give relevance feedback for the binary coding based retrieval results. This interactive strategy can improve the retrieval performance through re-ranking the above coarse results, where we design a new similarity measure and take the feedback into account. Our framework is validated on more than 17,000 neuron cells, showing promising retrieval accuracy and efficiency. Moreover, we demonstrate its use case in assisting biologists to identify and explore unknown neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling co-occurrence of northern spotted and barred owls: accounting for detection probability differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larissa L. Bailey; Janice A. Reid; Eric D. Forsman; James D. Nichols

    2009-01-01

    Barred owls (Strix valia) have recently expanded their range and now encompass the entire range of the northern spotted owl (Strix ocddentalis caulina). This expansion has led to two important issues of concern for management of northern spotted owls: (1) possible competitive interactions between the two species that could...

  20. Variação da Cor da Madeira de Teca em Função da Densidade e do Teor de Extrativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilei Aparecida Garcia

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da densidade e do teor de extrativos na variação da cor da madeira de teca (Tectona grandis L. f. proveniente de plantios de diferentes espaçamentos. As análises colorimétricas foram realizadas nas faces radial e tangencial das madeiras de cerne e alburno com o espectrofotômetro CM 2600d no espaço de cor L*a*b*. A densidade e o teor de extrativos foram determinados segundo as normas ASTM D2395 e ASTM D1105. A madeira do maior espaçamento de plantio apresentou maior densidade e maior teor de extrativos. Na seção radial, as madeiras de cerne de maior densidade apresentaram mais pigmento amarelo, enquanto que na seção tangencial elas são mais escuras e apresentam menos pigmento amarelo. As madeiras de alburno de maior densidade são mais escuras e apresentam mais pigmento vermelho em ambas as seções. As madeiras mais escuras e com mais pigmento vermelho apresentaram um maior teor de extrativos.

  1. BOOK REVIEW: The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, B. A.

    2005-07-01

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music—a new type of `cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson,\\endcolumn hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature’s code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one’s mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great

  2. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability

    KAUST Repository

    Anazi, Shams

    2017-09-22

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  3. Expanding community through ARV provision in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, C; Beesey, A; Sitthikriengkrai, M

    2007-01-01

    Anti-retrovirals (ARVs) have altered the complexion of HIV/AIDS management in Thailand. In 2005, ARVs were included within a subsidised health scheme making provision widespread. Increased access has been brought about through the legal and political advocacy of the Thai Network for People Living with HIV/AIDS (TNP+) who now play a central role in expanded ARV provision. HIV-infected volunteers help the state deliver comprehensive services and assist with follow-up and adherence programs. Alongside improvements in drug provision, a focus on pharmaceutical treatment has left other issues, such as community support of orphans and the social responses to living with HIV, less central within community responses. As they take on new responsibilities, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) groups move from activities focused on reversing local stigma to constitute a new social movement that is increasingly prominent in Thai civil society. Networks of PLHA confront new social and political challenges as they also seek to broaden access to marginalised groups who remain excluded from these services. Many ethnic minority groups without full Thai citizenship have been denied access to subsidised health services including ARVs. As part of a broadening advocacy profile, the PLHA movement is now engaging in a politics of difference defined not simply by presence or absence of HIV but also by wider issues of national identity and belonging.

  4. Expanding the Allowable TRUPACT-II Payload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Michel, W.; Lott, S.

    2002-01-01

    The partnership between the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the TRU and Mixed Waste Focus Area (TMFA) was rewarded when several long-term projects came to fruition. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) removed some of the conservatism in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) with their approval of Revision 19. The SARP strictly limits the payload constituents to ensure that hydrogen gas and other flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) don't build up to flammable/explosive levels while the transuranic (TRU) waste is sealed in the container during shipment. The CBFO/TMFA development program was based on laboratory experiments with surrogate waste materials, real waste experiments, and theoretical modeling that were used to justify payload expansion. Future work to expand the shipping envelope of the TRUPACT-II focuses on increasing the throughput through the waste certification process and reducing the waste operations costs by removing the need for a repack aging and/or treatment capability or reducing the size of the needed repackaging/treatment capability

  5. Expanded polylactide bead foaming - A new technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofar, M.; Ameli, A.; Park, C. B.

    2015-05-01

    Bead foaming technology with double crystal melting peak structure has been recognized as a promising method to produce low-density foams with complex geometries. During the molding stage of the bead foams, the double peak structure generates a strong bead-to-bead sintering and maintains the overall foam structure. During recent years, polylactide (PLA) bead foaming has been of the great interest of researchers due to its origin from renewable resources and biodegradability. However, due to the PLA's low melt strength and slow crystallization kinetics, the attempts have been limited to the manufacturing methods used for expanded polystyrene. In this study, for the first time, we developed microcellular PLA bead foams with double crystal melting peak structure. Microcellular PLA bead foams were produced with expansion ratios and average cell sizes ranging from 3 to 30-times and 350 nm to 15 µm, respectively. The generated high melting temperature crystals during the saturation significantly affected the expansion ratio and cell density of the PLA bead foams by enhancing the PLA's poor melt strength and promoting heterogeneous cell nucleation around the crystals.

  6. Filtration application from recycled expanded polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, C

    2006-10-01

    Water-in-oil emulsion with drop size less than 100 mum is difficult to separate. Coalescence filtration is economical and effective for separation of secondary dispersions. Coalescence performance depends on flow rate, bed depth, fiber surface properties, and drop size. The amount of surface area of the fibers directly affects the efficiency. A new recycling method was investigated in the previous work in which polystyrene (PS) sub-mum fibers were electro-spun from recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS). These fibers are mixed with micro glass fibers to modify the glass fiber filter media. The filter media are tested in the separation of water droplets from an emulsion of water droplets in oil. The experimental results in this work show that adding nanofibers to conventional micron sized fibrous filter media improves the separation efficiency of the filter media but also increases the pressure drop. An optimum in the performance occurs (significant increase in efficiency with minimal increase in pressure drop) with the addition of about 4% by mass of 500 nm diameter PS nanofibers to glass fibers for the filters.

  7. Queensland set to expand coal operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    In addition to new coal mines which came on line in 2006 (as mentioned on pp 8-12 in this issue in the article entitled 'Coal production, exports and new mine developments' a number of advanced coal projects are at various stages of assessment and most are proceeding through the statutory approvals process while others are progressing to and beyond pre-feasibility studies. An overview of several of these projects is given in the article. These are: development of the Clermont open-cut thermal project; expanding open-cut operations at Ensham Central; assessing development of the Glen Wilga and Haystack Road deposits; and development at mines at Goonyella-Riverside, Hail Creek, Monto, Lenton, New Acland, Olive Downs, Peak Downs, Sonoma and Vermont. Coal exploration developments, particularly in the Bowen Basin, are reported, together with work in progress under the AUS $20 m Smart Exploration program. Figures are given for private expenditure on coal exploration, exploration, permits for coal received and active exploration permits for coal for June 1997 to June 2006. The article is part of a review called 'Queensland Mining and Production Industries 2006'. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Exposing medical students to expanding populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenthal, J J; DeLisa, J A; Heinrich, G F; Calderón Gerstein, W S

    2015-01-01

    Physicians are required to advocate for and counsel patients based on the best science and the interests of the individual while avoiding discrimination, ensuring equal access to health and mental services. Nonetheless, the communication gap between physician and patients has long been observed. To this end, the Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine of the Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School has expanded its efforts. This report describes two new programs: a legacy lecture series for medical students and an international "experience", in Huancayo, Peru, for medical students and faculty. The MiniMed outreach program, now in its ninth year and first described in this journal in 2012, was designed to empower the powerless to communicate more effectively with clinicians, thus improving both the effectiveness of the physician-patient relationship and health care outcomes. The approach of the two new programs and their effects on patients, particularly the underserved, and medical students and faculty, are outlined in the following article.

  9. Expanding clinical empathy: an activist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of empathy in health care offer important ways of enabling communication and interpersonal connection that are therapeutic for the patient and satisfying for the physician. While the best of these discussions offer valuable insights into the patient-physician relationship, many of them lack an action component for alleviating the patient's suffering and emphasize the physician's experience of empathy rather than the patient's experience of illness. By examining educational methods, such as reflective writing exercises and the study of literary texts, and by analyzing theoretical approaches to empathy and suggestions for clinical practice, this article considers how to mindfully keep the focus on what the patient is going through. Clinical empathy can be improved by strategies that address (1) the patient's authority in providing first-person accounts of illness and disability, (2) expanding the concept of empathy to include an action component geared toward relieving patients' suffering, and (3) the potential value of extending empathy to include the social context of illness.

  10. Homogeneous cosmology with aggressively expanding civilizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay Olson, S

    2015-01-01

    In the context of a homogeneous Universe, we note that the appearance of aggressively expanding advanced life is geometrically similar to the process of nucleation and bubble growth in a first-order cosmological phase transition. We exploit this similarity to describe the dynamics of life saturating the Universe on a cosmic scale, adapting the phase transition model to incorporate probability distributions of expansion and resource consumption strategies. Through a series of numerical solutions spanning several orders of magnitude in the input assumption parameters, the resulting cosmological model is used to address basic questions related to the intergalactic spreading of life, dealing with issues such as timescales, observability, competition between strategies, and first-mover advantage. Finally, we examine physical effects on the Universe itself, such as reheating and the backreaction on the evolution of the scale factor, if such life is able to control and convert a significant fraction of the available pressureless matter into radiation. We conclude that the existence of life, if certain advanced technologies are practical, could have a significant influence on the future large-scale evolution of the Universe. (paper)

  11. Gene family matters: expanding the HGNC resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daugherty Louise C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC assigns approved gene symbols to human loci. There are currently over 33,000 approved gene symbols, the majority of which represent protein-coding genes, but we also name other locus types such as non-coding RNAs, pseudogenes and phenotypic loci. Where relevant, the HGNC organise these genes into gene families and groups. The HGNC website http://www.genenames.org/ is an online repository of HGNC-approved gene nomenclature and associated resources for human genes, and includes links to genomic, proteomic and phenotypic information. In addition to this, we also have dedicated gene family web pages and are currently expanding and generating more of these pages using data curated by the HGNC and from information derived from external resources that focus on particular gene families. Here, we review our current online resources with a particular focus on our gene family data, using it to highlight our new Gene Symbol Report and gene family data downloads.

  12. Helical Screw Expander Evaluation Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, R.

    1982-03-01

    A functional 1-MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested in Utah in 1978 to 1979 with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer-equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000-kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Additional testing was performed in Mexico in 1980 under a cooperative test program using the same test array, and machine efficiency was measured at 62% maximum with the rotors partially coated with scale, compared with approximately 54% maximum in Utah with uncoated rotors, confirming the importance of scale deposits within the machine on performance. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.

  13. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Watts

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases--including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep--have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  14. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases-including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep-have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  15. Neuroimaging of Parkinson's disease: Expanding views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Carol P; Sundman, Mark H; Hickey, Patrick; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2015-12-01

    Advances in molecular and structural and functional neuroimaging are rapidly expanding the complexity of neurobiological understanding of Parkinson's disease (PD). This review article begins with an introduction to PD neurobiology as a foundation for interpreting neuroimaging findings that may further lead to more integrated and comprehensive understanding of PD. Diverse areas of PD neuroimaging are then reviewed and summarized, including positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging, transcranial sonography, magnetoencephalography, and multimodal imaging, with focus on human studies published over the last five years. These included studies on differential diagnosis, co-morbidity, genetic and prodromal PD, and treatments from L-DOPA to brain stimulation approaches, transplantation and gene therapies. Overall, neuroimaging has shown that PD is a neurodegenerative disorder involving many neurotransmitters, brain regions, structural and functional connections, and neurocognitive systems. A broad neurobiological understanding of PD will be essential for translational efforts to develop better treatments and preventive strategies. Many questions remain and we conclude with some suggestions for future directions of neuroimaging of PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbiotesting: an expanding field in aquatic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, C

    1998-01-01

    In terms of bioanalytical development and application, environmental evolution in this century can be perceived as having gone from the "dark ages" (time period preceding the 1960s and essentially characterized by nonuse of bioassays), to the "beginning of enlightenment" (use of fish bioassays during the 1960s as screening tools for effluents and specific chemicals), to the "regulatory 1970s," when newly created environment departments in developed countries began to sanction bioassays for regulatory purposes, to the "ecotoxicological 1980s," when suites of (micro) bioassays were incorporated in various hazard assessment schemes, right up to the present "microbiotesting 1990s," when an unprecedented upsurge in development and demand for cost-effective multilevel small-scale assays is manifest. This paper offers the view that microscale aquatic toxicology is a rapidly expanding field of ecotoxicology involving numerous bioanalytical techniques developed and applied at various levels of biological organization. This is demonstrated by recalling some of the major highlights that triggered the way for increased use of microbiotesting over the past decades. It is expected that the field of microbiotesting will sustain continuing growth in the future and contribute significant diagnostic power to environmental programs requiring ecotoxicology.

  17. Microstructural analysis of Iberian expanded clay aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogas, J Alexandre; Mauricio, António; Pereira, M F C

    2012-10-01

    This article presents a detailed study of the microstructure of Iberian expanded clay lightweight aggregates (LWA). Other than more commonly used mercury porosimetry (MP) and water absorption methods, the experimental study involves optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and microtomography (μ-CT). Pore connectivity and how it is deployed are shown to some degree, and the pore size spectrum is estimated. LWA are in general characterized by a dense outer shell up to 200 μm thick, encasing an inner cellular structure of 10-100 times bigger pore size. Aggregate pore sizes may span from some hundreds of nanometers up to over 1 mm, though the range of 1-25 μm is more typical. A noteworthy fraction of these pores is closed, and they are mainly up to 1 μm. It is also shown that macropore spatial arrangement is affected by the manufacturing process. A step forward is given to understanding how the outer shell and the inner pore network influence the mechanical and physical LWA properties, particularly the density and water absorption. The joint consideration of μ-CT and SEM seems to be the most appropriate methodology to study LWA microstructure. MP analysis is likely to distort LWA pore spectrum assessment.

  18. Factors leading to tracheobronchial self-expandable metallic stent fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Fu-Tsai; Lin, Shu-Min; Chen, Hao-Cheng; Chou, Chun-Liang; Yu, Chih-Teng; Liu, Chien-Ying; Wang, Chun-Hua; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Huang, Chien-Da; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2008-11-01

    This retrospective study was to determine factors that contribute to self-expandable metallic stent fracture in patients with tracheobronchial disease. From 2001 to 2006, 139 patients (age, 62.1 +/- 15.4 years; range, 23-87 years) with benign (n = 62) and malignant (n = 77) tracheobronchial disease received 192 Ultraflex (Boston Scientific, Natick, Mass) self-expandable metallic stents (98 in patients with benign disease and 94 in patients with malignant disease). Seventeen fractured self-expandable metallic stents were found; the incidence was 12.2% (17/139 patients) among patients with tracheobronchial disease. Tortuous airway (odds ratio, 4.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-18.34; P = .04) independently predicted self-expandable metallic stent fracture. Most self-expandable metallic stent fractures (64.7%, 11/17) were detected 500 to 1000 days after self-expandable metallic stent implantation. Clinical presentations for patients with fractured self-expandable metallic stents included dyspnea exacerbation (70.6%, 12/17) and cough (23.5%, 4/17). Self-expandable metallic stent fracture is not uncommon in patients with tracheobronchial disease. Tortuous airway is an independent predictor for it. Although management of the fractured self-expandable metallic stent in our study was feasible and safe, self-expandable metallic stents should be restricted to a more select population.

  19. Modeling co-occurrence of northern spotted and barred owls: accounting for detection probability differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Larissa L.; Reid, Janice A.; Forsman, Eric D.; Nichols, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Barred owls (Strix varia) have recently expanded their range and now encompass the entire range of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). This expansion has led to two important issues of concern for management of northern spotted owls: (1) possible competitive interactions between the two species that could contribute to population declines of northern spotted owls, and (2) possible changes in vocalization behavior and detection probabilities of northern spotted owls induced by presence of barred owls. We used a two-species occupancy model to investigate whether there was evidence of competitive exclusion between the two species at study locations in Oregon, USA. We simultaneously estimated detection probabilities for both species and determined if the presence of one species influenced the detection of the other species. Model selection results and associated parameter estimates provided no evidence that barred owls excluded spotted owls from territories. We found strong evidence that detection probabilities differed for the two species, with higher probabilities for northern spotted owls that are the object of current surveys. Non-detection of barred owls is very common in surveys for northern spotted owls, and detection of both owl species was negatively influenced by the presence of the congeneric species. Our results suggest that analyses directed at hypotheses of barred owl effects on demographic or occupancy vital rates of northern spotted owls need to deal adequately with imperfect and variable detection probabilities for both species.

  20. Spherical Accretion in a Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpi, Monica; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Wasserman, Ira

    1996-10-01

    We consider spherically symmetric accretion of material from an initially homogeneous, uniformly expanding medium onto a Newtonian point mass M. The gas is assumed to evolve adiabatically with a constant adiabatic index F, which we vary over the range Γ ɛ [1, 5/3]. We use a one-dimensional Lagrangian code to follow the spherical infall of material as a function of time. Outflowing shells gravitationally bound to the point mass fall back, giving rise to a inflow rate that, after a rapid rise, declines as a power law in time. If there were no outflow initially, Bondi accretion would result, with a characteristic accretion time-scale ta,0. For gas initially expanding at a uniform rate, with a radial velocity U = R/t0 at radius R, the behavior of the flow at all subsequent times is determined by ta,0/t0. If ta,0/t0 ≫ 1, the gas has no time to respond to pressure forces, so the fluid motion is nearly collisionless. In this case, only loosely bound shells are influenced by pressure gradients and are pushed outward. The late-time evolution of the mass accretion rate Mdot is close to the result for pure dust, and we develop a semianalytic model that accurately accounts for the small effect of pressure gradients in this limit. In the opposite regime, ta,0/t0 ≪ 1, pressure forces significantly affect the motion of the gas. At sufficiently early times, t ≤ ttr, the flow evolved along a sequence of quasi-stationary, Bondi-like states, with a time-dependent Mdot determined by the slowly varying gas density at large distances. However, at later times, t ≥ ttr, the fluid flow enters a dustllke regime; ttr is the time when the instantaneous Bondi accretion radius reaches the marginally bound radius. The transition time ttr depends sensitively on ta,0/t0 for a given Γ and can greatly exceed t0. We show that there exists a critical value Γ = 11/9, below which the transition from fluid to ballistic motion disappears. As one application of our calculations, we consider the

  1. Parnassiana nova : LVIII. Parnassiidae varia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1983-01-01

    Kürzlich erhielten wir mehrere Exemplare von Parnassius nomion Hübner, die in Asia orientalis, Mongolia borealis, 150 km südlich Ulan-Bator an einigen Flugplätzen erbeutet wurden. Davon zeigt eine Serie aus Bajon Samon, Culut, 1300 m, 25.viii. 1980, konstante und einheitliche Merkmale, die die

  2. Exposing medical students to expanding populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindenthal JJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available JJ Lindenthal,1,2 JA DeLisa,3 GF Heinrich,4 WS Calderón Gerstein,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA; 3Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of New Mexico Health Science Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA; 4Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA; 5Hospital Nacional Ramiro Prialé, EsSalud, Huancayo, Peru Abstract: Physicians are required to advocate for and counsel patients based on the best science and the interests of the individual while avoiding discrimination, ensuring equal access to health and mental services. Nonetheless, the communication gap between physician and patients has long been observed. To this end, the Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine of the Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School has expanded its efforts. This report describes two new programs: a legacy lecture series for medical students and an international “experience”, in Huancayo, Peru, for medical students and faculty. The MiniMed outreach program, now in its ninth year and first described in this journal in 2012, was designed to empower the powerless to communicate more effectively with clinicians, thus improving both the effectiveness of the physician–patient relationship and health care outcomes. The approach of the two new programs and their effects on patients, particularly the underserved, and medical students and faculty, are outlined in the following article. Keywords: MiniMed program, equal access, underserved populations, Newark Renaissance House, Kintock Group, role modeling 

  3. Expanding the boundaries of local similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durno, W Evan; Hanson, Niels W; Konwar, Kishori M; Hallam, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Pairwise comparison of time series data for both local and time-lagged relationships is a computationally challenging problem relevant to many fields of inquiry. The Local Similarity Analysis (LSA) statistic identifies the existence of local and lagged relationships, but determining significance through a p-value has been algorithmically cumbersome due to an intensive permutation test, shuffling rows and columns and repeatedly calculating the statistic. Furthermore, this p-value is calculated with the assumption of normality -- a statistical luxury dissociated from most real world datasets. To improve the performance of LSA on big datasets, an asymptotic upper bound on the p-value calculation was derived without the assumption of normality. This change in the bound calculation markedly improved computational speed from O(pm²n) to O(m²n), where p is the number of permutations in a permutation test, m is the number of time series, and n is the length of each time series. The bounding process is implemented as a computationally efficient software package, FASTLSA, written in C and optimized for threading on multi-core computers, improving its practical computation time. We computationally compare our approach to previous implementations of LSA, demonstrate broad applicability by analyzing time series data from public health, microbial ecology, and social media, and visualize resulting networks using the Cytoscape software. The FASTLSA software package expands the boundaries of LSA allowing analysis on datasets with millions of co-varying time series. Mapping metadata onto force-directed graphs derived from FASTLSA allows investigators to view correlated cliques and explore previously unrecognized network relationships. The software is freely available for download at: http://www.cmde.science.ubc.ca/hallam/fastLSA/.

  4. Expanding the boundaries of local similarity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durno W Evan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pairwise comparison of time series data for both local and time-lagged relationships is a computationally challenging problem relevant to many fields of inquiry. The Local Similarity Analysis (LSA statistic identifies the existence of local and lagged relationships, but determining significance through a p-value has been algorithmically cumbersome due to an intensive permutation test, shuffling rows and columns and repeatedly calculating the statistic. Furthermore, this p-value is calculated with the assumption of normality -- a statistical luxury dissociated from most real world datasets. Results To improve the performance of LSA on big datasets, an asymptotic upper bound on the p-value calculation was derived without the assumption of normality. This change in the bound calculation markedly improved computational speed from O(pm2n to O(m2n, where p is the number of permutations in a permutation test, m is the number of time series, and n is the length of each time series. The bounding process is implemented as a computationally efficient software package, FASTLSA, written in C and optimized for threading on multi-core computers, improving its practical computation time. We computationally compare our approach to previous implementations of LSA, demonstrate broad applicability by analyzing time series data from public health, microbial ecology, and social media, and visualize resulting networks using the Cytoscape software. Conclusions The FASTLSA software package expands the boundaries of LSA allowing analysis on datasets with millions of co-varying time series. Mapping metadata onto force-directed graphs derived from FASTLSA allows investigators to view correlated cliques and explore previously unrecognized network relationships. The software is freely available for download at: http://www.cmde.science.ubc.ca/hallam/fastLSA/.

  5. Expanding Awareness of Docosahexaenoic Acid during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women do not currently meet the consensus recommendation for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (≥200 mg/day. Pregnant women in Australia are not receiving information on the importance of DHA during pregnancy. DHA pregnancy education materials were developed using current scientific literature, and tested for readability and design aesthetics. The study aimed to evaluate their usefulness, the desire for pregnant women to receive these materials and whether a larger separate study (using a control group is warranted to evaluate the influence the materials may have on increasing DHA consumption in pregnant women in Australia. Pregnant women (N = 118 were recruited at antenatal clinics at two NSW hospitals. Participants completed a 16-item questionnaire and DHA educational materials (pamphlet and shopping card were provided. Participants were contacted via phone two weeks later and completed the second questionnaire (25-item, N = 74. Statistics were conducted in SPSS and qualitative data were analysed to identify common themes. Ninety three percent of women found the materials useful, with the main reason being it expanded their knowledge of DHA food sources. Only 34% of women had received prior information on DHA, yet 68% said they would like to receive information. Due to the small sample size and lack of a control group, this small study cannot provide a cause and effect relationship between the materials and nutrition related behaviours or knowledge, however the results indicate a potential positive influence towards increased fish consumption and awareness of DHA containing foods. This suggests a larger study, with a control group is warranted to identify the impact such materials could have on Australian pregnant women.

  6. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists are derived from native GnRH by amino acid substitution which yields the agonist resistant to degradation and increases its half-life. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state produced by GnRH agonists has been often dubbed as "pseudomenopause" or "medical oophorectomy," which are both misnomers. GnRH analogues (GnRH-a work by temporarily "switching off" the ovaries. Ovaries can be "switched off" for the therapy and therapeutic trial of many conditions which include but are not limited to subfertility, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine leiomyomas, precocious puberty, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, chronic pelvic pain, or the prevention of menstrual bleeding in special clinical situations. Rapidly expanding vistas of usage of GnRH agonists encompass use in sex reassignment of male to female transsexuals, management of final height in cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and preserving ovarian function in women undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Hypogonadic side effects caused by the use of GnRH agonists can be tackled with use of "add-back" therapy. Goserelin, leuprolide, and nafarelin are commonly used in clinical practice. GnRH-a have provided us a powerful therapeutic approach to the treatment of numerous conditions in reproductive medicine. Recent synthesis of GnRH antagonists with a better tolerability profile may open new avenues for both research and clinical applications. All stakeholders who are partners in women′s healthcare need to join hands to spread awareness so that these drugs can be used to realize their full potential.

  7. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Amal Najihah M; Corstanje, Ron; Harris, Jim A; Grafius, Darren R; Siriwardena, Gavin M

    2017-06-01

    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow ( Passer montanus ) and Yellow-vented bulbul ( Pycnonotus goiavier ) in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines). The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance) were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such models for

  8. AstroCom NYC: Expanding the Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, Timothy; Ford, Saavik; Agueros, Marcel A.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Robbins, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    AstroCom NYC is an undergraduate mentoring program designed to improve urban minority student access to opportunities in astrophysical research by greatly enhancing partnerships between research astronomers in New York City (City University of New York - an MSI, American Museum of Natural History, and Columbia). AstroCom NYC provides centralized, personalized mentoring as well as financial and academic support, to CUNY undergraduates throughout their studies, plus the resources and opportunities to further CUNY faculty research with students. The goal is that students' residency at AMNH helps them build a sense of belonging in the field, and readies and inspires them for graduate study. AstroCom NYC provides a rigorous Methods of Scientific Research course developed specifically to this purpose, a laptop, research and career mentors, outreach activities, scholarships and stipends, Metrocards, and regular assessment for maximum effectiveness. Stipends in part alleviate the burdens at home typical for CUNY students so they may concentrate on their academic success. AMNH serves as the central hub for our faculty and students, who are otherwise dispersed among all five boroughs of the City. For our second cohort, we dramatically improved the application and screening process, implemented a number of tools to evaluate their potential for grad school, and began growing a network of potential hosts for summer internships around NY State and the US. We review these implementations and outcomes, as well as plans for Year 3, when we expect many of our current students to compete for external summer REUs, and after greatly expanding the program reach through a NASA community college initiative.

  9. PROFAM expands Mexican family planning clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico.

  10. Proteinas do liquido cefalorraqueano: III. Valores normais das imuneglobulinas G, A e M (variações ligadas a cor, sexo e idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. Singer Vermes

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada inicialmente revisão de literatura a respeito dos resultados obtidos na determinação das taxas de imuneglobulinas do LCR normal, mediante diferentes métodos, assim como da influência dos fatores cor, sexo e idade, nestes valores. Mediante imunodifusão radial foram determinados os níveis de IgG, IgA e IgM do LCR normal de 115, 78 e 45 pessoas, respectivamente. Todas as amostras de LCR foram obtidas por punção sub-occipital (LCR-SO. Os resultados destas determinações permitiram concluir que: a as taxas médias de IgG, IgA e IgM do LCR de pretos ou pardos não diferem daquelas de brancos; b não existem variações ligadas ao sexo, nem à idade, em crianças com 1 a 11 anos, nas taxas das imuneglobulinas estudadas, no LCR; c os níveis fisiológicos em crianças com 1 a 11 anos, para IgG variam entre 0,21 e 2,93 mg/100 ml; os teores absolutos médios de IgG de crianças são inferiores àqueles encontrados em adultos; os níveis percentuais médios de IgG de crianças não diferem daqueles de adultos; d as taxas de IgA do LCR de crianças, tanto em valores absolutos como relativos, são, em média, inferiores àquelas encontradas em adultos, não ultrapassando, em condições normais, 0,15 mg/100 ml (0,7% do total protéico; e em adultos, não se observam variações ligadas ao sexo, nem à idade, nos níveis das imuneglobulinas estudadas, no LCR-SO; as taxas normais de IgG encontradas no LCR-SO de adultos são de 0,51 a 4,00 mg/100 ml; em crianças e adultos, as taxas fisiológicas desta imuneglobulina, em termos percentuais, são de 3 a 12%; o LCR-SO normal de adultos contém IgA em concentrações de até 0,32 mg/100 ml (0,9% do total protéico; f a IgM encontra-se no LCR-SO normal, tanto de crianças como de adultos, em níveis muito baixos, não ultrapassando 0,2 mg/100 ml (0,25% do total protéico.

  11. Lightweight High Strength Concrete with Expanded Polystyrene Beads

    OpenAIRE

    Subhan, Tengku Fitriani L

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a literature study about lightweight high strength concrete by incorporating expanded polystyrene beads. Basically polystyrene is disposal material from packaging industry. However, after being processed in a special manner, polystyrene can be expanded and used as lightweight concrete making material. Therefore, the use of expanded polystyrene beads in concrete is not only beneficial for engineering studies but also provide solution for the environmental problem

  12. Study of reinforcement corrosion in expanded clay concrete

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Uglyanitsa; N.V. Gilyazidinova; A.A. Zhikharev; A.A. Kargin

    2015-01-01

    Expanded clay concrete differs from heavy-weight concrete not only by the composition and performance properties, but also by modes of chemical interactions between the components. So, not the primary problem of reinforcement corrosion in heavy-weight concrete under the normal conditions and the correct protective layer, becomes in the major problem in expanded clay concrete. The issue of reinforcement corrosion in expanded clay concrete is considered in this article. The studies on the effec...

  13. Expansão urbana e variações mesoclimáticas em João Pessoa, PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liése Carneiro Sobreira

    Full Text Available A cidade de João Pessoa, na Paraíba, vem sendo submetida, nos últimos anos, a um forte crescimento urbano. Nesse contexto, este trabalho verificou entre as décadas de 1980 e 2000 variações climáticas significativas que possam ser correlacionadas com o crescimento urbano. Para tanto, utilizaram-se imagens de satélite nos anos de 1977 e 2009 para o cálculo da área edificada, bem como foram utilizadas séries de dados das variáveis climáticas: precipitação pluviométrica e temperatura do ar, colhidas em duas estações instaladas na malha urbana, e uma terceira, tomada como estação de referência, fora da malha urbana. Para a caracterização do crescimento da cidade, utilizaram-se dados quantitativos da população residente constantes dos censos demográficos de 1872 a 2009. Para a verificação do ritmo do comportamento da série temporal de temperatura e precipitação foram gerados gráficos da temperatura média e do acumulado mensal dos meses correspondentes aos trimestres mais quentes e menos quentes do período de 1984 a 2008. Dos resultados obtidos do tratamento e análise dos dados pode-se verificar que a temperatura do ar da cidade aumentou nos últimos 26 anos, havendo-se detectado que as temperaturas do ar sofreram elevações mais expressivas nos meses do trimestre mais quente, fato que pode ser correlacionado com a expansão da malha urbana.

  14. Improving yield and water use efficiency of apple trees through intercrop-mulch of crown vetch (Coronilla varia L.) combined with different fertilizer treatments in the Loess Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, W.; Li, Y.; Gong, Q.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, Z.; Zhai, B.; Wang, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Improving water use efficiency (WUE) and soil fertility is relevant for apple production in drylands. The effects of intercrop-mulch (IM) of crown vetch (Coronilla varia L.) combined with different fertilizer treatments on WUE of apple trees and soil fertility of apple orchards were assessed over three years (2011, 2013 and 2014). A split-plot design was adopted, in which the main treatments were IM and no intercrop-mulch (NIM). Five sub-treatments were established: no fertilization (CK); nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer (NP); manure (M); N, P and potassium fertilizer (NPK); and NPK fertilizer combined with manure (NPKM). Due to mowing and mulching each month during July–September, the evapotranspiration for IM was 17.3% lower than that of NIM in the dry year of 2013. Additionally, the soil water storage of NPKM treatment was higher than that of CK during the experimental period. Thus, single fruit weight and fruit number per tree increased with IM and NPKM application. Moreover, applying NPKM with IM resulted in the highest yield (on average of three years), which was 73.25% and 130.51% greater than that of CK in IM and NIM, respectively. The WUE of NPKM combined with IM was also the highest in 2013 and 2014 (47.69 and 56.95% greater than applying IM alone). In addition, due to application of IM combined with NPKM, soil organic matter was increased by 25.8% compared with that of CK (in NIM). Additionally, application of IM combined with NPKM obtained more economic net return, compared to other combinations. Therefore, applying NPKM with IM is recommended for improving apple production in this rain-fed agricultural area.

  15. Influência da icterícia colestática na variação ponderal em modelo experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Souza Vasconcellos

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da icterícia colestática na variação ponderal. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 64 ratos adultos, distribuídos em seis grupos: F1 (n=6 - fêmeas normais, F2 (n=6 - fêmeas laparotomizadas, F3 (n=20 - fêmeas ictéricas, M1 (n=6 - machos normais, M2 (n=6 - machos laparotomizados, M3 (n=20 - machos ictéricos. A icterícia foi obtida com ligadura e secção do ducto biliopancreático. Os pesos dos animais foram registrados semanalmente, durante sete semanas. No 14º dia de experimento, dosaram-se as bilirrubinas séricas e os hormônios gonadais. Após a sétima semana, realizou-se estudo histológico do fígado. RESULTADOS: Os animais dos grupos F3 e M3 apresentaram bilirrubinas elevadas e diminuição da massa corpórea, quando comparados com os demais grupos. As diferenças ponderais foram significativas a partir da quarta semana entre as fêmeas e da quinta semana entre os machos. Nos animais ictéricos houve aumento do estradiol e diminuição da progesterona e da testosterona total. Septos de fibroses perivenular e periportal, colangite e hiperplasia de ductos biliares ocorreram no fígado dos animais ictéricos. Nenhum animal apresentou cirrose. CONCLUSÃO: Ocorreu redução do peso corpóreo murino em presença de icterícia colestática em ambos os sexos.

  16. Ancoragens e variações nas representações sociais da corrupção Anchoring and variations in the social representations of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Poeschl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinam-se neste artigo as representações da corrupção de inquiridos portugueses e procuram-se identificar variações consoante os grupos sociais e os contextos geral, global ou nacional em que o fenómeno é considerado. Verificou-se que a “corrupção em geral” é representada por práticas e motivos que reflectem um julgamento moral e por grupos e actividades ilegais, tal como acontece em relação à corrupção ao nível global. Esta tem ainda uma dimensão geopolítica, enquanto a corrupção ao nível nacional é entendida de forma particularizada, realçando-se casos e situações específicas muitas vezes divulgados pelos media.In this paper, we examine the representations of corruption of Portuguese respondents and attempt to identify variations according to different social groups and to the general, global, or national contexts in which the phenomenon is considered. We found that “corruption, in general”, is represented by practices and motives that reflect a moral judgment, and by illegal groups and activities, as is also the case for corruption at the global level. Corruption at the global level also has a geopolitical dimension, whereas corruption at the national level is seen in a particularized way, highlighting cases and situations often debated in the media.

