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Sample records for stripper foil system

  1. Production of thin carbon stripper foils using heated-substrates in a cathodic arc deposition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, A.R.; Lobanov, N.; Elliman, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; Rode, A.; Weisser, D.C.; Turkentine, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The lifetime of carbon stripper foil can have a marked impact on the successful running of a beam line. Standard techniques for production of carbon stripper foils include evaporation of carbon (ec) and laser-pulsed ablation (Ipa). Recent work by a using Ipa has been successful in substantially increasing the lifetime of a very thin foil. The suspected mechanism for the increased lifetime of the foil is that the amorphous carbon foil is density-matched to that of graphite (around 2.26g/cc). In this work, we attempt to reproduce this result by producing carbon stripper foils with a mass-density similar to graphite using a cathodic arc deposition system. The cathodic arc is well known for the production of tetrahedral amorphous carbon: a high density, high stress form of carbon with over 90% sp 3 -like bonds; to reduce the density of the carbon and promote more graphitic structure, a high bias was initially attempted but this proved unsuccessful. Another method is to use a heated-substrate holder to reduce compressive stress within the deposited film. The performance of the density-matched carbon stripper foils and the implications for future production of high-quality carbon stripper foils in our laboratory will be discussed. (authors)

  2. Radiation lifetimes and failure mechanisms of carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auble, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of lifetimes of thin carbon foils under heavy-ion irradiation are compiled and recent advances in stripper foil technology are reviewed. The impact of recent foil lifetime improvements, many by more than an order of magnitude, on heavy-ion electrostatic accelerators is discussed. Foil inhomogeneities, particularly those caused by sputtering are suggested to be a prime factor in usable foil lifetimes

  3. P-type diamond stripper foils for tandem ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, A.W.; Koba, R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors are developing a stripper foil composed of a p-type diamond membrane. This diamond stripper foil should have a significantly longer lifetime than any conventional stripper foil material. To be useful for stripper foils, the boron-doped blue diamond films must be thinner than 0.8 μm and pore-free. Two methods are compared for their ability to achieve a high nucleation areal density on a W substrate. Some W substrates were first coated with think layer of boron (≤20 nm) in order to enhance nucleation. Other W substrates were scratched with submicron diamond particles. A schematic diagram of the stripper foil is shown. Stripper foils were created by etching away the central area of W substrates. The diamond membrane was then supported by an annulus of W. Tungsten was selected as a ring-support material because of its high electrical and thermal conductivity, relatively low thermal expansion, and proven suitability as a substrate for diamond CVD. Warping or fracture of the diamond film after substrate etch-back was investigated

  4. Hybrid-type long-lived carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Isao; Kato, Hajime

    1989-01-01

    A new method for the preparation of hybrid-type long-lived carbon stripper foils was developed. The new procedure is based on a modification of our controlled dc arc-discharge method. The carbon foils are of the multilayer type and the layers are composed of carbon particles emitted from the electrodes in the ac arc-discharge and from the cathode in the dc arc-discharge. With this simple and powerful method long lived carbon stripper foils can be prepared with higher reliability and reproducibility than with the previous procedure. (orig.)

  5. Moving foil stripper for a particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorka, A.J. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Thin foils for stripping a particle beam are stored on the edge of a disk spinning in the accelerator vacuum. Cutting a foil at one edge releases the foil to project beyond the disk for insertion into the beam at a time determined by controlling the phase of the disk. A wiper removes a spent foil from the disk. The foil release and wiper are operable from a remote location. (U.S.)

  6. Carbon stripper foils held in place with carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolivet, Connie S.; Miller, Shawn A.; Stoner, John O.; Ladd, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) currently under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is planned to initially utilize carbon stripper foils having areal densities approximately 260 μg/cm 2 . The projected design requires that each foil be supported by only one fixed edge. For stability of the foil, additional support is to be provided by carbon fibers. The feasibility of manufacturing and shipping such mounted carbon foils produced by arc evaporation was studied using two prototypes. Production of the foils is described. Fibers were chosen for satisfactory mechanical strength consistent with minimal interference with the SNS beam. Mounting of the fibers, and packaging of the assemblies for shipping are described. Ten completed assemblies were shipped to SNS for further testing. Preliminary evaluation of the survivability of the foils in the SNS foil changer is described

  7. Stripper foil failure modes and cures at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Plum

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source comprises a 1 GeV, 1.5 MW linear accelerator followed by an accumulator ring and a liquid mercury target. To manage the beam loss caused by the H^{0} excited states created during the H^{-} charge-exchange injection into the accumulator ring, the stripper foil is located inside one of the chicane dipoles. This has some interesting consequences that were not fully appreciated until the beam power reached about 840 kW. One consequence was sudden failure of the stripper foil system due to convoy electrons stripped from the incoming H^{-} beam, which circled around to strike the foil bracket and cause bracket failure. Another consequence is that convoy electrons can reflect back up from the electron catcher and strike the foil and bracket. An additional contributor to foil system failure is vacuum breakdown due to the charge developed on the foil by secondary electron emission. In this paper we detail these and other interesting failure mechanisms and describe the improvements we have made to mitigate them.

  8. Charge state distributions for heavy ions in carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, M.A.; Lebed, R.F.; Feinberg, B.

    1989-03-01

    We have extended the database of measured charge state distributions available in the literature through measurements at the SuperHILAC using carbon stripper foils in the energy range 1.2--8.5 MeV/u. Modifying a semi-empirical model to include the effect of electronic shells, we are able to correctly predict the mean charge state to within 1/2 a charge state for 6≤Z≤92 and energies from 30 keV/u to 16 MeV/u. We have determined parameters for the widths of the distributions for each electronic shell. For distributions lying across a shell boundary, we join the two Gaussians of different widths to get an asymmetric distribution. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. A new method for making long-lived carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Isao; Ishii, Sabro; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Muto, Hideshi; Takahashi, Yohsuke; Kato, Hajime; Yamazaki, Kuniaki.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a new method for preparation of long-lived carbon stripper foils, based on the modification of our 'controlled DC arc-discharge method'. The carbon foils consist of multi-layers, and carbon particles in each layer are emitted from the electrode in AC arc-discharge or from the cathode electrode in DC arc-discharge. The lifetimes of the carbon foils made by the new method are equal to or longer than those prepared by the controlled DC arc-discharge method. The new method is simple and powerful to make long-lived carbon stripper foils with higher reliability and reproducibility than the previous method. (author)

  10. A convenient way to double the capacity of a NEC type foil stripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    A convenient method is described to increase the capacity of a NEC type terminal stripper. This renders the necessity for tank entry to renew foils less frequent. This is especially useful when the use of heavy ion beams renders foil lifetimes very short. (orig.)

  11. Preparation and investigation of diamond-like carbon stripper foils by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Qiwen; Du, Yinghui; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Guoji

    2013-01-01

    Thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) stripper foils ∼5μg/cm 2 in thickness were produced and evaluated as heavy-ion strippers for the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator. The DLC layers ∼4μg/cm 2 in thickness were produced by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology onto glass slides coated with betaine–saccharose as releasing agent, which were previously covered with evaporated carbon layers ∼1μg/cm 2 in thickness by the controlled ac arc-discharge method. Irradiation lifetimes of the DLC stripper foils were tested using the heavy-ion beams at the terminal of the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator, and compared with those of the standard carbon stripper foils made by the combined dc and ac arc-discharge method. The measurements indicate that the DLC stripper foils outlast the standard combined dc and ac arc-discharge carbon stripper foils by a factor of at least 13 and 4 for the 197 Au − (∼9MeV, ∼1μA) and 63 Cu − (∼9MeV, ∼1μA) ion beams, respectively. The structure and properties of the DLC foils deposited onto silicon substrates by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology were also evaluated and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The scanning electron microscopy images show that the DLC foils contain hardly droplets through the double 90° filters. The X-ray photoelectron spectrum indicates that sp 3 bonds of the DLC foils exceed 70%. The integral intensity ratio of the D peak to the G peak (I D /I G ) measured by the Raman spectroscopy is 0.78

  12. Intense heavy ion beam-induced temperature effects in carbon-based stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupka, K.; Tomut, M.; Simon, P.; Hubert, C.; Romanenko, A.; Lommel, B.; Trautmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    At the future FAIR facility, reliably working solid carbon stripper foils are desired for providing intermediate charge states to SIS18. With the expected high beam intensities, the foils experience enhanced degradation and limited lifetime due to severe radiation damage, stress waves, and thermal effects. This work presents systematic measurements of the temperature of different carbon-based stripper foils (amorphous, diamond-like, and carbon-nanotube based) exposed to 4.8 MeV/u U, Bi, and Au beams of different pulse intensities. Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed by means of infrared thermography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The resulting temperature depends on the foil thickness and strongly increases with increasing pulse intensity and repetition rate. (author)

  13. Treatment of H0 and H- beams spilled at the stripper foil at full energy charge-exchange injection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Isao

    1991-01-01

    The charge-exchange injection into a synchrotron to generate high-intensity pulsed proton beams for a spallation neutron source is reviewed while focusing on the treatment of H 0 and H - beams spilled at the stripper foil. After charge-exchange injection is briefly outlined, scattering by foil atoms and causes to spill H 0 and H - beams are described. These spilled beams can amount to several μA and should be carefully treated. It is then shown that a direct H - injection system needs to be considerably long and requires a very long straight section. Because of its simplicity, two-step H 0 injection has very wide applicability to various types of rings. However, it has a problem of emittance growth due to angular divergence in the stripper magnet and an ionoptical mismatch at the stripper foil. These problems are discussed, including a new proposal for a measure to remedy this problem. The laser photoionization injection is also briefly mentioned. (author)

  14. Spallation Neutron Source SNS Diamond Stripper Foil Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Robert W.; Plum, Michael A.; Wilson, Leslie L.; Feigerle, Charles S.; Borden, Michael J.; Irie, Y.; Sugai, I.; Takagi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond stripping foils are under development for the SNS. Freestanding, flat 300 to 500 (micro)g/cm 2 foils as large as 17 x 25 mm 2 have been prepared. These nano-textured polycrystalline foils are grown by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition in a corrugated format to maintain their flatness. They are mechanically supported on a single edge by a residual portion of their silicon growth substrate; fine foil supporting wires are not required for diamond foils. Six foils were mounted on the SNS foil changer in early 2006 and have performed well in commissioning experiments at reduced operating power. A diamond foil was used during a recent experiment where 15 (micro)C of protons, approximately 64% of the design value, were stored in the ring. A few diamond foils have been tested at LANSCE/PSR, where one foil was in service for a period of five months (820 C of integrated injected charge) before it was replaced. Diamond foils have also been tested in Japan at KEK (640 keV H - ) where their lifetimes slightly surpassed those of evaporated carbon foils, but fell short of those for Sugai's new hybrid boron carbon (HBC) foils.

  15. Intense heavy ion beam-induced effects in carbon-based stripper foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupka, Katharina

    2016-08-15

    Amorphous carbon or carbon-based stripper foils are commonly applied in accelerator technology for electron stripping of ions. At the planned facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) at the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt, thin carbon stripper foils provide an option for directly delivering ions of intermediate charge states to the heavy ion synchrotron, SIS 18, in order to mitigate space charge limitations during high-intensity operation. In case of desired high end-energies in the synchrotron, a second stripping process by a thicker carbon foil provides ions of higher charge states for injection into the SIS18. High beam intensities and a pulsed beam structure as foreseen at FAIR pose new challenges to the stripper foils which experience enhanced degradation by radiation damage, thermal effects, and stress waves. In order to ensure reliable accelerator operation, radiation-hard stripper foils are required. This thesis aims to a better understanding of processes leading to degradation of carbon-based thin foils. Special focus is placed on ion-beam induced structure and physical property changes and on the influence of different beam parameters. Irradiation experiments were performed at the M3-beamline of the universal linear accelerator (UNILAC) at GSI, using swift heavy ion beams with different pulse lengths and repetition rates. Tested carbon foils were standard amorphous carbon stripper foils produced by the GSI target laboratory, as well as commercial amorphous and diamond-like carbon foils and buckypaper foils. Microstructural changes were investigated with various methods such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), profilometry and chromatic aberration measurements. For the investigation of structural changes X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), in-situ Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and small angle X

  16. Intense heavy ion beam-induced effects in carbon-based stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupka, Katharina

    2016-08-01

    Amorphous carbon or carbon-based stripper foils are commonly applied in accelerator technology for electron stripping of ions. At the planned facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) at the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt, thin carbon stripper foils provide an option for directly delivering ions of intermediate charge states to the heavy ion synchrotron, SIS 18, in order to mitigate space charge limitations during high-intensity operation. In case of desired high end-energies in the synchrotron, a second stripping process by a thicker carbon foil provides ions of higher charge states for injection into the SIS18. High beam intensities and a pulsed beam structure as foreseen at FAIR pose new challenges to the stripper foils which experience enhanced degradation by radiation damage, thermal effects, and stress waves. In order to ensure reliable accelerator operation, radiation-hard stripper foils are required. This thesis aims to a better understanding of processes leading to degradation of carbon-based thin foils. Special focus is placed on ion-beam induced structure and physical property changes and on the influence of different beam parameters. Irradiation experiments were performed at the M3-beamline of the universal linear accelerator (UNILAC) at GSI, using swift heavy ion beams with different pulse lengths and repetition rates. Tested carbon foils were standard amorphous carbon stripper foils produced by the GSI target laboratory, as well as commercial amorphous and diamond-like carbon foils and buckypaper foils. Microstructural changes were investigated with various methods such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), profilometry and chromatic aberration measurements. For the investigation of structural changes X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), in-situ Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and small angle X

  17. Effect of thickness of foil strippers in transmission of beams through 15 UD pelletron accelerator at IUAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, S.; Pankaj Kumar; Gargari, S.; Joshi, R.; Abhilash; Kabiraj, D.; Chopra, S.

    2009-01-01

    15 UD Pelletron accelerator at IUAC, New Delhi is equipped with a foil stripper and a gas stripper at high voltage terminal. Besides these, we have foil stripper assemblies at High Energy Dead Section (HEDS) of Pelletron and after analyser magnet. Incoming negative ion looses electrons when they pass through the strippers at terminal and becomes positively charged. The next foil stripper at HEDS increases the positive charge state of ion by removing more electrons which helps in delivering beams at higher energy. Typical thickness of carbon foils loaded in the foil stripper assembly in the terminal is around 4 microgram per square centimetre (4 μg/cm 2 ). Thicker foils were installed in the terminal assembly to study the effect of thickness of foil on charge state distribution and transmission of ion beams. Charge state distribution of ions produced out of molecular beam was also studied. In this paper we present and discuss the results and observations with thicker foils on ion as well as molecular beams. (author)

  18. Surface treatment of glass substrates for the preparation of long-lived carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Suehiro; Takekoshi, Eiko

    1981-02-01

    Glass substrates having uniformly distributed microscopic grains on the surfaces are useful to make long-lived carbon stripper foils for heavy ions. A method of surface treatment of glass substrates to form the surface structure is described. This method consists of precipitation of glass components, such as soda, onto the surfaces in a hot and humid atmosphere and a fogging treatment of forming microscopic grains of the precipitated substances. Some results of studies on the treatment conditions are also presented. (author)

  19. Tandem accelerator transmission and life measurement of 50 keV/amu Au ions using stripper foil made by INS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Shima, Kunihiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Tandem Accelerator Center; Sugai, Isamu; Oyaizu, Mitsuhiro

    1996-12-01

    The role of stripper foil is the charge exchange of ions. The thickness for attaining equilibrium in charge exchange becomes thinner as ions become lower speed and heavier. Accordingly, for the stripper foil, thin foil thickness is demanded in addition to the demand of long life. The stripper foil made by INS, University of Tokyo, is recognized as its long life. In the 12 UD PELETRON tandem accelerator in University of Tsukuba, in order to meet the demand of users to use heavy ions, the use of long life stripper foil has become urgent necessity. Therefore, as for the foil made by INS, the life by Au ion irradiation and the Au ion transmission were measured four times. As to the features of the test of this time, irradiation was carried out under the severe condition for the foil of low speed Au ions, and the change of beam transmission with time lapse was observed in addition to the life. The method of measurement is explained. The preparation of foils and the determination of their thickness are reported. As the results, the lifetime of the foils made by INS and the thickness dependence and time dependence or dose dependence of the transmission of low speed, heavy Au-197 ions are described. (K.I.)

  20. Modelling Accumulator Stripper Foil Heating for ESSNUSB Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Michel

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed to use the 2.0 GeV, 5 MW proton linac, 2.86 ms long pulses at 14 Hz of the European Spallation Source [1], [2] being built in Lund, Sweden to deliver, alternately with the spallation neutron production a very intense neutrino beam to enable the discovery of leptonic CP violation. To this end the linac would be upgraded to supply, in addition to the 2.86 ms long proton pulses at 14 Hz, four 0.72 ms H short pulses at 70 Hz for neutrino production. Because of the high current required in the pulsed neutrino horn, the length of the pulses used for neutrino production will need to be compressed to a few s with the aid of an accumulator ring. Charge exchange injection of an H- beam from the linac will be used, the linac delivering 1.1E15 H- per pulse. This paper is about stripping foil heating considerations, emphasizing the detailed evaluation of the foil temperature over the multiple ring re-fills

  1. Electric fields, electron production, and electron motion at the stripper foil in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plum, M.

    1995-01-01

    The beam instability at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) most likely involves coupled oscillations between electrons and protons. For this instability to occur, there must be a strong source of electrons. Investigation of the various sources of electrons in the PSR had begun. Copious electron production is expected in the injection section because this section contains the stripper foil. This foil is mounted near the center of the beam pipe, and both circulating and injected protons pass through it, thus allowing ample opportunity for electron production. This paper discusses various mechanisms for electron production, beam-induced electric fields, and electron motion in the vicinity of the foil

  2. A new gas stripper system for BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator facility: installation and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.C.; Ninawe, N.G.; Yadav, M.L.; Ekambaram, M.; Ramjilal; Matkar, U.V.; Ansari, Q.N.; Lokare, R.N.; Ramlal; Gupta, A.K.; Bhagwat, P.V.; Pillay, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    The gas-stripper plays a key role in stripping the heavy and molecular ion beams in a tandem accelerator. Efficiency of gas stripper depends on its supporting vacuum pumps. A new recirculating turbo molecular pump-based gas stripper has been installed in the high voltage terminal of Pelletron Accelerator. Re-circulating the stripper gas reduces the flow of gas into the accelerating tubes reducing the transmission losses. Preliminary results obtained using the new gas stripper system are discussed. (author)

  3. Comparison of carbon stripper foils produced by ARC discharge and laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ophel, T.R.; Rhode, A.; Lobanov, N.; Weisser, D.C.; Turkentine, R.; Wolf, B.; Wlliman, R.G. [Australian National Univ. Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering

    1998-06-01

    The present work describes a series of investigations which compared the arc-deposited foils, prepared at ANU with a batch of foils from Munich, prepared by laser-ablation. The two foil types were bombarded with a beam of 6.8 MeV of {sup 197}Au recording their behaviour and monitoring the total stripped current. Optical and electron spectroscopy was carried out and indicate that the arc-deposited foils were relatively amorphous and smooth, while the laser-ablated foils appears to be much more crystalline. It was found that the average useful lifetimes of the Munich foils were at least ten times longer than arc-deposited foils. Furthermore, they maintained a constant beam output during the time in marked contrast to the arc-deposited foils, for which the output decreased quite rapidly. The longevity, and no less importantly, the constant beam output of the laser-ablated foils have emerged as critical to the continuance of the ERDA program. More significantly though, such qualities have provoked re-examination of likely energies for heavy beams that could be obtained with the Linac booster if foil stripping were used in the 14UD terminal, rather than gas that had previously been considered the only viable option. A program is in progress to explore the means to produce laser-ablated foils, or their equivalent, locally. Extended abstract. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  4. Comparison of carbon stripper foils produced by ARC discharge and laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ophel, T.R.; Rhode, A.; Lobanov, N.; Weisser, D.C.; Turkentine, R.; Wolf, B.; Wlliman, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The present work describes a series of investigations which compared the arc-deposited foils, prepared at ANU with a batch of foils from Munich, prepared by laser-ablation. The two foil types were bombarded with a beam of 6.8 MeV of 197 Au recording their behaviour and monitoring the total stripped current. Optical and electron spectroscopy was carried out and indicate that the arc-deposited foils were relatively amorphous and smooth, while the laser-ablated foils appears to be much more crystalline. It was found that the average useful lifetimes of the Munich foils were at least ten times longer than arc-deposited foils. Furthermore, they maintained a constant beam output during the time in marked contrast to the arc-deposited foils, for which the output decreased quite rapidly. The longevity, and no less importantly, the constant beam output of the laser-ablated foils have emerged as critical to the continuance of the ERDA program. More significantly though, such qualities have provoked re-examination of likely energies for heavy beams that could be obtained with the Linac booster if foil stripping were used in the 14UD terminal, rather than gas that had previously been considered the only viable option. A program is in progress to explore the means to produce laser-ablated foils, or their equivalent, locally

  5. Tests of prototype salt stripper system for IFR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carls, E.L.; Blaskovitz, R.J.; Johnson, T.R.; Ogata, T.

    1993-01-01

    One of the waste treatment steps for the on-site reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycles is stripping of the electrolyte salt used in the electrorefining process. This involves the chemical reduction of the actinides and rare earth chlorides forming metals which then dissolve in a cadmium pool. To develop the equipment for this step, a prototype salt stripper system has been installed in an engineering scale argon-filled glovebox. Pumping trails were successful in transferring 90 kg of LiCl-KCl salt containing uranium and rare earth metal chlorides at 500 degree C from an electrorefiner to the stripper vessel at a pumping rate of about 5 L/min. The freeze seal solder connectors which were used to join sections of the pump and transfer line performed well. Stripping tests have commenced employing an inverted cup charging device to introduce a Cd-15 wt % Li alloy reductant to the stripper vessel

  6. Design of a new terminal gas stripper system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Daniela E.; Amodei, Aldo J.; Bonino, Adrian G.; Bustos, Gustavo R.; Giannico, Matias A.; Serdeiro, Guillermo A.; Pomar, Cayetano

    2002-01-01

    A new terminal gas stripper, for the electrostatic FN tandem accelerator of the AMS system at the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina, is being designed at present. Most of the vacuum, electrical and electronic components are already available. The remote control of the system is being developed at LABI (Eng. Faculty, Buenos Aires University, Argentina). In order to construct the vacuum chamber, a collaboration with the LNLS (Campinas Univ, Sao Paulo, Brazil) is under consideration. The status of the project is presented. (author)

  7. Stripping foils for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    Beam physics considerations for the stripping foil of the PSB H- injection system are described, including the arguments for the foil type, thickness, geometry and positioning. The foil performance considerations are described, including expected stripping efficiency, emittance growth, energy straggling, temperature and lifetime. The required movement ranges and tolerances are detailed, together with the assumptions used.

  8. Picker versus stripper harvesters on the High Plains of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    A break even analysis based on NPV was conducted to compare picker-based and stripper-based harvest systems with and without field cleaners. Under no conditions analyzed was the NPV of a stripper system without a field cleaner greater than a stripper system with a field cleaner. Break even curves re...

  9. Design of foil implosion system for Pioneer I experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, D.J.; Caird, R.S.; Fowler, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    A foil implosion system is described that integrates an explosive flux-compression generator, a flat plate feed section with power conditioning switches, and a vacuum electrode region containing a cylindrical foil/plasma load. Power conditioning, obtained with an explosive-driven plasma compression opening switch and explosive-actuated closing switches, provides a submicrosecond multimegampere pulse for the implosion of an aluminum plasma. The flat plate section is configured for bidirectional feed to the coaxial vacuum electrodes. Important considerations in the design of the vacuum power flow region include gap failure, feed symmetry, and radial diagnostic access. The system presently accommodates a foil radius of 3 cm. Innovative foil insertion and clamping techniques are also described

  10. Development of stripper options for FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, F.; Hershcovitch, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Nolen, J.; Reed, C.; Thieberger, P.

    2010-09-12

    The US Department of Energy Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University includes a heavy ion superconducting linac capable of accelerating all ions up to uranium with energies higher than 200 MeV/u and beam power up to 400 kW. To achieve these goals with present ion source performance it is necessary to accelerate simultaneously two charge states of uranium from the ion source in the first section of the linac. At an energy of approximately 16.5 MeV/u it is planned to strip the uranium beam to reduce the voltage needed in the rest of the linac to achieve the final energy. Up to five different charge states are planned to be accelerated simultaneously after the stripper. The design of the stripper is a challenging problem due to the high power deposited (approximately 0.7 kW) in the stripper media by the beam in a small spot. To assure success of the project we have established a research and development program that includes several options: carbon or diamond foils, liquid lithium films, gas strippers and plasma strippers. We present in this paper the status of the different options.

  11. Design of organic complementary circuits and systems on foil

    CERN Document Server

    Abdinia, Sahel; Cantatore, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    This book describes new approaches to fabricate complementary organic electronics, and focuses on the design of circuits and practical systems created using these manufacturing approaches. The authors describe two state-of-the-art, complementary organic technologies, characteristics and modeling of their transistors and their capability to implement circuits and systems on foil. Readers will benefit from the valuable overview of the challenges and opportunities that these extremely innovative technologies provide. ·         Demonstrates first circuits implemented using specific complementary organic technologies, including first printed analog to digital converter, first dynamic logic on foil and largest complementary organic circuit ·         Includes step-by-step design from single transistor level to complete systems on foil ·         Provides a platform for comparing state-of-the-art complementary organic technologies and for comparing these with other similar technologies, spec...

