... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy Program AGENCY: Office of... for funding under the Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy program. SUMMARY: By February 2011, the...) projects to support comprehensive literacy development and to advance literacy skills, including pre...
... Program; Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Catalog of Federal Domestic... children from birth through age 5; (2) 40 percent of its SRCL subgranted funds are used to serve students... students in middle and high school, including an equitable distribution of funds between middle and high...
Loadman, William; Sprague, Kim; Hamilton, Jennifer; Coffey, Deb; Faddis, Bonnie
In 2005, the U.S. Department of Education awarded eight Striving Readers grants to projects around the country. The goal of Striving Readers is to improve literacy skills and achievement for struggling readers in middle and high school and to increase the research base using randomized clinical research to address improvement in adolescent…
By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer Joseph Barchi, Jr, Ph.D., calls teaching “the noblest and most important profession.” So it makes sense that Barchi, senior scientist and head of the Glycoconjugate and NMR Section, Chemical Biology Laboratory, Center for Cancer Research, NCI at Frederick, would encourage his lab to offer a fun, educational program at Take Your Child to Work Day (TYCTWD).
Smith, Amy Frances; Westberg, Karen; Hejny, Anne
What do teachers really think about the Accelerated Reader program, a widely used supplemental, independent reading program in which their students read fiction and non-fiction books of their choice and take brief online comprehension quizzes about the books? The Accelerated Reader (AR) program was designed by Renaissance Learning Company to…
School Library Media Annual (SLMA), 1993
Describes the National Library Power Program, a collaborative effort sponsored by the Dewitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund in cooperation with local education funds and public school districts that was designed to create public elementary and middle school library programs that are central to the education program of the school. (LRW)
With guidance and assistance from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), nuclear utilities are striving for excellence by making steady improvements in industry performance indicators. Duke Power Company has solidly committed to support the industry's effort to obtain higher standards of excellence. Dedicated, highly trained employees, who are motivated to making it happen, carry out this commitment within a management framework which includes: 1) top management support and direct involvement; 2) a strategy to achieve excellence over the long run; 3) a nuclear management priority structure; and 4) a goals program
Gomez, Frank, II
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact (positive, negative, or neutral) of Accelerated Readers (AR), a standard based intervention, on the academic achievement of English Language Learners at Carolina Herrera Elementary School. Carolina Herrera Elementary School, was analyzed using these specific lenses: (1) curriculum and…
Uses aesthetic criteria and artistic criticism to explore possible meanings in Writing to Read, a computer-based program for beginning readers. Findings based on over 25 hours of observation showed that the program's enactment frequently compromised balance. Control drowned out individuality, conformity diminished exploration opportunities, and…
Hahn, H.A.; Alvarez, Y.P.
When safety, security, or other logistical concerns prevent direct objective assessment of team performance, other evaluation techniques become necessary. In this paper, the effect of a Department of Energy-mandated reader worker program on team performance at a particular DOE facility was evaluated using unstructured observations, informal discussions with technicians, and human reliability analysis. The reader worker program is intended to enhance nuclear explosive safety by improving the reliability of team performance. The three methods used for the evaluation combine to provide a strong indication that team performance is in fact enhanced by a properly implemented reader worker procedure. Because direct quantitative data on dependent variables particular to the task of interest is not available, however, there has been some skepticism regarding the results by staff at the facility
Tam, Kai Yung; Heward, William L.; Heng, Mary Anne
We used a multiple baseline across students design to evaluate the effects of an intervention program consisting of vocabulary instruction, error correction, and fluency building on oral reading rate and comprehension of five English-language learners who were struggling readers in a primary school. During the first intervention condition (new…
Tosolt, Brandelyn; Love, Bettina L.
Multicultural education is a term with a variety of definitions growing from a number of different disciplines. These authors conducted a content analysis of the Pearson reading program "Good Habits, Great Readers" for grades four and five. The qualitative approach of content analysis allowed researchers to examine text "through the…
Johnson, A.; Jearld, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Huggans, M.; Ricciardi, L.; Thomas, S. H.; Jansma, P. E.
In 2011 the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S)® initiative launched its newest activity entitled the MS PHD'S "Beyond the PhD (B-PhD) Professional Development Program." This exciting new program was designed to facilitate the development of a new community of underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral candidates and recent doctorate degree recipients in Earth system science (ESS)-related fields. The MS PHD'S B-PhD provides customized support and advocacy for MS PHD'S B-PhD participants in order to facilitate smoother and informed transitions from graduate school, to postdoctoral and tenure-track positions, as well as other "first" jobs in government, industry, and non-profit organizations. In November 2011 the first cohort of MS PHD'S B-PhD participants engaged in intensive sessions on the following topics: "Toolkits for Success for Academia, Business/Industry, Federal Government and Non-Profits", "Defining Short, Mid and Long Term Career Goals", "Accessing and Refining Skill Sets and Other Door Openers", "International Preparation and Opportunities", "Paying it Forward/Lifting as You Climb", and "Customized Strategies for Next Steps". This pilot event, which was hosted by the University of Texas at Arlington's (UTA) College of Science, also provided opportunities for participants to serve as guest lecturers in the UTA's Colleges of Science and Engineering and included one-on-one discussions with MS PHD'S B-PhD mentors and guest speakers who are well established within their individual ESS fields. Insights regarding opportunities, challenges and obstacles commonly faced by URMs within the ESS fields, as well as strategies for success were shared by MS PHD'S B-PhD mentors and guest speakers. Survey results indicate that MS PHD'S B-PhD participants appreciated not only the material covered during this pilot activity, but also appreciated the opportunity to become part of a community of young URM ESS
Laverick, DeAnna M.
The purpose of this research was to determine if reading specialist candidates improve the reading proficiency of their students through the use of digital, technology-based teaching techniques and materials. The candidates were certified teachers who provided individualized and small-group instruction to K-6 children while the candidates were…
This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985
During the last decade, more and more people have received prescriptions for ADHD drug treatment, and simultaneously the legitimacy of the ADHD diagnosis has been heavily debated among both professionals and laymen. Based on an anthropological fieldwork among adults with ADHD, I illustrate how...... the ADHD diagnosis both answers and produces existential questions on what counts as normal behaviour and emotions. The diagnosis helps the diagnosed to identify, accept and handle problems by offering concrete explanations and solutions to diffuse experienced problems. But the diagnostic process......-analysing situation trying to answer: What is ADHD and what is me and my personal features? When are the drugs having the right effect? And since I have never been normal then how would I know what behavioural ideal I am striving for? Moreover, the public questioning of the diagnosis calls the individual...
Kleinman, Steven; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Shan, Hua; Ness, Paul; Glynn, Simone A.
Background The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study -III (REDS-III) is a 7-year multicenter transfusion safety research initiative launched in 2011 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Study design The domestic component involves 4 blood centers, 12 hospitals, a data coordinating center, and a central laboratory. The international component consists of distinct programs in Brazil, China, and South Africa which involve US and in-country investigators. Results REDS-III is using two major methods to address key research priorities in blood banking/transfusion medicine. First, there will be numerous analyses of large “core” databases; the international programs have each constructed a donor/donation database while the domestic program has established a detailed research database that links data from blood donors and their donations, the components made from these donations, and data extracts from the electronic medical records of the recipients of these components. Secondly, there are more than 25 focused research protocols involving transfusion recipients, blood donors, or both that are either in progress or scheduled to begin within the next 3 years. Areas of study include transfusion epidemiology and blood utilization; transfusion outcomes; non-infectious transfusion risks; HIV-related safety issues (particularly in the international programs); emerging infectious agents; blood component quality; donor health and safety; and other donor issues. Conclusions It is intended that REDS-III serve as an impetus for more widespread recipient and linked donor-recipient research in the US as well as to help assure a safe and available blood supply in the US and in international locations. PMID:24188564
Students' perceptions about "what good readers do" are representative of their definition of reading and what they believe they should be striving toward as a reader. These beliefs about reading influence their motivation and ways they engage with texts. In this study, interviews were conducted with students in three first-grade…
Moyer, Mary; Williams, Melissa
The importance of reading is evident in every aspect of schooling and affects all areas of a student's daily life. At Delsea Regional High School in Franklinville, New Jersey, teachers (along with the school librarian) work to alter students' feelings about reading by using a variety of reading programs including the computerized reading…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 4. Reader's Companion. Ganesh Subramanian. Book Review Volume 15 Issue 4 April 2010 pp 366-383. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/04/0366-0383. Author Affiliations.
Zweizig, Douglas; Hopkins, Dianne McAfee
This document presents the executive summary of an evaluation of Library Power, a program of the DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund to enhance and elevate the role of libraries in public schools. The report begins with an examination of Library Power's core components (collection development, facilities refurbishing, flexible scheduling,…
I draw upon Eileen Schell's notions of "maternal pedagogy" and an "ethic of care" to analyze archival material from the National Education Association and Educational Testing Service pilot "lay reader" programs of the 1950s and 1960s. I argue that there are striking similarities between the material and social circumstances of these postwar lay…
Roy, Jon F.
This study examined the effectiveness of READ 180, a computer based reading intervention on Lexile reading levels, Standardized Test of Reading Achievement (STAR) score, and attendance rates students in grades 3-5 who participated in the READ 180 program. The study compared the Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) scores of each group administered…
Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big
Nation (2014) concluded that most of the vocabulary one needs to read challenging texts in English can be acquired incidentally through voluminous reading. This study examines possible texts that second language (L2) readers can use to move from controlled-vocabulary materials such as graded readers, which go up through approximately the…
Primary Healthcare Spending : Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism. Couverture du livre Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism. Auteur(s) : Okore Apia Okorafor. Maison(s) d'édition : UCT Press, CRDI. 1 avril 2010. ISBN : 9781919895215. 200 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552504895.
THREE JAPANESE READERS ARE PRESENTED WHICH CONTAIN VOCABULARY, NOTES, AND DRILL SENTENCES. THE THREE READERS--(1) ARU SARARIIMAN NO ITI-NITI, (2) OTOOSAN WA KAMI-SAMA, AND (3) ARU GAKUSEI NO HANNITI--ARE WRITTEN IN THE ROMAJI ALPHABET. EACH READER HAS A VOCABULARY LISTING WITH ENGLISH EXPLANATIONS AND DRILL SENTENCES. AN ENGLISH WORD DEFINITION…
Robertson, M.E.A.; Marshall, J.; Brabants, J.A.P.; Davies, M.E.
An electric circuit arrangement is described including a photomultiplier tube and a high voltage source therefor also includes a feedback loop from the output of the tube to the high voltage source, and loop providing automatic gain stabilization for the tube. The arrangement is used in a dosimeter reader to provide sensitivity correction for the reader each time the reader is to be used
Full Text Available 800x600 The striving of nature silk in Kabupaten Sukabumi keeps decreasing whereas, market opportunity and potential for nature is good, for this time being. For knowing development strategic of striving nature silk correctly, it need to be done an aprroachment system of replacement SWOT analysis (strategis analysis and ISM (interpretative Structural Modelling technique (structural analysis. This research will identify internal and external factor and produce structural models. The most powerful factor that influence the striving of nature silk is nature condition (climate, soil and topography. The weakness factor are limited capital and access. As opportunity element factor and treatment of cocoon needs still high and germ and disease of murbei leaves also silk worm. Prosperity of nature silk worm influence a lot of society sector especially farmer. In way to make it success needs very qualified human resources, an expert on this work and good management. Hoped with fulfilled need, will solved a lot of obstructions one of them is limited capital and access. The purpose of this program as good as possible is for increasing nature silk work. Involved all sorts of institution to realize this aim will be need, one of them is Forestry Department which will decide fact in striving of nature silk. Keyword : nature silk, strategis analysis, structural analysis, and development strategy. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
Developing Children's Awareness of the Human-Animal Bond: An Assessment of the Experiences and Benefits that Children Receive in the United Animal Nation's Humane Education Ambassador Readers (HEAR) Program
In 2007, the United Animal Nations (UAN) launched the Humane Education Ambassador Readers (HEAR), an innovation that focused on mitigation of animal suffering through education. In the HEAR program, adult volunteers read carefully selected story books to children in grades 3-6 in schools or other educational settings, and hold discussions with the…
Wodinsky, Marilyn; Nation, Paul
A word frequency study of two graded readers and an unsimplified text indicated that graded readers facilitated better foreign-language reading and vocabulary learning than did unsimplified texts. It was found that students needed to read several same-level texts to master vocabulary, and that vocabulary mastery was not necessary for successful…
Notes that, since fictional discourse need not reflect prevailing systems of meaning and norms or values, readers gain detachment from their own presuppositions; by constituting and formulating text-sense, readers are constituting and formulating their own cognition and becoming aware of the operations for doing so. (FL)
Christ, Hildegard; Franklin, Jeremy; Griebenow, Reinhard; Baethge, Christopher
Physicians frequently use continuing medical education (CME) in journals. However, little is known of the evaluation of journal CME by readers and also user and participation characteristics. Deutsches Ärzteblatt, the journal of the German Medical Association, is distributed to every physician in Germany and regularly offers its readers CME articles. Therefore, it provides a unique opportunity to analyze a journal CME program directed at an entire population of physicians. The aim is to show key sociodemographic characteristics of participants, frequency and temporal distributions of participations, and to analyze whether the articles are suitable for a general medical audience, how physicians rate the CME articles, how successful they were in answering simple multiple-choice questions, and to detect distinct clusters of participants. Using obligatory online evaluation forms and multiple-choice questions, we analyzed all participations of the entire 142 CME articles published between September 2004 and February 2014. We compared demographic characteristics of participants with official figures on those characteristics as provided by the German Medical Association. A total of 128,398 physicians and therapists (male: 54.64%, 70,155/128,393; median age class 40 to 49 years) participated 2,339,802 times (mean 16,478, SD 6436 participations/article). Depending on the year, between 12.33% (44,064/357,252) and 16.15% (50,259/311,230) of all physicians in the country participated at least once. The CME program was disproportionally popular with physicians in private practice, and many participations took place in the early mornings and evenings (4544.53%, 1,041,931/2,339,802) as well as over the weekend (28.70%, 671,563/2,339,802). Participation by specialty (ranked in descending order) was internal medicine (18.25%, 23,434/128,392), general medicine (16.38%, 21,033/128,392), anesthesiology (10.00%, 12,840/128,392), and surgery (7.06%, 9059/128,392). Participants rated
McTaggart, Ryan A; Jovin, Tudor G; Lansberg, Maarten G; Mlynash, Michael; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; Choudhri, Omar A; Inoue, Manabu; Marks, Michael P; Albers, Gregory W
In this study, we compare the performance of pretreatment Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomographic scoring (ASPECTS) using noncontrast CT (NCCT) and MRI in a large endovascular therapy cohort. Prospectively enrolled patients underwent baseline NCCT and MRI and started endovascular therapy within 12 hours of stroke onset. Inclusion criteria for this analysis were evaluable pretreatment NCCT, diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), and 90-day modified Rankin Scale scores. Two expert readers graded ischemic change on NCCT and DWI using the ASPECTS. ASPECTS scores were analyzed with the full scale or were trichotomized (0-4 versus 5-7 versus 8-10) or dichotomized (0-7 versus 8-10). Good functional outcome was defined as a 90-day modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2. Seventy-four patients fulfilled our study criteria. The full-scale inter-rater agreement for CT-ASPECTS and DWI-ASPECTS was 0.579 and 0.867, respectively. DWI-ASPECTS correlated with functional outcome (P=0.004), whereas CT-ASPECTS did not (P=0.534). Both DWI-ASPECTS and CT-ASPECTS correlated with DWI volume. The receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that DWI-ASPECTS outperformed both CT-ASPECTS and the time interval between symptom onset and start of the procedure for predicting good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score, ≤2) and DWI volume ≥70 mL. Inter-rater agreement for DWI-ASPECTS was superior to that for CT-ASPECTS. DWI-ASPECTS outperformed NCCT ASPECTS for predicting functional outcome at 90 days. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Helen Reid Thomas
The publication of Caryl Emerson’s book The First Hundred Years of Mikhail Bakhtin in December 1997 is an indication that interest in Bakhtin continues to flourish, among both Russian and Western scholars. Emerson’s book traces the interesting differences of attitude and emphasis between these two groups of critics and provides a broad-ranging and scholarly history of Bakhtin studies. The book I am concerned with here, The Bakhtin Reader, though of a different nature and designed for a d...
Samuelson, Teresa C.
The purpose of this study was to examine progress monitoring, reading self-concept, and the literacy skills of first and second grade struggling readers. Progress monitoring is an instructional process used by teachers to assess students' academic performance on a regular basis, typically weekly or monthly. When based on the skill level of the…
Dr. H D Chandrappa Gowda, very senior surgeon of Shimoga has written a book on YSR in Kannada. I have mentioned YSR in my book Hamsa Haaduva ... interesting. They cover a vast range of topics without going into undue details so that a general reader can easily experience the excitement of science. I am thinking of ...
Thus studying aged cultures in the laboratory can give several hints about microbial survival in the real world. Our Readers Write ... Suggested Reading.  M M Zambrano and R Kol- ter, GASPing for life in sta- tionary phase, Cell, Vol.86, pp.181–184, 1996.  S Finkel, Long-term survival during stationary phase: evo-.
Discusses the attitudes and issues of reluctant readers by describing the author's son Jonathan, an intelligent young man who came to hate reading. Offers advice for teachers from Jonathan regarding how they can help students enjoy reading more. Presents annotations of 11 new or overlooked young adult books worth reading. (SR)
This concerns the article 'Ashoke Sen and S-duality'. The article omits an important fact: there is absolutely no experimental evidence for string theory. Without this information, readers may think they are reading about established facts, not speculation. A string theorist, Witten, was awarded a Fields Medal, which shows that ...
Rasmussen, Krista Stinne Greve
In diesem Beitrag werden Ergebnisse aus der Dissertation der Autorin Bytes, Books, and Readers. A Historical Analysis of the Transition from Printed to Digital Scholarly Editions Focusing on ‘The Writings of Søren Kierkegaard’ (2015) vorgestellt. Dabei wird dem Wechselverhältnis zwischen der...
SAPOUNTZIS, P.; AND OTHERS
THIS READER IS DESIGNED TO FOLLOW A BASIC INTRODUCTORY COURSE IN COMMONLY SPOKEN GREEK (DHIMOTIKI). THE SELECTIONS REPRESENT VARIOUS DEGREES OF THE SPOKEN LANGUAGE LEADING FROM DHIMOTIKI TO THE FORMAL GREEK (KATHAREVUSA). THE TEXTS OF EACH UNIT ARE MEANT TO PRESENT VARIOUS ASPECTS OF GREEK LIFE AND THOUGHT. THE DRILL SENTENCES (BOTH VOCABULARY AND…
McCormick, Montana K.; Segal, Pamela H.
University educators work with preservice teachers who often feel overwhelmed when facing high school science classrooms full of reluctant readers. These struggling students often have various special-education modifications or are English language learners (ELLs) with different degrees of language proficiency. Teachers report that these students…
Our Readers Write ... Resonance is thankful to Prof. Muthu for his valuable comments, which are given below. I take this opportunity to congratulate you for the September 2011 issue of Resonance featuring. Prof. Feynman ... his paper in Nature 118: 874 (1926) and not by Arthur Compton in 1927, as mentioned in the article.
Schoonen, R.; Vergeer, M.; Eiting, M.
This article reports on three studies about the reading reliability of lay and expert readers in rating three kinds of writing assignments. Readers had to rate the Con tent and Language Usage of students' writing performances. The studies show that expert readers are more reliable in rating Usage,
One of the key services librarians provide is helping readers find books they'll enjoy. This ""crash course"" will furnish you with the basic, practical information you need to excel at readers' advisory (RA) for adults and teens.
Classroom Computer Learning, 1986
Readers of Classroom Computer Learning were asked for a definition of computer literacy; a summary of their responses is provided. Three opinions offered are that computer literacy instruction should begin early, that it should be made compulsory, and instruction should also focus on use of tool programs and education software. (JN)
Gorard, Stephen; Siddiqui, Nadia; See, Beng Huat
Accelerated Reader (AR) is a whole-group reading management and monitoring program that aims to foster the habit of independent reading among primary and early secondary age pupils. The internet-based software initially screens pupils according to their reading levels, and suggests books that match their reading age and reading interest. Pupils…
Karmakar, Nemai Chandra; Kalansuriya, Prasanna
In the era of information communication technology (ICT), radio frequency identification (RFID) has been going through tremendous development. RFID technology has the potential of replacing barcodes due to its large information carrying capacity, flexibility in operations, and applications. The deployment of RFID has been hindered by its cost. However, with the advent of low powered ICs, energy scavenging techniques, and low-cost chipless tags, RFID technology has achieved significant development. This book addresses the new reader architecture, presents fundamentals of chipless RFID systems,
This report concerns the policy measures intended to promote science and technology, pursuant to Article 8 of the Science and Technology Basic Law (Law No. 130), enacted in 1995. This report is constituted from three parts. Part 1 and 2 discuss trends in a wide range of scientific and technological activities to help the reader understand the policy measures implemented to promote science and technology, which are then discussed in Part 3. Part 1, titled 'striving for an open research community', attempt an analysis of reform and current and future issues addressed in the Science and Technology Basic Plan, which was enacted in July, 1996. Part 2 uses various data to compare scientific and technological activities in Japan with those in other selected countries. Part 3 relates to policies implanted for the promotion of science and technology in the Science and Technology Agency, Japan Government. Here is described on science and technology policy development, development of comprehensive and systematic policies and promotion of research activities. (G.K.)
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
The Accelerated Reader/Reading Renaissance program (now called Accelerated Reader Best Classroom Practices) is a guided reading intervention in which teachers direct student reading of text. It involves two components. Reading Renaissance, the first component, is a set of recommended principles on guided reading (or teachers' direction of…
This is the first report on policy measures implemented with regard to the promotion of science and technology, in accordance with Article 8 of the Science and Technology Basic Law, which was enacted in November 1995. Parts 1 and 2 of this report discuss trends in a wide range of scientific and technological activities to help the reader understand the policy measures implemented to promote science and technology. Part 1, titled 'Striving to become a front-runner in research activity', attempts and analysis of the public's expectations and demands concerning science and technology; of the state of affairs at institutions engaged in R and D; and of the issues that require attention in the pursuit of future of research activity. In Part 2, various types of data are used to compare Japan's scientific and technological activities with those in other major nations. And, Part 3 contains Policies implemented for the promotion of science and technology. (G.K.)
changes in hypercomplex settings. Practical implications Has strategic interest when developing and implementing performance management and measurement systems in both public and private sectors, and contributes to a discussion on, what it means to have adequate measures for success and failure....../methodology/approach 1. Clarifying this articles understanding of the interrelated emergence of human resource management, new public management and performance management systems as producing a shared reservoir of semantics shaping other social systems through translation processes, structural coupling and coevolution......, and to enable organizational development (OD) to address the big question of the day. Originality/Value: The article adds to organizational development, HRM, NPM and performance management by providing a conception on, what it takes to become reflective of a higher order as to strive towards sustainability...
Merga, Margaret K.
Understanding how social influences can foster avid book reader identification is a key research goal that warrants further investigation beyond a limited early-years lens. The author's 2015 International Study of Avid Book Readers (ISABR) explored, as one of its key research questions, the influence positive social agents can have on avid book…
Hurwitz, G.A.; Slomka, P.J.; Vezina, W.C.; Zeng, W.Z.; Romsa, J.; Mattar, A.G.; Reid, R.H.; Driedger, A.A.; Baranowski, J.
Aim: In myocardial scintigraphy, performance of a high-dose stress as the first study (HDSF), with follow-up rest scanning has several advantages. Canceling unnecessary rest imaging (CURI) following normal stress studies may improve targeting of resources; CURI could be aided by quantitative software with adequate specificity to distinguish the most normal scans. At one hospital site, CURI has been performed 1000 times in a four-year interval. Methods: We reviewed the frequency and appropriateness of CURI with attention to the use of PERFIT, software for fully-automated fitting to gender-matched rest and stress templates. We compared 2 forms of the quantitative output; (i) the original software (P3D) using 3D region-growing for demarcation of hypoperfusion, and (ii) a polar-plot paradigm (PPP). A consecutive series of 1200 sestamibi tomographic studies dated 3/96 to 5/97 constituted an intense-study set; CURI had been performed in only 95 of 594 HDSF cases (16%) in this early series, but later its use increased to 40%. To characterize the stress/rest study pairs in a random subset of 95 cases, blinded ratings of aligned slices were performed without quantitation by 3 experienced observers. The stress component of these scans and a cohort of 30 corresponding CURI cases then underwent review; the task (identifying blinded stress scans), for CURI, was performed 3 times by each of 6 readers in random order - (i) without quantitation, (ii) with P3D, and (iii) with PPP. Each case was assigned a CURI-score for each technique based on the 6 ratings, and an overall score based on 18 readings. Results: The extent of abnormal myocardium by P3D differed among 3 groups of scans, averaging 0.7% in the rest-cancelled cases, 2.5% in the 78 normal stress/rest cases (3/3 agreement), and 11% in the 17 borderline stress/rest cases (discrepancy among the original 3 readers). Corresponding values for PPP were 3%, 6% and 20% respectively. Overall CURI-scores for these groups differed (p
Wei, Li, Ed.
"The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…
Ewart, Craig K; Elder, Gavin J; Jorgensen, Randall S; Fitzgerald, Sheila T
A social action theory of chronic stress proposes that agonistic striving (seeking to influence or control others) impairs cardiovascular health by magnifying the impact of high adversity-induced cortisol levels on blood pressure. We tested three predictions of social action theory: (1) the social action theory taxonomy of regulatory strivings characterizes young adults from high-adversity neighborhoods; (2) high cortisol levels predict high blood pressure more reliably in the subgroup with the agonistic striving profile than in subgroups with other profiles; (3) the association of higher cortisol and higher blood pressure with agonistic striving is not explained by negative affect (depressive symptoms/dysphoria, anger, hostility). Participants were young adults (N = 198, mean [SD] age = 32 [3.4] years); 71% female; 65% black) from disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. Motive profiles (including agonistic strivings) were assessed using the Social Competence Interview. Cortisol levels were derived from saliva samples; blood pressure level was obtained during two days of ambulatory monitoring. Psychological measures of negative affect were assessed using questionnaires. The predicted taxonomy of regulatory strivings was replicated in this sample; the interaction between cortisol and motive profile was significant (F(2, 91) = 6.72, p = .002); analyses of simple effects disclosed that higher cortisol levels predicted higher ambulatory blood pressure only in individuals who exhibited agonistic striving. Depressive symptoms/dysphoria, trait anger, and hostility were not correlated with agonistic striving, cortisol, or blood pressure. Agonistic striving may represent a distinctive (and novel) social-cognitive mechanism of toxic stress and cardiovascular risk.
Kruk, Richard S.; Reynolds, Kristin A. A.
We tracked the developmental influences of exposure to French on developing English phonological awareness, decoding and reading comprehension of English-speaking at-risk readers from Grade 1 to Grade 3. Teacher-nominated at-risk readers were matched with not-at-risk readers in French immersion and English language programs. Exposure to spoken…
The spiral reader shown here was at the time, together with the Shivamatic scanning system, the basic equipment used for measuring bubble chamber pictures. Anne Anton sits at the table. (See Photo Archive 7408343.)
Full Text Available This article presents a study of the use of Readers Theatre in English lessons with groups of academically-challenged pupils in a Norwegian lower secondary school. The study is based on the teacher’s logs, interviews with the teacher, a questionnaire answered by the pupils, and lesson observations. Readers Theatre, a group reading activity that can be used with a wide range of texts, was successfully incorporated into the curriculum with relatively small ‘fordypning’ (specialisation groups in English. These pupils had opted for more English lessons instead of learning a second foreign language. Most of them struggled with English as their first foreign language and were struggling readers. However, the majority of the pupils experienced Readers Theatre as both enjoyable and educational. The experience had a positive effect on their confidence and motivation to read. It also helped to improve their reading fluency and accuracy, for example pronunciation, and facilitated growth in vocabulary. The experience of practising and performing as a group was especially satisfying and motivating for the pupils involved. The majority were keen to participate in other Readers Theatre projects.
Smith, Amy; Westberg, Karen
The Accelerated Reader program was designed by Renaissance Learning to increase students' motivation to read and students' achievement in reading; however, a review of the literature reveals inconsistent findings about its outcomes. The Renaissance Learning company reports several research studies on their website that suggest the program is…
Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte
Collections are no longer the main attraction in libraries, and libraries are working to find new paths to tread. One strategy is to focus on reading and literature in new and surprising ways. The aim of this article is to enrich an understanding of activities situated in the span between readers...
Whiteley, S.; Canning, P.
This article introduces the special issue. In it, we argue that research into reader response\\ud should be recognised as a vital aspect of contemporary stylistics, and we establish our focus\\ud on work which explicitly investigates such responses through the collection and analysis of\\ud extra-textual datasets. Reader response research in stylistics is characterised by a commitment\\ud to rigorous and evidence-based approaches to the study of readers’ interactions with and\\ud around texts, and...
Dixon, Peter; Bortolussi, Marisa
This research examined readers' knowledge of popular genres. Participants wrote short essays on fantasy, science fiction, or romance. The similarities among the essays were measured using latent semantic analysis (LSA) and were then analyzed using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The clusters and scales were interpreted by searching…
Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…
Bates, Carol; Gordon, Lynn; Travis, Elizabeth; Chatterjee, Archana; Chaudron, Linda; Fivush, Barbara; Gulati, Martha; Jagsi, Reshma; Sharma, Poonam; Gillis, Marin; Ganetzky, Rebecca; Grover, Amelia; Lautenberger, Diana; Moses, Ashleigh
Women represent approximately half of students entering medical schools and more than half of those entering PhD programs. When advancing through the academic and professional fields, however, women continually face barriers that men do not. In this Commentary, the authors offer ideas for coordinating the efforts of organizations, academic institutions, and leaders throughout the scientific and medical professions to reduce barriers that result in inequities and, instead, strive for gender parity. Specific areas of focus outlined by the authors include facilitating women's access to formal and informal professional networks, acknowledging and addressing the gender pay gap as well as the lack of research funding awarded to women in the field, and updating workplace policies that have not evolved to accommodate women's lifestyles. As academic institutions seek access to top talent and the means to develop those individuals capable of generating the change medicine and science needs, the authors urge leaders and change agents within academic medicine to address the systemic barriers to gender equity that impede us from achieving the mission to improve the health of all.
Kashdan, Todd B; Breen, William E; Julian, Terri
This research investigated whether combat veterans' daily strivings are related to the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and well-being. Veterans created a list of their most important strivings, which were content-analyzed for emotion regulation and approach or avoidance themes. It was hypothesized that veterans pursuing strivings with themes of emotion regulation or avoidance experience deleterious consequences compared with other veterans. For all veterans, devoting finite time and energy in daily life to regulating emotions was associated with less purpose, meaning, and joy compared with other strivings. Veterans with PTSD endorsed more strivings related to emotion regulation and devoted considerable effort to emotion regulation and avoidance strivings. Yet, these efforts failed to translate into any discernible benefits; veterans without PTSD derived greater joy and meaning from strivings focusing on approac- oriented behavior and themes other than emotion regulation. The presence of PTSD and a high rate of emotion regulation strivings led to the lowest global well-being and daily self-esteem during a 14-day assessment period. The presence of PTSD and a high rate of avoidance strivings also led to lower emotional well-being. Results indicate that strivings devoted to regulating emotions or avoidance efforts influence the mental health of veterans with and without PTSD. Studying personality at different levels of analysis-traits, strivings, and life narratives-allows for a fine-grained understanding of emotional disorders.
van Woerkum, Cees
How writers can adapt to their readers is an important issue in effective communication strategies, and certainly crucial in the case of functional texts. Therefore, it is necessary to look at how readers are constructed as partners in a communication co-production. This article explores the concept of the "active reader," which is getting more…
Leffa, Vilson J.
This paper examines the development and testing of a machine-translation program designed to translate English text into Portuguese. A comparison of machine- and human-translated texts, using Brazilian secondary school students as readers, found that they were equally understood, both in terms of main ideas and details. (six references) (MDM)
Rayner, Keith; Li, Xingshan; Pollatsek, Alexander
Chinese readers' eye movements were simulated in the context of the E-Z Reader model, which was developed to account for the eye movements of readers of English. Despite obvious differences between English and Chinese, the model did a fairly good job of simulating the eye movements of Chinese readers. The successful simulation suggests that the…
Jordan, J.; Mullen, E.; Murnighan, J.K.
People's desires to see themselves as moral actors can contribute to their striving for and achievement of a sense of self-completeness. The authors use self-completion theory to predict (and show) that recalling one's own (im)moral behavior leads to compensatory rather than consistent moral action
Gardner, Susan K.
The quest for institutional prestige in the academic hierarchy has become a common phenomenon among universities in the United States. At the same time, the institutions that choose to embark on such a journey (referred to as striving institutions) have not been closely examined to determine how such efforts influence the different constituencies…
Gonzales, Leslie D.; Martinez, E.; Ordu, C.
In this paper, we draw from academic capitalism to explore the work lives and experiences of faculty who work in a striving university. Our analysis suggests that faculty members feel pressures induced by academic capitalism, including a lack of space, no time and the sense of constant surveillance. Our work adds to the theoretical as well as…
Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited.
Full Text Available Most library studies thematically related to electronic books don't consider readers of electronic books. Only in recent years librarians conduct studies in which they want to find out readers' opinions about the possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of reading using e-readers, as well as their possible application in the libraries.User studies of e-readers have shown that their opinion is generally positive, but great attachment to traditional books is still present, e-readers are still seen only as an additional tool for reading. Sony with its e-reader (the latest Reader model Daily and Reader Store online bookstore (http://ebookstore.sony.com/is the only one who cooperate with libraries and has made lending electronic books possible. Cooperation was launched in 2009th,and the New York Public Library was the first library that offered such a service.Cooperation between Sony and libraries, indicates clearly what the near future could be if other online booksellers / publishers begin to follow the model of lending e-books through the libraries over the network. However it is possible that a large online bookstores / publishers consider that the further price reduction of e-readers and electronic books will constantly increase their sales, and in that case lending e-books will be unnecessary.Are the libraries ready for this scenario?
Greschik, Holger; Schüle, Roland; Günther, Thomas
Epigenetic regulators including writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin marks have been implicated in numerous diseases and are therefore subject of intense academic and pharmaceutical research. While several small-molecule inhibitors targeting writers or erasers are either approved drugs or are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, the targeting of epigenetic readers has lagged behind. Proof-of-principle that epigenetic readers are also relevant drug targets was provided by landmark discoveries of selective inhibitors targeting the BET family of acetyl-lysine readers. More recently, high affinity chemical probes for non-BET acetyl- and methyl-lysine reader domains have also been developed. Areas covered: This article covers recent advances with the identification and validation of inhibitors and chemical probes targeting epigenetic reader domains. Issues related to epigenetic reader druggability, quality requirements for chemical probes, interpretation of cellular action, unexpected cross-talk, and future challenges are also discussed. Expert opinion: Chemical probes provide a powerful means to unravel biological functions of epigenetic readers and evaluate their potential as drug targets. To yield meaningful results, potency, selectivity, and cellular target engagement of chemical probes need to be stringently validated. Future chemical probes will probably need to fulfil additional criteria such as strict target specificity or the targeting of readers within protein complexes.