  17. Variação da sensibilidade de populações de Phakopsora pachyrhizi a fungicidas inibidores da desmetilação no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Ariana Xavier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante as safras 2008/09, 2009/10 e 2010/11 foi monitorada a sensibilidade do fungo Phakopsora pachyrhizi aos fungicidas tebuconazol, ciproconazol, metconazol e protioconazol (inibidores da desmetilação, IDMs. Folhas destacadas de soja foram tratadas com os fungicidas em doses variando de zero a 32 mg L-1 (tebuconazol, ciproconazol e metconazol e zero a 8 mg L-1 (protioconazol e inoculadas com esporos de P. pachyrhizi provenientes de lavouras de soja de diferentes regiões produtoras. As folhas inoculadas foram incubadas em placas de Petri com papel umedecido, a 23°C ± 2ºC, e a severidade da ferrugem estimada 15 dias após a inoculação. Foram determinadas as doses efetivas para reduzir 50% da severidade da doença (DE50. O fungicida protioconazol apresentou a maior atividade intrínseca, com valores de DE50 variando de 0,000001 mg L-1 a 0,39 mg L-1. Os valores de DE50variaram de 0,001 mg L-1 a 1,49 mg L-1 para tebuconazol; 0,001 mg L-1 a 3,27 mg L-1 para ciproconazol e 0,004 mg L-1 a 3,89 mg L-1 para metconazol. As medianas de DE50 para todos os fungicidas avaliados foram inferiores a 0,5 mg L-1, nas três safras. As correlações (r entre as DE50 dos quatro fungicidas foram significativas (p<0,05, mostrando a existência de resistência cruzada entre os fungicidas. A variação nos valores de DE50 no monitoramento mostra uma coexistência de populações com diferentes níveis de sensibilidade aos IDMs no campo.

  18. Associação entre dois diferentes tipos de estrangulamento com a variação da pressão intraocular em atletas de jiu-jitsu

    OpenAIRE

    Scarpi,Marinho Jorge; Conte,Marcelo; Rossin,Reginaldo Alexandre; Skubs,Renato; Lenk,Rudolf Eberhard; Brant,Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação entre dois diferentes tipos de estrangulamento com a variação da pressão intraocular em atletas de jiu-jitsu. MÉTODO: Estudo observacional em grupo de 9 atletas de jiu-jitsu, com mínimo 6 meses de treinamento, sexo masculino, idades entre 20 e 30 anos, sem presença de lesões físicas e do bulbo ocular. Buscou-se associação entre a variação da pressão intraocular e os estrangulamentos Frontal da Guarda (E1) e Frontal da Montada (E2). A pressão intraocular foi de...

  19. Ophiuroidea das regiões antartica e subantartica: 2. variação em Gorgonocephalus chílensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae Ophiuroidea from antarctic and subantarctic regions: 2. variation on Gorgonocephalus chilensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gouveia Monteiro

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 198 exemplares de Gorgonocephalus chilensis das regiões antártica e subantartica, tendo-se em vista a variação de caracteres morfológicos externos. Foi constatada uma grande variação nas características morfológicas externas, que parece independer de localização geográfica.A revision is presented on the variability of the ornamentation and other extermal morphological aspects of Gorgonocephalus chilensis. The samples were obtained along the period of 1962 to 1972 by the R/V "Hero" and "Eltanin" (USARP and by the R/V "Almirante Saldanha" from the Brazilian Navy.

  20. Detecção de Leishmania por PCR e suas variações (seminested PCR e PCR em tempo real), em fragmentos de pele e de baço de cães com leishmaniose visceral.

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares

    2013-01-01

    A detecção do DNA de Leishmania spp, pela Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) e suas variações, surgem como alternativas para o diagnóstico da LVC, por serem métodos altamente sensíveis e específicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a PCR e suas variações (Seminested PCR e PCR em tempo real) utilizando amostras de pele e de baço de 60 cães soropositivos (RIFI e ELISA). Os animais foram agrupados considerando a forma clínica, sendo classificados como assintomáticos (CA; n=20), oligossi...

  1. Variação sazonal na prevalência de distúrbios hipertensivos da gestação entre primigestas do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Vettorazzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A hipertensão é uma das mais graves patologias gestacionais, levando a um aumento importante da morbimortalidade materna e perinatal. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a correlação entre o número de internações hospitalares em primigestas com distúrbios hipertensivos na gestação e variação sazonal. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo ecológico entre todas as primigestas com idade gestacional maior de 20 semanas que internaram no Centro Obstétrico do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre num período de 12 meses. A frequência de internações por distúrbios hipertensivos foi comparada nos diferentes meses e estações do ano e também em relação à temperatura média e mínima do dia da internação e da semana anterior. Resultados: Foram estudadas 1.327 primigestas com idade média de 20,7 anos e idade gestacional média de 38,6 semanas. Entre estas, 232 (17,5% apresentaram alteração na pressão arterial, sendo que 9,7% apresentaram pré-eclâmpsia (PE e 7,5% outros distúrbios hipertensivos da gestação. Não houve associação significativa entre a frequência de internações por distúrbios hipertensivos e a temperatura média ou mínima do dia ou da semana anterior à internação. Ao longo do ano, ocorreu variação significativa (p < 0,05 na frequência de internações por pré-eclâmpsia, sendo esta maior no mês de setembro (15,1% das internações, marcando a transição entre o inverno e primavera. Conclusão: As variações da temperatura têm influência no número de internações por hipertensão na gestação, sendo essa informação útil no planejamento do sistema de saúde e da disponibilidade de leitos hospitalares.    Introduction: Hypertension is one of the most severe pregnancy disorders, leading to a significant increase of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the correlation of the number of hospital admissions of primiparous women with

  2. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Robert E. [Downstream Alternatives, Inc., South Bend, IN (United States)

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  3. Variação morfológica de pegadas de roedores arborícolas e cursoriais do Cerrado Footprint morphological variation of arboreal and cursorial rodents of the Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Nícholas F. de Camargo; Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves; Alexandre R. T. Palma

    2008-01-01

    Considerando que os roedores possuem diversas formas de locomoção, o presente estudo apresenta e discute variações na forma das pegadas anteriores e posteriores de sete espécies [Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887), Necromys lasiurus (Lund, 1840), Oecomys bicolor (Tomes, 1860), Oecomys concolor (Wagner, 1845), Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818), Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814) e Rhipidomys macrurus (Gervais, 1855)], utilizando técnicas de morfometria geométrica e análises discriminantes. As ...

  4. Expanding policy options for educating teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with

  5. Expanding Horizons Teachers and Scientists Collabortaing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teres, A.

    2017-12-01

    As a participant in PolarTrec, I joined the crew of NASA's Operation IceBridge in Greenland for the month of April 2017. As an active member of the team I learned the ins and outs of field research, and I learned about the work done by Operation IceBridge. As a result of participating in this project, I grew as a teacher and a scientist. I took my experiences and shared them with my classroom through stories, pictures, videos, and my lesson plans. By seeing the Artic through my experiences the class became enraptured by the subject matter. I was no longer talking about a distant or abstract place instead I was talking about an experience. This enabled my students to take an active part in the discussion and to feel like the cryosphere was part of their life too. Not only did I learn about the science but I leaned about logistics of field research. I reached out to my community and local communications outlets before and after my trip to Greenland to familiarize whomever I could connect with about my experience. I contacted a local news station and they did an interview with me about my trip. I emailed a local newspaper about my trip and was interviewed before I left and after I returned. Due to the newscast, I was contacted by my college sorority and was interviewed for the sorority's national newsletter which is distributed throughout the United States. Each connection helped to spread the word. I'm continuing to spread the word by volunteering to present my experience to schools throughout Broward County in Florida. I've already connected with teachers and schools to set up my presentation in the calendar. Having these types of experiences is critical for teachers to continue their growth within the scientific field and education. Effective teachers are those not constrained by the walls of their classroom. Having the opportunity to work with scientists and do research in the field has expanded my horizons. The people I met I am still in contact with and I am

  6. Expanded beam (macro-imaging) ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, M.; Juhasz, G.; Major, C.; Petrik, P.; Polgar, O.; Horvath, Z.; Nutsch, A.

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to make possible to use spectroscopic ellipsometry for mapping purposes during one measuring cycle (minimum one rotation period of polarizer or analyzer) on many sample points. Our new technique uses non-collimated (non-parallel, mostly diffuse) illumination with an angle of incidence sensitive pinhole camera detector system and it works as an unusual kind of imaging ellipsometry. Adding multicolour supplemets, it provides spectral (a few wavelengths on a 2D image or a full spectrum along a line) information from rapid measurements of many points on a large (several dm2) area. This technique can be expanded by upscaling the geometry (upscaling the dimensions of the instrument, and characteristic imaging parameters such as focal lengths, distances, etc.). The lateral resolution is limited by the minimum resolved-angle determined by the detector system, mainly by the diameter of the pinhole. (The diameter of the pinhole is a compromise between the light intensity and the lateral resolution.) Small-aperture (25 mm diameter) polarizers are incorporated into both the polarization state generator (PSG) and polarization state detection (PSD) components of the instrument. The detection is almost without background because the pinhole serves as a filter against the scattered light. One rapid measuring cycle (less than 10 s) is enough to determine the polarization state at all the points inside the illuminated area. The collected data can be processed very fast (seconds) providing nearly real-time thicknesses and/or refractive index maps over many points of the sample surface even in the case of multilayer samples. The speed of the measuring system makes it suitable for using even on production lines. The necessary (in each sample-point different) angle-of-incidence and the mirror-effect calibration are made via well-known and optimized structures such as silicon/silicon-dioxide samples. The precision is suitable for detecting sub-nanometer thickness and a

  7. Variação anatômica radial do lenho de açoita-cavalo (Luehea divaricata) e sua influência na densidade aparente. Radial variation of wood anatomy in açoita-cavalo (Luehea divaricata) and its influence on the specific gravity.

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Luiz LONGUI; Israel Luiz de LIMA; Sandra Monteiro Borges FLORSHEIM; Alaor BUFOLO

    2009-01-01

    Variações entre as dimensões e frequênciasdas células da madeira existem entre espéciesdiferentes, entre indivíduos da mesma espécie ouainda dentro da mesma árvore nas direções radial eaxial. Essa variação influencia diretamente nadensidade aparente e consequentemente no uso dasdiferentes madeiras. O presente estudo determinoua variação anatômica radial e sua influência nadensidade aparente no lenho de árvores de Luehea divaricata, a partir de amostras coletadas no DAP,por meio de método dest...

  8. Detection of tissue expander leakage by methylene blue instillation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tissue expansion is an important and widely used technique of soft tissue reconstruction. Leakage of the expanders is one of the complications and it might at times be difficult to detect. Method and Conclusion: We used methylene blue stained saline for inflation of tissue expanders in 42 cases and found it to ...

  9. Environmental Hazard of Some Types of Expanded Polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R.; Pak, A.; Ginevskiy, V.; Stoyushko, N.; Gladkova, N.

    2018-01-01

    Chromatography of five different samples of expanded polystyrene is given. The ecological danger of low-quality polystyrene foam for living creatures is proved. There is a need to develop a new high-density concrete structure that protects the interior area from toxic fumes of expanded polystyrene.

  10. Compressive and Tensile Strength of Expanded Polystyrene Beads Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Subhan, Tengku Fitriani L

    2005-01-01

    Penelitian ini betujuan untuk mempelajari property dari beton ringan yang mengandung expanded polystyrene beads, yaitu kuat tekan (compressive strength) dan kuat tarik (tensile strength). Property tersebut kemudian dibandingkan dengan beton normal (beton tanpa expanded polystyrene beads) sebagai campuran pengontrol. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa jumlah polystyrene beads yang dimasukkan sebagai campuran beton mempengaruhi property beton; yaitu dapat menurunkan kuat tekan beton. Tetapi...

  11. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator is replaced by a steam expander. With this steam expander, the pressure will be transformed into mechanical energy and extracted during the expansion process. A new type of isothermal steam expander for an industrial steam supplying system will be presented in the paper. The isothermal steam expander will improve the energy efficiency of a traditional steam expander by replacing the isentropic process with an isothermal expansion process. With this, steam condensation will decrease, energy will increase, and steam quality will be improved. Moreover, the mathematical model of the isothermal steam expander will be established by using the Schmidt theory, the same principle used to analyze Stirling engines. Consequently, by verifying the correctness of the theoretical model for the isothermal steam expander using experimental data, a prototype of 100 c.c. isothermal steam expander is constructed.

  12. Principles of the fifth order tuning of beam expanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meot, F.; Aniel, T.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical treatment of the third and fifth order optics of beam expanders is described, which allows precise tuning of the optical elements of the beam line, and efficient optimization of the beam uniformizing at the extended target. An application to a two-dimensional expander is given as an illustration. (authors)

  13. Expanded clay hot mix study : final report: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-04-01

    This is part I of a two part final report on expanded clay hot mix to: (1) evaluate the use of various expanded clay bituminous mixtures under high traffic counts, (2) accumulate through experience testing, suitable information on the physical proper...

  14. Backyard Telescopes Watch an Expanding Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    What can you do with a team of people armed with backyard telescopes and a decade of patience? Test how binary star systems evolve under Einsteins general theory of relativity!Unusual VariablesCataclysmic variables irregularly brightening binary stars consisting of an accreting white dwarf and a donor star are a favorite target among amateur astronomers: theyre detectable even with small telescopes, and theres a lot we can learn about stellar astrophysics by observing them, if were patient.Diagram of a cataclysmic variable. In an AM CVn, the donor is most likely a white dwarf as well, or a low-mass helium star. [Philip D. Hall]Among the large family of cataclysmic variables is one unusual type: the extremely short-period AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) stars. These rare variables (only 40 are known) are unique in having spectra dominated by helium, suggesting that they contain little or no hydrogen. Because of this, scientists have speculated that the donor stars in these systems are either white dwarfs themselves or very low-mass helium stars.Why study AM CVn stars? Because their unusual configuration allows us to predict the behavior of their orbital evolution. According to the general theory of relativity, the two components of an AM CVn will spiral closer and closer as the system loses angular momentum to gravitational-wave emission. Eventually they will get so close that the low-mass companion star overflows its Roche lobe, beginning mass transfer to the white dwarf. At this point, the orbital evolution will reverse and the binary orbit will expand, increasing its period.CBA member Enrique de Miguel, lead author on the study, with his backyard telescope in Huelva, Spain. [Enrique de Miguel]Backyard Astronomy Hard at WorkMeasuring the evolution of an AM CVns orbital period is the best way to confirm this model, but this is no simple task! To observe this evolution, we first need a system with a period that can be very precisely measured best achieved with an

  15. Variação da pressão intraocular no exercício resistido realizado em duas diferentes posições

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sander Soares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Verificar a variação da PIO no exercício resistido na posição sentada e em decúbito dorsal. Métodos Foram avaliados 14 voluntários do Centro de Atividades Físicas do Banco de Olhos de Sorocaba (BOS Fit. Os critérios de exclusão adotados foram: I opacidade de meios; II alteração de volume do bulbo ocular ou ausência de bulbo ocular; III PIO maior do que 21mmHg; IV idade inferior 20 e superior a 40 anos; V tempo de prática de treinamento resistido inferior a 30 dias. Inicialmente foi realizado o teste de predição no exercício leg press para determinar o percentual de carga para o respectivo exercício durante o experimento. Os voluntários foram submetidos a duas intervenções separadas em um intervalo de 72 horas, ambas com o mesmo volume e intensidade no exercício leg press, ou seja, 3 séries de 15 repetições com 60% 1RM, tempo de intervalo entre as séries de 60 segundos e velocidade moderada, de acordo com as seguintes posições: P1 leg-press executado na posição sentada e P2 leg press na posição em decúbito dorsal. A PIO foi obtida utilizando o tonômetro de Perkins em três momentos: M1 imediatamente antes do exercício; M2 imediatamente após a terceira série; M3 três minutos após a finalização da terceira série. Resultados Em ambas as posições houve queda significativa da PIO após o exercício (M2, permanecendo significativamente reduzida após três minutos de recuperação (M3. Contudo, não houve diferença da PIO segundo a posição (P1 e P2, independentemente do momento de aferição (M1, M2 e M3. Conclusão Houve queda da PIO decorrente ao exercício resistido e não foi verificada resposta diferencial da PIO de acordo com a posição do exercício.

  16. Fatores edáficos e as variações florísticas de um trecho de Mata Ciliar do Rio Gualaxo do Norte, Mariana, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda de Sena Gonçalves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a correlação entre a distribuição de espécies arbóreas ciliares do rio Gualaxo do Norte (S20°16'31,9" W43°26'15,3" e S20°16'30,6" W43°26'07,3" com fatores edáficos, assim como se existem espécies de ocorrência restrita à área de depleção ciliar que possam ser indicadas para recuperação de matas ciliares. As parcelas foram alocadas em 1 ha dividido em três blocos com declividades distintas. Todos os indivíduos com circunferência do tronco a 1,30 m do solo igual ou superior a 15 cm foram registrados e identificados. Foram coletadas cinco amostras simples de solo em cada parcela para análises químicas de fertilidade. A ordenação dos dados de solo e vegetação foi realizada pela análise de correspondência canônica (CCA, que indicou que variações na fertilidade, na acidez do solo e na altitude estavam influenciando a distribuição da vegetação arbórea ao longo do gradiente topográfico. Albizia hassleri, Bathysa meridionalis, Cariniana estrelensis, Casearia gossypiosperma, Casearia sp., Cecropia hololeuca, Himatanthus lancifolius, Luehea grandiflora, Picramnia sp., Platypodium elegans, Pseudopiptadenia contorta, Tibouchina candoleana e Virola oleifera são espécies adaptadas a condições edáficas com elevada acidez e fertilidade muito baixa, apresentando potencial para utilização em projetos de recuperação de áreas degradadas, principalmente de encostas e topo de morros. Já Casearia sylvestris, Dalbergia villosa, Dendropanax cuneatus, Machaerium aculeatum, Machaerium stiptatum, Ocotea odorifera, Ocotea pulchella, Rollinea longifolia, Schinus terebinthifolius, Tibouchina granulosa, Vernonia piptocarphoides e Vismia sp. estavam correlacionadas com solos menos ácidos, mais férteis e mais próximos ao rio, apresentando potencial para a restauração florestal em áreas ciliares.

  17. Effect of seasonal variation in Sálvia allelopathy potential / Efeito da variação sazonal no potencial alelopático de Sálvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Tatiana Araujo da Cruz-Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis and the accumulation of the chemical composites that have allelopathy characteristics in Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae are resulting from the secondary plant metabolism. The present work had as objective to analyze the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of fresh leaves of Sálvia collected during the seasons, obtained by decoction, static infusion and grinding, on the germination and development of seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. The experiment had 20 treatments (concentrations 0; 7.5; 15; 22.5 and 30%. The results had been submitted to the Tukey test, to the level at 5% probability. The appraised variables, germination percentage, the germination speed index (GSI, the growth of shoot and roots and abnormality formation of seedlings did not present a pattern of allelopathy in the different seasons, indicating a possible alteration in the plant metabolism in function of the seasonal variation in the plant ambient.A biossíntese e o acúmulo dos compostos químicos que conferem a característica alelopática em Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae são resultantes do metabolismo secundário do vegetal. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de folhas frescas de Sálvia coletadas durante as estações do ano, obtidos por decocção, maceração estática, infusão e trituração sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L., totalizando 20 tratamentos nas concentrações 0; 7,5; 15; 22,5 e 30%. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos ao teste de Tukey, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. As variáveis avaliadas, porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, crescimento da parte aérea e das raízes e formação de plântulas anormais não apresentaram um padrão de resposta alelopática nas diferentes estações do ano, indicando possível alteração no metabolismo vegetal em função da varia

  18. Análise da variação do desempenho de empresas brasileiras Analysis of variation in the performance of Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Thiago Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a influência dos ciclos econômicos no desempenho das firmas. Dados sobre uma amostra representativa de firmas de capital aberto, atuantes em 18 setores da economia, foram coletados por um período de vinte e três anos (1986-2008. Os resultados encontrados corroboram os estudos anteriores ao atribuírem maior importância aos fatores associados às características da firma, mesmo considerando um período de análise com maior número de anos e, por conseguinte, com a contribuição de um elevado numero de variáveis macroeconômicas, tais como crises e diferentes planos econômicos. Porém, foi possível confirmar que intervalos de tempo maiores de análise tendem a reduzir o efeito da firma, e que as contribuições do efeito ano em particular apesar de corroborarem os resultados obtidos nos estudos anteriores, em termos absolutos, relativamente apresentam uma grande variação. O mesmo fenômeno é observado quando se verifica a interação entre ano e ramo de negócios, implicando que diferentes ramos são afetados de maneira desigual pelas variáveis macroeconômicas em períodos de tempo mais longos.

    This paper analyzes the influence of economic cycles on the performance of firms. Data on a representative sample of open capital traded firms, operating in eighteen sectors of the economy, were collected for a period of twenty-three years (1986-2008. The results corroborate previous studies to give greater importance to factors associated with characteristics of the firm, even though a period of analysis with more years and, therefore, the contribution of a large number of macroeconomic variables, such as crises and different economic plans. However, it was possible to confirm that longer intervals of analysis tend to reduce the effect of the firm, and that the contributions of the effect in particular years, although

  19. Distant Supernovae Indicate Ever-Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    ESO Astronomers Contribute towards Resolution of Cosmic Puzzle Since the discovery of the expansion of the Universe by American astronomer Edwin Hubble in the 1920's, by measurement of galaxy velocities, astronomers have tried to learn how this expansion changes with time. Until now, most scientists have been considering two possibilities: the expansion rate is slowing down and will ultimately either come to a halt - whereafter the Universe would start to contract, or it will continue to expand forever. However, new studies by two independent research teams, based on observations of exploding stars ( supernovae ) by ESO astronomers [1] with astronomical telescopes at the La Silla Observatory as well as those of their colleagues at other institutions, appear to show that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating . The results take the discovery of the cosmological expansion one step further and challenge recent models of the Universe. If the new measurements are indeed correct, they show that the elusive "cosmological constant" , as proposed by Albert Einstein , contributes significantly to the evolution of the Universe. The existence of a non-zero cosmological constant implies that a repulsive force, counter-acting gravity, currently dominates the universal expansion , and consequently leads to an ever-expanding Universe. This new research is being named as the "Breakthrough of the Year" by the renowned US science journal Science in the December 18, 1998, issue. A Press Release is published by the journal on this occasion. "Fundamental Parameters" of the Universe Three fundamental parameters govern all cosmological models based on the theory of General Relativity. They are 1. the current expansion rate as described by Hubble's constant , i.e. the proportionality factor between expansion velocity and distance 2. the average matter density in the Universe, and 3. the amount of "other energy" present in space. From the measured values of these fundamental

  20. Wood owls of the genera Strix and Ciccaba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous, K.H.

    1964-01-01

    "... speaking here as a taxonomist to taxonomists, I am certainly no less than respectful toward the noble art of classification" (Léon Croizat, 1958, p. 119). In considering a thorough systematic study a necessity before entering into zoogeographical theories, the author feels he may expect the

  1. Rupture of an expander prosthesis mimics axillary cancer recurrence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismael, T

    2005-10-01

    Regional silicone gel migration from a ruptured breast implant has been reported at different locations including the upper extremity, chest wall muscles, axilla and back. We report a patient who presented with an axillary mass that mimicked a regional recurrence 5 years after breast cancer reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap and silicon gel expander-prosthesis. Surgical exploration revealed that the mass contained silicone gel around the port of the breast expander that had ruptured. The mass was confluent with an intracapsular silicone leak through a tract along the tube of the expander port.

  2. Massive expanding hematoma of the chin following blunt trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Thanvir Mohamed Niazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic hematoma of the face is common and usually self-limiting in nature. We report an unusual massive expanding hematoma of the chin within 9 h following a blunt trauma with no associated injuries or fracture.

  3. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  4. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE's deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program

  5. REGIONAL MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS. External Audit Reporting Could Be Expanded

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    While the traditional role of the external audit function is to express an independent opinion on an entity's financial statements, this role has increasingly been expanded to include reviews of internal control...

  6. Expandable Cryogenic Tankage for On Orbit Depot Storage, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed expandable depot storage tanks would make it possible to have an on-orbit tank larger in volume than any existing or planned launch vehicles. The size...

  7. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity

  8. Expanding the Visibility of Women's Work: Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, DeAnne K. Hilfinger; Regev, Hanna; Im, Eun-Ok; Spiers, Judith A.; Van, Paulina; Meleis, Afaf Ibrahim

    1997-01-01

    Social conceptualization and media images of women's work affect health and social policy formation. Nurses can expand the visibility of women's work and promote gender-sensitive policies within and outside the profession. (SK)

  9. Use of expanded clay aggregate in bituminous construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-01-01

    In an effort to find a solution to the shortage of aggregate, for use in highway construction, Louisiana Department of Highways initiated a study. : In early 1955, we started experimenting with expanded aggregate or lightweight aggregate as commonly ...

  10. An Expanded CAG Repeat in Huntingtin Causes +1 Frameshifting*

    OpenAIRE

    Saffert, Paul; Adamla, Frauke; Schieweck, Rico; Atkins, John F.; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of triplet decoding is crucial for the expression of functional protein because deviations either into the −1 or +1 reading frames are often non-functional. We report here that expression of huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 with expanded CAG repeats, implicated in Huntington pathology, undergoes a sporadic +1 frameshift to generate from the CAG repeat a trans-frame AGC repeat-encoded product. This +1 recoding is exclusively detected in pathological Htt variants, i.e. those with expanded re...

  11. EVALUATION OF VARIOUS FACIAL ANTHROPOMETRIC PROPORTIONS IN INDIAN AMERICAN WOMEN. Evaluación de varias proporciones antropométricas en mujeres indio-americanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthy Marx Sadacharan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El equililbrio y la armonía de los diferentes rasgos de la cara son esenciales para el cirujano quien debe analizar la cara para poder planificar su tratamiento. La evaluación de la cara femenina se puede hacer por medio de medidas lineales, angulares y proporciones. El propósito de esta investigación es examinar  varias proporciones faciales en las mujeres aborígenes americanas y compararlas con las normas de las personas indias (de India y las personas caucásicas. Tambien queriamos saber si estas normas satisfacen las proporciones de oro y de plata. Las medidas faciales antropometricas se tomaron utillizando un calibre digital en cien estudiantes aborigenes americanas (18-30 años en la Universidad Americana de Antigua (AUA. Un conjunto de proporciones faciales fue calculado y comparado con las normas de las mujeres de la India y de las mujeres caucásicas. Los coeficientes de variación de las proporciones también se calcularon. Todas las proporciones faciales fueron similares con los informes anteriores sobre las mujeres de la India. La mayoría de las proporciones tenian pequeñas coeficientes de variación haciéndolas así muy confiables, debido a la reducción en la variabilidad de las muestras. El indice de altura de la parte superior de la cara,  la altura facial mandíbulo-inferior y la altura biocular de la parte superior de la cara se acercaban todos a las proporciones de oro mientras el indice nasal era casi una proporción de plata. Habian diferencias significativas en la mayoría de los resultados cuando se comparaban las estadísticas de los indios y las personas caucásicas utilizando evaluaciones desapareadas. Las estadís-ticas actuales de las proporciones faciales pueden ser utilizadas como valores de referencia para las mujeres aborígenes de América. The balance and harmony of various facial features are essential to surgeon who requires facial analysis in the diagnosis and treatment planning. The evaluation of

  12. Significados que construyen niños, padres de familia y docentes vinculados a varias instituciones escolares de la ciudad de Bogotá sobre infancia, familia y escuela en el marco de la globalización

    OpenAIRE

    Teresita Bernal Romero; Jorge Mario Jaramillo; Liliana Mendoza Ramos; María Angélica Pérez Serna; Ana María Suárez Reyes

    2009-01-01

    Esta investigación estuvo dirigida a indagar sobre los significados construidos por niños, padres de familia y profesores acerca de la infancia, la familia y la escuela en el contexto de la globalización. Se aplicó una encuesta a un grupo de 73 niños y niñas, 52 padres de familia y 52 docentes que se encontraban vinculados a varias instituciones escolares de la ciudad de Bogotá. Los resultados mostraron convergencias y divergencias entre los tres grupos de participantes, en cuanto a la forma ...

  13. Estudo da variação da concentração de metano no biogás produzido a partir das águas residuárias do café

    OpenAIRE

    Prado,Marco Antônio Calil; Campos,Cláudio Milton Montenegro; Silva,Julia Ferreira da

    2010-01-01

    A água residuária do café (ARC), originada no processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro, produz quantidade considerável de biogás que pode e deve ser utilizado como fonte de energia alternativa e complementar. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a variação da concentração de metano do biogás produzido a partir das ARC, por tratamento anaeróbio, em reator UASB, em escala laboratorial. As amostras foram coletadas durante 86 dias. As análises da concentração de metano foram realizadas por cromatografia gás-...

  14. Demanda energética e eficiência da distribuição de sementes de milho sob variação de velocidade e condição de solo

    OpenAIRE

    Mahl,Denise; Gamero,Carlos A.; Benez,Sérgio H.; Furlani,Carlos E. A.; Silva,Antônio R. B.

    2004-01-01

    O trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a demanda energética e a eficiência da distribuição de sementes de uma semeadora-adubadora para semeadura direta, submetida à variação de velocidade e condições de solo, na semeadura da cultura do milho. O estudo foi desenvolvido em um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico, na Fazenda Experimental Lageado, no município de Botucatu - SP. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com oito repetições, combinando-se três velocidades de deslocamento (4,4...

  15. Avaliação hidrodinâmica de reator UASB submetido à variação cíclica de vazão Hydrodynamic evaluation of a UASB reactor submitted to cyclical flowrate variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Querne de Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Um reator UASB em escala piloto (160 l foi usado com o objetivo de estudar seu comportamento hidrodinâmico quando submetido a variações cíclicas senoidais da vazão afluente. Os ensaios foram realizados com traçador eosina Y para as condições operacionais: vazão média afluente constante e igual a 16 l.h-1 e tempo de detenção hidráulica de 10 h (ensaios 1 e 2, e para vazão afluente submetida à variação senoidal de 40% (ensaios 3 e 4 e de 60% (ensaio 5. A variação da concentração do traçador no efluente foi ajustada pelos modelos teóricos de dispersão de fluxo e de reatores em série. O reator UASB apresentou comportamento similar ao de reator de mistura completa para vazão média afluente constante e similar ao reator de fluxo pistonado com a aplicação das variações senoidais cíclicas, sendo que o modelo de pequena dispersão apresentou melhor ajuste matemático.A bench scale UASB reactor (160 l was used in stimulus-response assays in order to evaluate its behaviour when submitted to cyclical sinusoidal variations of the influent flow rate. Assays were carried out with eosin Y as the tracer in different operational conditions: constant mean influent flow rate of 16 l.h-1 and hydraulic residence time of 10 h (assays 1 and 2, and influent flow rate submitted to sinusoidal variation of 40% (assays 3 and 4 and 60% (assay 5. The variation of tracer concentration in the effluent was adjusted by the theoretical models of dispersion (low and high and N-continuous stirred tank reactors in series. Complete mixture behaviour was noted to the application of the constant influent flow rate and a plug flow one to the application of the cyclical sinusoidal variations of the influent flow rate. The low dispersion model demonstrated the best mathematical adjustment in the RTD.

  16. As variações na comunidade de Odonata (Insecta) em córregos podem ser explicadas pelo Paradoxo do Plâncton? Explicando a riqueza de espécies pela variabilidade ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Junior, José Max Barbosa; Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos; Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso; Pinto, Nelson Silva; Universidade Federal de Goiás; Juen, Leandro; Universidade Federal do Pará

    2013-01-01

    A teoria do Paradoxo do Plâncton postula que ambientes que apresentam flutuações temporais periódicas apresentariam alta diversidade de espécie, uma vez que essas flutuações impediriam a ocorrência da exclusão competitiva. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a variação da comunidade de Odonata adulto na Bacia do Rio Suiá-Miçú, testando a hipótese de que locais que apresentam variá...

  17. Strength analysis of expandable tubulars for well applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, A.C.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Fonseca, C.E. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Netto, T.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Solid expandable tube technology has many advantages when compared to conventional wells. The expansion of tubes in situ allows developing reserves in many of the challenging scenarios found in oil industry, as pre-salt layer, HPHT wells, deep reservoirs, or ultra-deep water. Besides, this procedure has good compatibility with directional and horizontal wells and facilitates side-tracks operations. Although the expansion of tubes is very attractive, a better understanding of its influence on the tube mechanical strength is necessary. In this work, experimental tests and numerical analyses were performed in order to determine the effect of parameters such as diameter-to-thickness ratio and expansion rate on the collapse resistance of expandable tubes. An experimental apparatus was designed and built to reproduce full-scale tube expansion. Three 2 meter long specimens were expanded 10% their original diameters and subjected to hydrostatic pressure inside a vessel until collapse. Three non-expanded tubes were also tested for comparison. At the same time, non-linear numerical models were developed using the finite element method. After calibration, they were used to further analyze the mechanical behavior of solid expandable tubes and the influence of expansion on its resistance against collapse. (author)

  18. The technique of sand control with expandable screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P. [Petrochina, Liaohe (China). Liaohe Oilfield Co.

    2009-07-01

    Sand production in heavy oil reservoirs can limit the normal production of oil wells. In this study, expandable screens were used as a sand control mechanism by filtering the sand as it entered the wellbore. The screen systems consists of an expandable outer housing, an expandable base pipe and a filtering layer. The screen expands radially through an expandable cone and presses into the casing well. Axial tension is used to shrink the screens radially through a fishing anchor in order to remove them from the well. The lack of a sand ring between the screen and the casing increases the flow area of the oil and reduces flow resistance caused by fine silt blockages. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to study the expansion and shrinkage properties of the screens. A field test conducted at a well located in the Liaohe oilfield in China demonstrated that good sand control results can be obtained without the need for pump checking. It was concluded that the sand control method is easy to use and provides good sand control results in large open flow areas. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  19. Theoretical investigation of flash vaporisation in a screw expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasuthevan, Hanushan; Brümmer, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    In the present study flash vaporisation of liquid injection in a twin screw expander for a Trilateral Flash Cycle (TFC) is examined theoretically. The TFC process comprises a pressure increase in the working fluid, followed by heating the liquid close to boiling point. The hot liquid is injected into the working chamber of a screw expander. During this process the pressure of the liquid drops below the saturation pressure, while the temperature of the liquid remains virtually constant. Hence the liquid is superheated and in a metastable state. The liquid jet seeks to achieve a stable state in thermodynamic equilibrium and is therefore partially vaporised. This effect is referred to as flash vaporisation. Accordingly, a two-phase mixture, consisting of vapour and liquid, exists in the working chamber. Thermodynamic simulations were carried out using water as the working fluid for representative screw expander geometry. The simulations presented are performed from two different aspects during the filling process of a screw expander. The first case is the vaporisation of the injected liquid in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, whereby the two-phase mixture is treated entirely as a compressible and homogeneous gas. The second case considers flashing efficiency. It describes the quantity of flashed vapour and consists of a liquid and vapour domain. Both models are compared and analysed with respect to the operational behaviour of a screw expander.