  12. Capillary self-alignment of mesoscopic foil components for sensor-systems-in-foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutinov, Gari; Smits, Edsger C P; Van Heck, Gert; Van den Brand, Jeroen; Schoo, Herman F M; Mastrangeli, Massimo; Dietzel, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the effective use of capillary self-alignment for low-cost and time-efficient assembly of heterogeneous foil components into a smart electronic identification label. Particularly, we demonstrate the accurate (better than 50 µm) alignment of cm-sized functional foil dies. We investigated the role played by the assembly liquid, by the size and the weight of assembling dies and by their initial offsets in the self-alignment performance. It was shown that there is a definite range of initial offsets allowing dies to align with high accuracy and within approximately the same time window, irrespective of their initial offset. (paper)

  13. The stripper design and test at HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongbin; Xiao Guoqing; Yuan Youjin; Xu Hushan; Li Zhankui; Lu Ziwei; Mao Ruishi; Zhao Tiecheng

    2010-01-01

    Charge stripping is employed to produce multi-charged ions for injecting the cooling storage ring. After penetrating through the carbon foil, the widened distribution of ion charge states poses a limit to the ion injection. Therefore, the carbon foil plays a key role in the charge stripping injection. In this paper,four strippers for Heavy Ion Research Facility at Lanzhou (HIRFL) and Cooling Storage Ring (CSR) are introduced. The charge state distribution of the stripped ions is measured and the stripping efficiency of the foils is investigated. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical values. (authors)

  14. System requirements for the Los Alamos foil-implosion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, J.; Bowers, R.; Greene, A.; Lindemuth, I.; Nickel, G.; Oliphant, T.; Weiss, D.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of the Los Alamos imploding foil project is the development of an intense source of soft x rays and hot plasma produced from the thermalization of 1 to 10 MJ of plasma kinetic energy. The source will be used for material studies and fusion experiments. Specifically, thin, current-carrying cylindrical metallic plasmas are imploded via their self-magnetic forces. Features of this project are the use of high-explosive-driven flux-compression generators as the prime power source to achieve very high energies and fast opening switches to shorten the electrical pulses. To reach a load kinetic energy of 10 MJ, it is expected that the foil-plasma must carry about 50 MA of current and must implode in less than 1/2 μsec. This imposes the requirements that switch opening times must be less than 1/2 μsec and the transmission line must withstand voltages of about 1 MV. The system being pursued at Los Alamos is described, and model calculations are presented

  15. U^{28+}-intensity record applying a H_{2}-gas stripper cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Barth

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research science requirements higher beam intensity has to be achieved in the present GSI-accelerator complex. For this an advanced upgrade program for the UNILAC is ongoing. Stripping is a key technology for all heavy ion accelerators. For this an extensive research and development program was carried out to optimize for high brilliance heavy ion operation. After upgrade of the supersonic N_{2}-gas jet (2007, implementation of high current foil stripping (2011 and preliminary investigation of H_{2}-gas jet operation (2012, recently (2014 a new H_{2}-gas cell using a pulsed gas regime synchronized with arrival of the beam pulse has been developed. An obviously enhanced stripper gas density as well as a simultaneously reduced gas load for the pumping system result in an increased stripping efficiency, while the beam emittance remains the same. A new record intensity (7.8 emA for ^{238}U^{28+} beams at 1.4  MeV/u has been achieved applying the pulsed high density H_{2} stripper target to a high intensity ^{238}U^{4+} beam from the VARIS ion source with a newly developed extraction system. The experimental results are presented in detail.

  16. The charge state distribution of a carbon beam measured at the Lund pelletron accelerator with the newly installed terminal pumping system in use

    CERN Document Server

    Kiisk, M; Faarinen, M P; Hellborg, R; Haakansson, K; Persson, P; Skog, G; Stenström, K

    2002-01-01

    Charge state distributions for sup 1 sup 2 C and sup 1 sup 3 C ions have been measured at the Lund Pelletron tandem accelerator for the N sub 2 gas stripper with a newly installed terminal pumping system in use. A comparison of the results obtained for the ion energies between 1.5 and 2.8 MeV with the foil stripper and the gas stripper without terminal pumping demonstrates the great improvement of the stripping process achieved with the new terminal pumping.

  17. Simulation of ion beam scattering in a gas stripper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxeiner, Sascha, E-mail: maxeiner@phys.ethz.ch; Suter, Martin; Christl, Marcus; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2015-10-15

    Ion beam scattering in the gas stripper of an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) enlarges the beam phase space and broadens its energy distribution. As the size of the injected beam depends on the acceleration voltage through phase space compression, the stripper becomes a limiting factor of the overall system transmission especially for low energy AMS system in the sub MV region. The spatial beam broadening and collisions with the accelerator tube walls are a possible source for machine background and energy loss fluctuations influence the mass resolution and thus isotope separation. To investigate the physical processes responsible for these effects, a computer simulation approach was chosen. Monte Carlo simulation methods are applied to simulate elastic two body scattering processes in screened Coulomb potentials in a (gas) stripper and formulas are derived to correctly determine random collision parameters and free path lengths for arbitrary (and non-homogeneous) gas densities. A simple parametric form for the underlying scattering cross sections is discussed which features important scaling behaviors. An implementation of the simulation was able to correctly model the data gained with the TANDY AMS system at ETH Zurich. The experiment covered transmission measurements of uranium ions in helium and beam profile measurements after the ion beam passed through the He-stripper. Beam profiles measured up to very high stripper densities could be understood in full system simulations including the relevant ion optics. The presented model therefore simulates the fundamental physics of the interaction between an ion beam and a gas stripper reliably. It provides a powerful and flexible tool for optimizing existing AMS stripper geometries and for designing new, state of the art low energy AMS systems.

  18. A Systems Approach to the Solid Lubrication of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Zaldana, Antonio R.; Radil, Kevin C.

    2002-01-01

    Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings which rely upon solid lubricants to reduce friction and minimize wear during sliding which occurs at start-up and shut-down when surface speeds are too low to allow the formation of a hydrodynamic air film. This solid lubrication is typically accomplished by coating the non-moving foil surface with a thin, soft polymeric film. The following paper introduces a systems approach in which the solid lubrication is provided by a combination of self lubricating shaft coatings coupled with various wear resistant and lubricating foil coatings. The use of multiple materials, each providing different functions is modeled after oil-lubricated hydrodynamic sleeve bearing technology which utilizes various coatings and surface treatments in conjunction with oil lubricants to achieve optimum performance. In this study, room temperature load capacity tests are performed on journal foil air bearings operating at 14,000 rpm. Different shaft and foil coating technologies such as plasma sprayed composites, ceramic, polymer and inorganic lubricant coatings are evaluated as foil bearing lubricants. The results indicate that bearing performance is improved through the individual use of the lubricants and treatments tested. Further, combining several solid lubricants together yielded synergistically better results than any material alone.

  19. Liquid-film stripper for high-intensity heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, B.T.; Merrill, P.; Syversrud, H.K.; Wada, R.; Yourd, R.B.

    1981-03-01

    Electron strippers are widely used in heavy ion accelerators such as tandem Van de Graaff generators and heavy ion linacs. The SuperHILAC at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, employs a fluorocarbon oil vapor stripper at 113 keV/A for its high intensity injector ABEL, while after acceleration to 1.199 MeV/A a 35 μg/cm 2 carbon foil stripper is used. At present, the lifetime of these foils is about 1 hour for an 40 Ar beam of approx. 1 μA average particle current. With higher intensity high mass (100 less than or equal to A less than or equal to 238) beams available from ABEL injector the lifetime is expected to drop drastically and might be as low as one minute. A different approach to solve the stripper foil lifetime problem uses a thin free standing oil film spun from the edge of a sharp-edged rotating disc touching the surface of an oil reservoir. Areas of about 10 cm 2 with areal densities down to 20 μg/cm 2 have been reported. The work described here is based on the same concept, and produces a constantly regenerated, stable, free standing oil film of appropriate thickness for use at the SuperHILAC

  20. Nonlinear Dynamics of a Foil Bearing Supported Rotor System: Simulation and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Flowers, George T.

    1996-01-01

    Foil bearings provide noncontacting rotor support through a number of thin metal strips attached around the circumference of a stator and separated from the rotor by a fluid film. The resulting support stiffness is dominated by the characteristics of the foils and is a nonlinear function of the rotor deflection. The present study is concerned with characterizing this nonlinear effect and investigating its influence on rotordynamical behavior. A finite element model is developed for an existing bearing, the force versus deflection relation characterized, and the dynamics of a sample rotor system are studied. Some conclusions are discussed with regard to appropriate ranges of operation for such a system.

  1. Real-time simulator for designing electron dual scattering foil systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Robert L; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Price, Michael J; LeBlanc, Justin D; Pitcher, Garrett M

    2014-11-08

    The purpose of this work was to develop a user friendly, accurate, real-time com- puter simulator to facilitate the design of dual foil scattering systems for electron beams on radiotherapy accelerators. The simulator allows for a relatively quick, initial design that can be refined and verified with subsequent Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and measurements. The simulator also is a powerful educational tool. The simulator consists of an analytical algorithm for calculating electron fluence and X-ray dose and a graphical user interface (GUI) C++ program. The algorithm predicts electron fluence using Fermi-Eyges multiple Coulomb scattering theory with the reduced Gaussian formalism for scattering powers. The simulator also estimates central-axis and off-axis X-ray dose arising from the dual foil system. Once the geometry of the accelerator is specified, the simulator allows the user to continuously vary primary scattering foil material and thickness, secondary scat- tering foil material and Gaussian shape (thickness and sigma), and beam energy. The off-axis electron relative fluence or total dose profile and central-axis X-ray dose contamination are computed and displayed in real time. The simulator was validated by comparison of off-axis electron relative fluence and X-ray percent dose profiles with those calculated using EGSnrc MC. Over the energy range 7-20 MeV, using present foils on an Elekta radiotherapy accelerator, the simulator was able to reproduce MC profiles to within 2% out to 20 cm from the central axis. The central-axis X-ray percent dose predictions matched measured data to within 0.5%. The calculation time was approximately 100 ms using a single Intel 2.93 GHz processor, which allows for real-time variation of foil geometrical parameters using slider bars. This work demonstrates how the user-friendly GUI and real-time nature of the simulator make it an effective educational tool for gaining a better understanding of the effects that various system

  2. Conformable wearable systems comprising organic electronics on foil for well being and healthcare (presentation video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kok, Margreet M.

    2014-10-01

    Integration of electronics into materials and objects that have not been functionalized with electronics before, open up extensive possibilities to support mankind. By adding intelligence and/or operating power to materials in close skin contact like clothing, furniture or bandages the health of people can be monitored or even improved. Foil based electronics are interesting components to be integrated as they are thin, large area and cost effective available components Our developed technology of printed electronic structures to which components are reliably bonded, fulfills the promise. We have integrated these components into textiles and built wearable encapsulated products with foil based electronics. Foil components with organic and inorganic LEDs are interconnected and laminated onto electronic textiles by using conductive adhesives to bond the contact pads of the component to conductive yarns in the textile. Modelling and reliability testing under dynamic circumstances provided important insights in order to optimise the technology. The design of the interconnection and choice of conductive adhesive / underfill and lamination contributed to the durability of the system. Transition zones from laminated foil to textile are engineered to withstand dynamic use. As an example of a product, we have realized an electronic wristband that is encapsulated in rubber and has a number of sensor functionalities integrated on stretchable electronic circuits based on Cu and Ag. The encapsulation with silicone or polyurethanes was performed such, that charging and sensor/skin contacts are possible while simultaneously protecting the electronics from mechanical and environmental stresses.

  3. Low-head air stripper treats oil tanker ballast water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.

    1992-01-01

    Prototype tests conducted during the winter of 1989/90 have successfully demonstrated an economical design for air stripping volatile hydrocarbons from oily tanker ballast water. The prototype air stripper, developed for Alyeska's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility in Valdez, Alaska, ran continuously for three months with an average removal of 88% of the incoming volatile organics. Initially designed to remove oil and grease compounds from tanker ballast water, the BWT system has been upgraded to a three-step process to comply with new, stringent regulations. The BWT biological oxidation process enhances the growth of bacteria present in the incoming ballast water through nutrient addition, aeration, and recirculation within a complete-mixed bioreactor. The average removal of BETX is over 95%, however, occassional upsets required the placement of a polishing air stripper downstream of the aeration tanks. Packed-tower air stripping was investigated but deemed economically unfeasible for a facility that would only occasionally be used. Twelve feet of excess gravity head in the existing BWT hydraulic gradeline were employed to drive the air stripper feed. This limited the stripper packing depth to 8 feet and imposed constraints on the design of the inlet water and air distributors. Water distribution, air flow, temperature effects, and fouling from constituents in the ballast water were investigated. The prototype was operated under water and air flow conditions similar to those specified for the full-scale unit, and at a range of test conditions above and below the normal design conditions

  4. Simulation studies of gas and plasma-based charge strippers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Oliver Sebastian [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Charge stripping of heavy ion beams at high intensities is a major challenge in current and future facilities with high intensity heavy ion beams. Conventional stripping techniques are limited in their applicability, e.g. solid carbon foils suffer from short lifetimes at high intensities and gas strippers usually achieve only low charge states. One possible alternative is the use of a plasma as a stripping medium. The presented work focuses on theoretical studies of the interaction of an heavy ion beam with a plasma and accompanying effects in possible charge strippers. The main interest in the presented studies is the final charge state distribution of the ion beam. Different models for solving the corresponding rate equations were developed, taking into account ionization, recombination, energy loss and straggling processes. Sophisticated models, e.g. for ionization cross sections, as well as limits and applicability of simplified models are discussed. Quantitative results are presented in form an overview of the charge state distributions of different - conventional and novel - charge stripping media. Furthermore comparisons are done with charge state distributions of available experimental data. Typical practically relevant target conditions are discussed as well as deterioration of beam quality.

  5. Analysis of the efficiency of a hybrid foil tunnel heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpaska, Sławomir; Pedryc, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    The paper analyzes the efficiency of the hybrid system used to heat the foil tunnel. The tested system was built on the basis of heat gain in a cascade manner. The first step is to heat the water in the storage tank using the solar collectors. The second stage is the use of a heat pump (HP) in order to heat the diaphragm exchangers. The lower HP heat source is a cascade first stage buffer. In the storage tank, diaphragm exchangers used for solar collectors and heat pumps are installed. The research was carried out at a research station located in the University of Agriculture in Cracow. The aim was to perform an analysis of the efficiency of a hybrid system for the heating of a foil tunnel in the months from May to September. The efficiency of the entire hybrid system was calculated as the relation of the effect obtained in reference to the electrical power used to drive the heat pump components (compressor drive, circulation pump), circulation pumps and fans installed in the diaphragm heaters. The resulting effect was the amount of heat supplied to the interior of the object as a result of the internal air being forced through the diaphragm exchangers.

  6. A new method for designing dual foil electron beam forming systems. I. Introduction, concept of the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrich, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    In Part I of this work existing methods and problems in dual foil electron beam forming system design are presented. On this basis, a new method of designing these systems is introduced. The motivation behind this work is to eliminate the shortcomings of the existing design methods and improve overall efficiency of the dual foil design process. The existing methods are based on approximate analytical models applied in an unrealistically simplified geometry. Designing a dual foil system with these methods is a rather labor intensive task as corrections to account for the effects not included in the analytical models have to be calculated separately and accounted for in an iterative procedure. To eliminate these drawbacks, the new design method is based entirely on Monte Carlo modeling in a realistic geometry and using physics models that include all relevant processes. In our approach, an optimal configuration of the dual foil system is found by means of a systematic, automatized scan of the system performance in function of parameters of the foils. The new method, while being computationally intensive, minimizes the involvement of the designer and considerably shortens the overall design time. The results are of high quality as all the relevant physics and geometry details are naturally accounted for. To demonstrate the feasibility of practical implementation of the new method, specialized software tools were developed and applied to solve a real life design problem, as described in Part II of this work.

  7. A new method for designing dual foil electron beam forming systems. I. Introduction, concept of the method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrich, Przemysław, E-mail: Przemyslaw.Adrich@ncbj.gov.pl

    2016-05-01

    In Part I of this work existing methods and problems in dual foil electron beam forming system design are presented. On this basis, a new method of designing these systems is introduced. The motivation behind this work is to eliminate the shortcomings of the existing design methods and improve overall efficiency of the dual foil design process. The existing methods are based on approximate analytical models applied in an unrealistically simplified geometry. Designing a dual foil system with these methods is a rather labor intensive task as corrections to account for the effects not included in the analytical models have to be calculated separately and accounted for in an iterative procedure. To eliminate these drawbacks, the new design method is based entirely on Monte Carlo modeling in a realistic geometry and using physics models that include all relevant processes. In our approach, an optimal configuration of the dual foil system is found by means of a systematic, automatized scan of the system performance in function of parameters of the foils. The new method, while being computationally intensive, minimizes the involvement of the designer and considerably shortens the overall design time. The results are of high quality as all the relevant physics and geometry details are naturally accounted for. To demonstrate the feasibility of practical implementation of the new method, specialized software tools were developed and applied to solve a real life design problem, as described in Part II of this work.

  8. Charged-particle acceleration through laser irradiation of thin foils at Prague Asterix Laser System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrisi, Lorenzo; Cutroneo, Maria; Cavallaro, Salvatore; Musumeci, Paolo; Calcagno, Lucia; Wolowski, Jerzy; Rosinski, Marcin; Zaras-Szydlowska, Agnieszka; Ullschmied, Jiri; Krousky, Eduard; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skala, Jiri; Velyhan, Andreiy

    2014-01-01

    Thin foils, 0.5–50 μm in thickness, have been irradiated in vacuum at Prague Asterix Laser System in Prague using 10 15–16  W cm −2 laser intensity, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and different focal positions. Produced plasmas from metals and polymers films have been monitored in the forward and backward directions. Ion and electron accelerations have been investigated by using Thomson parabola spectrometer, x-ray streak camera, ion collectors and SiC semiconductor detectors, the latter employed in time-of-flight configuration. Ion acceleration up to about 3 MeV per charge state was measured in the forward direction. Ion and electron emissions were detected at different angles as a function of the irradiation conditions. (paper)

  9. Nanodiamond Foils for H- Stripping to Support the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and Related Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vispute, R D [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Ermer, Henry K [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Sinsky, Phillip [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Seiser, Andrew [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Wilson, Leslie L [ORNL; Harris, Gary [Howard University; Piazza, Fabrice [Pontifica Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra, Dominican Republic

    2013-01-01

    Thin diamond foils are needed in many particle accelerator experiments regarding nuclear and atomic physics, as well as in some interdisciplinary research. Particularly, nanodiamond texture is attractive for this purpose as it possesses a unique combination of diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and high radiation hardness; therefore, it is a potential material for energetic ion beam stripper foils. At the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the installed set of foils must be able to survive a nominal five-month operation period, without the need for unscheduled costly shutdowns and repairs. Thus, a single nanodiamond foil about the size of a postage stamp is critical to the entire operation of SNS and similar sources in U.S. laboratories and around the world. We are investigating nanocrystalline, polycrystalline and their admixture films fabricated using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system for H- stripping to support the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here we discuss optimization of process variables such as substrate temperature, process gas ratio of H2/Ar/CH4, substrate to filament distance, filament temperature, carburization conditions, and filament geometry to achieve high purity diamond foils on patterned silicon substrates with manageable intrinsic and thermal stresses so that they can be released as free standing foils without curling. An in situ laser reflectance interferometry tool (LRI) is used for monitoring the growth characteristics of the diamond thin film materials. The optimization process has yielded free standing foils with no pinholes. The sp3/sp2 bonds are controlled to optimize electrical resistivity to reduce the possibility of surface charging of the foils. The integrated LRI and HFCVD process provides real time information on the growth of films and can quickly illustrate growth features and control over film thickness. The results are discussed in the light of development

  10. The development of a cryopump for stripper gas pumping in a 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, B.S.

    1980-04-01

    The development of a cryopump is described for a 30 MV tandem Van de Graaf accelerator to control the vacuum pressure in the beam tube at the centre terminal when a gas stripper is in use. The system has been fully assembled and has been mechanically tested, the cryo pumps have been cooled to 18 0 K and the insulation tested electrically to +- 20 kV between the pump elements and the biased stripper canal. (UK)

  11. Development of small-scale electroplating system for Ni-63 electroplating onto Ni foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Sang Mu; Son, Kwang Jae; Hong, Jintae

    2016-01-01

    Betavoltaic battery is a device that converts the decay energy of beta-emitting radioisotopes into electric energy. Ni-63 is pure betaemitter with a low energy spectrum and significantly long half-life of 100.1 years and thus is widely used as the power source of betavoltaic battery. There are several methods for the formation of a Ni deposit onto a semiconductor such as electroplating, electroless plating, and chemical vapor deposition. In this study, small-scale radioisotope electroplating system was designed and fabricated to perform electroplating with a small amount of plating buffer and minimum exposure of radioactive materials. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery. In this study, an electroplating system for small-scale Ni electroplating was designed and manufactured. The process for the fabrication of a Ni-63 foil as the energy source of a betavoltaic battery was developed using the minimum concentration of Ni. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery

  12. Development of small-scale electroplating system for Ni-63 electroplating onto Ni foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Sang Mu; Son, Kwang Jae; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Betavoltaic battery is a device that converts the decay energy of beta-emitting radioisotopes into electric energy. Ni-63 is pure betaemitter with a low energy spectrum and significantly long half-life of 100.1 years and thus is widely used as the power source of betavoltaic battery. There are several methods for the formation of a Ni deposit onto a semiconductor such as electroplating, electroless plating, and chemical vapor deposition. In this study, small-scale radioisotope electroplating system was designed and fabricated to perform electroplating with a small amount of plating buffer and minimum exposure of radioactive materials. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery. In this study, an electroplating system for small-scale Ni electroplating was designed and manufactured. The process for the fabrication of a Ni-63 foil as the energy source of a betavoltaic battery was developed using the minimum concentration of Ni. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery.

  13. Development of nanodiamond foils for H- stripping to Support the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vispute, R D [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Ermer, Henry K [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Sinsky, Phillip [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Seiser, Andrew [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Wilson, Leslie L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Thin diamond foils are needed in many particle accelerator experiments regarding nuclear and atomic physics, as well as in some interdisciplinary research. Particularly, nanodiamond texture is attractive for this purpose as it possesses a unique combination of diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and high radiation hardness; therefore, it is a potential material for energetic ion beam stripper foils. At the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the installed set of foils must be able to survive a nominal five-month operation period, without the need for unscheduled costly shutdowns and repairs. Thus, a small foil about the size of a postage stamp is critical to the operation of SNS and similar sources in U.S. laboratories and around the world. We are investigating nanocrystalline, polycrystalline and their admixture films fabricated using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system for H- stripping to support the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here we discuss optimization of process variables such as substrate temperature, process gas ratio of H2/Ar/CH4, substrate to filament distance, filament temperature, carburization conditions, and filament geometry to achieve high purity diamond foils on patterned silicon substrates with manageable intrinsic and thermal stresses so that they can be released as free standing foils without curling. An in situ laser reflectance interferometry tool (LRI) is used for monitoring the growth characteristics of the diamond thin film materials. The optimization process has yielded free standing foils with no pinholes. The sp3/sp2 bonds are controlled to optimize electrical resistivity to reduce the possibility of surface charging of the foils. The integrated LRI and HFCVD process provides real time information on the growth of films and can quickly illustrate growth features and control film thickness. The results are discussed in the light of development of nanodiamond foils that

  14. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles M. Boyer II; Ronald J. MacDonald P.G.

    2001-01-01

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger-Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden and Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We are currently in the final stages of developing and testing our new Microsoft(trademark) Access/Excel based software. We will be processing this well data and identifying potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate these methodologies. Preparation of the final technical report is underway

  15. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles M. Boyer II; Ronald J. MacDonald P.G.

    2001-01-01

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger-Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden and Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have continued to enhance and streamline our software, and we are testing the final stages of our new Microsoft(trademark) Access/Excel based software. We are continuing to process this well data and are identifying potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate the new methodologies. In addition, preparation of the final technical report is underway

  16. A new method for designing dual foil electron beam forming systems. II. Feasibility of practical implementation of the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrich, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    In Part I of this work a new method for designing dual foil electron beam forming systems was introduced. In this method, an optimal configuration of the dual foil system is found by means of a systematic, automatized scan of system performance in function of its parameters. At each point of the scan, Monte Carlo method is used to calculate the off-axis dose profile in water taking into account detailed and complete geometry of the system. The new method, while being computationally intensive, minimizes the involvement of the designer. In this Part II paper, feasibility of practical implementation of the new method is demonstrated. For this, a prototype software tools were developed and applied to solve a real life design problem. It is demonstrated that system optimization can be completed within few hours time using rather moderate computing resources. It is also demonstrated that, perhaps for the first time, the designer can gain deep insight into system behavior, such that the construction can be simultaneously optimized in respect to a number of functional characteristics besides the flatness of the off-axis dose profile. In the presented example, the system is optimized in respect to both, flatness of the off-axis dose profile and the beam transmission. A number of practical issues related to application of the new method as well as its possible extensions are discussed.