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve? 102-193.25 Section 102-193.25...-193.25 What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to...
Technical writing is an essential part of professional communication and in recent years it has shifted from a genre-based approach. Formerly, technical writing primarily focused on generating templates of documents and sometimes it was creating or reproducing traditional forms with minor modifications and updates. Now, technical writing looks at the situations surrounding the need to write. This involves deep thinking about the goals and objectives of the project on hand. Furthermore, one observes that it is very important for any participatory process to have the full support of management. This support needs to be well understood and believed by employees. Professional writing may be very persuasive in some cases. When presented in the appropriate context, technical writing can persuade a company to improve work conditions ensuring employee safety and timely production. However, one must recognize that lot of professional writing still continues to make use of reports and instruction manuals. Normally, technical and professional writing addresses four aspects. Objective: The need for generating a given professionally written technical document and the goals the document is expected to achieve and accomplish. Clientele: The clientele who will utilize the technical document. This may include the people in the organization. This may also include "unintended readers." Customers: The population that may be affected by the content of the technical document generated. This includes the stakeholders who will be influenced. Environment: The background in which the document is created. Also, the nature of the situation that warranted the generation of the document. Swiss Psychologist Jean Piaget's view of Learning focuses on three aspects. The author likes to extend Jean Piaget's ideas to students, who are asked to prepare and submit Reader-Centered Technical Writing reports and exercises. Assimilation: Writers may benefit specifically, by assimilating a new object into
E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)
textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting
Woerkum, van C.
How writers can adapt to their readers is an important issue in effective communication strategies, and certainly crucial in the case of functional texts. Therefore, it is necessary to look at how readers are constructed as partners in a communication co-production. This article explores the concept
The author needed a way to engage her students in the reading process and found one extremely successful strategy: using Readers' Theater. Readers' Theater "dramatizes" literature through a classroom performance and provides visual and oral stimulus to students who are not used to using imagination to appreciate literary texts. It involves a…
Van Horn, Royal
In this article, the author discusses how there are advantages and disadvantages to using an Internet News Reader instead of a Web browser. The major advantage is that one can read the headlines and short summaries of news articles from dozens of sources quickly. Another advantage the author points out to news readers is that one gets a short…
Full Text Available Introductory part of the paper discusses theories about readers in the last decades of the 20th century. In particular, two big theoretical schools are discussed: aesthetic reception theory and reader-response-criticism movement. Readers are a subject of very different scientific disciplines: literature theory, sociology, anthropology, book history and library science. The idea that a reader is an essential subject for future life of a literary work is common to all theorists. By constructing the theory about a reader, theorists have thought about the reader who uses the conventions of printed text. The issue whether these concepts correspond to electronic surroundings is discussed. Characteristics of the hypertext are emphasized as a new paradigm, and also the issue weather readers enjoys in hypertextual fiction. In conclusion, paper expands the virtual dimension of Isers's theory about interaction between the text and the reader, and also Fish's concept of “interpretative community” which may be constituted on the Internet as a flexible virtual community.
A group of 50 good readers and a group of 50 poor readers of Grade 5 matched for age and intelligence and selected on the basis of their proficiency in reading comprehension were tested for their competence in word reading and the process of planning at three different levels, namely, perceptual, memory and conceptual in order to study the…
Explores the mystery of why readers choose to read texts. Considers the psychology of reading for pleasure and the figures of speech linking reading with love. Discusses a wide array of books and the reasons that readers have felt such a strong attachment to them. (HB)
Karabag, S. Gulin
In this article, a teaching strategy which not only blends yesterday and today in a meaningful way but also powerfully integrates literacy and history will be examined. Firstly Readers' Theatre as a technique will be introduced. Secondly, the usage guidelines of Readers' Theatre will be presented. Finally the opinions of secondary school students…
Chowdhury, Kaushik Basak; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar
Fluorescence Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) have wide range of applications in point-of-care testing (POCT). An integrated, motion-free, accurate, reliable reader that performs automated quantitative analysis of LFIA is essential for POCT diagnosis. We demonstrate an image based quantitative method to read the lateral flow immunofluorescence test strips. The developed reader uses line laser diode module to illuminate the LFIA test strip having fluorescent dye. Fluorescence light coming from the region of interest (ROI) of the LFIA test strip was filtered using an emission filter and imaged using a camera following which images were processed in computer. A dedicated control program was developed that automated the entire process including illumination of the test strip using laser diode, capturing the ROI of the test strip, processing and analyzing the images and displaying of results. Reproducibility of the reader has been evaluated using few reference cartridges and HbA1c (Glycated haemoglobin) test cartridges. The proposed system can be upgraded to a compact reader for widespread testing of LFIA test strips.
Egede-Nissen, Veslemøy; Sellevold, Gerd Sylvi; Jakobsen, Rita; Sørlie, Venke
Nursing workforce in Western European health institutions has become more diverse because of immigration and recruitment from Asian, African, and East-European countries. Minority healthcare providers may experience communication problems in interaction with patients and coworkers, and they are likely to experience conflict or uncertainty when confronted with different cultural traditions and values. Persons with dementia are a vulnerable group, and the consequences of their illness challenge the ability to understand and express oneself verbally. The large number of minority healthcare providers in nursing homes underlines the importance to obtain better knowledge about this group's experiences with the care challenges in dementia care units. Can you tell about any challenges in the experiences in the encounter with persons suffering from dementia? Participants and research context: Five minority healthcare providers in a nursing home, in a dementia unit. All guidelines for research ethic were followed. Ethical consideration: The participants were informed that participation was voluntary, and they were guarantied anonymity. We used a qualitative method, conducting individual interviews, using a narrative approach. In the analysis, we applied a phenomenological-hermeneutical method, developed for researching life experiences. One theme and four subthemes: striving to understand the quality of care for persons with dementia. The subthemes: sensitivity to understand the patients' verbal and nonverbal expressions. To understand gratefulness, understand the patient as an adult and autonomous person, and understand the patient as a patient in a nursing home. Challenges comprise both ethical and cultural striving to understand persons with dementia. To care for persons with dementia in an unfamiliar context may be understood as a striving for acting ethically, when at the same time striving to adapt and acculturate to new cultural norms, in order to practice good
Parsons, Seth A.; Parker, Audra K.; Daoud, Nisreen; Bruyning, Alicia K.; Gallagher, Melissa A.; Groth, Lois A.
Standard 2 from the Council for Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) Standards focuses on the importance of partnerships between P-12 schools and universities to enhance student learning and teacher candidate preparation. In the midst of discussions on how to improve partnerships between P-12 schools and universities, this article adds to…
Full Text Available Cyber Literature is a term known since the coming of the internet which brings a convenience, changing habit and world view. This study is a survey-based on respondents’ opinion about the existence of cyber literature on social media; of its benefit and impact to the reader. This study limits to the poems on Facebook group. The reason is simple; it favors the short form. For the study of a reader-writer interactivity in cyber literature is more likely on poetry. The approach is reader response literary theory with focus on the reader-writer interactivity on Facebook. This research aimed at uncovering the motivation of readers to response the uploaded text, the reasons why they love it and what its advantages. The results showed that cyber literature is successfully to introduce a new literary genre as well as to raise motivation and creativity of authors to make use the internet space.
Brolin, Rosita; Brunt, David; Rask, Mikael; Syrén, Susanne; Sandgren, Anna
The aim of this study was to develop a grounded theory about people with psychiatric disabilities, living in supported housing. Interviews as well as observations during the interviews were analyzed together with secondary analyses of quantitative and qualitative material from previous studies. Being deprived of self-determination emerged as the main concern for residents in supported housing and striving for meaning emerged as the pattern of behavior through which this group resolves their main concern. Striving for meaning involves living in the present, striving for self-determination, strengthening self-esteem, emotional processing and resting from the present. The strategies facilitate each other and are used singly, together simultaneously, or alternately. If they are successful, a meaning in the present is perceived. If all the strategies fail repeatedly, escaping from the present is used in order to deal with being deprived of self-determination. The implications of the findings suggest prioritizing a reduction of the institutional nature of the social and physical environment, and to support the residents' self-determination.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a grounded theory about people with psychiatric disabilities, living in supported housing. Interviews as well as observations during the interviews were analyzed together with secondary analyses of quantitative and qualitative material from previous studies. Being deprived of self-determination emerged as the main concern for residents in supported housing and striving for meaning emerged as the pattern of behavior through which this group resolves their main concern. Striving for meaning involves living in the present, striving for self-determination, strengthening self-esteem, emotional processing and resting from the present. The strategies facilitate each other and are used singly, together simultaneously, or alternately. If they are successful, a meaning in the present is perceived. If all the strategies fail repeatedly, escaping from the present is used in order to deal with being deprived of self-determination. The implications of the findings suggest prioritizing a reduction of the institutional nature of the social and physical environment, and to support the residents’ self-determination.
Provides a list of cultural journalism publications (based on oral history interviews) written, edited, and produced by students around the country that provide good easy reading for older reluctant readers. (MKM)
Sellers, Sherrill L; Neighbors, Harold W; Zhang, Rong; Jackson, James S
To contribute to the growing understanding of U.S. black-white health disparities by examining psychosocial stress as an important contributor to physical health problems. Data are from the National Survey of American Life, an integrated national household probability sample of White Americans, African Americans, and Caribbean blacks. Regression analysis was used to assess associations between goal-striving stress and hypertension, BMI, physical health problems, and self-rated health. After accounting for sociodemographic factors and three additional stressors--personal problems, lifetime racial discrimination, and everyday racial discrimination-goal-striving stress was a significant predictor of hypertension, physical health problems, and diminished self-rated health. Ethnicity moderated the relationship; the negative association between goal-striving stress and physical health problems was strongest for Caribbean blacks. This study extends the research on goal-striving stress and adds to a growing literature documenting relationships between social processes and disease.
Full Text Available Thank you for inviting me to this meeting. I understood that it is a meeting of the editorial board with readers. But I would like to note that there is still such a small layer between the editors and readers, which is called the printing house. So it is the typography that materially embodies the ideas, thoughts and innovations of the editorial staff and the authors.
Adelina Sánchez Espinosa
Full Text Available This contribution explores the relationship between Thomas Hardy and his contemporary readers from The Poor Man and the Lady, his first, unpublished, novel, to The Well- Beloved, his last one. It discovers a writer split into two, with Hardy, the artist, striving to cohabitate with Hardy-the serial writer for the three decades his career as a novelist lasted. In order to fully appreciate Hardy's novels as they have reached us nowadays, after the 1912 Wessex edition, we should focus on the contradictions between their initial manuscripts, their edited versions for the family magazines and their final reconstructions into volume forms. Although Hardy certainly wanted quick success with the Victorian masses he never let go of his "higher aspirations" to be received differently by a more select readership, even if this alternative reading had to be done between the lines at a later stage.
Smith, Alison L; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan L; Vansteenkiste, Maarten
Developing upon cross-sectional research (Smith, Ntoumanis, & Duda, 2007) supporting the self-concordance model (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999) as a framework for contextual goal striving, the current study investigated the assumptions of the model in relation to season-long goal striving in sport. The study additionally examined the role of coping strategies in the persistence of goal-directed effort. Structural equation modeling analysis with a sample of 97 British athletes indicated that ...
Doom, Jenalee R; Hazzard, Vivienne M; Bauer, Katherine W; Clark, Cari Jo; Miller, Alison L
While striving to succeed in the face of adversity may provide individuals with outward benefits, it may come at a cost to individuals' physical health. The current study examines whether striving predicts greater physiological or psychosocial costs among those who experienced child maltreatment, a stressor that disrupts the caregiving environment and threatens relationship security. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we tested whether greater striving after childhood maltreatment would come at a cost, increasing underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and depressive symptoms despite showing outward success via income and college degree attainment. The study included 13,341 Black, Hispanic, and White adolescents who self-reported striving and their experiences of childhood neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. As young adults, participants reported depressive symptoms, income, and college degree attainment and completed a health assessment from which a 30-year Framingham-based CVD risk score was calculated. Higher striving was associated with lower CVD risk and depressive symptoms, and higher income and college degree attainment, regardless of maltreatment history. These findings highlight the potential for striving as a target for interventions and support the need to examine multiple biological and behavioral outcomes to understand the multifaceted nature of resilience.
Rizzo, Albert; Buckwalter, J Galen; John, Bruce; Newman, Brad; Parsons, Thomas; Kenny, Patrick; Williams, Josh
The incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in returning OEF/OIF military personnel is creating a significant healthcare challenge. This has served to motivate research on how to better develop and disseminate evidence-based treatments for PTSD. One emerging form of treatment for combat-related PTSD that has shown promise involves the delivery of exposure therapy using immersive Virtual Reality (VR). Initial outcomes from open clinical trials have been positive and fully randomized controlled trials are currently in progress to further validate this approach. Based on our research group's initial positive outcomes using VR to emotionally engage and successfully treat persons undergoing exposure therapy for PTSD, we have begun development in a similar VR-based approach to deliver stress resilience training with military service members prior to their initial deployment. The Stress Resilience In Virtual Environments (STRIVE) project aims to create a set of combat simulations (derived from our existing Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan exposure therapy system) that are part of a multi-episode narrative experience. Users can be immersed within challenging combat contexts and interact with virtual characters within these episodes as part of an experiential learning approach for training a range of psychoeducational and cognitive-behavioral emotional coping strategies believed to enhance stress resilience. The STRIVE project aims to present this approach to service members prior to deployment as part of a program designed to better prepare military personnel for the types of emotional challenges that are inherent in the combat environment. During these virtual training experiences users are monitored physiologically as part of a larger investigation into the biomarkers of the stress response. One such construct, Allostatic Load, is being directly investigated via physiological and neuro-hormonal analysis from specimen collections taken immediately before and after
Alavi, Sepideh; Keyvanshekouh, Afsaneh
The present study focused on using the MoodleReader to promote extensive reading (ER) in an Iranian EFL context, emphasizing its effect on students' incidental vocabulary acquisition. Thirty eight Shiraz University sophomores were assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group used the MoodleReader for their ER program, while…
Jepson, Emma; Forrest, Sarah
Workplace stress and its impact upon retention levels are becoming an increasing concern within the teaching profession (Brown, Davis, & Johnson, 2002; Jarvis, 2002). Research has largely focused upon the effects of environmental factors, whilst noting that it is the interplay between the individual and the environment which may hold the key to understanding this problem (Cox, 1978; Parkes, 1994). Identifying individual contributory factors is essential in understanding why, under the same environmental conditions, some people suffer much greater levels of stress than others. This study examined the influence of Type A behaviour, personal achievement strivings, occupational commitment, gender and nature/experience of teaching on perceived workplace stress within the teaching profession (N = 95). It was predicted that perceived stress would be strongest amongst those reporting higher levels of these factors. A multiple regression analysis indicated that there was a positive relationship between Type A behaviour, personal achievement strivings, and perceived stress. The relationship between perceived stress and occupational commitment, however, was found to be negative. The possible explanations for these findings, and potential implications, are discussed. Future research plans are outlined for exploring the relationships between these individual contributory factors and environmental stressors.
Full Text Available We introduce a toolkit for working with the 13.6 million volume Extracted Features Dataset from the HathiTrust Research Center. You will learn how to peer at the words and trends of any book in the collection, while developing broadly useful Python data analysis skills. The HathiTrust holds nearly 15 million digitized volumes from libraries around the world. In addition to their individual value, these works in aggregate are extremely valuable for historians. Spanning many centuries and genres, they offer a way to learn about large-scale trends in history and culture, as well as evidence for changes in language or even the structure of the book. To simplify access to this collection the HathiTrust Research Center (HTRC has released the Extracted Features dataset (Capitanu et al. 2015: a dataset that provides quantitative information describing every page of every volume in the collection. In this lesson, we introduce the HTRC Feature Reader, a library for working with the HTRC Extracted Features dataset using the Python programming language. The HTRC Feature Reader is structured to support work using popular data science libraries, particularly Pandas. Pandas provides simple structures for holding data and powerful ways to interact with it. The HTRC Feature Reader uses these data structures, so learning how to use it will also cover general data analysis skills in Python.
Arthur N. Olsen
Full Text Available This article reports on a research project at the University of Agder that has studied the use of e-readers as a tool for academic study. E-readers (Kindle DX and iPad were loaded with texts from required reading lists in five courses with 94 participating students. Initially, 87 students responded to the invitation to participate in a survey, but eventually 13 of these submissions had to be removed, as the degree of completion was not sufficient. The final response rate achieved was 79%. Students were in general positive to the use of e-readers but still show a preference for print on paper as the best medium for serious academic study. When reading books, 54% preferred print, 28% a combination of print and e-reader, and finally only 11% were satisfied solely using an e-reader. The iPad scored significantly better than the Kindle DX on tasks that required active interaction with the texts such as highlighting and note taking.
Smit, E.G.; Neijens, P.C.; Heath, R.
Building on previous research on the processing of newspaper ads, this comprehensive field study, with 26,556 newspaper readers and 290 unique advertisements, investigated the combined effects of position in the newspaper, ad characteristics and reader characteristics. The results show a
This article is under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License. This article is also available via DOI:10.7202/1038035ar The pop/alternative musician Beck created a stir in the music world when he released his 2012 “album” Song Reader as a book compilation of individual pieces of sheet music. This included a guide to reading music notation, together with an introduction describing the work’s intentions and inviting readers to perform their own ...
Sørensen, Dorthe; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Grøfte, Thorbjørn
. A constant comparative classic grounded theory study was performed. Methods. Data collection consisted of participant observation during the treatment of 21 patients undergoing non-invasive ventilation, followed by interviews with 11 of the patients after treatment completion. Data were collected from...... December 2009 to January 2012. Results. A substantive theory of striving for habitual well-being was developed. The theory included three phases: initiation, transition, and determination. Each phase contained a set of subcategories to indicate the dimensions of and variations in the participants......’ behaviour. Conclusions. The substantive theory revealed that the patients’ behaviour was related to their breathlessness, sensation of being restrained by the mask and head gear, and the side effects of non-invasive ventilation. Relevance to clinical practice. This inter-relationship should be addressed...
The current study was designed to understand the development of comprehension monitoring among beginner readers from first to third grade, and to determine the extent to which first graders' comprehension monitoring predicts reading comprehension in grade three. Participants were 113 children (57% female) from four US states who were followed from…
Velbeck, K.J.; Streetz, K.L.; Rotunda, J.E.
BICRON NE has developed an advanced version of the Model 8800 Automatic TLD Reader. Improvements in the reader include a Windows NT TM -based operating system and a Pentium microprocessor for the host controller, a servo-controlled transport, a VGA display, mouse control, and modular assembly. This high capacity reader will automatically read fourteen hundred TLD Cards in one loading. Up to four elements in a card can be heated without mechanical contact, using hot nitrogen gas. Improvements in performance include an increased throughput rate and more precise card positioning. Operation is simplified through easy-to-read Windows-type screens. Glow curves are displayed graphically along with light intensity, temperature, and channel scaling. Maintenance and diagnostic aids are included for easier troubleshooting. A click of a mouse will command actions that are displayed in easy-to-understand English words. Available options include an internal 90 Sr irradiator, automatic TLD calibration, and two different extremity monitoring modes. Results from testing include reproducibility, reader stability, linearity, detection threshold, residue, primary power supply voltage and frequency, transient voltage, drop testing, and light leakage. (author)
Pabion, Clémence; Clark, Christina
The Young Readers Programme (YRP) motivates children to read for enjoyment by running a series of three literacy-focused events, teaching children strategies to choose books that are right for them, and showing them that reading can be enjoyable. One of the most effective ways of developing children's literacy skills is to engage them in reading…
Bohle, Robert H.; Garcia, Mario R.
In order to discover reader reactions to color on a newspaper page, specifically eye movement and overall opinion of the paper, identical pages were created and printed by the "St. Petersburg Times" (Florida). The content of fifteen front pages, six lifestyles pages, and three sports front pages were nearly identical, differing only in the kind…
This article presents contemporary commentary on the previously published articles "Writing for the Reader: A Problem-Solution Approach" and "Motivating Learners at South Korean Universities." Having been out of the field of English as a foreign language for several years, the author was surprised and pleased when he was asked to write some…
Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.
As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 4, a collection of articles is presented in this reader for student browsing. The 21 articles are included under the following headings: Letter from Thomas Jefferson; On the Method of Theoretical Physics; Systems, Feedback, Cybernetics; Velocity of Light; Popular Applications of Polarized Light; Eye and…
Farrington-Flint, Lee; Wood, Clare; Canobi, Katherine H.; Faulkner, Dorothy
Despite compelling evidence that analogy skills are available to beginning readers, few studies have actually explored the possibility of identifying individual differences in young children's analogy skills in early reading. The present study examined individual differences in children's use of orthographic and phonological relations between…
Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan
This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…
... to have a visual impairment necessitating reader service includes a veteran: (1) Whose best corrected...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31... is limited to such an extent that the widest diameter of a visual field subtends to an angle no...
Davis, Beverly; Woodruff, Nancy S.
Six trade-related reading packets for disabled readers are provided for these trades: assemblers, baking, building maintenance, data entry, interior landscaping, and warehousing. Each packet stresses from 9 to 14 skills. Those skills common to most packets include context clues, fact or opinion, details, following directions, main idea,…
Hinton-Johnson, KaaVonia; Dickinson, Gail
Stocking the shelves of library media centers with multicultural literature is not enough, it is important that children are helped to choose the ones that would interest them as reading about various cultures is of great benefit to young readers. The importance of accurately representing to children a multicultural society is emphasized and…
Stover, Katie; O'Rear, Allison; Morris, Carolyn
Research suggests that additional reading instruction is necessary to support struggling adolescent readers. In addition to time allocated for reading and access to appropriately leveled texts, many students need teacher support in learning and implementing a range of reading strategies. As a high school English teacher and a middle school Social…
Tierney, Robert J; Mitchell, Judy Nichols
This collection features papers addressing current issues in reading comprehension from cognitive and linguistic perspectives. Organized into three sections, the volume investigates text considerations and reader-text interactions. Each paper presents a substantial and comprehensive review of theory and research related to cognition and reading comprehension.
Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.
This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…
This article draws on a careful study of series fiction read in the 1950s to explore how stereotypes feature in the development of a young reader's competence in learning to process stories in print. Five categories of stereotype are teased out: "embodied stereotypes," understood through physical experience; "working stereotypes," discerned…
All of us in the healthcare professions throughout the world can learn much from each other. This has been demonstrated so well by the collaboration between the editors, authors, medical experts and readers of the South Sudan Medical Journal. The Editor-in-Chief recently sent out a request for photographs and received a ...
Gradie, Patrick R; Litster, Megan; Thomas, Rinu; Vyas, Jay; Schiller, Martin R
A major problem patients encounter when reading about health related issues is document interpretation, which limits reading comprehension and therefore negatively impacts health care. Currently, searching for medical definitions from an external source is time consuming, distracting, and negatively impacts reading comprehension and memory of the material. SciReader was built as a Java application with a Flex-based front-end client. The dictionary used by SciReader was built by consolidating data from several sources and generating new definitions with a standardized syntax. The application was evaluated by measuring the percentage of words defined in different documents. A survey was used to test the perceived effect of SciReader on reading time and comprehension. We present SciReader, a web-application that simplifies document interpretation by allowing users to instantaneously view medical, English, and scientific definitions as they read any document. This tool reveals the definitions of any selected word in a small frame at the top of the application. SciReader relies on a dictionary of ~750,000 unique Biomedical and English word definitions. Evaluation of the application shows that it maps ~98% of words in several different types of documents and that most users tested in a survey indicate that the application decreases reading time and increases comprehension. SciReader is a web application useful for reading medical and scientific documents. The program makes jargon-laden content more accessible to patients, educators, health care professionals, and the general public.
Full Text Available This paper provides a description of an immunity test against the electrostatic discharge according to the standard EN 61000-4-2 that was applied to an RFID reader. The RFID reader was primarily developed for access systems, employing the on-board recognition of the RFID tags. The results obtained by the test are described hereby as well as the discussion on the security of this solution. The results of this experiment are beneficial for the developers of RFID devices, as these devices are endangered by the electrostatic discharge brought by their users. The hereby described results also shown a security hole in a simple access system based on the RFID technology. Details can be found in the paper.
Hooper, Clare; Weal, Mark
This demo is of a hypertext reading system called StorySpinner. It follows the sculptural hypertext methodology and has been used as a test bed for experimenting with the authoring of narrative flow in automatically generated stories. Readers are able to select and read one of two available stories. Reading a story involves selecting tarot cards which are mapped to chunks of story text based on possible interpretations of the cards and information concerning current story state.
A UK firm spun out from the University of Cambridge that sought to be a world leader in flexible organic electronic circuits and displays has pulled out of the competitive e-reader market as it struggles to find a commercial outlet for its technology. Plastic Logic announced in May that it is to close its development facility in Mountain View, California, with the loss of around 40 jobs.
Kasisopa, Benjawan; Reilly, Ronan G; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn; Burnham, Denis
It has recently been found that adult native readers of Thai, an alphabetic scriptio continua language, engage similar oculomotor patterns as readers of languages written with spaces between words; despite the lack of inter-word spaces, first and last characters of a word appear to guide optimal placement of Thai readers' eye movements, just to the left of word-centre. The issue addressed by the research described here is whether eye movements of Thai children also show these oculomotor patterns. Here the effect of first and last character frequency and word frequency on the eye movements of 18 Thai children when silently reading normal unspaced and spaced text was investigated. Linear mixed-effects model analyses of viewing time measures (first fixation duration, single fixation duration, and gaze duration) and of landing site location revealed that Thai children's eye movement patterns were similar to their adult counterparts. Both first character frequency and word frequency played important roles in Thai children's landing sites; children tended to land their eyes further into words, close to the word centre, if the word began with higher frequency first characters, and this effect was facilitated in higher frequency words. Spacing also facilitated more effective use of first character frequency and it also assisted in decreasing children's viewing time. The use of last-character frequency appeared to be a later development, affecting mainly single fixation duration and gaze duration. In general, Thai children use the same oculomotor control mechanisms in reading spaced and unspaced texts as Thai adults, who in turn have similar oculomotor control as readers of spaced texts. Thus, it appears that eye movements in reading converge on the optimal landing site using whatever cues are available to guide such placement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wikipedia Reader's Guide: The Missing Manual gives you the essential tools for getting the most out of Wikipedia. As a supplement to Wikipedia: The Missing Manual, this handbook provides a basic road map to the largest online collaborative encyclopedia. You'll learn the best ways to search Wikipedia for the information you need, how to navigate the encyclopedia by category, and what to do if you spot an error in an article.
Zhao Jianxing; Wang Jiaqi; Li Yuanfang; Wu Furong; Xiao Wuyun
The author summarized the main features of the improved RGD3 TLD reader. Through a large number of experiments some persuasive data are obtained, which show that an remarkable improvement has been achieved, especially in its stability to the standard illuminates, data dispersivity, and effectiveness to glow curves analysis. Working with the newly developed data processing software, the comprehensive performance of the whole system will be enhanced greatly
Full Text Available In the spirit of critical reflection, we examine how the field of global health might surmount current challenges and prioritize its ethical mandate, namely to achieve, for all people, equity in health. We use the parlance of mastering deadly sins and striving for greater virtues in an effort to review what is needed to transform global health action. Global health falls prey to four main temptations: coveting silo gains, lusting for technological solutions, leaving broad promises largely unfulfilled, and boasting of narrow successes. This necessitates a change of heart: to keep faith with the promise it made, global health requires a realignment of core values and a sharper focus on the primacy of relationships with the communities it serves. Based on the literature to date, we highlight six steps to re-orienting global health action. Articulating a coherent global health agenda will come from principled action, enacted through courage and prudence in decision-making to foster people-centered systems of care over the entire lifespan.
Full Text Available In RFID systems, the performance of each reader such as interrogation range and tag recognition rate may suffer from interferences from other readers. Since the reader interference can be mitigated by output signal power control, spectral and/or temporal separation among readers, the system performance depends on how to adapt the various reader arbitration metrics such as time, frequency, and output power to the system environment. However, complexity and difficulty of the optimization problem increase with respect to the variety of the arbitration metrics. Thus, most proposals in previous study have been suggested to primarily prevent the reader collision with consideration of one or two arbitration metrics. In this paper, we propose a novel cross-layer optimization design based on the concept of combining time division, frequency division, and power control not only to solve the reader interference problem, but also to achieve the multiple objectives such as minimum interrogation delay, maximum reader utilization, and energy efficiency. Based on the priority of the multiple objectives, our cross-layer design optimizes the system sequentially by means of the mixed-integer linear programming. In spite of the multi-stage optimization, the optimization design is formulated as a concise single mathematical form by properly assigning a weight to each objective. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization design.
Choi, Jinchul; Lee, Chaewoo
In RFID systems, the performance of each reader such as interrogation range and tag recognition rate may suffer from interferences from other readers. Since the reader interference can be mitigated by output signal power control, spectral and/or temporal separation among readers, the system performance depends on how to adapt the various reader arbitration metrics such as time, frequency, and output power to the system environment. However, complexity and difficulty of the optimization problem increase with respect to the variety of the arbitration metrics. Thus, most proposals in previous study have been suggested to primarily prevent the reader collision with consideration of one or two arbitration metrics. In this paper, we propose a novel cross-layer optimization design based on the concept of combining time division, frequency division, and power control not only to solve the reader interference problem, but also to achieve the multiple objectives such as minimum interrogation delay, maximum reader utilization, and energy efficiency. Based on the priority of the multiple objectives, our cross-layer design optimizes the system sequentially by means of the mixed-integer linear programming. In spite of the multi-stage optimization, the optimization design is formulated as a concise single mathematical form by properly assigning a weight to each objective. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization design. PMID:22163743
Ifidon, Betty I.
Identifies major problems that affect reader's services departments in Nigerian university libraries. Highlights include the functions of the reader's services department, including circulation, collection management, user education, and interlibrary loan; student population explosion; funding shortages; staffing shortages; and suggested…
...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2850 Automated zone reader. (a) Identification. An automated zone reader is a mechanical device intended for medical purposes to...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...
Prtljaga, Jelena; Palinkaševic, Radmila; Brkic, Jovana
Graded readers have been used as second language teaching material since the end of the Second World War. They are an important source of simplified material which provides comprehensible input on all levels. It is of crucial importance for a successful usage of graded readers in the classroom and in studies which focus on graded readers, that an…
Abu-rabia, Salim; Taha, Haitham
This study was an investigation of reading and spelling errors of dyslexic Arabic readers ("n"=20) compared with two groups of normal readers: a young readers group, matched with the dyslexics by reading level ("n"=20) and an age-matched group ("n"=20). They were tested on reading and spelling of texts, isolated…
Ansarin, Ali Akbar; Tarlani-Aliabdi, Hassan
There is an increasing interest in the way academic writers establish the presence of their readers over the past few years. Establishing the presence of readers or what Kroll (1984, p.181) calls imagining "a second voice" is accomplished when a writer refers "explicitly" to their readers using explicit linguistic resources…
Roberts, Greg; Fletcher, Jack M.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Barth, Amy E.; Vaughn, Sharon
This study used multigroup structural equations to evaluate the possibility that a theory-driven, evidence-based, yearlong reading program for sixth-grade struggling readers moderates the interrelationships among elements of the simple model of reading (i.e., listening comprehension, word reading, and reading comprehension; Hoover & Gough,…
Wise, Nancy; D'Angelo, Nadia; Chen, Xi
The current intervention study investigated the sustained effectiveness of phonological awareness training on the reading development of 16 children in French immersion who were identified as at-risk readers based on grade 1 English measures. The intervention program provided children from three cohorts with supplemental reading in small groups on…
Rodriguez, Manuel Lopez; Garcia, Jose A. Tamayo; Gil, Alex Vergara; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez; Acosta, Andry Romero; Villanueva, Gilberto Alonso, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)
The acquisition of know how of practical experiences obtained in the repair and maintenance of readers TLD RADOS for five years of work and the request by the International Atomic Energy for signing new Research Contracts (CRP), made possible the CRP 13328, in which the specialist is committed in the course of a year, to deliver educational software in order to train personnel associated with the operation of the TLD readers RADOS. Due to the importance of continuous transfer of knowledge for new generations of technicians and specialists who join our laboratories, the idea came when the first interactive CD that grouped 19 videos, divided into three blocks was ready: learning, repair and maintenance; it was suggested to expand the training for any TLD reader. Thus a much more complete than the first version package emerged. 7 cases were subsequently published in an IAEA TECDOC, 1599 were included.
Janis L. Dickinson
Full Text Available In 1973, Ernest Becker, a cultural anthropologist cross-trained in philosophy, sociology, and psychiatry, invoked consciousness of self and the inevitability of death as the primary sources of human anxiety and repression. He proposed that the psychological basis of cooperation, competition, and emotional and mental health is a tendency to hold tightly to anxiety-buffering cultural world views or "immortality projects" that serve as the basis for self-esteem and meaning. Although he focused mainly on social and political outcomes like war, torture, and genocide, he was increasingly aware that materialism, denial of nature, and immortality-striving efforts to control, rather than sanctify, the natural world were problems whose severity was increasing. In this paper I review Becker's ideas and suggest ways in which they illuminate human response to global climate change. Because immortality projects range from belief in technology and materialism to reverence for nature or belief in a celestial god, they act both as barriers to and facilitators of sustainable practices. I propose that Becker's cross-disciplinary "science of man," and the predictions it generates for proximate-level determinants of social behavior, add significantly to our understanding of and potential for managing the people paradox, i.e., that the very things that bring us symbolic immortality often conflict with our prospects for survival. Analysis of immortality projects as one of the proximate barriers to addressing climate change is both cautionary and hopeful, providing insights that should be included in the cross-disciplinary quest to uncover new pathways toward rational, social change.
Full Text Available During the last four decades, China has moved from being an isolated country separated from the international community to having become one of the world’s major powers. It is vital to understand what is guiding Chinese foreign policy, why this is so, and not least what kind of power China is and will be in the future. This article analyses the vital elements and thinking that guides Chinese foreign policy, its priorities and decision making process. It is found that China's foreign policy is embedded in domestic issues. The foremost foreign policy objective is domestic political stability, which in turn is a necessity for the survival of one-party rule. Both are dependent on a combination of two key factors: continuing domestic economic growth and nationalism. The foreign policy is also closely linked to the Chinese self-perception, both its self-superiority/self-inferiority dualism and its multitude of confusing (overlapping identities about what China is and should be. A key turning year is 2008 when the "global" financial crisis severely affected the United States and Europe at a time of Chinese economic success, which gave China confidence to pursue a more active and aggressive/assertive stance on the international stage. It is concluded that China under Xi Jinping will not be a status que power accepting the world as it is, but nor are we to expect China to become a revisionist power aiming to remodel the global order. China is what can best be described as a responsible reformer "striving for achievements".
Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative studies using generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL questionnaires have shown that osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures have a significant negative effect on HRQOL, but there are only few studies that address what it means to live with vertebral fracture from a deeper experiential perspective. How HRQOL and daily life are affected several years after vertebral fracture and how women cope with this are more unclear. This study aimed to describe how HRQOL and daily life had been affected in women with vertebral fracture several years after diagnosis. Methods The study design was qualitative. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Swedish women during 2008. Data were analysed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Results The findings of this study revealed three themes related to the influence on HRQOL and daily life: A threatened independence, i.e. back pain, anxiety, negative impact on self-image and consequences in daily life; Strategies for maintaining independence, i.e. coping, self-care and support; and The importance of maintaining independence, i.e. the ability to perform everyday activities, social interaction and having something meaningful to do. The women were striving for independence or maintaining their independence by trying to manage different types of symptoms and consequences in different ways. Conclusion HRQOL and daily life were strongly affected in a negative way by the impact of the vertebral fracture. Information from this study may provide new knowledge and understanding of the women's experiences of living with vertebral fracture from an insider's point of view in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the women's everyday life. However, further evaluation is still needed in larger study groups.
Moberg, Julie Y; Larsen, Dorte; Brødsgaard, Anne
To explore and describe how young adults between 18-25 years of age experienced growing up with a parent with multiple sclerosis and how these experiences continue to influence their daily lives. Chronic parental illness is occurring in about 10% of families worldwide, but little is known about how the children experience growing up with a parent with multiple sclerosis during their childhood and into young adulthood. We chose a qualitative design using a phenomenological approach based on Giorgi. Exploratory and open-ended interviews with 14 young adults were conducted. The essence of the phenomenon of having a parent with multiple sclerosis was synthesized into 'Striving for balance between caring and restraint' from two themes 'caring' and 'restraint' and eight subthemes. Participants' experiences of caring for parents with multiple sclerosis continued influencing their other close relationships, in which they tended to assume responsibility while concealing some of their feelings and desires. Most participants showed restraint among parents with and without multiple sclerosis, friends and partners. It seems that one of the greatest challenges of having a parent with multiple sclerosis is achieving a balance between caring for others and asserting one's own desires. Healthcare professionals can support the family by encouraging family members to participate in consultations and to assist the parents in providing information about multiple sclerosis and its symptoms to the children. Parents might need assistance in applying for help with domestic chores or referrals to support groups for their children or other family members. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available From the scientific perspective this review is very interesting. It is well-structured, has an attractive lay-out and typography and serves as an important forum for the scientific debate on public administration in the Republic of Moldova. Furthermore, there is a special website with several subwebsites for the review. This makes it easy for every interested reader to get an idea of the review. Finally, the websites allows free downloads even of the newest issue. This allows everybody to read it, even students (because it is free and foreign researchers (who otherwise would not have access to Moldovan scientific reviews.
Here is a handy and attractive reader to support students on post-16 courses. It covers the astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology that are demanded at A-level and offers anyone interested in these fields an interesting and engaging reference book. The author and the production team deserve credit for producing such an attractive book. The content, in ten chapters, covers what one would expect at this level but it is how it is presented that struck me as the book's most powerful asset. Each chapter ends with a summary of key ideas. Line drawings are clear and convey enough information to make them more than illustrations - they are as valuable as the text in conveying information. Full colour is used throughout to enhance illustrations and tables and to lift key sections of the text. A number of colour photographs complement the material and serve to maintain interest and remind readers that astrophysics is about real observable phenomena. Included towards the end is a set of tables offering information on physical and astronomical data, mathematical techniques and constellation names and abbreviations. This last table puzzled me as to its value. There is a helpful bibliography which includes society contacts and a website related to the text. Perhaps my one regret is that there is no section where students are encouraged to actually do some real astronomy. Astrophysics is in danger of becoming an armchair and calculator interest. There are practical projects that students could undertake either for school assessment or for personal interest. Simple astrophotography to capture star trails, observe star colours and estimate apparent magnitudes is an example, as is a simple double-star search. There are dozens more. However, the author's style is friendly and collaborative. He befriends the reader as they journey together through the ideas. There are progress questions at the end of each chapter. Their style tends to be rather closed and they emphasize factual recall
Johnson, Jill Caton
This article shares a simple questionnaire that can be used with students to ascertain their understanding of good readers and the strategies they use. Responses from a questionnaire administered in January and August in one fourth-grade classroom are categorized and shared. The responses show the students' belief that good reading is done by both…
Furnes, Bjarte; Norman, Elisabeth
Metacognition refers to 'cognition about cognition' and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) versus normally developing readers (N = 22). Participants read two factual texts, with learning outcome measured by a memory task. Metacognitive knowledge and skills were assessed by self-report. Metacognitive experiences were measured by predictions of performance and judgments of learning. Individuals with dyslexia showed insight into their reading problems, but less general knowledge of how to approach text reading. They more often reported lack of available reading strategies, but groups did not differ in the use of deep and surface strategies. Learning outcome and mean ratings of predictions of performance and judgments of learning were lower in dyslexic readers, but not the accuracy with which metacognitive experiences predicted learning. Overall, the results indicate that dyslexic reading and spelling problems are not generally associated with lower levels of metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive strategies or sensitivity to metacognitive experiences in reading situations. 2015 The Authors. Dyslexia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The readers' advisory service was a product of social forces operating in the context of early twentieth century capitalism. The work of French regulation theorists provides a framework for analyzing these forces using the concepts of regime of accumulation and mode of regulation. Libraries were connected in a society-wide project, as opposed to…
Wilson, Nance S.; Kelley, Michelle J.
This article describes a pilot study conducted with 10 identified avid adolescent readers who completed the Adolescent Motivation to Read Profile (AMRP) (Pitcher, Albright, DeLaney, Walker, Seunarienesingh, & Moggie, 2007) that includes both a survey to determine students' self-concept and value of reading and an interview that sheds light on what…
This paper reports on two projects which investigated graded readers (GRs) as meaningful input for learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). Project One examined the intentions of six writers of Japanese GRs. A focus group interview demonstrated that the writers had a genuine communicative intent in the writing process. Project Two…
Smith, Alison L; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan L; Vansteenkiste, Maarten
Developing upon cross-sectional research (Smith, Ntoumanis, & Duda, 2007) supporting the self-concordance model (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999) as a framework for contextual goal striving, the current study investigated the assumptions of the model in relation to season-long goal striving in sport. The study additionally examined the role of coping strategies in the persistence of goal-directed effort. Structural equation modeling analysis with a sample of 97 British athletes indicated that start-of-season autonomous goal motives were linked to midseason effort, which subsequently predicted end-of-season goal attainment. Attainment was positively related to changes in psychological need satisfaction, which, in turn, predicted changes in emotional well-being. In a second model, autonomous and controlled motives positively predicted task- and disengagement-oriented coping strategies, respectively. In turn, these strategies were differentially associated with effort. The findings provide support for contextual adaptations of the self-concordance model and demonstrate the role of coping strategies in the goal striving process.
Full Text Available How knowledge is negotiated between the makers of encyclopedias and their audiences remains an ongoing question in research on encyclopedias. A comparative content analysis of the published answers of letters to the editor of the German Meyers Konversationslexikon (Korrespondenzblatt from 1885 and the discussion pages of the article potato of the German Wikipedia (2013 reveals continuities as well as changes in the communication between encyclopedia producers and their audiences. The main reasons why readers and editors communicate are the need for updated factual information, an exchange on editorial principles and the intellectual exchange of ideas on ideological and philosophical questions in relation to the encyclopedic content. Editors and readers attach a lot of importance to the process of verifying information through bibliographical references. Whereas, for the editors of Meyers Konversationslexikon the leading role of experts remains undisputed, Wikipedians work in a contradictory situation. They are on the one hand exposing knowledge production to a permanent process of negotiation, thereby challenging the role of experts, on the other hand relying strongly on bibliographical authorities. Whilst the reasons for the communication between readers and editors of Meyers Konversationslexikon and among Wikipedia contributors coincide, the understanding of the roles of readers and editors differ. The editors of the Korrespondenzblatt keep up a lecturing attitude. As opposed to this, administrators in Wikipedia want to encourage participation and strive to develop expertise among the participating contributors. Albeit power relations between administrators, regular authors, occasional authors and readers continue to exist they are comparatively flat and transient. Regardless of these differences, the comparison between Meyers Konversationslexikon and Wikipedia indicates that the sine qua non for activating an upwards spiral of quality
Jawas, N.; Indrianto
Water meter is used as a tool to calculate water consumption. This tool works by utilizing water flow and shows the calculation result with mechanical digit counter. Practically, in everyday use, an operator will manually check the digit counter periodically. The Operator makes logs of the number shows by water meter to know the water consumption. This manual operation is time consuming and prone to human error. Therefore, in this paper we propose an automatic water meter digit reader from digital image. The digits sequence is detected by utilizing contour information of the water meter front panel.. Then an OCR method is used to get the each digit character. The digit sequence detection is an important part of overall process. It determines the success of overall system. The result shows promising results especially in sequence detection.
Hartley, Jannie Møller
Studies suggest that online news journalists are very sceptical towards the value of the user participation, because of what they perceive as poor quality of the public participation, the scepticism varies from one interactivity feature to another and from newsroom to newsroom. This paper examines...... how online journalists are constructing their readers, seeking to explain how these views affect practices of journalism. Gans idea of the “constructed public” is re-visited, by analyzing the newsroom negotiations between one hand enabling the user participation and on the other hand their very...... scepticism towards it, dismissing audience feedback because they see it as largely unrepresentative of the general population (Gans, 1980; 230-5). The doors opened by interactivity in the newsrooms, thus equally opens the discussion of journalistic autonomy and specialist knowledge. And guarding the gate can...
G. Smietanka; S. Brato; M. Freudenberg; J. Götze
The development of a flexible software defined RFID is discused. Commercial reader systems only allow a top level view on the communication and restrict the variation for many transmission parameters. Recently a software reader from the CGran project was proposed which uses the GNU Radio environment in combination with an USRP front end. Because most of the signal processing is done on a common host PC, this reader offers high flexibility, but also has several disadvantages. One ...
Engelsma, Joshua J.; Arora, Sunpreet S.; Jain, Anil K.; Paulter Jr, Nicholas G.
We present the design and manufacturing of high fidelity universal 3D fingerprint targets, which can be imaged on a variety of fingerprint sensing technologies, namely capacitive, contact-optical, and contactless-optical. Universal 3D fingerprint targets enable, for the first time, not only a repeatable and controlled evaluation of fingerprint readers, but also the ability to conduct fingerprint reader interoperability studies. Fingerprint reader interoperability refers to how robust fingerpr...
Barrella, Kristi; Besden, Cheryl; Crow, Nita; Greenberg, Maya Delgado; Shrieves, Gary; Smith, Katie A.; Vickroy, Marcia
Like many other states, California is facing a daunting budget deficit, reportedly about $19 billion. Delayed budgets have held up the disbursement of money, affecting school programs in districts as well as at the California School for the Blind (CSB). The current financial constraints have had an impact on CSB's programs. Its department of seven…
83 sound defense program "lanagerrent of these review of the program by the House Appropriations scarce resources dcmands tne slime degree of at...initiator of the bargaining event. and strive harder for success. 7. Uncertainty and Courage 2. Punishment or Non-Reward Who has the least fear of
Full Text Available Dear Cross-Currents readers, We are pleased to present you with the fifteenth quarterly issue of the Cross-Currents e-journal. The research articles in the June 2015 issue—guest edited by Elena Barabantseva (University of Manchester, Xiang Biao (University of Oxford, and Antonia Chao (Tunghai University—explore the theme “Governing Marriage Migrations: Perspectives from Mainland China and Taiwan.” The issue includes five articles by scholars from Japan, Germany, the UK, Taiwan, and Hong Kong who are engaged in critical analysis of cross-border migration for the purpose of marriage in the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan as a subject of governance. As the guest editors emphasize in their introduction, cross-border marriage is “perceived to be inseparable from a wide range of other issues, such as sexual morality, family norms, national identity, and border security.” The contributors—Hongfang Hao (Kyoto University, Caroline Grillot (Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Elena Barabantseva (University of Manchester, Mei-Hua Chen (National Sun Yat-sen University, and Hsun-Hui Tseng (Chinese University of Hong Kong—offer valuable new insights on international marriage migration in their multidisciplinary and fieldwork-based studies...
STI in remote communities: improved and enhanced primary health care (STRIVE) study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing ‘usual practice’ STI care to enhanced care in remote primary health care services in Australia
Background Despite two decades of interventions, rates of sexually transmissible infections (STI) in remote Australian Aboriginal communities remain unacceptably high. Routine notifications data from 2011 indicate rates of chlamydia and gonorrhoea among Aboriginal people in remote settings were 8 and 61 times higher respectively than in the non-Indigenous population. Methods/design STRIVE is a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial designed to compare a sexual health quality improvement program (SHQIP) to usual STI clinical care delivered in remote primary health care services. The SHQIP is a multifaceted intervention comprising annual assessments of sexual health service delivery, implementation of a sexual health action plan, six-monthly clinical service activity data reports, regular feedback meetings with a regional coordinator, training and financial incentive payments. The trial clusters comprise either a single community or several communities grouped together based on geographic proximity and cultural ties. The primary outcomes are: prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomonas in Aboriginal residents aged 16–34 years, and performance in clinical management of STIs based on best practice indicators. STRIVE will be conducted over five years comprising one and a half years of trial initiation and community consultation, three years of trial conditions, and a half year of data analysis. The trial was initiated in 68 remote Aboriginal health services in the Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia. Discussion STRIVE is the first cluster randomised trial in STI care in remote Aboriginal health services. The trial will provide evidence to inform future culturally appropriate STI clinical care and control strategies in communities with high STI rates. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000358044 PMID:24016143
STI in remote communities: improved and enhanced primary health care (STRIVE) study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing 'usual practice' STI care to enhanced care in remote primary health care services in Australia.
Ward, James; McGregor, Skye; Guy, Rebecca J; Rumbold, Alice R; Garton, Linda; Silver, Bronwyn J; Taylor-Thomson, Debbie; Hengel, Belinda; Knox, Janet; Dyda, Amalie; Law, Matthew G; Wand, Handan; Donovan, Basil; Fairley, Christopher K; Skov, Steven; Ah Chee, Donna; Boffa, John; Glance, David; McDermott, Robyn; Maher, Lisa; Kaldor, John M
Despite two decades of interventions, rates of sexually transmissible infections (STI) in remote Australian Aboriginal communities remain unacceptably high. Routine notifications data from 2011 indicate rates of chlamydia and gonorrhoea among Aboriginal people in remote settings were 8 and 61 times higher respectively than in the non-Indigenous population. STRIVE is a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial designed to compare a sexual health quality improvement program (SHQIP) to usual STI clinical care delivered in remote primary health care services. The SHQIP is a multifaceted intervention comprising annual assessments of sexual health service delivery, implementation of a sexual health action plan, six-monthly clinical service activity data reports, regular feedback meetings with a regional coordinator, training and financial incentive payments. The trial clusters comprise either a single community or several communities grouped together based on geographic proximity and cultural ties. The primary outcomes are: prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomonas in Aboriginal residents aged 16-34 years, and performance in clinical management of STIs based on best practice indicators. STRIVE will be conducted over five years comprising one and a half years of trial initiation and community consultation, three years of trial conditions, and a half year of data analysis. The trial was initiated in 68 remote Aboriginal health services in the Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia. STRIVE is the first cluster randomised trial in STI care in remote Aboriginal health services. The trial will provide evidence to inform future culturally appropriate STI clinical care and control strategies in communities with high STI rates. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000358044.
Yan, Ming; Pan, Jinger; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Shu, Hua
In the present study, we manipulated different types of information available in the parafovea during the reading of Chinese sentences and examined how deaf readers make use of the parafoveal information. Results clearly indicate that although the reading-level matched hearing readers make greater use of orthographic information in the parafovea,…
Gençer, Yusuf; ÇetiInkaya, Gökhan
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between connectives in Turkish texts and readers' reading comprehension. Research was conducted with a total of 50 teachers. In the study group, readers' reading comprehension was determined through 10 descriptive texts by using open-ended questions. The results of the analysis revealed…
Hall, Tracey E.; Cohen, Nicole; Vue, Ge; Ganley, Patricia
CAST created "Strategic Reader," a technology-based system blending Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) in a digital learning environment to improve reading comprehension instruction. This experimental study evaluates the effectiveness of Strategic Reader using two treatment conditions for measuring…
Swanson, H. Lee
The role of subvocalization in 12 learning disabled (LD) adolescent readers' comprehension difficulties was studied. Nondisabled and LD readers were compared on silent reading and listening comprehension of noun lexical, verb lexical, semantic, and inferential sentences under conditions of suppressed and nonsuppressed subvocalization. (Author/SW)
Lesbian-Gay-Bisexual-Transgender-Queer (LGBTQ) representation in composition readers remains limited and is frequently nonexistent. In addition, the LGBTQ-related materials that do find their way into composition readers are often problematic. In this essay I explain why WPAs and composition teachers should be concerned about LGBTQ representation…
Zimbardo, Philip G.; Meadow, Wendy
This document reports on an empirical investigation of anti-women humor appearing in the Reader's Digest over three decades, revealing the operation of an unconscious sexist ideology. A systematic analysis was made of 1,069 jokes appearing in two featured columns of the Reader's Digest for the two-year periods 1947-48, 1957-58, and 1967-68.…
Peoples, Clayton D.
Social stratification is a core substantive area within sociology. There are a number of textbooks and readers available on the market that deal with this central topic. In this article, I conduct a comparative review of (a) four stratification textbooks and (b) four stratification readers. (Contains 2 tables.)
Gragson, Gay; Selzer, Jack
Analyzes two scientific journal articles from a reader-response perspective. Elaborates the rhetorical nature of scientific discourse and demonstrates that even within the constraints of the journal articles, scientists have considerable freedom to exercise choices. Explicates how writers use cues to direct readers into fictional roles. (MG)
Often the difference between a successful and unsuccessful reader is that the former is simply better at finding enjoyable books to read. The capacity to select appealing reading is not developed in classrooms where the decision about what book to read is made by someone other than the reader: the teacher, the curriculum planner, the person who…
Centre for Information on Language Teaching, London (England).
This publication, part of a bibliography of language teaching materials, lists 91 readers. It contains a contents list, annotated entries, an index of authors, editors, compilers and adapters, and a title index. In addition to basic bibliographical details, the following are provided for each entry: an annotation describing the reader, a statement…
Taylor, Jessica Nelson; Perfetti, Charles A.
Two experiments demonstrate that individual differences among normal adult readers, including lexical quality, are expressed in silent reading at the word level. In the first of two studies we identified major dimensions of variability among college readers and among words using factor analysis. We then examined the effects of these dimensions of…
Simon, C.; Huertas, J. A.
Twenty-six expert adult readers, 13 of whom were blind, were compared for how they perceived and retrieved written information. The study found that braille readers were not limited to the isolated identification of individual braille characters as previously thought, but could integrate greater quantities of written information. Implications for…
Infographics are one of the new educational environments used to provide information to their readers in a visual way. Infographics are designed to provide information to their readers using various visuals such as texts, pictures, drawings, diagrams, graphs, etc. The use of infographics becomes increasingly widespread both in advertising…
To help struggling readers' improve their reading, educational consultants must know a great deal about reading, reading assessment, and struggling readers. This article provides basic information about these topics by discussing Lipson and Wixson's (2003) Assessment-Instruction Process, making recommendations for working with struggling readers…
Holcombe, S J
In an interview, Mechai Viravaidya, secretary general of the Population and Community Development Association (PDA) of Thailand, said that there is a great need in rural areas for earning a higher income. Much economic development has taken place in Thailand, but most of it is in Bangkok. This is what led to the development of the Thailand Business Initiative in Rural Development (TBIRD) Program. He also said that it is very important for nongovernmental organizations to have programs that are self-supporting and which generate income. In the 6th year of the PDAs community-based family planning program, it came to be half self-financing from the return on contraceptives. The PDA sold contraceptives at 1/3 the market price. He said that if people pay for contraceptives, they will use them. If you give them away free, you never know. Some of the PDAs programs, he feels, will never be self- financing. Service and sales activities are part of the fund-raising program. PDA runs the Cabbage and Condom Restaurant and catering service in Bangkok. It also sells condom key chains, T-shirts, and other items. The urban health checkup program has generated 4.2 million baht (about US $167,000) in 1988. More companies have been paying attention to workers health lately. The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning helped to start this program. The Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control Project has aided improved health conditions, Viravaidya feels. Furthermore, a technical base was built so that toilet construction, water storage, and water sanitation projects could be carried out. Some money from the income generation projects could be put into latrine and water tank construction. Construction of over 20,000 water storage units (tanks, giant jars) has been done. The villagers have financed the health and sanitary improvement costs. PDA will not expand in the future, except for some self-reliant programs like factory and school health
Trabelsi, Zouheir; Al-Hemairy, Mohamed; Baggili, Ibrahim; Amin, Saad
This paper investigates the effect of common network attacks on the performance, and security of several biometric readers. Experiments are conducted using Denial of Service attacks (DoSs) and the ARP cache poisoning attack. The experiments show that the tested biometric readers are vulnerable to DoS attacks, and their recognition performance is significantly affected after launching the attacks. However, the experiments show that the tested biometric readers are secure from the ARP cache poisoning attack. This work demonstrates that biometric readers are easy targets for malicious network users, lack basic security mechanisms, and are vulnerable to common attacks. The confidentiality, and integrity of the log files in the biometric readers, could be compromised with such attacks. It then becomes important to study these attacks in order to find flags that could aid in a network forensic investigation of a biometric device.
Full Text Available This paper deals with an important issue related to the human attitudes and needs in interpersonal and professional aspects. The theoretical part deals with several psychological components of the self-esteem and esteem of the others – acceptance of the others, feeling of being accepted, need for approval. Some gender differences in manifestations of acceptance and feeling of being accepted at the workplace are discussed. This article presents some empirical data for the degree of acceptance of others, feeling of being accepted and the strive for being accepted among the representatives of helping, pedagogical, administrative and economic occupations, as well as non-qualified workers. The goals of the study were to reveal the interdependency between these constructs and to be found some significant differences between the representatives of the four groups of occupations. The methods of the first study were W. Fey’s scales “Acceptance of others”, and “How do I feel accepted by others”. The method of the second study was Crown and Marlowe Scale for Social Desirability. The results indicated some significant differences in acceptance of others and feeling of being accepted between the non-qualified workers and the representatives of helping, administrative and economic occupations. There were not any significant difference in strive for being accepted between the fouroccupational groups.
Ng, Victor; Walsh, Allyn; de Silva, Nandani; Politi, Eleni; Grusauskas, Heather
While all physicians must continue to learn new knowledge through their careers, their post-training continuing professional development (CPD) has received less attention. Problems include lack of support for physicians, frequent deviations from best practices such as mandatory participation, focus on community need, and clear conflicts of interest amongst providers. Additionally, specialists from other disciplines catering to different patient populations often provide CPD for family doctors. The Working Party on Education of the World Organisation of Family Doctors (WONCA) sought to develop global standards in CPD for family doctors. The standards were developed through an iterative process with reference to published best practices for effective CPD. Adapted for family doctors from the World Federation for Medical Education's CPD for Medical Doctors: WFME Global Standards for Quality Improvement', the WONCA CPD Standards for Family Doctors were approved by WONCA Council in November 2016. The objectives of the standards are to: (1) Provide a resource for family doctors and/or groups of family doctors to design and structure a program of CPD to reinforce lifelong learning; (2) Optimise current CPD systems such that, through more effective program design and delivery, family doctors are advancing in patient care and their discipline; (3) Offer a set of globally recognised standards developed through a family medicine perspective to provide feedback on existing CPD programs and systems and encourage international recognition of CPD activities. The WONCA Global CPD Standards should inspire best practices in family medicine CPD, assisting family doctors in providing excellent care.
MacDonald, Colla J; McKeen, Martha; Wooltorton, Eric; Boucher, Francois; Lemelin, Jacques; Leith-Gudbranson, Donna; Viner, Gary; Pullen, Judi
Postgraduate medical education programs will need to be restructured in order to respond to curriculum initiatives promoted by the College of Family Physicians of Canada. To develop a framework for the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum that will help provide residents with quality family medicine (FM) education programs. The Family Medicine Curriculum Framework (FMCF) incorporates the 4 principles of FM, the CanMEDs-FM roles, the Triple C curriculum principles, the curriculum content domains, and the pedagogic strategies, all of which support the development of attitudes, knowledge, and skills in postgraduate FM training programs. The FMCF was an effective approach to the development of an FM curriculum because it incorporated not only core competencies of FM health education but also contextual educational values, principles, and dynamic learning approaches. In addition, the FMCF provided a foundation and quality standard to designing, delivering, and evaluating the FM curriculum to ensure it met the needs of FM education stakeholders, including preceptors, residents, and patients and their families.
Full Text Available This study investigates college students’ reading behaviors and attitudes toward print and electronic carriers of books. With the prosperity and variety of ebook readers currently, it is important to understand the genuine needs of the users to better leverage the features and functions of the ebook readers. The methodology of survey research is conducted to explore 76 undergraduate students’ experiences, preferences and appraisals toward reading via the print books and ebook readers. Generally the college students possess positive attitudes toward and are willing to take advantage of the ebook and ebook reader services provided by libraries, but the current rate of use is low. The results suggested that student adoption of ebook readers are affected by their goals of reading. The college students prefer ebook readers significantly for leisure reading, and highly demand the functionality of multimedia presentations and file management. When reading academic contexts, the college students preferred hardcovers and online ebooks via the Web browser, and they value the functions of searching, marking and file management on ebook readers especially. [Article content in Chinese
Rosa del Carmen Flores Macías
Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the cognitive processes associated with reading difficulties of teenage poor readers. Several studies suggest that this population presents a poor comprehension, despite reading the words properly and have good phonological skills (which distinguishes them from a population with dyslexia. With a comparative cross-sectional design the Sicole-R multimedia battery, which assesses basic cognitive processes related to reading, was applied to participants. Results indicate that poor reader students exhibit a lower performance than normal readers in phonological awareness, orthographic processing and processing syntax, although only the latter comparison was statistically significant.
Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Akhter, Fahim
The evolution of Information and Communication Technology and the rapid growth of the Internet have fuelled a great diffusion of eCommerce websites. Usually these sites have complex layouts crowded with active elements, and thus are difficult to navigate via screen reader. Interactive environments should be properly designed and delivered to everyone, including the blind, who usually use screen readers to interact with their computers. In this paper we investigate the interaction of blind users with eBay, a popular eCommerce website, and discuss how using the W3C Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) suite could improve the user experience when navigating via screen reader.
This study deals with Clipped Words in the “Laughter, the Best Medicine” of Reader's Digest. The objectives of the study are to find out the types of clipped words which are used in the “Laughter, the Best Medicine” of Reader's Digest, to find out sthe dominantly used in the whole story and to reason the dominant clipped word use in the text. The study use descriptive qualitative method. The data were collected from seventeen selected Reader's Digest which contains the clipped word by applie...
Wilson, Marian; Ice, Suzanna; Nakashima, Cathy Y; Cox, Lynn Annette; Morse, Elizabeth C; Philip, Ginu; Vuong, Ellen
The purpose of this study was to pilot a "hybrid" style journal club and determine whether measurable effects could be detected over 8-weeks' time on evidence-based practice ability, desire, behaviors, use, and barriers. Journal clubs have been suggested as a method to increase nurses' confidence with using research evidence to guide practice. However, it is yet unknown how nurse educators can best implement effective programs for clinicians with varying schedules, education levels, and research skills. Thirty-six participants from one large urban United States hospital (72% registered nurses) were invited to access bi-weekly interdisciplinary journal club activities. Nurse educators created curriculum focused on clinical problem solving that was offered via in-person sessions or a social media site. A pretest-posttest no control group design was used to measure impacts of those engaged in journal club activities. Data were collected using a combination of validated evidence-based practice instruments and program participation records. A two-tailed paired t test showed significant increases over 8weeks' time in evidence-based practice use (p=.002) and behaviors (p=.007). Slight preference for in-person sessions was reported, although greater participation was reflected in online activities. Mean satisfaction ratings were high; however, attrition rates suggest that more is needed to maximize clinician engagement. A hybrid method using online and in-person sessions was feasible and adaptive for varying learning styles and work schedules. Positive changes in measurements were detected among journal club participants. Instruments were identified that may be useful for trialing similar programs intended to increase evidence-based practice self-efficacy, use, behaviors, and ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yahaya, N. A. N.; Rajapaksha, R. D. A. A.; Uda, M. N. Afnan; Hashim, U.
Generally, the electrical biosensor usually shows extremely low current signal output around pico ampere to microampere range. In this research, electronic reader with amplifier has been demonstrated to detect ultra low current via the biosensor. The operational amplifier Burr-Brown OPA 128 and Arduino Uno board were used to construct the portable electronic reader. There are two cascaded inverting amplifier were used to detect ultra low current through the biosensor from pico amperes (pA) to nano amperes ranges (nA). A small known input current was form by applying variable voltage between 0.1V to 5.0V across a 5GΩ high resistor to check the amplifier circuit. The amplifier operation was measured with the high impedance current source and has been compared with the theoretical measurement. The Arduino Uno was used to convert the analog signal to digital signal and process the data to display on reader screen. In this project, Proteus software was used to design and test the circuit. Then it was implemented together with Arduino Uno board. Arduino board was programmed using C programming language to make whole circuit communicate each order. The current was measured then it shows a small difference values compared to theoretical values, which is approximately 14pA.
Paliwal, Lovely; Mishra, D.R.; Kulkarni, M.S.
An OSL Reader system has been designed and developed for luminescence dating, radiation dosimetry and research applications. The reader system can work in TL, OSL or simultaneous TL-OSL modes of operations. The system has a facility for readout of eight samples mounted on a circular disc in a programmed way. The control subsystem is based on industrial standard, programmable logic controller. The system has a MMI (Man Machine Interface) through which user can give command and can select various modes of operations. The instrument is connected to PC through an RS-232 serial interface and can be operated through PC terminal. The system has been tested for the CW-OSL measurement. (author)
The potential for both positive and negative effects arising from direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines challenges health policymakers to develop regulatory schemes which selectively capture the positive aspects of the practice. Australia has dealt with this quandary by banning the practice, while New Zealand and the United States permit it. However, in recent times pharmaceutical companies have been increasingly successful in introducing promotional materials into the Australian market. This article demonstrates that the Australian ban is consistent with striving for the major policy goal of quality use of medicines, thus providing the basis for arguing that solutions to strengthen the ban against the identified threats ought to be implemented. Quality use of medicines can be most effectively achieved via the combined effect of the strengthened ban and the mimicking of the limited positive aspects of direct-to-consumer advertising by government provision of non-promotional information to consumers.
Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Pred, Robert S.
Psychometric analyses of college students' responses to the Jenkins Activity Survey, a self-report measure of the Type A behavior pattern, revealed the presence of two relatively independent factors. Based on these analyses, two scales, labeled Achievement Strivings (AS) and Impatience and Irritability (II), were developed. In two samples of male and female college students, scores on AS but not on II were found to be significantly correlated with grade point average. Responses to a health survey, on the other hand, indicated that frequency of physical complaints was significantly correlated with II but not with AS. These results suggest that there are two relatively independent factors in the Type A pattern that have differential effects on performance and health. Future research on the personality factors related to coronary heart disease and other disorders might more profitably focus on the syndrome reflected in the II scale than on the Type A pattern.
Smith, Alison; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan
Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and the self-concordance model (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999), this study examined the motivational processes underlying goal striving in sport as well as the role of perceived coach autonomy support in the goal process. Structural equation modeling with a sample of 210 British athletes showed that autonomous goal motives positively predicted effort, which, in turn, predicted goal attainment. Goal attainment was positively linked to need satisfaction, which, in turn, predicted psychological well-being. Effort and need satisfaction were found to mediate the associations between autonomous motives and goal attainment and between attainment and well-being, respectively. Controlled motives negatively predicted well-being, and coach autonomy support positively predicted both autonomous motives and need satisfaction. Associations of autonomous motives with effort were not reducible to goal difficulty, goal specificity, or goal efficacy. These findings support the self-concordance model as a framework for further research on goal setting in sport.
Mishra, D.R.; Sutar, S.S.; Datta, D.
In modern societies ionizing radiation measurements using thermo-luminescence (TL) and optically stimulated Luminescence (OSL) has occupied definite space of the applications, extending from medical dosimetry, personnel monitoring, environment monitoring and geological/archaeological dating. The need of low cost multi-sample functional TL/OSL reader system remains integral need of new age researchers. Only few such type of reader systems exist commercially. Considering this, BARC has developed low cost Multi-sample integrated TL-OSL reader (MS-ITOR) system. This reader system will fulfill the need of basic research in TL-OSL radiation dosimetry in India. The MS-ITOR-1 provides all advance TL/OSL features such as NL-TL and NL-OSL. The present paper describes its design and performance in brief
Earthman, Elise Ann
Studies the ways readers create meaning initially from literary texts. Analyzes the data collected via think-aloud protocols and interviews. Compares reading tactics of first-year college students and graduate students. (HB)
Johnson and Johnson is the world's most comprehensive broadly-based manufacturer of health care products. Utilizing a decentralized management philosophy, the 188 operating companies around the world operate independently. Although Johnson and Johnson is not an energy intensive company, it has had a coordinated energy program since 1972. In the 1990s, however, a renewed focus, prompted by the link between energy usage and pollution, led to some very aggressive energy reduction goals to be completed by the end of the year 2000. To assist the operating companies in meeting these goals. a comprehensive set of Best Practices was developed. They cover all facility energy-using equipment and maintenance practices. Inputs included projects completed at Johnson and Johnson facilities worldwide, best practices from several US government voluntary programs, and recommendations from consultants and engineering firms. The end product is now being used worldwide to benchmark the progress. To ensure that these Best Practices are incorporated into new construction as well as the existing facilities, the authors developed their New Facility Design Criteria which is in the format that architectural/engineering firms can easily utilize. They originally validated the Best Practices in two retrofit pilots and two new buildings. They all achieved significant energy savings. As of April 1999, they have completed 62% of the Best Practices at the 96 facilities in the US and Puerto Rico. Twenty-four of these facilities had achieved an 80% completion level in 1998 and were recognized with the internal recognition plaque. Through full implementation of these Best Practices, Johnson and Johnson feel confident that they will be able to meet the Year 2000 energy reduction goals
Clark, Susan R.