  20. Numerical simulation of a twin screw expander for performance prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papes, Iva; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing use of twin screw expanders in waste heat recovery applications, the performance prediction of these machines plays an important role. This paper presents a mathematical model for calculating the performance of a twin screw expander. From the mass and energy conservation laws, differential equations are derived which are then solved together with the appropriate Equation of State in the instantaneous control volumes. Different flow processes that occur inside the screw expander such as filling (accompanied by a substantial pressure loss) and leakage flows through the clearances are accounted for in the model. The mathematical model employs all geometrical parameters such as chamber volume, suction and leakage areas. With R245fa as working fluid, the Aungier Redlich-Kwong Equation of State has been used in order to include real gas effects. To calculate the mass flow rates through the leakage paths formed inside the screw expander, flow coefficients are considered as constant and they are derived from 3D Computational Fluid Dynamic calculations at given working conditions and applied to all other working conditions. The outcome of the mathematical model is the P-V indicator diagram which is compared to CFD results of the same twin screw expander. Since CFD calculations require significant computational time, developed mathematical model can be used for the faster performance prediction.

  1. Expanded tenses in the old English orosius a syntactic strengthening*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frančiška Trobevšek Drobnak

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The present chapter reports the investigation into certain aspects of the periphrastic construction to be +present participle (e.g. NE: "he is teaching"; OE. "he is laerende" viewed as an example of a syntactic strengthening. The construc­ tion is usually referred to as "continuous tenses/form" or "progressive tenses/form", whereas Nickel (1966 uses "expanded form". Coming closest to this latter term, the "expanded tenses" employed here seems a convenient label for two reasons: a  the use of expanded tenses is not restricted to the expression of verbal aspect (Aspekt or mode of verbal action (Aktionsart, which is implied by the use of either the term "continuous  tenses/form" or the term "progressive tenses/form"; b  the expanded tenses are integrated into the English tense system, in the sense that they can be substituted  with the respective non-expanded tenses without any change in the syntax of the clause, e.g.

  2. Análise da variação do tempo dedicado ás viagens urbanas da população de Manaus – AM, em função do modo de transporte utilizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Leite

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ausência de planejamento, característica da maioria dos bairros de Manaus deixou como herança um sistema viário incompatível com o tamanho atual da cidade. Neste artigo busca-se analisar a variação do tempo dedicado às viagens urbanas em Manaus em função de três diferentes modos de transporte: ônibus, micro-ônibus e automóvel. Receptores do Sistema de Posicionamento Global (GPS e recursos de um Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG foram utilizados para levantar e tratar os dados das viagens urbanas realizadas. Considera-se (por tudo o que o trabalho permitiu concluir, que a metodologia adotada foi bastante consistente para o reconhecimento da variação de desempenho de modos de transporte investigados. Os percursos mais longos permitiram melhor desempenho que os mais curtos, notadamente influenciado pela área central da cidade, que registrou os trechos mais lentos para os três modos.

  3. Variação das dimensões características e da forma dos frutos de café durante o processo de secagem Variation of characteristic dimensions and forms of coffee fruits during drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Corrêa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da variação do teor de umidade nas dimensões e propriedades físicas-esfericidade e circularidade do fruto do café das espécies arabica e canephora, de diferentes variedades. Os resultados obtidos permitiram afirmar que a redução do teor de umidade afeta de forma acentuada as características físicas do fruto do cafeeiro das espécies e variedades estudadas, indicando que são importantes as variações das dimensões do fruto ao longo do processo de secagem e, ainda, que as expressões matemáticas ajustadas aos dados obtidos representaram de forma satisfatória os fenômenos estudados.The present work had as objective to evaluate the effect of moisture content variation on dimensions and physical properties (sphericity and roundness of coffee fruit of the arabica and canephora species, for different varieties. The obtained results show that the reduction of moisture content affects in an accentuated way the physical characteristics of coffee fruit of the studied species and varieties, indicating that the variations of dimensions of the fruit along the drying process are important. Further, the mathematical expressions adjusted to the data were satisfactory for the studied phenomena.

  4. Variação espaço-temporal e efeito do ciclo lunar na ictiofauna estuarina: evidências para o estuário do Rio Joanes – Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Amorim Reis-Filho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n2p111 Dados de abundância, biomassa, comprimento, riqueza, diversidade e equitatibilidade da ictiofauna estuarina do Rio Joanes foram obtidos para investigar o efeito do ciclo lunar e da variação espaço-temporal na ictiofauna. Foram capturados 1.497 peixes, pesando 7.760g, pertencentes a 48 espécies de 22 famílias. As análises de comunidade indicaram não haver diferença significativa avaliando o efeito da lua, contudo, a lua minguante foi responsável por maiores capturas. A composição e estrutura da comunidade variaram com o tipo de sedimento e vegetação de manguezal, onde maior número de espécies e maior número de indivíduos preferiram sedimento lamoso em áreas com vegetação marginal preservada. Agrupamentos baseados nos dados de abundância não seguiram variações temporais de longo período, porém peixes com nichos similares em relação ao uso do habitat preferiram determinadas áreas de acordo com o tipo de sedimento.

  5. Somaclonal variation in micropropagated Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I plantlets (Heliconiaceae Variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Helicônia, Heliconia Bihai cv. Lobster Claw I (Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of somaclonal variation is described in various cultures of agronomic interest. Such variation can be of benefit in the development of new flower varieties. In this study, the occurrence of somaclonal variation in micropropagated changes of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I was investigated. Stem apexes were introduced in MS culture media with the addition of 2.5 mg L-1 of benzylaminopure (BAP and 500 mg L-1 of sodium cefotaxime. After selecting the apex stem, it was sub-cultivated in MS media and supplemented with 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP to induce side buds. To conduct the trial, 2,000 plants were selected and compared with plants originated from rhizomes. To calculate the percentage of the variants, the plant stature, the form and color of leaves and pseudostem were evaluated. The plants with buds presenting the same type of variation were considered as variants. The occurrence of three types of somaclonal variants was observed: Variation of the Chlorophyll in the Leaf, Low Stature Variant and Pseudostem and Petiole Color Variant, the latter with ornamental potential. The somaclonal variation rate for Heliconia bihai cv Lobster Claw I, under the proposed conditions, was 61.40%.A ocorrência de variação somaclonal é descrita em diversas culturas de interesse agronômico. A floricultura pode beneficiar-se dessa variabilidade, com a obtenção de novas variedades. Nesse trabalho, estudou-se a ocorrência de variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I. Ápices caulinares foram introduzidos em meio de cultivo MS com adição de 2,5 mg L-1 de benzilaminopurina (BAP e 500 mg L-1 de cefotaxima sódica. Após a seleção do ápice caulinar, o explante foi subcultivado em meio MS suplementado com 4,0 mg L-1 de BAP para indução de brotações. Foram selecionadas, ao acaso, 2.000 mudas e comparadas com mudas originadas de rizomas, para compor o ensaio. No cálculo da porcentagem dos variantes

  6. Expanding Training Data for Facial Image Super-Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao; Huang, Hua; Qi, Chun

    2018-02-01

    The quality of training data is very important for learning-based facial image super-resolution (SR). The more similarity between training data and testing input is, the better SR results we can have. To generate a better training set of low/high resolution training facial images for a particular testing input, this paper is the first work that proposes expanding the training data for improving facial image SR. To this end, observing that facial images are highly structured, we propose three constraints, i.e., the local structure constraint, the correspondence constraint and the similarity constraint, to generate new training data, where local patches are expanded with different expansion parameters. The expanded training data can be used for both patch-based facial SR methods and global facial SR methods. Extensive testings on benchmark databases and real world images validate the effectiveness of training data expansion on improving the SR quality.

  7. Financial Burdens and Economic Costs in Expanding Urban Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, David H.; Snyder, Thomas P.

    1987-07-01

    Rates of growth of demand, lengths of financing periods, real interest rates, and the types of facilities are shown to be important variables in evaluating the equity (or inequity) between established residents and new-development residents when urban water and sewer facilities are expanded with public financing. Established residents pay less than the economic cost of facilities when facilities that can be efficiently expanded in an incremental manner are subject to demands that are growing at rates that are less than the real interest rate. They pay more than the economic cost when growth occurs at higher rates. When facilities are expanded at multiyear intervals with excess capacity, payments are equated to costs at lower growth rates. Similarly, increasing real costs of facilities shift that breakpoint to lower growth rates. Modest one-time changes can be used to offset burdens on established residents when inequities do occur. Inflation has little effect on these results.

  8. On the elusive crystal structure of expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Bastian; Ståhl, Kenny; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2017-01-01

    No consistent structural description exists for expanded austenite that accurately accounts for the hkl-dependent peak shifts and broadening observed in diffraction experiments. The best available description for homogeneous samples is a face-centered cubic lattice with stacking faults. Here Debye...... simulations of stacking fault effects were compared to experimental data for macro-stress free homogeneous expanded austenite to show that a faulted structure cannot explain the observed peak displacement anomalies. Instead it is argued that the shifts are the combined result of elastic and plastic anisotropy...

  9. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Laser Simulations in Expanding Coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Armstead, Robert L; Colson, William B

    2004-01-01

    For compact short-Rayleigh length FELs, the area of the optical beam can be thousands of times greater at the mirrors than at the beam waist. A fixed numerical grid of sufficient resolution to represent the narrow mode at the waist and the broad mode at the mirrors would be prohibitively large. To accommodate this extreme change of scale with no loss of information, we employ a coordinate system that expands with the diffracting optical mode. The simulation using the new expanding coordinates has been validated by comparison to analytical cold-cavity theory, and is now used to simulate short-Rayleigh length FELs.

  10. Scalar-Tensor Black Holes Embedded in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Tretyakova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus our attention on scalar-tensor gravity models and their empirical verification in terms of black hole and wormhole physics. We focus on black holes, embedded in an expanding universe, describing both cosmological and astrophysical scales. We show that in scalar-tensor gravity it is quite common that the local geometry is isolated from the cosmological expansion, so that it does not backreact on the black hole metric. We try to extract common features of scalar-tensor black holes in an expanding universe and point out the issues that are not fully investigated.

  11. Scalar-Tensor Black Holes Embedded in an Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakova, Daria; Latosh, Boris

    2018-02-01

    In this review we focus our attention on scalar-tensor gravity models and their empirical verification in terms of black hole and wormhole physics. We focus on a black hole, embedded in an expanding universe, describing both cosmological and astrophysical scales. We show that in scalar-tensor gravity it is quite common that the local geometry is isolated from the cosmological expansion, so that it does not backreact on the black hole metric. We try to extract common features of scalar-tensor black holes in an expanding universe and point out the gaps that must be filled.

  12. Sound absorption study of raw and expanded particulate vermiculites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vašina, Martin; Plachá, Daniela; Mikeska, Marcel; Hružík, Lumír; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2016-12-01

    Expanded and raw vermiculite minerals were studied for their ability to absorb sound. Phase and structural characterization of the investigated vermiculites was found similar for both types, while morphology and surface properties vary. Sound waves reflect in wedge-like structure and get minimized, and later are absorbed totally. We found that thanks to porous character of expanded vermiculite the principle of absorption of sound into layered vermiculite morphology is analogous to principle of sound minimization in "anechoic chambers." It was found in this study that the best sound damping properties of the investigated vermiculites were in general obtained at higher powder bed heights and higher excitation frequencies.

  13. Aortic annulus eccentricity before and after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Comparison of balloon-expandable and self-expanding prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika, E-mail: annika.schuhbaeck@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Cardiology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Weingartner, Christina [Department of Cardiology, University of Gießen, Giessen (Germany); Arnold, Martin; Schmid, Jasmin; Pflederer, Tobias; Marwan, Mohamed [Department of Cardiology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Rixe, Johannes; Nef, Holger [Department of Cardiology, University of Gießen, Giessen (Germany); Schneider, Christian [Department of Radiology, University of Gießen, Giessen (Germany); Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael [Department of Radiology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Ensminger, Stephan [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart and Diabetes Center NRW, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Feyrer, Richard; Weyand, Michael [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Achenbach, Stephan [Department of Cardiology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Post-implant geometry of catheter-based aortic valve prostheses is influenced by aortic valve calcification. • Balloon-expandable prostheses are more circular as compared to self-expanding prostheses. • The impact of post-implant geometry on valve function needs to be investigated. - Abstract: Introduction: The geometry of the aortic annulus and implanted transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis might influence valve function. We investigated the influence of valve type and aortic valve calcification on post-implant geometry of catheter-based aortic valve prostheses. Methods: Eighty consecutive patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (mean age 82 ± 6 years) underwent computed tomography before and after TAVI. Aortic annulus diameters were determined. Influence of prosthesis type and degree of aortic valve calcification on post-implant eccentricity were analysed. Results: Aortic annulus eccentricity was reduced in patients after TAVI (0.21 ± 0.06 vs. 0.08 ± 0.06, p < 0.0001). Post-TAVI eccentricity was significantly lower in 65 patients following implantation of a balloon-expandable prosthesis as compared to 15 patients who received a self-expanding prosthesis (0.06 ± 0.05 vs. 0.15 ± 0.07, p < 0.0001), even though the extent of aortic valve calcification was not different. After TAVI, patients with a higher calcium amount retained a significantly higher eccentricity compared to patients with lower amounts of calcium. Conclusions: Patients undergoing TAVI with a balloon-expandable prosthesis show a more circular shape of the implanted prosthesis as compared to patients with a self-expanding prosthesis. Eccentricity of the deployed prosthesis is affected by the extent of aortic valve calcification.

  14. Aortic annulus eccentricity before and after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Comparison of balloon-expandable and self-expanding prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika; Weingartner, Christina; Arnold, Martin; Schmid, Jasmin; Pflederer, Tobias; Marwan, Mohamed; Rixe, Johannes; Nef, Holger; Schneider, Christian; Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan; Feyrer, Richard; Weyand, Michael; Achenbach, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Post-implant geometry of catheter-based aortic valve prostheses is influenced by aortic valve calcification. • Balloon-expandable prostheses are more circular as compared to self-expanding prostheses. • The impact of post-implant geometry on valve function needs to be investigated. - Abstract: Introduction: The geometry of the aortic annulus and implanted transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis might influence valve function. We investigated the influence of valve type and aortic valve calcification on post-implant geometry of catheter-based aortic valve prostheses. Methods: Eighty consecutive patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (mean age 82 ± 6 years) underwent computed tomography before and after TAVI. Aortic annulus diameters were determined. Influence of prosthesis type and degree of aortic valve calcification on post-implant eccentricity were analysed. Results: Aortic annulus eccentricity was reduced in patients after TAVI (0.21 ± 0.06 vs. 0.08 ± 0.06, p < 0.0001). Post-TAVI eccentricity was significantly lower in 65 patients following implantation of a balloon-expandable prosthesis as compared to 15 patients who received a self-expanding prosthesis (0.06 ± 0.05 vs. 0.15 ± 0.07, p < 0.0001), even though the extent of aortic valve calcification was not different. After TAVI, patients with a higher calcium amount retained a significantly higher eccentricity compared to patients with lower amounts of calcium. Conclusions: Patients undergoing TAVI with a balloon-expandable prosthesis show a more circular shape of the implanted prosthesis as compared to patients with a self-expanding prosthesis. Eccentricity of the deployed prosthesis is affected by the extent of aortic valve calcification

  15. The application of sewage sludge as an expanding agent in the production of lightweight expanded clay aggregate mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latosińska, J; Zygadło, M

    2011-10-01

    Sewage sludge can be used as an expanding agent in the production of lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) mass. The addition of sewage sludge increases the total porosity and decreases the bulk density of a sinter. The addition of sewage sludge to a raw material used in the production of LECA enabled a decrease in the burning temperature for the maintained operational parameters of a lightweight aggregate. The optimum content of sewage sludge added to a raw material used in LECA production was 5% to 15% of dry mass. The addition of sewage sludge in an amount of 5% and 10% caused an increase in closed porosity.

  16. Assessing Community Needs for Expanding Environmental Education Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Carly J.; Lackey, Brenda K.

    2017-01-01

    Based on increased demand for educational programming, leadership at Schmeeckle Reserve, a campus natural area in Stevens Point, WI explored the needs for expanded environmental education efforts. In 2014, a three-phased needs assessment framework was employed to explore educational programming offered in the community. Results from interviews and…

  17. Dynamical 3-Space: Black Holes in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothall D. P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Black holes are usually studied without including effects of the expanding universe. However in some recent studies black holes have been embedded in an expanding universe, in order to determine the interplay, if any, of these two dynamical processes. Dynamical 3-space theory contains time independent solutions for black holes, which are spatial in-flows, and separately the time dependent Hubble expansion. This theory has explained numerous puzzles in observational astrophysics and contains 3 constants; G, - which from experimental data turns out to be the fine structure constant, and - which is a small but nonzero distance, possibly a Planck-type length. The Hubble expansion in the dynamical 3-space theory cannot be “switched o”, forcing the study, first, of isolated black holes coexisting with the expanding universe. It is shown that a time dependent black hole and expanding universe solution exists. The nature and implications of these solutions are discussed as they evolve over time. A dynamical network of black holes and induced linking cosmic filaments forming bubble structures is discussed, as a consequence of dynamical 3-space undergoing a dynamical breakdown of homogeneity and isotropy, even in the absence of baryonic matter.

  18. Validation of the Chinese Expanded Euthanasia Attitude Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-Lin; Fok, Shiu-Yeu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the validation of the Chinese version of an expanded 31-item Euthanasia Attitude Scale. A 4-stage validation process included a pilot survey of 119 college students and a randomized household survey with 618 adults in Hong Kong. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a 4-factor structure of the scale, which can therefore be…

  19. Expanding Business Opportunities for African Youth in Agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Expanding Business Opportunities for African Youth in Agricultural Value Chains in Southern Africa (CultiAF). This project will develop and test novel, creative, and bold business models that increase the participation of youth in fish and maize post-harvest value chains in Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. African youth and ...

  20. Reducing Dropout Rates through Expanded Learning Opportunities. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laura; Princiotta, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Expanded learning opportunities (ELOs), which include afterschool, summer learning, and extended day and extended year programs, can help states reduce dropout rates and increase graduation rates. Effective elementary, middle, and high school ELOs support academic rigor, boost student engagement, and provide students with supportive relationships.…

  1. Expanding the Canadian Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will expand the reach and deepen the impact of the original Canadian Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Scholarships program (QES) through a new component supporting ... IDRC is now accepting applications for this year's Trees and People: Resilience in a changing climate John G. Bene Fellowship 2018.

  2. Expanded clinical spectrum of enhanced S-cone syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, Suzanne; Barbazetto, Irene; Allikmets, Rando; van Schooneveld, Mary J.; Bergen, Arthur; Tsang, Stephen H.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.

    2013-01-01

    New funduscopic findings in patients with enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS) may help clinicians in diagnosing this rare autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy. To expand the clinical spectrum of ESCS due to mutations in the NR2E3 gene. Retrospective, noncomparative case series of 31 patients examined

  3. 2010 Impacts: The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Since 1969, the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) has improved the diets and food-related behaviors of program participants. Each year EFNEP enrolls more than half a million new program participants. In 2010, EFNEP reached 137,814 adults and 463,530 youth directly and nearly 400,000 family members indirectly. This paper…

  4. FDA Expands Approval of Brentuximab for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    The FDA has expanded the approved uses of brentuximab (Adcetris) in people with Hodgkin lymphoma. As this Cancer Currents post explains, it can now be used in combination with three chemotherapy drugs as an initial treatment in patients with advanced disease.

  5. Expanded porphyrins as third order non-linear optical materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    function correlations ... An understanding of the structure–function corre- lations of these expanded porphyrins is an important first step for ... where χ (2) and χ (3) are the quadratic χ (2) (first- order) and χ (3) cubic (second-order) susceptibilities.

  6. Gravitational Clustering of Galaxies in an Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We inquire the phenomena of clustering of galaxies in an expanding universe from a theoretical point of view on the basis of thermodynamics and correlation functions. The partial differential equation is developed both for the point mass and extended mass structures of a two-point correlation function by ...

  7. Expanding Sex-Role Definitions by Self-Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Sharon E.; Greenberg, Leslie S.

    1980-01-01

    Counselors who stimulate client self-discovery may help these clients experience undeveloped parts of themselves and expand their definitions of themselves and their sex-role possibilities. Stimulation methods actively involve clients in the exploration of sex-role concerns to change restrictive self-concepts. (Author)

  8. Comparision of the Expandable Nail with Locked Nail in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Korkmaz M, Demirel H. Extreme complications of Fixion nail in treatment of long bone fractures. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2008;128:301-06. 31. Rose DM, Smith TO, Nielsen D, Hing CB. Expandable intramedullary nails for humeral fractures: A systematic review of clinical and radiological outcomes.

  9. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peck, C.C.; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F.; Schiffman, E.L.; Alstergren, P.; Anderson, G.C.; De Leeuw, R.; Jensen, R.; Michelotti, A.; Ohrbach, R.; Petersson, A.; List, T.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for

  10. Application of a high density adsorbent in expanded bed adsorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of STREAMLINE Direct HST adsorbent in expanded bed adsorption of lipase from Burkholderia pseudomallei was explored in this study. Scouting of optimum binding and elution condition was performed in batch binding mode. The addition of 0.2 M salt in acetate buffer (pH 5) during adsorption has ...

  11. Stability of a Bubble Expanding and Translating Through an Inviscid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A bubble expands adiabatically and translates in an incompressible and inviscid liquid. We investigate the number of equilibrium points of the bubble and the nature of stability of the bubble at these points. We find that there is only one equilibrium point and the bubble is stable there.

  12. Expanding schooling opportunities for 4-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Lindahl, M.; Oosterbeek, H.; Webbink, D.

    2010-01-01

    We use a novel quasi-experimental strategy to estimate the effect of expanding early schooling enrollment possibilities on early achievement. It exploits two features of the school system in The Netherlands. The first is rolling admissions; children are allowed to start school immediately after

  13. The potential role of the private sector in expanding postabortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential role of the private sector in expanding postabortion care in Addis Ababa, Amhara and Oromia regions of Ethiopia. ... mortality and morbidity in Ethiopia. High disease burden and underdeveloped infrastructure entail involvement of all partners in responding to health needs in the country. The private sector has ...

  14. A self-adjusting expandable GPS collar for male elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian L. Dick; Scott L. Findholt; Bruce K. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    It is a challenge to use collars on male cervids because their neck size can increase substantially during the rut and also because of growth as the animal matures. We describe how to build a self-adjusting expandable collar for yearling or adult male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) to which very high frequency transmitters and global...

  15. Expanding Gerontology Enrollments: Successful Results of an Innovative Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Haley, William E.; Hyer, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    As state budget allocations for higher education decrease, "specialty" programs such as gerontology must continually demonstrate their productivity. State and private universities increasingly rely on student credit hours (SCH) or tuition generated, which is making it difficult for many gerontology programs to expand. The School of Aging Studies…

  16. Expanding the Oral Hygiene Curriculum in a Nursing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Susan; Griego, Elizabeth

    A program was implemented to expand the curriculum materials within the Licensed Practical Nursing (LPN) Program at Clark County Community College (CCCC) which relate to oral hygiene care for the hospital patient. The instructional materials included a video tape and a written instructional packet which were researched, prepared, and presented by…

  17. DEMONSTRATION OF PACKAGING MATERIALS ALTERNATIVES TO EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report represents the second demonstration of cleaner technologies to support the goals of the 33/50 Program under the EPA Cooperative Agreement No. CR-821848. The report presents assessment results of alternative packaging materials which could potentially replace expanded...

  18. Fire Resistance of Concrete Constructions with Expanded Clay Aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes briefly a series of full-scale tests made as documentation for extending the field of application of the reduced cross section method from the structural codes to constructions based on expanded clay aggregate. As a special result the tests verify that slabs with a short...

  19. Application of a high density adsorbent in expanded bed adsorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... allowed the passage of cells or cell particle with concomitant adsorption of target protein (Jahic et al.,. 2006). Stable expanded bed is critical to the overall pro- cess performance (Jahic et al., 2006), a well performing adsorbent will prevent bed instability and give high breakthrough capacity (Anspach et al., ...

  20. Food for Thought: Expanding School Breakfast to NJ Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Kyle, Portia; Parello, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This brief marks the start of "Advocates for Children of New Jersey's Food for Thought School Breakfast Campaign", which seeks to expand innovative approaches to serving school breakfast and significantly increase students' participation rates. This report provides a closer look at the data, including identifying districts that have high…

  1. Expanding the mirror : vicarious activity for actions, emotions, and sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    We often empathically share the states of others. The discovery of 'mirror neurons' suggested a neural mechanism for monkeys to share the actions of others. Here we expand this view by showing that mirror neurons for actions not only exist in the premotor cortex or in monkeys and that vicarious

  2. New expanded bed adsorbents for the recovery of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodossiou, Irini; Olander, M. A.; Sondergaard, M.

    2000-01-01

    A 20-40 mum pellicular high density (similar to3.7 g cm(-3)) expanded bed material has been designed for the capture of DNA and other large macromolecules. Anion exchangers fashioned out of these supports exhibited dramatically enhanced DNA binding capacities over commercial anion exchange...

  3. Stability of a bubble expanding and translating through an inviscid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Department of Mathematics, Delhi University, Delhi 110 007, India. MS received 27 August 2001; revised 2 February 2002. Abstract. A bubble expands adiabatically and translates in an incompressible and inviscid liquid. We investigate the number of equilibrium points of the bubble and the nature of stability of the bubble at ...

  4. Percutaneous transhepatic self-expanding metal stents for palliation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, and Surgical Gastroenterology, Groote Schuur. Hospital, Cape Town. Background. Malignant biliary obstruction is often inoperable at presentation and has a poor prognosis. Percutaneously placed self- expanding metal stents (SEMS) have been ...

  5. [Treatment of femoral shaft fractures with expandable intramedullary nail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilli, Feridun; Mahiroğullari, Mahir; Pehlivan, Ozcan; Keklikçi, Kenan; Kuşkucu, Mesih; Kiral, Ahmet; Avşar, Serdar

    2009-07-01

    Femoral shaft fractures are usually seen in the young population as a result of high energy traumas and are often accompanied by major organ injuries. In this paper, we aimed to assess the clinical results of expandable femoral intramedullary nails in the treatment of 20 femoral shaft fractures. The average age was 34.7. One fracture was the result of a gunshot wound, type 3A open fracture, and the other 19 fractures were closed. Under fluoroscopic control, all patients underwent elective closed reduction and internal fixation with intramedullary expandable femoral nails (Fixion, Disc-O-Tech; Israel). In case of failed or unacceptable closed reduction, open reduction was achieved with a second incision over the fracture site. Average operation time was 26.3 minutes. Full union was achieved in all patients. The shortest union time was 12 weeks and the longest 24 weeks, with an average of 15.2 weeks. Results in 15 patients (75%) were excellent, in 4 patients (20%) good and in 1 patient (5%) moderate according to Thorensen criteria. Use of expandable nails provides union without major complications and offers advantages such as less exposure to radiation as seen in distal locking of classical intramedullary nails. In conclusion, the good results of this study show that the expandable femoral intramedullary nail provides a successful option to classical intramedullary nails.

  6. Expanding Possibilities through Metaphor: Breaking Biases to Improve Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirka, Carol C.; Corrigall, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate that an exercise using metaphors to overcome cognitive biases helped students to proactively imagine and prepare for an expanded set of potential crises. The exercise complements traditional textbook approaches to crisis management and incorporates creativity skill building in a realistic context. Learning outcomes…

  7. Mobility and conflict: Persistent challenges in expanding access to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alemayehu Debebe

    Mobility and Conflict: Persistent Challenges in Expanding. Access to Education Among Pastoralists of South Omo,. Ethiopia. Alemayehu Debebe. Abstract. This study explores into mobility patterns and prevalence of conflict as determinants of access to and retention in education. The assessment has been carried out in two.

  8. Expanded-bed chromatography in primary protein purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspach, F B; Curbelo, D; Hartmann, R; Garke, G; Deckwer, W D

    1999-12-31

    Chromatography in stable expanded beds enables proteins to be recovered directly from cultivations of microorganisms or cells and preparations of disrupted cells, without the need for prior removal of suspended solids. The general performance of an expanded bed is comparable to a packed bed owing to reduced mixing of the adsorbent particles in the column. However, optimal operating conditions are more restricted than in a packed bed due to the dependence of bed expansion on the size and density of the adsorbent particles as well as the viscosity and density of the feedstock. The feedstock composition may become the most limiting restriction owing to interactions of adsorbent particles with cell surfaces, DNA and other substances, leading to their aggregation and consequently to bed instabilities and channeling. Despite these difficulties, expanded-bed chromatography has found widespread applications in the large scale purification of proteins from mammalian cell and microbial feedstocks in industrial bioprocessing. The basics and implementation of expanded-bed chromatography, its advantages as well as problems encountered in the use of this technique for the direct extraction of proteins from unclarified feedstocks are addressed.

  9. Strengthening and Expanding the Promoting Women in Peruvian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening and Expanding the Promoting Women in Peruvian Social Sciences Initiative: Grupo Sofia. This project seeks to ... It convened a series of researchers to draft short reflection papers on the various challenges faced by women in social sciences, higher education, and the labour market. These papers were ...

  10. Gravitational Collapse and Structure Formation in an Expanding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    GENERAL ARTICLE. Gravitational Collapse and Structure Formation in an. Expanding Universe. J S Bagla and Pritpal Kaur Sandhu. Keywords. Cosmology, gravitational col- lapse, galaxy formation. (left) Jasjeet Bagla works at IISER Mohali. His research is mainly in the area of cosmology. (right) Pritpal Kaur. Sandhu works ...

  11. Diaspora, Migration, and Globalization: Expanding the Discourse of Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how notions of diaspora, migration, and globalization intersect to inform identities and social realities of those who leave their homeland and resettle in other nations. It calls for expanding the discourse of adult education to incorporate critical studies of the diaspora to make visible the inequality and imbalance of…

  12. Absorption of continuum radiation in a resonant expanding gaseous sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaparev, N Y

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with absorption of external continuum radiation in a self-similarly expanding gaseous sphere. Frequency probability and integral probability of radiation absorption in the resonance frequency range are determined depending on the expansion velocity gradient and thickness of the optical medium. It is shown that expansion results in a reduced optical thickness of the medium and enhanced integral absorption. (paper)

  13. Gravitational Clustering of Galaxies in an Expanding Universe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-12-08

    Dec 8, 2006 ... Abstract. We inquire the phenomena of clustering of galaxies in an expanding universe from a theoretical point of view on the basis of ther- modynamics and correlation functions. The partial differential equation is developed both for the point mass and extended mass structures of a two-point correlation ...

  14. A framework to expand public services to children with biomedical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study undertook the development of a framework for expanding the public services available to children with biomedical healthcare needs related to HIV in South Africa. The study consisted of various component projects which were depicted as phases. The first phase was a descriptive quantitative analysis of ...

  15. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  16. Guias de execução para memorização aplicados à interpretação das Variações Abegg, de Robert Schumann 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Bragagnolo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa testou duas aplicações do protocolo de memorização através de guias de execução, proposto por Chaffin, Imreh e Crawford (2002, nas Variações Abegg, de Robert Schumann. A primeira aplicação do protocolo teve como finalidade a memorização da peça e a execução da mesma em público, visando uma performance sem falhas de memória. A segunda aplicação adotou uma visão diferenciada do protocolo e buscou aprimorar a interpretação da peça através da criação de uma conduta para memorização, em que os guias de execução foram utilizados como focos de atenção durante a performance, tendo como objetivos: (1 testar os guias de execução expressivos como focos de atenção durante a performance e sua influência na produção do som e (2 investigar a potencialidade do timbre e da manipulação temporal como fonte dos guias de execução expressivos nas Variações Abegg. A metodologia contou com o suporte de um diário de estudo e testes das aplicações em quatro apresentações públicas. Nestas apresentações, o número de falhas de memória por parte da intérprete e primeira autora deste trabalho foi praticamente nulo. Realizamos também uma análise comparativa de aspectos de manipulação do tempo e timbre entre duas gravações de performances públicas das Variações Abegg, através do software Sonic Visualiser, com o intuito de verificar o resultado sonoro efetivo da utilização das guias. Os resultados desta pesquisa, além de comprovarem a eficácia da conduta por nós desenvolvida, tendo por base o protocolo supracitado, revelaram a possibilidade de utilização dos guias expressivos no aprimoramento da interpretação musical, principalmente na segunda aplicação da conduta de memorização.

  17. Registro de variação cromática em escorpião Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello (1922: principal espécie de interesse médico no BrasilRegistration of chromatic variation in Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello (1922:major species of medical interest in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Carneiro Reckziegel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O Tityus serrulatus apresenta ampla distribuição no Brasil, sendo o escorpião responsável pela maior parte de acidentes potencialmente graves. Objetivo: Relatar a ocorrência de um exemplar com variação cromática de Tityus. Comunicação: Foi capturada uma fêmea do escorpião Tityus serrulatus, com variação cromática no Estado de Minas Gerais, Município do Prata, Bairro Esperança (19°18’18.91”S; 48°55’3.62”O. Conclusão: É registrado o primeiro caso de variação cromática em T. serrulatus.

  18. Variação e mudança na expressão do dativo em comunidades rurais goianas e suas relações com as origens do Português Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Marques do Nascimento

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Investiga-se, neste trabalho, a regularidade subjacente à variação no uso de formas introdutoras de complementos dativos de verbos bitransitivos, em amostras de fala de comunidades rurais goianas. Busca-se, através do referencial teórico-metodológico da Sociolingüística Variacionista, verificar quais fatores lingüísticos e extralingüísticos que atuam na alternância entre as formas a~para~Ø para a expressão de conteúdo dativo, além de relacionar o fenômeno ao debate sobre as origens do português brasileiro.

  19. Variação sazonal, espacial e lunar do ictioplâncton e do microplástico nos diferentes habitats do estuário do Rio Goiana(Resex Acaú-Goiana PE/PB)

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, André Ricardo de Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Estuários são considerados ambientes importantes por promover refúgio, alimentação, reprodução e crescimento, além de servir como possíveis habitats de berçário para muitas espécies de peixes. Estudos sobre os padrões de movimento da comunidade ictioplanctônica dentro do ecossistema estuarino são de grande importância para entender como as espécies utilizam os recursos disponíveis para completar os seus ciclos de vida através das variações temporais e espaciais das diferentes f...

  20. Variações de normalidade e patologias bucais em crianças com deficiência, assistidas em um Centro Odontológico Especializado do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    França, Diurianne Caroline Campos [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    O conhecimento epidemiológico regionalizado das doenças bucais nas populações é essencial para um planejamento efetivo na prevenção destas doenças. No Brasil são poucas as pesquisas sobre etiologia e prevalência das lesões bucais em crianças com deficiências. Portanto, a proposta deste estudo clínico epidemiológico descritivo foi analisar as principais variações de normalidade e patologias bucais em 293 crianças com deficiência na faixa etária de zero a 12 anos de idade, atendidas em primeira...

  1. Variação sazonal no número de capturas de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Sturnira lilium (É. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1810 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae no estrato superior de um remanescente de Mata Atlântica no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n3p131 O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a ocorrência de variações sazonais no número de captura de Artibeus lituratus e Sturnira lilium nos estratos superiores de remanescente de Mata Atlântica, no sul do Brasil. O estudo foi desenvolvido no município de Pedras Grandes, extremo sul de Santa Catarina. Os quirópteros foram capturados com redes de neblina, instaladas no dossel e sub-dossel. Para verificar se houve diferença no número de capturas entre as estações, utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado (χ2 com nível de significância de 0,05 e, quando necessário, qui-quadrados (χ2 parciais. Artibeus lituratus apresentou diferenças significativas entre as estações, com o maior número de capturas ocorrendo no outono. Em S. lilium, não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas. A variação sazonal observada para A. lituratus, pode estar relacionado a sua dieta baseada principalmente em frutos que apresentam variação sazonal em sua disponibilidade. Para S. lilium além da dieta, baseada principalmente em plantas que não apresentam variações sazonais na disponibilidade de frutos, a altimetria da área de estudo e suas variações de temperatura parecem também explicar a ausência de variação sazonal.