  17. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Joel [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industry-driven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  18. Mechanical design of beam extractor system for cyclotron proton 13 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihwanul Aziz; Widdi Usada

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical design of beam extractor system for 13 MeV proton cyclotron has been carried out. In cyclotron there are two extractor systems, the first is electrostatic deflector system, and the second is stripper system. This stripper serves to change negative charged of hydrogen ions to become positive charged hydrogen ions (protons). In proton cyclotron, the carbon foil is used as a stripper. Mechanical extractor system consists of a carbon foil holder and a driver system to control the position of foil holder and to change the foil. The driver system consists of a stepper motor extractor, a feed-through, a gear, a shaft, and a buffer. After some calculation the obtained component data as the foil follow holder is made of aluminum has total length of 12.25 mm, total width of 10 mm and the total thickness of 2.5 mm, while the length of each extractor arm is made of aluminum 90 mm, width is 30 mm, its height is 10 mm , the total volume is 7,392 x 10-5 and a mass of 0.1995 kg. Extractor drive system includes a stepper motor having a maximum of 4 lb-ft of torque, feed through, gear, shaft, and a buffer. Required torque is 0.16 Nm or 0.12 lb-ft diameter shaft to support the extractor arm is 29 mm. Bolt fastener for the buffer is a type of metric M6 bolt, so that the used seals viton O-ring with seal diameter of 6 mm and DN 40 CF flange. (author)

  19. Development of a rotating graphite carbon disk stripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, Hiroo; Okuno, Hiroki; Tatami, Atsushi; Tachibana, Masamitsu; Murakami, Mutsuaki; Kuboki, Hironori; Imao, Hiroshi; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa; Kase, Masayuki; Kamigaito, Osamu

    2018-05-01

    Highly oriented graphite carbon sheets (GCSs) were successfully used as disk strippers. An irradiation test conducted in 2015 showed that GCS strippers have the longest lifetime and exhibit improved stripping and transmission efficiencies. The problem of disk deformation in previously used Be-disk was solved even with higher beam intensity.

  20. What You Should Know about Using Paint Strippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is readily absorbed through the skin and may cause health problems. Adverse health effects in the developing fetus have been noted in laboratory animals exposed to some of the chemicals in paint strippers. Therefore, women of child-bearing age who work with or use paint strippers on a regular ...

  1. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles M. Boyer II; Ronald J. MacDonald P.G.

    2002-01-01

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger-Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden and Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have continued to enhance and streamline our software, and we are testing the final stages of our new Microsoft(trademark) Access/Excel based software. We are continuing to process the information and are identifying potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate the new methodologies. In addition, preparation of the final technical report is underway. During this quarter, we have presented our project and discussed the software to numerous Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) workshops located in various regions of the United States

  2. Performance Evaluation of Hap-Free Paint Strippers vs. Methylene-Chloride-Based Strippers for Removing Army Chemical Agent Resistant Coatings (CARC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelley, John; Considine, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    ...). The purpose of this effort is to investigate HAP-free alternative chemical paint strippers as potential replacements for the methylene-chloride- based chemical strippers currently used in both processes...

  3. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray W. Sheldon

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (stripper gas water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  4. Modeling and experiment to threshing unit of stripper combine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and experiment to threshing unit of stripper combine. ... were conducted with the different feed rates and drum rotator speeds for the rice stripped mixtures. ... and damage as well as for threshing unit design and process optimization.

  5. Examination of the picture properties of luminescence memory foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewert, U.; Heine, S.; Nockemann, C.; Stade, J.; Tillack, G.R.; Wessel, H.; Zscherpel, U.; Mattis, A.

    1995-01-01

    Luminescence memory foils are a new medium for radiography without films. They are known by the name of image plates or digital memory foils. The suitability of such systems for industrial radiography is examined. (orig.) [de

  6. Foil changing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crist, C.E.; Ives, H.C.; Leifeste, G.T.; Miller, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    A self-contained foil changer apparatus for replenishing foil material across the path of a high energy particle beam is described comprising: a cylindrical hermetically sealed housing comprising an end plate having an aperture defining a beam passageway therethrough; foil supply means disposed inside the housing for storing a foil web and supporting a portion of the web across the beam passageway to form a plane perpendicular to the beam path; a barrel assembly disposed inside the housing; web control means extending through the housing and operably connected to the foil supply means for selectively advancing the foil web to replenish a portion across the beam passageway; and barrel control means extending through the housing and operably connected to the barrel assembly for selectively moving the barrel to and from the advanced and retracted positions

  7. A discrete-time amplifier based on Thin-Film Trans-Capacitors for sensor systems on foil

    OpenAIRE

    Raiteri, D.; Roermund, van, A.H.M.; Cantatore, E.

    2014-01-01

    Organic materials can be used to fabricate sensors for physical and chemical quantities, and also to make electronics. The integration of these two elements holds the promise to enable novel smart-sensors on foil. In this paper, we deal with the design of the first stage of a signal conditioning chain on foil: the amplifier. The poor electrical performance of organic TFTs hampers the design of complex circuits, and negatively affects the characteristics of continuous-time amplifiers. In order...

  8. Particle velocity measurements in laser irradiated foils using ORVIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, S.A.; Fisk, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Aluminum foils from 2- to 200-μm thick have been subjected to a Nd:YAG laser pulse of low irradiance (10 9 W/cm 2 , approx. 10 ns pulse) to produce laser-driven shocks in the foils. The particle velocity history of the foil side opposite the laser deposition was monitored with nanosecond resolution by a velocity interferometer system called ORVIS. These histories indicate a shock reverberation process accelerates the foil. Peak foil velocities can be adequately calculated using a ricket propulsion model developed from experiments at much higher irradiances. A velocity of 1 km/s was developed in a 2-μm-thick free foil in a time of 50 ns. Water-confined foils attained peak particle velocities about three times higher than those of free foils

  9. New intensifier foils in roentgenologic diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, H K; Schulze, B

    1981-09-01

    The main components of the foils are the carrier layer and the luminescent layer, which are in direct contact through an adhesive layer. Carrier layer and adhesive layer absorb and reflect parts of the light. In order to reduce this effect, modern foils are slightly dyed, mostly in the complementary colour of the emitted light. The luminescent layer is attached to the carrier layer by means of a binder. The mean binder content of the luminescent layer is about 10% of the weight of the luminescent material. The particle or crystal range between 5 and 10 ..mu..m. The luminescent layer thickness varies between 0.1 and 0.5 mm, according to the intensification. The imposing with luminescents consequently increases from 20 up to 100 mg/cm/sup 2/. In most cases the luminescent layer is protected by a thin layer (10 to 20 ..mu..m thick) of a very resistant and well-transparent synthetic resin. A foil combination consists of a front and a rear foil, the rear foil often providing a higher degree of intensification than the front foil. Foil quality is mainly defined by the intensification factor, quality on its part is characterized by the modulation transmission function and by the particle structure of the luminescent layer. Quality indicators are also the durability of the foils and the steadiness of the crystal arrangement in the luminescent layer. The representation quality is deteriorated also by the irregular blackening of the roentgen film, resulting from the statistic fluctuations of the roentgen quantums, which are absorbed in the luminescent layer. This unfavourable feature, termed quantum noise, increases with decreasing irradiation intensity, with increasing film gradation, and with increasing sensivity of the film-foil-system. Moreover, an optimal image quality is only possible when film and foil are in good contact conditions (in the cassette).

  10. Analog Organic Electronics Building Blocks for Organic Smart Sensor Systems on Foil

    CERN Document Server

    Marien, Hagen; Heremans, Paul

    2013-01-01

     This book provides insight into organic electronics technology and in analog circuit techniques that can be used to increase the performance of both analog and digital organic circuits. It explores the domain of organic electronics technology for analog circuit applications, specifically smart sensor systems.  It focuses on all the building blocks in the data path of an organic sensor system between the sensor and the digital processing block. Sensors, amplifiers, analog-to-digital converters and DC-DC converters are discussed in detail. Coverage includes circuit techniques, circuit implementation, design decisions and measurement results of the building blocks described. Offers readers the first book to focus on analog organic circuit design; Discusses organic electronics technology for analog circuit applications in the context of smart sensor systems; Describes all building blocks necessary for an organic sensor system between the sensor and the digital processing block; Includes circuit techniques, cir...

  11. Capillary self-alignment dynamics for R2R manufacturing of mesoscopic system-in-foil devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutinov, G.; Quintero, A.V.; Smits, E.C.P.; Remoortere, B. van; Brand, J. van den; Schoo, H.F.M.; Briand, D.; Rooij, N.F. de; Dietzel, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the dynamics of foil-based functional component self-alignment onto patterned test substrates and its demonstration when integrating a flexible sensor onto a printed circuitry. We investigate the dependence of alignment time and final precision of stacking of mm- and

  12. A discrete-time amplifier based on Thin-Film Trans-Capacitors for sensor systems on foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raiteri, D.; Roermund, van A.H.M.; Cantatore, E.

    2014-01-01

    Organic materials can be used to fabricate sensors for physical and chemical quantities, and also to make electronics. The integration of these two elements holds the promise to enable novel smart-sensors on foil. In this paper, we deal with the design of the first stage of a signal conditioning

  13. Vacuum foil insulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, J.P.; Sabolcik, R.E.; Svedberg, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    In a multifoil thermal insulation package having a plurality of concentric cylindrical cups, means are provided for reducing heat loss from the penetration region which extends through the cups. At least one cup includes an integral skirt extending from one end of the cup to intersection with the penetration means. Assembly of the insulation package with the skirted cup is facilitated by splitting the cup to allow it to be opened up and fitted around the other cups during assembly. The insulation is for an implantable nuclear powered artificial heart

  14. Computational modeling of plasma-flow switched foil implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1985-01-01

    A ''plasma-flow'', or ''commutator'', switch has been proposed as a means of achieving high dI/dt in a radially imploding metallic foil plasma. In this concept, an axially moving foil provides the initial coaxial gun discharge path for the prime power source and provides and ''integral'' inductive storage of magnetic energy. As the axially moving foil reaches the end of the coaxial gun, a radially imploding load foil is switched into the circuit. The authors have begun two-dimensional computer modeling of the two-foil implosion system. They use a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model which includes tabulated state and transport properties of the metallic foil material. Moving numerical grids are used to achieve adequate resolution of the moving foils. A variety of radiation models are used to compute the radiation generated when the imploding load foil converges on axis. These computations are attempting to examine the interaction of the switching foil with the load foil. In particular, they examine the relationship between foil placement and implosion quality

  15. Densities of carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, J.O. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The densities of arc-evaporated carbon target foils have been measured by several methods. The density depends upon the method used to measure it; for the same surface density, values obtained by different measurement techniques may differ by fifty percent or more. The most reliable density measurements are by flotation, yielding a density of 2.01±0.03 g cm -3 , and interferometric step height with the surface density known from auxiliary measurements, yielding a density of 2.61±0.4 g cm -3 . The difference between these density values mayy be due in part to the compressive stresses that carbon films have while still on their substrates, uncertainties in the optical calibration of surface densities of carbon foils, and systematic errors in step-height measurements. Mechanical thickness measurements by micrometer caliper are unreliable due to nonplanarity of these foils. (orig.)

  16. Foil changer for the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, C.R.; Kilborn, R.I.; Mouris, J.E.; Proulx, D.R.; Weaver, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Capture of an injected beam in the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron requires that a carbon stripping foil be accurately placed in a dee to intercept the incoming beam. Foil radial position must be precisely adjustable and foils must be easily replaced. A foil changing apparatus has been designed, built and tested to meet these requirements. The main components are a supply magazine, a transport system, and unloading and loading mechanisms. The magazine is on top of the cyclotron. It holds 300 foils and can be isolated from machine vacuum for refilling. Each foil is mounted on a stainless steel frame. A stainless steel roller chain fitted with 33 copper sleeves (shrouds) carries foils, one per shroud, down a dee stem to the midplane. A 12-bit absolute optical shaft encoder senses foil position. To replace a foil a shroud is positioned at the top of the cyclotron, a foil is removed, and another is transferred from the magazine to the empty shroud. Three stepping motors and associated electronics provide mechanical drive and are interfaced with a CAMAC control system

  17. Foil changer for the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, C.R.; Kilborn, R.I.; Mouris, J.F.; Proulx, D.R.; Weaver, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Capture of an injected beam in the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron requires that a carbon stripping foil be accurately placed in a dee to intercept the incoming beam. Foil radial position must be precisely adjustable and foils must be easily replaced. A foil changing apparatus has been designed, built and tested to meet these requirements. The main components are a supply magazine, a transport system, and unloading and loading mechanisms. The magazine is on top of the loading mechanisms. The magazine is on top of the cyclotron. It holds 300 foils and can be isolated from machine vacuum for refilling. Each foil is mounted on a stainless steel frame. A stainless steel roller chain fitted with 33 copper sleeves (shrouds) carries foils, one per shroud, down a dee stem to the midplane. A 12-bit absolute optical shaft encoder senses foil position. To replace a foil a shroud is positioned at the top of the cyclotron, a foil is removed, and another is transferred from the magazine to the empty shroud. Three stepping motors and associated electronics provide mechanical drive and are interfaced with a CAMAC control system

  18. Invitation systems and identification in Late Iron Age southern Scandinavia? The gold foil figures from a new perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baastrup, Maria Panum

    2016-01-01

    of a person’s true identity and in the dependency upon magnates in southern Scandinavia during the 6th–8th centuries AD. The gold foil figures may have been tokens issued by the magnate and served as invitations to special events, at a time when there was apparently a preoccupation with organising cult...... activities at the elite residences and restricting places at and admission to such events. The figures did not guarantee that it was the right guests who arrived on these occasions, but presenting this type of token may have minimised the risk of allowing in impostors....

  19. Treatability test of a stacked-tray air stripper for VOC in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pico, T., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    A common strategy for hydraulic containment and mass removal at VOC contaminated sites is `pump and treat (P&T)`. In P&T operations, contaminated ground water is pumped from wells, treated above ground, and discharged. Many P&T remediation systems at VOC sites rely on air stripping technology because VOCs are easily transferred to the vapor phase. In stacked-tray air strippers, contaminated water is aerated while it flows down through a series of trays. System operations at LLNL are strictly regulated by the California and federal Environmental Protection Agencies (Cal/EPA and EPA), the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB) and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC). These agencies set discharge limits, require performance monitoring, and assess penalties for non-compliance. National laboratories are also subject to scrutiny by the public and other government agencies. This extensive oversight makes it necessary to accurately predict field treatment performance at new extraction locations to ensure compliance with all requirements prior to facility activation. This paper presents treatability test results for a stacked- tray air stripper conducted at LLNL and compares them to the vendor`s modeling software results.

  20. Experiments with activated metal foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malati, M A [Medway and Maidstone Coll. of Tech., Chatham (UK)

    1978-09-01

    Experiments based on the activation of metal foils by slow neutron bombardment which can be used to demonstrate various aspects of artificial radioactivity are described and discussed. Suitable neutron sources and foils are considered.

  1. Monolithic exploding foil initiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Eric J; Vianco, Paul T; Headley, Paul S; Jarrell, Jason A; Garrity, J. Emmett; Shelton, Keegan P; Marley, Stephen K

    2012-10-23

    A monolithic exploding foil initiator (EFI) or slapper detonator and the method for making the monolithic EFI wherein the exploding bridge and the dielectric from which the flyer will be generated are integrated directly onto the header. In some embodiments, the barrel is directly integrated directly onto the header.

  2. Process for anodizing aluminum foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.A.; Scott, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    In an integrated process for the anodization of aluminum foil for electrolytic capacitors including the formation of a hydrous oxide layer on the foil prior to anodization and stabilization of the foil in alkaline borax baths during anodization, the foil is electrochemically anodized in an aqueous solution of boric acid and 2 to 50 ppm phosphate having a pH of 4.0 to 6.0. The anodization is interrupted for stabilization by passing the foil through a bath containing the borax solution having a pH of 8.5 to 9.5 and a temperature above 80 0 C. and then reanodizing the foil. The process is useful in anodizing foil to a voltage of up to 760 V

  3. Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpern, David G [Los Angeles, CA; McCabe, Niall [Torrance, CA; Gee, Mark [South Pasadena, CA

    2011-08-02

    A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

  4. Three-dimensional thermal simulations of thin solid carbon foils for charge stripping of high current uranium ion beams at a proposed new heavy-ion linac at GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tahir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive numerical study of heating of thin solid carbon foils by 1.4  MeV/u uranium ion beams to explore the possibility of using such a target as a charge stripper at the proposed new Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy–ion linac. These simulations have been carried out using a sophisticated 3D computer code that accounts for physical phenomena that are important in this problem. A variety of beam and target parameters have been considered. The results suggest that within the considered parameter range, the target will be severely damaged by the beam. Thus, a carbon foil stripper does not seem to be a reliable option for the future Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy–ion linac, in particular, at FAIR design beam intensities.

  5. Effects of stern-foil submerged elevation on the lift and drag of a hydrofoil craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suastika, K.; Apriansyah

    2018-03-01

    Effects of the stern-foil submerged elevation on the lift and drag of a hydrofoil craft are studied by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and by considering three alternative stern-foil submerged elevations. The submerged elevation of the front foil is kept constant in all the alternatives. From among the alternatives, the deepest stern-foil placement results in the highest stern-foil lift with the highest foil’s lift-to-drag ratio. However, considering the lift-to-drag ratio of the whole foil-strut-hull system, the shallowest stern-foil placement results in the highest lift-to-drag ratio. The struts and the foil’s submerged elevation significantly affects the drag of the whole foil-strut-hull system.

  6. Proper Estimation of the Energy Consumption in A Carbon Dioxide-MEA Stripper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madeddu, Claudio; Errico, Massimiliano; Baratti, Roberto

    In the field of CCS, the chemical absorption/desorption using amines represents one of the most easily implemented process for the reduction of the carbon dioxide generated by combustion plants. The high energy consumption in the solvent regeneration section represents the major concern for its...... fully industrial application. In the design of a carbon dioxide-MEA stripper, once the process targets are fixed, the estimation of the reboiler duty represents a crucial point for what concerns the quantification of the energy requirement. Furthermore, the vapor flow produced in the reboiler influences...... in simultaneous multicomponent material transfer, energy transfer and chemical reactions, is fundamental for an accurate design of the system. In this work the solvent regeneration section of a pilot-plant post-combustion CO2 capture facility was modeled using a rate-based approach, focusing on some key...

  7. FOIL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1963-07-16

    A method of making a foil-type fuel element is described. A foil of fuel metal is perforated in; regular design and sheets of cladding metal are placed on both sides. The cladding metal sheets are then spot-welded to each other through the perforations, and the edges sealed. (AEC)

  8. Method and apparatus for coating thin foil with a boron coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L.

    2018-01-16

    An apparatus and a process is disclosed for applying a boron coating to a thin foil. Preferably, the process is a continuous, in-line process for applying a coating to a thin foil comprising wrapping the foil around a rotating and translating mandrel, cleaning the foil with glow discharge in an etching chamber as the mandrel with the foil moves through the chamber, sputtering the foil with boron carbide in a sputtering chamber as the mandrel moves through the sputtering chamber, and unwinding the foil off the mandrel after it has been coated. The apparatus for applying a coating to a thin foil comprises an elongated mandrel. Foil preferably passes from a reel to the mandrel by passing through a seal near the initial portion of an etching chamber. The mandrel has a translation drive system for moving the mandrel forward and a rotational drive system for rotating mandrel as it moves forward. The etching chamber utilizes glow discharge on a surface of the foil as the mandrel moves through said etching chamber. A sputtering chamber, downstream of the etching chamber, applies a thin layer comprising boron onto the surface of the foil as said mandrel moves through said sputtering chamber. Preferably, the coated foil passes from the mandrel to a second reel by passing through a seal near the terminal portion of the sputtering chamber.

  9. Techno-Economic Analysis of a Secondary Air Stripper Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberle, J.R. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Nikolic, Heather [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Thompson, Jesse [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Liu, Kunlei [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Pinkerton, Lora L. [WorleyParsons, Reading, PA (United States); Brubaker, David [WorleyParsons, Reading, PA (United States); Simpson, James C. [WorleyParsons, Reading, PA (United States); Wu, Song [Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems America, Inc, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Bhown, Abhoyjit S. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2017-08-22

    We present results of an initial techno-economic assessment on a post-combustion CO2 capture process developed by the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky using Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems’ H3-1 aqueous amine solvent. The analysis is based on data collected at a 0.7 MWe pilot unit combined with laboratory data and process simulations. The process adds a secondary air stripper to a conventional solvent process, which increases the cyclic loading of the solvent in two ways. First, air strips additional CO2 from the solvent downstream of the conventional steam-heated thermal stripper. This extra stripping of CO2 reduces the lean loading entering the absorber. Second, the CO2-enriched air is then sent to the boiler for use as secondary air. This recycling of CO2 results in a higher concentration of CO2 in the flue gas sent to the absorber, and hence a higher rich loading of the solvent exiting the absorber. A process model was incorporated into a full-scale supercritical pulverized coal power plant model to determine the plant performance and heat and mass balances. The performance and heat and mass balance data were used to size equipment and develop cost estimates for capital and operating costs. Lifecycle costs were considered through a levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) assessment based on the capital cost estimate and modeled performance. The results of the simulations show that the CAER process yields a regeneration energy of 3.12 GJ/t CO2, a $53.05/t CO2 capture cost, and LCOE of $174.59/MWh. This compares to the U.S. Department of Energy’s projected costs (Case 10) of regeneration energy of 3.58 GJ/t CO2 , a $61.31/t CO2 capture cost, and LCOE of $189.59/MWh. For H3-1, the CAER process results in a regeneration energy of 2.62 GJ/tCO2 with a stripper pressure of 5.2 bar, a capture cost of $46.93/t CO2, and an LCOE of $164.33/MWh.

  10. Fabrication of versatile cladding light strippers and fiber end-caps with CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, M.; Theeg, T.; Wysmolek, M.; Ottenhues, C.; Pulzer, T.; Neumann, J.; Kracht, D.

    2018-02-01

    We report on novel fabrication schemes of versatile cladding light strippers and end-caps via CO2 laser radiation. We integrated cladding light strippers in SMA-like connectors for reliable and stable fiber-coupling of high-power laser diodes. Moreover, the application of cladding light strippers in typical fiber geometries for high-power fiber lasers was evaluated. In addition, we also developed processes to fuse end-caps to fiber end faces via CO2 laser radiation and inscribe the fibers with cladding light strippers near the end-cap. Corresponding results indicate the great potential of such devices as a monolithic and low-cost alternative to SMA connectors.

  11. Measurements of laser generated soft X-ray emission from irradiated gold foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J. S.; Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.; Shvarts, D. [University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Frank, Y.; Raicher, E.; Fraenkel, M. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne (Israel)

    2016-11-15

    Soft x-ray emission from laser irradiated gold foils was measured at the Omega-60 laser system using the Dante photodiode array. The foils were heated with 2 kJ, 6 ns laser pulses and foil thicknesses were varied between 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μm. Initial Dante analysis indicates peak emission temperatures of roughly 100 eV and 80 eV for the 0.5 μm and 1.0 μm thick foils, respectively, with little measurable emission from the 2.0 μm foils.

  12. Carbon nanotube foils for electron stripping in tandem accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reden, Karl von; Zhang Mei; Meigs, Martha; Sichel, Enid; Fang Shaoli; Baughman, Ray H.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotube technology has rapidly advanced in recent years, making it possible to create meter-long, ∼4 cm wide films of multi-walled tubes of less than 3 μg/cm 2 areal density in a bench top open-air procedure. The physical properties of individual carbon nanotubes have been well established, equaling or surpassing electrical and thermal conductivity and mechanical strength of most other materials, graphite in particular. The handling and transport of such nanotube films, dry-mounted self-supporting on metal frames with several cm 2 of open area, is problem-free: the aerogel films having a volumetric density of about 1.5 mg/cm 3 survived the trip by car and air from Dallas to Oak Ridge without blemish. In this paper we will present the results of first tests of these nanotube films as electron stripper media in a tandem accelerator. The tests were performed in the Model 25 URC tandem accelerator of the Holifield radioactive ion beam facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We will discuss the performance of nanotube films in comparison with chemical vapor deposition and laser-ablated carbon foils

  13. Pre-storage of gelified reagents in a lab-on-a-foil system for rapid nucleic acid analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Sun; Høgberg, Jonas; Christine, Thanner

    2013-01-01

    Reagent pre-storage in a microfluidic chip can enhance operator convenience, simplify the system design, reduce the cost of storage and shipment, and avoid the risk of cross-contamination. Although dry reagents have long been used in lateral flow immunoassays, they have rarely been used for nucle...... for fast and cost-effective POC analysis....

  14. Expectations for the Laguna foil implosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, A.; Brownell, J.; Caird, R.; Goforth, J.; Price, R.; Trainor, J.

    1987-01-01

    Building on the results achieved in the Pioneer shot series, the Los Alamos Trailmaster project is embarking on the Laguna foil implosion experiments. In this series a Mark-IX helical generator will be coupled to an explosively formed fuse opening switch, a surface-tracking closing switch, and a vacuum power flow and load chamber. In this paper the system design will be discussed and results from zero-, one-, and two-dimensional MHD simulations will be presented. It is anticipated that the generator will provide more than 10 MA of which ∼5.5 MA will be switched to the 5-cm-radius, 2-cm-high, 250-nm-thick aluminum foil load. This should give rise to a 1 μs implosion with more than 100 kJ of kinetic energy

  15. Post-foil interaction in foil-induced molecular dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faibis, A.; Kanter, E.P.; Koenig, W.; Plesser, I.; Vager, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have investigated the foil-induced dissociation of 175- 250- keV/amu CH + , NH + , and OH + , FH + and NeH + ions by coincident detection of the fragment atoms. The dissociation energies corresponding to in-foil and post-foil interactions were deduced from the measured relative flight times of the fragment pairs to a set of detectors downstream from the target. The authors considered final states consisting of a) a proton and a heavy-ion and, b) a hydrogen atom and a heavy-ion. Surprisingly, in both cases the energy released in the post-target interaction shows a similar linear increase with the charge state of the heavy partner

  16. Micro-computer based communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, M.; Hinton, C.; Pauly, C.; Tau, S.; Rathmell, R.