A study examined the effectiveness of a community college district-wide reading program designed to foster reading by faculty, students, administrators, and staff. The Reading/Writing across the Curriculum Committee of the Metropolitan Community Colleges selected Kurt Vonnegut's novel "Galapagos," a novel which met criteria as to length,…
Ratna, P.; Gaonkar, Uma; Kulkarni, M.S.
A highly sensitive programmable optical stimulation luminescence (OSL) reader system has been developed for research applications in the field of radiation dosimetry. The system hardware consists of stimulation source, light detection assembly, drawer assembly, high current driver for the stimulation light source, photon counting module and microcontroller card. The electronic hardware for the Reader is developed around P8952RD2BN microcontroller. Two Luxeon power LEDs (blue, 470 nm) placed diagonally opposite at 45 ° in the drawer assembly of the reader are used as a stimulation light source. The LED's together can generate a power of ∼ 100 mW/cm 2 at the sample position with a LED current of ∼ 200 mA. The reader works in constant wave-OSL (CW-OSL), light intensity modulated-OSL (LM-OSL) and nonlinear modulated OSL(NLOSL) modes of operation. The performance of the reader system is evaluated using a-Al 2 O 3 :C OSL phosphor developed in BARC. This paper discusses the study of the Reader parameters like linearity, reproducibility, sensitivity, minimum measurable dose using the Al 2 O 3 :C phosphor using CW-OSL mode. It also discusses the photoionization cross section of the Al 2 O 3 :C sample to evaluate the linearity of stimulation light intensity. The reader also has a facility to measure the LED light intensity at the sample position. The LM-OSL curves are plotted photoionization cross-section of various phosphor materials was evaluated. Such low cost reader systems are very useful for radiation dosimetry and material research. (author)
Ratna, P.; Gaonkar, Uma; Kulkarni, M.S.
A Highly sensitive programmable Optical Stimulation Luminescence (OSL) reader system has been developed for Research applications in the field of radiation dosimetry. The system hardware consists of stimulation source, light detection assembly, drawer assembly, high current driver for the stimulation light source, photon counting module and microcontroller card. The electronic hardware for the Reader is developed around P8952RD2BN microcontroller. Two Luxeon power LEDs (blue, 470 nm) placed diagonally opposite at 45 deg. in the drawer assembly of the reader are used as a stimulation light source. The LEDs together can generate a power of ∼ 100 mW/cm 2 at the sample position with a LED current of ∼ 200 mA. The reader works in constant wave-OSL (CW-OSL), light intensity modulated-OSL (LM-OSL) and non linear modulated OSL (NLOSL) modes. The performance of the reader system is evaluated using a-Al 2 O 3 :C OSL phosphor developed in BARC. This paper discusses the study of the Reader parameters like linearity, reproducibility, sensitivity, minimum measurable dose of the reader for the Al 2 O 3 :C phosphor samples using CW-OSL mode. It also discusses the photoionization cross section of the Al 2 O 3 :C sample to evaluate the linearity of stimulation light intensity. For the verification of the LM-OSL mode, OSL curves are plotted and shown that how the glow peaks are shifting towards left with respect to the time scale as the stimulation light intensity increases on the sample for the same radiation exposure. It is also shown that if the ramp rate of power is constant, the LM-OSL peak height increases with respect to the increase in the exposures. This reader also gives the facility to measure the LED current and intensity at the sample position and feeds value to the PC along with the readings. (author)
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to know if the source of the difficulty in making inferences, readers with Down syndrome, is in access to prior knowledge or constructing ideas from purely textual knowledge (based on Saldaña and Frith, 2002 for autism. Involved a sample of 20 students with Down syndrome and mild mental retardation (mean IQ = 60 and a control group of 20 children without cognitive deficits. They were matched as to their extent read metal age via Prueba de Evaluación del Retraso Lector (average 8 years. We created two experimental situations: a subjects had to generate inferences based on physical knowledge, b social inferences about knowledge. The ability to check and reaction times in the activation of inferences about physical and social knowledge. We also analyzed the influence that the effect "priming". Results showed: a a rate of correct inferences similar verification tasks between the two groups, b Down subjects take longer to access knowledge that the previous text, c reaction times used by subjects Down were higher in activating physical inferences, d there were no significant differences in the population without reaction times gap between physical and social inferences e subjects without deficits benefited effect "priming" in both types of inferences f Down subjects only improve reaction time in the inferences of social nature. El presente estudio pretende conocer si el origen de la dificultad para realizar inferencias, en lectores con Síndrome de Down, se encuentra en el acceso al conocimiento previo o en la construcción de ideas a partir del conocimiento puramente textual (basándonos en Saldaña y Frith, 2002 para autismo. Participó una muestra de 20 alumnos con Síndrome de Down y discapacidad mental leve (media de C.I.= 60 y un grupo control de 20 alumnos sin déficit cognitivo. Ambos fueron igualados en cuanto a su edad mental lectora medida a través de la Prueba de Evaluación del Retraso Lector (media 8 a
Galindo-Romera, Gabriel; Carnerero-Cano, Javier; Martínez-Martínez, José Juan; Herraiz-Martínez, Francisco Javier
In the last years, many passive electromagnetic sensors have been reported. Some of these sensors are used for measuring harmful substances. Moreover, the response of these sensors is usually obtained with laboratory equipment. This approach highly increases the total cost and complexity of the sensing system. In this work, a novel low-cost and portable Internet-of-Things (IoT) reader for passive wireless electromagnetic sensors is proposed. The reader is used to interrogate the sensors within a short-range wireless link avoiding the direct contact with the substances under test. The IoT functionalities of the reader allows remote sensing from computers and handheld devices. For that purpose, the proposed design is based on four functional layers: the radiating layer, the RF interface, the IoT mini-computer and the power unit. In this paper a demonstrator of the proposed reader is designed and manufactured. The demonstrator shows, through the remote measurement of different substances, that the proposed system can estimate the dielectric permittivity. It has been demonstrated that a linear approximation with a small error can be extracted from the reader measurements. It is remarkable that the proposed reader can be used with other type of electromagnetic sensors, which transduce the magnitude variations in the frequency domain. PMID:28350356
Galindo-Romera, Gabriel; Carnerero-Cano, Javier; Martínez-Martínez, José Juan; Herraiz-Martínez, Francisco Javier
In the last years, many passive electromagnetic sensors have been reported. Some of these sensors are used for measuring harmful substances. Moreover, the response of these sensors is usually obtained with laboratory equipment. This approach highly increases the total cost and complexity of the sensing system. In this work, a novel low-cost and portable Internet-of-Things (IoT) reader for passive wireless electromagnetic sensors is proposed. The reader is used to interrogate the sensors within a short-range wireless link avoiding the direct contact with the substances under test. The IoT functionalities of the reader allows remote sensing from computers and handheld devices. For that purpose, the proposed design is based on four functional layers: the radiating layer, the RF interface, the IoT mini-computer and the power unit. In this paper a demonstrator of the proposed reader is designed and manufactured. The demonstrator shows, through the remote measurement of different substances, that the proposed system can estimate the dielectric permittivity. It has been demonstrated that a linear approximation with a small error can be extracted from the reader measurements. It is remarkable that the proposed reader can be used with other type of electromagnetic sensors, which transduce the magnitude variations in the frequency domain.
Full Text Available The number of papers published in journals indexed by the Web of Science core collection is steadily increasing. In recent years, nearly two million new papers were published each year; somewhat more than one million papers when primary research papers are considered only (articles and reviews are the document types where primary research is usually reported or reviewed. However, who reads these papers? More precisely, which groups of researchers from which (self-assigned scientific disciplines and countries are reading these papers? Is it possible to visualize readership patterns for certain countries, scientific disciplines, or academic status groups? One popular method to answer these questions is a network analysis. In this study, we analyze Mendeley readership data of a set of 1,133,224 articles and 64,960 reviews with publication year 2012 to generate three different networks: (1 The network based on disciplinary affiliations of Mendeley readers contains four groups: (i biology, (ii social sciences and humanities (including relevant computer sciences, (iii bio-medical sciences, and (iv natural sciences and engineering. In all four groups, the category with the addition “miscellaneous” prevails. (2 The network of co-readers in terms of professional status shows that a common interest in papers is mainly shared among PhD students, Master’s students, and postdocs. (3 The country network focusses on global readership patterns: a group of 53 nations is identified as core to the scientific enterprise, including Russia and China as well as two thirds of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries.
Moon, Henry; Livne, Ephrat; Marinova, Sophia
The theory that 2 facets of the factor conscientiousness, duty and achievement striving, are related to self- or other-centered motives, is supported in 2 studies. In Study 1 (N = 204 undergraduates), the self-centered facet of achievement striving was found to be the most important predictor of attraction toward organizational cultures that were outcome-based, aggressive, and emphasized rewards. Achievement strivers were less attracted to supportive and decisive organizations. In Study 2 (N = 189 part-time MBA students) the other-centered facet of duty was found to be predictive of helping behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Sipe, S; Engle, R W
Four experiments were conducted to determine whether echoic memory plays a role in differences between good and poor readers. The first two experiments used a suffix procedure in which the subject is read a list of digits with either a tone control or the word go appended to the list. For lists that exceeded the length of the subjects memory span by one digit (i.e., that avoided ceiling effects), the poor readers showed a larger decrement in the suffix condition than did the good readers. The third experiment was directed at the question of whether the duration of echoic memory is different for good and poor readers. Children shadowed words presented to one ear at a rate determined to give 75-85% shadowing accuracy. The items presented to the nonattended ear were words and an occasional digit. At various intervals after the presentation of the digit, a light signaled that the subject was to cease shadowing and attempt to recall any digit that had occurred in the nonattended ear recently. Whereas good and poor readers recalled the digit equally if tested immediately after presentation, the poor readers showed a faster decline in recall of the digit as retention interval increased. A fourth experiment was conducted to determine whether the differences in echoic memory were specific to speech stimuli or occurred at a more basic level of aural persistence. Bursts of white noise were separated by 9-400 ms of silence and the subject was to say whether there were one or two sounds presented. There were no differences in detectability functions for good and poor readers.
Potocki, Anna; Magnan, Annie; Ecalle, Jean
Four groups of poor readers were identified among a population of students with learning disabilities attending a special class in secondary school: normal readers; specific poor decoders; specific poor comprehenders, and general poor readers (deficits in both decoding and comprehension). These students were then trained with a software program designed to encourage either their word decoding skills or their text comprehension skills. After 5 weeks of training, we observed that the students experiencing word reading deficits and trained with the decoding software improved primarily in the reading fluency task while those exhibiting comprehension deficits and trained with the comprehension software showed improved performance in listening and reading comprehension. But interestingly, the latter software also led to improved performance on the word recognition task. This result suggests that, for these students, training interventions focused at the text level and its comprehension might be more beneficial for reading in general (i.e., for the two components of reading) than word-level decoding trainings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jo, Sunhwan; Song, Kevin C.; Desaire, Heather; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Im, Wonpil
Understanding how glycosylation affects protein structure, dynamics, and function is an emerging and challenging problem in biology. As a first step toward glycan modeling in the context of structural glycobiology, we have developed Glycan Reader and integrated it into the CHARMM-GUI, http://www.charmm-gui.org/input/glycan. Glycan Reader greatly simplifies the reading of PDB structure files containing glycans through (i) detection of carbohydrate molecules, (ii) automatic annotation of carbohydrates based on their three-dimensional structures, (iii) recognition of glycosidic linkages between carbohydrates as well as N-/O-glycosidic linkages to proteins, and (iv) generation of inputs for the biomolecular simulation program CHARMM with the proper glycosidic linkage setup. In addition, Glycan Reader is linked to other functional modules in CHARMM-GUI, allowing users to easily generate carbohydrate or glycoprotein molecular simulation systems in solution or membrane environments and visualize the electrostatic potential on glycoprotein surfaces. These tools are useful for studying the impact of glycosylation on protein structure and dynamics. PMID:21815173
Khaing Mar Htwe
Full Text Available Abstract The main goal of this system is to design a locker security system using RFID and Fingerprint. In this system only authenticated person can open the door. A security system is implemented containing door locking system using passive type of RFID which can activate authenticate and validate the user and unlock the door in real time for secure access. The advantage of using passive RFID is that it functions without a battery and passive tags are lighter and are less expensive than the active tags. This system consists of fingerprint reader microcontroller RFID reader and PC. The RFID reader reads the id number from passive. The fingerprint sensor will check incoming image with enrolled data and it will send confirming signal for C program. If both RFID check and fingerprint image confirmation are matched the microcontroller will drive door motor according to sensors at door edges. This system is more secure than other systems because two codes protection method used.
Chen, Yuan; Fu, Qiangqiang; Li, Dagang; Xie, Jun; Ke, Dongxu; Song, Qifang; Tang, Yong; Wang, Hong
Smartphone biosensors could be cost-effective, portable instruments to be used for the readout of liquid colorimetric assays. However, current reported smartphone colorimetric readers have relied on photos of liquid assays captured using a camera, and then analyzed using software programs. This approach results in a relatively low accuracy and low generality. In this work, we reported a novel smartphone colorimetric reader that has been integrated with an ambient light sensor and a 3D printed attachment for the readout of liquid colorimetric assays. The portable and low-cost ($0.15) reader utilized a simplified electronic and light path design. Furthermore, our reported smartphone colorimetric reader can be compatible with different smartphones. As a proof of principle, the utility of this device was demonstrated using it in conjunction with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect zearalenone. Results were consistent with those obtained using a professional microplate reader. The developed smartphone colorimetric reader was capable of providing scalable, cost-effective, and accurate results for liquid colorimetric assays that related to clinical diagnoses, environment pollution, and food testing. Graphical abstract A novel smartphone colorimetric reader that has been integrated with an ambient light sensor and a 3D printed attachment for the readout of liquid colorimetric assays.
Ratna, P.; Kannan
More than 40 Auto TLD Badge Readers are in use for country-wide personnel monitoring in India. The background of the reader consists of the two components, namely the non-radiation induced luminescence from the dosimeter and the reader background. The minimum measurable radiation dose being dependent on the variation in the background of the reader, it is important to reduce the variation in the background to as low as possible. The variation in the background of the reader was studied and it was found that there was a gradual increase in the temperature of the photo-cathode of the photomultiplier tube (PMT) as 50 badges are read over a period of 90 minutes. The resulting variation in dark current and sensitivity of the PMT was found to introduce a systematic variation in the measurement up to 7% from the first to the last badge. Simple forced N 2 gas cooling of the PMT reduces the variation to less than 2%. The results are presented. (author)
Taylor, Stuart A.; Burling, David; Morley, Simon; Bartram, Clive I.; Halligan, Steve; Bassett, Paul; Atkin, Wendy
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of radiologist experience and increasing exposure to CT colonography on reader performance. Three radiologists of differing general experience (consultant, research fellow, trainee) independently analysed 100 CT colonographic datasets. Readers had no prior experience of CT colonography and received feedback and training after the first 50 cases from an independent experienced radiologist. Diagnostic performance and reporting times were compared for the first and second 50 datasets and compared with the results of a radiologist experienced in CT colonography. Before training only the consultant reader achieved statistical equivalence with the reference standard for detection of larger polyps. After training, detection rates ranged between 25 and 58% for larger polyps. Only the trainee significantly improved after training (P=0.007), with performance of other readers unchanged or even worse. Reporting times following training were reduced significantly for the consultant and fellow (P<0.001 and P=0.03, respectively), but increased for the trainee (P<0.001). In comparison to the consultant reader, the odds of detection of larger polyps was 0.36 (CI 0.16, 0.82) for the fellow and 0.36 (CI 0.14, 0.91) for the trainee. There is considerable variation in the ability to report CT colonography. Prior experience in gastrointestinal radiology is a distinct advantage. Competence cannot be assumed even after directed training via a database of 50 cases. (orig.)
Full Text Available Educational materials are commonly used to assist with communication during learning. One of the ways to determine the use of educational materials and their contribution to the learning process is to ask students for their opinions. Student opinions provide useful information regarding various objectives such as making both the learning process and resources more effective, bringing about the necessary improvements and organising the teaching process. In this study, we developed a questionnaire for determining the opinions of information graphics (infographics readers on information graphics prepared for teaching purposes. This study was conducted in the fall semester of the 2013-2014 academic year with the participation of 59 students from the Department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education of the Kazım Karabekir Faculty of Education. The students were provided with a questionnaire consisting of 29 items that inquired their opinions on infographics. The collected data were assessed using Principal Component Analysis. Based on the analysis results, a second questionnaire consisting of 23 items and six factors (Learnability, Selection Preferences, Sharing, Basic Presentation Structure, Memorability, and Role in the Learning Process was developed. According to the study results, the students considered infographics as highly instructive, and described that they help ensure a more lasting learning experience.
The article introduces "the visceral novel reader" as a diachronic, context-sensitive mode of novelistic reception, in which fact and fiction overlap cognitively: the mental rehearsal of the activity of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching while reading novels and, vice versa, the mental rehearsal of novels in the act of perceiving the real world. Located at the intersection of literature, medicine and science, "the visceral novel reader" enhances our understanding of the role that novels played in the dialectic construction of erudition in English. In Georgian Britain, reading practices became a testing ground for the professionalization of physicians, natural philosophers, and men of letters. While it was in the professionals' common interest to implement protocols that taught readers to separate body from mind, and fact from fiction, novels came to stand for "debased" (visceral) reading. Novels inverted these notions by means of medicalization (regimentation, somatization, and individuation) and contributed to the professional stratification of medicine and literature.
Rodriguez, Manuel Lopez; Garcia, Jose A. Tamayo; Gil, Alex Vergara; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez; Acosta, Andry Romero; Villanueva, Gilberto Alonso
The acquisition of know how of practical experiences obtained in the repair and maintenance of readers TLD RADOS for five years of work and the request by the International Atomic Energy for signing new Research Contracts (CRP), made possible the CRP 13328, in which the specialist is committed in the course of a year, to deliver educational software in order to train personnel associated with the operation of the TLD readers RADOS. Due to the importance of continuous transfer of knowledge for new generations of technicians and specialists who join our laboratories, the idea came when the first interactive CD that grouped 19 videos, divided into three blocks was ready: learning, repair and maintenance; it was suggested to expand the training for any TLD reader. Thus a much more complete than the first version package emerged. 7 cases were subsequently published in an IAEA TECDOC, 1599 were included
van den Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne
As readers move through a text, they engage in various types of processes that, if all goes well, result in a mental representation that captures their interpretation of the text. With each new text segment the reader engages in passive and, at times, reader-initiated processes. These processes are strongly influenced by the readers'…
Bastug, Muhammet; Keskin, Hasan Kagan; Akyol, Mustafa
It was observed in this research how endurance status of fluent readers and poor readers changed as the text became longer. 40 students of the primary school 4th-grade, 20 were fluent readers and other 20 were poor readers, participated in the research. A narrative text was utilised in the data collection process. Students' oral readings were…
Full Text Available We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German, while taking into account readers’ working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008 and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slow-down produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005. Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions.
Mallett, Rosemarie; Leff, Julian; Bhugra, Dinesh; Takei, Nori; Corridan, Bryan
The need to achieve is common to all societies, and failure to do so may have a highly detrimental psychological impact. For those on the margins of mainstream society, especially migrants or descendants of migrants, the impact of failed or poor achievements may increase their vulnerability to mental illness. In a prospective study of schizophrenia in three ethnic groups (White, Indian and African-Caribbean) we studied the impact of goal striving and investigated whether the gap between the poor achievement and the high aspirations of members of some minority ethnic groups was potentially a factor contributing to the development of the illness. The patients and age- and sex-matched controls from their respective communities were asked to rate their perceived current levels of achievement and their past and future expectations in five domains--social standing, housing, education, employment and financial status on a 10-point scale. The control subjects from the three ethnic groups scored similarly in most areas, supporting the validity of inter-ethnic comparisons. The gap between achievement and expectations did not appear to cause high disappointment levels in any group, and in fact only in the domain of housing did the African-Caribbean patients assess their current achievement as being significantly lower than that of their matched controls. Poor housing conditions may be one of the risk factors contributing to the high incidence of schizophrenia in African-Caribbeans.
Hagmar, Magnus; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Berglund, Lukas; Berglund, Bo
Optimization of body weight and composition is a key priority for elite athletes striving for a competitive advantage. The present investigation was designed to characterize various parameters related to weight control in Olympic competitors. Cross-sectional study. Research unit at a University Hospital. 223 athletes (125 men and 98 women, with only 1 drop-out), all members of the Swedish teams participating in the Olympic Games of 2002 and 2004. Self-reported body weight and height, from which BMI was calculated, variation in weight during the year prior to Olympic competition, and self-reported weight control strategies by questionnaire. The athletes were divided into two groups on the basis of whether their sporting discipline emphasized leanness or not. The athletes participating in disciplines that emphasize leanness demonstrated a lower mean BMI (22.7 +/- 2.7 vs 3.7 +/- 2.3 for nonlean athletes, P athletes. Furthermore, 9.4% of lean athletes reported previously suffering from an eating disorder, in comparison to 2.7% of the nonlean athletes (P athletes in disciplines emphasizing leanness also reported being ill during the prior 3 month period (38.5% vs 21.6%, P athletes participating disciplines that emphasize leanness appear to be suboptimal. Counseling concerning weight control could be used as a tool to prevent illness and enhance performance.
Gerbing, David W
This book prepares readers to analyze data and interpret statistical results using R more quickly than other texts. R is a challenging program to learn because code must be created to get started. To alleviate that challenge, Professor Gerbing developed lessR. LessR extensions remove the need to program. By introducing R through less R, readers learn how to organize data for analysis, read the data into R, and produce output without performing numerous functions and programming exercises first. With lessR, readers can select the necessary procedure and change the relevant variables without pro
Thompson, Deanna Lynn; Coleman, Matthew A; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Albala, Joanna; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian
A hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection includes a microarray reader engineered to be small enough for portable applications. The invention includes a high-powered light-emitting diode that emits excitation light, an excitation filter positioned to receive the excitation light, a slide, a slide holder assembly for positioning the slide to receive the excitation light from the excitation filter, an emission filter positioned to receive the excitation light from the slide, a lens positioned to receive the excitation light from the emission filter, and a CCD camera positioned to receive the excitation light from the lens.
Full Text Available The Journal of Palaeogeography has three missions. The first is to encourage articles of Chinese palaeogeography to go abroad by the Journal, and let foreign readers know more about Chinese palaeogeography. The second is to encourage articles of foreign palaeogeography to come in China by the Journal, and let Chinese readers know more about foreign palaeogeography. The third is to promote the communication and cooperation between these two aspects, in order to make great contribution to the development and innovation of Chinese and international palaeogeography. Our journal has four advantages. The first is that the published articles are not restricted to one palaeo or three palaeos, but include many palaeos. The second is that most articles will be from China. The high academic level articles of Chinese palaeogeography going aborad will be an excellent contribution to international palaeogeography. The third is the close relationship between the scientific research and industrial practice. The fourth is that we have two journals, i.e. Journal of Palaeogeography (in Chinese and Journal of Palaeogeography (in English. These two journals coordinate with each other and should promote the development and innovation of palaeogeography more effectively. So long as we can adhere to high academic standards, high English standards and high editorial standards, our journal will present our contribution to the Chinese and international palaeogeography.
Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen
, and high ranked scientific reputation. Design/methodology/approach: -The study applies upper echelon theory to universities. Three hypotheses are developed: 1) (Overall) top management team heterogeneity is positively associated with successful funding of excellence clusters, 2) (Overall) top management...... no significant effects. Besides top management team composition, we find that a high number of faculties and a broad inclusion of internal status groups (students, tenured faculty, academic and administrative staff) and external stakeholders in decision making processes may enhance academic excellence...... in administrative or leading positions and policy makers concerned with higher education. The more diverse a top management team is in terms of multiple disciplinary backgrounds, the more likely they succeed in driving the university towards academic excellence. Originality/value: - The study is among the first...
Scientific papers are organized into sections that are easy for scientific readers to follow. This second part of a three part series, summarizes the points that should be considered when writing the main sections of a research report. These sections typically include Introduction Methods, Results,...
Machaj, B.; Strzalkowski, J.; Smolko, K.
Read out the absorbance of a dosimetric foil is accomplished by two beam spectrophotometer. Such a solution makes possible the compensation of light source instabilities and ensures higher stability of the dose reader. The error of absorbance measurement caused by the instabilities does not exceed 0.0004 A. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs.
McSherry, Corynne; Cohn, Cindy
After several years of false starts, the universe of digital books seems at last poised to expand dramatically. Readers should view this expansion with both excitement and wariness. Excitement because digital books could revolutionize reading, making more books more findable and more accessible to more people in more ways than ever before.…
Audiobooks may be used with adolescent readers to improve fluency, expand vocabulary, activate prior knowledge, develop comprehension, and increase motivation to interact with books. Removing the restraints of word recognition and decoding allows a very positive focus on the meaning behind an author's words. This provides an opportunity for many…
Nemati, Majid; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Ashrafzadeh, Anis
The current study aimed to diagnose the probable significant differences in the use of language learning strategies among medical-text readers of opposite sex from different levels of proficiency. 120 (N = 120) participants were randomly selected from Azad Medical University of Mashhad: 60 medical students (age range 23-25; 30 = male and 30 =…
Primary-grade children can learn rhythm and rhyme from nursery rhymes. But those same poems can be used to help young students make connections to letters, sounds, and word chunks. This lesson lets Mother Goose help children grow as readers and writers. During the 5-10 minutes per day for these lessons, students will: develop a feel for the rhythm…
Schwartz, Robert M.; Stanovich, Keith E.
Two studies investigated the use of graphic and contextual information in word recognition, and the extent to which good and poor fourth grade readers were flexible in their ability to trade off one type of information for another as situations warranted. The subjects orally read stories containing ten altered words, with a single letter…
Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)
It was found, among other things, that although most newspaper readers read because they want to be informed and educated, some are discouraged from reading because of the level of language use in some of these papers. In spite of geolinguistic and socio-cultural differences, the study shows that the perception of ...
Butcher, Neil; Hoosen, Sarah; Levey, Lisbeth; Moore, Derek
The Impact of Open Licensing on the Early Reader Ecosystem examines how to use open licensing to promote quality learning resources for young children that are relevant and interesting. Research in early reading tends to focus on traditional publishing value and supply chains, without taking much consideration of new approaches and solutions…
This study was an investigation into the way readers perceive the use of English, for different purposes, and in particular, for mass communication in a second language setting. For this purpose, a simple questionnaire in form of the Likert rating scale was used to generate data. The study involved 337 respondents.
Full Text Available This article explores complexities of choosing appropriate reading material which may provide maximum engagement for beginner readers in Southern Africa, with the aim of instilling a lifelong love of reading. The article presents a case in favour of literary criteria as base line for choices of reading material for beginner readers. Furthermore, the article outlines general characteristics of reading material for beginner readers, as well as specific criteria to be considered in the Southern African context, taking into account the linguistic diversity which exists in formal education and the vast literacy backlog in the region. Furthermore, it is argued that translated children’s stories should ideally be adapted rather than literally translated, in order to meet the requirements of what is universally regarded as good children’s literature for beginner readers. A culture of reading can only be instilled by adhering to the following criteria, i.e. ensuring affective engagement, maximum meaning-making potential, delight, the engagement of the imagination for the purposes of developing the creative mind, and strong identification with the material for the purposes of developing a sense of agency.
Jared, Debra; Ashby, Jane; Agauas, Stephen J.; Levy, Betty Ann
Three experiments examined the role of phonology in the activation of word meanings in Grade 5 students. In Experiment 1, homophone and spelling control errors were embedded in a story context and participants performed a proofreading task as they read for meaning. For both good and poor readers, more homophone errors went undetected than spelling…
Dascalu, Mihai; Stavarache, Lucia Larise; Dessus, Philippe; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; McNamara, Danielle S.; Bianco, Maryse
Dascalu, M., Stavarache, L.L., Dessus, P., Trausan-Matu, S., McNamara, D.S., & Bianco, M. (2015). ReaderBench: An Integrated Cohesion-Centered Framework. In G. Conole, T. Klobucar, C. Rensing, J. Konert & É. Lavoué (Eds.), 10th European Conf. on Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 505–508). Toledo,
Stuart, Morag; Masterson, Jackie; Dixon, Maureen
Investigates the relation between phonological awareness, sound-to-letter mapping knowledge, and printed word learning in novice five-year-old readers. Explores effects of visual memory and of teaching methods. Finds mental representations of printed words are more easily formed by beginners who are able to match at least some of the phonological…
Der er gennem tiden skrevet og teoretiseret vidt og bredt om, hvad horrorgenren er for en størrelse – og det med skiftende held. Antologien Horror: The Film Reader forsøger at levere en både bred og dybdegående introduktion til det mudrede genrefelt, som horror er. Det lykkedes langt hen af vejen....
Around 65% could do so ('imaginers') and 35% could not. The likelihood of being an imaginer was higher among (i) women than among men, (ii) those who preferred intuition to sensing or feeling to thinking, and (iii) those who were most charismatically active. Readers with intuition as their dominant function were most ...
Heggie, Lindsay; Wade-Woolley, Lesly
We examined the relationship between two metalinguistic tasks: prosodic awareness and punctuation ability. Specifically, we investigated whether adults' ability to punctuate was related to the degree to which they are aware of and able to manipulate prosody in spoken language. English-speaking adult readers (n = 115) were administered a receptive…
Baird, Adela; Laugharne, Janet; Maagerø, Eva; Tønnessen, Elise Seip
Children as readers of picture books and the ways they respond to, and make meaning from, such texts are the focus of this article, which reports on a small-scale study undertaken in Norway and Wales, UK. The theoretical framing of the research draws on concepts of the multimodal ensemble in picture books and of the reading event as part of a…
Rieff, Philip, Ed.; Finkle, Isaac, Ed.
This reader, which contains 135 primary source readings about morality, is one of several college-level instructional materials developed to supplement a nationwide newspaper course on moral issues in contemporary society. The authors represent a diverse group including theologians, psychologists, politicians, professional athletes, lawyers, and…
Explores perceptions of media bias by manipulating expectations of bias and news topic. Explains that university students read dummy newspaper articles and then responded to a survey. Concludes that readers were more likely to designate material opposing their own views as biased. (PM)
Blick, Michele; Nicholson, Tom; Chapman, James; Berman, Jeanette
This study investigated the contribution of linguistic comprehension to the decoding skills of struggling readers. Participants were 36 children aged between eight and 12 years, all below average in decoding but differing in linguistic comprehension. The children read passages from the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability and their first 25 miscues…
Harker, W. John
During the past 15 years, a fundamental change has taken place in literary criticism, with a decline in New Criticism (literature viewed as a public object) and an increase in reader response criticism (literature viewed as a private experience). New Critics considered the meaning of a literary text to exist within the text as an independent and…
The revolutionary electronic reading device, Amazon's Kindle, is already obsolete. Such is the breakneck speed of technology that the machine touted to spell the death of printed books is already heading for the scrap heap, replaced by e-readers like the iPad that access the Internet, make phone calls, download movies, and connect users with all…
Lovink, G.; Somers Miles, R.
Video Vortex Reader II is the Institute of Network Cultures' second collection of texts that critically explore the rapidly changing landscape of online video and its use. With the success of YouTube ('2 billion views per day') and the rise of other online video sharing platforms, the moving image
Liow, Susan Rikard; Green, David; Tam, Melissa
To test whether cognitive processing in bilingual depends on script combinations and language proficiency, this study investigated the development of alphabetic and logographic visual search strategies in two kinds of biscriptals: (1) Malay-English and (2) Chinese-English readers. Results support the view that there are script implications of…
Ana Elvira L. Gebara
Full Text Available In order to analyze the relationship between writer-reader and mediation of the text, it is necessary to identify the positions they occupy. Before the Internet, it was not common for the reader to approach the writer directly, except though letters. This virtual (but not digital contact is modelling to understand the reader’s relationship with the author because, in the written lines, he ends up indicating how he understands himself and the other – in a game of faces, understood in this work as Kerbrat-Orecchioni (2006 it characterizes in conversation. In this hyper-gender, without socio-historical restrictions or of categorization (MAINGUENEAU, 2010, there is a mandatory provision that constrains the sender to identify his position from the moment he chooses how to address the recipient. In these forms of treatment, the relationships of preservation or threat to the in the light of what is extended or made explicit in the treatment given to the theme of the letter to be outlined. This article aims to identify the concepts of the reader in the correspondence exchanged by the main characters, Charlô and Felpo, core of the development of the narrative (FURNARI, 2006. These concepts allow us to comprehend, in a discursive and dialogical perspective, which boundaries remain for the reader towards the text and which are outdated.
Swaving, M; VanHouwelingen, H; Ottes, FP; Steerneman, T
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is the commonly accepted method for comparing diagnostic imaging systems. In general, ROC studies are designed in such a way that multiple readers read the same images and each image is presented by means of two different imaging systems. Statistical
Linderholm, Tracy; Kwon, Heekyung; Therriault, David J.
Two experiments tested the hypothesis that prereading instructions, including how to self-explain during reading, would enhance multiple-text comprehension for college readers. Three prereading instruction conditions included a control condition that provided only the instruction for participants to try to comprehend well; a definition-only…
Reed, W.; Poulos, A.; Brennan, P.
Full text: Reader variability is a problem in mammography image reporting and compromises the efficacy of screening programmes. The purpose of this exploratory study was to survey reader practice in reporting screening mammograms in Australia to identify aspects of practice that warrant further investigation. Mammography reporting practice and influences on concentration and attention were investigated by using an original questionnaire distributed to screen readers in Australia. A response rate of 71% (83 out of 117) was achieved. Demographic data indicated that the majority of readers were over 46 years of age (73%), have been reporting on screening mammograms for over 10 years (61%), take less than 1 min to report upon a screening mammogram examination (66%), report up to 200 examinations in a single session (83%) and take up to 2 h to report one session (61%). A majority report on more than 5000 examinations annually (66%); 93% of participants regard their search strategy as systematic, 87% agreed that their concentration can vary throughout a session, 64% agreed that the relatively low number of positives can lead to lapses in concentration and attention and almost all (94%) participants agreed that methods to maximise concentration should be explored. Participants identified a range of influences on concentration within their working environment including volume of images reported in one session, image types and aspects of the physical environment. This study has provided important evidence of the need to investigate adverse influences on concentration during mammography screen reporting
Ensuring that students are reading proficiently by third grade is a key component of keeping students on track to graduate high school and pursue college and careers. Because of the magnitude of this academic milestone, states typically pursue policies that promote early identification and intervention for struggling readers. However, teachers are…
Napoli, Mary; Ritholz, Emily Rose
Motivation is an essential component in developing a love of reading in middle level struggling students. For these readers, novels in verse bridge the gap to more challenging pieces of literature. In this article, Title One students explored Locomotion by Jacqueline Woodson and learned that they, too, are poets. (Contains 9 figures.)