  2. Variações anuais na produção de frutos e sementes de Castanheira-do-Brasil (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl., Lecythidaceae em florestas nativas de Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tonini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar as variações anuais na produção de frutos e sementes entre populações e indivíduos em castanhais nativos de Roraima. Os dados foram obtidos em cinco parcelas permanentes de 300 m x 300 m instaladas nos Municípios de Caracaraí e São João da Baliza. Nas parcelas permanentes, todas as castanheiras com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP superior ou igual a 10 cm foram identificadas, medidas e numeradas através de placas de alumínio presas aos fustes por pregos. Durante o período de queda dos frutos (março a julho, as árvores foram visitadas em duas ocasiões no meio e no final desse período, e os frutos contados, abertos e pesados com balança de gancho digital com precisão de 50 g. A produção de frutos e sementes varia entre populações e indivíduos e a maioria não produz frutos todos os anos. No ano de maior produção, um castanhal chega a produzir 52 vezes mais do que em anos de baixa. Nos locais estudados, a produção total concentra-se em um pequeno número de indivíduos com um ano de pico de produção (mast-year.

  3. Análise Empírica dos Impactos dos Accruals na Variação do Capital Circulante Líquido: um estudo no setor de siderurgia e metalurgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Douglas Colauto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo demonstra os impactos dos accruals na variação do capital circulante líquido em companhias abertas do setor de siderurgia e metalurgia. Para constatação de evidências empíricas, utilizou-se como população-alvo as Sociedades Anônimas Abertas apresentadas entre as 500 Maiores e Melhores Empresas, segundo critério da Revista Exame na edição de 2003. A amostra extraída da população foi do tipo intencional não probabilística, com 7 empresas representativas do setor de Siderurgia e Metalurgia. O estudo é delineado como descritivo utilizando-se as técnicas de cluster e intervalo interpercentil para categorizar os dados necessários para as inferências. Os resultados ajudam a melhorar qualidade da informação contábil ao mostrar que os accruals provocam alterações no resultado do período, mas não infl uenciam, simultaneamente, o fluxo financeiro das atividades operacionais das empresas. Coefi cientes de correlações entre o resultado contábil do período ajustado pelos accruals e a variação do capital circulante líquido não apresentaram homogeneidade nos setores observados, mas denotaram significância estatística.

  4. Calibração de sondas capacitivas, funções físico-hídricas e variação do armazenamento de água em um argissolo cultivado com palma forrageira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Torres de Araújo Primo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, realizar a calibração de três sondas capacitivas, visando a utilizá-las na definição de funções físico-hídricas e na análise da variação espacial e temporal do conteúdo (q e do armazenamento de água, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, cultivado com três clones de palma forrageira, no Semiárido pernambucano. O estudo foi executado numa área experimental situada em Serra Talhada, PE. Para isso, foi realizada a calibração de três sondas capacitivas, usando-se dados de densidade aparente do solo, de umidade gravimétrica e de frequências relativas, em cinco condições de umidade do solo. Aplicou-se o método do perfil instantâneo, para determinação do fluxo vertical de água, e do potencial matricial de água no solo. Em seguida, analisou-se a variação espaço-temporal do q e do armazenamento de água no solo. As medidas de frequência relativa das sondas capacitivas apresentaram elevada relação com os dados de q (R2 > 0,87. A partir do método do perfil instantâneo, foi possível determinar as funções da condutividade hidráulica e do potencial total de água no solo, em relação ao q, com elevados coeficientes de determinação (R2 > 0,91. Não houve diferenças significativas do q entre os clones de palma forrageira.

  5. Novos registros geográficos e variação na coloração de Dendropsophus pseudomeridianus (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Lima Silveira

    2011-06-01

    No presente trabalho são apresentados novos registros de Dendropsophus pseudomeridianus no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, obtidos através de amostragens em campo em diversas áreas de Mata Atlântica no estado. Também são apresentadas variações na coloração da espécie. Dendropsophus pseudomeridianus foi coletada em localidades da baixada litorânea no norte do Rio de Janeiro e na região metropolitana da capital, em localidades mais interioranas no noroeste do estado, na Serra do Desengano e no vale do Paraíba do Sul na divisa com Minas Gerais. A espécie foi encontrada em brejos em áreas de floresta estacional semidecidual e floresta ombrófila densa. Os novos registros fornecem uma ampliação significativa da distribuição geográfica conhecida de D. pseudomeridianus, preenchem lacunas dessa distribuição e evidenciam que a espécie é amplamente distribuída pelo estado. Os espécimes coletados exibiram variação na coloração, com dorso apresentando apenas pontuações e pequenas manchas marrons, barras oblíquas e mancha interocular ou extensa mancha em forma de “X”, e o lábio superior ornamentado com pontuações, barras ou manchas circulares de cor branca.

  6. Variação da microbiota natural e de pseudomonas aeruginosa em água mineral não carbonatada embalada em diferentes materiais durante o armazenamento a 30°c ± 1°c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtha Nelly Uboldi Eiroa

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Garrafas de PVC, polipropileno e vidro adequadamente limpas e sanificadas foram enxaguadas e enchidas com água mineral de uma fonte localizada no município de Lindóia-SP, e a seguir armazenadas a 30°C ± 1°C. Foram enumerados os microrganismos heterotróficos totais nos meios Ágar Padrão para Contagem e Ágar R2A imediatamente após engarrafamento. A variação da contaminação foi seguida através de exames periódicos. A variação da população de Pseudomonas aeruginosa foi estudada inoculando garrafas contendo água mineral com uma suspensão de P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145 de maneira a se obter uma contaminação de aproximadamente 10² UFC/ml. A população da bactéria foi avaliada periodicamente durante o tempo de armazenamento usando o meio Ágar Pseudomonas P. Houve aumento da população dos microrganismos heterotróficos totais nos primeiros 30 dias de armazenamento para depois diminuir de maneira irregular e ficar aproximadamente constante até completar 6 meses de observação. As contagens de P. aeruginosa aumentaram sensivelmente nas 2 primeiras semanas de estocagem diminuindo ligeiramente a seguir até atingir níveis próximos ao inicial. Não foram constatadas diferenças entre os 3 tipos de materiais de embalagem comparados.

  7. A variação de preposições com verbo ir de movimento em comunidades rurais do semiárido baiano A variação de preposições com verbo ir de movimento em comunidades rurais do semiárido baiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmara Moura de JESUS

    2012-06-01

    ística Variacionista, o presente estudo é direcionado para descrever o fenômeno da variação que envolve as preposições a, para e em introduzidas pelo verbo ir de movimento e analisar os fatores condicionantes (linguísticos e sociolinguísticos do uso dessas preposições. Os resultados apontam indícios de uma mudança praticamente concluída, visto ter-se encontrado apenas seis ocorrências com a preposição a. Dentre as 582 ocorrências que constituem os corpora, destacam-se 418 realizações com a variante para (71% e 164 com a variante em (29%. O programa estatístico Goldvarb 2001 selecionou as variáveis grau de definitude do nome locativo, permanência no local, pessoa do discurso, comunidade, tempo verbal, sexo/gênero, escolaridade, (indeterminação do sujeito e narratividade do discurso como as determinantes na regência variável do verbo ir de movimento.

  8. Theta-expanded noncommutative Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstrup, J.

    2002-07-01

    This thesis concerns noncommutative gauge theories characterized through a constant noncommutativity parameter theta. Studying conformal transformations we relate the Seiberg-Witten map - which maps noncommutative gauge fields to commutative ones - to the existence of (broken) conformal transformations compatible with the gauge symmetry. In fact, this leads to a derivation of the Seiberg-Witten map more general as hitherto known in the literature. Further, we address the question of renormalizing theta-expanded gauge theories using the Seiberg-Witten map. The photon self-energy in noncommutative Maxwell theory is proven renormalizable to all orders. In noncommutative QED we prove that the Seiberg-Witten map represent a mere change of variables at first order in theta. This means that theta-expanded theories must entail additional terms linear in theta to be stable. Finally we show that a re-summation in $/q$ cannot improve the renormalizability of these models. (author)

  9. Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Harry

    2014-02-01

    In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogenous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Albert Einstein's fundamental equations also allow dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Georges Lemaître, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaître's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often advocated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.

  10. Using Typography to Expand the Design Space of Data Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Brath

    Full Text Available This article is a systematic exploration and expansion of the data visualization design space focusing on the role of text. A critical analysis of text usage in data visualizations reveals gaps in existing frameworks and practice. A cross-disciplinary review including the fields of typography, cartography, and coding interfaces yields various typographic techniques to encode data into text, and provides scope for an expanded design space. Mapping new attributes back to well understood principles frames the expanded design space and suggests potential areas of application. From ongoing research created with our framework, we show the design, implementation, and evaluation of six new visualization techniques. Finally, a broad evaluation of a number of visualizations, including critiques from several disciplinary experts, reveals opportunities as well as areas of concern, and points towards additional research with our framework.

  11. Stable sheath formation in expanding magnetic field to divertor plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y.; Takayama, A.; Takamaru, H.; Sato, T.

    2002-01-01

    The stable sheath formation and the effects of charge exchange collisions of ions with cold neutrals for the stable presheath formation in an expanding magnetic field towards a divertor plate is studied by a one-dimensional analysis. The requirement for flow velocity of ions at a plasma-sheath boundary is more restricted than that of the uniform magnetic field, which should be greater than the ion sound speed. The difference, however, between both cases is an order of the Debye length to plasma radius, which is negligibly small. The requirement for ion flow velocity inside a quasi-neutral plasma is investigated by taking into account the effects of the charge exchange collisions. Without neutrals in the quasi-neutral plasma, the ion flow velocity at an injection point should be much greater than the ion sound speed. The unisotropic velocity distribution of injected ions with coupling the expanding magnetic field and the charge exchange collisions might mitigate this requirement. (orig.)

  12. Caudal Regression and Encephalocele: Rare Manifestations of Expanded Goldenhar Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella D’Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum, or Goldenhar Syndrome, is a condition characterized by variable degrees of uni- or bilateral involvement of craniofacial structures, ocular anomalies, and vertebral defects. Its expressivity is variable; therefore, the term “expanded Goldenhar complex” has been coined. The Goldenhar Syndrome usually involves anomalies in craniofacial structures, but it is known that nervous system anomalies, including encephalocele or caudal regression, may, rarely, occur in this condition. We report two rare cases of infants affected by Goldenhar Syndrome, associated with neural tube defects, specifically caudal regression syndrome and nasal encephaloceles, to underline the extremely complex and heterogeneous clinical features of this oculoauriculovertebral spectrum. These additional particular cases could increase the number of new variable spectrums to be included in the “expanded Goldenhar complex.”

  13. Tear Gas, Expanding Bullets and Plain-Clothed Personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesener, Cornelius Rust

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the interplay between human rights law and humanitarian law in relation to riot control agents (such as tear gas), expanding bullets and plain-clothed forces. While outlawed under humanitarian law, they are widely used by police in peace time and not subject to similar bans...... under human rights law. Surprisingly, the legal challenges arising from their potential use in modern military operations have so far received only limited scholarly attention. This article tries to fill that gap and endeavours to contribute to the broader debate on the interplay between human rights...... and humanitarian law in (international) military operations. Drawing on the relevant preparatory works as well as subsequent practice and recent jurisprudence, this article shows that the humanitarian law rules on the use of riot control agents, expanding bullets and plain-clothed personnel provide...

  14. The expanded "BAT" flap for treatment of male pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R D

    1993-11-01

    A new combination of expanded simultaneous transposition and advancement flaps is reported for the treatment of extensive male pattern baldness. Although vertical transposition and parieto-occipital advancement flaps in themselves are not new, their combination and simultaneous bilateral use combined with the use of expansion is new. The advantages of the expanded bilateral advancement transposition flap procedure are presented, along with the technique and results. The results are predictable, providing a more pleasing result, with a natural immediate temporal recession, avoidance of temporal dog-ears, and desirable anterior-superior direction of hair growth. Although flaps do require surgical skill and training, and there are risks and possible complications involved, the results are achieved in a relatively short time compared with grafting techniques. Flaps also provide the advantages of a full and natural hairline contrasted with the sparse look afforded by multiple grafts. The described procedures are very effective and reliable when properly planned and properly executed.

  15. Outflow Propagation in Collapsars: Collimated Jets And Expanding Outflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuta, A.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Yamasaki, T.; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto; Nagataki, S.; Mineshige, S.; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-06-08

    We investigate the outflow propagation in the collapsar in the context of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with 2D relativistic hydrodynamic simulations. We vary the specific internal energy and bulk Lorentz factor of the injected outflow from non-relativistic regime to relativistic one, fixing the power of the outflow to be 10{sup 51}erg s{sup -1}. We observed the collimated outflow, when the Lorentz factor of the injected outflow is roughly greater than 2. To the contrary, when the velocity of the injected outflow is slower, the expanding outflow is observed. The transition from collimated jet to expanding outflow continuously occurs by decreasing the injected velocity. Different features of the dynamics of the outflows would cause the difference between the GRBs and similar phenomena, such as, X-ray flashes.

  16. Opportunities for synthetic biology in antibiotics: expanding glycopeptide chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Maulik N; Wright, Gerard D

    2015-03-20

    Synthetic biology offers a new path for the exploitation and improvement of natural products to address the growing crisis in antibiotic resistance. All antibiotics in clinical use are facing eventual obsolesce as a result of the evolution and dissemination of resistance mechanisms, yet there are few new drug leads forthcoming from the pharmaceutical sector. Natural products of microbial origin have proven over the past 70 years to be the wellspring of antimicrobial drugs. Harnessing synthetic biology thinking and strategies can provide new molecules and expand chemical diversity of known antibiotic scaffolds to provide much needed new drug leads. The glycopeptide antibiotics offer paradigmatic scaffolds suitable for such an approach. We review these strategies here using the glycopeptides as an example and demonstrate how synthetic biology can expand antibiotic chemical diversity to help address the growing resistance crisis.

  17. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, C C; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility...... for less common TMDs. The long-term aim was to establish a foundation, vis-à-vis this classification system, that will stimulate data collection, validity testing and further criteria refinement. A working group [members of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network of the International Association...... in the expanded taxonomy and were placed into the following four categories: temporomandibular joint disorders, masticatory muscle disorders, headache disorders and disorders affecting associated structures. Those excluded were extremely uncommon, lacking operationalised diagnostic criteria, not clearly related...

  18. Expanding beyond individualism: Engaging critical perspectives on occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Alison J; Teachman, Gail; Laliberte-Rudman, Debbie; Aldrich, Rebecca M; Huot, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Perspectives that individualize occupation are poorly aligned with socially responsive and transformative occupation-focused research, education, and practice. Their predominant use in occupational therapy risks the perpetuation, rather than resolution, of occupational inequities. In this paper, we problematize taken-for-granted individualistic analyses of occupation and illustrate how critical theoretical perspectives can reveal the ways in which structural factors beyond an individual's immediate control and environment shape occupational possibilities and occupational engagement. Using a critically reflexive approach, we draw on three distinct qualitative research studies to examine the potential of critical theorizing for expanding beyond a reliance on individualistic analyses and practices. Our studies highlight the importance of addressing the socio-historical and political contexts of occupation and demonstrate the contribution of critical perspectives to socially responsive occupational therapy. In expanding beyond individualistic analyses of occupation, critical perspectives advance research and practices towards addressing socio-political mediators of occupational engagement and equity.

  19. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, C C; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F; Schiffman, E L; Alstergren, P; Anderson, G C; de Leeuw, R; Jensen, R; Michelotti, A; Ohrbach, R; Petersson, A; List, T

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for less common TMDs. The long-term aim was to establish a foundation, vis-à-vis this classification system, that will stimulate data collection, validity testing and further criteria refinement. A working group [members of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), members of the Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), and members from other professional societies] reviewed disorders for inclusion based on clinical significance, the availability of plausible diagnostic criteria and the ability to operationalise and study the criteria. The disorders were derived from the literature when possible and based on expert opinion as necessary. The expanded TMDs taxonomy was presented for feedback at international meetings. Of 56 disorders considered, 37 were included in the expanded taxonomy and were placed into the following four categories: temporomandibular joint disorders, masticatory muscle disorders, headache disorders and disorders affecting associated structures. Those excluded were extremely uncommon, lacking operationalised diagnostic criteria, not clearly related to TMDs, or not sufficiently distinct from disorders already included within the taxonomy. The expanded TMDs taxonomy offers an integrated approach to clinical diagnosis and provides a framework for further research to operationalise and test the proposed taxonomy and diagnostic criteria. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Development of Self-Expanding Idealflo (tm) Sandcontrol Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff A. Spray

    2007-09-30

    Development of Self-Expanding Idealflo{trademark} Sandscreen Technology was a successfully executed design-by-analysis through field demonstration project. This final report is presented as a two-part progression of concept development and manufacturing activities. The first part, conceptual development activities, discusses novel specifications creation and non-linear analytical design generation. The second part, manufacturing, contains achievement related information for detailed-design, fabrication, mechanical testing, and field demonstration activities.

  1. Lijphart expanded: three dimensions of democracy in advanced OECD countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Vatter, A

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to examine the relationship between the most important political institutions and direct democracy in 23 modern OECD democracies by expanding Lijphart’s concept of majoritarian and consensus democracy. The article updates Lijphart’s data collection for the most recent period (1997–2006); it responds to criticisms of Lijphart’s measurement of a number of variables and of case selection, and it integrates direct democracy as an additional variable. Based on factor analysis...

  2. A beam expander facility for studying x-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Frederiksen, P.

    1992-01-01

    The detailed study of the performance of full scale x-ray optics often requires the illumination of large areas. This paper describes a beam expander facility at the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It combines monochromatization and beam expansion in one dimension. The beam expansion...... x-ray telescope will be studied, is described in detail. Review of Scientific Instruments is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  3. Using Aesthetic Response, a Poetic Inquiry to Expand Knowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerge, Anna; Warja, Margareta; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    Using Aesthetic Response, a Poetic Inquiry to Expand Knowing Abstract: The Rx6-Method A simple step-wise research procedure of arts-based research (ABR) called the Rx6 method is presented. This ABR method is grounded in expressive arts therapy, heuristic inquiry, attachment theory and contemporary...... understanding of the studied phenomena. The complexity of sharing implicit processes and tacit knowledge, its caveats and gains, along with theoretical perspectives of such undertakings, are presented and discussed....

  4. Korea: an expanding economy trying to gain energy independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, M.

    1980-01-01

    South Korea expects to have 6426 MW of power installed by 1986, representing 30.7% of its capacity. Following a summary of nuclear activities in South Korea the current situation is discussed. Prospects for energy supply and demand are shown. The difficulties associated with the expanding nuclear programme are mainly on the international front, eg those relating to fuel supply, or to proliferation issue. (UK)

  5. Smoothness of invariant density for expanding transformations in higher dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Adl-Zarabi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Let Ω be a bounded region in ℝn and let ={Pi}i=1m be a partition of Ω into a finite number of closed subsets having piecewise C2 boundaries of finite (n−1-dimensional measure. Let τ:Ω→Ω be an expanding transformation on where, τi:τ|Pi, and τi∈CM, m≥2. We show that the τ-invariant density h∈CM−2.

  6. The Expanding Spectrum of Espionage by Americans, 1947-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    century . BACKGROUND The first PERSEREC espionage report, published in 1992, looked at 117 American citizens who had committed espionage during the Cold...she found the sentence “way too light” (Coll, 2013; Associated Press, 2012). The flash points of American experience in the early 21st century run...report, please contact PERSEREC@mail.mil Technical Report 17-10 August 2017 The Expanding Spectrum of Espionage by Americans , 1947 – 2015

  7. India: When cities expand too rapidly | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 mai 2016 ... With more than 1.2 billion inhabitants, the population of India is continually growing, and it's transforming the country as a result. “The climate ... India: When cities expand too rapidly ... Avec plus de 1,2 milliard d'habitants, la population de l'Inde ne cesse de croître et, par le fait même, de transformer le pays.

  8. Prospects for expanded utilization of biogas in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschl, Martina; Ward, Shane [Charles Parsons Energy Research Programme, Bioresources Research Centre, School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Owende, Philip [Charles Parsons Energy Research Programme, Bioresources Research Centre, School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); School of Informatics and Engineering, Institute of Technology Blanchardstown, Blanchardstown Road North, Dublin 15 (Ireland)

    2010-09-15

    The prospects for expanded utilization of biogas systems in German was analysed, by identifying the operational and policy factors affecting the complete chain of processes from implementation process for biogas plants, through to biogas production and utilization. It was found that the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) and energy tax reliefs provide bases for the support of expanded utilization. Upgrading of biogas to natural gas quality for utilization in the transportation sector was arguably the most promising technology that could support rapid utilization expansion. Sustainable deployment of biogas systems in light of the unstable feedstock prices and availability, and the need for subsidy-free operation in the long term requires; enhancement of feedstock flexibility and quality characteristics to maximise gas yield, and optimisation of the anaerobic digestion process management. Assessment of energy balance and potential environmental impacts of the integrated process chain provides a holistic assessment of sustainability. The results also support the development and foster of policies and framework for development of biogas as environmentally friendly energy resource, among a mix of renewable energy sources, hence, compete favourably with fossil fuels to enhance the prospects for expanded utilization. (author)

  9. Prospects for expanded utilization of biogas in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, Martina; Ward, Shane; Owende, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for expanded utilization of biogas systems in German was analysed, by identifying the operational and policy factors affecting the complete chain of processes from implementation process for biogas plants, through to biogas production and utilization. It was found that the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) and energy tax reliefs provide bases for the support of expanded utilization. Upgrading of biogas to natural gas quality for utilization in the transportation sector was arguably the most promising technology that could support rapid utilization expansion. Sustainable deployment of biogas systems in light of the unstable feedstock prices and availability, and the need for subsidy-free operation in the long term requires; enhancement of feedstock flexibility and quality characteristics to maximise gas yield, and optimisation of the anaerobic digestion process management. Assessment of energy balance and potential environmental impacts of the integrated process chain provides a holistic assessment of sustainability. The results also support the development and foster of policies and framework for development of biogas as environmentally friendly energy resource, among a mix of renewable energy sources, hence, compete favourably with fossil fuels to enhance the prospects for expanded utilization. (author)

  10. Enhancing microbial production of biofuels by expanding microbial metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Chen, Xingge; Li, Peng

    2017-09-01

    Fatty acid, isoprenoid, and alcohol pathways have been successfully engineered to produce biofuels. By introducing three genes, atfA, adhE, and pdc, into Escherichia coli to expand fatty acid pathway, up to 1.28 g/L of fatty acid ethyl esters can be achieved. The isoprenoid pathway can be expanded to produce bisabolene with a high titer of 900 mg/L in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Short- and long-chain alcohols can also be effectively biosynthesized by extending the carbon chain of ketoacids with an engineered "+1" alcohol pathway. Thus, it can be concluded that expanding microbial metabolic pathways has enormous potential for enhancing microbial production of biofuels for future industrial applications. However, some major challenges for microbial production of biofuels should be overcome to compete with traditional fossil fuels: lowering production costs, reducing the time required to construct genetic elements and to increase their predictability and reliability, and creating reusable parts with useful and predictable behavior. To address these challenges, several aspects should be further considered in future: mining and transformation of genetic elements related to metabolic pathways, assembling biofuel elements and coordinating their functions, enhancing the tolerance of host cells to biofuels, and creating modular subpathways that can be easily interconnected. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Characterizing expanded access and compassionate use programs for experimental drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer E; Ross, Joseph S; Moch, Kenneth I; Caplan, Arthur L

    2017-07-28

    We sought to determine the characteristics of "expanded access" and "compassionate use" programs registered in ClinicalTrials.gov and to determine the percentage of drugs provided through these programs that ultimately received FDA marketing approval. We identified 398 expanded access and compassionate use programs (hereafter referred to as expanded access programs) registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. Industry funded 61% (n = 241) of programs individually or collaboratively, while NIH and the US Federal Government rarely funded programs (3% [n = 11] and 2% [n = 6], respectively). Most programs provided access to drugs (71% [n = 282]), 11% to biologics (n = 43), and 10% to medical devices (n = 40). These programs covered 460 unique conditions, the most common being HIV (n = 26), leukemia (22), and multiple myeloma (n = 14). Only 2% of programs reported results in ClinicalTrials.gov. Most programs (82%) were open to enrolling adults and seniors (n = 326). These programs provided access to 210 unique experimental drugs, of which 76% have received FDA approval.

  12. Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Murakami, M. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Taylor, B. D. [Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Zalesak, S. T. [Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States); Iwamoto, Y. [Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime Pref. 790-8577 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.

  13. Why has medicine expanded? The role of consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui

    2015-07-01

    In the past 50years, the field of medicine has expanded dramatically in many Western societies. Despite substantial improvements in objective health measures, there has not been a commensurate increase in assessments of subjective health. We hypothesize that medical expansion may lower people's subjective health perceptions, leading to an increase in health care utilization, and, in turn, fueling further medical expansion. We use OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) Health Data, World Development Indicators, the World Values Survey, and the European Values Study to fit a difference-in-differences model that removes unobserved cross-national heterogeneity and any period trend that is shared across nations. We find that three dimensions of medical expansion at the societal level (medical investment, medical professionalization/specialization, and an expanded pharmaceutical industry) negatively affect individual subjective health. These findings are robust to different model specifications. We conclude by discussing possible explanations for the adverse effect of medical expansion on subjective health, and how this effect may be related to other mechanisms through which medicine expands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intermingled Bodies. Distributed Agency in an Expanded Appreciation of Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence E. Rosenberg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an expanded view of making and, concomitantly, an understanding that through making we constitute the way we are in the world. The article begins with the idea that making produces a 'surrogate' of the body, which extends the body into the world, reforming the body and the world and their relationship. The ideas the article offers run counter to certain currents of thought that reduce making to a narrow cast anthropocentric crafting. Instead of this reduction, where making is merely understood and fixated as a close inembodied handicraft, the article advances: first, that all that we produce is making – not just that which is crafted by the immediacy of a hand; and, second, and linked to this expanded view of making, that all making workst hrough a distributed agency that includes human and non-human actors and actants in meshworks that extend across space – synchronous - and across time –diachronous. In other words, the body is extended into the world through what is made and this made world acts ineluctably on, and in, making. The paper references the practices of three makers to make the case for the need, bothethical and poetic, to think about making as an expanded term and to consideran intentionality of making that works through distributed agency doubly constituted as material and narrative.

  15. Robust size illusion produced by expanding and contracting flow fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xue; Bai, Jianying; Bao, Min

    2017-04-01

    A new illusion is described. Randomly positioned dots moved radially within an imaginary annular window. The dots' motion periodically changed the direction, leading to an alternating percept of expanding and contracting motion. Strikingly, the apparent size of the enclosed circular region shrank during the dots' expanding phases and dilated during the contracting phases. We quantitatively measured the illusion, and found that the presence of energy at the local kinetic edge could not account for the illusion. Besides, we reproduced the illusion on a natural scene background seen from a first-person point of view that moved forward and backward periodically. Blurring the boundaries of motion areas could not reverse the illusion in all subjects. Taken together, our observed illusion is likely induced by optic flow processing with some components of motion contrast. Expanding or contracting dots may induce the self-motion perception of either approaching or leaving way from the circle. These will make the circle appear smaller or larger since its retinal size remains constant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantification assays for total and polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Macdonald

    Full Text Available The expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene, which produces huntingtin protein with an expanded polyglutamine tract, is the cause of Huntington's disease (HD. Recent studies have reported that RNAi suppression of polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin (mutant HTT in HD animal models can ameliorate disease phenotypes. A key requirement for such preclinical studies, as well as eventual clinical trials, aimed to reduce mutant HTT exposure is a robust method to measure HTT protein levels in select tissues. We have developed several sensitive and selective assays that measure either total human HTT or polyglutamine-expanded human HTT proteins on the electrochemiluminescence Meso Scale Discovery detection platform with an increased dynamic range over other methods. In addition, we have developed an assay to detect endogenous mouse and rat HTT proteins in pre-clinical models of HD to monitor effects on the wild type protein of both allele selective and non-selective interventions. We demonstrate the application of these assays to measure HTT protein in several HD in vitro cellular and in vivo animal model systems as well as in HD patient biosamples. Furthermore, we used purified recombinant HTT proteins as standards to quantitate the absolute amount of HTT protein in such biosamples.

  17. Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Murakami, M.; Taylor, B. D.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.; Iwamoto, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.

  18. Wiggler magnetic field assisted third harmonic generation in expanding clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Shivani

    2018-04-01

    A simple theoretical model is constructed to study the wiggler magnetic field assisted third harmonic generation of intense short pulse laser in a cluster in its expanding phase. The ponderomotive force of laser causes density perturbations in cluster electron density which couples with wiggler magnetic field to produce a nonlinear current that generates transverse third harmonic. An intense short pulse laser propagating through a gas embedded with atomic clusters, converts it into hot plasma balls via tunnel ionization. Initially, the electron plasma frequency inside the clusters ω pe > \\sqrt{3}{ω }1 (with ω 1 being the frequency of the laser). As the cluster expands under Coulomb force and hydrodynamic pressure, ω pe decreases to \\sqrt{3}{ω }1. At this time, there is resonant enhancement in the efficiency of the third harmonic generation. The efficiency of third harmonic generation is enhanced due to cluster plasmon resonance and by phase matching due to wiggler magnetic field. The effect of cluster size on the expansion rate is studied to observe that the clusters of different radii would expand differently. The impact of laser intensity and wiggler magnetic field on the efficiency of third harmonic generation is also explored.

  19. On Dark Energy and Matter of the Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available At present the expanding universe is observed to be dominated by the not fully under- stood concepts of dark energy and matter, in a conceived almost flat Euclidian geometry. As one of the possible efforts to understand the global behaviour of the expanding uni- verse, the present paper attempts to explain these concepts in terms of the pressure force and gravity of a spherical photon gas cloud of zero point energy, in a flat geometry. A difficult point of the conventional theory concerns the frequency distribution of the zero point energy oscillations which leads to the unacceptable result of an infinite total en- ergy per unit volume. A modification of this distribution is therefore proposed which results in finite energy density. A corresponding equilibrium state is investigated, as well as small dynamic deviations from it, to form a basis for a model of the expanding universe. Provided that the crucial points of the present approach hold true, the model satisfies the requirements of cosmic linear dimensions, results in an estimated accelera- tion of the expansion being of the order of the observed one, presents a possible solution of the coincidence problem of dark energy and matter, and provides one of the possible explanations of the observed excess of high-energy electrons and positrons in recent balloon and satellite experiments.

  20. Environmental Assessment Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-03-02

    The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. DOE completed an environmental assessment of the original proposed project in August 1997. Since then, the geographic scope and the design of the project changed, necessitating additional review of the project under the National Environmental Policy Act. The project now calls for the possible construction of up to 48 wind turbines on State and private lands. PSCo and its partners have initiated construction of the project on private land in Weld County, Colorado. A substation, access road and some wind turbines have been installed. However, to date, DOE has not provided any funding for these activities. DOE, through its Commercialization Ventures Program, has solicited applications for financial assistance from state energy offices, in a teaming arrangement with private-sector organizations, for projects that will accelerate the commercialization of emerging renewable energy technologies. The Commercialization Ventures Program was established by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness Act of 1989 (P.L. 101-218) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486). The Program seeks to assist entry into the marketplace of newly emerging renewable energy technologies, or of innovative applications of existing technologies. In short, an emerging renewable energy technology is one which has already proven viable but which has had little or no operational experience. The Program is managed by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The

  1. Influência da variação da liquidez na precificação de ativos: análise em painel do mercado brasileiro no período de janeiro de 2000 a junho de 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelmara Mendes Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A influência da liquidez para o retorno dos ativos vem sendo amplamente pesquisada nos últimos anos, tanto do ponto de vista dos ativos individuais quanto do ponto de vista da liquidez de mercado. Este trabalho tem por objetivo principal avaliar a influência da variação da liquidez na precificação das ações. Como medidas de liquidez foram utilizadas as variações na quantidade de títulos, na quantidade de negócios e no volume financeiro, bem como estas variáveis ponderadas pelo índice Bovespa e também estas variáveis defasadas. A amostra é composta pelas ações negociadas na Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo. Foram coletados dados mensais para o período de janeiro de 2000 a junho de 2008. Os resultados mostraram que o retorno dos ativos é influenciado positivamente pelo retorno do índice Bovespa e pelas variações de liquidez. Geralmente, são as empresas com menores níveis de liquidez que apresentam as maiores variações positivas da própria liquidez e, consequentemente, terão retornos mais elevados.

  2. Emissions reductions from expanding state-level renewable portfolio standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremiah X; Novacheck, Joshua

    2015-05-05

    In the United States, state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) have served as key drivers for the development of new renewable energy. This research presents a method to evaluate emissions reductions and costs attributable to new or expanded RPS programs by integrating a comprehensive economic dispatch model and a renewable project selection model. The latter model minimizes incremental RPS costs, accounting for renewable power purchase agreements (PPAs), displaced generation and capacity costs, and net changes to a state's imports and exports. We test this method on potential expansions to Michigan's RPS, evaluating target renewable penetrations of 10% (business as usual or BAU), 20%, 25%, and 40%, with varying times to completion. Relative to the BAU case, these expanded RPS policies reduce the CO2 intensity of generation by 13%, 18%, and 33% by 2035, respectively. SO2 emissions intensity decreased by 13%, 20%, and 34% for each of the three scenarios, while NOx reductions totaled 12%, 17%, and 31%, relative to the BAU case. For CO2 and NOx, absolute reductions in emissions intensity were not as large due to an increasing trend in emissions intensity in the BAU case driven by load growth. Over the study period (2015 to 2035), the absolute CO2 emissions intensity increased by 1% in the 20% RPS case and decreased by 6% and 22% for the 25% and 40% cases, respectively. Between 26% and 31% of the CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions reductions attributable to the expanded RPS occur in neighboring states, underscoring the challenges quantifying local emissions reductions from state-level energy policies with an interconnected grid. Without federal subsidies, the cost of CO2 mitigation using an RPS in Michigan is between $28 and $34/t CO2 when RPS targets are met. The optimal renewable build plan is sensitive to the capacity credit for solar but insensitive to the value for wind power.