    1981-01-01

    The CNEA 20UD tandem accelerator manufactured by National Electrostatics Corp. is predominately controlled through a hard wired console. In the past, accelerators have used mechanical control rods to control parameters inside the high voltage terminals and dead sections. The 20UD column, has relatively complex equipment within the terminal and dead sections. Because of its complexity and the length of the column (approximately 48 ft. from ground to terminal) it was concluded that a digital communication link would be required to provide the smooth, high resolution control needed for the ion-optic components and to provide a reliable system to monitor the large number of parameters. To further ensure reliability, some basic components such as foil strippers and the terminal matching quadrupole have back-up control via control rods to allow limited operation in the event of a failure of the digital system

  17. The beam matching system between the preaccelerator and the main accelerator of the Van-de-Graaff cyclotron combination VICKSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderer, G.

    1975-01-01

    The beam matching between the two accelerators of the heavy-ion accelerator combination VICKSI (Van de Graaff Isochron-Cyclotron Kombination fuer schwere Ionen) which is under construction at the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin is investigated. The main elements are a combined gas- and carbon foil-stripper to increase the charge state of the ions and two clystron type high frequency bunchers for matching the longitudinal phase space. In order to minimize the enlargement of phase space due to energy- and angle straggling in the foil stripper a focus in all three dimensions is generated at this position. (orig./WL) [de

  18. Study on lifetime of C stripping foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongbin; Lu Ziwei; Zhao Yongtao; Li Zhankui; Xu Hushan; Xiao Guoqing; Wang Yuyu; Zhang Ling; Li Longcai; Fang Yan

    2007-01-01

    The carbon stripping foils can be prepared with the AC and DC arc discharge methods, or even sandwiched with AC-DC alternative layers. The lifetime of the carbon stripping foils of 19 μg/cm 2 prepared with different methods and/or structures was measured. The factors affecting the bombarding lifetime of the carbon stripping foils, especially the method of the foil preparation and the structure of the carbon stripping foils, were discussed. It is observed that the foils prepared with the DC arc discharge method have a longer bombarding lifetime than those prepared with the AC arc discharge method. (authors)

  19. Hydrogen permeation through metallic foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, M.I.B.; Rodrigues, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The process of electrolytic permeation of hydrogen through metallic foils is studied. A double electrolytic cell, in glass, in which the two compartments of reaction are separated by a metallic foil to be studied, was built. As direct result, the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the metal is obtained. The hydrogen diffusion coefficients in the palladium and, in austenitic stainless steels 304 and 304 L, used in the Angra-1 reactor, were obtained. Samples of stainless steels with and without welding, were used. (Author) [pt

  20. The stripping foil test stand in the Linac4 transfer line

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W; Noulibos, R; Sillanoli, Y; van Trappen, P

    2015-01-01

    The 160 MeV H− beam from the Linac4 (L4) linear accelerator at CERN will be injected into the proton synchrotron booster (PSB) with a new H− charge-exchange injection system. It will include a stripping foil, to convert H− into protons by stripping off the electrons. To gain experience with these very fragile foils, prior to the installation in the PSB, and test different foil materials and thicknesses, lifetimes of the foils, the foil changing mechanism and interlocking functions, a stripping foil test stand will be installed in the L4 transfer line in 2015. This paper describes the mechanical design of the system and discusses the test possibilities and parameters.

  1. The stripping foil test stand in the Linac4 transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weterings, W.; Bracco, C.; Noulibos, R.; Sillanoli, Y.; Trappen van, P.

    2015-01-01

    The 160 MeV H - beam from the Linac4 (L4) linear accelerator at CERN will be injected into the proton synchrotron booster (PSB) with a new H - charge-exchange injection system. It will include a stripping foil, to convert H - into protons by stripping off the electrons. To gain experience with these very fragile foils, prior to the installation in the PSB, and test different foil materials and thicknesses, lifetimes of the foils, the foil changing mechanism and interlocking functions, a stripping foil test stand will be installed in the L4 transfer line in 2015. This paper describes the mechanical design of the system and discusses the test possibilities and parameters. (author)

  2. Numerical and experimental investigation of bump foil mechanical behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    2014-01-01

    Corrugated foils are utilized in air foil bearings to introduce compliance and damping thus accurate mathematical predictions are important. A corrugated foil behaviour is investigated experimentally as well as theoretically. The experimental investigation is performed by compressing the foil...

  3. Stripping Foil Issues for H- Injection into the CERN PSB at 160 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Bracco, C; Carli, C; Meddahi, M; Weterings, W J M

    2010-01-01

    Beam physics considerations for the stripping foil of the 160 MeV PSB H- injection systems are described, including the arguments for the foil type, thickness, geometry and positioning. The foil performance considerations are described, including expected stripping efficiency, emittance growth, energy straggling, temperature and lifetime. The different beam loss mechanisms are quantified in the context of the aperture limits, operational considerations and collimation requirements.

  4. Stripper, shut-in and orphan wells in joint operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, R.

    1999-01-01

    Low productivity wells, stripper wells, can be an excellent source of income to independent operators or small companies, but a serious financial burden for larger companies. Shut-in wells, for most companies, are either waiting on a market and production facilities, or represent deferred abandonment liabilities. Orphan wells also reflect financial distress. The firm, Cord Oil and Gas Management Ltd., was formed in 1986 to specifically assist oil and gas companies, sophisticated investors and financial institutions with the management, enhancement and disposition of non-core or low productivity assets. This type of production, depending on the number of wells and cumulative production, can be the life blood of a small organization or a serious drain on the administrative personnel and financial resources of larger organizations. Philosophically, industry and/or government needs to manage the eventuality of abandonments by establishing financial criteria. Some suggestions for industry include: (1) establish provisions within joint operating agreements to set aside an abandonment and environmental cleanup fund; (2) minimize the inventory of abandonment candidates by an ongoing program of reclamation; (3) offset abandonment costs with salvage value of tangible equipment under AFE approval; and (4) voluntarily restrict transfer abandonment liabilities with producing assets on a selective basis. Some suggestions for governments include: (1) fund the orphan well by a deposit for every well drilled; (2) restrict the transfer of liabilities for abandoned and inactive wells by ensuring that the transferee is financially capable; and (3) access the chain of title to ensure non-operators remain responsible for the proportionate shares of abandonment and cleanup costs

  5. Personnel neutron dosimetry applications of track-size distributions on electrochemically etched CR-39 foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.E.; Homann, S.G.; Westermark, J.

    1988-01-01

    The track-size distribution on electrochemically etched CR-39 foils can be used to obtain some limited information on the incident neutron spectra. Track-size distributions on CR-39 foils can also be used to determine if the tracks were caused by neutrons or if they are merely background tracks (which have a significantly different track-size distribution). Identifying and discarding the high-background foils reduces the number of foils that must be etched. This also lowers the detection limit of the dosimetry system. We have developed an image analyzer program that can more efficiently determine the track density and track-size distribution, as well as read the laser-cut identification numbers on each foil. This new image analyzer makes the routine application of track-size distributions on CR-39 foils feasible. 2 refs., 3 figs

  6. Control of Oscillating Foil for Propulsion of Biorobotic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats the question of control of a laterally and rotationally oscillating hydrofoil for the propulsion of biologically inspired robotic (biorobotic autonomous underwater vehicles (BAUVs. Sinusoidal oscillations of foils produce maneuvering and propulsive forces. The design is based on the internal model principle. Two springs are used to transmit forces from the actuators to the foil. Oscillating fins produce periodic forces, which can be used for fish-like propulsion and control of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs. The equations of motion of the foil include hydrodynamic lift and moment based on linear, unsteady, aerodynamic theory. A control law is derived for the lateral and rotational sinusoidal oscillation of the foil. In the closed-loop system, the lateral displacement and the rotational angle of the foil asymptotically follow sinusoidal trajectories of distinct frequencies and amplitudes independently. Simulation results are presented to show the trajectory tracking performance of the foil for different freestream velocities and sinusoidal command trajectories.

  7. The Los Alamos foil implosion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, J.; Parker, J.; Bartsch, R.; Benage, J.; Bowers, R.; Cochrane, J.; Forman, P.; Goforth, J.; Greene, A.; Kruse, H.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Los Alamos foil implosion project is to produce an intense (>100 TW), multi-megajoule, laboratory soft x-ray source for material studies and fusion experiments. The concept involves the implosion of annular, current-carrying, cylindrical metallic plasmas via their self-magnetic forces. The project features inductive storage systems using both capacitor banks and high explosive-driven flux compression generators as prime energy sources. Fast opening switches are employed to shorten the electrical pulses. The program will be described and activities to date will be summarized

  8. Highly sensitive urea sensing with ion-irradiated polymer foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Dietmar; Muñoz Hernandez, Gerardo; Alfonta, Lital

    2012-01-01

    Recently we prepared urea-sensors by attaching urease to the inner walls of etched ion tracks within thin polymer foil. Here, alternative track-based sensor configurations are examined where the enzyme remained in solution. The conductivities of systems consisting of two parallel irradiated polymer foils and confining different urea/urease mixtures in between were examined. The correlations between conductivity and urea concentration differed strongly for foils with unetched and etched tracks, which points at different sensing mechanisms – tentatively attributed to the adsorption of enzymatic reaction products on the latent track entrances and to the enhanced conductivity of reaction product-filled etched tracks, respectively. All examined systems enable in principle, urea sensing. They point at the possibility of sensor cascade construction for more sensitive or selective sensor systems.

  9. Zika Vaccine Development: Flavivirus Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Martins, Bavari, Zika Vaccine Development 1 Zika Vaccine Development: Flavivirus Foils Martins KAO, Bavari S. The current Zika virus...States government. The rapid response to Zika is perhaps the first of its kind, and it undoubtedly has been made possible by the lessons learned from...the response to the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa. However, Zika virus is not Ebola virus. As of February 2016 there were only 296

  10. Optical temperature sensing on flexible polymer foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stanislav; Xiao, Yanfen; Hofmann, Meike; Schmidt, Thomas; Gleissner, Uwe; Zappe, Hans

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to established semiconductor waveguide-based or glass fiber-based integrated optical sensors, polymerbased optical systems offer tunable material properties, such as refractive index or viscosity, and thus provide additional degrees of freedom for sensor design and fabrication. Of particular interest in sensing applications are fully-integrated optical waveguide-based temperature sensors. These typically rely on Bragg gratings which induce a periodic refractive index variation in the waveguide so that a resonant wavelength of the structure is reflected.1,2 With broad-band excitation, a dip in the spectral output of the waveguide is thus generated at a precisely-defined wavelength. This resonant wavelength depends on the refractive index of the waveguide and the grating period, yet both of these quantities are temperature dependent by means of the thermo-optic effect (change in refractive index with temperature) and thermal expansion (change of the grating period with temperature). We show the design and fabrication of polymer waveguide-integrated temperature sensors based on Bragggratings, fabricated by replication technology on flexible PMMA foil substrates. The 175 μm thick foil serves as lower cladding for a polymeric waveguide fabricated from a custom-made UV-crosslinkable co-monomer composition. The fabrication of the grating structure includes a second replication step into a separate PMMA-foil. The dimensions of the Bragg-gratings are determined by simulations to set the bias point into the near infrared wavelength range, which allows Si-based detectors to be used. We present design considerations and performance data for the developed structures. The resulting sensor's signal is linear to temperature changes and shows a sensitivity of -306 nm/K, allowing high resolution temperature measurements.

  11. NONPROCESS SOLVENT USE IN THE FURNITURE REFINISHING AND REPAIR INDUSTRY: EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE CHEMICAL STRIPPERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the feasibility of using alternatives to high volatile organic compound/hazardous air pollutant (VOC/HAP) solvent-based, chemical strippers that are currently used in the furniture repair and refinishing industry to remove both traditi...

  12. Influence and efficiency of catalytic stripper in organic carbon removal from laboratory generated soot aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalytic stripper (CS) is a device used to remove the semi-volatile, typically organic carbon, fraction by passing raw or diluted exhaust over an oxidation catalyst heated to 300˚C. The oxidation catalyst used in this study is a commercially available diesel oxidation ca...

  13. 30 CFR 210.155 - What reports must I submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Minerals Management Service, P.O. Box 25165, MS 392B2, Denver, Colorado 80217-0165; or (ii) Special courier... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What reports must I submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties? 210.155 Section 210.155 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  14. Characteristics of a plasma flow field produced by a metal array bridge foil explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junying, WU; Long, WANG; Yase, LI; Lijun, YANG; Manzoor, SULTAN; Lang, CHEN

    2018-07-01

    To improve the energy utilization efficiency of metal bridge foil explosion, and increase the function range of plasmas, array bridge foil explosion experiments with different structures were performed. A Schlieren photographic measurement system with a double-pulse laser source was used to observe the flow field of a bridge foil explosion. The evolution laws of plasmas and shock waves generated by array bridge foil explosions of different structures were analyzed and compared. A multi-phase flow calculation model was established to simulate the electrical exploding process of a metal bridge foil. The plasma equation of state was determined by considering the effect of the changing number of particles and Coulomb interaction on the pressure and internal energy. The ionization degree of the plasma was calculated via the Saha–Eggert equation assuming conditions of local thermal equilibrium. The exploding process of array bridge foils was simulated, and the superposition processes of plasma beams were analyzed. The variation and distribution laws of the density, temperature, pressure, and other important parameters were obtained. The results show that the array bridge foil has a larger plasma jet diameter than the single bridge foil for an equal total area of the bridge foil. We also found that the temperature, pressure, and density of the plasma jet’s center region sharply increase because of the superposition of plasma beams.

  15. Safety evaluation of the ITP filter/stripper test runs and quiet time runs using simulant solution. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.K.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose is to provide the technical bases for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Filter/Stripper Test Runs (Ref. 7) and Quiet Time Runs Program (described in Section 3.6). The Filter/Stripper Test Runs and Quiet Time Runs program involves a 12,000 gallon feed tank containing an agitator, a 4,000 gallon flush tank, a variable speed pump, associated piping and controls, and equipment within both the Filter and the Stripper Building

  16. Foil Bearing Coating Behavior in CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kruizenga, Alan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Pasch, James Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleming, Darryn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Sandia S-CO2 Recompression Closed Brayton Cycle (RCBC) utilizes a series of gas foil bearings in its turbine-alternator-compressors. At high shaft rotational speed these bearings allow the shaft to ride on a cushion of air. Conversely, during startup and shutdown, the shaft rides along the foil bearing surface. Low-friction coatings are used on bearing surfaces in order to facilitate rotation during these periods. An experimental program was initiated to elucidate the behavior of coated bearing foils in the harsh environments of this system. A test configuration was developed enabling long duration exposure tests, followed by a range of analyses relevant to their performance in a bearing. This report provides a detailed overview of this work. The results contained herein provide valuable information in selecting appropriate coatings for more advanced future bearing-rig tests at the newly established test facility in Sandia-NM.

  17. Prism foil from an LCD monitor as a tool for teaching introductory optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and image formation in a nontrivial way and are therefore particularly useful for active learning strategies.

  18. Prism foil from an LCD monitor as a tool for teaching introductory optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael, E-mail: gorazd.planinsic@fmf.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19 (Slovenia)

    2011-03-15

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and image formation in a nontrivial way and are therefore particularly useful for active learning strategies.

  19. Prism Foil from an LCD Monitor as a Tool for Teaching Introductory Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and…

  20. Fusion welding of thin metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, H.

    1975-01-01

    Aspects of fusion welding of thin metal foils are reviewed and the current techniques employed at LASL to join foils are described. Techniques for fusion welding approximately 0.025-mm-thick foils of copper, aluminum, and stainless steels have been developed using both electron beam and laser welding equipment. These techniques, together with the related aspects of joint design, tooling and fixturing, joint preparation, and modifications to the commercially available welding equipment, are included in the review. (auth)

  1. Simulations of beam trajectory for position target optimization of extraction system output beams cyclotron proton Decy-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrus Abdul Kudus; Taufik

    2015-01-01

    Positioning and track simulation beam the cyclotron Decy-13 for laying optimization the target system have been done using lorentz force function and scilab 5.4.1 simulation. Magnetic field and electric field is calculated using Opera3D/Tosca as a simulation input. Used radio frequency is 77.66 MHz with the amplitude voltage is 40 kV is obtained energy 13 MeV. The result showed that the coordinates of the laying of the target system in a vacuum chamber is located at x = -389 mm and y = 445 mm with the width of the output beam is 10 mm. The laying stripper position for the output in center target is located at x = -76 mm and y =416 mm from the center coordinate on the center of dee with the energy of proton is 13 MeV at the point of beam extraction carbon foil. The changes position laying is carried out on range x = -70; y = 424 mm until x = - 118; y = 374 mm result for shifting area stripper which is still capable of deflection the electron beam. (author)

  2. Technical Development Path for Gas Foil Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Foil gas bearings are in widespread commercial use in air cycle machines, turbocompressors and microturbine generators and are emerging in more challenging applications such as turbochargers, auxiliary power units and propulsion gas turbines. Though not well known, foil bearing technology is well over fifty years old. Recent technological developments indicate that their full potential has yet to be realized. This paper investigates the key technological developments that have characterized foil bearing advances. It is expected that a better understanding of foil gas bearing development path will aid in future development and progress towards more advanced applications.

  3. INJECTION CARBON STRIPPING FOIL ISSUES IN THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEEBE-WANG, J.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPARIA, D.; WEI, J.

    2001-01-01

    We are reporting the results of studies on issues related to the injection stripping foil in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. The problems related to foil heating and foil lifetime, such as current density distribution and temperature distribution in the foil, are investigated. The impact of injection errors on the beam losses at the foil is studied. The particle traversal rate and the beam losses due to scattering in the foil are summarized. Finally, SNS end-to-end simulation results of the foil-missing rate, the foil-hitting rate and the maximum foil temperature are presented

  4. Actinide Foil Production for MPACT Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, Denis

    2012-10-30

    Sensitive fast-neutron detectors are required for use in lead slowing down spectrometry (LSDS), an active interrogation technique for used nuclear fuel assay for Materials Protection, Accounting, and Controls Technologies (MPACT). During the past several years UNLV sponsored a research project at RPI to investigate LSDS; began development of fission chamber detectors for use in LSDS experiments in collaboration with INL, LANL, and Oregon State U.; and participated in a LSDS experiment at LANL. In the LSDS technique, research has demonstrated that these fission chamber detectors must be sensitive to fission energy neutrons but insensitive to thermal-energy neutrons. Because most systems are highly sensitive to large thermal neutron populations due to the well-known large thermal cross section of 235U, even a miniscule amount of this isotope in a fission chamber will overwhelm the small population of higher-energy neutrons. Thus, fast-fission chamber detectors must be fabricated with highly depleted uranium (DU) or ultra-pure thorium (Th), which is about half as efficient as DU. Previous research conducted at RPI demonstrated that the required purity of DU for assay of used nuclear fuel using LSDS is less than 4 ppm 235U, material that until recently was not available in the U.S. In 2009 the PI purchased 3 grams of ultra-depleted uranium (uDU, 99.99998% 238U with just 0.2 ± 0.1 ppm 235U) from VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. We received the material in the form of U3O8 powder in August of 2009, and verified its purity and depletion in a FY10 MPACT collaboration project. In addition, chemical processing for use in FC R&D was initiated, fission chamber detectors and a scanning alpha-particle spectrometer were developed, and foils were used in a preliminary LSDS experiment at a LANL/LANSCE in Sept. of 2010. The as-received U3O8 powder must be chemically processed to convert it to another chemical form while maintaining its purity, which then must be used to electro-deposit U

  5. Dynamic environmental control mechanisms for pneumatic foil constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Jan-Frederik; Wu, Yupeng; Beccarelli, Paolo; Chilton, John

    2017-11-01

    Membrane and foil structures have become over the last decades an attractive alternative to conventional materials and building systems with increasing implementation in different typologies and scale. The development of transparent, light, flexible and resistant materials like Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) has triggered a rethinking of the building envelope in the building industry towards lightweight systems. ETFE foil cushions have proven to fulfil the design requirements in terms of structural efficiency and aesthetic values. But the strategies to satisfy increasing demands of energy efficiency and comfort conditions are still under development. The prediction and manipulation of the thermo-optical behaviour of ETFE foil cushion structures currently remain as one of the main challenges for designers and manufacturers. This paper reviews ongoing research regarding the control of the thermo-optical performance of ETFE cushion structures and highlights challenges and possible improvements. An overview of different dynamic and responsive environmental control mechanisms for multilayer foil constructions is provided and the state of the art in building application outlined by the discussion of case studies.

  6. Foil bearing performance in liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genge, Gary G.; Saville, Marshall; Gu, Alston

    1993-01-01

    Space transfer vehicles and other power and propulsion systems require long-life turbopumps. Rolling-element bearings used in current turbopumps do not have sufficient life for these applications. Process fluid foil bearings have established long life, with exceptional reliability, over a wide range of temperatures and fluids in many high-speed turbomachinery applications. However, actual data on bearing performance in cryogenic fluids has been minimal. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and AlliedSignal Aerospace Systems and Equipment (ASE) have attempted to characterize the leaf-type compliant foil bearing in oxygen and nitrogen. The work performed under a joint internal research and development program between Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and ASE demonstrated that the foil bearing has load capacities of at least 266 psi in liquid oxygen and 352 psi in liquid nitrogen. In addition, the bearing demonstrated a direct damping coefficient of 40 to 50 lb-sec/in. with a damping ratio of .7 to 1.4 in. liquid nitrogen using a bearing sized for upper-stage turbopumps. With the results from this testing and the years of successful use in air cycle machines and other applications, leaf-type compliant foil bearings are ready for testing in liquid oxygen turbopumps.

  7. Chromic acid anodizing of aluminum foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursch, H.

    1988-01-01

    The success of the Space Station graphite/epoxy truss structure depends on its ability to endure long-term exposure to the LEO environment, primarily the effects of atomic oxygen and the temperture cycling resulting from the 94 minute orbit. This report describes the development and evaluation of chromic acid anodized (CAA) aluminum foil as protective coatings for these composite tubes. Included are: development of solar absorptance and thermal emittance properties required of Al foil and development of CAA parameters to achieve these optical properties; developing techniques to CAA 25 ft lengths of Al foil; developing bonding processes for wrapping the Al foil to graphite/epoxy tubes; and atomic oxygen testing of the CAA Al foil. Two specifications were developed and are included in the report: Chromic Acid Anodizing of Aluminum Foil Process Specification and Bonding of Anodized Aluminum Foil to Graphite/Epoxy Tubes. Results show that CAA Al foil provides and excellent protective and thermal control coating for the Space Station truss structure.

  8. Low-energy foil aberration corrector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aken, R.H. van; Hagen, C.W.; Barth, J.E.; Kruit, P.

    2002-01-01

    A spherical and chromatic aberration corrector for electron microscopes is proposed, consisting of a thin foil sandwiched between two apertures. The electrons are retarded at the foil to almost zero energy, so that they can travel ballistically through the foil. It is shown that such a low-voltage corrector has a negative spherical aberration for not too large distances between aperture and foil, as well as a negative chromatic aberration. For various distances the third- and fifth-order spherical aberration coefficients and the first- and second-order chromatic aberration coefficients are calculated using ray tracing. Provided that the foils have sufficient electron transmission the corrector is able to correct the third-order spherical aberration and the first-order chromatic aberration of a typical low-voltage scanning electron microscope. Preliminary results show that the fifth-order spherical aberration and the second-order chromatic aberration can be kept sufficiently low

  9. Gas amplification properties of GEM foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Jeannine

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the detector concept International Linear Detector for the future accelerator project International Linear Collider, in which electrons and positrons at c. m. energies of 500 GeV are brought to collision, a time projection chamber shall be applied as central track detector. By the application of such a chamber as track detector a three-dimensional reconstruction of the track points is possible. If a particle passes the gas volume within the chamber it ionizises single gas atoms and the arising electrons move after the amplification in the GEM arrangement to the anode, so that a two-dimensional projection of the particle track is possible. The third dimension is calculated from the drift time of the electrons. The advances of this readout system consist therein that a better position resolution than by a multiwire proportional chamber is reached and the back-drifting ions can be strongly suppressed. Aim of this thesis are studies for a GEM module, which shall be used in a large TPC prototype. Concerning different requirements it is valid to compare different GEMs in order to can meet an optimal choice. In a small prototype present at DESY measurements for the acquisition of GEM-describing parameters were performed. The taking into operation of the test TPC was part of this thesis. Tracks were generated by a radioactive source, by means of which the gas amplification was determined. With the measurement arrangement gas-amplifier foils of different kind were compared in view of their amplification properties and their energy resolution power and systematically studied. Five different GEM performances were studied in the test TPC. These foils differ in their geometrical classification parameters, the fabrication process, or the materials. The GEMs produced at CERN possess in comparison with GEMs of the Japanese firm SciEnergy and a GEM of the US-American firm Tech-Etch the best amplification and resolution properties. Furthermore a new GEM framing

  10. Circuit design on plastic foils

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, Daniele; Roermund, Arthur H M

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates a variety of circuit designs on plastic foils and provides all the information needed to undertake successful designs in large-area electronics.  The authors demonstrate architectural, circuit, layout, and device solutions and explain the reasons and the creative process behind each. Readers will learn how to keep under control large-area technologies and achieve robust, reliable circuit designs that can face the challenges imposed by low-cost low-temperature high-throughput manufacturing.   • Discusses implications of problems associated with large-area electronics and compares them to standard silicon; • Provides the basis for understanding physics and modeling of disordered material; • Includes guidelines to quickly setup the basic CAD tools enabling efficient and reliable designs; • Illustrates practical solutions to cope with hard/soft faults, variability, mismatch, aging and bias stress at architecture, circuit, layout, and device levels.