In "Skellig," "Kit's Wilderness," and "Clay", David Almond employs various types of intertextuality to enrich his narratives. Through the use of allusion, adaptation, collage, and mise-en-abyme, he encourages his adolescent readers to seek out precursor texts and to consider the interrelationships between these texts and his own. By so doing, he…
Moth Moth Myint Thein
Full Text Available Abstract Today students class attendance is become more important part for any organizationsinstitutions. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure hence inefficient. This paper presents the manual students attendance management into computerized system for convenience or data reliability. So the system is developed by the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom for managing the students attendance using RFID and fingerprint reader. The system is designed to implement an attendance management system based on RFID and fingerprint reader which students need to use their student identification card ID and their finger ID to success the attendance where only authentic student can be recorded the attendance during the class. In this system passive RFID tag and reader pairs are used to register the student ID cards individually and fingerprint reader is used for attendance. This system takes attendance electronically with the help of the RFID and finger print device and the records of the attendance are stored in a database. Students roll call percentages and their details are easily seenvia Graphical User Interface GUI. This system will have the required databases for students attendance teachers subjects and students details. This application is implemented by Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server as IDE. C language is used to implement this system.
Many students with cognitive impairments are not afforded the opportunity to develop their potential as readers. A review of the literature reveals that few researchers have evaluated the effects of phonics instruction on the reading skills of students with cognitive impairments. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a…
Al-Noori, Bushra Saadoon Mohammed
This study aims at measuring the amount of the effect of the reader's background knowledge on performance in reading comprehension tests through the assessment of information gained in reading comprehension (RC) tests across-four testing techniques, short answer questions ,true-false items, multiple-choice items, and cloze test and re-test. This…
Break, George F., Ed.; Wallin, Bruce, Ed.
This reader is one of two supplementary materials for a newspaper course about taxation and tax reform. Five units contain 75 primary-source readings about topics such as tax loopholes, social security financing, income tax reform, the impact of taxes on the economy, and alternatives to the property tax. Sources include government publications,…
Barnes, Adrienne E.; Kim, Young-Suk
Adults enrolled in basic education exhibit poor academic performance, often reading at elementary and middle-school levels. The current study investigated the similarities and differences of reading skills and eye movement behavior between a sample of 25 low-skilled adult readers and 25 first grade students matched on word reading skill. t tests…
In the past few years, there has been increasing demand from school librarians for books for "reluctant readers"--despite the impressive offering of children's literature published each year and the success of blockbuster series like "Harry Potter, Diary of a Wimpy Kid, Twilight," and "Hunger Games," among others. This is also in addition to all…
Givens, Susannah M.
Given the focus on increasing student persistence at many community colleges through programs such as "Achieving the Dream", it seems more than appropriate that faculty and institutions integrate more affective measures into their assessments of student readiness. These types of assessment will not determine the grades that teachers give…
Neiles, Kelly Y.
There is great concern in the scientific community that students in the United States, when compared with other countries, are falling behind in their scientific achievement. Increasing students' reading comprehension of scientific text may be one of the components involved in students' science achievement. To investigate students' reading comprehension this quantitative study examined the effects of different reader characteristics, namely, students' logical reasoning ability, factual chemistry knowledge, working memory capacity, and schema of the chemistry concepts, on reading comprehension of a chemistry text. Students' reading comprehension was measured through their ability to encode the text, access the meanings of words (lexical access), make bridging and elaborative inferences, and integrate the text with their existing schemas to make a lasting mental representation of the text (situational model). Students completed a series of tasks that measured the reader characteristic and reading comprehension variables. Some of the variables were measured using new technologies and software to investigate different cognitive processes. These technologies and software included eye tracking to investigate students' lexical accessing and a Pathfinder program to investigate students' schema of the chemistry concepts. The results from this study were analyzed using canonical correlation and regression analysis. The canonical correlation analysis allows for the ten variables described previously to be included in one multivariate analysis. Results indicate that the relationship between the reader characteristic variables and the reading comprehension variables is significant. The resulting canonical function accounts for a greater amount of variance in students' responses then any individual variable. Regression analysis was used to further investigate which reader characteristic variables accounted for the differences in students' responses for each reading comprehension
McDonald, Heather; Charles, Cathy; Elit, Laurie; Gafni, Amiram
The pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) makes recommendations to Canada's provinces and territories (except Quebec) to guide their cancer drug funding decisions. The objective of this paper is to explore, using an economic perspective and the pCODR as an example, the challenges associated with striving to simultaneously achieve the goals of maximizing health benefits with available resources and improving access to a more consistent standard of care across Canada. The first challenge concerns how to interpret the goals in order to determine how resources should be allocated to achieve each goal. The second challenge relates to whether, if pursued simultaneously, both goals can be achieved to the same extent that each goal could have been achieved alone with the same available resources. Regarding the first challenge, we illustrate that, due to a lack of definitional clarity, it is difficult to determine exactly how resources should be allocated in order to achieve the goal of improving access to a more consistent standard of care across Canada. Regarding the second challenge, we illustrate that choosing to strive for both of the pCODR goals simultaneously will likely be associated with tradeoffs in the extent to which one or both goals can be achieved (relative to what could have been achieved for each goal alone with the same available resources). We suggest that, if the pCODR and the provincial drug plan decision-makers it supports want to strive for both goals simultaneously, they must prioritize the goals and explicitly identify the tradeoffs associated with the prioritization. This will ensure that the consequences of striving to simultaneously achieve both goals are explicit, transparent, and predictable for provincial drug plan decision-makers, physicians, patients, caregivers, and society as a whole.
The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)
Jackson, M A
The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer has consequences not only for the sick person but also for those who have a close relationship with that person. Greater knowledge about how family members manage the situation in the period immediately following the diagnosis means greater opportunity to provide the best possible support for the family. The purpose of this study was to explore management strategies that family members use when the patient is in the early stage of treatment for advanced cancer. Methods Twenty family members of cancer patients were included in the study shortly after the diagnosis. The patients had been diagnosed 8-14 weeks earlier with advanced lung cancer or gastrointestinal cancer. The data were collected in interviews with family members and subjected to qualitative latent content analysis. Through the identification of similarities and dissimilarities in the units of meaning, abstraction into codes and sub-themes became possible. The sub-themes were then brought together in one overarching theme. Results The overall function of management strategies is expressed in the theme Striving to be prepared for the painful. The family members prepare themselves mentally for the anticipated tragedy. Family relationships become increasingly important, and family members want to spend all their time together. They try to banish thoughts of the impending death and want to live as normal a life as possible. It becomes important to family members to live in the present and save their energy for the time when they will need it the most. How participants handle their worries, anxiety and sadness can be categorized into seven sub-themes or management strategies: Making things easier in everyday life, Banishing thoughts about the approaching loss, Living in the present, Adjusting to the sick person's situation, Distracting oneself by being with others, Shielding the family from grief, and Attempting to maintain hope. Conclusions The findings revealed
Deme, S; Apathy, I.; Bodnar, L.; Csoeke, A.; Hejja, I.
A portable thermoluminescent dosemeter reader suitable for reading at the site of exposure is described. The instrument consists of a glass bulb containing the CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent material laminated to the surface of an electrically heated resistive metal plate. The bulb is encapsulated in a cylindrical, pen-like metal holder made of aluminium. A one-wire-port integrated electronic programmable memory chip mounted inside the holder contains the identification code and the individual calibration parameters of the dosemeter. The aperture of the holder is normally covered by a stainless steel tube to protect the bulb from light and mechanical shocks. The tube slips backwards automatically when the dosemeter is inserted into the reader. The system is used by the Hungarian nuclear power plant. (M.D.)
Silvina Marcela Angelozzi
Full Text Available This paper explores the imaginary meanings that appear in the advertising discourses on e-book reading devices commonly known as e-readers. It starts from the assumption that imaginary meanings are associated with both: the imaginary associated to digital technologies (Cabrera, 2006, 2011 and to the imaginary of "order of books" (Chartier, 2000, 2005. In order to carry out the exploration, the advertising discourses in the homepages of three cases are analized: The Amazon Kindle, Kobo and MovistarBq brands. The conclusion is that e-readers are devices that participate of the imaginary of the digital technologies as other devices in the complex of digital technologies in everyday life, and also refers strongly to the imaginary meanings related to printed books.
Kaur, Amanpreet; Singh, Sunny; Pandey, Bishwajeet
Gurumukhi is found to be the most widely used language of Pakistan, and it is ranked 3rd in Canada, 7th in India and almost 4th most spoken language in U.K. This Unicode Reader is cost effective solution for learning as well as understanding the Punjabi language by the people across the globe .Th...... Impedance) logic families to make this design more energy efficient. It is concluded that using LVDCI_DV2_15 rather than SSTL18_II_DCI, the total power can be saved up to 51.22% with the device operating at a frequency of 1MHz.......) and is implemented on Virtex-6 FPGA on Xilinx software. This GUR design is tested on different frequencies by applying frequency scaling techniques .The reader is also observed on different IO Standards of two logic families i.e. on SSTL (Stub-Series Terminated Logic) and LVDCI (Low Voltage Digitally Controlled...
Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad Javad; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Hamid Reza; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad; Mostafavi, Nayyer Sadat; Mahmoudi, Golshan; Berenjkoub, Nafiseh; Akmali, Zahra; Hossein-Beigi, Fahimeh; Arsang, Vajiheh
Background: The increasing number of mobile phones can physically cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in medical environments; can also cause errors in immunoassays in laboratories. The ELISA readers are widely used as a useful diagnostic tool for Enzymun colorimetric assay in medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ELISA reader could be interfered by the exposure to the 900 MHz cell phones in the laboratory. Materials and Methods: Human serum samples were collected from 14 healthy donors (9 women and 5 men) and each sample was divided into four aliquots and was placed into four batches for the in-vitro quantitative determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). During colorimetric reading of the first, second, and third batches, the ELISA reader (Stat Fax 2100, Awareness Technology, Inc., USA) was exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 W exposure of 900 MHz radiation, respectively. For the forth batch (control group), no radiation was applied. All experiments were performed comparing ELISA read out results of the I, II, and III batches with the control batch, using the Wilcoxon test with criterion level of P = 0.050. Results: The final scores in the exposed batches I, II, and III were not statistically significant relative to the control batch (P > 0.05). The results showed that 900 MHz radiation exposure did not alter the ELISA measured levels of hCG hormone in I (P = 0.219), II (P = 0.909), and III (P = 0.056) batches compared to the control batch. Conclusion: This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance). However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:27376040
In Breyten Breytenbach's poetry the “I” is complex. “I” and “you”, the writer and the reader, are not represented with constituted meanings but as signifiers and as part of language production. This article reflects on the development process of the writer as the textual “I”, the “I” narrator in the poetic text – the “I” of language that ...
Ratna, P.; Gaikwad, N.P.; More, V.S.; Kulkarni, M.S.
A new improved PC based TL Reader for its applications in routine dosimetry and research is described. The reader can generate glow curves both time versus TL response and temperature versus TL response with an overall reproducibility of ± 1 %. Here the main thing is design of a linear temperature controller capable of (± 0.5 %) reproducing a selected linear heating rate (0.5 - 60 deg C/s) up to a clamping temperature (500 deg C). Some of the limitations faced in the earlier versions of TL reader for dosimetry have been improved in this system. In the earlier versions, temperature can be clamped only up to 400 deg C and heating rate can be selected up to 35 deg C/s. It is a PC based instrument, where parameters like heating rate, end point temperature, EHT, cycle time etc can be entered and stored in the memory of the microcontroller IC. Phosphors can be in the form of powder, disc, tape etc. When the sample (in the powder form) is loaded on the kanthal heater directly, spilIage of the powder inside the drawer assembly takes place. This leads to the collection of the powder inside the drawer assembly. A small removable sample tray is designed using the same material (kanthal) to avoid the spillage of the sample powder. An elaborate study was carried to find out the lag in temperature when the sample is loaded on the tray and results were compared with the sample directly on the heater. To evaluate the performance of the reader for higher temperature, glow curves were taken for some new phosphors whose glow peaks were above 350 deg C. (author)
Sinaga, Yudita Putri Nurani; Sinaga, Lidiman Sahat Martua
This descriptive qualitative study is aimed at identifying and describing the types of free collocations found in the articles of Reader's Digest. By taking a sample of ten articles from different months for each year since 2003 up to 2012, it was found all the four productive free collocations were in the data. Type 4 (Determiner + Adjective + Noun) was the dominant type (53.92 %). This was possible because the adjective in the pattern included the present participle and past participle of v...
Anderson, J.; Matthews, P.
Purpose: This project aimed to investigate the success and suitability of a Western-donated school library in furthering the aims of literacy and reader development in Malawi.\\ud \\ud Methodology: A qualitative, case study approach was taken using extensive interviews with school teachers and a library assistant at a primary school in Malawi.\\ud \\ud Findings: Contrary to a common discourse that libraries are of limited value in a predominately oral culture, the research revealed a valuable rol...
Mexican journals are usually ignored at local and foreign universities despite the fact that they convey the most updated academic and scientific information generated by national researchers and writers. Libraries and readers have difficulty in accessing Mexican journals, because local serials are normally out of the mainstream of journal indexing and full-text databases from the industrialized world. The barriers for local journals are many, among them the language, limited marketing, and...
A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)
Baltzer, Pascal A.T., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Imge-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kaiser, Werner Alois [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07740 Jena (Germany); Dietzel, Matthias, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)
Highlights: • The main findings of our study are, that reader experience and lesion type (i.e., mass versus non-mass enhancement) are independent predictors of the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI. • Specifically, benign and malignant non-mass lesions cannot be differentiated with sufficient accuracy, especially if readers are not experienced. • We conclude that future research in breast MRI should focus on non-mass lesions, as these are the problem makers in modern breast MRI. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the influence of lesion type (mass versus non-mass) and reader experience on the diagnostic performance of breast MRI (BMRI) in a non-screening setting. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients (mean age, 55 ± 12 years) with breast lesions that were verified by biopsy or surgery, and who had had BMRI as part of their diagnostic workup, were eligible for this retrospective single-center study. Cancers diagnosed by biopsy before BMRI were excluded to eliminate biological and interpretation bias due to biopsy or chemotherapy effects (n = 103). Six blinded readers (experience level, high (HE, n = 2); intermediate (IE, n = 2); and low (LE, n = 2)) evaluated all examinations and assigned independent MRI BI-RADS ratings. Lesion type (mass, non-mass, focal) was noted. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and logistic regression analysis was performed to compare diagnostic accuracies. Results: There were 259 histologically verified lesions (123 malignant, 136 benign) investigated. There were 169 mass (103 malignant, 66 benign) and 48 non-mass lesions (19 malignant, 29 benign). Another 42 lesions that met the inclusion criteria were biopsied due to conventional findings (i.e., microcalcifications, architectural distortions), but did not enhance on MRI (41 benign, one DCIS). ROC analysis revealed a total area under the curve (AUC) between 0.834 (LE) and 0.935 (HI). Logistic regression identified a significant effect of non-mass lesions (P < 0.0001) and
McArthur, Genevieve; Eve, Philippa M; Jones, Kristy; Banales, Erin; Kohnen, Saskia; Anandakumar, Thushara; Larsen, Linda; Marinus, Eva; Wang, Hua-Chen; Castles, Anne
Around 5% of English speakers have a significant problem with learning to read words. Poor word readers are often trained to use letter-sound rules to improve their reading skills. This training is commonly called phonics. Well over 100 studies have administered some form of phonics training to poor word readers. However, there are surprisingly few systematic reviews or meta-analyses of these studies. The most well-known review was done by the National Reading Panel (Ehri 2001) 12 years ago and needs updating. The most recent review (Suggate 2010) focused solely on children and did not include unpublished studies. The primary aim of this review was to measure the effect that phonics training has on the literacy skills of English-speaking children, adolescents, and adults whose reading was at least one standard deviation (SD), one year, or one grade below the expected level, despite no reported problems that could explain their impaired ability to learn to read. A secondary objective was to explore the impact of various factors, such as length of training or training group size, that might moderate the effect of phonics training on poor word reading skills. We searched the following databases in July 2012: CENTRAL 2012 (Issue 6), MEDLINE 1948 to June week 3 2012, EMBASE 1980 to 2012 week 26, DARE 2013 (Issue 6), ERIC (1966 to current), PsycINFO (1806 to current), CINAHL (1938 to current), Science Citation Index (1970 to 29 June 2012), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 29 June 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (1990 to 29 June 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Science & Humanities (1990 to 29 June 2012), ZETOC, Index to Theses-UK and Ireland, ClinicalTrials.gov, ICTRP, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, DART Europe E-theses Portal, Australasian Digital Theses Program, Education Research Theses, Electronic Theses Online System, Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
Ash, Summer; Rice, Emily L.; Jarreau, Paige B.
STARtorialist (startorialist.com) is a Tumblr-based blog that curates the proliferation of "Astro Fashion" - clothing accessories, decor, and more - with the goal of celebrating the beauty of the universe and highlighting the science behind the astronomical imagery. Since launching in January 2013, we have written over 1000 unique posts about everything from handmade and boutique products to mass-produced commercial items to haute couture seen on fashion runways. Each blog post features images and descriptions of the products with links to the original astronomical images or other relevant science content. We also feature profiles of astronomers, scientists, students, and communicators wearing, making, or decorating with "startorial" items. Our most popular posts accumulate hundreds or thousands of notes (faves or reblogs, in Tumblr parlance), and one post has nearly 150,000 notes. In our second year, we have grown from 1,000 to just shy of 20,000 followers on Tumblr, with an increased audience on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook as well. We present preliminary results from a reader survey conducted September-October 2015 in collaboration with science communication researcher Dr. Paige Jarreau. The survey provides data on reader habits, motivations, attitudes, and demographics in order to assess how STARtorialist has influenced our readers' views on science, scientists, and the scientific community as a whole.
Sahl, J D; Kelsh, M A; Haines, K D; Sands, F K; Kraus, J
This report provides estimates of incidence rates for acute work injuries for a well defined cohort of electric utility meter readers. Specifically, person-time rates by sex, age, and job experience are evaluated by part of body injured and type of injury. Meter readers experienced 731 acute lost time [11.1 per 100 person-work years; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.3-11.9] and 4,401 acute non-lost time (66.5 per 100 person-work years; 95% CI = 64.6-68.5) work injuries over the study period, 1980-1992. Women had nearly twice the lost time injury rate as men (17.5 vs 9.6 per 100 person-work years). There is an inverse relation between job experience and both lost time and non-lost time injuries. Although these data are limited to the electric utility industry, they may be relevant to occupations with similar tasks and environments, including residential gas and water supply industry meter readers and postal carriers.
Full Text Available Electronic books enrich the reading experience through a range of possibilities digital technology offers, such as commenting or adding content at the margin space, marking interesting chapters and sharing the content with other readers. The phenomenon of social reading emerges with the influence of technology in the sphere of reading books and creates interactions for readers with the content and other readers. The great potential of enriching the reading experience is visible in the digital platforms for social reading, where the interaction and the creation of new content encourages the development of new way of reading and creativity. These activities may contribute to better understanding of the text. This enhances the communication about the text thus revitalizing the content and moves the reading itself from private to public sphere. This paper will show how are the activities in the digital margins transformed into a good indicator of the reading behavior, as well as the importance and usefulness of such for publishers to create new publishing products and services.
Mudanyali, Onur; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Sikora, Uzair; Padmanabhan, Swati; Navruz, Isa; Ozcan, Aydogan
We demonstrate a cellphone-based rapid-diagnostic-test (RDT) reader platform that can work with various lateral flow immuno-chromatographic assays and similar tests to sense the presence of a target analyte in a sample. This compact and cost-effective digital RDT reader, weighing only ~65 g, mechanically attaches to the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where various types of RDTs can be inserted to be imaged in reflection or transmission modes under light-emitting diode (LED)-based illumination. Captured raw images of these tests are then digitally processed (within less than 0.2 s per image) through a smart application running on the cellphone for validation of the RDT, as well as for automated reading of its diagnostic result. The same smart application then transmits the resulting data, together with the RDT images and other related information (e.g., demographic data), to a central server, which presents the diagnostic results on a world map through geo-tagging. This dynamic spatio-temporal map of various RDT results can then be viewed and shared using internet browsers or through the same cellphone application. We tested this platform using malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV RDTs by installing it on both Android-based smartphones and an iPhone. Providing real-time spatio-temporal statistics for the prevalence of various infectious diseases, this smart RDT reader platform running on cellphones might assist healthcare professionals and policymakers to track emerging epidemics worldwide and help epidemic preparedness.
Full Text Available We present the results of an experimental study towards modeling the reader's emotional state variations induced by the typographic elements in electronic documents. Based on the dimensional theory of emotions we investigate how typographic elements, like font style (bold, italics, bold-italics and font (type, size, color and background color, affect the reader's emotional states, namely, Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD. An experimental procedure was implemented conforming to International Affective Picture System guidelines and incorporating the Self-Assessment Manikin test. Thirty students participated in the experiment. The stimulus was a short paragraph of text for which any content, emotion, and/or domain dependent information was excluded. The Analysis of Variance revealed the dependency of (a all the three emotional dimensions on font size and font/background color combinations and (b the Pleasure dimension on font type and font style. We introduce a set of mapping rules showing how PAD vary on the discrete values of font style and font type elements. Moreover, we introduce a set of equations describing the PAD dimensions' dependency on font size. This novel model can contribute to the automated reader's emotional state extraction in order, for example, to enhance the acoustic rendition of the documents, utilizing text-to-speech synthesis.
Marshall, Wes; And Others
The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…
Wenger, Michael J.; Spyridakis, Jan H.
Studies empirically the effects on reader performance of reduced text structure in technical writing texts. Reveals that removal of cues to local coherence produced reliable decrements in reader performance. Discusses results with regard to questions of information design. (HB)
Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
There are six HIV prevention programs for homeless youth whose efficacy has been or is currently being evaluated: STRIVE, the Community Reinforcement Approach, Strengths-Based Case Management, Ecologically-Based Family Therapy, Street Smart, and AESOP (street outreach access to resources). Programs vary in their underlying framework and theoretical models for understanding homelessness. All programs presume that the youths’ families lack the ability to support their adolescent child. Some pro...
Catts, Hugh W.; Hogan, Tiffany; Fey, Marc E.
The present study investigated the use of the Reading Component Model to subgroup poor readers. A large sample of poor readers was identified in second grade and subgrouped on the basis of relative strengths and weaknesses in word recognition and listening comprehension. Although homogeneous subgroups were not identified, poor readers could be classified into four subgroups that differed significantly in reading-related abilities. Further analyses showed that poor readers' strengths and weakn...
Full Text Available This work explores the interactive book app for children as a form of literary expression that requires from the young reader the capacity to orchestrate various forms of literacy to promote their ability of reading critically multimodal, digital and interactive texts. Serafini’s model for the analysis of picturebooks in three levels, perceptive, structural, and ideological (SERAFINI, 2010; 2015, is proposed as a didactic tool to promote these multiliteracies at school through the reading of picturebook apps.
Full Text Available Abstract The present study analyses the impact of phonological awareness instruction on the reading achievement of at-risk Grade 1 readers enrolled in an early French immersion program. Twenty-nine children from diverse linguistic backgrounds participated in the study. At-risk readers were identified on the basis of their text reading performance and phonological awareness test scores, and received 20 weeks of phonological awareness training in small groups. The intervention was initially given in English, and switched to French once students had acquired a foundation in the language. Significant gains were found in the phonological awareness skills of the treatment group. Results also indicated that the end-of-year French reading levels of the treatment group were superior to those of the comparison group. These findings suggest that a phonologically-based intervention can effectively address phonological awareness deficits and facilitate French reading acquisition for early immersion students who are considered to be at-risk for later reading difficulties.
Elkind, J; Cohen, K; Murray, C
Twenty-eight middle school students, diagnosed as dyslexic and attending a school using the Slingerland approach to remediation of dyslexia, used a computer-based reading system for reading literature for about one-half hour a day for a semester. The system proved to be a strong compensatory aid, enabling 70 percent of the students to read with greater comprehension, approximately one grade level or more improvement, as measured by the Gray Oral Reading Test. For 40 percent of the students, the gains were large, from two to as much as five grade levels. However, not all students benefited. Fourteen percent showed lower comprehension scores when using the system, and there is some indication that this degradation is associated with kinesthetic-motor weakness. Some students reported gains in reading speed and exhibited increased span of attention for and endurance in reading when using the system. We did not find evidence that the computer-reader technology provided a positive remediation benefit incremental to that obtained from the school's intensive Slingerland remediation program. Our results indicate that computer-readers are important compensatory aids that can enable many people with dyslexia to perform more effectively in reading-related tasks associated with school and work.
Mol, Suzanne E; Jolles, Jelle
This study aimed to evaluate determinants of differences in leisure reading behavior and school achievement. We specifically examined reading enjoyment, mental imagery, and sex as predictors in a large, age-homogeneous sample of Dutch secondary school students (N = 1,071). Results showed that the prevalence of leisure reading was low in both the lower, pre-vocational track (19.5%) and the higher, pre-academic track (32.5%). Boys read even less than girls. Almost all leisure readers enjoyed reading and engaged in mental imagery, i.e., the propensity "to see images" of a written story in the mind's eye. Overall, boys who did not like to read for leisure had the poorest school performance. Non-leisure readers who reported that they enjoyed reading got higher school grades in the higher educational track. In the lower track, this was the case for girls. Our study findings imply that reading promotion programs should take into account individual differences in sex, achievement level, and reading enjoyment when aiming to decrease the academic achievement gap.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Readers, interpreters, and personal... or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.711 Readers, interpreters, and... noncompetitively to career or career-conditional employment, a reader, interpreter, or personal assistant: (1) Who...
Tielbeek, Jeroen A. W.; Bipat, Shandra; Boellaard, Thierry N.; Nio, C. Yung; Stoker, Jaap
To prospectively evaluate if training with direct feedback improves grading accuracy of inexperienced readers for Crohn's disease activity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-one inexperienced readers assessed 25 cases as a baseline set. Subsequently, all readers received training and
Puylaert, Carl A. J.; Tielbeek, Jeroen A. W.; Bipat, Shandra; Boellaard, Thierry N.; Nio, C. Yung; Stoker, Jaap
We aim to evaluate the long-term performance of readers who had participated in previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reader training in grading Crohn disease activity. Fourteen readers (8 women; 12 radiologists, 2 residents; mean age 40; range 31-59), who had participated in a previous MRI
For years, readers' advisory librarians focused primarily on matching readers to books based upon the concept of appeal--traditionally considered pacing, character, story line, and frame (setting, tone, atmosphere, etc.). Books have internal lives of their own that readers want to reexperience, and they have additional elements or references that…
Smith, Glenn Gordon; Majchrzak, Dan; Hayes, Shelley; Drobisz, Jack
The current study investigated how computer games and maps compare as preparation for readers to comprehend and retain spatial relations in text narratives. Readers create situation models of five dimensions: spatial, temporal, causal, goal, and protagonist (Zwaan, Langston, & Graesser 1995). Of these five, readers mentally model the spatial…
Janssen, T.; Braaksma, M.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; van den Bergh, H.
Previous research has shown that adolescent readers differ in their ‘online’ processing of literary texts. Differences were found in the extent to which these readers performed certain (meta)cognitive and affective activities while reading literary texts. However, readers might also differ in
Klvacek, Michelle L.; Monroe, Eula Ewing; Wilcox, Brad; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Morrison, Timothy G.
This article describes how one second-grade teacher implemented Follow the Reader, her term for dyad reading. Common Core expects students to read increasingly complex texts. Teachers can implement dyad reading with this end in mind. It is a modified version of the neurological impress method in which a lead reader and an assisted reader sit side…
Brosnan, Julie; Moeyaert, Mariola; Brooks Newsome, Kendra; Healy, Olive; Heyvaert, Mieke; Onghena, Patrick; Van den Noortgate, Wim
In this article, multiple-baseline across participants designs were used to evaluate the impact of a precision teaching (PT) program, within a Tier 2 Response to Intervention framework, targeting fluency in foundational reading skills with at risk kindergarten readers. Thirteen multiple-baseline design experiments that included participation from…
Katz, Lauren A; Carlisle, Joanne F
This article describes a program that was designed to help upper elementary students read and understand words as they read texts independently. As a first step in helping middle-to-upper elementary children with mild-to-moderate language and/or reading difficulties engage in textual analysis during reading, the Close Reading program combines instruction in morphological-analysis and context-analysis strategies with guided experiences applying these strategies during reading. To carry out an initial feasibility study of the program, we conducted 3 case studies using standardized pretest and posttest measures of language and reading skills and experimental progress monitoring measures administered before, during, and after instruction. Three fourth-grade girls participated in the 12-week program. All 3 students showed improved word reading and comprehension with small to large effect sizes on standardized and experimental measures. Patterns of improvement reflected the initial strengths and weaknesses of the students' reading and language skills. The results suggest that further experimental investigation of this program is warranted. Instruction in morphological-analysis strategies with guided practice during reading holds promise as a way to improve word reading and comprehension for struggling readers in the middle-to-upper elementary years.
Dwi Puspita Sari; Elicia Lanham; Lei Pan
In the digital technology era, mobile devices have an important rule to deploy a copy of data and information through the network. An electronic reader (eReader) allows readers to read written materials in an electronic manner that is available in many models. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usage of eReader by higher education students. We firstly identified the most frequently used eReader by surveying higher education students. The survey results showed that Apple iPad, Amaz...
Full Text Available Effective fluency instruction should focus on reading with understanding, rather than simply reading quickly or expressively. This article outlines three research-based instructional approaches that assist students in developing accurate, automatic word recognition and prosody; at the same time, they ensure learners attend to the text’s meaning as they read. All three approaches integrate instructional principles known to improve reading fluency (modeling, scaffolding, repetition, and extensive opportunity for the reading of connected text. They are also clear and easy-to-implement and have proven successful with struggling readers. As a result, these approaches contribute to learners’ reading success both within and outside of the classroom.
Full Text Available Effective fluency instruction should focus on reading with understanding, rather than simply reading quickly or expressively. This article outlines three research-based instructional approaches that assist students in developing accurate, automatic word recognition and prosody; at the same time, they ensure learners attend to the text’s meaning as they read. All three approaches integrate instructional principles known to improve reading fluency (modeling, scaffolding, repetition, and extensive opportunity for the reading of connected text. They are also clear and easy-to-implement and have proven successful with struggling readers. As a result, these approaches contribute to learners’ reading success both within and outside of the classroom.
This excellent anthology offers the beginning French-language student a first taste of some of the world's most significant prose. Chosen for both their eloquence and ease of reading, excerpts from such masterpieces as Les Misérables, The Red and the Black, Madame Bovary, Carmen, and The Three Musketeers will open new worlds for linguists. Readers will savor the words of fifty great writers of multiple genres from the seventeenth through twentieth centuries, including Voltaire, Rousseau, Balzac, Baudelaire, Dumas, Proust, and other literary virtuosos.Lucid and accessible, the unabridged Englis
Berengueres, Jose; Castro, Dani
Previous research has traditionally analyzed emoji sentiment from the point of view of the reader of the content not the author. Here, we analyze emoji sentiment from the point of view of the author and present a emoji sentiment benchmark that was built from an employee happiness dataset where emoji happen to be annotated with daily happiness of the author of the comment. The data spans over 3 years, and 4k employees of 56 companies based in Barcelona. We compare sentiment of writers to reade...
Genis S, R.
The goal of this work is to present a procedure for realizing the control of the clinical radiation fields through typical radiographic film of verification in radiotherapy and showing the results of the analysis carried out in the expositions of reference fields for photons and electrons using an optical digital reader of high resolution (600 x 1200 dpi) named scanner and a computer program for images edition. It was possible to obtain the quantification of the following parameters: alinement of the radiation beam with the luminous beam, homogeneity or levelling of the radiation field, and self symmetry with respect to the center of the luminous field. With the purpose to compare the results versus an usual method it was realized measurements of the same images with a luminous photo densitometer with 1 mm collimation window. (Author)
Full Text Available A design of fractal-like antenna with circular polarization for radio frequency identification (RFID reader applications is presented in this article. The modified Minkowski fractal structure is adopted as radiating patch for size reduction and broadband operation. A corner-truncated technology and a slot-opened method are employed to realize circular polarization and improve the gain of the proposed antenna, respectively. The proposed antenna is analyzed and optimized by HFSS. Return loss and maximum gain of the optimized antenna achieve to -22.2 dB and 1.12 dB at 920 MHz, respectively. The optimized design has an axial ratio (AR of 1.2 dB at central frequency of 920 MHz and impedance bandwidth (S11<=-10 dB of 40 MHz (4.3 %. Its input impedance is (57.9-j2.6 W that is close to input impedance of coaxial line (50 W. Numerical results demonstrate that the optimized antenna exhibits acceptable performances and may satisfy requirements of RFID reader applications.
Today, participatory or citizen journalism - journalism which enables readers to become writers - exists online and offline in a variety of forms and formats, operates under a number of editorial schemes, and focuses on a wide range of topics from the specialist to the generic and the micro-local to the global. Key models in this phenomenon include veteran sites Slashdot and Indymedia, as well as news-related weblogs; more recent additions into the mix have been the South Korean OhmyNews, which in 2003 was “the most influential online news site in that country, attracting an estimated 2 million readers a day” (Gillmor, 2003a, p. 7), with its new Japanese and international offshoots, as well as the Wikipedia with its highly up-to-date news and current events section and its more recent offshoot Wikinews, and even citizen-produced video news as it is found in sites such as YouTube and Current.tv.
Child Care Bureau, 2009
Tribal managers and staff working with Federal grants must be fully knowledgeable of all applicable Federal requirements and skilled in applying these requirements to the daily operation of their programs, whether starting a new program or striving to maintain a quality program which meets the intent of the enacting legislation. It is the…
Downey, Stephanie; Delamatre, Jackie; Jones, Johanna
Most museum educators strive for their programs to have positive effects on students, but what impact do they really have? What factors, including museum-school programs, contribute to positive academic performance and critical thinking in particular? This article examines the Guggenheim Museum's artist-in-residence program, Learning Through Art…
Thrash, Todd M; Maruskin, Laura A; Moldovan, Emil G; Oleynick, Victoria C; Belzak, Will C
A longstanding tradition in the humanities holds that a writer's inspiration is infectious, but this thesis has not been tested. We hypothesized that (a) inspiration is infectious, such that inspired writers are more inspiring to the average reader; (b) contagion is mediated by the insightfulness of the text; and (c) contagion is moderated by readers' openness to experience, such that open readers are more prone to contagion. To test these hypotheses, a sample of 195 student writers, each of whom wrote 1 poem, was crossed with a sample of 220 student readers, who read all poems. Data were available for 36,020 cells of the resulting Writer × Reader matrix. Our analytic approach integrated cross-classified multilevel modeling with conditional process analysis. As hypothesized, writers who were more inspired elicited higher levels of inspiration in the average reader. Inspiration contagion was mediated by the insightfulness and pleasantness of the text and was partially suppressed by originality. Inspiration contagion was moderated by reader openness. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that open readers were prone to contagion because they were tolerant of the originality and sublimity of inspired writing. Additional analyses differentiated contagion of inspiration from contagion of its covariates (awe, positive affect), documented effects of writer inspiration on reader enthrallment (awe, chills), and showed that writer effort is a poor predictor of reader states. The infectiousness of inspiration-through poetry, if not also through scripture and academic writing-suggests that a given instance of inspiration may have far-reaching cultural implications, including dissemination of innovations and ideologies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hayes, Sherrill H
Historically, invited lecturers have often challenged us to define excel lence in physical therapy practice, or in our academic programs. While some have addressed different char acteristics of excellence, our profession has not really come together to address 2 very important questions: what does "quality" mean in physical therapist education? And how do we measure it? Using 3 elements of Friendship, Leadership, and Mentoring, and Defining Excellence and juxtaposing these with Linda Crane and her life, a vision of excellence in physical therapy educational programs was explored in this invited lecture. The text of that lecture ensues.