  3. Malignant duodenal obstructions: palliative treatment with covered expandable nitinol stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Lee, Sang Hee; Kim, Sung Min; Oh, Kyung Seung; Huh, Jin Do; Cho, Young Duk [College of Medicine, Kosin Univ, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of using a polyurethane-covered expandable nitinol stent in the palliative treatment of malignant duodenal obstruction. Under fluoroscopic guidance, a polyurethane-covered expandable nitinol stent was placed in 12 consecutive patients with malignant duodenal obstructions. All presented with severe nausea and recurrent vomiting. The underlying causes of obstruction were duodenal carcinoma (n=4), pancreatic carcinoma (n=4), gall bladder carcinoma (n=2), distal CBD carcinoma (n=1), and uterine cervical carcinoma (n=1). The sites of obstruction were part I (n=1), part II (n=8), and III (n=3). Due to pre-existing jaundice, eight patients with part II obstructions underwent biliary decompression prior to stent placement. An introducer sheath with a 6-mm outer diameter and stents 16 mm in diameter were employed, and to place the stent, and after-loading technique was used. Stent placement was technically successful in ten patients, and no procedural complications occuured. In one of two patients in whom there was technical failure, and in whom the obstructions were located in part III, the stent was placed transgastrically. Stent migration occurred in one patient four days after the procedure, and treatment involved the palcement of a second, uncovered, nitinol stent. After stent placement, symptoms improved in all patients. During follow-up, obstructive symptoms due to stent stenosis (n=1), colonic obstruction (n=1), and multiple small bowel obstruction (n=1) recurred in three patients. Two of these were treated by placing additional stents in the duodenum and colon, respectively. One of the eight patients in whom a stent was placed in the second portion of the duodenum developed jaundice. The patients died a mean 14 (median, 9) weeks after stent placement. The placement of a polyurethane-covered expandable nitinol stent seems to be technically feasible, safe and effective for the palliative treatment of malignant

  4. Expanded algal cultivation can reverse key planetary boundary transgressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Calahan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Humanity is degrading multiple ecosystem services, potentially irreversibly. Two of the most important human impacts are excess agricultural nutrient loading in our fresh and estuarine waters and excess carbon dioxide in our oceans and atmosphere. Large-scale global intervention is required to slow, halt, and eventually reverse these stresses. Cultivating attached polyculture algae within controlled open-field photobioreactors is a practical technique for exploiting the ubiquity and high primary productivity of algae to capture and recycle the pollutants driving humanity into unsafe regimes of biogeochemical cycling, ocean acidification, and global warming. Expanded globally and appropriately distributed, algal cultivation is capable of removing excess nutrients from global environments, while additionally sequestering appreciable excess carbon. While obviously a major capital and operational investment, such a project is comparable in magnitude to the construction and maintenance of the global road transportation network. Beyond direct amelioration of critical threats, expanded algal cultivation would produce a major new commodity flow of biomass, potentially useful either as a valuable organic commodity itself, or used to reduce the scale of the problem by improving soils, slowing or reversing the loss of arable land. A 100 year project to expand algal cultivation to completely recycle excess global agricultural N and P would, when fully operational, require gross global expenses no greater than $2.3 × 1012 yr−1, (3.0% of the 2016 global domestic product and less than 1.9 × 107 ha (4.7 × 107 ac, 0.38% of the land area used globally to grow food. The biomass generated embodies renewable energy equivalent to 2.8% of global primary energy production.

  5. Expanding Access to Pro-Poor Energy Services in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleri, Ewah Otu; Ugwu, Okechukwu; Onuvae, Precious

    2012-10-15

    Nigeria experiences a remarkable paradox -- the abundance of energy resources and widespread energy poverty. Only about 40% of the population has access to the country’s grid electricity. About 72% of the population depends on traditional fuelwood for cooking. Despite this, government financing of energy services that benefits majority of Nigeria’s population has been grossly inadequate. Private sector investments and donor support have not fared better. This paper examines the current level of energy poverty in Nigeria. It analyses the level of government, private sector and donor funding for energy services that benefit the poor. It further reviews international best practices in expanding access for pro poor energy services. The paper finds a significant decline in political interest for expanding electricity services to rural areas. Even though ambitious policy reforms have commenced, agreed programmes are not implemented effectively. Not only are investments in rural electrification in decline, there is no history of annual budgeting for cooking energy programmes. The paper recommends a number of action points for expanding access to energy services that benefit the poor. These include the development and launching of a new national rural electrification strategy; establishment of a national cooking energy programme; and the development of clear policy incentives to support private sector investment in energy services for the poor. It calls on the Nigerian Central Bank of Nigeria to set aside 10% of the existing power intervention fund for pro poor energy financing; and the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission to establish a clear framework for the utilization of the Consumer Assistance Fund. Other recommendations include the use of a proportion of the Ecological Fund to finance cooking energy; establishment of a donor’s platform on pro poor energy; and the mobilization of civil society in providing community-level energy services.

  6. Can the United States Expand Apprenticeship? Lessons from Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Lerman, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    Can expanded apprenticeship reduce the concerns about the U.S. workforce? The U.S. labor market faces a rise in unemployment rates, sharp declines in the employed share of U.S. adults, extremely high youth unemployment, high wage inequality, and low or stagnant wage growth for workers below the BA degree. Currently, the primary solution advanced by policymakers – helping more people go to college – is both expensive and of limited effectiveness. Unfortunately, the U.S. policy debate is rarely...

  7. WORD ORIGIN HELPS EXPAND LEARNERS’ VOCABULARY A VOCABULARY TEACHING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Word origin (motivation deals with the connection between name and sense, explaining how a word originated. With the knowledge of how words are originated, learners can grasp a word easier and thus expand their vocabulary more quickly. The introduction to word origin (motivation by teachers can also help the learners gain interest in the process of learning and learn more about the cultural and historical background of the English-speaking countries. This paper tries to clarify this method of teaching from four aspects: onomatopoeia, word formation, cultural and historical background and cognitive linguistics.

  8. Expanded radio art as PhD practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, M.

    2015-01-01

    Radio After Radio: Redefining Radio Art in the Light of New Media Technology through Expanded Practice is the title of my PhD practice based research. This paper focuses on the extended boundaries of radio art, considering how radio art might be defined in relation to sound art, music, and media art. Mapping the shifting parameters of radio art in the digital era has prompted a consideration of how radio can be seen to be moving from being a predominantly shared "live" event to one consumed "...

  9. Expanding economic life: the potentialities and future of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Walther

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available “Economic life, said urban theorist Jacobs (1984: 32, develops by grace of innovating; it expands by grace of import-replacing. These two master economic processes are closely related, both being functions of city economies”. Triumph of the City, the latest book by Edward Glaeser, an economist from Harvard University, is both a tribute to and a critical appraisal of Jacobs’ work on the potentialities and future of urban life. Building on Jacob’s (1969 ideas of endogenous city growth, he arg...

  10. Self expandable polytetrafluoroethylene stent for carotid blowout syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, E C; Yildirim, U M; Dündar, Y; Ozdek, A; Işik, E; Korkmaz, H

    2012-01-01

    Carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) is an emergency complication in patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancers. The classical management of CBS is the ligation of the common carotid artery, because suturing is not be possible due to infection and necrosis of the field. In this case report, we present a patient with CBS, in whom we applied a self-expandable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) stent and observed no morbidity. Endovascular stent is a life-saving technique with minimum morbidity that preserves blood flow to the brain. We believe that this method is preferable to ligation of the artery in CBS.

  11. Stable sheath formation in expanding magnetic field to divertor plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y.; Takayama, A.; Takamaru, H.; Sato, T.

    2001-01-01

    The stable sheath formation in expanding magnetic field to a divertor plate was studied theoretically by one-dimensional analysis. In fusion devices the magnetic field is expanding in the direction of the plate, i.e. the magnitude of magnetic field is decreasing to the plate. In this configuration ions are accelerated to the plate due to the gradient of the magnetic field strength, so called a mirror force. The bombardment of accelerated ions to the plate may cause several severe problems to fusion plasmas, for example, release of large amount of impurities from the diverter plate. Limited research efforts have been carried out describing magnetic field effects on various potential formation and particle and heat fluxes to the divertor plate. The plasma-wall interaction in an oblique to the plate but uniform magnetic field has been studied by means of 1D-PIC numerical simulation. This analysis shows the formation of a quasi-neutral magnetic pre-sheath preceding the electrostatic Debye sheath, which scales to the ion gyroradius at the sound speed and to the incidence angle of the magnetic field. Sato clarifies this magnetic pre-sheath is attributed to the ion polarisation drift by the two dimensional kinetic analysis. None of effects, however, of non-uniformity of the magnetic field has been taken into account on the stable electrostatic potential and sheath formation. In this paper, we consider a collisionless sheath model between an infinite metal plate and a quasi-neutral plasma in the expanding magnetic field to the plate. One dimensional kinetic analysis leads that a condition for flow velocity of ions at a plasma-sheath boundary is more restricted than that of the uniform magnetic field, which should be larger than the ion sound speed. The difference, however, between both cases is an order of the Debye length to a plasma radius, which is negligible small. The requirement for the ion flow velocity inside the plasma is obtained from the condition of the quasi

  12. Collective turnover : an expanded meta-analytic exploration and comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, Julie I.; Allen, David G.; Soelberg, Craig

    2016-01-01

    As evidenced by the publication of three meta-analyses in 2013, the importance of collective turnover is garnering increasing attention. Although each of these meta-analyses delivers a unique and significant impact to the HR literature, there remain opportunities to expand and build upon their contributions. In a comparison of the three extant meta-analyses, we found over 90 unique papers that were included in only one of each of the three studies, and > 10 new studies published since 2013. W...

  13. Proton fire hose instabilities in the expanding solar wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 705830105. ISSN 0022-3778 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : astrophysicals plasmas * plasma expansion * plasma simulation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.160, year: 2016 https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-plasma-physics/article/proton-fire-hose-instabilities-in-the-expanding-solar-wind/6BA70378B25728533588A1A68073AC2F

  14. Validation of the Chinese expanded Euthanasia Attitude Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-Lin; Fok, Shiu-Yeu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the validation of the Chinese version of an expanded 31-item Euthanasia Attitude Scale. A 4-stage validation process included a pilot survey of 119 college students and a randomized household survey with 618 adults in Hong Kong. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a 4-factor structure of the scale, which can therefore be used to examine attitudes toward general, active, passive, and non-voluntary euthanasia. The scale considers the role effect in decision-making about euthanasia requests and facilitates cross-cultural comparison of attitudes toward euthanasia. The new Chinese scale is more robust than its Western predecessors conceptually and measurement-wise.

  15. Expanding gerontology enrollments: successful results of an innovative outreach program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sandra L; Haley, William E; Hyer, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    As state budget allocations for higher education decrease, "specialty" programs such as gerontology must continually demonstrate their productivity. State and private universities increasingly rely on student credit hours (SCH) or tuition generated, which is making it difficult for many gerontology programs to expand. The School of Aging Studies at the University of South Florida has achieved a 236% increase in annual SCH productivity over the past 5 years by methods including qualifying courses for university liberal arts requirements, and designing and cross-listing interdisciplinary courses. This increased productivity has supported program expansion and led to beneficial outreach to students from diverse majors.

  16. Efficient decoding of random errors for quantum expander codes

    OpenAIRE

    Fawzi , Omar; Grospellier , Antoine; Leverrier , Anthony

    2017-01-01

    We show that quantum expander codes, a constant-rate family of quantum LDPC codes, with the quasi-linear time decoding algorithm of Leverrier, Tillich and Z\\'emor can correct a constant fraction of random errors with very high probability. This is the first construction of a constant-rate quantum LDPC code with an efficient decoding algorithm that can correct a linear number of random errors with a negligible failure probability. Finding codes with these properties is also motivated by Gottes...

  17. Hydrodynamization and transient modes of expanding plasma in kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Michal P.; Spalinski, Michal

    2016-01-01

    We study the transition to hydrodynamics in a weakly-coupled model of quark-gluon plasma given by kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. Our studies uncover qualitative similarities to the results on hydrodynamization in strongly coupled gauge theories. In particular, we demonstrate that the gradient expansion in this model has vanishing radius of convergence. The asymptotic character of the hydrodynamic gradient expansion is crucial for the recently discovered applicability of hydrodynamics at large gradients. Furthermore, the analysis of the resurgent properties of the series provides, quite remarkably, indication for the existence of a novel transient, damped oscillatory mode of expanding plasmas in kinetic theory.

  18. Debate on expanding survey of near Earth objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    NASA officials told a U.S. House of Representatives Science Subcommittee on 3 October that a ground-based survey to detect near-Earth objects (NEOs) is on target for achieving its goals. The NEOs that are the subject of the survey are those 1 km across or larger, and could therefore cause devastating damage if they collided with Earth.Representatives of NASA, the National Research Council, and other agencies also told the subcommittee that astronomers and policy-makers need to consider whether to expand the survey to scan for even smaller NEOs that also could inflict widespread damage to Earth on collision.

  19. Beyond the numbers: expanding the boundaries of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William

    2009-02-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology.

  20. Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William

    2009-01-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology. PMID:19395354

  1. Expanded cardiac rehabilitation reduces cardiac events over five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Julie

    2011-01-01

    In people with coronary artery disease, does an expanded cardiac rehabilitation program reduce cardiac deaths, myocardial infarctions, and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease? Randomised, controlled trial with intention-to-treat analysis. A University hospital in Sweden. People aged less than 75 years who had had a recent myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass grafts were eligible to participate. Severe co-morbidities were exclusion criteria. Randomisation of 224 participants allocated 111 to undergo expanded cardiac rehabilitation and 113 to a control group. Both groups received standard cardiac rehabilitation, including physical training, education, group and individual counselling, and support to cease smoking. All participants received appropriate preventive medications. In addition, the intervention group received 20 group sessions of stress management, 3 sessions of cooking and diet counselling by a dietician, and a 5-day stay at a 'patient hotel' with several activities including physical training and information. Although other outcomes were reported at the conclusion of 1-year follow-up, the outcomes at the 5-year follow-up were rates of cardiac events: cardiovascular death, acute myocardial infarction, and readmission to a hospital due to other cardiovascular causes. All participants were followed up via national registers of health and mortality. During the 5-year follow-up, 53 (48%) participants in the expanded cardiac rehabilitation group and 68 (60%) participants in the control group had a cardiac event (hazard ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.99). This difference was mainly due to only 12 (11%) participants having non-fatal myocardial infarctions in the treatment group versus 23 (20%) in the control group (hazard ratio 0.47, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.97). The number of hospitalisations and the number of days of hospitalisation were both significantly fewer in the treatment group than in the control group. Expanded cardiac rehabilitation

  2. Comparative study of organovermiculites using natural and expanded vermiculite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, L.S.; Hudson, A.B.; Francisco, K.S.; Romualdo, R.M.; Gelmires, A.N.; Lisiane, N.L.S.

    2012-01-01

    Organovermiculites were obtained using vermiculite clay in its natural state and expanded in order to use these new materials in the adsorption of organic contaminants from water. Analysis by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were performed to obtain confirmation of these organovermiculites. Foster swelling and sorption tests were used to test the compatibility between the treated clay and organic solvents. The organophilization process has provided an increase in basal distance of vermiculite and it was observed an expressive increase in distance between the clay layers. The organovermiculite showed adsorption capacity by organic solvents tested, the best results were observed for diesel oil. (author)

  3. Water Runoff Properties for Expanded Clay LWA in Green Roofs

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Anders Olof

    2013-01-01

    A lightweight aggregate (LWA) is a material that has a lower density than rock aggregates. There are many civil engineering application possibilities for LWA. A potential field of application for expanded clay LWA is as a storm water retaining layer in green roofs. In order to design reliable structures of green roofs, more knowledge about the characteristics of the material is needed. The purpose of this master thesis was to test if the software SEEP/W is an appropriate tool for simulation o...

  4. Determinação da variação da viscosidade intrínseca do poli (tereftalato de etileno de embalagens Determination of intrinsic viscosity variation for polyethyelene terephthalate's bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro D. Mancini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de embalagens de poli(tereftalato de etileno -PET- para acondicionamento de refrigerantes, água mineral, sucos concentrados e óleos comestíveis apresenta polímeros de diferentes tipos, que foram desenvolvidos para personalizar o atendimento a clientes desejosos de propriedades melhores e mais específicas, principalmente em termos de massa molar. No caso do PET, assim como na indústria da reciclagem do polímero, o ensaio de viscosidade intrínseca é muito usado para determinar a massa molar. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de viscosidade intrínseca de PET advindo de embalagens de várias marcas de refrigerantes, sucos e óleos de soja. Amostras de cada embalagem foram dissolvidas em solução de fenol-tetracloroetano (60:40 em peso e o fluxo das mesmas em um viscosímetro Cannon-Fenske a 30 °C para medir a viscosidade relativa, que foi convertido para viscosidade intrínseca. Os resultados mostraram uma variação no valor da propriedade conforme se variava o volume, tipo e a marca do produto envasado. Para as 21 amostras analisadas, os resultados variaram de 0,70 a 0,79 dL/g. Portanto, uma melhor seleção das embalagens pode ajudar os recicladores na obtenção de produtos melhores, com menor variação na massa molar. Os valores de densidade obtidos apresentaram uma pequena variação, que torna-se maior quando transformados em cristalinidade.The market of polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles presents polymers of different types, which have been developed in order to provide the client with products with improved properties, mainly in respect of molar mass. In the case of PET, as well as in the recycling industry of this polymer, the test of intrinsic viscosity is widely used to determine molar mass. This study presents the results of intrinsic viscosity and density for PET bottles of soft-drinks, juices and soy-bean oils. Samples of each bottle were dissolved in 60-40 phenol-tetrachloroethane solution and flowed

  5. Updating the ranking of the coefficients of variation from maize experiments=Atualização da proposta de classificação dos coeficientes de variação para a cultura do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Moreira Rezende

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to update the ranking of the coefficients of variation (CVs from maize experiments and evaluate the accuracy of the data from the latest Brazilian publications. We rank-ordered the CVs for grain yield, plant and ear heights, number of ears per plant, and weight of commercial ears, except for the weight of 100 grains. The data were obtained from 143 scientific papers published from 2005 to 2010. The classification was based on the average (m and standard deviation (SD and the CVs were ranked as low, intermediate, high and very high. All of the random variables had the CVs normally distributed. For most of the traits, we observed a large difference between the ranks from Scapim and Pimentel Gomes. In summary, the coefficients of variation have to be classified for each variable, significant improvement occurred in the accuracy of the national maize experiments in the last 15 years, and they still require periodic updating.O objetivo desse trabalho foi fazer a atualização na proposta de classificação dos coeficientes de variação (CV para a cultura do milho e avaliar a qualidade dos dados dos artigos mais recentes publicados no Brasil. Os CV das diferentes variáveis aleatórias foram obtidos a partir da consulta de 143 artigos científicos publicados de 2005 e 2010. As faixas de classificação dos (CV foram baseadas na média (m e no desvio-padrão (DP da seguinte forma: baixo; médio; alto; muito alto. Todos os cv das variáveis aleatórias apresentaram distribuição normal. Foi possível observar que para a maioria dos caracteres avaliados houve uma grande diferença entre a classificação proposta e a de Pimentel-Gomes. Houve melhoria significativa na qualidade experimental na cultura do milho para os principais caracteres produtividade de grãos, alturas de planta e espiga, número de espigas por planta e peso de espigas comerciais, sendo a única exceção o peso de 100 grãos. Conclui-se que as faixas

  6. Variações do ciclo anual da temperatura da superfície do mar no pacífico tropical Annual cycle variations of sea surface temperature in the tropical pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Orrú Pedroso Gerólamo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Variações do ciclo anual da Temperatura da Superfície do Mar (TSM do Pacífico Tropical entre 20ºN e 20ºS, para o período de 1854 a 2006, foram estudadas usando análises de ondaletas. O estudo mostrou que o ciclo anual, considerando-se a variância para em torno de 1 ano, de TSM possui variabilidade interanual e interdecenal. Existem indicações de que a maior parte das variações interanuais no ciclo anual de TSM das áreas do hemisfério Norte (HN e do hemisfério Sul (HS, está relacionada ao ciclo do El Niño-Oscilação Sul (ENOS. A maioria dos picos da Média por Escalas da Potência localizada da ondaleta (MEPO para a escala entre 0,7 e 1,2 anos, para as áreas de ambos os hemisférios, coincide com extremos do ENOS. Os Espectros da Potência Global (EPGs mostraram variância máxima do ciclo anual de TSM entre 120ºE e 140ºE na faixa do HN (entre equador e 20ºN, e variância crescente da linha da data para leste com o máximo entre 100ºW e 80ºW na faixa do HS (entre equador e 20ºS. Portanto, o ciclo anual de TSM apresenta variações entre os HN e HS com a máxima variância localizando-se no hemisfério leste para o HN e no hemisfério oeste para o HS.Annual cycle variations of the sea surface temperature (SST in the Tropical Pacific Ocean between 20ºN and 20ºS for the period from 1854 to 2006 were studied using wavelet analysis. The study showed that the SST annual cycle, considered the variance around 1 year, contains interannual and interdecadal variabilities. There are indications that most of the SST annual cycle variations at Northern Hemisphere (NH and at Southern Hemisphere (SH areas is related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO cycle. Most peaks of the localized Scale Average Power (SAP for the 0.7-1.2 year scale for the areas on both hemispheres coincides with ENSO extremes. The Wavelet Power Spectra (WPS shows maximum variance of the SST annual cycle between 120ºE and 140ºE for the northern

  7. Novo método de classificação de coeficientes de variação para a cultura do arroz de terras altas A new method of variation coefficient classification for upland rice crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Helena de Araújo Diniz Costa

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação de coeficientes de variação (CV como medida de precisão em experimentos tem sido realizada em diversas culturas, com alguns trabalhos propondo métodos para obtenção de faixas de classificação de CV, e outros trabalhos definindo as faixas de classificação, sempre com base na média e no desvio-padrão dos CVs, e pressupondo que os mesmos têm distribuição normal, o que nem sempre é verdadeiro. Este trabalho teve por objetivo propor um método para definir faixas de classificação de CV, independentemente da distribuição que possam apresentar; o método é baseado no uso da mediana (Md e do pseudo-sigma (PS. Utilizaramse, para este estudo, dados de 110 experimentos com arroz de terras altas, delineados em blocos completos casualizados, blocos incompletos generalizados, e reticulados quadrados, selecionandose os caracteres relacionados às doenças, ao acamamento, ao rendimento de grãos e a alguns componentes da produção. Foram construídas faixas de classificação de CV de cada caráter estudado, de forma geral e considerando o delineamento experimental empregado em experimentos com 30 a 100 tratamentos. O método proposto é eficiente para a definição de faixas dos CVs, independentemente de sua distribuição, e a variação nos valores do CV evidencia a importância de se considerar não só a variável em estudo, mas também o delineamento experimental utilizado. Experimentos que apresentaram menores CVs foram aqueles em que se empregaram os Delineamentos de Blocos Incompletos. As variáveis relacionadas às doenças e ao acamamento apresentam maiores coeficientes de variação.The assessment of coefficients of variation (CV as a measure of precision in experiments has been done for various crops, and some researchers have proposed a methodology to get classification bands of CV, and others defining the classification bands itself; based on the mean and on the standard deviation of the CV, assuming that they

  8. Variação do potencial total da água em uma toposseqüência de solos de tabuleiro, durante dois anos Total water potential variation in a soil table land topsequence, during two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano da Silva Souza

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quinzenalmente, em 1996 e 1997, a variação do potencial total da água ao longo do tempo, em solos de uma toposseqüência de tabuleiro localizada em Sapeaçu, BA. Esta toposseqüência tinha as seguintes características: a comprimento de 190 m; b declividade média de 0,097 m m-1; c cultivo com laranja; d Latossolo Amarelo argissólico coeso, no terço superior; e Argissolo Amarelo coeso, no terço médio; f Argissolo Acinzentado não coeso, no terço inferior. A umidade do solo foi medida com sonda de nêutrons, nas profundidades de 0,30, 0,70, 1,10 e 1,50 m. Com base nas respectivas curvas de retenção, obteve-se o potencial matricial e, em seguida, o potencial total da água, para cada solo, profundidade e tempo. A camada coesa dificulta o fluxo de água no solo, tanto no processo de molhamento como no de secamento. Em conseqüência, o potencial total da água em solos com camada coesa varia bruscamente na camada mais superficial, ao longo do tempo, e mais lentamente nas camadas mais profundas. Em solo não coeso, a variação brusca do potencial ocorre apenas na camada mais superficial. O limite de tensão de água no solo de -1.500 kPa como sendo o ponto de murchamento permanente não se aplica à cultura dos citros.The objective of this work was to evaluate, fortnightly, during 1996/1997, the total soil water potential variation in a tableland topsequence in Sapeaçu county, BA, Brazil. This topsequence had the following characteristics: a length of 190 m; b slope of 0.097 m m-1; c orange as growing crop; d the upper third with a cohesive argisolic Yellow Latosol; e the middle third with a cohesive Yellow Argisol; and f the lower third with a non-cohesive Gray Argisol. Soil water was estimated by neutron probe at depths of0.30, 0.70, 1.10, and 1.50 m. Based on water retention curves, matric potential and, in sequence, total soil water potential were determined, for each soil and depth in

  9. Variação no Índice de Massa Corporal em Usuárias de Terapia de Reposição Hormonal Variations in the Body Mass Index in Users of Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alaércio de Toledo Lima-Junior

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos da terapia de reposição hormonal sobre o índice de massa corporal de mulheres na pós-menopausa. Casuística e Métodos: foram avaliadas retrospectivamente, por um período de três anos, 166 usuárias e 136 não-usuárias de reposição hormonal, acompanhadas no Ambulatório de Menopausa do Centro de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, avaliando-se a variação desse parâmetro ao final de cada ano em relação ao inicial. A análise dos dados foi realizada usando-se o testechi², o teste t de Student e o teste de Mann-Whitney para amostras independentes. Resultados: não foram observadas variações significativas no índice de massa corporal, quando se compararam as usuárias e não-usuárias durante os três anos de observação. Conclusão: a terapia de reposição hormonal não produziu alterações no índice de massa corporal em mulheres adequadamente acompanhadas durante o seu uso.Purpose: to evaluate the effects of hormone replacement therapy on the body mass index of postmenopausal women. Methods: for this purpose, 166 users and 136 non-users of hormone replacement were evaluated retrospectively during a period of three years. All women were assisted at the Menopause Outpatient Clinic of CAISM - UNICAMP, where the variations in this parameter were evaluated at the end of each year in relation to the initial parameters. The data analysis was performed through chi² test, Student's t test, and Mann-Whitney test. Results: we observed no significant variations in the body mass index, when comparing users and non-users during the three years of observation. Conclusion: hormone replacement therapy did not produce changes in this parameter in women properly assisted during its use.

  10. Variação da contagem de células somáticas em vacas leiteiras de acordo com patógenos da mastite Somatic cell counts variation in dairy cows according to mastitis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Souza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de patógenos da mastite sobre a contagem de células somáticas (CCS em leite. Foram coletadas 3.987 amostras de leite de 2.657 animais oriundos de 24 rebanhos leiteiros localizados nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Minas Gerais. As amostras de leite foram usadas para CCS e identificação de patógenos da mastite. Estatísticas descritivas, teste T para amostras independentes e modelo linear generalizado foram usados para análise dos dados. O modelo linear generalizado identificou os efeitos de rebanho, animal dentro de rebanho, ordem de parto, estação do ano e infecção intramamária causada por Streptococcus agalactiae e Streptococcus spp. que não S. agalactiae como significativos na variação da CCS. O efeito de animal dentro de rebanho foi maior que o efeito de rebanho. S. agalactiae foi o patógeno responsável pelo maior aumento da CCS em vacas e apresentou em média 1.520.000 células/mL. Foi observado efeito específico dos patógenos na variação da CCS.The influence of mastitis pathogens on variation of milk somatic cell count (SCC was evaluated. Three thousand nine hundred eighty-seven milk samples were colected from 2,657 dairy cows in 24 herds located in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. The milk samples were used to SCC and identification of mastitis pathogens. Descriptive statistics, T test for independent samples, and generalized linear model were used to data analysis. The generalized linear model identified the effects of herd, animal within herd, parity, year season, intramammary infection, and infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus spp. except S. agalactiae as significant on SCC variation. The effect of animal within herd was higher than the effect of herd. S. agalactiae was the pathogen responsible for higher SCC increasing and presented the average of 1,520,000 cells/mL. The specific effect on SCC variation was observed in the study.

  11. Instituições participativas e desenho institucional: algumas considerações sobre a variação da participação no Brasil democrático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Avritzer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor analisa as instituições participativas (orçamentos participativos, conselhos de políticas e planos diretores municipais surgidas na democracia brasileira recente e aponta para suas diferenças devidas a desenhos institucionais diferenciados. Estes variam na maneira como a participação se organiza; na maneira como o Estado se relaciona com a participação e na maneira como a legislação exige do governo a implementação ou não da participação e o autor mostra esta variação através da análise destas práticas em diferentes cidades brasileiras (Porto Alegre, São Paulo, Belo Horizonte e Salvador. A análise dos diferentes desenhos participativos mostra que o orçamento participativo é a prática mais democratizante, mas também a mais vulnerável à vontade da sociedade política; indica ainda a importância da variação do contexto para a efetividade da participação.The author analyses the participative institutions (participative budgets, local councils of politics and managing plans emerged in the recent Brazilian democracy and he points to their differences due the distinct institutional designs. These institutions vary in the way as the participation is organized; in the way as the State is related to the participation and in the way the law imposes the government to adopt participative formula. The author shows this variation in different Brazilian cities (Porto Alegre, São Paulo, Belo Horizonte e Salvador and the analysis shows that the participative budget is the more democratic but also the most vulnerable form that suffers the pressure of political society. The analysis also indicates the importance of the context variation for the effectiveness of the participation.

  12. Genetic variations among passion fruit species using rapd markers Variação genética entre espécies de maracujá utilizando marcadores rapd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Andrade Aukar

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been evaluated the genetic variability through the use of RAPD molecular markers on the following passionflower species: Passiflora amethystina, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. coccinea, P. serrato digitata, P. foetida, P. maliformis, P. alata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. macrocarpa, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. suberosa, P. ligularis, P. capsularis, P. edulis Sims and its botanical variety P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. In this research work, the analyses of the random amplified polymorphic DNA products (RAPD were employed to estimate the genetic diversity and the taxonomic linkage within the species above. The total of 21 primers were used in this study which generated 270 different polymorphic products. It was possible to detect that the Passiflora species had shown a similarity of 17,3%, and between Passiflora edulis Sims and Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa a similarity of 34,35% has been found. The rate of similarity within edulis specie is low, making it clear that a large variability between the yellow and the purple forms exists.Foram avaliadas as variações genéticas através de marcadores moleculares RAPD, as seguintes espécies de maracujá: Passiflora amethystina, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. coccinea, P. serrato digitata, P. foetida, P. maliformis, P. alata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. macrocarpa, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. suberosa, P. ligularis, P. capsularis, P. edulis Sims e sua variedade botânica P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. Neste estudo, a análise dos produtos da amplificação ao acaso do DNA polimórfico (RAPD foi usada para estimar a diversidade genética e as relações taxonômicas entre as espécies. Foram utilizados 21 "primers", que produziram um total de 270 bandas polimórficas. Verificou-se que as espécies de Passiflora apresentaram uma média de similaridade de 17,3%, e entre Passiflora edulis Sims e Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa, de 34,35%. Pode-se perceber que o valor de

  13. Proteins Containing Expanded Polyglutamine Tracts and Neurodegenerative Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbuyiro, Adewale; Sedighi, Faezeh; Pilkington, Albert W; Groover, Sharon; Legleiter, Justin

    2017-03-07

    Several hereditary neurological and neuromuscular diseases are caused by an abnormal expansion of trinucleotide repeats. To date, there have been 10 of these trinucleotide repeat disorders associated with an expansion of the codon CAG encoding glutamine (Q). For these polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, there is a critical threshold length of the CAG repeat required for disease, and further expansion beyond this threshold is correlated with age of onset and symptom severity. PolyQ expansion in the translated proteins promotes their self-assembly into a variety of oligomeric and fibrillar aggregate species that accumulate into the hallmark proteinaceous inclusion bodies associated with each disease. Here, we review aggregation mechanisms of proteins with expanded polyQ-tracts, structural consequences of expanded polyQ ranging from monomers to fibrillar aggregates, the impact of protein context and post-translational modifications on aggregation, and a potential role for lipid membranes in aggregation. As the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie these disorders are often classified as either a gain of toxic function or loss of normal protein function, some toxic mechanisms associated with mutant polyQ tracts will also be discussed.

  14. Expanding the concept of sustainable seafood using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Friederike; Hornborg, Sara; Green, Bridget S

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries management and sustainability assessment of fisheries more generally have recently expanded their scope from single-species stock assessment to ecosystem-based approaches, aiming to incorporate economic, social and local environmental impacts, while still excluding global-scale environm......Fisheries management and sustainability assessment of fisheries more generally have recently expanded their scope from single-species stock assessment to ecosystem-based approaches, aiming to incorporate economic, social and local environmental impacts, while still excluding global......-offs, LCA can be a useful decision support tool and avoids problem shifting from one concern (or activity) to another. The integrated, product-based and quantitative perspective brought by LCA could complement existing tools. One example is to follow up fuel use of fishing, as the production and combustion...... performance could likewise facilitate the transition to low-impact fisheries. Taking these steps in an open dialogue between fishers, managers, industry, NGOs and consumers would enable more targeted progress towards sustainable fisheries...

  15. Global gas processing will strengthen to meet expanding markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.; Gist, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The worldwide LPG industry continues to expand faster than the petroleum industry -- 4%/year for LPG vs. 2%/year for petroleum in 1995 and less than 1%/year in the early 1990s. This rapid expansion of LPG markets is occurring in virtually every region of the world, including such developing countries as China. The Far East is the focus of much of the LPG industry's attention, but many opportunities exist in other regions such as the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. The investment climate is improving in all phases of downstream LPG marketing, including terminaling, storage, and wholesale and retail distribution. The world LPG supply/demand balance has been relatively tight since the Gulf War and should remain so. Base demand (the portion of demand that is not highly price-sensitive) is expanding more rapidly than supplies. As a result, the proportion of total LPG supplies available for price-sensitive petrochemical feedstock markets is declining, at least in the short term. The paper discusses importers, price patterns, world LPG demand, world LPG supply, US NGL supply, US gas processing, ethane and propane supply, butane, isobutane, and natural gasoline supply, and US NGL demand

  16. SRS K-area material storage. Expanding capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.

    2013-01-01

    In support of the Department of Energy’s continued plans to de-inventory and reduce the footprint of Cold War era weapons’ material production sites, the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility, located in the K-Area Complex (KAC) at the Savannah River Site reservation, has expanded since its startup authorization in 2000 to accommodate DOE’s material consolidation mission. During the facility’s growth and expansion, KAMS will have expanded its authorization capability of material types and storage containers to allow up to 8200 total shipping containers once the current expansion effort completes in 2014. Recognizing the need to safely and cost effectively manage other surplus material across the DOE Complex, KAC is constantly evaluating the storage of different material types within K area. When modifying storage areas in KAC, the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) must undergo extensive calculations and reviews; however, without an extensive and proven security posture the possibility for expansion would not be possible. The KAC maintains the strictest adherence to safety and security requirements for all the SNM it handles. Disciplined Conduct of Operations and Conduct of Projects are demonstrated throughout this historical overview highlighting various improvements in capability, capacity, demonstrated cost effectiveness and utilization of the KAC as the DOE Center of Excellence for safe and secure storage of surplus SNM.