  11. Lifetimes of carbon foils deposited on etched substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, J.O. Jr.; Bashkin, S.; Hartog, P.D.; Thomas, G.; Yntema, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The methods currently in use for producing long-lived carbon foils are listed. The possible common factors which are important in making long lasting foils are a) making a strong, coherent, continuous layer, b) making a foil slack, loose, or baggy, and c) making a foil whose molecular structure minimizes shrinkage. The behavior of foils deposited on etched substrates is compared with foils deposited upon conventional microscope slides

  12. LOW COST METHODOLOGIES TO ANALYZE AND CORRECT ABNORMAL PRODUCTION DECLINE IN STRIPPER GAS WELLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerry James; Gene Huck; Tim Knobloch

    2001-01-01

    A study group of 376 Clinton Sand wells in Ohio provided data to determine the historic frequency of the problem of abnormal production declines in stripper gas wells and the causes of the abnormal production decline. Analysis of the historic frequency of the problem indicates over 70% of the wells experienced abnormal production decline. The most frequently occurring causes of abnormal production declines were determined to be fluid accumulation (46%), gas gathering restrictions (24%), and mechanical failures (23%). Data collection forms and decision trees were developed to cost-effectively diagnose the abnormal production declines and suggest corrective action. The decision trees and data collection sheets were incorporated into a procedure guide to provide stripper gas well operators with a methodology to analyze and correct abnormal production declines. The systematic methodologies and techniques developed should increase the efficiency of problem well assessment and implementation of solutions for stripper gas wells. This eight quarterly technical progress report provides a summary of the deliverables completed to date, including the results of the remediations, the procedure guide, and the technology transfer. Due to the successful results of the study to date and the efficiency of the methodology development, two to three additional wells will be selected for remediation for inclusion into the study. The results of the additional remediations will be included in the final report

  13. Validation of calculated self-shielding factors for Rh foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaćimović, R.; Trkov, A.; Žerovnik, G.; Snoj, L.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2010-10-01

    Rhodium foils of about 5 mm diameter were obtained from IRMM. One foil had thickness of 0.006 mm and three were 0.112 mm thick. They were irradiated in the pneumatic transfer system and in the carousel facility of the TRIGA reactor at the Jožef Stefan Institute. The foils were irradiated bare and enclosed in small cadmium boxes (about 2 g weight) of 1 mm thickness to minimise the perturbation of the local neutron flux. They were co-irradiated with 5 mm diameter and 0.2 mm thick Al-Au (0.1%) alloy monitor foils. The resonance self-shielding corrections for the 0.006 and 0.112 mm thick samples were calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation and amount to about 10% and 60%, respectively. The consistency of measurements confirmed the validity of self-shielding factors. Trial estimates of Q0 and k0 factors for the 555.8 keV gamma line of 104Rh were made and amount to 6.65±0.18 and (6.61±0.12)×10 -2, respectively.

  14. An Assessment of Gas Foil Bearing Scalability and the Potential Benefits to Civilian Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years the term oil-free turbomachinery has been used to describe a rotor support system for high speed turbomachinery that does not require oil for lubrication, damping, or cooling. The foundation technology for oil-free turbomachinery is the compliant foil bearing. This technology can replace the conventional rolling element bearings found in current engines. Two major benefits are realized with this technology. The primary benefit is the elimination of the oil lubrication system, accessory gearbox, tower shaft, and one turbine frame. These components account for 8 to 13 percent of the turbofan engine weight. The second benefit that compliant foil bearings offer to turbofan engines is the capability to operate at higher rotational speeds and shaft diameters. While traditional rolling element bearings have diminished life, reliability, and load capacity with increasing speeds, the foil bearing has a load capacity proportional to speed. The traditional applications for foil bearings have been in small, lightweight machines. However, recent advancements in the design and manufacturing of foil bearings have increased their potential size. An analysis, grounded in experimentally proven operation, is performed to assess the scalability of the modern foil bearing. This analysis was coupled to the requirements of civilian turbofan engines. The application of the foil bearing to larger, high bypass ratio engines nominally at the 120 kN (approx.25000 lb) thrust class has been examined. The application of this advanced technology to this system was found to reduce mission fuel burn by 3.05 percent.

  15. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells PART 3 OF 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Joel [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industrydriven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  16. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells PART 2 OF 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Joel [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industrydriven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  17. Hyaluronan-lecithin foils and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BiaIopiotrowicz, Tomasz; Janczuk, BronisIaw; Fiedorowicz, Maciej; Khachatryan, Gohar; Tomasik, Piotr; Bakos, Dusan

    2006-01-01

    Thin, elastic foils of good resistance to the air exposure, patented as wound healing aids, were prepared by evaporation of a blend of lecithin (L) and sodium hyaluronan (H) taken under varying proportions. The contact angle for water, glycerol, formamide, ethylene glycol and diiodomethane, was determined for these foils. The contact angle was correlated against the H:L foil composition. For all liquids but formamide the highest contact angle was noted for the H:L = 2:1 (g g -1 ) ratio. The contact angles provided estimation of the work of adhesion. At the same L:H ratio the work of adhesion was the lowest. It was suggested that lecithin cross-linked hyaluronan. Since the work of adhesion of the studied liquids was similar to that of diiodomethane, it could be concluded that almost all functional groups on the foil surface were completely blocked. Perhaps, at H:L = 2:1 (g g -1 ) a stoichiometric complex of hyaluronic acid with lecithin was formed, and polar functional groups from both reagents were involved. Foils seem to be electrostatic complexes of H with L. Foils with the H:L equal to 2:1 exhibited specific properties confirmed by the IR reflectance spectra of the foils. The thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) also revealed unique thermal behaviour confirming other specific properties of the foil of this composition. For the same ratio a thorough inspection of the scanning electron micrographs (SEM) revealed few irregularly distributed perforations of 1-2 μm in diameter seen as black points, which can be recognized as pores. Properties of the foils determined in the contact angle measurements are nicely backed by the results from thermogravimetric and scanning electron microscopic studies

  18. Analysis of Mechanical Properties for GEM Foil

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Yuk Ming

    2016-01-01

    In view of new assembly technique of the GEM detector; in which three foils stack is stretched to get the uniform gaps among the foils. We studied the mechanical properties of the foil material. We conditioned the samples in different environments to make them extra dry and wet. As holes are the major source of the charge amplification their deformation can effect the detector performance. Therefore in our studies we also studied at which level of the stress the holes deformation is seen. These tensile and holes deformation studies can help to optimize the stress during detector assembly.

  19. Foil Gas Bearing Supported Quiet Fan for Spacecraft Ventilation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Developing a quiet fan for Environmental Control and Life Support systems to enhance the livable environment within the spacecraft has been a challenge. A Foil Gas...

  20. Measurement of thermal, epithermal and fast neutron flux in the IEA-R1 reactor by the foil activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinas, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical details of the foil activation method applied to neutrons flux measurements at the IEA-R1 reactor are presented. The thermal - and epithermal - neutron flux were determined form activation measurements of gold, cobalt and manganese foils; and for the fast neutron flux determination, aluminum, iron and nickel foils were used. The measurements of the activity induced in the metal foils were performed using a Ge-Li gamma spectrometry system. In each energy range of the reactor neutron spectrum, the agreement among the experimental flux values obtained using the three kind of materials, indicates the consistency of the theoretical approach and of the nuclear parameters selected. (Author) [pt

  1. All fiber cladding mode stripper with uniform heat distribution and high cladding light loss manufactured by CO2 laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebali, M. A.; Basso, E. T.

    2018-02-01

    Cladding mode strippers are primarily used at the end of a fiber laser cavity to remove high-power excess cladding light without inducing core loss and beam quality degradation. Conventional manufacturing methods of cladding mode strippers include acid etching, abrasive blasting or laser ablation. Manufacturing of cladding mode strippers using laser ablation consist of removing parts of the cladding by fused silica ablation with a controlled penetration and shape. We present and characterize an optimized cladding mode stripper design that increases the cladding light loss with a minimal device length and manufacturing time. This design reduces the localized heat generation by improving the heat distribution along the device. We demonstrate a cladding mode stripper written on a 400um fiber with cladding light loss of 20dB, with less than 0.02dB loss in the core and minimal heating of the fiber and coating. The manufacturing process of the designed component is fully automated and takes less than 3 minutes with a very high throughput yield.

  2. Dual scattering foil design for poly-energetic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, K K; Antolak, J A; Almond, P R; Bloch, C D; Hogstrom, K R

    2005-01-01

    The laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) mechanism can accelerate electrons to energies within the 6-20 MeV range desired for therapy application. However, the energy spectrum of LWFA-generated electrons is broad, on the order of tens of MeV. Using existing laser technology, the therapeutic beam might require a significant energy spread to achieve clinically acceptable dose rates. The purpose of this work was to test the assumption that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam would be suitable for a poly-energetic beam with a significant energy spread. Dual scattering foil systems were designed for mono-energetic beams using an existing analytical formalism based on Gaussian multiple-Coulomb scattering theory. The design criterion was to create a flat beam that would be suitable for fields up to 25 x 25 cm 2 at 100 cm from the primary scattering foil. Radial planar fluence profiles for poly-energetic beams with energy spreads ranging from 0.5 MeV to 6.5 MeV were calculated using two methods: (a) analytically by summing beam profiles for a range of mono-energetic beams through the scattering foil system, and (b) by Monte Carlo using the EGS/BEAM code. The analytic calculations facilitated fine adjustments to the foil design, and the Monte Carlo calculations enabled us to verify the results of the analytic calculation and to determine the phase-space characteristics of the broadened beam. Results showed that the flatness of the scattered beam is fairly insensitive to the width of the input energy spectrum. Also, results showed that dose calculated by the analytical and Monte Carlo methods agreed very well in the central portion of the beam. Outside the useable field area, the differences between the analytical and Monte Carlo results were small but significant, possibly due to the small angle approximation. However, these did not affect the conclusion that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam will be suitable for a poly

  3. Radioactivity analysis in niobium activation foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, G.E.

    1995-06-01

    The motivation for this study was to measure and analyze the activity of six (6) niobium (Nb) foils (the x-rays from an internal transition in Nb-93m) and apply this information with previously obtained activation foil data. The niobium data was used to determine the epithermal to MeV range for the neutron spectrum and fluence. The foil activation data was re-evaluated in a spectrum analysis code (STAY`SL) to provide new estimates of the exposure at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effect Facility (LASREF). The activity of the niobium foils was measured and analyzed at the University of Missouri-Columbia (UMC) under the direction of Professor William Miller. The spectrum analysis was performed at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR) by Professor Gary Mueller.

  4. A state enumeration of the foil knot

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaharo, Franck; Rakotondrajao, Fanja

    2017-01-01

    We split the crossings of the foil knot and enumerate the resulting states with a generating polynomial. Unexpectedly, the number of such states which consist of two components are given by the lazy caterer's sequence. This sequence describes the maximum number of planar regions that is obtained with a given number of straight lines. We then establish a bijection between this partition of the plane and the concerned foil splits sequence.

  5. Light Barrier for Non-Foil Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    foil and all-plastic materials were retorted and a second set of all-plastic packaged entrees were Microwave Sterilized on the Washington State...Copolymers for Retort Applications; SPE Polyolefins and Flexible Packaging Conference: Society of Plastics Engineers. Newtown. CT, 43pp. Thellen C...Final Scientific Report Light Barrier for Non-Foil Packaging Contract No. W911QY-08-C-0132 Final Scientific Report Contract No. W911QY-08-C-0132

  6. Mechanical design and vibro-acoustic testing of ultrathin carbon foils for a spacecraft instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, Allen G [SNL

    2009-01-01

    IBEX-Hi is an electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument designed to measure the energy and flux distribution of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) emanating from the interaction zone between the Earth's solar system and the Milky Way galaxy. A key element to this electro-optic instrument is an array of fourteen carbon foils that are used to ionize the ENAs. The foils are comprised of an ultrathin (50-100 {angstrom} thick) layer of carbon suspended across the surface of an electroformed Nickel wire screen, which in turn is held taught by a metal frame holder. The electro formed orthogonal screen has square wire elements, 12.7 {micro}m thick, with a pitch of 131.1 wires/cm. Each foil holder has an open aperture approximately 5 cm by 2.5 cm. Designing and implementing foil holders with such a large surface area has not been attempted for spaceflight in the past and has proven to be extremely challenging. The delicate carbon foils are subject to fatigue failure from the large acoustic and vibration loads that they will be exposed to during launch of the spacecraft. This paper describes the evolution of the foil holder design from previous space instrument applications to a flight-like IBEX-Hi prototype. Vibro-acoustic qualification tests of the IBEX-Hi prototype instrument and the resulting failure of several foils are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of iterative foil holder design modifications and laser vibrometer modal testing to support future fatigue failure analyses, along with additional acoustic testing of the IBEX-Hi prototype instrument. The results of these design and testing activities are merged and the resulting flight-like foil holder assembly is proposed.

  7. Development of the Lund AMS system and the evaluation of a new AMS detection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebert, A

    1995-09-01

    This thesis is based on work at the Lund Pelletron accelerator facility in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the Lund Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) system. To obtain high accuracy, all measurements are performed relative to a standard of known activity. Charge state distributions have been obtained for a number of isotopes: {sup 9}Be, {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 19}F, {sup 27}Al, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 48}Ti and {sup 58}Ni order to improve the transmission through the system and to reduce the isotopic fractionation in the measurements. For carbon, charge states distributions were obtained both under foil and gas stripping. The pressure profile of the Lund Pelletron system has been calculated, both under foil and gas stripping, to make possible to perform transmission calculations for a carbon beam. These results were used to design a new terminal stripper of the accelerator system. A new ion source has, during the last few years, been constructed providing a multiple sample wheel, enabling more accurate relative measurements and also providing more efficient measurements, due to a higher beam current. A new detection technique suitable for AMS measurements on heavier radionuclides, such as {sup 36}Cl,{sup 44}Ti and {sup 59}Ni, has been evaluated and detection limits for {sup 59}Ni have been derived. 59 refs, 13 figs.

  8. Development of the Lund AMS system and the evaluation of a new AMS detection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebert, A.

    1995-09-01

    This thesis is based on work at the Lund Pelletron accelerator facility in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the Lund Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) system. To obtain high accuracy, all measurements are performed relative to a standard of known activity. Charge state distributions have been obtained for a number of isotopes: 9 Be, 12 C, 13 C, 16 O, 19 F, 27 Al, 35 Cl, 48 Ti and 58 Ni order to improve the transmission through the system and to reduce the isotopic fractionation in the measurements. For carbon, charge states distributions were obtained both under foil and gas stripping. The pressure profile of the Lund Pelletron system has been calculated, both under foil and gas stripping, to make possible to perform transmission calculations for a carbon beam. These results were used to design a new terminal stripper of the accelerator system. A new ion source has, during the last few years, been constructed providing a multiple sample wheel, enabling more accurate relative measurements and also providing more efficient measurements, due to a higher beam current. A new detection technique suitable for AMS measurements on heavier radionuclides, such as 36 Cl, 44 Ti and 59 Ni, has been evaluated and detection limits for 59 Ni have been derived. 59 refs, 13 figs

  9. Flapping propulsion with side-by-side pitching foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huera-Huarte, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    Fish schools are one of the most common types of collective behaviour observed in nature. One of the reasons why fish swim in groups, is to reduce the cost of transport of the school. In this work we explore the propulsive performance of two foils flapping in a symmetric configuration, i.e. with an out-of-phase flapping motion. Direct thrust measurements and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) allowed a detailed examination of the forces and the wake generated by the system, for different kinematics (swept angles and frequencies) and shaft separations. For certain specific cases, volumetric PIV shows major differences on how the different structures in the wake of the system evolve, depending on the imposed kinematics and the side-by-side separation between the foils. Results obtained will be compared against data produced with isolated flapping foils with similar imposed kinematics, with the aim to better understand the interactions between both and the performance of the system as a whole. The author would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y competitividad (MINECO) through Grant DPI2015-71645-P.

  10. Tungsten foil laminate for structural divertor applications – Analyses and characterisation of tungsten foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, Jens; Rieth, Michael; Dafferner, Bernhard; Hoffmann, Andreas; Yi Xiaoou; Armstrong, David E.J.

    2012-01-01

    It has been attempted for several years to synthesise a tungsten material with a low brittle-to-ductile transition temperature and a high fracture toughness that can be used for structural parts. It was shown in our previous work that tungsten foil is ductile at room temperature and that this ductility can be transformed to bulk by synthesising a tungsten laminate. In this work we want to focus on tungsten foil and assess the microstructure as well as the mechanical properties of the foil. The assessment of the microstructure of 0.1 mm tungsten foil will be performed using electron microscopy. It will be shown that the grains of the tungsten foil have a dimension of 0.5 μm × 3 μm × 15 μm and a clear texture in (1 0 0) 〈0 1 1〉. This texture becomes even more pronounced by annealing. Three-point-bending tests with tungsten foil, as-received, will define the barriers: ductile at room temperature and brittle in liquid nitrogen (−196 °C). This shows that the ductility is a thermally activated process. Recrystallised tungsten foil (annealed for 1 h/2700 °C) shows ductile material behaviour at 200 °C. The paper closes with a discussion on the reasons of the ductility of 0.1 mm tungsten foil. These might be the ultra fine grained (UFG) microstructure or, in other words, a nano microstructure (see tungsten foil as-received), the high amount of mobile edge dislocations, and/or the foil effect, which means that dislocations can move to the surface and are annihilated (see tungsten foil recrystallised).

  11. Petrol contaminated groundwater treatment with air-stripper in Balassagyarmat, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Peter; Bernath, Balazs

    2005-01-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater is a common environmental problem in Hungary. Leakage of underground storage tanks, pipe break or illegal tapping as well as lorry accidents can be mentioned as main reasons. MEGATERRA Ltd. elaborated, adopted and tested several groundwater clean-up methods. These methods are based on detailed survey and investigation, sampling and analysis, delineation of contaminated groundwater, risk assessment, establishment of monitoring wells, pumping tests and remediation action plan. One of these methods was implemented by MEGATERRA Ltd. in Balassagyarmat, Hungary. Contamination source was a 10 m 3 vol. simple wall underground fuel-storage tank, which had been emptied. When the remediation started in April 1998, the petrol had already been accumulated on the ground water table forming a 5-7 m wide and 10-15 m long plume being expanded to SSE-NNW direction. The area of the dissolved hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater-body was 1 000 m 2 and its concentration reached up to 30-40 mg/l TPH. The free-phase hydrocarbon layer was 10 cm thick. For the remediation of contaminated groundwater MEGATERRA Ltd. applied pump and treat method, namely groundwater pumping using extraction well, skimming of free-phase hydrocarbon, stripping of the contaminated ground water in air-stripper tower and draining of the treated groundwater into a drainage ditch. In the centre of the plume we established an extraction well with 300 mm diameter in a 500 mm borehole. Peristaltic skimmer pump was used inside the extraction well to remove the free phase petrol from the ground water surface.Because of the intense volatility of the pollutant we applied aeration (stripping) technology. The extracted contaminated groundwater was cleaned in air-stripper equipment being able to eliminate efficiently the volatile pollutants from the water. The aeration tower is a compact cylindrical shaped column with 650 mm in diameter. Its height depends on the pollutant's type The

  12. CO2 laser-fabricated cladding light strippers for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Keiron; Simakov, Nikita; Hemming, Alexander; Daniel, Jae; Swain, Robert; Mies, Eric; Rees, Simon; Andrew Clarkson, W; Haub, John

    2016-04-10

    We present and characterize a simple CO2 laser processing technique for the fabrication of compact all-glass optical fiber cladding light strippers. We investigate the cladding light loss as a function of radiation angle of incidence and demonstrate devices in a 400 μm diameter fiber with cladding losses of greater than 20 dB for a 7 cm device length. The core losses are also measured giving a loss of cladding light stripping of a 300 W laser diode with minimal heating of the fiber coating and packaging adhesives.

  13. Cryostat with Foil and MLI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Peter K.F.; Gung, Chen-yu

    2005-10-06

    Induction cores are used to accelerate heavy ion beam array, which are built around the outer diameter of the cryostat housing the superconducting quadruple array. Compact cryostat is highly desirable to reduce the cost of the induction cores. Recent experiences in fabrication of a cryostat for single beam transport revealed that it is possible to reduce the spacing in the cryostat vacuum jacket by using low-emissivity thermal insulation material instead of conventional MLI. However, it is labor-intensive to install the new type of insulation as compared with using MLI. It is promising to build a cost-effective compact cryostat for quadruple magnet array for heavy ion beam array transport by using low-emissivity material combined with conventional MLI as radiation insulation. A matrix of insulation designs and tests will be performed as the feasibility study and for the selection of the optimal thermal insulation as the Phase I work. The selected mixed insulation will be used to build prototype compact cryostats in the Phase II project, which are aiming for housing quadruple doublet array. In this STTR phase I study, a small cryostat has been designed and built to perform calorimetric characterization of the heat load in a liquid helium vessel insulated with a vacuum layer with a nominal clearance of 3.5 mm. The vacuum clearance resembled that used in the warm-bore beam tube region in a prototype cryostat previously built for the heavy ion beam transport experiment. The vacuum clearance was geometrically restricted with a heater shell with the temperature controlled at near 300 K. Various combinations of radiation and thermal shields were installed in the tight vacuum clearance for heat load measurements. The measured heat loads are reported and compared with previous test result using a compact vacuum layer. Further developments of the thermal insulations used in the present study are discussed. The compact cryostat with foil and MLI insulation may be used in the

  14. Charge state distribution of ^{86}Kr in hydrogen and helium gas charge strippers at 2.7  MeV/nucleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kuboki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The charge state distributions of krypton (^{86}Kr with an energy of 2.7  MeV/nucleon were measured using hydrogen (H_{2} and helium (He gas charge strippers. A differential pumping system was constructed to confine H_{2} and He gases to a thickness sufficient for the charge state distributions to attain equilibrium. The mean charge states of ^{86}Kr in H_{2} and He gases attained equilibrium at 25.1 and 23.2, respectively, whereas the mean charge state in N_{2} gas at equilibrium was estimated to be less than 20. The charge distributions are successfully reproduced by the cross sections of ionization and electron capture processes optimized by a fitting procedure.

  15. Additional security features for optically variable foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Allan C.; Russo, Frank

    1998-04-01

    For thousands of years, man has exploited the attraction and radiance of pure gold to adorn articles of great significance. Today, designers decorate packaging with metallic gold foils to maintain the prestige of luxury items such as perfumes, chocolates, wine and whisky, and to add visible appeal and value to wide range of products. However, today's products do not call for the hand beaten gold leaf of the Ancient Egyptians, instead a rapid production technology exists which makes use of accurately coated thin polymer films and vacuum deposited metallic layers. Stamping Foils Technology is highly versatile since several different layers may be combined into one product, each providing a different function. Not only can a foil bring visual appeal to an article, it can provide physical and chemical resistance properties and also protect an article from human forms of interference, such as counterfeiting, copying or tampering. Stamping foils have proved to be a highly effective vehicle for applying optical devices to items requiring this type of protection. Credit cards, bank notes, personal identification documents and more recently high value packaged items such as software and perfumes are protected by optically variable devices applied using stamping foil technology.

  16. Composite Design for a Foiling Optimist Dinghy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Oddy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In April 2017, a foiling Optimist dingy designed entirely by students, was successfully tested under standard sailing conditions in the waters outside Gothenburg. In order to achieve take of wind speeds as low as 6 m/s, a stiff and lightweight design of the dinghy and its foiling components was necessary. There have been few successful attempts to make an Optimist foil in a stable manner, as such there were no standards or recommendations available for the design. Therefore, a simulation driven structural design methodology for hydrofoils, centreboards, centreboard-to-hull connections, and necessary hull reinforcements using sandwich structures was adopted. The proposed design was then manufactured, allowing for a significantly stiffer hull and a 20% decrease in weight over a conventional Optimist. Excluding the rig and sail, the final weight came to 27 kg.

  17. Comparison of a wire belt conveyor and cross auger conveyor for conveying burr cotton on a stripper harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber quality begins to degrade naturally with the opening of the boll, and mechanical harvesting processes are perceived to exacerbate fiber degradation. Previous research indicates that stripper-harvested cotton generally has lower fiber quality including on average lower micronaire, length...

  18. 75 FR 61624 - Promotion of Development, Reduction of Royalty Rates for Stripper Well and Heavy Oil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...-241A.00] RIN 1004-AE04 Promotion of Development, Reduction of Royalty Rates for Stripper Well and Heavy... economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, local, or..., investment, productivity, innovation, or the ability of U.S.-based enterprises to compete with foreign-based...