Mang, Thomas; Peloschek, Philipp; Plank, Christina; Maier, Andrea; Weber, Michael; Herold, Christian; Schima, Wolfgang; Graser, Anno; Bogoni, Luca
Our purpose was to assess the effect of computer-aided detection (CAD) on lesion detection as a second reader in computed tomographic colonography, and to compare the influence of CAD on the performance of readers with different levels of expertise. Fifty-two CT colonography patient data-sets (37 patients: 55 endoscopically confirmed polyps ≥0.5 cm, seven cancers; 15 patients: no abnormalities) were retrospectively reviewed by four radiologists (two expert, two nonexpert). After primary data evaluation, a second reading augmented with findings of CAD (polyp-enhanced view, Siemens) was performed. Sensitivities and reading time were calculated for each reader without CAD and supported by CAD findings. The sensitivity of expert readers was 91% each, and of nonexpert readers, 76% and 75%, respectively, for polyp detection. CAD increased the sensitivity of expert readers to 96% (P = 0.25) and 93% (P = 1), and that of nonexpert readers to 91% (P = 0.008) and 95% (P = 0.001), respectively. All four readers diagnosed 100% of cancers, but CAD alone only 43%. CAD increased reading time by 2.1 min (mean). CAD as a second reader significantly improves sensitivity for polyp detection in a high disease prevalence population for nonexpert readers. CAD causes a modest increase in reading time. CAD is of limited value in the detection of cancer. (orig.)
Elidrissi, Moulay Rachid; Sann Chan, Kheong; Greaves, Simon; Kanai, Yasushi; Muraoka, Hiroaki
Shingled Magnetic Recording (SMR) is a scheme used to extend the life of the current perpendicular magnetic recording technology. SMR enables writing narrow tracks with a wide writer. Currently, SMR employs a single reader and will suffer inter-track interference (ITI) as the tracks become comparable in width to the reader. ITI can be mitigated by using narrower readers; however, narrower readers suffer from increased reader noise. Another approach to combat ITI is to process 2D readback and use ITI cancellation schemes to retrieve the data track. Multiple readbacks can be obtained either with a single reader and multiple revolutions or with a reader array. The former suffers from increased readback latency. In this work, we focus on the latter. When using a reader array, the skew angle poses major challenges. During writing, there is increased adjacent track erasure, and during readback the effective reader pitch varies and there is an increase in the 2D intersymbol interference caused by the rotated reader profile. In this work, we run micromagnetic simulations at different skew angles to train the grain flipping probability model, and then evaluate raw bit channel error rate performance at skew. In particular, we investigate the performance degradation caused by skewing of the 2 or 3 read head array for various read-head geometries.
A successful presentation of the fundamental concepts of number theory and computer programming Bridging an existing gap between mathematics and programming, Elementary Number Theory with Programming provides a unique introduction to elementary number theory with fundamental coverage of computer programming. Written by highly-qualified experts in the fields of computer science and mathematics, the book features accessible coverage for readers with various levels of experience and explores number theory in the context of programming without relying on advanced prerequisite knowledge and con
Kohler, Susanna; Astrobites Team
Astrobites (http://astrobites.com) is a daily blog aimed primarily at undergraduates interested in astrophysical research and written by a team of graduate students located at diverse institutions around the world. Nearly every day we present a journal article recently posted to astro-ph in a brief format that is accessible to anyone with a general background in the physical sciences. In addition to summarizing new work, Astrobites provides valuable context for readers not yet familiar with the astrophysical literature. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. applying for an NSF graduate fellowship) and describe personal experiences (e.g. attending an astronomy summer school). We will discuss the Astrobites format and recent readership statistics, as well as potential methods for incorporating Astrobites into the classroom.
Montet, Benjamin; Chisari, N.; Donaldson, J.; Dressing, C. D.; Drout, M.; Faesi, C.; Fuchs, J. T.; Kohler, S.; Lovegrove, E.; Mills, E. A.; Nesvold, E.; Newton, E. R.; Olmstead, A.; Vasel, J. A.; Weiss, L. M.; Astrobites Team
Astrobites (http://astrobites.com) is a daily blog aimed at undergraduates interested in astrophysical research and written by a team of graduate students located at diverse institutions across the United States. Primarily, we present journal articles recently posted to astro-ph in a brief format that is accessible to anyone with a general background in the physical sciences, including readers who are not yet familiar with the astrophysical literature. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. applying for an NSF graduate fellowship) and describe personal experiences (e.g. attending an astronomy summer school). We present recent readership statistics and potential methods for incorporating Astrobites into the classroom. We also discuss the Astrobites format across multiple social media platforms, including the newly launched Astroplots, and highlight our recent work organizing the annual "Communicating Science" workshop for graduate students.
Full Text Available To conduct real-time and accurate positioning of the forklifts (people and goods in the warehouse is an effective means for improving warehouse management efficiency. To this end, this article puts forward the active positioning system with the forklift installed with RFID reader and the ground passageway embedded with RFID tag. In the running process, the position of forklift can be determined through recognition of the reference tags which are embedded at both sides of the passageway based on the three-side layout at right angle principle and their RSSI value. The positional accuracy can be improved by adjusting the layout distance of those reference tags. The experimental results show that this system can realize the positioning function of forklift, and it can be used in practical situations.
Nielsen, Jan; Rosberg, Hanne Mohr; Rosenberg, J.
in original articles from Danish into English. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted as an on-line questionnaire among the members of the DMA. A systematic sample was drawn from the Danish Medical Association's member database. The sample comprised a total of 1,970 e-mail addresses. Among these, 1......,952 were valid, and 1,952 physicians were invited to participate by e-mail. RESULTS: The response rate (1,046/1,952) was 54%. Among the participants, 43% were specialists, 36% were junior doctors and 20% general practitioners. Overall, 45% of the respondents publish scientific articles, and particularly...... specialists and junior doctors did not object to the shift from Danish to English language. CONCLUSION: Our survey showed that the readers and authors were willing to accept a shift from Danish into English publication language for original research papers...
Darío Luis Banegas
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand why a reader may feel attracted to a short stretch of fictional discourse. I analyse a short extract taken from Khaled Hosseini’s novel A Thousand Splendid Suns through the integration of different perspectives in discourse analysis. First, I analyse the text in terms of contexts of culture and situation including field, tenor, mode, participants’ social world, setting, channel, and key. In the second section I attempt to examine the text line by line following my interdisciplinary framework of reference. Secondly, I offer a line-by-line analysis through Grice’s maxims, topicality, deixis, coding time, types of utterances and verbal processes, and metaphors. Through my analysis I discovered that my reader’s attraction was based on the combination and integration of different textual devices and my personal interpretation of the pragmatics behind the text.
Sullivan, Michael C; Yeo, Heather; Roman, Sanziana A; Bell, Richard H; Sosa, Julie A
To determine how marital status and having children impact US general surgical residents' attitudes toward training and personal life. There is a paucity of research describing how family and children affect the experience of general surgery residents. Cross-sectional survey involving all US categorical general surgery residents. Responses were evaluated by resident/program characteristics. Statistical analysis included the χ test and hierarchical logistic regression modeling. A total of 4402 residents were included (82.4% response rate) and categorized as married, single, or other (separated/divorced/widowed). Men were more likely to be married (57.8% vs 37.9%, P work-life conflict. The complex effects of family on surgical residents should inform programs to target support mechanisms for their trainees.
Joseph, Jayaraj; Vasan, Jayaraman Kiruthi; Shah, Malay; Sivaprakasam, Mohansankar; Mahajan, Lalit
Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) used in rapid quantitative point of care testing require an accurate, reliable and easy to operate instrument to read the LFIA kit and calculate the quantitative result value. We present iQuant® Analyser, an immunoassay reader designed for reading the Quanti® range of LFIA test kits for key markers such as HbA1C, Vitamin D, TSH etc. The instrument utilizes a laser based confocal optics system to capture the test and control lines from the LFIA kit, digitizes the fluorescent signal with high spatiotemporal resolution, computes necessary peak area ratios, applies calibration curves and declares the final result in an automated manner with minimal operator input. The instrument uses kit specific calibration information embedded on each LFIA test kit, to compute the final clinical parameter without using any external calibration chip. An intuitive icon based interface enables easy operation with minimal key presses, suited for point of care applications. The technology is designed in a modular manner to enable the instrument to perform tests on various parameters such as HbA1C, TSH, and Vitamin D etc without any hardware changes, using test-specific LFIA kits. The functional performance of the iQuant Analyser was verified over the range of expected area ratio values with standard reference cartridges that provided stable fluorescent lines. Repeatability of the instrument was found to be excellent with coefficient of variation (CoV) of area ratios found to be less than 1%. The inter-instrument reproducibility was also found to be good with CoV less than 4 %. Tests using blood samples with Quanti LFIA kits verified the accuracy of HbA1C results to be acceptable as per international standards with errors <; 4 %. The iQuant Analyser is a portable, easy to use rapid quantitative immunoassay reader best suited for point of care applications.
Yeung, Pui-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David Wai-Ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-Hoa
To identify the indicators of persistent reading difficulties among Chinese readers in early elementary grades, the performance of three groups of Chinese children with different reading trajectories ('persistent poor word readers', 'improved poor word readers' and 'skilled word readers') in reading-related measures was analysed in a 3-year longitudinal study. The three groups were classified according to their performance in a standardized Chinese word reading test in Grade 1 and Grade 4. Results of analysis of variance and logistic regression on the reading-related measures revealed that rapid naming and syntactic skills were important indicators of early word reading difficulty. Syntactic skills and morphological awareness were possible markers of persistent reading problems. Chinese persistent poor readers did not differ significantly from skilled readers on the measures of phonological skills. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zhang, YuJing; Cui, Yinghua
In this paper, we proposes an enhanced distributed multi-channel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID environments which is based on the distributed multi-channel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID environments (called DiMCA). We proposes a monitor method to decide whether reader receive the latest control news after it selected the data channel. The simulation result shows that it improves interrogation delay.
Mancheva, Lyuba; Reichle, Erik D.; Lemaire, Benoît; Valdois, Sylviane; Ecalle, Jean; Guérin-Dugué, Anne
Previously reported simulations using the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control suggest that the patterns of eye movements observed with children versus adult readers reflect differences in lexical processing proficiency (Reichle et al., 2013). However, these simulations fail to specify precisely what aspect(s) of lexical processing (e.g., orthographic processing) account for the concurrent changes in eye movements and reading skill. To examine this issue, the E-Z Reader model was first us...
Giving information is one of the main function of mass communication tools. Newspaper readers are using newspaper for different motivations. Gaining information, entertainment, leisure time activities, social integration is some motivations of media. Uses and gratifications theory asserts that reader is active part of communication process and reading habits figure on social and psychological needs. Items from readersâ€™gratifications are categorized by using factor analysis from questionnair...
Maria Pia Bucci
Full Text Available Objective. Latency of eye movements depends on cortical structures while speed of execution and accuracy depends mostly on subcortical brainstem structures. Prior studies reported in dyslexic reader children abnormalities of latencies of saccades (isolated and combined with vergence; such abnormalities were attributed to deficits of fixation control and of visual attention. In this study we examine speed and accuracy characteristics of horizontal eye movements in natural space (saccades, vergence and combined movements in dyslexic reader children. Methods. Two paradigms are tested: gap paradigm (fixation offset 200 ms prior to target onset, producing shorter latencies, in both non-dyslexic reader and dyslexic reader children and simultaneous paradigm. Seventeen dyslexic reader children (mean age: 12±0.08 years and thirteen non-dyslexic reader children (mean age: 12±1 years were tested. Horizontal eye movements from both eyes were recorded simultaneously by a photoelectric device (Oculometer, Dr. Bouis. Results. For all movements tested (saccades, vergence, isolated or combined and for both paradigms, the mean velocity and accuracy were similar in dyslexic readers and non-dyslexic readers; no significant difference was found. Conclusion. This negative but important result, suggests no dysfunction of brainstem ocular motor circuits in dyslexic readers. It contrasts results on latencies related to visual attention dysfunction at cortical level.
McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Banales, Erin
There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept-particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types of spoken language, and two types of attention. We found that poor readers with poor attention had low academic self-concept, while poor readers with poor spoken language had low general self-concept in addition to low academic self-concept. In contrast, poor readers with typical spoken language and attention did not have low self-concept of any type. We also discovered that academic self-concept was reliably associated with reading and receptive spoken vocabulary, and that general self-concept was reliably associated with spoken vocabulary. These outcomes suggest that poor readers with multiple impairments in reading, language, and attention are at higher risk for low academic and general self-concept, and hence need to be assessed for self-concept in clinical practice. Our results also highlight the need for further investigation into the heterogeneous nature of self-concept in poor readers.
McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Banales, Erin
There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept—particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types...
Dwi Puspita Sari
Full Text Available In the digital technology era, mobile devices have an important rule to deploy a copy of data and information through the network. An electronic reader (eReader allows readers to read written materials in an electronic manner that is available in many models. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usage of eReader by higher education students. We firstly identified the most frequently used eReader by surveying higher education students. The survey results showed that Apple iPad, Amazon Kindle, and Samsung Tablet are the most popular eReader devices used by higher education students. We presented these results, and then we analyzed the surveyed results in detail in order to develop an evaluation metric of the eReader in a mobile platform that clearly allows the selection of the most suitable eReader for higher education students. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a set of criteria that can be used by students in the selection of an eReader that matches their specific needs and requirements.
Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Banales, Erin
There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept—particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types of spoken language, and two types of attention. We found that poor readers with poor attention had low academic self-concept, while poor readers with poor spoken language had low general self-concept in addition to low academic self-concept. In contrast, poor readers with typical spoken language and attention did not have low self-concept of any type. We also discovered that academic self-concept was reliably associated with reading and receptive spoken vocabulary, and that general self-concept was reliably associated with spoken vocabulary. These outcomes suggest that poor readers with multiple impairments in reading, language, and attention are at higher risk for low academic and general self-concept, and hence need to be assessed for self-concept in clinical practice. Our results also highlight the need for further investigation into the heterogeneous nature of self-concept in poor readers. PMID:27867764
Silva F, J.C. da; Fonseca, H.G. da
Acting from the beginning of the decade of 80 in a postal program called 'Dentistry Programs' the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD) it makes an effort supported by the IAEA so that it can determine with security the reference levels for the diverse practices in radiodiagnostic, including the dentistry. The dentistry program that uses 4 TLDs of lithium fluorite (LiF 100) for evaluations of the doses and of the hemirreductor layer, until 1995 it had already verified close of 5529 X-ray equipment. This work accompanies the result of 3 main parameters (arbitrary reading, reference light and noise) of the reader Harshaw marks 5500, when it is used for routine readings of the TLDs that arrive in the dosimetry laboratory for the due ratings. Together with these TLDs 9 previously selected dosemeters of a certain dosemeters lot is placed with a percentage uncertainty of 3% (for 1 standard deviation). before them they were irradiated in an irradiator of Sr90/Y90 with a dose of approximately 5 mGy, they are treated thermally in an oven PTW it marks to 400 grades for 1 hour + 100 grades for 2 hours and 100 grades in 15 minutes after the irradiations. The referred methodology follows a procedure where they are distributed of 3 in 3 the chosen TLDs of the group of the 9, to the beginning, half and at the end among the total quantity of dosemeters read in the reading disk that it can read of a single time 50 dosemeters. Together with this 10 measurements of reference light and noise are made, data that are provided by the reader through the 'softer WinRem'. Finally the obtained results of reference light and noise, its are compared with the maker's recommendations. Already that of the arbitrary reading (average of the 9 TLDs and its uncertainties), it has revealed a reduction in the percentage uncertainty (2 deviations standard / average) with relationship to one of the first results already obtained through the methodology proposal. It has been, also, applied the
Healy, Laura C; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan L
This investigation extended the goal striving literature by examining motives for two goals being pursued simultaneously. Grounded in self-determination theory, we examined how student-athletes' motives for their sporting and academic goals were associated with inter-goal facilitation and interference. Cross-sectional survey. UK university student-athletes (n=204) identified their most important sporting and academic goals. They then rated their extrinsic, introjected, identified and intrinsic motives for these goals and completed questionnaires assessing inter-goal facilitation and interference. Using a person-centered approach via latent profile analysis, we identified three distinct profiles of goal motives. Auxiliary analyses showed that the profile with high identified motives for both goals reported greater inter-goal facilitation. Extending the previous literature, the findings demonstrate the benefits of autonomous motives when simultaneously pursing goals in sport and academia. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kok, P.; Cawson, J.N.; Mercuri, V.; Pitman, A.G.; Gledhill, S.; Shnier, D.; Taft, R.; Zentner, L.
Full text: The study aims to determine if any association exists between visual memory performance and diagnostic accuracy performance in a group of radiologist mammogram readers. Materials and Methods: One hundred proven mammograms (23 with cancers) were grouped into 5 sets of 20 cases, with sets being of equal difficulty. Pairs of sets were presented in 5 reads (40 cases per read, order random) to a panel of 8 radiologist readers (either present or past screening readers, with experience range from 20 years). The readers were asked to either 'clear' or 'call back' cases depending on need for further workup, and at post-baseline reads to indicate whether each case was 'new' or 'old' (i .e. remembered from prior read). Two sets were presented only at baseline (40 cases per reader), and were used to calculate the reader's false recollection rate. Three sets were repeated post-baseline once or twice (100 cases per reader). Reading conditions were standardised. Results: Memory performance differed markedly between readers. The number of correctly remembered cases (of 100 'old' cases) had a median of 10.5 and range of 0-58. The observed number of false recollections (of 40 'totally new' cases) had a median of 2 and range of 0-17. Diagnostic performance measures were mean (range): sensitivity 0.68 (0.54-0.81); specificity 0.82 (0.74-0.91); positive predictive value (PPV) 0.55 (0.500.65); negative predictive value (NPV) 0.89 (0.86-0.93) and accuracy 0.78 (0.76-0.83). Confidence intervals (CIs; 95%) for each reader overlapped for all the diagnostic parameters, indicating a lack of statistically significant difference between the readers at the 5% level. The most sensitive and the most specific reader showed a trend away from each other on sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV; their accuracies were 0.76 and 0.82, respectively, and their accuracy 95% CIs overlapped considerably. Correlation analysis by reader showed no association between observed memory performance and
Visser, Troy A W
While poor reading is often associated with phonological deficits, many studies suggest that visual processing might also be impaired. In particular, recent research has indicated that poor readers show impaired spatial visual attention spans in partial and whole report tasks. Given the similarities between competition-based accounts for reduced visual attention span and similar explanations for impairments in sequential object processing, the present work examined whether poor readers show deficits in their "temporal attention span"--that is, their ability to rapidly and accurately process sequences of consecutive target items. Poor and normal readers monitored a sequential stream of visual items for two (TT condition) or three (TTT condition) consecutive target digits. Target identification was examined using both unconditional and conditional measures of accuracy in order to gauge the overall likelihood of identifying a target and the likelihood of identifying a target given successful identification of previous items. Compared to normal readers, poor readers showed small but consistent deficits in identification across targets whether unconditional or conditional accuracy was used. Additionally, in the TTT condition, final-target conditional accuracy was poorer than unconditional accuracy, particularly for poor readers, suggesting a substantial cost arising from processing the previous two targets that was not present in normal readers. Mirroring the differences found between poor and normal readers in spatial visual attention span, the present findings suggest two principal differences between the temporal attention spans of poor and normal readers. First, the consistent pattern of reduced performance across targets suggests increased competition amongst items within the same span for poor readers. Second, the steeper decline in final target performance amongst poor readers in the TTT condition suggests a reduction in the extent of their temporal attention
Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman
Collection of large repositories of clinical images containing verified cancer locations is costly and time consuming due to difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. This problem poses a significant challenge to the development of machine learning algorithms that require large amounts of data to properly train and avoid overfitting. In this paper we expand the methods in our previous publications by making several modifications that significantly increase the speed of our insertion algorithms, thereby allowing them to be used for inserting lesions that are much larger in size. These algorithms have been incorporated into an image composition tool that we have made publicly available. This tool allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real breast mass or micro-calcification cluster extracted from a source digital mammogram into a different location on another mammogram. We demonstrate examples of the performance of this tool on clinical cases taken from the University of South Florida Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Finally, we report the results of a reader study evaluating the realism of inserted lesions compared to clinical lesions. Analysis of the radiologist scores in the study using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology indicates that inserted lesions cannot be reliably distinguished from clinical lesions.
Full Text Available The research here told is the Italian contribution to the international project Visual Journeys: Understanding Immigrant Children’s Response to Visual Images in Picturebooks, Conducted in Scotland, Arizona, Spain and Australia as an Observation of the Response of Migrant ten-eleven years old Readers to the Wordless Book The Arrival by Shaun Tan (2006. Reflections are made about co-construction and negotiation of meaning in a shared reading; wordless book is experienced as occasion of empowerment for those involved, giving value to individual stories and showing a positive outcome in school life, as for self-esteem and reciprocal relationships; it promotes discussion and increases interest in books, it shows an important effect on learning a foreign language and creating a group. The perspective of the whole experience is an interdisciplinary approach. The reading of wordless or silent book can be a true practice of right and belonging to the international community, and therefore a precious means for an education to global citizenship.
The last few years have seen the emergence of the sharing economy. As social media blurred the distinction between author and reader, everyone can now offer or receive services thanks to the networking tools provided by new technological companies. Take Uber, and its billion of journeys in 2015 alone, with tens of thousands of vehicles crawling every moment in the globe's biggest cities. As often, when confronted with a technological change, we observe a polarization of society, and the search for an equilibrium characterized by new norms, rights, and obligations. Understanding the mechanisms behind this re-organization requires an integrated, interdisciplinary approach, covering an intricate web of legal, societal, economical, and computational issues which, we believe, could benefit from a complex systems perspective. As a first step, we are currently studying the dynamics of pricing in Uber. In this new de-regulated world, journey prices fluctuate in time depending on traffic but also on the service's perceived balance of passenger demand and driver supply...
Full Text Available I examine, in this short paper, the work of Henri Bergson on Lucretius first published in 1884, and argue for its vital significance in understanding the development of his philosophical thinking. This publication was to serve as an introduction to extracts from Lucretius, for his students at Clermont-Ferrand, with a commentary and notes on the poetry, philosophy, the physics, language and text of his poem De Rerum Natura. In the published volume most of the overview of Lucretius by Bergson is given in the long preface, and this is followed by extracts in Latin, without translation into French, with comments on lines and individual words, which covers all the books of the original poem. By 1899 it had gone to a third edition, and was still in print until the 1960's. Copies today are very difficult to obtain, and only recently has a full electronic version become available on the Internet Archive, to which readers are here directly referred.
As school districts strive to put more technology into schools to support 1-to-1 computing initiatives and prepare for the common-core online assessments, the federal E-rate program is in danger of becoming as outdated and insufficient as a sputtering dial-up connection in a Wi-Fi world. While the program can boast great success since its…
Davidheiser, James; Wolf, Gregory
Small undergraduate German programs can take various forms but can generally be classified as new and emerging or older and well-established programs. In today's academic climate it is necessary that instructors in both types work to enhance their curriculum and extra-curricular offerings as well as strive to prevent burnout and the over…
Belanger, Nathalie N.; Baum, Shari R.; Mayberry, Rachel I.
Deaf people often achieve low levels of reading skills. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers is not yet fully supported in the literature. We investigated skilled and less skilled adult deaf readers' use of orthographic and phonological codes in reading. Experiment 1 used a masked…
David P Corina
Full Text Available Individuals with significant hearing loss often fail to attain competency in reading orthographic scripts which encode the sound properties of spoken language. Nevertheless, some profoundly deaf individuals do learn to read at age-appropriate levels. The question of what differentiates proficient deaf readers from less-proficient readers is poorly understood but topical, as efforts to develop appropriate and effective interventions are needed. This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine brain activation in deaf readers (N = 21, comparing proficient (N = 11 and less proficient (N = 10 readers' performance in a widely used test of implicit reading. Proficient deaf readers activated left inferior frontal gyrus and left middle and superior temporal gyrus in a pattern that is consistent with regions reported in hearing readers. In contrast, the less-proficient readers exhibited a pattern of response characterized by inferior and middle frontal lobe activation (right>left which bears some similarity to areas reported in studies of logographic reading, raising the possibility that these individuals are using a qualitatively different mode of orthographic processing than is traditionally observed in hearing individuals reading sound-based scripts. The evaluation of proficient and less-proficient readers points to different modes of processing printed English words. Importantly, these preliminary findings allow us to begin to establish the impact of linguistic and educational factors on the neural systems that underlie reading achievement in profoundly deaf individuals.
Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin
Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both…
Marcell, Barclay; Ferraro, Christine
This article presents an engaging means for turning disfluent readers into prosody superstars. Each week students align with Poetry Power Man and his superhero friends to battle the evil Robot Reader and his sidekicks. The Fluency Foursome helps students adhere to the multidimensional aspects of fluency where expression and comprehension are…
This study aimed to explore whether first-language (L1) readers of different language backgrounds would employ similar metacognitive online reading strategies and whether reading online in a second language (L2) could be influenced by L1 reading strategies. To this end, 52 Canadian college students as English L1 readers and 38 Iranian university…
Shurtz, Suzanne; von Isenburg, Megan
Can e-readers loaded with medical textbooks and other relevant material benefit medical students, residents, and preceptors in clinical settings? The settings are North Carolina community clinics served by Duke University Medical Center and St. Joseph's Hospital in Bryan, Texas, and Scott and White Memorial Hospital in Temple, Texas. DUKE UNIVERSITY: Twenty second-year medical students and fourteen family medicine clerkship preceptors used Kindle e-readers in clinics during eight months of rotations. Students and preceptors provided feedback through an anonymous online survey. Texas A&M University: Nine fourth-year medical students in an elective compared medical textbooks in print, online, and on a Kindle. Six residents at a local hospital completed an anonymous online survey after a three-week loan of a Kindle loaded with medical textbooks. The e-reader's major advantages in clinical settings are portability and searchability. The selected e-reader's limitations include connection speed, navigation, and display. User preferences varied, but online resources were preferred. Participants suggested additional uses for Kindles in medical education. The selected e-reader's limitations may be resolved with further development of the device. Investigation of other e-readers is needed. Criteria for evaluating e-readers in clinical settings should include portability, searchability, speed, navigation, and display. Research comparing e-readers and mobile devices in clinical education is also warranted.
Pittman, Pamela; Honchell, Barbara
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how literature discussion affects middle school struggling readers. The focus was on 16 middle school struggling readers in a rural Title I school in the southeastern United States. Findings indicated that (a) literature discussion increased student enjoyment of reading, and (b) students…
Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The trajectory methodology enables identification of atypical versus delayed development in datasets gathered using group matching designs. Regarding the cognitive predictors of reading, which here are phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and rapid automatized naming (RAN), the method showed that trajectories for the two groups diverged markedly. Children with dyslexia showed atypical development in phonological awareness, while low IQ poor readers showed developmental delay. Low IQ poor readers showed atypical PSTM and RAN development, but children with dyslexia showed developmental delay. These divergent trajectories may have important ramifications for supporting each type of poor reader, although all poor readers showed weakness in all areas. Regarding auditory processing, the developmental trajectories were very similar for the two poor reader groups. However, children with dyslexia demonstrated developmental delay for auditory discrimination of Duration, while the low IQ children showed atypical development on this measure. The data show that, regardless of IQ, poor readers have developmental trajectories that differ from typically developing children. The trajectories approach enables differences in trajectory classification to be identified across poor reader group, as well as specifying the individual nature of these trajectories. PMID:27110928
Pratt, Sharon M.; Urbanowski, Melena
Proficient readers self-monitor and self-correct to derive meaning from text. This article reviews research on how students learn to self-monitor and self-correct and describes a Reciprocal Teaching (RT) instructional routine that was successfully used with early readers to build their metacognitive processes. The RT routine included teacher…
van Krieken, K; Hoeken, J.A.L.; Sanders, J.
This study tests the claim that news narratives about shocking criminal acts enable readers to become mediated witnesses, which implies that readers identify with actual eyewitnesses to a crime and vicariously experience the crime from up close. In an experiment (n = 128), participants read an
Hawelka, Stefan; Gagl, Benjamin; Wimmer, Heinz
This study assessed eye movement abnormalities of adolescent dyslexic readers and interpreted the findings by linking the dual-route model of single word reading with the E-Z Reader model of eye movement control during silent sentence reading. A dysfunction of the lexical route was assumed to account for a reduced number of words which received…
Welie, Camille; Schoonen, Rob; Kuiken, Folkert; Bergh, Huub
The present study examined whether knowledge of connectives contributes uniquely to expository text comprehension above and beyond reading fluency, general vocabulary knowledge and metacognitive knowledge. Furthermore, it was examined whether this contribution differs for readers with different language backgrounds or readers who vary in reading…
... CDC-2013-0008; NIOSH-234] National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOSH)--Certified B Readers; Training and Testing AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers... testing of National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOSH)--certified B Readers. SUMMARY: The National...
Anderton, Gretchen E.
This mixed-methods study examined romance readers' perceptions of how reading romance novels has impacted their sex lives, feelings about their sex partners, knowledge of sexuality and their sexual behavior. Fifty-three women romance readers over the age of 18 completed an online survey composed of multiple choice and open-ended essay questions. …
d'Haenens, Leen; Jankowski, Nicholas; Heuvelman, A.
How readers consume and recall news presented in online and print versions of two newspapersin the Netherlands are investigated in this experimental study. Few differences are found between the online and print versions in terms of news supply. Reader attention to the news stories varies, depending
Seraye, Abdullah M.
Arab readers, both beginning and advanced, are encouraged to read and accustomed to unvowelized and undiacriticized texts. Previous literature claimed that the presence of short vowels in the text would facilitate the reading comprehension of both beginning and advanced Arab readers. However, with a claimed strict controlling procedure, different…
De La Paz, Susan; Felton, Mark; Monte-Sano, Chauncey; Croninger, Robert; Jackson, Cara; Deogracias, Jeehye Shim; Hoffman, Benjamin Polk
In this study, the effects of a disciplinary reading and writing curriculum intervention with professional development are shared. We share our instructional approach and provide writing outcomes for struggling adolescent readers who read at or below basic proficiency levels, as well as writing outcomes for proficient and advanced readers.…
Cahill, Maria; McGill-Franzen, Anne
Beginning with a brief rationale for selecting quality digital picture book apps for beginning readers, the authors describe the elements of digital picture books and provide a brief review of the instructional benefits of digital picture book use for beginning readers. They then present a detailed taxonomy for selecting quality picture book apps.…
After summarizing typical criticisms of multicultural composition readers, the author draws on work in "New Literacy Studies" to point toward composition pedagogies that encourage multicultural interactions beyond selections in assigned readers. The author suggests that what is ultimately needed is a productive critical frame not only for refining…
Gildemeister, Joan E.; Friedman, Philip
Reading achievement tests have been used to identify deficiencies in inner city, poor readers; however, they often do not provide information about encoding strategies which lead some children to academic success. Immediate memory and visual analytic differences which contribute to the success of skilled readers are isolated in this study using 20…
McMaster, Kristen L.; Espin, Christine A.; van den Broek, Paul
Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of reading comprehension interventions for struggling readers, including students with learning disabilities. Yet, some readers continue to struggle with comprehension despite receiving these interventions. In this article, we argue that an explicit link between cognitive psychology and intervention…
Iversen, Synnove; Berg, Karin; Ellertsen, Bjorn; Tonnessen, Finn-Egil
The purpose of the study was to investigate incidence, severity and types of motor problems in two groups of poor readers compared to good reading controls. A group of children with severe dyslexia referred to specialist evaluation, a teacher selected municipality sample comprising the 5% poorest readers, and a control group consisting of the 5%…
Hosier, Julie Winchester
Integration of subjects is something elementary teachers must do to insure required objectives are covered. Science-based Reader's Theatre is one way to weave reading into science. This study examined the roles of frequency, attitudes, and Multiple Intelligence modalities surrounding Electricity Content-Based Reader's Theatre. This study used…
Grote-Garcia, Stephanie; Durham, Patricia
Reading comprehension requires thoughtful interactions between the reader, the text, and the author. The author may assist the reader in building meaning by creating purposefully crafted conversations that are organized into predictable patterns also known as patterned books. In this article, three predictable patterns found within children's text…
Swanson, Elizabeth; Barnes, Marcia; Fall, Anna-Mari; Roberts, Greg
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of inference making, decoding, memory, and vocabulary on reading comprehension among 7th- through 12th-grade struggling readers with varying levels of inattention and hyperactivity. We categorized a group of 414 struggling readers into 3 groups based on results from factor mixture modeling:…
Banner, Alyssa; Wang, Ye
The purpose of this study was to identify and examine effective reading strategies used by adult deaf readers compared with student deaf readers. There were a total of 11 participants: 5 deaf adults ranging from 27 to 36 years and 6 deaf students ranging from 16 to 20 years. Assessment methods included interview and think-aloud procedures in which…
Leoné, Marco; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.
This paper describes the design and trial results of MusicReader, a networked application realizing sheet music related services for the support of ensemble and orchestra rehearsals and performances. To this end, MusicReader presents sheet music on computer screens and supports annotations, sheet
Herbst de Cortina, Sasha; Bristow, Claire C; Humphries, Romney; Vargas, Silver Keith; Konda, Kelika A; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D
Dual point-of-care tests for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum allow for same-day testing and treatment and have been demonstrated to be cost-effective in preventing the adverse outcomes of HIV infection and syphilis. By recording and transmitting data as they are collected, electronic readers address challenges related to the decentralization of point-of-care testing. We evaluated a smartphone-based electronic reader using 201 sera tested with 2 dual rapid tests for detection of antibodies to HIV and T. pallidum in Los Angeles, USA, and Lima, Peru. Tests were read both visually and with the electronic reader. Enzyme immunoassay followed by Western blot and T. pallidum particle agglutination were the reference tests for HIV and T. pallidum, respectively. The sensitivities of the 2 rapid tests for detection of HIV were 94.1% and 97.0% for electronic readings. Both tests had a specificity of 100% for detection of HIV by electronic reading. The sensitivities of the 2 rapid tests for detection of T. pallidum were 86.5% and 92.4% for electronic readings. The specificities for detection of T. pallidum were 99.1% and 99.0% by electronic reading. There were no significant differences between the accuracies of visual and electronic readings, and the performance did not differ between the 2 study sites. Our results show the electronic reader to be a promising option for increasing the use of point-of-care testing programs.