  17. Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene for Chordal Replacement: Preventing Knot Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacob R; Deeken, Corey R; Ray, Shuddhadeb; Henn, Matthew C; Lancaster, Timothy S; Schuessler, Richard B; Damiano, Ralph J; Melby, Spencer J

    2015-12-01

    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene suture is commonly used for chordal replacement in mitral valve repair, but due to material characteristics, knots can unravel. Our aim was to determine the knot security, including how many throws are necessary to prevent knot failure, with Gore-Tex (W.L. Gore and Associates, Elkton, MD) and the newly available Chord-X (On-X Life Technologies Inc, Austin, TX). Knots were evaluated for maximal load based on: number of throws (6, 8, 10, and 12), tension to secure each throw (10%, 50%, and 85%) and suture type (Gore-Tex CV-5 and Chord-X 3-0). A physiologic force of 2 N was used for comparison. We evaluated 240 knots. For all knots, the mean load to failure was 11.1 ± 5.8 N. Failure occurred due to unraveling in 141 knots (59%) at 7.1 ± 4.1 N and to breaking in 99 (41%) at 16.7 ± 2.0 N (p Gore-Tex failed at higher loads (12.6 ± 6.0 N vs 9.5 ± 5.2 N, p Gore-Tex and 6 Chord-X, unraveled at 2 N, all with fewer than 10 throws. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene has adequate strength to prevent breakage; however, a risk of knot unraveling at physiologic conditions exists when fewer than 10 throws are performed. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gene3D: expanding the utility of domain assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Su Datt; Dawson, Natalie L; Das, Sayoni; Sillitoe, Ian; Ashford, Paul; Lee, David; Lehtinen, Sonja; Orengo, Christine A; Lees, Jonathan G

    2016-01-04

    Gene3D http://gene3d.biochem.ucl.ac.uk is a database of domain annotations of Ensembl and UniProtKB protein sequences. Domains are predicted using a library of profile HMMs representing 2737 CATH superfamilies. Gene3D has previously featured in the Database issue of NAR and here we report updates to the website and database. The current Gene3D (v14) release has expanded its domain assignments to ∼ 20,000 cellular genomes and over 43 million unique protein sequences, more than doubling the number of protein sequences since our last publication. Amongst other updates, we have improved our Functional Family annotation method. We have also improved the quality and coverage of our 3D homology modelling pipeline of predicted CATH domains. Additionally, the structural models have been expanded to include an extra model organism (Drosophila melanogaster). We also document a number of additional visualization tools in the Gene3D website. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Controlled Shrinkage of Expanded Glass Particles in Metal Syntactic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim Al-Sahlani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix syntactic foams have been fabricated via counter-gravity infiltration of a packed bed of recycled expanded glass particles (EG with A356 aluminum alloy. Particle shrinkage was studied and has been utilized to increase the particles’ strength and tailor the mechanical properties of the expanded glass/metal syntactic foam (EG-MSF. The crushing strength of particles could be doubled by shrinking them for 20 min at 700 °C. Owing to the low density of EG (0.20–0.26 g/cm3, the resulting foam exhibits a low density (1.03–1.19 g/cm3 that increases slightly due to particle shrinkage. Chemical and physical analyses of EG particles and the resulting foams were conducted. Furthermore, metal syntactic foam samples were tested in uni-axial compression tests. The stress-strain curves obtained exhibit three distinct regions: elastic deformation followed by a stress plateau and densification commencing at 70–80% macroscopic strain. Particle shrinkage increased the mechanical strength of the foam samples and their average plateau stress increased from 15.5 MPa to 26.7 MPa.

  20. Expand your english a guide to improving your academic vocabulary

    CERN Document Server

    Hart, Steve

    2018-01-01

    Writing academic prose in English is especially difficult for non-native speakers, largely because the standard vocabulary used in this genre can be quite different from colloquial English. Expand Your English: A Guide to Improving Your Academic Vocabulary is a unique and invaluable guide that will enable the reader to overcome this hurdle. It will become the favourite go-to reference book for both beginners and for intermediate learners struggling with the complexities of English-language academic writing. Steve Hart covers 1,000 vocabulary items that are essential for good academic writing. The first section describes 200 key terms in detail, grouping them into logical sets of 10. Through careful repetition, the reader will find it easy to retain, retrieve, and reuse these essential phrases. The second section explains a further 800 terms, grouping them according to function, meaning, and the areas of an essay where they are likely to be used. The expansive scope of Expand Your English gives non-native spea...

  1. Dynamic Decompressive Craniotomy with a Novel Reversibly Expandable Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit

    2017-07-01

    Objective  To assess the feasibility of a dynamic craniotomy procedure with the use of a novel reversibly expandable cranial bone flap fixation plate. The expandable plate allows outward bone flap migration with an increase in intracranial volume or intracranial pressure (ICP). Methods  Dynamic craniotomy intracranial hypertension compliance was evaluated in a skull model with progressive increase in intracranial volume and compared with the standard craniotomy with fixed plates. Results  Dynamic craniotomy provided significant control of ICP with increasing intracranial volume compared with the standard craniotomy. With an incremental increase in intracranial volume from 360 mL to 600 mL, the ICP increased from 2.6 to 91.9 mm Hg with the standard craniotomy, whereas with the dynamic craniotomy the ICP for similar intracranial volume increased from 2.5 to 25 mm Hg ( p  craniotomy procedure provides superior control of ICP with an abrupt intracranial volume increase when compared with the standard craniotomy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Expand your English a guide to improving your academic vocabulary

    CERN Document Server

    Hart, Steve

    2018-01-01

    Writing academic prose in English is especially difficult for non-native speakers, largely because the standard vocabulary used in this genre can be quite different from colloquial English. Expand Your English: A Guide to Improving Your Academic Vocabulary is a unique and invaluable guide that will enable the reader to overcome this hurdle. It will become the favourite go-to reference book for both beginners and for intermediate learners struggling with the complexities of English-language academic writing. Steve Hart covers 1,000 vocabulary items that are essential for good academic writing. The first section describes 200 key terms in detail, grouping them into logical sets of 10. Through careful repetition, the reader will find it easy to retain, retrieve, and reuse these essential phrases. The second section explains a further 800 terms, grouping them according to function, meaning, and the areas of an essay where they are likely to be used. The expansive scope of Expand Your English gives non-native spea...

  3. Simulations of supersonic highly under-expanded hydrogen jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarnau Marin, Ana; Xiao, Cheng-Nian; Denner, Fabian; van Wachem, Berend

    2017-11-01

    The pressure drop across choke valves required to transport natural gas can be in the order of several hundred bars, leading to the development of supersonic under-expanded jets. When considering a real gas, the gas can cool upon expansion, a phenomenon which can be explained by the Joule-Thomson effect. This study compares the effects of using ideal and real gas equations of state, using a computational model in which hydrogen is released from a high-pressure tank, through a converging nozzle, into a chamber containing hydrogen at near-atmospheric conditions. The initial studies were carried out using an ideal gas assumption and nozzle pressure ratios of 10, 30 and 70 and the results were validated against existing literature. To account for the Joule-Thomson effect, ideal and real gas simulations were then carried out with a pressure ratio of 70. For the real gas model, the Peng-Robinson equation of state was chosen. At the nozzle exit, the ideal gas model underestimates the velocity and overestimates the temperature and density; as the flow expands, the flow properties are the same up to the Mach disk, at which point the ideal gas underestimates the Mach number and predicts a higher temperature and density than the Peng-Robinson model due to the absence of cooling.

  4. Expanding refractory rectus sheath hematoma: a therapeutic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Guo-Shiang; Liau, Guo-Shiou; Shyu, Hann-Yeh; Chu, Shi-Jye; Ko, Fu-Chang; Wu, Kuo-An

    2012-01-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon but well-described complication of a tussive paroxysm. It is an accumulation of blood within the sheath of the rectus abdominis secondary to disruption of the epigastric vessels or the rectus muscle and is often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen. Increases in the number of elderly patients and the use of therapeutic anticoagulation may increase the prevalence and severity of rectus sheath hematomas encountered in clinical practice. Expanding rectus sheath hematomas are occasionally refractory to conservative treatment and may require hemostatic intervention. Here, we describe the case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with two separate rectus sheath hematomas that were precipitated by a paroxysm of coughing. Repeated computed tomography showed two separate expanding rectus sheath hematomas, which were not accompanied by obvious contrast extravasation on angiography. Empiric left inferior epigastric artery embolization resulted in rapid hemodynamic stabilization, and the hematomas shrank gradually. Early empiric transcatheter arterial embolization may be appropriate for patients who are poor surgical candidates and have enlarging hematomas that are refractory to conservative treatment.

  5. Expanding the role for psychology in addressing environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia; Steg, Linda; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    Environmental challenges, though daunting, present an important area for psychologists to apply their knowledge. Psychological theories, research methods, and interventions are essential for examining the questions about human impacts, tendencies, and capacities that are integral to constructing effective responses to these challenges. Although a great deal of relevant research has been done, there is scope for psychologists to be more extensively involved. Following a brief review of existing research, we outline some important new directions. We also highlight 2 key divergences, arguing that psychological research needs to expand beyond a traditional, theory-based and decontextualized approach to environmental issues to incorporate a contextualized or "place-based" approach and a willingness to collaborate in interdisciplinary research teams that focus on specific environmental problems. Suggestions for promoting such interdisciplinary collaborations are reviewed. We encourage psychologists to expand their engagement with important environmental issues through multiple research approaches in order to further their understanding of human behavior, contributions to human well-being, and relevance to other disciplines and to society. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Evolutionary responses to climate change in a range expanding plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macel, Mirka; Dostálek, Tomáš; Esch, Sonja; Bucharová, Anna; van Dam, Nicole M; Tielbörger, Katja; Verhoeven, Koen J F; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2017-06-01

    To understand the biological effects of climate change, it is essential to take into account species' evolutionary responses to their changing environments. Ongoing climate change is resulting in species shifting their geographical distribution ranges poleward. We tested whether a successful range expanding plant has rapidly adapted to the regional conditions in its novel range, and whether adaptation could be driven by herbivores. Furthermore, we investigated if enemy release occurred in the newly colonized areas and whether plant origins differed in herbivore resistance. Plants were cloned and reciprocally transplanted between three experimental sites across the range. Effects of herbivores on plant performance were tested by individually caging plants with either open or closed cages. There was no indication of (regional) adaptation to abiotic conditions. Plants originating from the novel range were always larger than plants from the core distribution at all experimental sites, with or without herbivory. Herbivore damage was highest and not lowest at the experimental sites in the novel range, suggesting no release from enemy impact. Genotypes from the core were more damaged compared to genotypes from newly colonized areas at the most northern site in the novel range, which was dominated by generalist slug herbivory. We also detected subtle shifts in chemical defenses between the plant origins. Genotypes from the novel range had more inducible defenses. Our results suggest that plants that are expanding their range with climate change may evolve increased vigor and altered herbivore resistance in their new range, analogous to invasive plants.

  7. A Study of Flexible Composites for Expandable Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Payload volume for launch vehicles is a critical constraint that impacts spacecraft design. Deployment mechanisms, such as those used for solar arrays and antennas, are approaches that have successfully accommodated this constraint, however, providing pressurized volumes that can be packaged compactly at launch and expanded in space is still a challenge. One approach that has been under development for many years is to utilize softgoods - woven fabric for straps, cloth, and with appropriate coatings, bladders - to provide this expandable pressure vessel capability. The mechanics of woven structure is complicated by a response that is nonlinear and often nonrepeatable due to the discrete nature of the woven fiber architecture. This complexity reduces engineering confidence to reliably design and certify these structures, which increases costs due to increased requirements for system testing. The present study explores flexible composite materials systems as an alternative to the heritage softgoods approach. Materials were obtained from vendors who utilize flexible composites for non-aerospace products to determine some initial physical and mechanical properties of the materials. Uniaxial mechanical testing was performed to obtain the stress-strain response of the flexible composites and the failure behavior. A failure criterion was developed from the data, and a space habitat application was used to provide an estimate of the relative performance of flexible composites compared to the heritage softgoods approach. Initial results are promising with a 25% mass savings estimated for the flexible composite solution.

  8. Turbulent Flame Speed and Self Similarity of Expanding Premixed Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Zhu, Delin; Law, Chung

    2011-11-01

    In this study we present experimental turbulent flame speed data measured in constant-pressure expanding turbulent flames, propagating in nearly homogenous isotropic turbulence, in a dual-chamber, fan-stirred vessel. The cold flow is characterized by high speed particle image velocimetry while the flame propagation rate is obtained by tracking high speed Schlieren images of unity Lewis number methane-air flames over wide ranges of pressure and turbulence intensity. It is found that the normalized turbulent flame speed as a function of the average radius scales as a turbulent Reynolds number to the one-half power, where the average radius is the length scale and thermal diffusivity is the transport property, thus showing self-similar propagation. Utilizing this dependence it is found that the turbulent flame speeds from expanding flames and those from Bunsen geometries can be scaled by a single parameter: the turbulent Reynolds number utilizing recent theoretical results obtained by spectral closure of the G equation, after correcting for gas expansion effects.

  9. 75 FR 61238 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Expanding the Story With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Determinations: ``Expanding the Story With Four Greek Vases'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Expanding the Story with Four Greek Vases,'' imported from... exhibition or [[Page 61239

  10. Effects of expanded and standard captions on deaf college students' comprehension of educational videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Michael S; Stevenson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-two college students who were deaf viewed one instructional video with standard captions and a second with expanded captions, in which key terms were expanded in the form of vocabulary definitions, labeled illustrations, or concept maps. The students performed better on a posttest after viewing either type of caption than on a pretest; however, there was no difference in comprehension between standard and expanded captions. Camtasia recording software enabled examination of the extent to which the students accessed the expanded captions. The students accessed less than 20% of the available expanded captions. Thus, one explanation for the lack of difference in comprehension between the standard and expanded captions is that the students did not access the expanded captions sufficiently. Despite limited use of the expanded captions, the students stated, when interviewed, that they considered these captions beneficial in learning from the instructional video.

  11. EXPANDED PERLITE, EXPANDED VERMICULITE AND MICROSPHERES AS FILLERS IN NEW GENERATION PAPER PULP MIXTURES USED FOR CONTACT WITH LIQUID METAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Zawieja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metal when filling sand casting mould while pouring it out from ladle at the first moment comes across the sprue/gate system of the mould the purpose of which is to transfer liquid metal and feed the mould recess. The materials presently used for the elements of the sprue/gate systems are based on ceramics or the mixtures based on paper pulp. In this study the use of alternative mineral additions such as expanded perlite, expanded vermiculite, and microspheres as the fillers to paper pulp acquired from waste-paper for the use for the elements of mould sprue/gate systems or also other applications for the contact with liquid metal are presented. Experimental mould tube shapes made on the basis of the paper pulp based mixture patented by the authors were poured over with liquid metal. For the comparison, ceramic shapes and commercially available cellulose shapes were investigated in the same way. In order to compare the crystallization processes, a measurement of the cooling off liquid metal was carried out for all the analysed tube samples. From the so obtained metal samples metallographic microsections were made to compare cast iron microstructures. The results obtained from the investigations carried out have shown that the patented paper pulp based mixture may well be applied as an alternative material used for the elements of the sprue/gate systems for disposable sand moulds.

  12. Significados que construyen niños, padres de familia y docentes vinculados a varias instituciones escolares de la ciudad de Bogotá sobre infancia, familia y escuela en el marco de la globalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Bernal Romero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación estuvo dirigida a indagar sobre los significados construidos por niños, padres de familia y profesores acerca de la infancia, la familia y la escuela en el contexto de la globalización. Se aplicó una encuesta a un grupo de 73 niños y niñas, 52 padres de familia y 52 docentes que se encontraban vinculados a varias instituciones escolares de la ciudad de Bogotá. Los resultados mostraron convergencias y divergencias entre los tres grupos de participantes, en cuanto a la forma de significar la infancia y las interacciones escolares y familiares en la actualidad. En términos generales, se observó que los niños y, en menor grado, los padres de familia tienden a una valoración positiva de los cambios asociados con la globalización, mientras que los profesores se inclinan hacia posturas más críticas. El estrato socioeconómico sirvió como variable moderadora en algunos de los significados expresados por los tres grupos de participantes en el estudio. Se discute sobre las implicaciones de estos resultados, haciendo especial énfasis en las demandas y retos que afronta la escuela en el marco de la globalización.

  13. Avaliação cronológica da variação no volume globular sanguíneo de bovinos leiteiros Cronological evaluation of variation in packed cell volume on dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Sachetin Marçal

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores avaliaram a variação no volume globular sangüíneo de 321 bovinos da raça Holandês preta e branca, sadios e criados em granjas leiteiras no Estado de São Paulo. Todos os animais trabalhados na presente pesquisa eram sadios, não reagentes ao vírus da Leucose Bovina, livres de hemoparasitas, brucelose e tuberculose. O volume globular sangüíneo foi efetuado através do método do hematócrito com tubos capilares. Os resultados mostram haver influência da idade sobre o volume globular sangüíneo, com valores médios encontrados de 30,12 ± 2,72%.The packet cell volume was evaluated by the authors in 321 healthy female Holstein cattle raised at Campinas dairy region. São Paulo State. All the animais used in this assay were healthy and free of Leucosis, Tuberculosis, Brucellosis and blood parasites. The packed cell volume has been studied by method of hematocrit with capilary tubos. The results showed an influence of age on packed cell volume with average reference values of 30.12 ± 2.72%.

  14. Efeito da variação do consumo de cimento em argamassas de revestimento produzidas com base nos conceitos de mobilidade e empacotamento de partículas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Hark Maciel

    Full Text Available Resumo A redução do consumo de cimento na composição de argamassas de revestimento é uma alternativa para a diminuição do impacto ambiental provocado na cadeia de produção do ligante. A utilização de materiais cimentícios suplementares (supplementary cementitious materials - SCM e a dosagem com base nos conceitos de empacotamento e mobilidade de partículas são estratégias que podem resultar nas propriedades projetadas tanto no estado fresco quanto endurecido. O objetivo deste trabalho foi ilustrar a influência da alteração no consumo de ligante nas propriedades no estado fresco e endurecido de argamassas de revestimento mantendo-se constante a distribuição de tamanho de partículas, o que resultou em porosidade de empacotamento com insignificante variação. O consumo de cimento variou de 8% a 16% em massa, com adição de filler calcário como SCM, sendo que a consistência foi a mesma devido à alteração dos teores de água nas argamassas. Os resultados indicaram que a redução no consumo de cimento afeta negativamente as propriedades no estado endurecido, mas ainda assim atendem às exigências estabelecidas para esse tipo de revestimento.

  15. A elevação das vogais pertônicas no português do Brasil: processo(s de variação estável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callou, Dinah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresenta-se a análise, em tempo aparente e em tempo real, da harmonização vocálica no Rio de Janeiro, realizada segundo o modelo laboviano. Demonstra-se que não se trata, apesar do baixo percentual de aplicação, de um caso de perda de regra, mas de uma variação estável, indicativa de faixa etária. Salienta-se a necessidade de diferençar regras de assimilação fonológica e de assimilação acústica, assim como de pesquisa experimental de produção e percepção, para verificar que traço opõe os fonemas /u/e/o/, para uma melhor compreensão do comportamento assimétrico de /i/e/u/ como propulsores do processo de elevação das vogais médias pretônicas

  16. Biomechanical Analysis of an Expandable Lumbar Interbody Spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Baron, Hector; Newcomb, Anna G U S; Malhotra, Devika; Palma, Atilio E; Martinez-Del-Campo, Eduardo; Crawford, Neil R; Theodore, Nicholas; Kelly, Brian P; Kaibara, Taro

    2018-03-13

    Recently developed expandable interbody spacers are widely accepted in spinal surgery; however, the resulting biomechanical effects of their use have not yet been fully studied. We analyzed the biomechanical effects of an expandable polyetheretherketone interbody spacer inserted through a bilateral posterior approach with and without different modalities of posterior augmentation. Biomechanical nondestructive flexibility testing was performed in 7 human cadaveric lumbar (L2-L5) specimens followed by axial compressive loading. Each specimen was tested under 6 conditions: 1) intact, 2) bilateral L3-L4 cortical screw/rod (CSR) alone, 3) WaveD alone, 4) WaveD + CSR, 5) WaveD + bilateral L3-L4 pedicle screw/rod (PSR), and 6) WaveD + CSR/PSR, where CSR/PSR was a hybrid construct comprising bilateral cortical-level L3 and pedicle-level L4 screws interconnected by rods. The range of motion (ROM) with the interbody spacer alone decreased significantly compared with the intact condition during flexion-extension (P = 0.02) but not during lateral bending or axial rotation (P ≥ 0.19). The addition of CSR or PSR to the interbody spacer alone condition significantly decreased the ROM compared with the interbody spacer alone (P ≤ 0.002); and WaveD + CSR, WaveD + PSR, and WaveD + CSR/PSR (hybrid) (P ≥ 0.29) did not differ. The axial compressive stiffness (resistance to change in foraminal height during compressive loading) with the interbody spacer alone did not differ from the intact condition (P = 0.96), whereas WaveD + posterior instrumentation significantly increased compressive stiffness compared with the intact condition and the interbody spacer alone (P ≤ 0.001). The WaveD alone significantly reduced ROM during flexion-extension while maintaining the axial compressive stiffness. CSR, PSR, and CSR/PSR hybrid constructs were all effective in augmenting the expandable interbody spacer system and improving its stability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. A programmatic challenge - accelerating, expanding, and innovating physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caravelli, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the wake of the September 11th terrorists attacks, the Office of international material protection and cooperation is responding to the international community's call to strengthen a global response to the serious challenge of securing nuclear material with the aim of preventing nuclear terrorism. Recent events underline the urgency to proactively address the threat posed by insufficiently secured nuclear material. The sobering reality is that, at present, the threat is disproportional to international efforts to mitigate and stop the proliferation of nuclear materials. The potential consequences of failing to address deficiencies in security systems, or for that matter aiming at anything below 'comprehensive' nuclear material security' is a horrifying reminder of the incredible challenge that we are facing. Against this backdrop, our Office has undertaken a comprehensive program review and is making all possible efforts to expand, accelerate and innovate our physical protection approach. The presentation that I propose to deliver will provide an overview of our new thinking regarding the vulnerability of nuclear/radioactive material post 9-11, touch on some of the obstacles that we are experiencing, and outline the steps that we are aggressively pursuing with the aim of achieving real threat reduction. My presentation will begin with a look at the success and knowledge gained from the bilateral material protection, control and accounting (MPC and A) cooperation between the United States and the Russian Federation and use this as a platform from which to launch a wider discussion on international efforts to strengthen practices for protecting nuclear material. I will examine lessons learned from our cooperation in relation to their applicability to today's security challenges and will outline how we are expanding on our traditional mission to address emerging threats. I will discuss programmatic efforts to bolster traditional, first line of defense

  18. 24 CFR 3280.812 - Wiring of expandable units and dual units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wiring of expandable units and dual... § 3280.812 Wiring of expandable units and dual units. (a) Expandable or multiple unit manufactured homes shall use fixed-type wiring methods and materials for connecting such units to each other. (b...

  19. Thermal excitation spectrum from entanglement in an expanding quantum string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berges, Jürgen; Floerchinger, Stefan; Venugopalan, Raju

    2018-03-01

    A surprising result in e+e- collisions is that the particle spectra from the string formed between the expanding quark-antiquark pair have thermal properties even though scatterings appear not to be frequent enough to explain this. We address this problem by considering the finite observable interval of a relativistic quantum string in terms of its reduced density operator by tracing over the complement region. We show how quantum entanglement in the presence of a horizon in spacetime for the causal transfer of information leads locally to a reduced mixed-state density operator. For very early proper time τ, we show that the entanglement entropy becomes extensive and scales with the rapidity. At these early times, the reduced density operator is of thermal form, with an entanglement temperature Tτ = ħ / (2 πkB τ), even in the absence of any scatterings.

  20. Thermal Measurements on Polymeric Epoxy-Expandable Graphite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Asante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion measurements, such as heat release rate, critical flux, time-to-ignition, ignition temperature, thermal inertia, and kinematics—activation energy as well as preexponential factor—on epoxy polymer (Prime™ 20LV with expandable graphite (EG inorganic filler of different weight percentage composites, are conducted using the Dual Cone Calorimeter, the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and Linseis (Germany THB100 Transient Hot Bridge thermal conductivity analyser. The results indicate that increasing the amount of EG in polymer composite leads to reduction in the critical flux, the time-to-ignition, the ignition temperature, the thermal inertia, the average thermal conductivity, and the activation energy (from 159.1 ± 2.3 to 145.9 ± 3.1 kJ/mol for neat epoxy to 3 wt.% EG-epoxy of the composite samples. There is, however, an increase in the heat of gasification with increasing EG content.

  1. Expanded USGS science in the Chesapeake Bay restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Scott

    2010-01-01

    In May 2009, the President issued Executive Order (EO) 13508 for Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration. For the first time since the creation of the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) in 1983, the full weight of the Federal Government will be used to address the challenges facing the Chesapeake Bay. The EO directs the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), represented by the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), to expand its efforts and increase leadership to restore the Bay and its watershed. A Federal Leadership Committee (FLC) was established to ensure coordination of Federal activities and consult with states and stakeholders to align restoration efforts.

  2. Water extraction on Mars for an expanding human colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralphs, M; Franz, B; Baker, T; Howe, S

    2015-11-01

    In-situ water extraction is necessary for an extended human presence on Mars. This study looks at the water requirements of an expanding human colony on Mars and the general systems needed to supply that water from the martian atmosphere and regolith. The proposed combination of systems in order to supply the necessary water includes a system similar to Honeybee Robotics' Mobile In-Situ Water Extractor (MISWE) that uses convection, a system similar to MISWE but that directs microwave energy down a borehole, a greenhouse or hothouse type system, and a system similar to the Mars Atmospheric Resource Recovery System (MARRS). It is demonstrated that a large water extraction system that can take advantage of large deposits of water ice at site specific locations is necessary to keep up with the demands of a growing colony. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Expanding Usability of Virtual Network Laboratory in IT Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor M Dobrilovic

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with importance of virtual network laboratories usage in IT engineering education. It presents the particular virtual network laboratory model developed for usage in Computer Networks course as well. This virtual network laboratory, called VNLab, is based on virtualization technology. It has been successfully tested in educational process of Computer Network course for IT undergraduate students. Its usability for network related courses is analyzed by comparison of recommended curricula’s of world organizations such as IEEE, ACM and AIS. This paper is focused on expanding the usability of this virtual network laboratory to other non-network related courses. The primary expansion field is in domain of IT System Administration, IT Systems and Data Security and Operating Systems as well. The possible learning scenarios, learning tools and concepts for making this system applicable in these three additional fields are presented by the analyses of compatibility with recommended learning topics and outcomes by IEEE, ACM and AIS.

  4. Expanding the Possibilities of AIS Data with Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørnar Brende Smestad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Identification System (AIS is primarily used as a tracking system for ships, but with the launch of satellites to collect these data, new and previously untested possibilities are emerging. This paper presents the development of heuristics for establishing the specific ship type using information retrieved from AIS data alone. These heuristics expand the possibilities of AIS data, as the specific ship type is vital for several transportation research cases, such as emission analyses of ship traffic and studies on slow steaming. The presented method for developing heuristics can be used for a wider range of vessels. These heuristics may form the basis of large-scale studies on ship traffic using AIS data when it is not feasible or desirable to use commercial ship data registers.

  5. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) floats for surveillance of Ochlerotatus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jamesina J; Crans, Wayne J

    2003-12-01

    Blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS) were placed in a variety of habitats to investigate their potential as an egg-collection device for container-dwelling Aedes and Ochlerotatus species. Eggs from Ochlerotatus japonicus, Oc. triseriatus, Oc. hendersoni, and Aedes albopictus were collected with EPS floats. The float provides an inexpensive, low-maintenance alternative to the Centers for Disease Control ovitrap for sampling container-dwelling mosquito species that are important vectors of disease. Eggs collected on the floats have many potential applications, including use in routine population surveillance; detection of Oc. japonicus, Ae. albopictus, and other container-dwelling species in new areas; species distribution studies; natural transovarial transmission studies; ovipositional studies; collection of local field populations for insecticide resistance assays; assessment of adulticiding efficacy; and establishment of new laboratory colonies.

  6. Durability of Modified Expanded Polystyrene Concrete after Dynamic Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available EPS concrete was produced by mixing the expanded polystyrene spheres (EPS and polymer emulsion and thickener to the matrix concrete, and this concrete had good vibration energy absorption characteristics. Based on the experimental data obtained on EPS volume ratio of 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by replacing matrix or coarse aggregate, the two design styles had nearly the same compressive strength. By applying frequency of 5 Hz, 50000 or 100000 times, 40 KN, 50 KN, and 60 KN cyclic loading, it is shown that the higher the inclusion size was, the lower the compressive strength of the EPS concrete would be; the larger the applying dynamic cyclic load was, the more obvious the compressive strength changing would be. Meanwhile, the strength of EPS concrete had no evident change after durability test. The results of this research had practical significance on using EPS concrete in some long-term cyclic dynamic load engineering.

  7. Expanded cardiac rehabilitation in socially vulnerable patients with myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2018-01-01

    ). The patients were defined as socially vulnerable or non-socially vulnerable according to their educational level and their social network. A complete follow-up was achieved. INTERVENTION: A socially differentiated CR intervention. The intervention consisted of standard CR and additionally a longer phase II......OBJECTIVE: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk. A research project performed at a university hospital in Denmark offered an expanded CR intervention to socially vulnerable patients. One-year follow-up showed significant improvements concerning medicine...... compliance, lipid profile, blood pressure and body mass index when compared with socially vulnerable patients receiving standard CR. The aim of the study was to perform a long-term follow-up on the socially differentiated CR intervention and examine the impact of the intervention on all-cause mortality...

  8. Study of reinforcement corrosion in expanded clay concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Uglyanitsa

    2015-12-01

    The results of the studies conducted are the recommended design and technological measures for the reinforcement protection against corrosion in various fine aggregate-based (natural sand, ash and dry hydroremoval light-weight expanded clay concrete. Thus, the minimum concrete protective cover for main and distribution reinforcement of external walls must be at least 25 mm. It is necessary to inject additives – reinforcement corrosion inhibitors (sodium nitrite, sodium tetraborate to the concrete composition. The consumption of cement, and hence, the cement paste content of concrete mixture must be not lower than 220 kg/m3, and under the application of the active dry fly ash removal −200 kg/m3.

  9. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  10. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2009-07-15

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  11. Expanding the Genetic Code of Escherichia coli with Phosphoserine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Sung; Hohn, Michael J.; Umehara, Takuya; Guo, Li-Tao; Osborne, Edith M.; Benner, Jack; Noren, Christopher J.; Rinehart, Jesse; Söll, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    O -Phosphoserine (Sep), the most abundant phosphoamino acid in the eukaryotic phosphoproteome, is not encoded in the genetic code, but synthesized posttranslationally. Here, we present an engineered system for specific cotranslational Sep incorporation (directed by UAG) into any desired position in a protein by an Escherichia coli strain that harbors a Sep-accepting transfer RNA (tRNASep), its cognate Sep–tRNA synthetase (SepRS), and an engineered EF-Tu (EF-Sep). Expanding the genetic code rested on reengineering EF-Tu to relax its quality-control function and permit Sep-tRNASep binding. To test our system, we synthesized the activated form of human mitogen-activated ERK activating kinase 1 (MEK1) with either one or two Sep residues cotranslationally inserted in their canonical positions (Sep218, Sep222). This system has general utility in protein engineering, molecular biology, and disease research. PMID:21868676

  12. Battery energy storage market feasibility study - Expanded report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1)

  13. Kinetic theory of a longitudinally expanding system of scalar particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epelbaum, Thomas; Gelis, François; Jeon, Sangyong; Moore, Guy; Wu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    A simple kinematical argument suggests that the classical approximation may be inadequate to describe the evolution of a system with an anisotropic particle distribution. In order to verify this quantitatively, we study the Boltzmann equation for a longitudinally expanding system of scalar particles interacting with a ϕ 4 coupling, that mimics the kinematics of a heavy ion collision at very high energy. We consider only elastic 2→2 scatterings, and we allow the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate in overpopulated situations by solving the coupled equations for the particle distribution and the particle density in the zero mode. For generic CGC-like initial conditions with a large occupation number, the solutions of the full Boltzmann equation cease to display the classical attractor behavior sooner than expected; for moderate coupling, the solutions appear never to follow a classical attractor solution.

  14. Nonequilibrium quark production in the expanding QCD plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Naoto; Berges, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    We perform real-time lattice simulations of nonequilibrium quark production in the longitudinally expanding QCD plasma. Starting from a highly occupied gluonic state with vacuum quark sector, we extract the time evolution of quark and gluon number densities per unit transverse area and rapidity. The total quark number shows after an initial rapid increase an almost linear growth with time. Remarkably, this growth rate appears to be consistent with a simple kinetic theory estimate involving only two-to-two scattering processes in small-angle approximation. This extends previous findings about the role of two-to-two scatterings for purely gluonic dynamics in accordance with the early stages of the bottom-up thermalization scenario.

  15. Metagenome of a versatile chemolithoautotroph from expanding oceanic dead zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David A; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles G; Song, Young C; Wright, Jody J; Tringe, Susannah G; Tortell, Philippe D; Hallam, Steven J

    2009-10-23

    Oxygen minimum zones, also known as oceanic "dead zones," are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding because of global warming. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, they support a cryptic microbiota whose metabolic activities affect nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here, we report metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated oxygen minimum zone microbe (SUP05) related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur oxidation, and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water-column redox states. Our analysis provides a genomic foundation for understanding the ecological and biogeochemical role of pelagic SUP05 in oxygen-deficient oceanic waters and its potential sensitivity to environmental changes.

  16. [Expanded vaccination program. Training model for community medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateff, C

    1983-01-01

    The expanded programme on immunization (E.P.I.) is a very concrete example of community health programme. In so far, it uses various methods which the medical personnel should be taught a better way: the epidemiological method, health planning, health management. The E.P.I. provides a great deal of actual conditions well-suited to the preparing of either tutorials or self-training modules within various fields such as epidemiological surveys with estimate or evaluation purposes, planning for a prevention strategy, supply management. Aiming at the enlargement to community health and with a much more participative pedagogical spirit, the author points out the importance of making the educators aware of unequalled capabilities of training provided by the E.P.I.

  17. Gemini Observatory Takes its Local Communities on an Expanding Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Janice; Michaud, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Currently in its 7th year (2011) Hawaii's annual Journey through the Universe (JttU) program is a flagship Gemini Observatory public education/outreach initiative involving a broad cross-section of the local Hawai'i Island astronomical community, the public, educators, businesses, local government officials, and thousands of local students. This paper describes the program, its history, planning, implementation, as well as the program's objectives and philosophy. The success of this program is documented here, as measured by continuous and expanding engagement of educators, the community, and the public, along with formal evaluation feedback and selected informal verbal testimony. The program's success also serves as justification for the planned adaptation of a version of the program in Chile in 2011 (adapted for Chilean educational and cultural differences). Finally, lessons learned are shared which have refined the program for Gemini's host communities but can also apply to any institution wishing to initiate a similar program.

  18. Selection of nanoparticles using CO.sub.2-expanded liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christopher B; McLeod, Marshall Chandler; Anand, Madhu

    2013-02-19

    A method for size selection of nanostructures comprising utilizing a gas-expanded liquids (GEL) and controlled pressure to precipitate desired size populations of nanostructures, e.g., monodisperse. The GEL can comprise CO.sub.2 antisolvent and an organic solvent. The method can be carried out in an apparatus comprising a first open vessel configured to allow movement of a liquid/particle solution to specific desired locations within the vessel, a second pressure vessel, a location controller for controlling location of the particles and solution within the first vessel, a inlet for addition of antisolvent to the first vessel, and a device for measuring the amount of antisolvent added. Also disclosed is a method for forming nanoparticle thin films comprising utilizing a GEL containing a substrate, pressurizing the solution to precipitate and deposit nanoparticles onto the substrate, removing the solvent thereby leaving a thin nanoparticle film, removing the solvent and antisolvent, and drying the film.