  19. Thrust augmentation in tandem flapping foils by foil-wake interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Erik; Lauder, George

    2006-11-01

    Propulsion by pitching and heaving airfoils and hydrofoils has been a focus of much research in the field of biologically inspired propulsion. Organisms that use this sort of propulsion are self-propelled, so it is difficult to use standard experimental metrics such as thrust and drag to characterize performance. We have constructed a flapping foil robot mounted in a flume on air-bearings that allows for the determination of self-propelled speed as a metric of performance. We have used a pair of these robots to examine the impact of an upstream flapping foil on a downstream flapping foil as might apply to tandem fins of a swimming organism or in-line swimming of schooling organisms. Self-propelled speed and a force transducer confirmed significant thrust augmentation for particular foil-to-foil spacings, phase differences, and flapping frequencies. Flow visualization shows the mechanism to be related to the effective angle of attack of the downstream foil due to the structure of the wake of the upstream foil. This confirms recent computational work and the hypotheses by early investigators of fish fluid dynamics.

  20. Spectra from foil-excited molybdenum ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Cecchi, J.L.; Kruse, T.H.

    1978-01-01

    The extreme-ultraviolet spectra (5 to 55 nm) for foil-excited molybdenum ions have been measured using 22 to 200 MeV beams from the Brookhaven National Laboratory MP tandem Van de Graaff accelerator facility, 20 μg/cm 2 C stripping foils, and a grazing incidence spectrometer. The mean ion charge states (13 to 28) and the narrow distribution widths (about 2 charge states) were accurately predictable from experimental parameters. Where possible, comparisons are given with Mo radiation from tokamaks, vacuum sparks, and laser-excited plasmas

  1. Calculation of electron transmission through aluminium foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abroyan, M.A.; Mel'ker, A.I.; Mikhajlin, A.I.; Sirotinkin, V.V.; Tokmakov, I.L.

    1987-01-01

    Calculated by Monte Carlo method energy and angular distributions of electrons transmitted through aluminium foil with 50 μm thickness are presented. 200-500 electron energy ranges and angles of electron incidence on foil from 0 to 40 deg C are considered. That allows to use results for more universal accelerator group, for example, for accelerators with scanning beam used in industry. The received values of angular and energy characteristics allow to increase essentially estimation accuracy of accelerator extraction devices and dose distribution on irradiating item

  2. PENGEMBANGAN FOIL NACA SERI 2412 SEBAGAI SISTEM PENYELAMAN MODEL KAPAL SELAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Munazid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bentuk  foil menghasilkan gaya angkat (lift force ketika foil dilewati oleh aliran fluida  karena adanya pengaruh interaksi antara aliran fluida dengan permukaan foil yang mengakibatkan tekanan permukaan atas lebih kecil dari permukaan bawah. Bagaimana mengaplikasikan teori foil pada hydroplane kapal selam sebagai  system penyelaman, dengan membalik foil maka lift force tersebut menjadi gaya ke bawah, dengan demikian memungkinkan kapal selam dapat menyelam, melayang dan bermanouver di bawah air, seperti halnya gerak pesawat terbang yang terbang dan melayang dengan menggunakan sayap. Dilakukan penelitian dan pengamatan terhadap kemampuan penyelaman (diving plan dari foil NACA seri 2412 pada model kapal selam, dengan mencari nilai Cl (coefisien lift di Laboratorium, serta mendesain bentuk badan kapal selam dan analisa gaya-gaya yang bekerja pada model kapal selam, jumlah gaya-gaya yang bekerja keatas lebih rendah dari gaya-gaya ke bawah maka kapal selam mampu menyelam. Penerapan Hydroplane sebagai diving plane dapat diterapkan, kemampuan penyelaman dipengaruhi oleh sudut flip  Hydroplane dan kecepatan model, semakin besar kecepatan dan sudut flip maka semakin besar kedalaman penyelaman yang dapat dilakukan.

  3. Electrophoretically applied dielectrics for amorphous metal foils used in pulsed power saturable reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, D.J.; Harjes, H.C.; Mann, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Amorphous metal foil-wound inductors have been tested as ferromagnetic saturable inductive elements for pulsed-power (multi-terawatt) switching modules in the inertial confinement fusion program at Sandia National Laboratories. In simulated capacitor testing premature dielectric breakdown of thin polyethylene terephthalate film insulation in the inductor windings occurs at considerably below 2500 V. This appears to be due to inadvertant dielectric damage from micro-spikes on the amorphous foil surface. Electron micrographs and dielectric breakdown data illustrate that electrophoretically-applied dielectric coatings, deposited from organic aqueous colloid dispersions, can be used to provide insulating coatings on the foil which provide a 240% improvement (6000 V) in the breakdown strength of wound amorphous foil inductors. The theory and operation of a dedicated electrophoretic continuous coating system is described. The machine was constructed and successfully applied for dielectric coating of amorphous metal foil. Additional possible applications exist for practical dielectric coating of metallic films or foils used in various commercial wound-type capacitor structures. 7 refs., 9 figs

  4. LENA Conversion Foils Using Single-Layer Graphene, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our key innovation will be the use of single-layer graphene as LENA conversion foils, with appropriate microgrids and nanogrids to support the foils. Phase I...

  5. Production and thickness determination of thin plastic scintillator foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, B.; Lee, S.; Hagel, K.; Haddad, F.; Li, J.; Lou, Y.; Mdeiwayeh, N.; Tezkratt, R.; Wada, R.; Utley, D.; Natowitz, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    A method of making large thin plastic scintillator foils with good uniformity is presented. The use of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to test the foil uniformity and to establish an empirical thickness calibration curve is described. ((orig.))

  6. Acceleration region influence on beam parameters on stripping foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsonov, E.V.; Tomic, S.

    1999-01-01

    Some formulas describing the beam parameters on the stripping foil (SF) as a function of the radial amplitude of betatron oscillations and energy gain are derived. The results computed by these formulas are in good agreement with the results of the numerical calculations. Obtained results show that between the radial emittance and the energy spread exists parametric dependence via amplitude of radial betatron oscillations. This conclusion allows one to create a working diagram of expected beam parameters on SF. This diagram may be particularly useful for the extraction system designers since it gives relationship between parameters considered as the extraction system input parameters. (author)

  7. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  8. Foil Panel Mirrors for Nonimaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, D. J.; Castillo, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    Large durable, lightweight mirrors made by bonding thick aluminum foil to honeycomb panels or other rigid, flat backings. Mirrors suitable for use as infrared shields, telescope doors, solar-furnance doors, advertising displays, or other reflectors that require low thermal emissivity and high specularity but do not require precise surface figure necessary for imaging.

  9. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of a symmetric foil performing pitching oscillations in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we visualize a variety of wakes with up to 46 vortices per oscillation period, including von Karman vortex street...

  10. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT, MOCANE-LAVERNE FIELD, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Reeves; Buckley Walsh

    2003-08-01

    In 1996, Advanced Resources International (ARI) began performing R&D targeted at enhancing production and reserves from natural gas fields. The impetus for the effort was a series of field R&D projects in the early-to-mid 1990's, in eastern coalbed methane and gas shales plays, where well remediation and production enhancement had been successfully demonstrated. As a first step in the R&D effort, an assessment was made of the potential for restimulation to provide meaningful reserve additions to the U.S. gas resource base, and what technologies were needed to do so. That work concluded that: (1) A significant resource base did exist via restimulation (multiples of Tcf). (2) The greatest opportunities existed in non-conventional plays where completion practices were (relatively) complex and technology advancement was rapid. (3) Accurate candidate selection is the greatest single factor that contributes to a successful restimulation program. With these findings, a field-oriented program targeted at tight sand formations was initiated to develop and demonstrate successful candidate recognition technology. In that program, which concluded in 2001, nine wells were restimulated in the Green River, Piceance and East Texas basins, which in total added 2.9 Bcf of reserves at an average cost of $0.26/Mcf. In addition, it was found that in complex and heterogeneous reservoirs (such as tight sand formations), candidate selection procedures should involve a combination of fundamental engineering and advanced pattern recognition approaches, and that simple statistical methods for identifying candidate wells are not effective. In mid-2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded ARI an R&D contract to determine if the methods employed in that project could also be applied to stripper gas wells. In addition, the ability of those approaches to identify more general production enhancement opportunities (beyond only restimulation), such as via artificial lift and compression

  11. Forming of electron beams from a betatron by foils scatterers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A P; Shishov, V A [N.N. Petrov Research Inst. of Oncology, Leningrad (USSR). Laboratory of High Energics

    1976-12-01

    The technique of forming electron beams by one scattering foil and one compensating foil is discussed. This method provides a means for producing large-size uniform dose distributions with much smaller losses in dose rate as compared with conventional beam forming by ine foil. Moreover, the energy losses involved in this process and the background of concomitant bremsstrahlung are much less. A techinque of calculation to determine approximate parameters of the compensating foils is described.

  12. Tungsten foil laminate for structural divertor applications – Joining of tungsten foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Jens, E-mail: jens.reiser@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP) (Germany); Rieth, Michael; Möslang, Anton; Dafferner, Bernhard; Hoffmann, Jan [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP) (Germany); Mrotzek, Tobias; Hoffmann, Andreas [PLANSEE SE, Reutte (Austria); Armstrong, D.E.J.; Yi, Xiaoou [University of Oxford, Department of Materials (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    This paper is the fourth in our series on tungsten laminates. The aim of this paper is to discuss laminate synthesis, meaning the joining of tungsten foils. It is obvious that the properties of the tungsten laminate strongly depend on the combination of (i) interlayer and (ii) joining technology, as this combination defines (i) the condition of the tungsten foil after joining (as-received or recrystallised) as well as (ii) the characteristics of the interface between the tungsten foil and the interlayer (wettability or diffusion leading to a solid solution or the formation of intermetallics). From the example of tungsten laminates joined by brazing with (i) an eutectic silver copper brazing filler, (ii) copper, (iii) titanium, and (iv) zirconium, the microstructure will be discussed, with special focus on the interface. Based on our assumptions of the mechanism of the extraordinary ductility of tungsten foil we present three syntheses strategies and make recommendations for the synthesis of high temperature tungsten laminates.

  13. Tungsten foil laminate for structural divertor applications - Joining of tungsten foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Jens; Rieth, Michael; Möslang, Anton; Dafferner, Bernhard; Hoffmann, Jan; Mrotzek, Tobias; Hoffmann, Andreas; Armstrong, D. E. J.; Yi, Xiaoou

    2013-05-01

    This paper is the fourth in our series on tungsten laminates. The aim of this paper is to discuss laminate synthesis, meaning the joining of tungsten foils. It is obvious that the properties of the tungsten laminate strongly depend on the combination of (i) interlayer and (ii) joining technology, as this combination defines (i) the condition of the tungsten foil after joining (as-received or recrystallised) as well as (ii) the characteristics of the interface between the tungsten foil and the interlayer (wettability or diffusion leading to a solid solution or the formation of intermetallics). From the example of tungsten laminates joined by brazing with (i) an eutectic silver copper brazing filler, (ii) copper, (iii) titanium, and (iv) zirconium, the microstructure will be discussed, with special focus on the interface. Based on our assumptions of the mechanism of the extraordinary ductility of tungsten foil we present three syntheses strategies and make recommendations for the synthesis of high temperature tungsten laminates.

  14. Beam-foil study of neon in the EUV with foils of carbon, silver and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarest, J.A.; Watson, R.L.; Texas A and M Univ., College Station

    1988-01-01

    A beam-foil study of 40 MeV neon was conducted in the EUV with a 1-meter grazing incidence spectrometer configured with a position sensitive microchannel plate detector. A number of new lines of Ne IX, mainly from transitions to n = 3 levels, were detected in the wavelength region covering 50-350 A. Comparison of the spectra obtained using the different foils revealed that the average charge state of the neon projectiles was nearly one unit higher with carbon than with either of the two metals. Measurements of line intensities versus distance from the foils showed that cascade contributions were greatly reduced for the metals. It was also found that n = 3 states of low l were overpopulated relative to a statistical distribution, irrespective of the foil material. (orig.)

  15. The Fabrication Technology Development of Uniform U and U-Mo Foil by Twin Roll Casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C. K.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Woo, Y. M.; Kim, J. D.; Oh, J. M.; Sim, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium foil samples, of which the technology was developed by KAERI around 2000, were distributed to 6 countries including USA in connection with CRP of IAEA. A problem of thickness irregularity was issued so that cold work was done on it. Due to the pin hole and preferred orientation occurrence an additional development project was raised. It was presumed that the irregularity would be influenced by the eddy flow of the melt. So the melt feeding system was changed from pressurized melt flow to gravity-forced flow for more stable melt flow. And then It was tried that the bulgies on the foil surface were eliminated by deforming with a pressing roll. To save the production cost the expensive quartz crucible was replaced with a common graphite plugging crucible system with repeatable use. The loss of very expensive LEU material from melt leak of open nozzle in quartz crucible could be excluded. A new foil collection winding system was adopted so that the quickly coming-out foil could be taken without rumpling. The equipment was test-run with Cu as surrogate. Some drawbacks found during test-running were solved by modifying several parts. Cu foils could be produced with optimized conditions successfully. DU metal was also used for test-running the modified equipment and then some related modifications were done. Finally DU foils meeting the requesting specification could be produced. The length was longer than 10 m. The foil thickness ranged from 140 μm to 300 μm. On observation and measurement the thickness homogeneity was evaluated to be improved a little

  16. Scaling laws for radial foil bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavara Prasad, Srikanth

    The effects of fluid pressurization, structural deformation of the compliant members and heat generation in foil bearings make the design and analysis of foil bearings very complicated. The complex fluid-structural-thermal interactions in foil bearings also make modeling efforts challenging because these phenomena are governed by highly non-linear partial differential equations. Consequently, comparison of various bearing designs require detailed calculation of the flow fields (velocities, pressures), bump deflections (structural compliance) and heat transfer phenomena (viscous dissipation in the fluid, frictional heating, temperature profile etc.,) resulting in extensive computational effort (time/hardware). To obviate rigorous computations and aid in feasibility assessments of foil bearings of various sizes, NASA developed the "rule of thumb" design guidelines for estimation of journal bearing load capacity. The guidelines are based on extensive experimental data. The goal of the current work is the development of scaling laws for radial foil bearings to establish an analytical "rule of thumb" for bearing clearance and bump stiffness. The use of scale invariant Reynolds equation and experimentally observed NASA "rule of thumb" yield scale factors which can be deduced from first principles. Power-law relationships between: a. Bearing clearance and bearing radius, and b. bump stiffness and bearing radius, are obtained. The clearance and bump stiffness values obtained from scaling laws are used as inputs for Orbit simulation to study various cases. As the clearance of the bearing reaches the dimensions of the material surface roughness, asperity contact breaks the fluid film which results in wear. Similarly, as the rotor diameter increases (requiring larger bearing diameters), the load capacity of the fluid film should increase to prevent dry rubbing. This imposes limits on the size of the rotor diameter and consequently bearing diameter. Therefore, this thesis aims

  17. Low-frequency Wiener spectra for homogenity analysis of image-forming films at imaging with film-foils systems in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M.; Angerstein, W.

    1986-01-01

    A special photometer for the measurement of image Wiener spectra below spatial frequencies of 1 mm -1 is described. These low-frequency Wiener spectra allow a quantitative assessment of inhomogeneities of screens and films (such as clouds and coarse structures) introduced in the production process. Noise with frequencies below the usually measured frequency range of 1 to 7 mm -1 is decisive for the detection of the diagnostically important details greater than 1 mm. It appears, that the noise amplitudes and their differences between screens of the same type can be relatively high. This in accordance with the visual noise impression indicates, that low frequency noise is an important image quality factor for screen-film systems. (author)

  18. Personnel neutron dosimetry using electrochemically etched CR-39 foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.E.; Homann, S.; Westermark, J.

    1986-01-01

    A personnel neutron dosimetry system has been developed based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 plastic at elevated temperatures. The doses obtained using this dosimeter system are more accurate than those obtained using other dosimetry systems, especially when varied neutron spectra are encountered. This Cr-39 dosimetry system does not have the severe energy dependence that exists with albedo neutron dosimeters or the fading and reading problems encountered with NTA film. The dosimetry system employs an electrochemical etch procedure that be used to process large numbers of Cr-39 dosimeters. The etch procedure is suitable for operations where the number of personnel requires that many CR-39 dosimeters be processed. Experience shows that one full-time technician can etch and evaluate 2000 foils per month. The energy response to neutrons is fairly flat from about 80 keV to 3.5 MeV, but drops by about a factor of three in the 13 to 16 MeV range. The sensitivity of the dosimetry system is about 7 tracks/cm 2 /mrem, with a background equivalent to about 8 mrem for new CR-39 foils. The limit of sensitivity is approximately 10 mrem. The dosimeter has a significant variation in directional dependence, dropping to about 20% at 90 0 . This dosimeter has been used for personnel neutron dosimetry at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for more tha 18 months. 6 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Homogeneous Crystallization of Micro-DispensedTIPS-Pentacene Using a Two-Solvent System toEnable Printed Inverters on Foil Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Bose

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on a micro-dispensing system for 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynylpentacene (TIPS-pentacene to enable homogenous crystallization and uniform filmmorphology of the dispensed droplets using a two-solvent mixture along with the use of aninsulating binder. This solution composition results in a controlled evaporation of the dropletin ambient air such that the Marangoni flow counteracts the outward convective flow toenable uniform radial crystal growth from the edge towards the center of the drops.The consequence of this process is the high degree of uniformity in the crystallization of thedrops, which results in a reduction in the performance spread of the organic field effecttransistors (OFET created using this process. The addition of the insulating binder furtherimproves the reduction in the spread of the results as a trade-off to the reduction in mobilityof the transistors. The transfer curves of the OFETs show a tight grouping due to thecontrolled self-alignment of the TIPS-pentacene crystals; this repeatability was furtherhighlighted by fabricating p-type inverters with driver to load ratios of 8:1, wherein theoutput inverter curves were also grouped tightly while exhibiting a gain of greater than 4 inthe switching region. Therefore, the reliability and repeatability of this process justifies itsuse to enable large area solution-processed printed circuits at the cost of reduced mobility.

  20. Robust cladding light stripper for high-power fiber lasers using soft metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazadeh, Amin; Nasirabad, Reza Rezaei; Norouzey, Ahmad; Hejaz, Kamran; Poozesh, Reza; Heidariazar, Amir; Golshan, Ali Hamedani; Roohforouz, Ali; Jafari, S Naser Tabatabaei; Lafouti, Majid

    2014-04-20

    In this paper we present a novel method to reliably strip the unwanted cladding light in high-power fiber lasers. Soft metals are utilized to fabricate a high-power cladding light stripper (CLS). The capability of indium (In), aluminum (Al), tin (Sn), and gold (Au) in extracting unwanted cladding light is examined. The experiments show that these metals have the right features for stripping the unwanted light out of the cladding. We also find that the metal-cladding contact area is of great importance because it determines the attenuation and the thermal load on the CLS. These metals are examined in different forms to optimize the contact area to have the highest possible attenuation and avoid localized heating. The results show that sheets of indium are very effective in stripping unwanted cladding light.

  1. Kilowatt-level cladding light stripper for high-power fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ping; Sun, Junyi; Huang, Yusheng; Li, Dan; Wang, Xuejiao; Xiao, Qirong; Gong, Mali

    2017-03-01

    We designed and fabricated a high-power cladding light stripper (CLS) by combining a fiber-etched CLS with a cascaded polymer-recoated CLS. The etched fiber reorganizes the numerical aperture (NA) distribution of the cladding light, leading to an increase in the leakage power and a flatter distribution of the leakage proportion in the cascaded polymer-recoated fiber. The index distribution of the cascaded polymer-recoated fiber is carefully designed to ensure an even leakage of cladding light. More stages near the index of 1.451 are included to disperse the heat. The CLS is capable of working consistently under 1187 W of cladding light with an attenuation of 26.59 dB, and the highest local temperature is less than 35°C.

  2. Investigations on KONUS beam dynamics using the pre-stripper drift tube linac at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C.; Du, X. N.; Groening, L.

    2018-04-01

    Interdigital H-mode (IH) drift tube linacs (DTLs) based on KONUS beam dynamics are very sensitive to the rf-phases and voltages at the gaps between tubes. In order to design these DTLs, a deep understanding of the underlying longitudinal beam dynamics is mandatory. The report presents tracking simulations along an IH-DTL using the PARTRAN and BEAMPATH codes together with MATHCAD and CST. Simulation results illustrate that the beam dynamics design of the pre-stripper IH-DTL at GSI is sensitive to slight deviations of rf-phase and gap voltages with impact to the mean beam energy at the DTL exit. Applying the existing geometrical design, rf-voltages, and rf-phases of the DTL were re-adjusted. In simulations this re-optimized design can provide for more than 90% of transmission of an intense 15 emA beam keeping the reduction of beam brilliance below 25%.

  3. ERPs While Judging Meaningfulness of Sentences with and without Homonym or Morpheme Spelling Foils: Comparing 4th to 9th Graders with and without Spelling Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Todd; Pettet, Mark; Askren, Katie; Grabowski, Tom; Yagle, Kevin; Wallis, Peter; Northey, Mary; Abbott, Robert; Berninger, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen students with and twelve students without spelling disabilities judged whether sentences (1/3 all correct spellings, 1/3 with homonym foil, 1/3 with morpheme foil) were meaningful while event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured with EGI Geodesic EEG System 300 (128-channel hydro-cell nets). For N400, Rapid Automatic Switching (RAS) correlated with comprehending sentences with homonym foils in control group but with morpheme foils in SLD group. For P600, dictated spelling correlated with comprehending sentences with morpheme foils in the control group but solving anagrams with homonym foils in the SLD group. Educational significance and neuropsychological significance of these contrasting results are discussed. PMID:28657362

  4. Micron-scale resolution radiography of laser-accelerated and laser-exploded foils using an yttrium x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauble, R.; Da Silva, L.B.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Celliers, P.; Moreno, J.C.; Mrowka, S.; Perry, T.S.; Wan, A.S.

    1994-09-01

    The authors have imaged laser-accelerated foils and exploding foils on the few-micron scale using an yttrium x-ray laser (155 angstrom, 80 eV, ∼200 ps duration) and a multilayer mirror imaging system. At the maximum magnification of 30, resolution was of order one micron. The images were side-on radiographs of the foils. Accelerated foils showed significant filamentation on the rear-side (away from the driving laser) of the foil, although the laser beam was smoothed. In addition to the narrow rear-side filamentation, some shots revealed larger-scale plume-like structures on the front (driven) side of the Al foil. These plumes seem to be little-affected by beam smoothing and are likely a consequence of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The experiments were carried out at the Nova two-beam facility

  5. Critical mass experiment using U-235 foils and lucite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.; Butterfield, K.; Kimpland, R.; Jaegers, P.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this experiment was to show how the multiplication of the system increases as moderated material is placed between highly enriched uranium foils. In addition, this experiment served to demonstrate the hand-stacking techniques, and approach to criticality by remote operation. This experiment was designed by Tom McLaughlin in the mid seventies as part of the criticality safety course that is taught at Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility (LACEF). The W-U-235 ratio for this experiment was 215 which is where the minimum critical mass for this configuration occurs

  6. Critical mass experiment using 235U foils and lucite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.; Butterfield, K.; Kimpland, R.; Jaegers, P.

    1998-01-01

    This experiment demonstrated how the neutron multiplication of a system increases as moderated material is placed between highly enriched uranium foils. In addition, this experiment served to demonstrate the hand-stacking technique and approach to criticality be remote operation. This experiment was designed by McLaughlin in the mid-seventies as part of the criticality safety course that is taught at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility. The H/ 235 U ratio for this experiment was 215, which is the ratio at which the minimum critical mass for this configuration occurs

  7. Characterization of beryllium foil produced by hot rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittenauer, J.; Nieh, T.G.; Waychunas, G.

    1992-01-01

    Beryllium foil is important for a number of aerospace applications including honeycomb structures and metal-matrix composites. In this study, a method of producing beryllium foil directly from powder or flake is demonstrated. A variety of foils were produced in the thickness range 90-300 μm, free from defects such as pinholes and excessive surface roughness, and exhibiting sufficient formability for honeycomb manufacture. Foil produced directly from powder or flake exhibits crystallographic texture, microstructure, and formability equivalent to foil produced from more massive precursors. (Author)

  8. Nuclear target foil fabrication for the Romano Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed, J.W.; Romo, J.G. Jr.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Vacuum Processes Lab, of LLNL's M.E. Dept. - Material Fabrication Division, was requested to provide 250 coated Parylene target foils for a nuclear physics experiment titled the ROMANO Event. Due to the developmental nature of some of the fabrication procedures, approximately 400 coated foils were produced to satisfy the event's needs. The foils were used in the experiment as subkilovolt x-ray, narrow band pass filters, and wide band ultraviolet filters. This paper is divided into three sections describing: (1) nuclear target foil fabrication, (2) Parylene substrate preparation and production, and (3) foil and substrate inspections

  9. Collodion-reinforcement and plasma-cleaning of target foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, John O.

    2002-03-01

    The preparation of evaporated target foils can often be facilitated by use of collodion coatings either on the substrate sides or on the exterior surfaces of the foils. Later, such coatings must usually be removed. Cleaning of a foil is necessary if thin layers of adhesives have crept onto the foil. Removal and/or cleaning can often be done satisfactorily with an oxygen plasma. Apparatus and procedures used for this are described. Foils that were cleaned successfully, and some that were incompatible with the cleaning process are listed.

  10. Collodion-reinforcement and plasma-cleaning of target foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, John O.