Lynne G. Duncan
Full Text Available The links between oral morphological awareness and the use of derivational morphology are examined in the English word recognition of 8-year-old good and poor readers. Morphological awareness was assessed by a sentence completion task. The role of morphological structure in lexical access was examined by manipulating the presence of embedded words and suffixes in items presented for lexical decision. Good readers were more accurate in the morphological awareness task but did not show facilitation for real derivations even though morpho-semantic information appeared to inform their lexical decisions. The poor readers, who were less accurate, displayed a strong lexicality effect in lexical decision and the presence of an embedded word led to facilitation for words and inhibition for pseudo-words. Overall, the results suggest that both good and poor readers of English are sensitive to the internal structure of written words, with the better readers showing most evidence of morphological analysis.
Galiotto, Carlo; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology which is spreading more and more as a medium to identify, locate and track assets through the productive chain. As all the wireless communication devices sharing the same transmission channel, RFID readers and tags experience collisions whenever...... deployed over the same area. In this work, the RFID reader collision problem is studied and a centralized scheduling-based algorithm is proposed as possible candidate solution, especially for those scenarios involving static or low mobility readers. Taking into account the circuitry limitations of the tags......, which do not allow to use frequency or code division multiple access schemes in the RFID systems, this paper proposes an algorithm aiming to prevent the readers collisions, while keeping the access delay of the readers to the channel possibly low. The simulation results show that this algorithm performs...
Alexander S. Komarov
Full Text Available The article is devoted to some strategies aimed at involving the reader into the writer's book by means of making the reader's attitude to its content personal or subjective. In the article it is stated that there are two components which are intrinsic to virtual intercourse between writer and reader. One of the components is the content of the writer's publication while the other is the reader's attitude towards the content suggested. The article shows that the reader's attitude encompasses two processes: the process of self-estrangement from the writer's content and the process of self-involvement into it. In the article, the author analyses these two processes in relation to the content of the book. In the article, the author singles out and gives descriptions of such dimensions of the book's content as its topical and emotional dimension, its depth, human nature dimension and interpersonal relations dimension as well as of strategies used by the writer in order to involve the reader into his writings. The author argues that a successful strategy is based on managing to touch the reader to the quick, i.e. his or her subjectivity, and the result of successfulness can be measured by the reader's readiness and willingness to sink into one of the dimensions suggested. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that signs of the successful strategy can be traced in the reader's return to the intercourse with the writer when he or she rereads the writer's books, repeats or makes references to words, situations or ideas suggested or described by the writer who has grasped the reader's attention in one or several content dimensions.
Calnan, Nuala; O'Donnell, Kevin; Greene, Anne
This article is the first in a series of articles that will focus on understanding the implementation essentials necessary to deliver operational excellence through a International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) Q10-based pharmaceutical quality system (PQS). The authors examine why, despite the fact that the ICH Q10 guideline has been with us since 2008, the transformation of the traditional Quality Management Systems QMS in use within the pharmaceutical industry is a work in progress for only a few forward-thinking organisations. Unfortunately, this transformation remains a mere aspiration for the majority of organisations. We explore the apparent lack of progress by the pharmaceutical sector in adopting six sigma and related quality management techniques to ensure the availability of high-quality medicines worldwide. The authors propose that the desired progress can be delivered through two key shifts in our current practices; by embodying the principles of operational excellence in every aspect of our business and by learning how to unlock the scientific and tacit knowledge within our organisations. It has been ten years since The Wall Street Journal revealed the pharmaceutical industry's "little secret" comparing the perceived level of manufacturing expertise in the industry as lagging far behind those of potato-chip and laundry-soap makers. Would you consider the quality and manufacturing strategies in place today in your organisation to be more efficient and scientifically based than those of 2003? If so, what evidence exists for you to draw any conclusion regarding enhanced performance? Do your current practices drive innovation and facilitate continual improvement and if so, how? Ultimately, can you confidently affirm that patient-related risks associated with the product(s) manufactured by your organisation have been reduced due to the quality assurance program now applied
BALTIMORE - At a Tuesday ceremony at the National Federation of the Blind, NASA unveiled a new book that brings majestic images taken by its Great Observatories to the fingertips of the blind. "Touch the Invisible Sky" is a 60-page book with color images of nebulae, stars, galaxies and some of the telescopes that captured the original pictures. Each image is embossed with lines, bumps and other textures. These raised patterns translate colors, shapes and other intricate details of the cosmic objects, allowing visually impaired people to experience them. Braille and large-print descriptions accompany each of the book's 28 photographs, making the book's design accessible to readers of all visual abilities. Sample page Sample page The book contains spectacular images from the Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope and powerful ground-based telescopes. The celestial objects are presented as they appear through visible-light telescopes and different spectral regions invisible to the naked eye, from radio to infrared, visible, ultraviolet and X-ray light. The book introduces the concept of light and the spectrum and explains how the different observatories complement each others' findings. Readers take a cosmic journey beginning with images of the sun, and travel out into the galaxy to visit relics of exploding and dying stars, as well as the Whirlpool galaxy and colliding Antennae galaxies. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Action Replay of Powerful Stellar Explosion Black Holes Are The Rhythm at The Heart of Galaxies "Touch the Invisible Sky" was written by astronomy educator and accessibility specialist Noreen Grice of You Can Do Astronomy LLC and the Museum of Science, Boston, with authors Simon Steel, an astronomer with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., and Doris Daou, an astronomer
Bushra Saadoon Mohammed Al-Noori
Full Text Available This study aims at measuring the amount of the effect of the reader's background knowledge on performance in reading comprehension tests through the assessment of information gained in reading comprehension (RC tests across-four testing techniques, short answer questions ,true-false items , multiple - choice items , and cloze test and re-test. This technique involves the examinees in two types of tasks, i.e. pre-reading and post -reading task. Two hypotheses have been proposed to achieve the aims of this study. They are 1-There are no significant differences between the pre-reading and post-reading performances of examinees on reading comprehension(RC. 2-There are no significant differences in information gain scores across the different techniques of testing reading comprehension (RC in EFL. To verify the validity of these two hypotheses, a number of statistical procedures have been used such as arithmetical mean, t-test for correlated and independent samples to analyze the performance of third and fourth year College students studying at the Department of English at University of Baghdad /Ibn Rushd College of Education for Humanities on two reading passages taken from TOEFL practice tests (2011. The analysis of the data has shown the following results: 1-The background knowledge has an effect on the performance on reading comprehension (RC. 2-There is a significant difference in students' performance on reading comprehension (RC. 3-The effect of background knowledge is investable on reading comprehension (RC tests, but it can be identified or neutralized. Based on these conclusions, the researcher presented a number of recommendations.
Organick, Elliott Irving; Plummer, Robert P
Programming Language Structures deals with the structures of programming languages and introduces the reader to five important programming languages: Algol, Fortran, Lisp, Snobol, and Pascal. The fundamental similarities and differences among these languages are discussed. A unifying framework is constructed that can be used to study the structure of other languages, such as Cobol, PL/I, and APL. Several of the tools and methodologies needed to construct large programs are also considered.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with a summary of the relevant concepts and principles about al
To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...
Full Text Available In the multiple-reader environment (MRE of radio frequency identification (RFID system, multiple readers are often scheduled to interrogate the randomized tags via operating at different time slots or frequency channels to decrease the signal interferences. Based on this, a Geometric Distribution-based Multiple-reader Scheduling Optimization Algorithm using Artificial Immune System (GD-MRSOA-AIS is proposed to fairly and optimally schedule the readers operating from the viewpoint of resource allocations. GD-MRSOA-AIS is composed of two parts, where a geometric distribution function combined with the fairness consideration is first introduced to generate the feasible scheduling schemes for reader operation. After that, artificial immune system (including immune clone, immune mutation and immune suppression quickly optimize these feasible ones as the optimal scheduling scheme to ensure that readers are fairly operating with larger effective interrogation range and lower interferences. Compared with the state-of-the-art algorithm, the simulation results indicate that GD-MRSOA-AIS could efficiently schedules the multiple readers operating with a fairer resource allocation scheme, performing in larger effective interrogation range.
Full Text Available At present, RFID is installed on mobile devices such as mobile phones or PDAs and provides a means to obtain information about objects equipped with an RFID tag over a multi-channeled telecommunication networks. To use mobile RFIDs, reader collision problems should be addressed given that readers are continuously moving. Moreover, in a multichannel environment for mobile RFIDs, interference between adjacent channels should be considered. This work first defines a new concept of a reader collision problem between adjacent channels and then suggests a novel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID readers that use multiple channels. To avoid interference with adjacent channels, the suggested algorithm separates data channels into odd and even numbered channels and allocates odd-numbered channels first to readers. It also sets an unused channel between the control channel and data channels to ensure that control messages and the signal of the adjacent channel experience no interference. Experimental results show that suggested algorithm shows throughput improvements ranging from 29% to 46% for tag identifications compared to the GENTLE reader anti-collision algorithm for multichannel RFID networks.
Mochammad Amrun Hidayat
Full Text Available The stable chromogenic radical 1,1′-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH solution was immobilized on the microwell plate as dry reagent to construct a simple antioxidant sensor. Then, a regular flatbed scanner was used as microplate reader to obtain analytical parameters for antioxidant assay using one-shot optical sensors as scanometry technique. Variables affecting the acquisition of the images were optimized and the analytical parameters are obtained from an area of the sensing zone inside microwell using the average luminosity of the sensing zone captured as the mean of red, green, and blue (RGB value using ImageJ® program. By using this RGB value as sensor response, it is possible to determine antioxidant capacity in the range 1–25 ppm as gallic acid equivalent (GAE with the response time of 9 min. The reproducibility of sensor was good (RSD<1% with recovery at 93%–96%. The antioxidant sensor was applied to the plant extracts, such as sappan wood and Turmeric Rhizome. The results are good when compared to the same procedure using a UV/Vis spectrophotometer.
Full Text Available The 'Cerebellar Deficit Theory' of developmental dyslexia proposes that a subtle developmental cerebellar dysfunction leads to deficits in attaining 'automatic' procedures and therefore manifests as subtle motor impairments (e.g., balance control, motor skill learning in addition to the reading and phonological difficulties. A more recent version of the theory suggests a core deficit in motor skill acquisition. This study was undertaken to compare the time-course and the nature of practice-related changes in volitional (manual and non-volitional (posture motor performance in dyslexic and typical readers while learning a new movement sequence. Seventeen dyslexic and 26 skilled young adult readers underwent a three-session training program in which they practiced a novel sequence of manual movements while standing in a quiet stance position. Both groups exhibited robust and well-retained gains in speed, with no loss of accuracy, on the volitional, manual, aspects of the task, with a time-course characteristic of procedural learning. However, the dyslexic readers exhibited a pervasive slowness in the initiation of volitional performance. In addition, while typical readers showed clear and well-retained task-related adaptation of the balance and posture control system, the dyslexic readers had significantly larger sway and variance of sway throughout the three sessions and were less efficient in adapting the posture control system to support the acquisition of the novel movement sequence. These results support the notion of a non-language-related deficit in developmental dyslexia, one related to the recruitment of motor systems for effective task performance rather than to a general motor learning disability.
Pitman, Alexander G.; Kok, Phebe; Zentner, Lucila
To determine if presence of cancer on a mammogram makes that mammogram more memorable. A total of 100 mammograms (25 cancers) were grouped into 5 sets of 20 cases. Set pairs were presented in five reads to eight radiologist readers. Readers were asked to 'clear' or 'call back' cases, and at post-baseline reads to indicate whether each case was 'new' or 'old ' (remembered from prior read). Two sets were presented only at baseline, to calculate each reader's false recollection rate. For cases presented more than once ('old' cases, 100 presentations) readers could have 'correct memory' or 'memory loss'. Memory performance was defined as odds ratio of correct memory to memory loss. Multivariate logistic data regression analysis identified predictors of memory performance from: reader, set, time since last read, presence of cancer, and whether the case was called back at the last read. Memory performance differed markedly between readers and reader identity was a highly significant predictor of memory performance. Presence of cancer was not a significant predictor of memory performance (odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI: 0.49–1.21). Whether the case was called back at the last read was a highly significant predictor (odds ratio 4.22, 95% CI: 2.70–6.61) for the model incorporating reader variability, and also the model without reader variability (odds ratio 2.67, 95% CI: 1.74–4.08). The only statistically significant predictor of radiologist memory for a mammogram was whether the radiologist 'called it back' at a prior reading round. Presence of cancer on a mammogram did not make it memorable.
Rees, Dilys Karen
Presents how Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics can be used to analyze readers' responses to an American literature text. Readers are Brazilian college students reading a text by the American author, Amy Tan. (Author/VWL)
Full Text Available A characteristic feature of Avant-garde art is the radical approach to established artistic forms. One way of describing tradition and norms of artistic expression is through genre: Literary genre represents a set of conventions which are transcended by the experimental text. The poetic genre can be defined through the expectations of the reader, and this approach seems particularly relevant in the case of Lars Skinnebach's Din misbruger (You/r addict (2006 as this work actively addresses the role of the reader, his or her expectations of the text, and the status of the work as an object of interpretation. This paper investigates the conditions of the construction of poetic voice in the Din misbruger (You/r addict and how it challenges the role of the reader as well as the status of the text as a literary product.
In this paper we present a tool that supports construction of program tutorials. A program tutorial provides the reader with an understanding of an example program by interleaving fragments of source code and explaining text. An example program can for example illustrate how to use a library or a......, and we see potential in using the tool to produce program tutorials to be used for frameworks, libraries, and in educational contexts.......In this paper we present a tool that supports construction of program tutorials. A program tutorial provides the reader with an understanding of an example program by interleaving fragments of source code and explaining text. An example program can for example illustrate how to use a library...... or a framework. We present a means for specifying the fragments of a program that are to be in-lined in the tutorial text. These in-line fragments are defined by addressing named syntactical elements, such as classes and methods, but it is also possible to address individual code lines by labeling them...
Sartor, Gregory C; Powell, Samuel K; Brothers, Shaun P; Wahlestedt, Claes
Epigenetic processes that regulate histone acetylation play an essential role in behavioral and molecular responses to cocaine. To date, however, only a small fraction of the mechanisms involved in the addiction-associated acetylome have been investigated. Members of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of epigenetic "reader" proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT) bind acetylated histones and serve as a scaffold for the recruitment of macromolecular complexes to modify chromatin accessibility and transcriptional activity. The role of BET proteins in cocaine-induced plasticity, however, remains elusive. Here, we used behavioral, pharmacological, and molecular techniques to examine the involvement of BET bromodomains in cocaine reward. Of the BET proteins, BRD4, but not BRD2 or BRD3, was significantly elevated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice and rats following repeated cocaine injections and self-administration. Systemic and intra-accumbal inhibition of BRD4 with the BET inhibitor, JQ1, attenuated the rewarding effects of cocaine in a conditioned place preference procedure but did not affect conditioned place aversion, nor did JQ1 alone induce conditioned aversion or preference. Investigating the underlying mechanisms, we found that repeated cocaine injections enhanced the binding of BRD4, but not BRD3, to the promoter region of Bdnf in the NAc, whereas systemic injection of JQ1 attenuated cocaine-induced expression of Bdnf in the NAc. JQ1 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of BRD4 in vitro also reduced expression of Bdnf. These findings indicate that disrupting the interaction between BET proteins and their acetylated lysine substrates may provide a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of drug addiction. Proteins involved in the "readout" of lysine acetylation marks, referred to as BET bromodomain proteins (including BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT), have been shown to be key regulators of chromatin dynamics and disease, and BET inhibitors are currently
Perea, Manuel; Panadero, Victoria; Moret-Tatay, Carmen; Gomez, Pablo
Recent research has demonstrated that slight increases of inter-letter spacing have a positive impact on skilled readers' recognition of visually presented words. In the present study, we examined whether this effect generalises to young normal readers and readers with developmental dyslexia, and whether increased inter-letter spacing affects the…
Pedersen, Inge Kryger
of knowledge about enhancement technologies and a Foucauldian analytical framework, this article explores how users engage with alternative medicine. Drawing on in-depth interviews with Danish users and observations of their treatment sessions, the article demonstrates how they embark on a voyage of discovery...... with the body to enhance their own selves and bodily resources. The discussion centres on Rose’s approach to medical enhancement technologies and Foucault’s notion of ‘technologies of the self’. A wider field of tension is outlined in which embodied alternative treatment practices play a role in various...
At the 16th Reactor Operations International Topical Meeting, held August 15-18, in Melville, Long Island, N.Y., speakers pointed to the continued need to improve the operation of nuclear power plants in the United States. The meeting was sponsored by the American Nuclear Society's Reactor Operations Division and Long Island Local Section. Session speakers pointed out that plant safety is in large measure in the hands of reactor operators independent of the hardware and software in place for reactor operations. Others touched on the economic costs that nuclear energy is facing, compared with coal. Direct labor constitutes 55 percent of the power production costs of nuclear, compared to only 17 percent for coal. The industry has to recognize the opportunity to maximize labor use and reduce costs. Further improving the cost-effectiveness of energy generation will require reducing the dollar investment in plant operation. Speakers proposed reorganizational efforts for the nuclear industry, which will provide a more directed and competitive industry able to compete in todays market
This article discusses the concept of "impact" and is based on the scientific output of the author that is examined for the analysis of impacts from the qualitative standpoint. It is done not as an end in itself, but under the aegis of the author/text/reader relationship. Seeking to establish this relationship, the way in which the author is quoted in a selected article, entering each of the quotes and identifying what aspects were emphasized by the readers who referenced the quote is explored in detail. This qualitative observation of each of the quotes provided an indication of how each author/reader perceived the original text. This personal experience of this finite and delicate dialogue with "my reader" is presented here as a recommendation, to anyone who may be interested, of a viable device that can be repeated by authors in order to re-visit their writings based on the acknowledgement of the impact that it has on others.
Schwartz, Robert M.; Stanovich, Keith E.
Investigates the use of graphic and contextual information in word recognition and the extent to which good and poor readers are flexible in their ability to trade off one type of information for another when the situation warrants. (HOD)
Methvin, Eugene H.; Herndon, Terry
The copy of a "Reader's Digest" article critical of the political activities of the National Education Association (NEA) is run with marginal comments written by Terry Herndon, NEA executive director. (IRT)
Welie, C; Schoonen, R; Kuiken, F; van den Bergh, H.H.
The present study examined whether knowledge of connectives contributes uniquely to expository text comprehension above and beyond reading fluency, general vocabulary knowledge and metacognitive knowledge. Furthermore, it was examined whether this contribution differs for readers with different
Lee, Jaeyul; Kwon, Hyungwoo; Song, Jaewon; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun
A handheld line information reader and a line information generator were developed for the efficient management of optical communication lines. The line information reader consists of a photo diode, trans-impedance amplifier, voltage amplifier, microcontroller unit, display panel, and communication modules. The line information generator consists of a laser diode, laser driving circuits, microcontroller unit, and communication modules. The line information reader can detect the optical radiation field of the test line by bending the optical fiber. To enhance the sensitivity of the line information reader, an additional lens was used with a focal length of 4.51 mm. Moreover, the simulation results obtained through BeamPROP ® software from Synopsys, Inc. demonstrated a stronger optical radiation field of the fiber due to a longer transmission wavelength and larger bending angle of the fiber. Therefore, the developed devices can be considered as useful tools for the efficient management of optical communication lines.
Jan 18, 2008 ... 3. Data Processing. The microcontroller, the CCD sensor, the stepper motor and the rest of the system are interfaced to the PC where data processing and overall control are done. A software program in. QUICKBASIC is used to process the pixels. First the 1024 pixels of an image line are received from the.
Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly
We investigated whether children who were learning to read simultaneously in English and French activate phonological representations from only the language in which they are reading or from both of their languages. Children in French Immersion programs in Grade 3 were asked to name aloud cognates, interlingual homographs, interlingual homophones,…
Johns, Clinton L.; Matsuki, Kazunaga; Van Dyke, Julie A.
A substantial body of evidence points to a cue-based direct-access retrieval mechanism as a crucial component of skilled adult reading. We report two experiments aimed at examining whether poor readers are able to make use of the same retrieval mechanism. This is significant in light of findings that poor readers have difficulty retrieving linguistic information (e.g., Perfetti, 1985). Our experiments are based on a previous demonstration of direct-access retrieval in language processing, pre...
Barth Borna K; Donati Olivio F; Fischer Michael A; Ulbrich Erika J; Karlo Christoph A; Becker Anton; Seifert Burkhard; Reiner Caecilia S
This study aimed to analyze interreader agreement and diagnostic accuracy of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI RADS) in comparison to a nonstandardized 5 point scale and to assess reader acceptance of LI RADS for clinical routine. Eighty four consecutive patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent liver magnetic resonance imaging were included in this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant retrospective study. Four readers rated the likelihood ...
Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Mejdahl, V.
Two fully automated TL reader systems for TL dating and a manually operated reader for research purpose were put into operation during 1982-3. All systems are controlled by HP-85 or HP-86 microcomputers; thus flexibility in selection of measurement parameters, calculation of TL signals and displa...... the archaeological and geological ages. The principle of the measurement procedures are described, and dating results are presented to illustrate the performance of the systems...
Ana Claudia Silva Fidelis
Full Text Available Contemporary texts have been re-signified by the development of online technology so that such texts favor collaboration and interaction between authors and readers thus reconfiguring their roles. The current paper aims at revisiting the place of reading and the reader position by discussing the place occupied by the canon and the fanon (neologism to fan texts in scholar literacies at the present days.
Olsen, Tenna Doktor
This course reader is a guide to the content of the last series of FOOD DESIGN lectures and design workshops given with the course: ‘Food Concept Design: Mapping Strategic and Service‐Oriented possibilities within Food Businesses', offered at the Masters education 'Integrated Food Studies...... for the individual exams. Together with the course programmes provided at the two previous semesters, this course reader is thus attempts to begin develop af theoratical framework for teaching Food Design Thinking....
Cole, Graham D; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Nowbar, Alexandra N; Buell, Kevin G; Al-Mayahi, Faisal; Zargaran, David; Mahmood, Saliha; Singh, Bharpoor; Mielewczik, Michael; Francis, Darrel P
Background: Scientific literature can contain errors. Discrepancies, defined as two or more statements or results that cannot both be true, may be a signal of problems with a trial report. In this study, we report how many discrepancies are detected by a large panel of readers examining a trial report containing a large number of discrepancies. Methods: We approached a convenience sample of 343 journal readers in seven countries, and invited them in person to participate in a study. They were...
Full Text Available The article deals with the role of the implied reader in Evelyn Waugh’s novels. An attempt will be made to define who the implied reader is and what is his position and role in fictional realm. By analysing narrative strategies and techniques within a selection of Waugh’s works, I attempt to discuss the changing relationship between author/narrator and the implied reader. I try to point that within Evelyn Waugh’s writing one can observe a simultaneous evolution of the narrator voice and the role ascribed to the implied reader. What is more, I discuss the limits of interpretation. I try to present and analyse how both the author/narrator and the text can impose limitations on the implied reader allowing him to move freely, however, within a set frame. Intertextuality is one of the focal points of the article, as I try to propose that the use of specific intertextual references in several different novels enhances the reader’s understanding of Waugh’s fictional world. An attempt is made to prove that through analysis of different levels of understanding intertextual relation the reader takes on himself a role of creator. Furthermore, I draw attention to the places of indeterminacy. In this discussion I include both structures of indeterminacy proposed by Roman Ingarden i.e. blanks and negations, as both are needed not only to establish the interaction that takes place between text and the implied reader, but also to try to regulate such relation. An attempt will be made to explain how important filling the gaps within the text is and how completing the blanks affects the reader and the process of reading as such.
Lidén, Mats; Andersson, Torbjörn; Geijer, Håkan
The objectives of this study were to quantify the impact of image post-processing parameters on the apparent renal stone size, and to quantify the intra- and inter-reader variability in renal stone size estimation. Fifty CT datasets including a renal or ureteral stone were included retrospectively during a prospective inclusion period. Each of the CT datasets was post-processed in different ways regarding slice thickness, slice increment and window setting. In the first part of the study a single reader repeated size estimations for the renal stones using different post-processing parameters. In the intra-reader variability experiment one reader reported size estimations for the same images with a one-week interval. The inter-reader variability data were obtained from 11 readers reporting size estimations for the same renal stones. The apparent stone size differed according to image post-processing parameters with the largest mean differences seen with regard to the window settings experiment (1.5 mm, p images.
Pamela J. Shoemaker
Full Text Available The popularity of online news items is calculated by news sites as a function of reader behaviors, such as clicking on or reading articles, emailing them to others, commenting on or discussing them, and even linking to them in blogs. Online news sites often provide rank-ordered lists of popular articles that are updated throughout the day. Popularity reflects not only the interest of individuals, but it also can represent communication from an individual reader to other people. In the case of emailed articles, recipients may be friends, family or colleagues. When readers add comments below an article, they may reach anyone on the internet. When readers communicate with other readers, they extend the usual gatekeeping process but their selections may not reflect the news values of the journalists who put the sites together. This study compares the news values of readers in Brazil, China and the United States.
Chung, Kevin K H; Ho, Connie S-H; Chan, David W; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han
This study investigated the relative contribution of syntactic awareness to Chinese reading among Chinese-speaking adolescent readers with and without dyslexia. A total of 78 junior high school students in Hong Kong, 26 dyslexic adolescent readers, 26 average adolescent readers of the same age (chronological age control group) and 26 younger readers matched with the same reading level (reading-level group) participated and were administered measures of IQ, syntactic awareness, morphological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, working memory, word reading, and reading comprehension. Results showed that dyslexic readers scored significantly lower than chronological age but similarly to reading level control groups in most measures, especially in the areas of syntactic skills. Analyses of individual data also revealed that over half of the dyslexic readers exhibited certain aspects of deficits in syntactic skills. In regression analyses, syntactic skills were the strongest predictors of ability in word reading and reading comprehension measures. This study highlights the uniquely important correlates of syntactic skills in Chinese reading acquisition and impairment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
de Hooge, Manouk; Pialat, Jean-Baptiste; Reijnierse, Monique; van der Heijde, Désirée; Claudepierre, Pascal; Saraux, Alain; Dougados, Maxime; Feydy, Antoine
Comparing local reading (LocR) with central reading (CentR) of typical spondyloarhritis lesions including bone marrow edema (BME) and structural lesions on magnetic resonance imaging of the spine (MRI-spine), in patients with inflammatory back pain (IBP; ≥3 months, Devenir des Spondylarthopathies Indifferenciees Recentes (DESIR)-cohort were used. Two trained central readers scored anterior and posterior corner BME, fatty lesions, erosions and syndesmophytes on MRI-spine. Presences of lesions, based on average scores, were used for CentR. A local radiologist and/or rheumatologist scored MRI-spine on presence/doubt/absence of 'inflammation' and 'structural lesions'. Agreement between central readers and readings was calculated (Cohen's kappa: κ). Agreement between central readers was moderate (BME κ = 0.55, fatty lesions κ = 0.50) to slight (erosions κ = 0.12, syndesmophytes κ = 0.19). Agreement between LocR and CentR was κ = 0.32 (BME) and κ = 0.13 (structural lesions). In 78/160 patients (48.8%) LocR were in doubt while CentR scored BME lesions, for structural lesions this was 17.8% (28/157 patients). Agreement between 2 central readers for scoring spondyloarhritis-like lesions on MRI-spine was moderate but better compared to LocR and CentR agreement. LocR often doubt about the presence of MRI-spine lesions while central trained readers score lesions.
Full Text Available Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7-8-year-old Spanish children (n=63 learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control, and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills.
Fonseca-Mora, M C; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María
Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7-8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills.
The target of the program is to develop a peat production method, based on solar energy, by which it is possible to double the present annual hectare yield. It has been estimated that if the target of the program can be fulfilled it is possible to decrease the production costs by about 20 %. The target has been strived by intensification of utilization of solar radiation, by improving the collection rate of dry peat, by decreasing the rain effects on production, by lengthening the production season and by decreasing the storage losses. Three new peat production methods have so far been developed in the Optimiturve research program, by which it is possible to obtain the targets of the program. These methods are the new sod peat production method, the ridge drying method and the Multi method
Carver, Richard H
Master the essentials of concurrent programming,including testing and debuggingThis textbook examines languages and libraries for multithreaded programming. Readers learn how to create threads in Java and C++, and develop essential concurrent programming and problem-solving skills. Moreover, the textbook sets itself apart from other comparable works by helping readers to become proficient in key testing and debugging techniques. Among the topics covered, readers are introduced to the relevant aspects of Java, the POSIX Pthreads library, and the Windows Win32 Applications Programming Interface.
Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne
The current paper extends previous work on breathing during speech perception and provides supplementary material regarding the hypothesis that adaptation of breathing during perception “could be a basis for understanding and imitating actions performed by other people” (Paccalin and Jeannerod, 2000). The experiments were designed to test how the differences in reader breathing due to speaker-specific characteristics, or differences induced by changes in loudness level or speech rate influence the listener breathing. Two readers (a male and a female) were pre-recorded while reading short texts with normal and then loud speech (both readers) or slow speech (female only). These recordings were then played back to 48 female listeners. The movements of the rib cage and abdomen were analyzed for both the readers and the listeners. Breathing profiles were characterized by the movement expansion due to inhalation and the duration of the breathing cycle. We found that both loudness and speech rate affected each reader’s breathing in different ways. Listener breathing was different when listening to the male or the female reader and to the different speech modes. However, differences in listener breathing were not systematically in the same direction as reader differences. The breathing of listeners was strongly sensitive to the order of presentation of speech mode and displayed some adaptation in the time course of the experiment in some conditions. In contrast to specific alignments of breathing previously observed in face-to-face dialog, no clear evidence for a listener–reader alignment in breathing was found in this purely auditory speech perception task. The results and methods are relevant to the question of the involvement of physiological adaptations in speech perception and to the basic mechanisms of listener–speaker coupling. PMID:24367344
Gallas, Brandon D.; Pisano, Etta; Cole, Elodia; Myers, Kyle
The FDA recently completed a study on design methodologies surrounding the Validation of Imaging Premarket Evaluation and Regulation called VIPER. VIPER consisted of five large reader sub-studies to compare the impact of different study populations on reader behavior as seen by sensitivity, specificity, and AUC, the area under the ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic curve). The study investigated different prevalence levels and two kinds of sampling of non-cancer patients: a screening population and a challenge population. The VIPER study compared full-field digital mammography (FFDM) to screenfilm mammography (SFM) for women with heterogeneously dense or extremely dense breasts. All cases and corresponding images were sampled from Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) archives. There were 20 readers (American Board Certified radiologists) for each sub-study, and instead of every reader reading every case (fully-crossed study), readers and cases were split into groups to reduce reader workload and the total number of observations (split-plot study). For data collection, readers first decided whether or not they would recall a patient. Following that decision, they provided an ROC score for how close or far that patient was from the recall decision threshold. Performance results for FFDM show that as prevalence increases to 50%, there is a moderate increase in sensitivity and decrease in specificity, whereas AUC is mainly flat. Regarding precision, the statistical efficiency (ratio of variances) of sensitivity and specificity relative to AUC are 0.66 at best and decrease with prevalence. Analyses comparing modalities and the study populations (screening vs. challenge) are still ongoing.
Bookallil, Cheryl; Rolfe, John
Enrolment in university enabling programs has expanded dramatically in the last decade as universities strive to increase enrolments, particularly of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Offering enabling study by distance education has been part of this expansion with the benefit of providing access to a wider enrolment base. The purpose…
STI in remote communities: improved and enhanced primary health care (STRIVE) study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing ?usual practice? STI care to enhanced care in remote primary health care services in Australia
Ward, James; McGregor, Skye; Guy, Rebecca J; Rumbold, Alice R; Garton, Linda; Silver, Bronwyn J; Taylor-Thomson, Debbie; Hengel, Belinda; Knox, Janet; Dyda, Amalie; Law, Matthew G; Wand, Handan; Donovan, Basil; Fairley, Christopher K; Skov, Steven
Background Despite two decades of interventions, rates of sexually transmissible infections (STI) in remote Australian Aboriginal communities remain unacceptably high. Routine notifications data from 2011 indicate rates of chlamydia and gonorrhoea among Aboriginal people in remote settings were 8 and 61 times higher respectively than in the non-Indigenous population. Methods/design STRIVE is a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial designed to compare a sexual health quality improvement progr...
Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel; Comesaña, Montserrat
Recent research with skilled adult readers has consistently revealed an advantage of consonants over vowels in visual-word recognition (i.e., the so-called "consonant bias"). Nevertheless, little is known about how early in development the consonant bias emerges. This work aims to address this issue by studying the relative contribution of consonants and vowels at the early stages of visual-word recognition in developing readers (2(nd) and 4(th) Grade children) and skilled adult readers (college students) using a masked priming lexical decision task. Target words starting either with a consonant or a vowel were preceded by a briefly presented masked prime (50 ms) that could be the same as the target (e.g., pirata-PIRATA [pirate-PIRATE]), a consonant-preserving prime (e.g., pureto-PIRATA), a vowel-preserving prime (e.g., gicala-PIRATA), or an unrelated prime (e.g., bocelo -PIRATA). Results revealed significant priming effects for the identity and consonant-preserving conditions in adult readers and 4(th) Grade children, whereas 2(nd) graders only showed priming for the identity condition. In adult readers, the advantage of consonants was observed both for words starting with a consonant or a vowel, while in 4(th) graders this advantage was restricted to words with an initial consonant. Thus, the present findings suggest that a Consonant/Vowel skeleton should be included in future (developmental) models of visual-word recognition and reading.
Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Dimitropoulou, María; Estévez, Adelina; Carreiras, Manuel
The visual word recognition system recruits neuronal systems originally developed for object perception which are characterized by orientation insensitivity to mirror reversals. It has been proposed that during reading acquisition beginning readers have to “unlearn” this natural tolerance to mirror reversals in order to efficiently discriminate letters and words. Therefore, it is supposed that this unlearning process takes place in a gradual way and that reading expertise modulates mirror-letter discrimination. However, to date no supporting evidence for this has been obtained. We present data from an eye-movement study that investigated the degree of sensitivity to mirror-letters in a group of beginning readers and a group of expert readers. Participants had to decide which of the two strings presented on a screen corresponded to an auditorily presented word. Visual displays always included the correct target word and one distractor word. Results showed that those distractors that were the same as the target word except for the mirror lateralization of two internal letters attracted participants’ attention more than distractors created by replacement of two internal letters. Interestingly, the time course of the effects was found to be different for the two groups, with beginning readers showing a greater tolerance (decreased sensitivity) to mirror-letters than expert readers. Implications of these findings are discussed within the framework of preceding evidence showing how reading expertise modulates letter identification. PMID:24273596
Courtney A. Bates
Full Text Available Although literary scholars, including those who study American novelist Willa Cather, typically have drawn distinctions between real and professional readers, this article overturns the assumption that Cather's fan letters are merely the purview of common readers. Since both common and professional readers appear in her archive, I argue that the misplaced emphasis on who writes fan letters would be constructively replaced by treating fan letters as a genre used by many kinds of readers. Both professionals and nonprofessionals wrote fan letters to Cather and used its rhetorical methods, since it offered an attractive alternative to professional reading modes popularized by English departments of the 1890s and magazine discourse of the first quarter of the twentieth century. The fan letters create an author-reader relationship based on repeated readings and affective responses to the text as well as personal familiarity with its locations and characters. Moreover, I argue that the letters in Cather's archive are not a random sampling but are the letters that she preserved, enjoyed, and encouraged. Within the period's fraught debates about the purpose and nature of literature and the qualifications needed to interpret and judge it, the fan letter exchange creates a more detailed understanding of Cather's relationship with her audience—what reading methods she sought and preferred over others.
Marino, Maria Adele; Clauser, Paola; Woitek, Ramona; Wengert, Georg J.; Kapetas, Panagiotis; Bernathova, Maria; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Helbich, Thomas H.; Baltzer, Pascal A.T.; Preidler, Klaus
To investigate the impact of a scoring system (Tree) on inter-reader agreement and diagnostic performance in breast MRI reading. This IRB-approved, single-centre study included 100 patients with 121 consecutive histopathologically verified lesions (52 malignant, 68 benign). Four breast radiologists with different levels of MRI experience and blinded to histopathology retrospectively evaluated all examinations. Readers independently applied two methods to classify breast lesions: BI-RADS and Tree. BI-RADS provides a reporting lexicon that is empirically translated into likelihoods of malignancy; Tree is a scoring system that results in a diagnostic category. Readings were compared by ROC analysis and kappa statistics. Inter-reader agreement was substantial to almost perfect (kappa: 0.643-0.896) for Tree and moderate (kappa: 0.455-0.657) for BI-RADS. Diagnostic performance using Tree (AUC: 0.889-0.943) was similar to BI-RADS (AUC: 0.872-0.953). Less experienced radiologists achieved AUC: improvements up to 4.7 % using Tree (P-values: 0.042-0.698); an expert's performance did not change (P = 0.526). The least experienced reader improved in specificity using Tree (16 %, P = 0.001). No further sensitivity and specificity differences were found (P > 0.1). The Tree scoring system improves inter-reader agreement and achieves a diagnostic performance similar to that of BI-RADS. Less experienced radiologists, in particular, benefit from Tree. (orig.)
Full Text Available Since Socrates’ time, reasoning is considered valuable for the justification of speaker’s belief along with Thomas Aquinas’ testing of his thinking to answer his own thinking. Critical thinking has been part of discussion among the educators for its significance and application for last many decades. Many educators have conducted researches on the assessment of critical thinking within a domain or across the domain in order to test students’ critical thinking skills and its effect on their learning. Similarly, critical thinking is highly valuable for the study of literature as it explicitly asked for learners’ beliefs, perceptions, and judgments in order to remove the ambiguity of thought. Perfection of thought can be achieved with the use of critical thinking skills while training of mind needs interaction between literary text and the reader as literature has the capacity to achieve mental traits specified to critical thinking. Accordingly, this report presents a relationship between critical thinking skills and English literature study along with reader response theory techniques considering that without the use of critical thinking skills and reader response theory, study of literature is haphazard hence for the application of reader response theory, literary text is inevitable. In essence, I aim to highlight the effectiveness of critical thinking skills for the study of literature while emphasizing the significance of reader response theory which is also inevitable for the study of literature and for the use of critical thinking skills.
Garcia-Reyes, Kirema; Passoni, Niccolò M; Palmeri, Mark L; Kauffman, Christopher R; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Polascik, Thomas J; Gupta, Rajan T
To evaluate the impact of dedicated reader education on accuracy/confidence of peripheral zone index cancer and anterior prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis with mpMRI; secondary aim was to assess the ability of readers to differentiate low-grade cancer (Gleason 6 or below) from high-grade cancer (Gleason 7+). Five blinded radiology fellows evaluated 31 total prostate mpMRIs in this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study for index lesion detection, confidence in lesion diagnosis (1-5 scale), and Gleason grade (Gleason 6 or lower vs. Gleason 7+). Following a dedicated education program, readers reinterpreted cases after a memory extinction period, blinded to initial reads. Reference standard was established combining whole mount histopathology with mpMRI findings by a board-certified radiologist with 5 years of prostate mpMRI experience. Index cancer detection: pre-education accuracy 74.2%; post-education accuracy 87.7% (p = 0.003). Confidence in index lesion diagnosis: pre-education 4.22 ± 1.04; post-education 3.75 ± 1.41 (p = 0.0004). Anterior PCa detection: pre-education accuracy 54.3%; post-education accuracy 94.3% (p = 0.001). Confidence in anterior PCa diagnosis: pre-education 3.22 ± 1.54; post-education 4.29 ± 0.83 (p = 0.0003). Gleason score accuracy: pre-education 54.8%; post-education 73.5% (p = 0.0005). A dedicated reader education program on PCa detection with mpMRI was associated with a statistically significant increase in diagnostic accuracy of index cancer and anterior cancer detection as well as Gleason grade identification as compared to pre-education values. This was also associated with a significant increase in reader diagnostic confidence. This suggests that substantial interobserver variability in mpMRI interpretation can potentially be reduced with a focus on education and that this can occur over a fellowship training year.
Alessandra Gotuzo Seabra Capovilla
Full Text Available Para buscar identificar habilidades cognitivas mais freqüentemente prejudicadas nas dificuldades de leitura, 90 crianças de pré-escola e 1ª Série foram avaliadas em leitura, escrita, consciência fonológica, memória fonológica, vocabulário, aritmética, processamento visual e seqüenciamento. Comparando as habilidades de bons e maus leitores (acima e abaixo de 1 desvio-padrão em relação à média, respectivamente, observou-se que bons leitores foram significativamente superiores em escrita, consciência fonológica, vocabulário, memória fonológica e memória visual. Resultados sugerem uma relação funcional e forte entre processamento fonológico e leitura; funcional e moderada entre processamento seqüencial, aritmética e leitura; e fraca e correlacional entre processamento visual e leitura.To identify cognitive skills that may be diminished in reading difficulties, 90 preschoolers and first graders were tested in reading, spelling, phonological awareness, phonological memory, vocabulary, arithmetic, visual processing, and sequential processing. Comparison between good readers and poor readers (above and below one standard deviation, respectively, revealed that good readers were significantly superior to poor readers in spelling, phonological awareness, vocabulary, phonological memory and visual memory. Results suggest strong functional relationship between phonological processing and reading, moderate functional relationships between sequential processing and arithmetic on one hand and reading on the other, and weak correlation between visual processing and reading.
Full Text Available Visual and auditory temporal processing and crossmodal integration are crucial factors in the word decoding process. The speed of processing gap (Asynchrony between these two modalities, which has been suggested as related to the dyslexia phenomenon, is the focus of the current study. Nineteen dyslexic and 17 non-impaired University adult readers were given stimuli in a reaction time procedure where participants were asked to identify whhether the stimulus type was only visual, only auditory or crossmodally integrated. Accuracy, reaction time, and Event Related Potential (ERP measures were obtained for each of the three conditions. An algorithm to measure the contribution of the temporal speed of processing of each modality to the crossmodal integration in each group of participants was developed. Results obtained using this model for the analysis of the current study data, indicated that in the crossmodal integration condition the presence of the auditory modality at the pre-response time frame (between 170- 240 ms after stimulus presentation, increased processing speed in the visual modality among the non-impaired readers, but not in the dyslexic group. The differences between the temporal speed of processing of the modalities among the dyslexics and the non-impaired readers give additional support to the theory that an asynchrony between the visual and auditory modalities is a cause of dyslexia.
Full Text Available Readability is the degree to which a text is matched to its intended and actual reader. The factors influencing readability, both text factors and reader factors, have been widely researched from the standpoint of attempts to maximise reader understanding of texts. The application of understandings in the area has not, however, always been applied systematically to the design and writing of assessment tasks and consequently test items are sometimes less accessible to the intended test takers than they might be.This paper is an attempt to provide a wide ranging review of literature which bears on the task of the assessment designer in ensuring that assessment items measure what they are supposed to measure, and not just the reading abilities of the test takers.
Lapp, T.; Kook, M.; Murray, A.S.; Thomsen, K.J.; Buylaert, J.-P.; Jain, M.
A new automated Detection And Stimulation Head (DASH) has been developed for the Risø TL/OSL luminescence reader to provide easy access to new technologies, new signals and new measurement methods. The automated DASH includes a filter changer and a detector changer that makes it possible to change stimulation filters (4 × 4 filter combinations possible) and detectors (3 detectors possible) as part of a measurements sequence. The new automated DASH with dedicated driver electronics does not affect the use of other attachments, and can be retrospectively fitted to existing Risø TL/OSL readers. - Highlights: • A new detection and stimulation head for the Risø TL/OSL reader is described. • An example of the use of the filter changer is presented. • The power and spatial uniformity of blue, green and IR stimulation are characterised. • The potential of an EMCCD camera detector is described.
Full Text Available The development of today's smartphone technology has a huge impact to the world of information technology and telecommunications. The emergence of a variety of applications for smartphones can improve the performance and effectiveness of an activity. Some restaurants have made use of smartphones in the business process, but only as a recording medium order or see a list of menus available in the restaurant. The purpose of this paper is to make the application as a whole that integrated the frontend and backend operations that help the process from ordering food, serving customer to managing restaurant data such as restaurant menus, employees, and transactions. The method used is the method of analysis (study of literature, analysis of similar applications, questionnaires, and interviews and extreme programming design method. The results of this research is frontend application for food ordering and restaurant service and a backend system that has additional features such as restaurant profiles, restaurant menu data includes descriptions, recommended menuand images, promos, restaurant rating or menu rating, the waiter call feature, view bill and request features bill. The conclusion of this research is the developed application can help ordering process and restaurant servicesprocess in a restaurant with good customer satisfaction and good application performance.
Cole, Graham D; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Nowbar, Alexandra N; Buell, Kevin G; Al-Mayahi, Faisal; Zargaran, David; Mahmood, Saliha; Singh, Bharpoor; Mielewczik, Michael; Francis, Darrel P
Scientific literature can contain errors. Discrepancies, defined as two or more statements or results that cannot both be true, may be a signal of problems with a trial report. In this study, we report how many discrepancies are detected by a large panel of readers examining a trial report containing a large number of discrepancies. We approached a convenience sample of 343 journal readers in seven countries, and invited them in person to participate in a study. They were asked to examine the tables and figures of one published article for discrepancies. 260 participants agreed, ranging from medical students to professors. The discrepancies they identified were tabulated and counted. There were 39 different discrepancies identified. We evaluated the probability of discrepancy identification, and whether more time spent or greater participant experience as academic authors improved the ability to detect discrepancies. Overall, 95.3% of discrepancies were missed. Most participants (62%) were unable to find any discrepancies. Only 11.5% noticed more than 10% of the discrepancies. More discrepancies were noted by participants who spent more time on the task (Spearman's ρ = 0.22, P < 0.01), and those with more experience of publishing papers (Spearman's ρ = 0.13 with number of publications, P = 0.04). Noticing discrepancies is difficult. Most readers miss most discrepancies even when asked specifically to look for them. The probability of a discrepancy evading an individual sensitized reader is 95%, making it important that, when problems are identified after publication, readers are able to communicate with each other. When made aware of discrepancies, the majority of readers support editorial action to correct the scientific record. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Schulz Kenneth F
Full Text Available Abstract The CONSORT Statement was developed to help authors improve the quality of reporting randomized trials. To augment the statement we published the CONSORT explanation and elaboration paper which included at least one example of good reporting for each CONSORT checklist item. We are developing a comprehensive database of examples of good reporting for each checklist item to take advantage of the breadth and variety of trials familiar to authors and readers globally. We invite authors, editors, and readers worldwide to nominate examples of well reported items for the database.
In the UK, the adult literacy provision has become more functional and more assessment driven over the last decade, largely due to funding requirements. However, one result of this is that the clear benefits of reading for pleasure in adult skills development have become less apparent. This book addresses the need to support teachers in the development of adults' skills through reading for pleasure, by incorporating the activity into the curriculum. It focuses on reading for pleasure for adult emergent readers - those who consider themselves non-readers, either because they feel they cannot or
Zuccala, Alesia Ann; Verleysen, Frederik; Cornacchia, Roberto
Purpose: This paper assesses the value of Goodreads reader ratings as an altmetric research tool for measuring the wider impact of scholarly books published in the field of History. Design/methodology/approach: Book titles were extracted from the reference lists of articles that appeared in 604...... history journals indexed in Scopus (2007-2011). The titles were cleaned and matched using an API in WorldCat.org (for publisher information) as well as Goodreads (for reader ratings). A set of N=8,538 books was first filtered based on Dewey Decimal Classification class 900 ‘History and Geography...
Lapp, Torben; Kook, Myung Ho; Murray, Andrew Sean
A new automated Detection And Stimulation Head (DASH) has been developed for the Risø TL/OSL luminescence reader to provide easy access to new technologies, new signals and new measurement methods. The automated DASH includes a filter changer and a detector changer that makes it possible to change...... stimulation filters (4×4 filter combinations possible) and detectors (3 detectors possible) as part of a measurements sequence. The new automated DASH with dedicated driver electronics does not affect the use of other attachments, and can be retrospectively fitted to existing Risø TL/OSL readers....
Antón Martín, María del Carmen; Camarero Izquierdo, María del Carmen; Rodríguez, Antón
Producción Científica We analyse the adoption process of e-book readers and examine how the perception about the advantages of this technology and its incompatibility with consumer values determine the pleasure felt and its effective use. We also propose that consumer involvement with ICTs moderates these effects. Design/methodology/approach –Hierarchical moderated regression analysis is used to test the proposed model with survey data from a sample of e-book reader owners. Findings...
Henkel, Ayoe Qvist
The digital turn does not bring about changes in young adultliterature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but it changes the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal, including interactivity and the integration of elements...... of game aesthetics. The way the young person is articulated within such texts must be presumed to be new, and the pivotal point of this paper will be to explore how the young adult reader is thematized in content, form, and medium in digital young adult literature....
Sharry, J A
This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.
Tsai, Han-Chung; Liu, Yung Y.; Lee, Hok L.; Craig, Brian; Byrne, Kevin; Mittal, Ketan; Scherer, Justin C.
A system for monitoring a plurality radio frequency identification tags is described. The system uses at least one set of radio frequency identification tags. Each tag is attached to a container and includes several sensors for detecting physical conditions of said container. The system includes at least one autonomous intermediate reader in wireless communication with the frequency identification tags. The intermediate reader includes external wireless communication system, intermediate reader logic controller, and a self-contained rechargeable power supply. The system uses a central status reporting system in communication the intermediate reader.
Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Kristensen, Jens Thyge; Rischel, Hans
This paper presents an introductory programming course designed to teach programming as an intellectual activity. The course emphasizes understandable concepts which can be useful in designing programs, while the oddities of today's technology are considered of secondary importance. An important...... goal is to fight the trial-and-error approach to programming which is a result of the students battles with horribly designed and documented systems and languages prior to their studies at university. Instead, the authors strive for giving the students a good experience of programming as a systematic......, intellectual activity where the solution of a programming problem can be described in an understandable way. The approach is illustrated by an example which is a commented solution of a problem posed to the students in the course....
Nolan, Marie T.; Wenzel, Jennifer; Han, Hae-Ra.; Allen, Jerilyn K.; Paez, Kathryn A.; Mock, Victoria
Doctoral students and new faculty members often seek advice from more senior faculty on how to advance their program of research. Students may ask whether they should choose the manuscript option for their dissertation or whether they should seek a postdoctoral fellowship. New faculty members wonder whether they should pursue a career development (K) award and whether they need a mentor as they strive to advance their research while carrying out teaching, service, and practice responsibilitie...
This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between EFL and ESL readers in metacognitive reading strategies when they are reading academic texts in English. One hundred and ninety undergraduate students (96 Iranians and 93 Indians) completed an instrument designed to measure the students' metacognitive awareness of…
Asserts that despite growing awareness of frontline public service concerns in accommodating Spanish speakers, little care is invested in the technical processing side of the library's responsibility to Spanish speakers. Examines the usefulness and accessibility of online public access catalogs for monolingual Spanish readers, focusing on records…
Reynolds, Barry Lee; Bai, Yi Ling
In this study, the effect of freedom of reader choice on the incidental acquisition of vocabulary was investigated in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading classes. Despite advocating free extensive reading as a means of obtaining a native-like L2 vocabulary,existing studies investigating the incidental acquisition of vocabulary have not…
The present study investigated vocabulary acquisition through a commercial digital video game compared to a traditional pencil-and-paper treatment. Chosen through cluster sampling, 241 male high school students (age 12-18) participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to one of the following groups. The first group, called Readers,…
Kleiman, Glenn M.
The many studies comparing good and poor readers have yielded few conclusive findings as a result of a number of problems. The first set of problems has to do with the choice of tests or tasks. There are many differences in the cognitive demands of reading and listening tasks children encounter in school. In listening, prosodic cues facilitate…
Marinus, E.; de Jong, P.F.
The current study examined the use of sublexical clusters in normal and dyslexic readers.We focused primarily on onset consonantal clusters, but the use of rimes and digraphs was also considered. A segmentation paradigm, the separation of two adjacent letters in a word by a nonletter symbol, was
Andreassen, Anne Brit; Knivsberg, Ann Mari; Niemi, Pekka
Several studies have reported that an alarming large subgroup of poor readers seems to be treatment resistant. This group obviously needs attention beyond standard special education instructions. In Norway, the National Centre for Reading Education and Research has been assigned the task of assisting the school psychological services nationwide in…
Gray, Susan H.; Ehri, Linnea C.; Locke, John L.
A randomized control trial compared the effects of two kinds of vocabulary instruction on component reading skills of adult struggling readers. Participants seeking alternative high school diplomas received 8 h of scripted tutoring to learn forty academic vocabulary words embedded within a civics curriculum. They were matched for language…
Chen, Jing; Lin, Tzu-Jung; Ku, Yu-Min; Zhang, Jie; O'Connell, Ann
Concept of word--the awareness of how words differ from nonwords or other linguistic properties--is important to learning to read Chinese because words in Chinese texts are not separated by space, and most characters can be productively compounded with other characters to form new words. The current study examined the effects of reader, word, and…
Kuppen, Sarah E. A.; Goswami, Usha
Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The…
Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Ottaviani, Cristina; Borsato, Thomas; Marzocchi, Gian Marco
The aim of this study was to investigate physiological activation during reading and control tasks in children with dyslexia and typical readers. Skin conductance response (SCR) recorded during four tasks involving reading aloud, reading silently, and describing illustrated stories aloud and silently was compared for children with dyslexia (n =…
Vogt, Maryellen; Nagano, Patty
Notes that "Light Bulb Reading" is done in short, one-on-one, daily lessons that include oral reading with note-taking and discussions about miscues, skills, and strategies. Suggests that this is an effective approach for assisting struggling readers that focuses on specific, individual, assessed needs. Outlines an 11-step plan. (SG)
Cyncar-Hryschuk, Markiana, Comp.
Part of a Ukrainian language development series, this intermediate-level reader provides a selection of short texts in modern Ukrainian, including poems, newspaper articles, short stories, fairy tales, fables, and dialogs for use by native speakers, heritage language, or second language learners of Ukrainian. (CNP)
This article examines the significance of the "struggling reader" identity on students' classroom experiences. Drawing upon sociocultural theories of literacy, performance theories of education, and psychosocial qualities of identity, I argue that such an identity is felt, lived, and embodied throughout students' daily…
In recent years, reading scholars have increasingly attended to children's responses to picturebook page breaks, reasoning that the inferences young readers make during the turning of the page are central to understanding how children construct continuous narratives in semiotically rich texts. In this paper I argue that comics (including comic…
This study qualitatively explored how readers use critical thinking to perceive leadership in "The Walking Dead" comic books. Sixty-nine participants gave responses regarding their thoughts about leadership in the comic via an online survey. A majority of the participants indicated a wide range of values for comics as a learning…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the type, pattern, and complexity of Internet reading strategies used by seven accomplished high school readers. Individual participants performed an academic Internet reading task with the goal of developing critical questions about their chosen controversial topic. Strategies for Internet reading were…
This paper examines the issue of struggling readers and writers, and offers suggestions to help teachers increase struggling students' motivation and metacognition. Suggestions include multisensory methods that make use of the visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning pathways, as well as explicit strategy instruction to improve students' ability…
Hudson, Susan B.; Angell, Linda Sala
Two experiments were conducted (1) to identify the component processes of language comprehension that draw upon cognitive capacity for their execution, and (2) to determine differences in patterns of resource allocation during integrative processing for good and poor readers. In the first experiment, nine good and nine poor college-age readers…
Full Text Available Abstract The problems of redundant RFID reader detection and coverage have instigated researchers to propose different optimization heuristics due to the rapid advance of technologies in large-scale RFID systems. In this paper, we present a layered elimination optimization (LEO which is an algorithm-independent technique aims to detect maximum amount of redundant readers that could be safely removed or turned off with preserving original RFID network coverage. A significant improvement of the LEO scheme is that amount of "write-to-tag" operations could be largely reduced during the redundant reader identification phase. Moreover, LEO is a distributed approach which does not need to collect global information for centralizing control, leading to no communications or synchronizations among RFID readers. To evaluate the performance of the proposed techniques, we have implemented the LEO technique along with other methods. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the LEO is reliable, effective, and efficient. The proposed techniques can provide reliable performance with detecting higher redundancy and has lower algorithm overheads.
Aitken-Soux, Percy G.; Crapo, Richley H.
Volume I, the reader, has 86 lessons consisting of short passages and vocabulary lists. The language and the stories presented were learned and collected at the Indian community and Hacienda of Cayara near Potosi, Bolivia. Translations of the passages are provided in a separate section. The second volume presents the grammar and phonology of the…
Lain, Laurence B.
A study investigated whether newspaper mug shots are perceived by readers as being positive or negative in tone and whether the mug shots that are selected match the roles of their subjects in accompanying stories. Twenty-three news and feature stories with associated mug shots were clipped from seven daily newspapers. Pictures and stories were…
Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Dimitropoulou, María; Estevez, Adelina; Carreiras, Manuel
The visual word recognition system recruits neuronal systems originally developed for object perception which are characterized by orientation insensitivity to mirror reversals. It has been proposed that during reading acquisition beginning readers have to "unlearn" this natural tolerance to mirror reversals in order to efficiently…
Akers, Anne Trice Thompson
This qualitative study examined middle grades preservice language arts teachers' perceptions of young adult literature through the lenses of reader response, new literacy, and activity theory. Undergraduate preservice teachers used synchronous and asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) to respond online to three young adult books with…
Connors, Sean P.
This article reports the author's experiences using graphic novels with pre-service teachers in a young adult literature course. Drawing on critical response papers two students composed after reading "Pride of Baghdad," a graphic novel by Brian K. Vaughan and Niko Henrichon, the author argues that when readers possess the background…
Coloma, Roland Sintos
The article examines the cultivation of revolutionary nationalisms and the construction of postcolonial subjectivities under a foreign regime. The analysis centers on "The Philippine Readers," one of the longest published and most widely adopted reading series for elementary students in grades 1 to 7 in the Philippines from the 1920s to…
Wolde, Miranda ten
abstractThe first political periodicals were published during the Patriot period (1780-1787). Following Engelsing, historians thought that this indicated a reader revolution as more and morereaders arose from the different social classes, and read a greater variety of publications. However, many
Jowett, Adam; Barker, Sophie
In 2012, the U.S. actress Cynthia Nixon was quoted in the New York Times Magazine as having stated that "for me, it [being gay] is a choice. I understand that for many people it's not, but for me it's a choice, and you don't get to define my gayness for me." The interview attracted international media attention and public criticism by lesbian and gay activists. This article suggests a rhetorical approach to understanding etiological beliefs and provides a discursive analysis of 198 online comments by readers of Pink News, a gay news Web site that reported on Nixon's controversial interview. This article explores common arguments used in readers' comments about Nixon and examines the rhetorical construction of sexuality. The analysis examines three themes within the data. First, biological essentialism was treated by many readers as common knowledge; second, readers suggested that only bisexuals have "choice"; and, third, it was suggested by both Nixon's critics and her supporters that counterarguments colluded with homophobia. The article suggests that there is an ideological dilemma whereby both "born-this-way" and "choice" arguments can be understood as colluding with anti-gay prejudice.
Cianciolo, Patricia Jean
This paper examines the fantasy literature that is currently available to young readers. Twenty-two children's books are listed and discussed under the following topics: good storytelling and lively imagination, recurring themes, satires and word play, original fairytales, and works that reflect the divided self, the occult, and parapsychology. It…
Greif, Ivo P.
Doubts about the reading vocabulary adequacies of today's high school graduates led to an experiment with a list of 199 difficult words culled from the "Reader's Digest." College juniors and seniors (298 in the first stage and 388 in the second stage) were asked to indicate whether they knew the pronunciation and the meaning of the…
Smith, Ron F.; Decker-Amos, Linda
Reports on a content analysis of "Reader's Digest" indicating that there is some validity to the notion that it is unchanging. Notes that the percentages of articles in some important categories, specifically those discussing controversial issues, have remained consistent over 40 years. (FL)
Describes the Tall Tree Initiative for Library Services, sponsored by the Reader's Digest Foundation and administered by the public and school library systems of Westchester County, New York. The initiative focuses on improving services offered children in the 21st century, and demands a new level of school-public library cooperation. (AEF)
Drotter, Molly Wilson
The reading interests of a group of older adults were examined. Subjects were 16 adults between the ages of 50 and 85 who read five stories from "Readers' Digest" short story collections and who responded to a questionnaire about their preferences for the stories, their reading habits and interests, and the appealing elements of the stories. The…
Significant numbers of children (6% of 11-year-olds) have difficulties learning to read. Meanwhile, children who receive appropriate support from their parents do better in literacy than those who do not. This study uses a case study approach to investigate how digital games designed to support struggling readers in school were used at home, by…
Beginning readers' motivation to read and the texts they choose to read impact on their literacy achievement and willingness to engage with reading activities in the primary years of schooling. This study investigated the eBook reading experiences of eight grade 1 students. Eight students were given ten 25-minute sessions with the software…
Cheetham, Catherine; Harper, Alan; Elliott, Melody; Ito, Mika
This paper describes a pilot study conducted with English as a foreign language (EFL) students at a private university in Japan who used graded readers and the MReader website in class or independently to enhance their English reading skills. Each semester students who read 100,000 words with MReader quizzes passed enter into the "MReader…
Kagan, Susan C.
This study examined the effects of background classical music on silent reading in a sixth grade class, in order to determine the amount and type of influence it would have on the reader's written response to what was read. Thirty-four suburban sixth graders from two history classes were selected for this study. The data was obtained over a period…
Hermann-Wilmarth, Jill M.; Ryan, Caitlin L.
In this paper, we consider the limited chapter book options with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) characters available for upper elementary readers. While these texts all include one or more LGBT character(s), the overall representations of LGBT people and issues highlight particular normative identities and silence others. We are…
Brown, Ruth Nicole, Ed.; Kwakye, Chamara Jewel, Ed.
"Wish To Live: The Hip-hop Feminism Pedagogy Reader" moves beyond the traditional understanding of the four elements of hip-hop culture--rapping, breakdancing, graffiti art, and deejaying--to articulate how hip-hop feminist scholarship can inform educational practices and spark, transform, encourage, and sustain local and global youth…
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.
Bates, Celeste C.; Klein, Adria; Schubert, Barbara; McGee, Lea; Anderson, Nancy; Dorn, Linda; McClure, Erin; Ross, Rachael Huber
This article highlights considerations for teachers when selecting and using e-books and e-book applications (apps) with beginning readers during guided and independent reading. A framework for examining e-books and e-book apps is suggested, and several apps and related digital features are described. The article also includes an overview of…
Fives, Allyn; Kearns, Noreen; Devaney, Carmel; Canavan, John; Russell, Dan; Lyons, Rena; Eaton, Patricia; O'Brien, Aoife
This paper is based on a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluation of a reading programme delivered by older adult volunteers for at-risk early readers. Wizards of Words (WoW) was targeted at socially disadvantaged children in first and second grade experiencing delays in reading but who were not eligible for formal literacy supports. The…
Full Text Available We report on the incorporation of e-book readers into the delivery of two distance-taught master's programmes in Occupational Psychology (OP and one in Education at the University of Leicester, UK. The programmes attract work-based practitioners in OP and Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, respectively. Challenges in curriculum delivery included the need for more flexibility in the curricula, better access to essential readings and maximising the benefit of learners' limited study time. As part of a suite of pilot changes to curriculum design and delivery, 28 Sony PRS-505™ e-book readers were pre-loaded with course materials and sent out to students. The evidence suggests that the students' learning experiences improved as a result of four key benefits afforded by the e-book readers: enhanced flexibility in curriculum delivery to accommodate the mobile lifestyle of our learners, improved efficiency in the use of study time, especially short breaks during the working day, new strategies for reading course materials and cost. We discuss the opportunities and limitations associated with the e-book readers used and the challenges encountered in the study.
Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…
Brenner, Devon; Apol, Laura
This article looks closely at a subset of books about literacy in and out of school by analyzing images of children learning and struggling to learn to read in realistic fiction. There are several books in which characters wish to learn to read, worry about being poor readers, and work hard to learn to read. These books raise important questions…
Advice books by female athletes are among the top selling sports books for young readers in the US. Though they have received little attention to date, sports advice books are important to examine because of how they function as a form of conduct manual instructing girls in specific understandings of female identity. Implying that girls face…
Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine; Chiu, Ming Ming
To examine the relations between emergent readers' social interaction styles and their comprehension processes, we adapted sociocultural and transactional views of learning and reading, and conducted statistical discourse analysis of 1,359 conversation turns transcribed from 14 preschoolers' 40 buddy reading events. Results show that interaction…
Lee, Valarie G.; Madden, Marjorie E.
This paper argues that narratives, specifically literature and memoir, offer a way to build empathy and understanding by moving readers to deeper levels of text interpretation and critique. The paper examines a new literacy framework, Life Histories, that uses talk, collaboration, writing, and performance to understand the complex relationships…
Orkin, Melissa; May, Sidney; Wolf, Maryanne
This research investigated the influence of parental practices on helpless behaviors of struggling readers during homework tasks. Parents (N = 36) of elementary students reported on their children's helpless behaviors, such as task avoidance and negative affect, during homework assignments, and on the nature and frequency of their support.…
Gutu, Gabriel; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; Lepoivre, Olivier
This study is aimed at presenting a new ReaderBench-based tool built to support candidates in increasing the quality of their CV for a job opening. Both the visual quality and the textual content are considered while also providing an overview and corresponding feedback for the entire CV.
Mirzaei, Azizullah; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud; Heidari, Najmeh
Over the years, the multiple intelligences theory (MIT) proposed by Howard Gardner has renewed interest in learners' use of effective learning strategies and produced interesting results. This MIT-oriented study investigated the role of successful L2 readers' multiple intelligences in their effective use of reading strategies. To this end, a TOEFL…
... Justice (NIJ) and the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) are hosting two workshops in... Plate Readers used by criminal justice agencies. Sessions are intended to inform manufacturers, test... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office...
Gorp, K. van; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
The effects of a word identification game aimed at enhancing decoding efficiency in poor readers were tested. Following a pretest-posttest-retention design with a waiting control group, 62 poor-reading Dutch second graders received a five-hour tablet intervention across a period of five weeks.
Presents a project where the teacher, rather than teaching the students how to read using a remedial, isolated skills approach, concerned herself with getting them to read by "falling into the literature" and getting involved in the characters' lives. Describes a reader response approach that was designed to motivate the students to engage with…
Picture books for older readers present challenges for libraries in terms of how best to provide access to them. These books often have an "E" on the spine to indicate that they are "easy" or for "everybody," and share lower shelves with a far greater number of picture books geared for the preschool and primary grade audience. However, this…
Lee, Ye-Seul; Kim, Jeongjoo; Joo, Seongsu; Go, Byeongho; Lee, Hyangsook; Chae, Younbyoung
The purpose of this study is to study the reader's cognitive process in reading medical articles and its influence on the decision-making process. Twenty-four participants completed a survey pertaining to 36 medical articles on new treatments with similar text structures and similar titles. Participants rated each article on its level of interest, informativeness, and reliability, and were asked whether they would choose the treatments in the news article. A cognitive decision-making model can be applied to health contexts, in which the reader's subjective ratings on interest, informativeness, and reliability were positively associated with choosing new treatments. The decision-making process path from the perception of informativeness was mediated by the reliability of the news article. Interest was positively linked to informativeness, although it was not directly associated with reliability. This study shows that readers' subjective ratings on health information can indicate their decision-making. Artifacts in the information that might incite emotions or interest, such as framing, can affect the reader's decision-making process.
Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.
This review examines the effectiveness of educational technology applications in improving the reading achievement of struggling readers in elementary schools. The review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. A total of 20 studies based on about 7,000 students in grades K-6 were included…
King Thorius, Kathleen A.; Simon, Marsha
Our commentary responds to the five articles of the special issue on multidisciplinary collaboration to support struggling readers. From our perspectives informed by experiences working with diverse student and family populations in urban settings, preparing pre- and in-service educators and specialists to do the same, and working in federally…
Mendez, Linda M. Raffaele; Pelzmann, Catherine A.; Frank, Michael J.
In this study, we piloted a Tier 2 intervention designed to improve reading skills among struggling early readers using an intervention that included SRA Reading Mastery, listening-while-reading activities, strategies to increase motivation and engagement in reading, and parent involvement in reading homework. The study included 6 students in…
In this first newsletter of 2016 we first wanted to wish all our readers, authors, reviewers, and editorial board members a happy, healthy, inspiring, but also peaceful new year. Recently, the fourth issue of Advances in Cognitive Psychology of 2015 was completed, which is of course freely available on our website. The current newsletter will also be included in the first issue of 2016.
The development of a scale for measuring self-perception for readers of English as a foreign language is discussed in this paper. The scale was developed from the four dimensions of self-efficacy theory proposed by Bandura (1977a): progress, observational comparison, social feedback and physiological states. A 36 item scale was developed to…
Jeffries, Rhonda; Jeffries, Devair
This article explored the role of hair in Sylviane Diouf's "Bintou's Braids" and focused on the impact of hair as a cultural signifier on girls and the curriculum. The article examined the ability of this children's text to address female beauty standards and suggests the use of literary techniques, such as reader's theatre, to recognize…