  19. Diagnostic imaging in undergraduate medical education: an expanding role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Radiologists have been involved in anatomy instruction for medical students for decades. However, recent technical advances in radiology, such as multiplanar imaging, 'virtual endoscopy', functional and molecular imaging, and spectroscopy, offer new ways in which to use imaging for teaching basic sciences to medical students. The broad dissemination of picture archiving and communications systems is making such images readily available to medical schools, providing new opportunities for the incorporation of diagnostic imaging into the undergraduate medical curriculum. Current reforms in the medical curriculum and the establishment of new medical schools in the UK further underline the prospects for an expanding role for imaging in medical education. This article reviews the methods by which diagnostic imaging can be used to support the learning of anatomy and other basic sciences

  20. Expanding options in radiation oncology: neutron beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, L.

    1982-01-01

    Twelve years experience with neutron beam therapy in Britain, the USA, Europe and Japan shows that local control is achievable in late-stage epidermoid cancer somewhat more frequently than with conventional radiotherapy. Tumours reputed to be radioresistant (salivary gland, bladder, rectosigmoid, melanoma, bone and soft-tissue sarcomas) have proved to be particularly responsive to neutrons. Pilot studies in brain and pancreatic tumours suggest promising new approaches to management of cancer in these sites. The availability of neutron therapy in the clinical environment opens new prospects for irradiation of 'radioresistant' tumours, permits more conservative cancer surgery, expands the use of elective chemotherapy and provides a wider range of options for cancer patients. (author)

  1. The use of expanded clay dust in paint manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverguzova, S. V.; Sapronova, Zh A.; Starostina, Yu L.; Belovodskiy, E. A.

    2018-01-01

    Production increase of useful products is accompanied by the formation and the accumulation of the vast amounts of industrial wastes, the bulk of which is not involved in the recycling processes. An example of such wastes is dust bag filters of ceramsite production. At the large enterprises, the volume of its formation can reach 7-8 tons of dust per day, which is 10-15% of feedstock mass. The studies on the use of ceramsite production dust as filler pigment in the composition of organic mixed primer of red-brown color are carried out in this work. For comparison, red iron oxide pigment (Pg FGM) was used. The results showed that, primer with the use of expanded clay dust is characterized by the short drying time and meets all regulatory requirements.

  2. Inflatable penile prosthesis as tissue expander: what is the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Chung

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Many patients who undergo inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP replacement are often upsized to larger cylinders, suggesting the IPP may serve as a tissue expander and increase internal penile length. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether cylinder length increases with subsequent IPP insertion. Materials and Methods: We queried American Medical Systems and Coloplast Patient Information Form databases to identify patients who underwent IPP placement and replacement between 2004-2013. Patients were grouped by device type and time to replacement (0.5 cm and 40% demonstrated increases of ≥1 cm. Conclusions: As demonstrated, the IPP may provide tissue expansion over time. Further evaluation is needed to determine if increased cylinder length correlates to increased functional length and patient satisfaction.

  3. Support for an expanded tripartite influence model with gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Andorka, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether an expanded tripartite influence model would represent gay men's experiences. This model was extended by adding partners and gay community involvement as sources of social influence and considering dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to muscularity enhancement and disordered eating behaviors. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses upheld this model for 346 gay men. Dual body image pathways to body change behaviors were supported, although three unanticipated interrelationships emerged, suggesting that muscularity and body fat concerns and behaviors may be more integrated for gay men. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, appearance comparison, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction were key mediators in the model. Of the sources of social influence, friend and media pressure to be lean, gay community involvement, and partner, friend, media, and family pressures to be muscular made incremental contributions. Unexpectedly, certain sources were directly connected to body change behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cellular Concrete Bricks with Recycled Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bosco Hernández-Zaragoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular concrete bricks were obtained by using a lightweight mortar with recycled expanded polystyrene aggregate instead of sandy materials. After determining the block properties (absorption, compressive strength, and tensile stresses, it was found that this brick meets the requirements of the masonry standards used in Mexico. The obtained material is lighter than the commercial ones, which facilitates their rapid elaboration, quality control, and transportation. It is less permeable, which helps prevent moisture formation retaining its strength due to the greater adherence shown with dry polystyrene. It was more flexible, which makes it less vulnerable to cracking walls due to soil displacements. Furthermore, it is economical, because it uses recyclable material and has properties that prevent deterioration increasing its useful life. We recommend the use of the fully dry EP under a dry environment to obtain the best properties of brick.

  5. Surprises in the suddenly-expanded infinite well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslangul, Claude

    2008-01-01

    I study the time evolution of a particle prepared in the ground state of an infinite well after the latter is suddenly expanded. It turns out that the probability density |Ψ(x, t)| 2 shows up quite a surprising behaviour: for definite times, plateaux appear for which |Ψ(x, t)| 2 is constant on finite intervals for x. Elements of theoretical explanation are given by analysing the singular component of the second derivative ∂ xx Ψ(x, t). Analytical closed expressions are obtained for some specific times, which easily allow us to show that, at these times, the density organizes itself into regular patterns provided the size of the box is large enough; more, above some critical size depending on the specific time, the density patterns are independent of the expansion parameter. It is seen how the density at these times simply results from a construction game with definite rules acting on the pieces of the initial density

  6. Code-Expanded Random Access for Machine-Type Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Thomsen, Henning; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2012-01-01

    orthogonal preambles in multiple random access sub-frames, thus creating access codewords that are used for contention. In this way, for the same number of random access sub-frames and orthogonal preambles, the amount of available contention resources is drastically increased, enabling the support...... of an increased number of MTC users. We present the framework and analysis of the proposed code-expanded random access method and show that our approach supports load regions that are beyond the reach of current systems.......Abstract—The random access methods used for support of machine-type communications (MTC) in current cellular standards are derivatives of traditional framed slotted ALOHA and therefore do not support high user loads efficiently. Motivated by the random access method employed in LTE, we propose...

  7. Thermal excitation spectrum from entanglement in an expanding quantum string

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Berges

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A surprising result in e+e− collisions is that the particle spectra from the string formed between the expanding quark–antiquark pair have thermal properties even though scatterings appear not to be frequent enough to explain this. We address this problem by considering the finite observable interval of a relativistic quantum string in terms of its reduced density operator by tracing over the complement region. We show how quantum entanglement in the presence of a horizon in spacetime for the causal transfer of information leads locally to a reduced mixed-state density operator. For very early proper time τ, we show that the entanglement entropy becomes extensive and scales with the rapidity. At these early times, the reduced density operator is of thermal form, with an entanglement temperature Tτ=ħ/(2πkBτ, even in the absence of any scatterings.

  8. Dilepton from Passage of Jets Through Spherical Expanding QGP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Ping; Xi, Qin

    2016-12-01

    We calculate the large mass dileptons production from the jet-dilepton conversion in spherical expanding quark-gluon plasma at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. The jet-dilepton production exceeds the thermal and Drell–Yan dilepton production in the large mass region of 4.5 GeVtransverse flow of the QGP leads to a rapid cooling of the fire ball and suppression of the jet-dilepton conversion. The suppression is also evident at intermediate and large mass at LHC energies. The energy loss of the jet-dilepton conversion is concerned. Supported by the Natural Science Foundation of the Education Department of Yunnan Province of China under Grant No. 2012Y274, and Science Foundation of Dianxi Science and Technology Normal University under Grant No. LCSZL2013004

  9. Macro-economic benefits of an expanded oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Probable impact of benefits of expanded oil sands development on employment and government revenues were analyzed. Investment in proposed oil sands facilities was forecast to create about 1 million person-years of direct and indirect employment. Forty percent of employment gains would be created in Alberta, with remaining positions mostly in Ontario and Quebec. Government taxes, royalties, reduced debts interest costs and revenues to municipalities, hospitals and pension plans would increase by $97 billion (1994 dollars) between 1995 and 2025. Additional benefits would include increases in average Canadian disposable incomes, substitution of imported with domestic oil, and expansion of gross domestic product in Alberta by 5%. Some variation may be expected because of accuracy of assumptions that were made in the analysis, but the character of the results were not expected to change

  10. Costs of Expanded Rapid HIV Testing in Four Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schackman, Bruce R; Eggman, Ashley A; Leff, Jared A; Braunlin, Megan; Felsen, Uriel R; Fitzpatrick, Lisa; Telzak, Edward E; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Branson, Bernard M

    2016-01-01

    The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 065 trial sought to expand HIV screening of emergency department (ED) patients in Bronx, New York, and Washington, D.C. This study assessed the testing costs associated with different expansion processes and compared them with costs of a hypothetical optimized process. Micro-costing studies were conducted in two participating EDs in each city that switched from point-of-care (POC) to rapid-result laboratory testing. In three EDs, laboratory HIV testing was only conducted for patients having blood drawn for clinical reasons; in the other ED, all HIV testing was conducted with laboratory testing. Costs were estimated through direct observation and interviews to document process flows, time estimates, and labor and materials costs. A hypothetical optimized process flow used minimum time estimates for each process step. National wage and fringe rates and local reagent costs were used to determine the average cost (excluding overhead) per completed nonreactive and reactive test in 2013 U.S. dollars. Laboratory HIV testing costs in the EDs ranged from $17.00 to $23.83 per completed nonreactive test, and POC testing costs ranged from $17.64 to $37.60; cost per completed reactive test ranged from $89.29 to $123.17. Costs of hypothetical optimized HIV testing with automated process steps were approximately 45% lower for nonreactive tests and 20% lower for reactive tests. The cost per ED visit to conduct expanded HIV testing in each hospital ranged from $1.21 to $3.96. An optimized process could achieve additional cost savings but would require an investment in electronic system interfaces to further automate testing processes.

  11. Preliminary characterization of an expanding flow of siloxane vapor MDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A.; Cozzi, F.; Cammi, G.; Zocca, M.; Gaetani, P.; Dossena, V.; Guardone, A.

    2017-03-01

    The early experimental results on the characterization of expanding flows of siloxane vapor MDM (C8H24O2Si3, octamethyltrisiloxane) are presented. The measurements were performed on the Test Rig for Organic VApors (TROVA) at the CREA Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano. The TROVA test-rig was built in order to investigate the non-ideal compressible-fluid behavior of typical expanding flows occurring within organic Rankine cycles (ORC) turbine passages. The test rig implements a batch Rankine cycle where a planar converging-diverging nozzle replaces the turbine and represents a test section. Investigations related to both fields of non-ideal compressible-fluid dynamics fundamentals and turbomachinery are allowed. The nozzle can be operated with different working fluids and operating conditions aiming at measuring independently the pressure, the temperature and the velocity field and thus providing data to verify the thermo-fluid dynamic models adopted to predict the behavior of these flows. The limiting values of pressure and temperature are 50 bar and 400 °C respectively. The early measurements are performed along the nozzle axis, where an isentropic process is expected to occur. In particular, the results reported here refer to the nozzle operated in adapted conditions using the siloxane vapor MDM as working fluid in thermodynamic regions where mild to medium non-ideal compressible-fluid effects are present. Both total temperature and total pressure of the nozzle are measured upstream of the test section, while static pressure are measured along the nozzle axis. Schlieren visualizations are also carried out in order to complement the pressure measurement with information about the 2D density gradient field. The Laser Doppler Velocimetry technique is planned to be used in the future for velocity measurements. The measured flow field has also been interpreted by resorting to the quasi-one-dimensional theory and two dimensional CFD viscous calculation. In both cases

  12. Expanding Group Peer Review: A Proposal for Medical Education Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenco, Luba; Engle, Deborah L; Goodell, Kristen; Nagler, Alisa; Ovitsh, Robin K; Whicker, Shari A

    2017-02-01

    After participating in a group peer-review exercise at a workshop presented by Academic Medicine and MedEdPORTAL editors at the 2015 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical Education Meeting, the authors realized that the way their work group reviewed a manuscript was very different from the way by which they each would have reviewed the paper as an individual. Further, the group peer-review process yielded more robust feedback for the manuscript's authors than did the traditional individual peer-review process. This realization motivated the authors to reconvene and collaborate to write this Commentary to share their experience and propose the expanded use of group peer review in medical education scholarship.The authors consider the benefits of a peer-review process for reviewers, including learning how to improve their own manuscripts. They suggest that the benefits of a team review model may be similar to those of teamwork and team-based learning in medicine and medical education. They call for research to investigate this, to provide evidence to support group review, and to determine whether specific paper types would benefit most from team review (e.g., particularly complex manuscripts, those receiving widely disparate initial individual reviews). In addition, the authors propose ways in which a team-based approach to peer review could be expanded by journals and institutions. They believe that exploring the use of group peer review potentially could create a new methodology for skill development in research and scholarly writing and could enhance the quality of medical education scholarship.

  13. Expanding the Universe of "Astronomy on Tap" Public Outreach Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Emily L.; Levine, Brian; Livermore, Rachael C.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Tyndall, Amy; Muna, Demitri; Garofali, Kristen; Morris, Brett; Byler, Nell; Fyhrie, Adalyn; Rehnberg, Morgan; Hart, Quyen N.; Connelly, Jennifer L.; Silvia, Devin W.; Morrison, Sarah J.; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Tremblay, Grant; Schwamb, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomy on Tap (AoT, astronomyontap.org) is free public outreach event featuring engaging science presentations in bars, often combined with music, games, and prizes, to encourage a fun, interactive atmosphere. AoT events feature several short astronomy-related presentations primarily by local professional scientists, but also by visiting scientists, students, educators, amatuer astronomers, writers, and artists. Events are held in social venues (bars, coffee shops, art galleries, etc.) in order to bring science directly to the public in a relaxed, informal atmosphere. With this we hope to engage a more diverse audience than typical lectures at academic and cultural institutions and to develop enthusiasm for science among voting, tax-paying adults. The flexible format and content of an AoT event is easy to adapt and expand based on the priorities, resources, and interests of local organizers. The social nature of AoT events provides important professional development and networking opportunities in science communication. Since the first New York City event in April 2013, Astronomy on Tap has expanded to more than ten cities globally, including monthly events in NYC, Austin, Seattle, and Tucson; semi-regular events in Columbus, New Haven, Santiago, Toronto, and Denver; occasional (so far) events in Rochester (NY), Baltimore, Lansing, and Washington, DC; and one-off events in Chicago and Taipei. Several venues regularly attract audiences of over 200 people. We have received media coverage online, in print, and occasionally even on radio and television. In this poster we describe the overarching goals and characteristics of AoT events, distinct adaptations of various locations, resources we have developed, and the methods we use to coordinate among the worldwide local organizers.

  14. Can the Expanding Circle Own English? Comments on Yoo's "Nonnative Teachers in the Expanding Circle and the Ownership of English"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Yoo's (2014) article raises a number of questions concerning local teachers' status and the ownership of English in the Expanding Circle. In this article, I address five issues that I see as most important relating to the ownership of English and empowering local teachers in the Expanding Circle. I provide up-to-date evidence of World…

  15. Proton dynamics in lithium-ammonia solutions and expanded metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Helen; Skipper, Neal T; Wasse, Jonathan C; Spencer Howells, W; Hamilton, Myles; Fernandez-Alonso, Felix

    2006-01-14

    Quasielastic neutron scattering has been used to study proton dynamics in the system lithium-ammonia at concentrations of 0, 4, 12, and 20 mole percent metal (MPM) in both the liquid and solid (expanded metal) phases. At 230 K, in the homogenous liquid state, we find that the proton self-diffusion coefficient first increases with metal concentration, from 5.6x10(-5) cm2 s(-1) in pure ammonia to 7.8x10(-5) cm2 s(-1) at 12 MPM. At higher concentrations we note a small decrease to a value of 7.0x10(-5) cm2 s(-1) at 20 MPM (saturation). These results are consistent with NMR data, and can be explained in terms of the competing influences of the electron and ion solvation. At saturation, the solution freezes to form a series of expanded metal compounds of composition Li(NH3)4. Above the melting point, at 100 K, we are able to fit our data to a jump-diffusion model, with a mean jump length (l) of 2.1 A and residence time (tau) of 3.1 ps. This model gives a diffusion coefficient of 2.3x10(-5) cm2 s(-1). In solid phase I (cubic, stable from 88.8 to 82.2 K) we find that the protons are still undergoing this jump diffusion, with l=2.0 A and tau=3.9 ps giving a diffusion coefficient of 1.8x10(-5) cm2 s(-1). Such motion gives way to purely localized rotation in solid phases IIa (from 82.2 to 69 K) and IIb (stable from 69 to 25 K). We find rotational correlation times (tau(rot)) of the order of 2.0 and 7.3 ps in phases IIa and IIb, respectively. These values can be compared with a rotational mode in solid ammonia with tau(rot) approximately 2.4 ps at 150 K.

  16. Expanding the Genotypic Spectrum of Bathing Suit Ichthyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marukian, Nareh V; Hu, Rong-Hua; Craiglow, Brittany G; Milstone, Leonard M; Zhou, Jing; Theos, Amy; Kaymakcalan, Hande; Akkaya, Deniz A; Uitto, Jouni J; Vahidnezhad, Hassan; Youssefian, Leila; Bayliss, Susan J; Paller, Amy S; Boyden, Lynn M; Choate, Keith A

    2017-06-01

    Bathing suit ichthyosis (BSI) is a rare congenital disorder of keratinization characterized by restriction of scale to sites of relatively higher temperature such as the trunk, with cooler areas remaining unaffected. Fewer than 40 cases have been reported in the literature. Bathing suit ichthyosis is caused by recessive, temperature-sensitive mutations in the transglutaminase-1 gene (TGM1). Clear genotype-phenotype correlations have been difficult to establish because several of the same TGM1 mutations have been reported in BSI and other forms of congenital ichthyosis. We identify novel and recurrent mutations in 16 participants with BSI. To expand the genotypic spectrum of BSI, identifying novel TGM1 mutations in patients with BSI, and to use BSI genotypes to draw inferences about the temperature sensitivity of TGM1 mutations. A total of 16 participants with BSI from 13 kindreds were identified from 6 academic medical centers. A detailed clinical history was obtained from each participant, including phenotypic presentation at birth and disease course. Each participant underwent targeted sequencing of TGM1. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics in these patients from birth onward. Of the 16 participants, 7 were male, and 9 were female (mean age, 12.6 years; range, 1-39 years). We found 1 novel TGM1 indel mutation (Ile469_Cys471delinsMetLeu) and 8 TGM1 missense mutations that to our knowledge have not been previously reported in BSI: 5 have been previously described in non-temperature-sensitive forms of congenital ichthyosis (Arg143Cys, Gly218Ser, Gly278Arg, Arg286Gln, and Ser358Arg), and 3 (Tyr374Cys, Phe495Leu, and Ser772Arg) are novel mutations. Three probands were homozygous for Arg264Trp, Arg286Gln, or Arg315Leu, indicating that these mutations are temperature sensitive. Seven of 10 probands with a compound heterozygous TGM1 genotype had a mutation at either arginine 307 or 315, providing evidence that mutations at these sites are temperature sensitive and

  17. Expanding Canada Pension Plan Retirement Benefits: Assessing Big CPP Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Kesselman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Current and growing deficiencies in many workers’ ability to maintain their accustomed living standards in retirement have evoked varied proposals for reform of Canada’s retirement income system. This study focuses on proposals for expanding the retirement benefits of the Canada Pension Plan (CPP, and undertakes comparative analysis with proposals for reforms affecting workplace pensions and individual savings. It begins by reviewing key policy questions for the retirement income system and describing essential features of several proposals for CPP benefit expansion. It then uses these “Big CPP” proposals as a basis to assess the design issues for expanding CPP benefits and the implications for other components of the retirement income system. The paper assesses each of the major private and public savings vehicles based on multifaceted criteria for a well-performing retirement income system; a mandatory public scheme with defined benefits ranks most highly on almost all criteria other than individual flexibility. Additional behavioural and institutional factors also support the use of mandatory public pensions: myopia in savings, individual investment behaviour, scale economies and costs of fund management, adverse selection and annuitization costs, the Samaritan’s Dilemma, and labour market incentives. The study provides an overview analysis of key design issues for the expansion of CPP retirement benefits. Major issues include the desirable scale of expansion for both the percentage of insurable earnings and the insurable earnings ceiling; mandatory versus voluntary coverage and options; the allocation of investment return risk; and the phasing-in of higher premiums and benefits. The study then assesses the implications of CPP expansion for other components of the retirement income system: Old Age Security and the Guaranteed Income Supplement, workplace pensions, tax provisions for savings, and individual savings. A Big CPP fits

  18. Small relief shape variations influence spatial variability of soil chemical attributes Pequenas variações das formas de relevo influenciam a variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigomar Menezes de Souza

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Soils with small variations in relief and under the same management system present differentiated spatial variabilities of their attributes. This variability is a function of soil position in the landscape, even if the relief has little expression. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of relief shape and depth on spatial variability of soil chemical attributes in a Typic Hapludox cultivated with sugar cane at two landscape compartments. Soil samples were collected in the intercrossing points of a grid, in the traffic line, at 0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m depths, comprising a set of 100 georeferenced points. The spatial variabilities of pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, cation exchange capacity and base saturation were quantified. Small relief shape variations lead to differentiated variability in soil chemical attributes as indicated by the dependence on pedoform found for chemical attributes at both 0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m depths. Because of the higher variability, it is advisable to collect large number of samples in areas with concave and convex shapes. Combining relief shapes and geostatistics allows the determination of areas with different spatial variability for soil chemical attributes.Solos submetidos ao mesmo sistema de manejo em locais com pequena variação de relevo, manifestam variabilidade espacial diferenciada de seus atributos. Esta variabilidade é condicionada pela posição dos solos na paisagem ou no declive, mesmo que o relevo seja de pequena expressão. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da forma do relevo na variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos em um latossolo cultivado com cana-de-açúcar em dois compartimentos da paisagem. Os solos foram amostrados nos pontos de cruzamento de uma malha, com intervalos regulares de 10 m, perfazendo um total de 100 pontos, nas profundidades de 0-0,2 m e 0,6-0,8 m. Foi avaliado a variabilidade espacial do pH, fósforo (P, potássio (K, cálcio (Ca, magnésio (Mg, acidez

  19. Variação morfológica de pegadas de roedores arborícolas e cursoriais do Cerrado Footprint morphological variation of arboreal and cursorial rodents of the Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nícholas F. de Camargo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que os roedores possuem diversas formas de locomoção, o presente estudo apresenta e discute variações na forma das pegadas anteriores e posteriores de sete espécies [Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887, Necromys lasiurus (Lund, 1840, Oecomys bicolor (Tomes, 1860, Oecomys concolor (Wagner, 1845, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814 e Rhipidomys macrurus (Gervais, 1855], utilizando técnicas de morfometria geométrica e análises discriminantes. As variáveis de forma das pegadas foram relacionadas com a topologia filogenética e os modos de locomoção das espécies para verificar a influência de fatores históricos e ecológicos na morfologia das pegadas. A forma das pegadas dos roedores arborícolas (curtas e largas foi claramente distinta dos cursoriais (estreitas e alongadas. As reclassificações das pegadas anteriores (Kappa = 0,72 e posteriores (Kappa = 0,88 das espécies foram consideradas substanciais e quase perfeitas, respectivamente. As pegadas posteriores discriminaram melhor as espécies além de indicarem os níveis de atividade arborícola e cursorial dos roedores. Efeitos alométricos foram observados nas análises das pegadas anteriores (13% e posteriores (3%. O modo de locomoção explicou 90,3% da variação na forma nas pegadas dos roedores (p = 0,02, indicando convergência nos padrões morfológicos nas pegadas das espécies de roedores arborícolas e cursoriais.Considering that species of rodents have different means of locomotion, this study presents and discusses variations on the anterior and posterior footprints shape of seven species [Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887, Necromys lasiurus (Lund, 1840, Oecomys bicolor (Tomes, 1860, Oecomys concolor (Wagner, 1845, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814 and Rhipidomys macrurus (Gervais, 1855], using geometric morphometrics and discriminant analyses. Shape variables were related to phylogenetic

  20. Seasonal growth variation of peach palms cultivated in containers under subtropical conditions Variação estacional do crescimento em pupunheiras cultivadas em recipientes em condição subtropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Sant'Anna Tucci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is grown in the São Paulo State, Brazil, under climate seasonal variation conditions, mainly temperature and rainfal with possible effects on plant physiology. Recently, due to a higher interest in carrying out physiological experiments on the species, there has been a requirement for more controlled experimental conditions. Therefore, with the aim of studying the seasonal variation of peach palm growth for heart-of-palm production, as well as the possibility of growing them until harvest in pots, for future utilization in physiological experiments, this work was carried out in Campinas, SP, Brazil, with 40 spineless peach palms. One year after seed germination, seedlings were transplanted to 80 L plastic pots, spaced 2 x 1 m, arranged in four rows of ten plants. All plants had vegetative growth evaluated monthly by measurements of main stem height, number of functional leaves, number of offshoots and length of leaf raquis. Seasonal variations were observed in terms of height and diameter growth as well as raquis length of the youngest leaf and in the evolution of the number of leaves. After two years, plants had an average height of 230 cm, six functional leaves and 11.7 offshoots. Positive correlations (P A pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth é cultivada no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, sob condições de variação estacional do clima, particularmente temperatura e precipitação pluviométrica, com possíveis efeitos na fisiologia das plantas. Recentemente, devido ao crescente interesse em se realizar experimentos sobre a fisiologia da espécie, tem havido necessidade de cultivá-la sob condições experimentais mais controladas. Com o objetivo de estudar a variação estacional do crescimento de pupunheiras, bem como a possibilidade de cultivá-las em recipientes até a colheita, para a realização de futuros experimentos fisiológicos, foi executado este trabalho, em Campinas, SP, com 40 pupunheiras

  1. Variação de terpenos em Hyptis suaveolens e seu papel na defesa contra herbívoros The role of terpene variation in Hyptis suaveolens in the defense against herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Acompanhou-se o desenvolvimento de populações de Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit. (Labiatae em três localidades paulistas: Horto Florestal de Sumaré, Câmpus da UNICAMP (Campinas e Fazenda Santa Genebra (Distrito de Barão Geraldo, Campinas, em 1981-83. Em cada local, escolheu-se uma população exposta à luz e outra, à sombra, com o objetivo de verificar em que fase do ciclo de vida as populações se tornavam mais suscetíveis ao ataque de herbívoros; de estimar a abundância dos herbívoros naturais e seus efeitos nas populações e a conseqüência da variação química dos monoterpenos que nelas ocorrem sobre os herbívoros. As populações tornavam-se mais suscetíveis aos herbívoros no período que antecedia a floração. Não se observou forte ataque de herbívoros nessa fase, embora se apresentassem em maior densidade. Os resultados sugerem que a variação na composição química possa afetar o desenvolvimento de herbívoros generalistas. No entanto, o Pyrausta insignatalis Guenée (Lep.-Pyralidae-Pyraustinae, provavelmente bem adaptado à planta, parece não ter sido afetado por esses terpenos. Não se detectaram diferenças entre populações expostas ao sol ou à sombra. Tais resultados apóiam a idéia de que a variabilidade química dentro de populações vegetais é importante estratégia de defesa contra herbívoros, dificultando-lhes a especialização.Populations of Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit. (Labiatae were accompanied during their development in three sites: Horto Florestal de Sumaré, Campus of UNICAMP (Campinas, and Fazenda Santa Genebra (Distrito de Barão Geraldo, Campinas, all in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1981 through 1983. At each site, a population exposed to full sunlight and another in the shade were studied. The objective was to evaluate, during plant development, the period when they were more susceptible to attack by herbivores; to consider the abundance of herbivores, and the role of variation

  2. Variações sazonais da migração de Myzus persicaeem Campinas nos anos de 1967 a 1969 Seazonal variation of Myzus persicae migrations at Campinas, during the years of 1967 to 1969

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Costa

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar as variações sazonais do número de migrantes de Myzus persicae (Sulz. em Campinas, foram utilizadas armadilhas de dois tipos, para a sua coleta: a de sucção e a de água. Fêmeas vivíparas, partenogenéticas, aladas, da espécie, foram coletadas em todas as semanas durante os anos de 1967, 1968 e 1969. A presença de alguns raros machos foi também registrada. A armadilha de água coletou sempre maior número de indivíduos do que a de sucção, durante todo o período de observações. Entretanto, as curvas que representam as variações semanais e mensais do número de migrantes da espécie, construídas com as amostras obtidas por ambos os tipos de armadilhas, têm a mesma forma. As maiores migrações se deram nos meses de maio a setembro. A proporção de exemplares de M. persicae em relação ao total das espécies coletadas foi sempre maior na armadilha de água do que na de sucção.A study was made of the seazonal variations in the numbers of migrants of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer at Campinas, State of São Paulo, by sampling aerial populations from 1967 through 1969, with a suction trap and a yellow water trap. Weekly catches were recorded for both traps and summed up to give month totals. Alate viviparous parthenogenetic females of Myzus persicae were caught every week of the years of 1967 to 1969. This is an evidence that in the Campinas region (22° 50' S there was no limiting factor to suppress parthenogenetic reproduction and inhibit flight during the period of observations. However, the trapping of males seems to indicate that an holocyclic multiplication of Myzus persicae may also exist. Where the oviparous female or other morphs of the species does also accur at Campinas, is not known. The period when most of migration took place as revealed by samples taken by both traps occurred from May to September. The yellow water trap caught more Myzus persicae than the suction trap, but curves of annual

  3. Radial variation of wood anatomy and basic density of Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan. Variação radial da anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz LONGUI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated wood samples of five Anadenanthera colubrina trees, aiming to study radial variation of anatomy and basic density. The trees were cut from “lote 5 do Rodoanel trecho sul” in Embu municipality, State of São Paulo, where vegetation is classified as Montane Ombrophilous Dense Forest and climate is classified as Cwa. We cut discs from the diameter at breast height ‒ DBH, and then cut samples from pith-to-bark to anatomical and basic density analysis. The results suggest that Anadenanthera colubrina has a very common anatomical and basic density radial variation pattern from pith-to-bark between hardwoods with an increase in vessel diameter favoring hydraulic conductivity, fiber wall thickness and length, ray height and width, and basic density. While the negative relationship between vessel diameter and frequency is well reported for many species, it has not been observed in A. colubrina because vessel frequency oscillates radially. This typical radial pattern also occurs in other native species in planting conditions, already demonstrated by our group in other studies, obviously with some changes depending on species. Investigamos amostras de madeira de cinco árvores de Anadenanthera colubrina objetivando estudar a variação radial da anatomia e densidade básica. As árvores foram cortadas no lote 5 do Rodoanel trecho sul, no município de Embu, com a vegetação de Floresta Ombrófila Densa Montana e clima do tipo Cwa. Cortamos discos à altura do peito ‒ DAP e destes obtivemos amostras radiais da medula para a casca, destas preparamos amostras para a determinação anatômica e da densidade básica. Os resultados sugerem que Anadenanthera colubrina apresenta um padrão radial de variação bastante comum no sentido medula-casca para as angiospermas arbóreas, com aumento no diâmetro dos vasos, consequentemente condutividade hidráulica, comprimento e espessura da parede da fibra, altura e largura do raio e densidade b

  4. Concordância nominal e verbal: contribuições para o debate sobre o estatuto da variação em três variedades urbanas do português

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Figueiredo Brandão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Focalizam-se a concordância nominal de número e a concordância verbal de terceira pessoa do plural em variedades urbanas do Português Europeu, do Português do Brasil e do Português de São Tomé, com base na fala de indivíduos de níveis fundamental, médio e superior de instrução, distribuídos, ainda, por três faixas etárias e sexo. Com o objetivo de descrever as referidas variedades, o trabalho avalia as motivações de natureza estrutural e social segundo os pressupostos da Teoria da Variação e Mudança (WEINREICH; LABOV; HERZOG, 1968. Os resultados das diferentes análises, desenvolvidas no âmbito do Projeto Estudo comparado dos padrões de concordância em variedades africanas, brasileiras e europeias do Português, sugerem que, embora as três variedades manifestem tendência à adoção da regra de concordância tanto no Sintagma Nominal quanto no Sintagma Verbal, a concordância apresenta estatuto diferenciado. No Português Europeu, os dados revelam um comportamento que não pode ser considerado efetivamente variável - trata-se, nos termos de Labov (2003, de uma regra categórica no âmbito da concordância nominal e semicategórica no âmbito da verbal; no Português do Brasil e no Português de São Tomé, ambas as regras são variáveis.

  5. Variação anual na abertura do dossel, temperatura e umidade do ar no sub-bosque de três ambientes florestais no sul da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marayana Prado Pinheiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050988445Visando contribuir para o conhecimento dos fatores físicos que afetam a estrutura da comunidade vegetal em remanescentes de mata atlântica do sul da Bahia foi analisada a variação anual do microclima do sub-bosque num fragmento de floresta de encosta na Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Serra do Teimoso (RST e num sistema agroflorestal rústico utilizado para o cultivo do cacau (Cabruca, localizado nas proximidades da RST. Dados da abertura do dossel (CO, da temperatura do ar (Ta, da umidade relativa do ar (RH e do déficit de pressão de vapor (VPD foram coletados entre abril de 2005 e abril de 2006 na base (RSTB, 340 m e no topo (RSTT, 640 m da RST e na Cabruca (CB, 250 m. Dados de precipitação pluvial, Ta, RH e VPD foram também coletados numa área aberta (OA, 270 m. As maiores precipitações (> 100 mm ocorreram em Novembro de 2005 e Abril de 2006, enquanto outubro de 2005 foi o mês mais seco (< 20 mm. CO variou entre 2,5% na CB (Abril, 2006 e 7,7% na RST (Outubro, 2005. Os baixos valores de pluviosidade registrados em Outubro de 2005 afetaram VPDmax em todos os ambientes. Estes efeitos foram mais pronunciados em OA, seguido de CB, RSTB e RSTT. Os valores de Ta, RH e VPD em CB foram mais próximos aos valores observados em OA do que aos valores observados no interior da floresta.

  6. Variação sazonal dos valores de bioquímica sérica de jiboias amazônicas (Boa constrictor constrictor mantidas em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis José da Silva Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p165   Na região Norte do Brasil, as estações do ano não são bem definidas como acontece nas regiões Sul e Sudeste, devido ao clima equatorial quente e úmido, com um período mais chuvoso, conhecido como inverno amazônico, e um período menos chuvoso, conhecido como verão amazônico. Com esta pesquisa, objetivou-se avaliar a variação dos valores bioquímicos séricos de jiboias amazônicas correlacionadas com a sazonalidade da região. Foram realizadas análises bioquímicas séricas (AST, ALT, DHL, FA, cálcio, ácido úrico, fósforo, proteína total, albumina e globulina de 31 serpentes da espécie Boa constrictor constrictor, mantidas em cativeiro. Levando em consideração a variável sazonalidade, observou-se que oito dos dez parâmetros são maiores no inverno em comparação ao verão (proteína total, albumina, globulina, ALT, AST, FA, DHL e cálcio sendo que os valores de ALT, AST e cálcio mostraram ter diferenças estatísticas significantes no verão e inverno amazônicos, enquanto que os demais parâmetros parecem não ser influenciados pela sazonalidade. Esta foi a primeira pesquisa, em cativeiro, analisando o perfil bioquímico sérico serpentes Boa constrictor constrictor no Estado do Pará.

  7. Influência da variação da velocidade de rotação e do tipo de cimento nas propriedades de argamassas de revestimento nos estados fresco e endurecido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Torres

    Full Text Available Resumo A etapa de mistura influencia as condições de execução do revestimento de argamassa, visto que desde o primeiro contato dos materiais sólidos com água uma série de eventos de aglomeração e desaglomeração no sistema é verificada. Acontece que durante o processamento das argamassas em obra a utilização de equipamentos com distintos mecanismos de mistura pode modificar o desempenho do sistema de revestimento. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da condição de mistura durante o processamento de argamassas aditivadas com incorporador de ar e formuladas com diferentes tipos de cimento. As misturas foram realizadas em um reômetro rotacional variando-se a velocidade de rotação, porém mantendo-se o tempo total de batimento. Reometria de mistura, ciclo de cisalhamento e teor de ar incorporado foram as propriedades avaliadas no estado fresco, enquanto porosidade, resistência mecânica, módulo de elasticidade e permeabilidade ao ar foram utilizados para avaliação do estado endurecido. Com base nos resultados obtidos pôde-se afirmar que a variação da velocidade de rotação e o tipo de cimento utilizado impactaram as propriedades das composições nos estados fresco e endurecido.