    2002-01-01

    The preparation of evaporated target foils can often be facilitated by use of collodion coatings either on the substrate sides or on the exterior surfaces of the foils. Later, such coatings must usually be removed. Cleaning of a foil is necessary if thin layers of adhesives have crept onto the foil. Removal and/or cleaning can often be done satisfactorily with an oxygen plasma. Apparatus and procedures used for this are described. Foils that were cleaned successfully, and some that were incompatible with the cleaning process are listed

  11. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Antoniak, Zen I.; Prater, John T.; DeSteese, John G.

    1992-01-01

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed.

  12. Testing conformal mapping with kitchen aluminum foil

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, S.; Cooke, D. A.; Crivelli, P.

    2016-01-01

    We report an experimental verification of conformal mapping with kitchen aluminum foil. This experiment can be reproduced in any laboratory by undergraduate students and it is therefore an ideal experiment to introduce the concept of conformal mapping. The original problem was the distribution of the electric potential in a very long plate. The correct theoretical prediction was recently derived by A. Czarnecki (Can. J. Phys. 92, 1297 (2014)).

  13. Stainless Steel Foil with Improved Creep-Resistance for Use in Primary Surface Recuperators for Gas Turbine Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, P.F.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Grubb, J.F.; Klug, R.C.; Maziasz, P.J.; Montague, J.P.; Painter, R.A.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    Primary surface recuperators (PSRs) are compact heat-exchangers made from thin-foil type 347 austenitic stainless steel, which boost the efficiency of land-based gas turbine engines. Solar Turbines uses foil folded into a unique corrugated pattern to maximize the primary surface area for efficient heat transfer between hot exhaust gas on one side, and the compressor discharge air on the other side of the foil. Allegheny-Ludlum produces 0.003 - 0.0035 in. thick foil for a range of current turbine engines using PSRs that operate at up to 660 degrees C. Laboratory-scale processing modification experiments recently have demonstrated that dramatic improvements can be achieved in the creep resistance of such typical 347 stainless steel foils. The modified processing enables fine NbC carbide precipitates to develop during creep at 650-700 degrees C, which provides strength even with a fine grain size. Such improved creep-resistance is necessary for advanced turbine systems that will demand greater materials performance and reliability at higher operating conditions. The next challenges are to better understand the nature of the improved creep resistance in these 347 stainless steel foil, and to achieve similar improvements with scale-up to commercial foil production

  14. Destruction of metallic foils under laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, N.P.; Lisitsyn, Yu.V.; Mineev, V.N.; Ivanov, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which illustrate the process of destruction of aluminium, lead and tantalum foils under irradiation of a neodymium laser, working in free generation regime with a power density varying from 5.10 5 - 5.10 6 wt/sq.cm. Calorimeters and photocells sensitive to the radiation with lambda=1.06 have been used for measuring the energy and recording the shape of the radiation pulse incident onto the target and passing through the disintegration products. The weight of the target has been determined prior to and after the experiment to find out the weight of Δm material expelled from the target. Rates of product scattering and a target destruction period, an amount of the material expelled and parameters of the radiation passing through the disintegration products have been determined as a function of the power density and an angle of the radiation incidence on the surface of the specimens. Average densities and absorption coefficients of the disintegration products of the foils under study have been assessed. A comparison of the characteristics of the metal foil (t 1 j) destruction in Pb-Ta-Al series with the metal thermal properties in this series shows that the destruction characteristics periodically vary as heat capacity, thermal conduction, evaporation heat and melting heat alter. A period of the target destruction becomes longer and the expelled mass smaller as the aforesaid thermal properties of the metals in Pb-Ta-Al series intensity [ru

  15. Brazing Inconel 625 Using the Copper Foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Shiang; Wang, Cheng-Yen; Shiue, Ren-Kae

    2013-12-01

    Brazing Inconel 625 (IN-625) using the copper foil has been investigated in this research. The brazed joint is composed of nanosized CrNi3 precipitates and Cr/Mo/Nb/Ni quaternary compound in the Cu/Ni-rich matrix. The copper filler 50 μm in thickness is enough for the joint filling. However, the application of Cu foil 100 μm in thickness has little effect on the shear strength of the brazed joint. The specimen brazed at 1433 K (1160 °C) for 1800 seconds demonstrates the best shear strength of 470 MPa, and its fractograph is dominated by ductile dimple fracture with sliding marks. Decreasing the brazing temperature slightly decreases the shear strength of the brazed joint due to the presence of a few isolated solidification shrinkage voids smaller than 15 μm. Increasing the brazing temperature, especially for the specimen brazed at 1473 K (1200 °C), significantly deteriorates the shear strength of the joint below 260 MPa because of coalescence of isothermal solidification shrinkage voids in the joint. The Cu foil demonstrates potential in brazing IN-625 for industrial application.

  16. Self-propulsion of a pitching foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anil; Shukla, Ratnesh; Govardhan, Raghuraman

    2017-11-01

    Undulatory motions serve as a fundamental mechanism for bio-locomotion at moderate and high Reynolds numbers. An understanding of the interactions between self-propelling undulatory motions and the surrounding fluid, not only provides insight into the efficiency of bio-locomotion, but also yields valuable pointers for the design of autonomous under-water and micro-aerial vehicles. Here, we investigate a simplified model of a self-propelling pitching foil that undergoes time-periodic oscillations about its quarter chord. We consider two-dimensional configurations in which the foil is free to propel along only longitudinal and both transverse and longitudinal directions. In both the configurations, the time-averaged self-propelling velocity increases monotonically with the Reynolds number Re (based on trailing edge speed and chord as the characteristic velocity and length). The rate of increase is particularly pronounced in the low Re regime (Re spaced wake vortices dissipate within a few chord lengths. At moderate and high Re, the wake exhibits increasingly complex structure in both the configurations. For a fixed Re, the foil with a single translational degree of freedom propels at a higher speed for a higher input power requirement. Differences between the two configurations will be discussed within the context of undulatory self-propulsion observed in nature.

  17. Numerical study on the power extraction performance of a flapping foil with a flexible tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Shu, C.; Zhao, N.; Tian, F.-B.

    2015-01-01

    The numerical study on the power extraction performance of a flapping foil with a flexible tail is performed in this work. A NACA0015 airfoil is arranged in a two-dimensional laminar flow and imposed with a synchronous harmonic plunge and pitch rotary motion. A flat plate that is attached to the trailing edge of the foil is utilized to model a tail, and so they are viewed as a whole for the purpose of power extraction. In addition, the tail either is rigid or can deform due to the exerted hydrodynamic forces. To implement numerical simulations, an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method is employed. At a Reynolds number of 1100 and the position of the pitching axis at third chord, the influences of the mass and flexibility of the tail as well as the frequency of motion on the power extraction are systematically examined. It is found that compared to the foil with a rigid tail, the efficiency of power extraction for the foil with a deformable tail can be improved. Based on the numerical analysis, it is indicated that the enhanced plunging component of the power extraction, which is caused by the increased lift force, directly contributes to the efficiency improvement. Since a flexible tail with medium and high masses is not beneficial to the efficiency improvement, a flexible tail with low mass together with high flexibility is recommended in the flapping foil based power extraction system.

  18. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joel L. Morrison

    2001-01-01

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. the consortium creates a partnership with the US petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the third quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. During this reporting period the SWC entered into a co-funding arrangement with the New York State Energy Development Authority (NYSERDA) to provide an additional$100,000 in co-funding for stripper well production-orientated projects.The SWC hosted its first meeting in which members proposed research projects to the SWC membership. The meeting was held on April 9-10, 2001 in State College, Pennsylvania. Twenty three proposals were submitted to the SWC for funding consideration. Investigators of the proposed projects provided the SWC membership with a 20 minute (15 minute technical discussion, 5 minute question and answer session) presentation. Of the 23 proposals, the Executive Council approved$921,000 in funding for 13 projects. Penn State then immediately started the process of issuing subcontracts to the various projects approved for funding

  19. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison

    2001-09-12

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. the consortium creates a partnership with the US petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the third quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. During this reporting period the SWC entered into a co-funding arrangement with the New York State Energy Development Authority (NYSERDA) to provide an additional $100,000 in co-funding for stripper well production-orientated projects.The SWC hosted its first meeting in which members proposed research projects to the SWC membership. The meeting was held on April 9-10, 2001 in State College, Pennsylvania. Twenty three proposals were submitted to the SWC for funding consideration. Investigators of the proposed projects provided the SWC membership with a 20 minute (15 minute technical discussion, 5 minute question and answer session) presentation. Of the 23 proposals, the Executive Council approved $921,000 in funding for 13 projects. Penn State then immediately started the process of issuing subcontracts to the various projects approved for funding.

  20. Mock-up experiment at Birmingham University for BNCT project of Osaka University – Neutron flux measurement with gold foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, S.; Sakai, M.; Yoshihashi, S.; Manabe, M.; Zushi, N.; Murata, I.; Hoashi, E.; Kato, I.; Kuri, S.; Oshiro, S.; Nagasaki, M.; Horiike, H.

    2015-01-01

    Mock-up experiment for development of accelerator based neutron source for Osaka University BNCT project was carried out at Birmingham University, UK. In this paper, spatial distribution of neutron flux intensity was evaluated by foil activation method. Validity of the design code system was confirmed by comparing measured gold foil activities with calculations. As a result, it was found that the epi-thermal neutron beam was well collimated by our neutron moderator assembly. Also, the design accuracy was evaluated to have less than 20% error. - Highlights: • Accelerator based neutron source for BNCT is being developed in Osaka University. • Mock-up experiment was carried out at Birmingham University, UK. • Neutronics performance of our assembly was evaluated from gold foil activation. • Gold foil activation was determined by using HPGe detectors. • Validity of the neutronics design code system was confirmed.

  1. Monitoring the degradation of partly decomposable plastic foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rétháti Gabriella

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have monitored the behaviour of different polyethylene foils including virgin medium density polyethylene (MDPE, MDPE containing pro-oxydative additives (238, 242 and MDPE with pro-oxydative additives and thermoplastic starch (297 in the soil for a period of one year. A foil based on a blend of polyester and polylactic acid (BASF Ecovio served as degradable control. The experiment was carried out by weekly measurements of conductivity and capacity of the soil, since the setup was analogous to a condenser, of which the insulating layer was the foil itself. The twelve replications allowed monthly sampling; the specimen taken out from the soil each month were tested visually for thickness, mechanical properties, morphological and structural changes, and molecular mass. Based on the obtained capacity values, we found that among the polyethylene foils, the one that contained thermoplastic starch extenuated the most. This foil had the greatest decrease in tensile strength and elongation at break due to the presence of thermoplastic starch. The starch can completely degrade in the soil; thus, the foil had cracks and pores. The polyethylene foils that contained pro-oxydant additives showed smaller external change compared to the virgin foil, since there was no available UV radiation and oxygen for their degradation. The smallest change occurred in the virgin polyethylene foil. Among the five examined samples, the commercially available BASF foil showed the largest extenuation and external change, and it deteriorated the most in the soil.

  2. Flapping foil power generator performance enhanced with a spring-connected tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengliang; Tian, Fang-Bao; Young, John; Lai, Joseph C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The flexibility effects on the performance of a flapping foil power generator are numerically studied by using the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method at a Reynolds number of 1100. The flapping foil system consists of a rigid NACA0015 foil undergoing harmonic pitch and plunge motions and a passively actuated flat plate pinned to the trailing edge of the rigid foil. The flexibility is modeled by a torsional spring model at the conjuncture of the rigid foil and the tail. Here, a parametric study on mass density and natural frequency is conducted under the optimum kinematic condition of the rigid system identified from the literature and numerical simulations made for reduced frequency f* = 0.04-0.24 and pitch amplitude θ0 = 40°-90°. Four typical cases are discussed in detail by considering time histories of hydrodynamic loads and tail deformations under the optimal and non-optimal kinematic conditions. Results show that under the rigid-system optimal kinematic condition, a tail with appropriate mass density (μ = 0.60) and resonant frequency ( fr*=1.18 ) can improve the maximum efficiency by 7.24% accompanied by an increase of 6.63% in power compared to those of a rigid foil with a rigid tail. This is because the deflection of the tail reduces the low pressure region on the pressure surface (i.e., the lower surface during the upstroke or the upper surface during the downstroke) caused by the leading edge vortex after the stroke reversal, resulting in a higher efficiency. At high flapping frequencies, a spring-connected tail ( fr*=0.13 ) eliminates the large spike in the moment observed in high stiffness cases, reducing the power required for the pitch motion, resulting in 117% improvement in efficiency over that with a rigid tail at a reduced frequency of 0.24.

  3. Radon-thoron discrimination using a polythene foil: an application in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramola, R.C.; Singh, M.; Sandhu, A.S.; Singh, S.; Virk, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Integrated measurements of radon concentrations in subsurface soil are being used extensively for uranium exploration and earthquake prediction. For uranium exploration only the radon signals are needed; however, a part of the α-activity may derive from thoron. To exclude thoron, a polythene foil has been used as an anti-thoron membrane to delay the entry of thoron into the detector system so that only the longer lived isotope 222 Rn survives to be measured. A long term integrated measurement has been carried out using LR-115 and CR-39 plastic track detectors. The observed track density has been determined as a function of foil thickness. It is found that a polythene foil of appropriate thickness could be successfully employed for the separation of radon and thoron in soil. (author)

  4. Determination of neutron flux with an arbitrary energy distribution by measurement of irradiated foils activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubenov, V.; Milosevic, M.

    2003-01-01

    A procedure for the neutron flux determination in a neutron field with an arbitrary energy spectrum, based on the using of standard methods for the measurement of irradiated foils activity and on the application of the SCALE-4.4a code system for averaged cross section calculation is described in this paper. Proposed procedure allows to include the energy spectrum of neutron flux reestablished in the location of irradiated foils and the resonance self-shielding effects in the foils also. Example application of this procedure is given for the neutron flux determination inside the neutron filter with boron placed in the centre of heavy water critical assembly RB at the Vinca Institute (author)

  5. Microfabricated Segmented-Involute-Foil Regenerator for Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mounir; Danila, Daniel; Simon, Terrence; Mantell, Susan; Sun, Liyong; Gedeon, David; Qiu, Songgang; Wood, Gary; Kelly, Kevin; McLean, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    An involute-foil regenerator was designed, microfabricated, and tested in an oscillating-flow test rig. The concept consists of stacked involute-foil nickel disks (see figure) microfabricated via a lithographic process. Test results yielded a performance of about twice that of the 90-percent random-fiber currently used in small Stirling converters. The segmented nature of the involute- foil in both the axial and radial directions increases the strength of the structure relative to wrapped foils. In addition, relative to random-fiber regenerators, the involute-foil has a reduced pressure drop, and is expected to be less susceptible to the release of metal fragments into the working space, thus increasing reliability. The prototype nickel involute-foil regenerator was adequate for testing in an engine with a 650 C hot-end temperature. This is lower than that required by larger engines, and high-temperature alloys are not suited for the lithographic microfabrication approach.

  6. Beam transmission in MP equipment. New measurements. Main effects and application to VIVITRON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, F.; Muller, C.; Nadji, A.; Rebmeister, R.

    1989-01-01

    The MP equipment is presented and the vacuum values at different measuring points are indicated. The low energy transmission stage (foil and gas strippers) high energy stage (5, 10, and 15 micro-g/cm 2 foils and gas stripper) are described, as well as the global system. For the Vivitron, in order to reach equilibrium thickness, pression in the stripping channel should be higher than that in the MP channel, and pump power should be planned accordingly [fr

  7. Stresses in the foil of an electron accelerator extraction channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abroyan, M.A.; Makarenko, T.I.; Tokmakov, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    Stresses in the foil of an electron accelerator extraction channel are assessed with account of contributions of thermal expansion and stress concentrations during switchings. Optimization of extraction grid parameters of the electron accelerator extraction channel and choice of foil material for high current electron beam is conducted. It is suggested that an extraction grid with circular cells and Al-Mg foil should be used. A simple formula applicable for design calculations is proposed for evaluation of stress concentration coefficient during phase switchings

  8. Radiation pressure acceleration of ultrathin foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macchi, Andrea; Veghini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Francesco [Department of Physics ' E. Fermi' , Largo B Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Liseykina, Tatyana V, E-mail: macchi@df.unipi.i [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The acceleration of sub-wavelength, solid-density plasma foils by the ultraintense radiation pressure of circularly polarized laser pulses is investigated analytically and with simulations. An improved 'Light Sail' or accelerating mirror model, accounting for nonlinear self-induced transparency effects, is used for estimating the optimal thickness for acceleration. The model predictions are in good agreement with one-dimensional simulations. These latter are analyzed in detail to unfold the dynamics and self-organization of electrons and ions during the acceleration. Two-dimensional simulations are also performed to address the effects of target bending and of laser intensity inhomogeneity.

  9. Foil focusing of relativistic electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl August [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-26

    When an intense relativistic electron beams (IREB) passes through a grounded metal foil, the transverse electric field due to the beam space charge is locally shorted out, and the beam is focused by the magnetic field of its current. The effect can be treated as focusing by a thin lens with first order aberration. Expressions for the focal length and aberration coefficient of the equivalent thin lens are developed in this note. These are then applied to practical examples representative of IREB research at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  10. LENA Conversion Foils Using Single-Layer Graphene, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Implementing graphene foils in existing neutral atom detector designs will increase their angular and energy resolution, and also improve their mass discrimination...

  11. Ti foil light in the ATA [Advanced Test Accelerator] beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, D.R.; Chong, Y.P.; Goosman, D.R.; Rule, D.W.; Fiorito, R.B.

    1987-09-01

    An experiment is in progress to characterize the visible light produced when a Ti foil is immersed in the ATA 2 kA, 43 MeV beam. Results obtained to date indicate that the optical condition of the foil surface is a critical determinant of these characteristics, with a very narrow angular distribution obtained when a highly polished and flat foil is used. These data are consistent with the present hypothesis that the light is produced by transition radiation. Incomplete experiments to determine the foil angle dependence of the detected light and its polarization are summarized and remaining experiments are described

  12. Characterization of U-Mo Foils for AFIP-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Danny J.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Henager, Charles H.; Burkes, Douglas; Senor, David J.

    2012-11-07

    Twelve AFIP in-process foil samples, fabricated by either Y-12 or LANL, were shipped from LANL to PNNL for potential characterization using optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Of these twelve, nine different conditions were examined to one degree or another using both techniques. For this report a complete description of the results are provided for one archive foil from each source of material, and one unirradiated piece of a foil of each source that was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor. Additional data from two other LANL conditions are summarized in very brief form in an appendix. The characterization revealed that all four characterized conditions contained a cold worked microstructure to different degrees. The Y-12 foils exhibited a higher degree of cold working compared to the LANL foils, as evidenced by the highly elongated and obscure U-Mo grain structure present in each foil. The longitudinal orientations for both of the Y-12 foils possesses a highly laminar appearance with such a distorted grain structure that it was very difficult to even offer a range of grain sizes. The U-Mo grain structure of the LANL foils, by comparison, consisted of a more easily discernible grain structure with a mix of equiaxed and elongated grains. Both materials have an inhomogenous grain structure in that all of the characterized foils possess abnormally coarse grains.

  13. Apparatus and process for ultrasonic seam welding stainless steel foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    An ultrasonic seam welding apparatus having a head which is rotated to form contact, preferably rolling contact, between a metallurgically inert coated surface of the head and an outside foil of a plurality of layered foils or work materials. The head is vibrated at an ultrasonic frequency, preferably along a longitudinal axis of the head. The head is constructed to transmit vibration through a contacting surface of the head into each of the layered foils. The contacting surface of the head is preferably coated with aluminum oxide to prevent the head from becoming welded to layered stainless steel foils.

  14. Investigation of electrically exploded large area foil for current switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyshev, V.K.; Boyko, A.M.; Kostyukov, V.N.; Kuzyaev, A.I.; Kulagin, A.A.; Mamyshev, V.I.; Mezhevov, A.B.; Nechaev, A.I.; Petrukhin, A.A.; Protasov, M.S.; Shevtsov, V.I.; Yakubov, V.B.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of microsecond ∼40 MA current switching from EMG into a quasiconstant inductive load by an electrically exploded foil is investigated. The copper foil of large area, S ∼ 10 4 cm 2 , was placed between thin-walled insulators into a coaxial transmission line (TL). This paper shows a conceptual device scheme. To feed a foil opening switch (FOS), a disc explosive magnetic generator (DEMG) with 20 μs current rise time was employed. An inductive coaxial load was connected to a FOS at a moment, that was close to the foil vaporization start by means of an axisymmetric explosive current commutator (ECC)

  15. Thermohydrodynamic analysis of airfoil bearing based on bump foil structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Y. Maraiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The load carrying capacity of the gas foil bearing depends on the material properties and the configuration of the underlying bump strip’s structure. This paper presents three different cases for selecting the dimensions of the foil bearing to guarantee the highest possible load carrying capacity. It focuses on three main parameters that affect the compliance number; these parameters are the length of bump in θ direction, the pitch of bump foil, and the thickness of bump foil. It also studies the effect of changing these parameters on load carrying capacity according to both isothermal and thermohydrodynamic approaches.

  16. Development of stripper films made of high strength, long life carbon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyaizu, Mitsuhiro; Sugai, Isamu; Yoshida, Koji; Haruyama, Yoichi.

    1994-01-01

    The heavy ion accelerators such as tandem type van de Graaff, linear accelerators, cyclotrons and so on raise the acceleration efficiency usually by producing multivalent ions by making the charge conversion of heavy ions using carbon thin films. However, when the electrons of large atomic number ions of low energy, high intensity current are stripped, the conventional carbon thin films on the market or home made were very short in their life, and have become the cause of remarkably lowering the acceleration efficiency. The concrete objectives of the development are the use of the charge conversion of unstable nuclear ions in the E arena accelerator for JHP of the future project of Institute of Nuclear Study and the manufacture of the carbon films which are used for the charge conversion of the H beam of high energy, but at the time of exchanging the films, there is the problem of the radiation exposure of large amount, therefore, the development of high reliability, long life stripper films has been strongly demanded. The experiment was carried out by controlled carbon arc discharge process using both AC and DC and the ion beam sputtering process using reactive nitrogen gas. The results are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Porn star/stripper/escort: economic and sexual dynamics in a sex work career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffier, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the career dynamics of performers in the gay male pornography industry, by focusing on a common career path- from porn star to stripper to escort. Between 1995 and 2005, most men performing in gay porn films, unlike contract actresses in the straight porn industry, have been unable to earn enough income to work exclusively as performers in front of the camera. The industry's constant search for new faces and fresh performers creates what sociologist Paul Cressey has called "the retrogressive dynamic": The longer a person works in a sexual occupation, the less one is paid, and the lower the status of the work venue. In the porn industry, one aspect of this process is referred to as "overexposure," during which the performer experiences a diminishing "fantasy potential" as fans lose erotic interest in the porn star who has appeared too frequently in too many movies. Performers attempt to confront the retrogressive dynamic by limiting the number of adult films in which they appear in a year, diversifying their sexual repertoire, or shifting into other roles within the industry (behind the camera, marketing, production, etc.). One common option is to pursue work in economically complementary forms of sex work such as stripping and escorting.

  18. Amine Solvent Regeneration for CO2 Capture Using Geothermal Energy with Advanced Stripper Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wagener, D.H.; Rochelle, G.T.; Gupta, A.; Bryant, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    Absorption/stripping using alkanol-amine solvents for removing CO 2 from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants requires a substantial amount of energy. Typical designs anticipate the use of steam extraction between the Intermediate Pressure (IP) and Low Pressure (LP) turbines to provide heat for the re-boiler. Geothermal energy in the form of hot brine offers an alternative to this large parasitic load on the power generation cycle. We investigate the requirements (number and spacing of extraction/injection well pairs) to provide heat at 150 deg. C for a pilot scale (60 MWe) and a full scale (900 MWe) capture process for thirty years. The calculations are based on properties of a geopressured/geothermal aquifer near the Texas Gulf Coast. In the vicinity of a large coal-fired power plant in South Texas, this aquifer lies between 3 050 and 3 350 m (10 000 and 11 000 ft) below the surface. We present a novel design of the stripper/regenerator process based on heat exchange with the brine, discharging the brine at 100 deg. C. The results indicate that the overall process is feasible and that costs are of similar magnitude to standard designs. (authors)

  19. First experience with carbon stripping foils for the 160 MeV H- injection into the CERN PSB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Wim; Bracco, Chiara; Jorat, Louise; Noulibos, Remy; van Trappen, Pieter

    2018-05-01

    160 MeV H- beam will be delivered from the new CERN linear accelerator (Linac4) to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), using a H- charge-exchange injection system. A 200 µg/cm2 carbon stripping foil will convert H- into protons by stripping off the electrons. The H- charge-exchange injection principle will be used for the first time in the CERN accelerator complex and involves many challenges. In order to gain experience with the foil changing mechanism and the very fragile foils, in 2016, prior to the installation in the PSB, a stripping foil test stand has been installed in the Linac4 transfer line. In addition, parts of the future PSB injection equipment are also temporarily installed in the Linac4 transfer line for tests with a 160 MeV H- commissioning proton beam. This paper describes the foil changing mechanism and control system, summarizes the practical experience of gluing and handling these foils and reports on the first results with beam.