  8. Estudo Sobre a Decomposição dos Determinantes da Variação da Pobreza nos Estados Brasileiros no Período 2001 a 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Cabral da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Fundamentando-se nas teorias que procuram relacionar pobreza, desigualdade, crescimento econômico e bem-estar, o objetivo central deste estudo é decompor a variação da pobreza, baseando-se nos seguintes fatores: efeito tendência, efeito crescimento, efeito desigualdade e efeito residual em relação aos estados brasileiros, entre 2001 e 2012. Para tanto, parte-se da estimação de um modelo estatístico com dados em painel, com utilização das seguintes variáveis: pobreza, renda familiar per capita e o índice de Gini, extraídas da PNAD. Em relação ao modelo adotado, é válido destacar que o efeito tendência é uma distinção, uma vez que não foi ainda utilizada em decomposições para área rural, mas apenas para zona urbana. Quanto ao aspecto relativo à redução de pobreza, os resultados encontrados indicam que, na maior parte dos estados, o efeito crescimento se sobressaiu em relação aos demais no período analisado. Não obstante, o efeito distribuição também teve sua importância nesse processo, seguido do efeito tendência. Porém, o efeito residual foi de pouca relevância.

  9. Estudos sôbre reservatórios e vectores silvestres do Trypanosoma cruzi. XXIV. Variação dos dados biométricos obtidos em amostras do T. cruzi isolados de casos humanos da Doença de Chagas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ferriolli Filho

    1968-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudo biométrico de 10 amostras de Trypanosoma cruzi isoladas de casos humanos da doença de CHAGAS, nove mantidas em camundongos brancos jovens e uma mantida em ratos brancos jovens, mostrou a existência de grandes variações amostrais. Assim os valores do comprimento total médio das diferentes amostras variaram entre 16,3μ e 21,8μ., enquanto os valores do índice nuclear médio oscilaram entre 0,93 e 1,52. Êstes resultados ampliam os limites de variações amostrais até agora observadas no T. cruzi, especialmente os que se referem ao índice nuclear médio.

  10. Expanding plasmas from anti de Sitter black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilo, Giancarlo [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica Matematica, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    We introduce a new foliation of AdS{sub 5} black holes such that the conformal boundary takes the form of a 4-dimensional FLRW spacetime with scale factor a(t). The foliation employs Eddington-Finkelstein-like coordinates and is applicable to a large class of AdS black holes, supported by matter fields or not, considerably extending previous efforts in the literature. We argue that the holographic dual picture of a CFT plasma on a FLRW background provides an interesting prototype to study the nonequilibrium dynamics of expanding plasmas and use holographic renormalization to extract the renormalized energy-momentum tensor of the dual plasma. We illustrate the procedure for three black holes of interest, namely AdS-Schwarzschild, AdS-Gauss-Bonnet, and AdS-Reissner-Nordstroem. For the latter, as a by-product, we show that the nonequilibrium dynamics of a CFT plasma subject to a quench in the chemical potential (i.e., a time-dependent chemical potential) resembles a cosmological evolution with the scale factor a(t) being inversely related to the quench profile μ(t). (orig.)

  11. Expandable Metal Stents for the Palliation of Malignant Gastroduodenal Obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzaq, Rubeena; Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; England, Ruth; Marriott, Angie; Martin, Derrick

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Gastric outlet obstruction is a debilitating complication of upper gastrointestinal malignancy. We present our experience with insertion of self-expanding metal stents (SEMS).Methods: Twenty-eight patients were referred, stenting being attempted in 23. Two patients had esophageal Wallstents inserted through a gastrostomy; 21 had an endoscopic approach with enteral Wallstents.Results: One stent insertion failed, ten patients (45%) returned to a normal diet, ten patients (45%) managed semi-solid food and two patients (9%) had no significant improvement. No immediate complications were seen. One patient subsequently developed pancreatitis. Reintervention (4 stents, 1 jejunostomy, 1 gastro jejunostomy) was required in six of 22 patients (27%) for inadequate stent expansion (1), second stricture (2), stent migration (1), and tumor ingrowth (2). The mean survival was 95.4 days (SD 78.8 days, range 3-230 days). The mean follow-up time was 98.9 days (SD 86.7 days, range 3-309 days).Conclusions: SEMS are effective in palliating malignant gastric outlet obstruction. A combined endoscopic/fluoroscopic approach allows the most complete assessment of the stricture and removes the need for gastrostomy insertion. Careful assessment of the gastrointestinal tract distal to the lesion is important

  12. Expanding responsible conduct of research instruction across the university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulger, Ruth Ellen; Heitman, Elizabeth

    2007-09-01

    During the past two decades, serious intellectual effort by governmental agencies, research institutions, professional societies, and educators has promoted education in the responsible conduct of research (RCR), defined present standards of RCR, and shaped the debate on how best to promote research integrity in the biomedical sciences. However, revisions to the Federal Policy on Research Misconduct in 2000 specifically expanded the policy's scope to include disciplines outside the biomedical and behavioral sciences, thus creating a need for RCR education in such fields as economics, education, mathematics, and linguistics. Even as some institutions have applied the Office of Research Integrity's (ORI) framework for RCR instruction university-wide, academic administrators and faculty from fields beyond the biomedical sciences have rightly noted that several of ORI's nine core instructional areas are tangential or irrelevant to the many disciplines whose research practices differ substantially from those of the biomedical sciences. These disciplines can benefit from the rich history of discourse, policy making, and education in RCR in the biomedical sciences, but they must not simply apply the standards of biomedical and behavioral science to their own, quite different research. Creative leadership from these newly included disciplines is needed to define standards of ethical research in their areas, prepare relevant educational materials, and promote a multidisciplinary perspective on research integrity across the university. The authors suggest that the scope of RCR education for federally funded research in other areas be addressed on two levels: (1) the content of generally applicable RCR education, and (2) the special, discipline-specific content.

  13. Frequency-dependent selection at rough expanding fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhr, Jan-Timm; Stark, Holger

    2015-10-01

    Microbial colonies are experimental model systems for studying the colonization of new territory by biological species through range expansion. We study a generalization of the two-species Eden model, which incorporates local frequency-dependent selection, in order to analyze how social interactions between two species influence surface roughness of growing microbial colonies. The model includes several classical scenarios from game theory. We then concentrate on an expanding public goods game, where either cooperators or defectors take over the front depending on the system parameters. We analyze in detail the critical behavior of the nonequilibrium phase transition between global cooperation and defection and thereby identify a new universality class of phase transitions dealing with absorbing states. At the transition, the number of boundaries separating sectors decays with a novel power law in time and their superdiffusive motion crosses over from Eden scaling to a nearly ballistic regime. In parallel, the width of the front initially obeys Eden roughening and, at later times, passes over to selective roughening.

  14. Expandindo o conceito de letramento Expanding the concept of literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Daley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta e discute quatro argumentos para expandir a definição de letramento, a saber: (1 a linguagem multimidiática da tela se transformou no vernáculo corrente; (2 a linguagem multimidiática da tela é capaz de construir significados complexos independentemente do texto; (3 a linguagem multimidiática da tela permite modos de pensamento, formas de comunicar e produzir pesquisa, e métodos de publicação e de ensino que são essencialmente diferentes daqueles relacionados ao texto; (4 serão realmente letrados no século 21 aqueles que aprenderem a ler e escrever a linguagem multimidiática da tela.This paper presents and discusses four arguments to expand the definition of literacy as follows: (1 the multimedia language of the screen has become the current vernacular; (2 the multimedia language of the screen is capable of constructing complex meanings independent of text; (3 the multimedia language of the screen enables modes of thought, ways of communicating and conducting research, and methods of publication and teaching that are essentially different from those of text; (4 those who are fully literate in the twenty-first century will be those who learn to both read and write the multimedia language of the screen.

  15. India expanding oil/gas E and D, infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that India continues to press oil and gas exploration and development and expansion of its petroleum sector infrastructure. One of the key moves is the government's decision to stage a fourth exploration bidding round, its most ambitious to date and one expected to elicit enthusiasm from international oil companies. At the same time, state oil companies Oil and Natural Gas Commission and Oil India Ltd. plan to maintain strong domestic E and D programs. ONGC is seeking more revenue to sustain India's ambitious oil and gas upstream plans. The state company has asked the government for a 50% hike in the price of domestic crude. The government currently pays ONGC and OIL only about $8.84/bbl, a price fixed in 1981. A jump of 50% in the domestic crude price would net ONGC another $1 billion/year in revenues, ONGC Chairman S.L. Khosla the. The government and other state companies also continue efforts to expand gas utilization and markets and match refining plans with market needs

  16. New DEA rules expand options for controlled substance disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David M

    2015-03-01

    Prescription drug abuse and overdose are rapidly growing problems in the United States. The United States federal Disposal of Controlled Substances Rule became effective 9 October 2014, implementing the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010 (Disposal Act). These regulations target escalating prescription drug misuse by reducing accumulation of unused controlled substances that may be abused, diverted or accidentally ingested. Clinical areas that can now participate in collecting unused controlled substances include retail pharmacies, hospitals or clinics with an onsite pharmacy, and narcotic treatment programs. Collection methods include placing a controlled substance collection receptacle or instituting a mail-back program. Because prompt onsite destruction of collected items is required of mail-back programs, collection receptacles are more likely to be used in clinical areas. Retail pharmacies and hospitals or clinics with an onsite pharmacy may also place and maintain collection receptacles at long-term care facilities. The Act and Rule are intended to increase controlled substance disposal methods and expand local involvement in collection of unused controlled substances. Potential barriers to participating in controlled substance collection include acquisition of suitable collection receptacles and liners, lack of available space meeting the necessary criteria, lack of employee time for verification and inventory requirements, and program costs.

  17. The center for expanded data annotation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musen, Mark A; Bean, Carol A; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Dumontier, Michel; Durante, Kim A; Gevaert, Olivier; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Khatri, Purvesh; Kleinstein, Steven H; O'Connor, Martin J; Pouliot, Yannick; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Wiser, Jeffrey A

    2015-11-01

    The Center for Expanded Data Annotation and Retrieval is studying the creation of comprehensive and expressive metadata for biomedical datasets to facilitate data discovery, data interpretation, and data reuse. We take advantage of emerging community-based standard templates for describing different kinds of biomedical datasets, and we investigate the use of computational techniques to help investigators to assemble templates and to fill in their values. We are creating a repository of metadata from which we plan to identify metadata patterns that will drive predictive data entry when filling in metadata templates. The metadata repository not only will capture annotations specified when experimental datasets are initially created, but also will incorporate links to the published literature, including secondary analyses and possible refinements or retractions of experimental interpretations. By working initially with the Human Immunology Project Consortium and the developers of the ImmPort data repository, we are developing and evaluating an end-to-end solution to the problems of metadata authoring and management that will generalize to other data-management environments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Anti-AIDS program to be expanded throughout Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-08

    In October 1998, in the Cambodian seaside town of Sihanoukville, the Health Ministry's HIV/AIDS Control Center began a pilot project which was named "100 Percent Condom Use." Under this program, sex workers were instructed by health workers to require their customers to wear condoms; those customers who did not comply were to be reported to police. According to a health official working on the project, the project did so well in the first 4 months that the Health Ministry will expand the program nationally; this was due to begin in April 1999 in the province of Battambang. Cambodia is believed to have the highest HIV infection rate in Asia (50-70 persons/day). The HIV/AIDS Control Center estimates that 150,000 Cambodians (1.3% of the population) carry HIV; it is believed that 90% of those infected do not know that they have the disease. The flourishing sex industry and the low level of awareness concerning HIV are blamed for the rapid spread of the disease. About 20,000 women work in brothels; 42% of these women are estimated to be HIV positive. The Deputy Governor of Sihanoukville, said that clinical studies of the prostitutes who participated in the pilot project indicate a decrease in the occurrence of sexually transmitted diseases.

  19. Transport coefficients from energy loss studies in an expanding QGP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Dominguez, Isabel; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2017-08-01

    We use linear viscous hydrodynamics to describe the energy and momentum deposited by a fast moving parton in a quark gluon plasma. This energy-momentum is used to compute the probability density for the production of soft partons by means of the Cooper-Frye formula. Using this probability density, we render manifest a relation between the average transverse momentum given to the fast moving parton from the medium, q̂, the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, η/s, and the energy lost by the fast moving parton, ΔE, in an expanding medium under similar conditions to those generated in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC and RHIC energies. We find that q̂ increases with ΔE. On the other hand, η/s is more stable with ΔE. The behavior of q̂, with ΔE is understood as arising from the length of medium the parton traverses from the point where it is produced. However, since η/s is proportional to the ratio of the length of medium traversed by the fast parton and the average number of scatterings it experiences, it has a milder dependence on the energy it loses. This study represents a tool to obtain a direct connection between transport coefficients and the description of in-medium energy loss within a linear viscous hydrodynamical evolution of the bulk.

  20. Frequency threshold for ion beam formation in expanding RF plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty Thakur, Saikat; Harvey, Zane; Biloiu, Ioana; Hansen, Alex; Hardin, Robert; Przybysz, William; Scime, Earl

    2008-11-01

    We observe a threshold frequency for ion beam formation in expanding, low pressure, argon helicon plasma. Mutually consistent measurements of ion beam energy and density relative to the background ion density obtained with a retarding field energy analyzer and laser induced fluorescence indicate that a stable ion beam of 15 eV appears for source frequencies above 11.5 MHz. Reducing the frequency increases the upstream beam amplitude. Downstream of the expansion region, a clear ion beam is seen only for the higher frequencies. At lower frequencies, large electrostatic instabilities appear and an ion beam is not observed. The upstream plasma density increases sharply at the same threshold frequency that leads to the appearance of a stable double layer. The observations are consistent with the theoretical prediction that downstream electrons accelerated into the source by the double layer lead to increased ionization, thus balancing the higher loss rates upstream [1]. 1. M. A. Lieberman, C. Charles and R. W. Boswell, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39 (2006) 3294-3304

  1. The deeper self: an expanded view of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Steve; Hustvedt, Siri; Solms, Mark; Shamdasani, Sonu

    2017-10-01

    As science continues to explore the mysteries of the unconscious, two critical questions remain. First, can unconscious impulses, desires, and feelings be willfully raised to the level of the conscious self?, and, if so, would the unveiling of unconscious mechanisms lead to genuine self-knowledge or empowerment? Second, can we methodically tap into the unconscious to gear ourselves along more creative lines? If the unconscious is a source of intuitive and creative inspiration, how might a more expansive understanding of consciousness help us to flourish? How can we harness the intuitive parts of ourselves to think "outside the box," transcending the limitations of preconceived categories? And along those same lines, how would an expanded view of the unconscious frame our spiritual experiences or offer spiritual nourishment? Writer Siri Hustvedt, historian of psychology Sonu Shamdasani, and neuropsychologist Mark Solms will tackle everything from noetic experiences and the role of intuition to the phenomenon of peak experience and Jung's "collective unconscious." © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Deterioration of expanded polystyrene caused by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Valeria C; Kuhar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An expanded-polystyrene factory located in northern Buenos Aires reported unusual dark spots causing esthetic damage in their production. A fungal strain forming black-olive colonies on extract malt agar medium was isolated from the damaged material and identified as Aureobasidium pullullans var. melanogenum. This fungus is particularly known for its capacity to produce hydrolytic enzymes and a biodegradable extracellular polysaccharide known as pullulan, which is used in the manufacture of packaging material for food and medicine. Laboratory tests were conducted to characterize its growth parameters. It was found that the organism was resistant to a wide range of pHs but did not survive at temperatures over 65°C. The proposed action plan includes drying of the material prior to packaging and disinfection of the machinery used in the manufacturing process and of the silos used for raw material storage. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Repair of large abdominal wall defects with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J J; Salky, B A; Gelernt, I M; Kreel, I

    1987-01-01

    Most abdominal wall incisional hernias can be repaired by primary closure. However, where the defect is large or there is tension on the closure, the use of a prosthetic material is indicated. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) patches were used to repair incisional hernias in 28 patients between November 1983 and December 1986. Twelve of these patients (43%) had a prior failure of a primary repair. Reherniation occurred in three patients (10.7%). Wound infections developed in two patients (7.1%), both of whom had existing intestinal stomas, one with an intercurrent pelvic abscess. The prosthetic patch was removed in the patient with the abscess, but the infection was resolved in the other without sequelae. Septic complications did not occur after any operations performed in uncontaminated fields. None of the patients exhibited any undue discomfort, wound pain, erythema, or induration. Complications related to adhesions, erosion of the patch material into the viscera, bowel obstruction, or fistula formation did not occur. Based on this clinical experience, the authors believe that the PTFE patch appears to represent an advance in synthetic abdominal wall substitutes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2(left)., Fig. 3(right). PMID:3689012

  4. An expanded dengue syndrome patient with manifestation myocarditis: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifijanto, M. V.; Luqmana, H. P.; Rusli, M.; Bramantono

    2018-03-01

    Dengue infection may manifest asymptomatic, dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, dengue shock syndrome. However, atypical manifestations in other organs have been increasingly reported and called expanded dengue syndrome. One of the cardiac complications in dengue is myocarditis. An 18-year-old woman complains of high fever since 3 days, epistaxis, chest pain, dyspnea, and vomiting. Laboratory examination obtained thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration, NS1, IgG-IgM dengue positive, CKMB and Troponin- I increase. Electrocardiogram result ischemic anterior-posterior. Echocardiography results hyperechogenic on myocardial suspicious a myocarditis. The patient was diagnosed with acute myocarditis and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Condition improved after five days of treatment. Cardiac complications in dengue are now increasingly observed with the most common case is myocarditis. The main mechanism of dengue myocarditis is still unknown though both direct viral infection and immune mediated damage have been suggested to be the cause of myocardial damage. The low incidence of dengue myocarditis is because it’s asymptomatic and diagnosis is easily missed. Almost all cases of dengue myocarditis are self-limiting and severe myocarditis leading to dilated cardiomyopathy is extremely rare. There have been reported a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever with manifestation myocarditis. Condition improve with supportive management.

  5. Synthesis and Characteristics of Highly Oil-absorptive Expanded Polyurethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.H. [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea); Kim, W. [Dong Ah Chem. Co. Ltd., Kyungnam (Korea); Kim, W.H. [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    Oil-absorptive expanded polyurethane (EPU) was prepared with a lypophilic polyol, polypropyleneglycol (PPG) as the soft segment, and toluenediisocyanate (TDI) and H{sub 2}O as the hard segment. PPGs having various average molecular weights (M{sub n} : 1000, 2000, 3000) were employed to investigate that the soft segment content was consequent on the oil-absorptivity and the mechanical properties of the EPUs. As M{sub n} of PPG was decreased from 3000 to 1000, the oil-absorptivity and the tensile strength of the EPUs increased from 1460 to 3010% and from 0.26 to 0.55 kg{sub f}/cm{sup 2} respectively. As the hard segment content ratio, {gamma}([NCO]/[OH]) was increased from 1.0 to 1.2, the tensile strength of the EPUs increased from 0.56 to 0.95 kg{sub f}/cm{sup 2}, due to the formation of allophanate and/or biuret bondings. However, as the surfactant (S-A) content was increased from 1.0 to 2.5 pbw, the oil-absorptivity was decreased from 3634 to 3312%, due to the formation of closed cell structures. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs., 14 figs.

  6. Is the number of photons conserved in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Oliveira, L.A.R. de; Salim, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A Friedman - like scenario in which - due to gravitational interaction - the total number of photons existing in the Universe changes as the Universe expands, is described. The photon number distribution function, in thermal equilibrium, exhibits an explicit dependence on a non-vanishing chemical potential term. This non-null value for the chemical potential of the photon is due to the presence of tidal effects, arising from the direct coupling of the photons - which, in a gravitational field, should not be treated as idealized point-like objects - to the curvature of space-time. As a result, the ratio nγ/n B between the numbers of photons and baryons in the Universe is shown to be not a constat, but rather a function of cosmic time, vanishing when the singularity of the standard FRW model is reached. In consequence, some of the supposed 'fundamental problems' of standard Cosmology (e.g., the explanation of the constancy of the ration nγ/n B and thus of the origin fo the total ammount of entropy observed today) are but apparent ones in the present scenario, and may be ipso facto solved. (author) [pt

  7. Discordant introgression in a rapidly expanding hybrid swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jessica L.; Blum, Mike J.; Walters, David M.; Porter, Brady A.; Burkhead, Noel; Freeman, Byron

    2012-01-01

    The erosion of species boundaries can involve rapid evolutionary change. Consequently, many aspects of the process remain poorly understood, including the formation, expansion, and evolution of hybrid swarms. Biological invasions involving hybridization present exceptional opportunities to study the erosion of species boundaries because timelines of interactions and outcomes are frequently well known. Here, we examined clinal variation across codominant and maternally inherited genetic markers as well as phenotypic traits to characterize the expansion and evolution of a hybrid swarm between native Cyprinella venusta and invasive Cyprinella lutrensis minnows. Discordant introgression of phenotype, microsatellite multilocus genotype, and mtDNA haplotype indicates that the observable expansion of the C. venusta x C. lutrensis hybrid swarm is a false invasion front. Both parental and hybrid individuals closely resembling C. lutrensis are numerically dominant in the expansion wake, indicating that the non-native parental phenotype may be selectively favored. These findings show that cryptic introgression can extend beyond the phenotypic boundaries of hybrid swarms and that hybrid swarms likely expand more rapidly than can be documented from phenotypic variation alone. Similarly, dominance of a single parental phenotype following an introduction event may lead to instances of species erosion being mistaken for species displacement without hybridization.

  8. Neuroimaging of Parkinson’s Disease: Expanding views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Carol P.; Sundman, Mark H.; Hickey, Patrick; Chen, Nankuei

    2015-01-01

    Advances in molecular and structural and functional neuroimaging are rapidly expanding the complexity of neurobiological understanding of Parkinson’s disease (PD). This review article begins with an introduction to PD neurobiology as a foundation for interpreting neuroimaging findings that may further lead to more integrated and comprehensive understanding of PD. Diverse areas of PD neuroimaging are then reviewed and summarized, including positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging, transcranial sonography, magnetoencephalography, and multimodal imaging, with focus on human studies published over the last five years. These included studies on differential diagnosis, co-morbidity, genetic and prodromal PD, and treatments from L-DOPA to brain stimulation approaches, transplantation and gene therapies. Overall, neuroimaging has shown that PD is a neurodegenerative disorder involving many neurotransmitters, brain regions, structural and functional connections, and neurocognitive systems. A broad neurobiological understanding of PD will be essential for translational efforts to develop better treatments and preventive strategies. Many questions remain and we conclude with some suggestions for future directions of neuroimaging of PD. PMID:26409344

  9. Expanding Access with Satellite-Enabled Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Education and training became increasingly critical for citizens of every nation during the last century, and that paradigm will be no less true, throughout the 21st Century. As the world progresses fully into an information society, access to information and to a knowledge-based work force is a precondition for any country to remain competitive. Education, and increasingly distant education (DE, plays a vital role in turning human resources into knowledge workers. Information and communications technologies (ICT have provided new ways to educate and to disseminate information that is crucial for creating these competitive, knowledge-based work forces. Modern DE, enabled by ICT-based networks and the Internet tools, offers great advantages that are leveling the global playing field, in terms of providing access and opportunities for specialized training and education. Using satellite technology in DE may be imperative to developing countries, where the majority of their populations are scattered in rural and remote areas. Where the traditional brick and mortar classrooms cannot easily reach, satellite-powered DE systems can. Through literature review and rational analysis, this paper examines how satellite-assisted DE systems expand education access.

  10. Purification of adenoviral vectors using expanded bed chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, C; Ferreira, T B; Carrondo, M J T; Cruz, P E; Alves, P M

    2006-03-01

    The increasing numbers of pre-clinical and clinical trials where recombinant adenoviral vectors are used for gene therapy and vaccination require the development of cost-effective and reproducible large scale purification strategies of the biologically active particles. Alternatives to the traditional laboratory scale CsCl density gradient ultracentrifugation method, such as fixed bed chromatography strategies, have been developed, but the yields of final recovery remain too low due mainly to the capture and concentration steps taking place before and between the chromatographic stages. In this study, a rapid and efficient scale-able purification protocol allowing to obtain concentrated, pure and bioactive adenoviral vectors was developed. This allows efficient levels of binding to the column media and vector purification without centrifugation or filtration steps. Expanded bed chromatography followed by hollow fiber concentration allows the capture of viral particles directly from cellular extracts with high efficiency and vector purification is achieved in less than one working day with a minimal amount of sample handling, thus presenting an improvement over existing processes. The overall process yield reached 32%, representing an eight-fold improvement over results reported previously, while the purity is comparable to that obtained with the CsCl method.

  11. The Expanded Public Works Programme: Perspectives of direct beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondli S. Hlatshwayo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scholarship on the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP in South Africa tends to focus on quantitative evaluation to measure the progress made in the implementation of EPWP projects. The number of employment opportunities created by EPWP, demographic profiling, skills acquired by beneficiaries and training opportunities related to the Programme form the basis of typical statistical evaluations of it, but exclude comment by the workers who participate in its projects. Based on primary sources, including in-depth interviews, newspaper reports and internet sources, this article seeks to provide a qualitative review of the EPWP from the perspective of the beneficiaries of municipal EPWP projects. Various South African government sectors hire EPWP workers to provide local services such as cleaning and maintaining infrastructure, but the employment of these workers can still be regarded as precarious, in the sense that they have no job security, earn low wages and have no benefits such as medical aid or pension fund. The interviewees indicated that, although they appreciate the temporary employment opportunities provided by the EPWP, they also experience health and safety risks and lack the advantages of organised labour groupings. Their main disadvantage, however, is that they cannot access permanent employment, which offers better wages and concomitant benefits.

  12. Adsorption Characteristics of Polyvinyl Alcohols in Solution on Expanded Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Yan Pang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expanded graphite (EG adsorbent was prepared with 50 mesh graphite as raw materials, potassium permanganate as oxidant, and vitriol as intercalation compound. Three kinds of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA with different degree of polymerization (DP in aqueous solution were used as adsorbates. We have studied the influence of initial PVA concentration, temperature and ionic strength on adsorption capacity. Langmuir constants and Gibbs free energy change (⊿G° were calculated according to experimental data respectively. Thermodynamic analysis indicates the equilibrium adsorbance of PVA on EG increase with the rise of SO42– concentration. Adsorption isotherms of PVA with different degree of polymerization are all types and we deduce PVA molecules lie flat on EG surface. Adsorption processes are all spontaneous. Kinetic studies show that the kinetic data can be described by pseudo second-order kinetic model. Second-order rate constants and the initial adsorption rate rise with the increasing of temperature and half-adsorption time decreases with the increasing of temperature. The adsorption activation energy of each PVA is less than 20 kJ•mol−1, physical adsorption is the major mode of the overall adsorption process.

  13. Regulatory Considerations Associated with the Expanded Adoption of Distributed Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; McLaren, J.; Heeter, J.; Linvill, C.; Shenot, J.; Sedano, R.; Migden-Ostrander, J.

    2013-11-01

    Increased adoption of distributed PV, and other forms of distributed generation, have the potential to affect utility-customer interactions, system costs recovery, and utility revenue streams. If a greater number of electricity customers choose to self-generate, demand for system power will decrease and utility fixed costs will have to be recovered over fewer kilowatt hours of sales. As such, regulators will need to determine the value and cost of additional distributed PV and determine the appropriate allocation of the costs and benefits among consumers. The potential for new business models to emerge also has implications for regulation and rate structures that ensure equitable solutions for all electricity grid users. This report examines regulatory tools and rate designs for addressing emerging issues with the expanded adoption of distributed PV and evaluates the potential effectiveness and viability of these options going forward. It offers the groundwork needed in order for regulators to explore mechanisms and ensure that utilities can collect sufficient revenues to provide reliable electric service, cover fixed costs, and balance cost equity among ratepayers -- while creating a value proposition for customers to adopt distributed PV.

  14. Use of radiation processing technology gradually expands in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes and radiation is expanding in the fields of industries and medicine with a high potentiality of the application to environmental protection. The technology transfer on the use of isotopes and radiation is progressing in the framework of international cooperation. But the industry has maintained wait and see attitude on the commercialization of food irradiation. Such present features were the highlight in the 19th Japan Conference on Radiation and Radioisotopes held on November 14-16. 72 papers from 19 countries were presented and discussed in 13 sessions. The progress of accelerator technology has contributed to the expansion of radiation processing market. The importance of the application of isotopes and radiation to environmental protection has been gradually acknowledged, and the electron beam treatment of flue gas for acid rain abatement and the elimination of chlorinated ethylene from drinking water were discussed. Drastic change has not been seen in the climate of food irradiation, however there are several positive indicators which support the prediction of slow but steady progress in the commercialization of the process and the trade of irradiated foods. (K.I.)

  15. Numerical modelling of multi-vane expander operating conditions in ORC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Józef; Błasiak, Przemysław; Kolasiński, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Multi-vane expanders are positive displacement volumetric machines which are nowadays considered for application in micro-power domestic ORC systems as promising alternative to micro turbines and other volumetric expanders. The multi-vane expander features very simple design, low gas flow capacity, low expansion ratios, an advantageous ratio of the power output to the external dimensions and are insensitive to the negative influence of the gas-liquid mixture expansion. Moreover, the multi-vane expander can be easily hermetically sealed, which is one of the key issues in the ORC system design. A literature review indicates that issues concerning the application of multi-vane expanders in such systems, especially related to operating of multi-vane expander with different low-boiling working fluids, are innovative, not fully scientifically described and have the potential for practical implementation. In this paper the results of numerical investigations on multi-vane expander operating conditions are presented. The analyses were performed on three-dimensional numerical model of the expander in ANSYS CFX software. The numerical model of the expander was validated using the data obtained from the experiment carried out on a lab test-stand. Then a series of computational analysis were performed using expanders' numerical model in order to determine its operating conditions under various flow conditions of different working fluids.

  16. Numerical modelling of multi-vane expander operating conditions in ORC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Józef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-vane expanders are positive displacement volumetric machines which are nowadays considered for application in micro-power domestic ORC systems as promising alternative to micro turbines and other volumetric expanders. The multi-vane expander features very simple design, low gas flow capacity, low expansion ratios, an advantageous ratio of the power output to the external dimensions and are insensitive to the negative influence of the gas-liquid mixture expansion. Moreover, the multi-vane expander can be easily hermetically sealed, which is one of the key issues in the ORC system design. A literature review indicates that issues concerning the application of multi-vane expanders in such systems, especially related to operating of multi-vane expander with different low-boiling working fluids, are innovative, not fully scientifically described and have the potential for practical implementation. In this paper the results of numerical investigations on multi-vane expander operating conditions are presented. The analyses were performed on three-dimensional numerical model of the expander in ANSYS CFX software. The numerical model of the expander was validated using the data obtained from the experiment carried out on a lab test-stand. Then a series of computational analysis were performed using expanders' numerical model in order to determine its operating conditions under various flow conditions of different working fluids.

  17. The Expanded Program on Immunization in the Americas: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The basis for the Pan America Health Organization/World Health Organization Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is provided by a resolution (WHA27.57) adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 1974. The program's longterm objectives include: to reduce morbidity and mortality from diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, measles, tuberculosis, and poliomyelitis by providing immunization services directed against those disease for every child in the world by 1990; to promote countries' self-reliance in the delivery of immunization services within the context of comprehensive health services; and to promote regional self-reliance in matters of vaccine production and quality control. The EPI, which requires a longterm commitment to continued immunization activities, is an essential element of PAHO/WHO's strategy to achieve health for all by the year 2000. Immunization coverage has been included among the indicators which will be used to monitor the success of that strategy at regional and global levels. As of April 1985, available country reports showed that immunization coverage in the Americas had improved considerably since the EPI was launched in 1977. In 1978, for example, only a very small proportion of the children under 1 year of age (less than 10%) outside the US and Canada lived in countr ies where 50% immunization coverage with the EPI vaccines had been attained for this age group. By 1984, over 55% of these children were living in countries where at least 50% infant coverage with DPT and measles vaccines had been attained, and over 80% were living in countries where at least 50% infant coverage with polio vaccine had been attained. Immunization coverage generally improved between 1980-84, especially in the 12 smaller countries of the subregion with populations of less than 130,000. In the period since EPI training activities were initiated in early 1979 through the end of 1984, it is estimated that at least 15,000 health workers attended EPI workshops

  18. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-11-26

    Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012).In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies and Interrupted time series (ITS) studies that

  19. Influence of Particle Size on Properties of Expanded Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurajica, S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Expanded graphite has been applied widely in thermal insulation, adsorption, vibration damping, gasketing, electromagnetic interference shielding etc. It is made by intercalation of natural flake graphite followed by thermal expansion. Intercalation is a process whereby an intercalant material is inserted between the graphene layers of a graphite crystal. Exfoliation, a huge unidirectional expansion of the starting intercalated flakes, occurs when the graphene layers are forced apart by the sudden decomposition and vaporization of the intercalated species by thermal shock. Along with production methodologies, such as the intercalation process and heat treatment, the raw material characteristics, especially particle size, strongly influence the properties of the final product.This report evaluates the influence of the particle size of the raw material on the intercalation and expansion processes and consequently the properties of the exfoliated graphite. Natural crystalline flake graphite with wide particle diameter distribution (between dp = 80 and 425 µm was divided into four size-range portions by sieving. Graphite was intercalated via perchloric acid, glacial acetic acid and potassium dichromate oxidation and intercalation procedure. 5.0 g of graphite, 7.0 g of perchloric acid, 4.0 g of glacial acetic acid and 2.0 g of potassium dichromate were placed in glass reactor. The mixture was stirred with n = 200 min–1 at temperature of 45 °C during 60 min. Then it was filtered and washed with distilled water until pH~6 and dried at 60 °C during 24 h. Expansion was accomplished by thermal shock at 1000 °C for 1 min. The prepared samples were characterized by means of exfoliation volume measurements, simultaneous differential thermal analysis and thermo-gravimetry (DTA/TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, BET measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.X-ray diffraction indicated a change of distance

  20. Informing parents about expanded newborn screening: influences on provider involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayeems, Robin Z; Miller, Fiona A; Little, Julian; Carroll, June C; Allanson, Judith; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Wilson, Brenda J; Bytautas, Jessica P; Christensen, Robert J

    2009-09-01

    Expanded newborn screening (NBS) identifies some disorders for which clinical benefit is uncertain, as well as "incidental" findings (eg, carrier status), thus enhancing the need to inform parents about NBS before sample collection. A self-complete survey was sent to a cross-sectional, stratified, random sample of 5 provider groups in Ontario (obstetricians, midwives, family physicians, pediatricians, and nurses). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the effects of core beliefs, perceived barriers, and demographic characteristics on the reported frequency of informing parents about NBS before sample collection. Virtually all of the midwives and almost half of the nurses reported discussing NBS with parents, whereas less than one sixth of the physicians did so. Providers who perceived a responsibility to inform parents were 3 times more likely to report doing so than those who did not perceive this responsibility (odds ratio: 2.9 [95% confidence interval: 2.1-4.1]). Those who lacked confidence to inform parents were 70% less likely to discuss NBS with parents compared with those who did not experience this cognitive barrier (odds ratio: 0.3 [95% confidence interval: 0.2-0.4]). Controlling for these covariates, family physicians and obstetricians were more likely than pediatricians to inform parents. These results provide guidance for capacity building among providers who are positioned to inform parents about NBS before sample collection. Our findings call for targeted educational interventions that consider patterns of provider practice related to prenatal and NBS care, seek to redress confidence limitations, and engage key provider groups in the importance of this professional responsibility.