  20. The foil equilibration method for carbon in sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgstedt, H; Frees, G; Peric, Z [Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, Institute of Materials and Solid State Research, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1980-05-01

    Among the non-metallic impurities in sodium, carbon plays an important role since at high temperatures the structural materials exposed to sodium are subject to carburization and decarburization depending on the carbon activity of the sodium. Carburization of austenitic stainless steels leads to reduction in ductility and fatigue properties whereas decarburization results in a decrease in the high temperature creep strength. A knowledge of the carbon activities in sodium will help understanding of the carbon transfer phenomena in operating sodium systems of the fast reactors, and also carbon diffusion, microstructural stability and mechanical behaviour of materials under different service conditions. An understanding of the carbon behaviour in sodium becomes difficult in view of the complexities of the different species present as elemental carbon, carbide, acetylide, carbonate, and cyanide. Carbon estimation techniques for sodium presently in use are: chemical analytical methods, on-line carbon monitors, and oil equilibration method. Various chemical methods have been developed for the estimation of different species like acetylide, cyanide, carbonate, elemental carbon, and total carbon in sodium. All these methods are time consuming and subject to various errors. The on-line monitors developed for carbon in sodium are able to give continuous indication of carbon activities and have higher sensitivity than the chemical methods. A still more simple method for the determination of carbon activities is by the foil equilibration first published by Natesan et al. Because of its simplicity like the vanadium wire equilibration for oxygen it is being used widely for the estimation of carbon activities in sodium systems. Carbon concentrations in operating sodium systems estimated by this procedure by applying solubility relation to carbon activities have yielded very low values of carbon, lower than the sensitivity limits of the chemical estimation methods. Foil

  1. The foil equilibration method for carbon in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.; Frees, G.; Peric, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Among the non-metallic impurities in sodium, carbon plays an important role since at high temperatures the structural materials exposed to sodium are subject to carburization and decarburization depending on the carbon activity of the sodium. Carburization of austenitic stainless steels leads to reduction in ductility and fatigue properties whereas decarburization results in a decrease in the high temperature creep strength. A knowledge of the carbon activities in sodium will help understanding of the carbon transfer phenomena in operating sodium systems of the fast reactors, and also carbon diffusion, microstructural stability and mechanical behaviour of materials under different service conditions. An understanding of the carbon behaviour in sodium becomes difficult in view of the complexities of the different species present as elemental carbon, carbide, acetylide, carbonate, and cyanide. Carbon estimation techniques for sodium presently in use are: chemical analytical methods, on-line carbon monitors, and oil equilibration method. Various chemical methods have been developed for the estimation of different species like acetylide, cyanide, carbonate, elemental carbon, and total carbon in sodium. All these methods are time consuming and subject to various errors. The on-line monitors developed for carbon in sodium are able to give continuous indication of carbon activities and have higher sensitivity than the chemical methods. A still more simple method for the determination of carbon activities is by the foil equilibration first published by Natesan et al. Because of its simplicity like the vanadium wire equilibration for oxygen it is being used widely for the estimation of carbon activities in sodium systems. Carbon concentrations in operating sodium systems estimated by this procedure by applying solubility relation to carbon activities have yielded very low values of carbon, lower than the sensitivity limits of the chemical estimation methods. Foil

  2. Characterization of laser-cut copper foil X-pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, G. W.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Hansen, S. B.; Wei, M. S.; Reed, C. T.; Forsman, A. C.; Beg, F. N.

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative data analyses of laser-cut Cu foil X-pinch experiments on the 150 ns quarter-period, ˜250 kA GenASIS driver are presented. Three different foil designs are tested to determine the effects of initial structure on pinch outcome. Foil X-pinch data are also presented alongside the results from wire X-pinches with comparable mass. The X-ray flux and temporal profile of the emission from foil X-pinches differed significantly from that of wire X-pinches, with all emission from the foil X-pinches confined to a ˜3 ns period as opposed to the delayed, long-lasting electron beam emission common in wire X-pinches. Spectroscopic data show K-shell as well as significant L-shell emission from both foil and wire X-pinches. Fits to synthetic spectra using the SCRAM code suggest that pinching foil X's produced a ˜1 keV, ne ≥ 1023 cm-3 plasma. The spectral data combined with the improved reliability of the source timing, flux, and location indicate that foil X-pinches generate a reproducible, K-shell point-projection radiography source that can be easily modified and tailored to suit backlighting needs across a variety of applications.

  3. Process for producing molybdenum foil and collapsible tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretts, G. R.; Gavert, R. B.; Groschke, G. F.

    1971-01-01

    Manufacturing process produces molybdenum foil 0.002 cm thick and 305 m long, and forms foil into high-strength, thin-walled tubing which can be flattened for storage on a spool. Desirable metal properties include high thermal conductivity stiffness, yield and tensile stress, and low thermal expansion coeffecient.

  4. Foil fabrication for the ROMANO event. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romo, J.G. Jr.; Weed, J.W.; Griggs, G.E.; Brown, T.G.; Tassano, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Vacuum Processes Lab (VPL), of LLNL's M.E. Dept. - Material Fabrication Division (MFD), conducted various vacuum related support activities for the ROMANO nuclear physics experiment. This report focuses on the foil fabrication activities carried out between July and November 1983 for the ROMANO event. Other vacuum related activities for ROMANO, such as outgassing tests of materials, are covered in separate documentation. VPL was asked to provide 270 coated Parylene foils for the ROMANO event. However, due to the developmental nature of some of the procedures, approximately 400 coated foils were processed. In addition, VPL interacted with MFD's Plastics Shop to help supply Parylene substrates to other organizations (i.e., LBL and commercial vendors) which had also been asked to provide coated foils for ROMANO. The purposes of this report are (A) to document the processes developed and the techniques used to produce the foils, and (B) to suggest future directions. The report is divided into four sections describing: (1) nuclear target foil fabrication, (2) Parylene substrate preparation and production, (3) calibration foil fabrication, and (4) foil and substrate inspections

  5. Practical and research aspects of beam-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkin, S.

    1974-01-01

    Practical aspects of the application of low-energy accelerators to research in beam-foil spectroscopy are discussed, and the kinds of equipment and associated costs are described in some detail. Some typical beam-foil experiments, emphasizing the most recent studies, are treated so as to show how relatively simple facilities can be used to produce physics of great interest

  6. Thin foil expansion into a vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, P.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma expansion into a vacuum is an old problem which has been renewed recently in various contexts: expansion of ultra-cold plasmas, cluster expansion, of dust grains, expansion of thin foils. In this presentation I will first discuss the physics of the expansion of a thin foil irradiated by an ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulse. The expansion results in the formation of high energy ions. For an infinitely steep plasma-vacuum interface the fastest ions are located in the outer part of the expansion and their velocity is given by ν m ax∼ 2 C s (In ω p it) where c s (Zk B T e /m i )''1/2 is the ion-acoustic velocity ω p i=(n e 0Ze''2/m i e 0 )''1/2 is the ion plasma frequency, n e 0 is the electron density in the unperturbed plasma, Z is the ion charge number. In the above expression, t is either the pulse duration or the effective acceleration time (in particular t∼L/2c s , where L is the width of the foil, when the electron cooling is taken into account). A salient characteristic of the expansion is the occurrence of a double layer structure and a peak of the accelerating electric field at the ion front. I will explain the origin of the peak and predict its temporal behavior. This peak has been diagnosed in recent experiments. I will also discuss the effect of a 2-temperatures electron distribution function on the expansion, showing the dominant role of the hot electron component. Finally I will discuss the occurrence of ion spikes in the expansion when the initial density profile is smooth. The ion spike is due to a wave breaking which cannot be handled in a satisfactory way by a fluid code and requires a kinetic description. A. simple collisionless particle code has been used to treat the evolution of the spike after the wave breaking and the results will be shown. (Author)

  7. Deposition of selenium coatings on beryllium foils. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for preparing selenium films on 50.8 micrometers thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. A water-cooled enclosure was used to minimize contamination of the vacuum system and to reduce the exposure of personnel to toxic and obnoxious materials. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicated selenium thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 micrometers. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable deposition controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV

  8. Charge-state distribution measurements of ^{238}U and ^{136}Xe at 11  MeV/nucleon using gas charge stripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kuboki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The charge-state distributions and equilibrium charge states of uranium (^{238}U and xenon (^{136}Xe ions at 11  MeV/nucleon were determined using a gas charge stripper. A differential pumping system facilitated the increase of the nitrogen gas thickness up to 1.3  mg/cm^{2}, which is sufficient for the most probable charge state to attain equilibrium. The charge states of ^{238}U attain equilibrium at 56.0, 56.6, and 55.7 in N_{2}, Ar, and CO_{2} media with thicknesses of 125, 79, and 126  μg/cm^{2}, respectively, while those of ^{136}Xe attain equilibrium at 40.5, 40.1, and 40.3 in N_{2}, Ar, and CO_{2} media with thicknesses of 163, 95, and 139  μg/cm^{2}, respectively. The equilibrium charge states of ^{136}Xe are acceptable for acceleration by the subsequent cyclotron. The measured data of ^{238}U were used to devise an empirical formula for the prediction of the equilibrium charge state in gaseous media over the energy region of 0.01–60  MeV/nucleon. The equilibrium charge state of ^{136}Xe as predicted by the devised formula is in good agreement with the data.

  9. Preparation of selenium coatings onto beryllium foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-09-01

    A technique for preparing selenium films onto 50.8 microns thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicate deposit thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 microns. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable thin film controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV. 15 references, 3 figures

  10. Design considerations for foil windows for PET radioisotope targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughey, B.J.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.; Welch, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study performed at SRL to develop analytical and computational techniques for optimizing the design of conduction-cooled foil windows for PET targets. Single foil conduction cooled windows have been found to be good target entrance windows for both low energy accelerators and medium energy cyclotrons. Detailed thermal analysis has given an approximate analytical expression for the maximum temperature reached in a foil window under conditions of realistic ion beam bombardment. The effects of 'hot spots' in the beam density profile were investigated. It was shown that a factor of two safety margin in window design should be adequate to compensate for any possible beam hot spots. In addition, the reduction of foil stress by slack mounting was verified by experiments. The properties of conventional and novel foil materials were investigated for use in conduction cooled windows. Novel foil materials include two-component Al/Ti and Al/Havar foil. Results on the testing of candidate foil materials for thermal conductivity and mechanical strength at elevated temperature were presented. Two optimum foil window geometries were analyzed: a high aspect ratio window and a multiply slotted window. The multiply slotted window combines the advantages of a high aspect ratio foil window with a circular beam strike and is a promising window design for both TCA and cyclotron targets. A multiply slotted window for a N 2 gas target for 15 O production was designed using the methodologies discussed above. This prototype target was successfully tested using the TCA beam at SRL. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  11. Status report No. 8: State uses of Exxon and Stripper Well oil overcharge funds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, H.; Claytor, C.P.

    1991-07-01

    From March of 1986 through early January, 1991 (when the report surveying began) state governments received $3.423 billion in funds obtained by the federal government through two major cases, based on price overcharges committed by numerous oil companies during the period of price controls, between 1973 and 1981. Furthermore, about another $1 billion may still be collected from oil companies, with roughly 1/2 to be distributed to the states (and the other 1/2 to the federal government), over the next 5 to 10 years. The role of state governments is to allocate the funds, within the specific case guidelines, to new or existing energy programs, in a way which is designed to benefit (or provide restitution to) the class or classes of purchasers who bore the burden of the overcharges. This report incorporates information collected by NCLC through telephone surveys conducted from January through March 1991. The information we collected on the status and state uses of both Exxon and Stripper Well funds is contained in the state-by-state narrative summary selection and in a series of tables at the end of the report. Each of the quarterly reports tracks final state decisions allocating use of these funds. The terms ''allocated'' and ''designated'' are used interchangeably throughout the document to mean that final state decisions have been made regarding these funds. Tracking state allocations about these funds is the only practical way for us to provide an overview of the actual status of state processes or decisions which have occurred with regard to this money. 9 tabs

  12. Influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on graphene anisotropic etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Kamal P. [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D. [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2017-01-30

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. - Highlights: • Reveal the influence of copper polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching of graphene. • Hexagonal hole formation with etching is observed to be independent of stripes and wrinkles in graphene. • Variation in etched pattern of graphene depending on the base Cu grain is confirmed. • This finding will help to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern in graphene. - Abstract: Anisotropic etching of graphene and other two dimensional materials is an important tool to understand the growth process as well as enabling fabrication of various well-defined structures. Here, we reveal the influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching process of as-synthesized graphene. Graphene crystals were synthesized on the polycrystalline Cu foil by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. Microscopic analysis shows difference in shape, size and stripes alignment of graphene crystals with dissimilar nucleation within closure vicinity of neighboring Cu grains. Post-growth etching of such graphene crystals also significantly affected by the crystallographic nature of Cu grains as observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching is observed to be independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. The findings can facilitate to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern depending on metal

  13. Influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on graphene anisotropic etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kamal P.; Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D.; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. - Highlights: • Reveal the influence of copper polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching of graphene. • Hexagonal hole formation with etching is observed to be independent of stripes and wrinkles in graphene. • Variation in etched pattern of graphene depending on the base Cu grain is confirmed. • This finding will help to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern in graphene. - Abstract: Anisotropic etching of graphene and other two dimensional materials is an important tool to understand the growth process as well as enabling fabrication of various well-defined structures. Here, we reveal the influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching process of as-synthesized graphene. Graphene crystals were synthesized on the polycrystalline Cu foil by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. Microscopic analysis shows difference in shape, size and stripes alignment of graphene crystals with dissimilar nucleation within closure vicinity of neighboring Cu grains. Post-growth etching of such graphene crystals also significantly affected by the crystallographic nature of Cu grains as observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching is observed to be independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. The findings can facilitate to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern depending on metal

  14. Safety evaluation of the ITP filter/stripper test runs and quiet time runs using simulant solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.K.

    1993-10-01

    In-Tank Precipitation is a process for removing radioactivity from the salt stored in the Waste Management Tank Farm at Savannah River. The process involves precipitation of cesium and potassium with sodium tetraphenylborate (STPB) and adsorption of strontium and actinides on insoluble sodium titanate (ST) particles. The purpose of this report is to provide the technical bases for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Filter/Stripper Test Runs and Quiet Time Runs Program. The primary objective of the filter-stripper test runs and quiet time runs program is to ensure that the facility will fulfill its design basis function prior to the introduction of radioactive feed. Risks associated with the program are identified and include hazards, both personnel and environmental, associated with handling the chemical simulants; the presence of flammable materials; the potential for damage to the permanenet ITP and Tank Farm facilities. The risks, potential accident scenarios, and safeguards either in place or planned are discussed at length

  15. Safety evaluation of the ITP filter/stripper test runs and quiet time runs using simulant solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, M.K.

    1993-10-01

    In-Tank Precipitation is a process for removing radioactivity from the salt stored in the Waste Management Tank Farm at Savannah River. The process involves precipitation of cesium and potassium with sodium tetraphenylborate (STPB) and adsorption of strontium and actinides on insoluble sodium titanate (ST) particles. The purpose of this report is to provide the technical bases for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Filter/Stripper Test Runs and Quiet Time Runs Program. The primary objective of the filter-stripper test runs and quiet time runs program is to ensure that the facility will fulfill its design basis function prior to the introduction of radioactive feed. Risks associated with the program are identified and include hazards, both personnel and environmental, associated with handling the chemical simulants; the presence of flammable materials; the potential for damage to the permanenet ITP and Tank Farm facilities. The risks, potential accident scenarios, and safeguards either in place or planned are discussed at length.

  16. A Three-Dimensional Foil Bearing Performance Map Applied to Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    stress brought on by excessive viscous power loss; therefore a map that graphically relates component and system-level parameters (bearing size, applied...Introduction Foil bearings are self-acting, hydrodynamic gas bearings that use air as their working fluid . Their use in rotating systems eliminates the...weight, maintenance requirements, speed, and temperature limitations associated with conventional oil-lubricated rotor supports (i.e., bearings, dampers

  17. Elevated Temperature Tensile Tests on DU–10Mo Rolled Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulthess, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tensile mechanical properties for uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (U–10Mo) foils are required to support modeling and qualification of new monolithic fuel plate designs. It is expected that depleted uranium-10 wt% Mo (DU–10Mo) mechanical behavior is representative of the low enriched U–10Mo to be used in the actual fuel plates, therefore DU-10Mo was studied to simplify material processing, handling, and testing requirements. In this report, tensile testing of DU-10Mo fuel foils prepared using four different thermomechanical processing treatments were conducted to assess the impact of foil fabrication history on resultant tensile properties.

  18. Effects of the Addictives on Etching Characteristics of Aluminum Foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.K.; Jang, J.M.; Chi, C.S. [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea); Shin, D.C. [Sungnam Polytechnic, Sungnam (Korea); Lee, J.H.; Oh, H.J. [Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of additives in the HCI etching solution on etching behaviors of aluminium foil as dielectric film for electrolytic capacitors were investigated. The etch pits formed in 1M hydrochloric acid containing ethylene glycol as an additive contain more fine and homogeneous etch tunnels compared to thoese in 1 M hydrochloric acid only, which led to the increase in the effective internal surface area of aluminum foil. After anodizing of aluminum foil etched in etching solutions, the LCR meter results have shown that the capacitance of dielectric film etched in hydrochloric acid with ethylene glycol was increased remarkably compared to that etched in hydrochloric acid only. (author). 21 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Preparation of self-supporting metallic foils of nickel isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Isao.

    1975-01-01

    This is the fourth report on the practical methods of target preparation for use in low energy nuclear experiments following the previous one (INS-J-150). An electroplating method has been developed as a dependable and reproducible technique for making self-supporting metallic foils of nickel in the thickness range of 0.5 to 10 mg/cm 2 . The procedures minimized the necessary amount of material so that nickel isotopes could be processed economically. Impurity contamination of the nickel foils during the electroplating process was less than 500 ppm, and the thickness variation in each foil was less than 3% of the central thickness. (auth.)

  20. Method of fabricating a uranium-bearing foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Jackie G [Seymour, TN; DeMint, Amy L [Kingston, TN

    2012-04-24

    Methods of fabricating a uranium-bearing foil are described. The foil may be substantially pure uranium, or may be a uranium alloy such as a uranium-molybdenum alloy. The method typically includes a series of hot rolling operations on a cast plate material to form a thin sheet. These hot rolling operations are typically performed using a process where each pass reduces the thickness of the plate by a substantially constant percentage. The sheet is typically then annealed and then cooled. The process typically concludes with a series of cold rolling passes where each pass reduces the thickness of the plate by a substantially constant thickness amount to form the foil.

  1. Emittance measurements at the new UNILAC-pre-stripper using a pepper-pot with a PC-controlled CCD-camera

    CERN Document Server

    Dolinska, M E; Forck, P; Hoffmann, T; Liakin, D; Peters, A; Strehl, P

    2000-01-01

    The complex mathematical algorithms and procedures to extract emittance data from intensity distributions measured with a single shot pepper-pot device are described. First results of mathematical evaluation from the commissioning of the new GSI pre-stripper linac structures are presented.

  2. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy study of Kapton thin foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, G. S.; Ravelli, L.; Löwe, B.; Egger, W.; Keeble, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Variable energy positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (VE-PALS) experiments on polyimide material Kapton are reported. Thin Kapton foils are widely used in a variety of mechanical, electronic applications. PALS provides a sensitive probe of vacancy-related defects in a wide range of materials, including open volume in polymers. Varying the positron implantation energy enables direct measurement of thin foils. Thin Kapton foils are also commonly used to enclose the positron source material in conventional PALS measurements performed with unmoderated radionuclide sources. The results of depth-profiled positron lifetime measurements on 7.6 μm and 25 μm Kapton foils are reported and determine a dominant 385(1) ps lifetime component. The absence of significant nanosecond lifetime component due to positronium formation is confirmed.

  3. Method of stabilizing Nb3Sn superconducting foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruzliak, J.; Lences, P.; Allarova, H.

    1982-01-01

    The stabilization of niobium-tin Nb 3 Sn superconducting foils with copper is carried out by deposition or by diffusion in pure copper or in a tin bath containing different copper levels, with the surface etched or unetched. The foils are covered with a copper film at a temperature of 300 to 5O0 degC using a tin solder, spread on a copper, silver or nickel layer deposited on the foil surface from solutions for electroless plating. The bond between the surface of the superconducting foil and the electroless plated metal layer is annealed in a controlled atmosphere or in a vacuum at a temperature of 200 to 500 degC for over 20 to 60 minutes. The copper stabilization layer can also be produced electrolytically. (J.B.)

  4. A study of molecular effects in beam-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, B.; Veje, E.

    1979-01-01

    Relative populations of ns + nd levels in hydrogen as functions of the principal quantum number n have been measured with beams of H + , H 2 + , and H 3 + impinging on thin carbon foils at 25 keV/amu and 100 keV/amu. Enhancements of 20% and 45% for dimer and trimer clusters are observed uniformly for all levels. A possible explanation in terms of screening of the Coulomb repulsion between the protons inside the foil, thus reducing the effective thickness of the foil, is given. All relative populations closely follow an nsup(P) power law with p = -4.0 and -3.7 at 25 keV/amu and 100 keV/amu, respectively, in perfect analogy with atomic collision experiments. O + /O 2 + -foil excitations at 100 keV and 155 keV show a simular molecular effect, but in reverse with a larger mean charge produced by the dimer. (Auth.)

  5. Decontamination with pasty pickling agents forming a strippable foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichselgartner, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an in-situ decontamination procedure by applying onto the contaminated surface (in an one-step or multi-step process) pasty, chemically aggressive agents causing dilution and adsorption of the contaminant and then hardening to form a strippable foil. The use of such a foil will result in following advantages, with respect to usual techniques: - sensibly shorter operation duration resulting in lower personnel doses; - reduction of the arising secondary waste volume because there is no need for washing; the volume of the spent strippable foil is much smaller than currently used water volumes; - optimal conditioning of the radioactive waste due to its fixation in a solid (foil); - an accidental contamination in a controlled area can easily be fixed and covered avoiding its propagation

  6. Envelope model for passive magnetic focusing of an intense proton or ion beam propagating through thin foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lund

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ion beams (including protons with low emittance and high space-charge intensity can be propagated with normal incidence through a sequence of thin metallic foils separated by vacuum gaps of order the characteristic transverse beam extent to transport/collimate the beam or to focus it to a small transverse spot. Energetic ions have sufficient range to pass through a significant number of thin foils with little energy loss or scattering. The foils reduce the (defocusing radial electric self-field of the beam while not altering the (focusing azimuthal magnetic self-field of the beam, thereby allowing passive self-beam focusing if the magnetic field is sufficiently strong relative to the residual electric field. Here we present an envelope model developed to predict the strength of this passive (beam generated focusing effect under a number of simplifying assumptions including relatively long pulse duration. The envelope model provides a simple criterion for the necessary foil spacing for net focusing and clearly illustrates system focusing properties for either beam collimation (such as injecting a laser-produced proton beam into an accelerator or for magnetic pinch focusing to a small transverse spot (for beam driven heating of materials. An illustrative example is worked for an idealization of a recently performed laser-produced proton-beam experiment to provide guidance on possible beam focusing and collimation systems. It is found that foils spaced on the order of the characteristic transverse beam size desired can be employed and that envelope divergence of the initial beam entering the foil lens must be suppressed to limit the total number of foils required to practical values for pinch focusing. Relatively modest proton-beam current at 10 MeV kinetic energy can clearly demonstrate strong magnetic pinch focusing achieving a transverse rms extent similar to the foil spacing (20–50  μm gaps in beam propagation distances of tens of mm

  7. Finite Element Modelling of Bends and Creases during Folding Ultra Thin Stainless Steel Foils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, K.; Akagi, H.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han

    2003-01-01

    Finite Element Modelling of an ultra thin foil of SUS 304 stainless steel is carried out. These foils are 20 mm and below in thickness. The development of stresses and strains during folding of these foils is studied. The objective of this study is to induce qualities of paper in the foils of

  8. 75 FR 1596 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Reynolds Packaging LLC (Aluminum Foil Liner Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Status, Reynolds Packaging LLC (Aluminum Foil Liner Stock), Louisville, Kentucky Pursuant to its...-purpose subzone at the aluminum foil liner stock manufacturing and distribution facilities of Reynolds... manufacturing and distribution of aluminum foil liner stock and aluminum foil at the facilities of Reynolds...

  9. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one...

  10. DML and Foil Measurements of ETA Beam Radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nexsen, W; Weir, J

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of the ETA beam radius have been made with a quartz foil and a diamagnetic loop (DML). While the measurements agreed at some settings they diverged at others. While the DML measures the rms radius of the total beam, the foil measures mainly the core and the divergence can be explained by the presence of a low density halo. Evidence of such a halo from other measurements is presented

  11. Practical and research aspects of beam-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkin, S.

    1975-01-01

    The application of a heavy-ion accelerator to research in beam-foil spectroscopy requires certain capital equipment which is somewhat unorthodox when viewed from the standpoint of conventional, low-energy nuclear physics. It is necessary that people who wish to expand their accelerator work to include beam-foil studies understand the nature and cost of such major apparatus. We will survey the equipment needs, starting with the particle analyzer at the output of the accelerator and including the equipment used in a variety of beam-foil experiments. Electronic and computer devices will not be discussed since they are essentially identical with those employed in nuclear studies. Considerable attention will be given to optical spectrometers and spectographs including simple instruments which might be used by a laboratory just getting started in beam-foil research, or which has limited financial resources. Attention will be given to the production and use of the exciter foils. We will then discuss some typical beam-foil experiments having to do with the excitation, detection, and analysis of spectral lines from electronic levels in multiply-ionized atoms, and also with the measurement of the mean lives of such levels. Finally, we will review some of the special properties of the beam-foil light source as regards the population of the magnetic sub-states of a given level. Recent work on the character of the emitted light will be presented. That work will deal specifically with the origin of the polarization of the light. The relevant experiments involve varying the angle between the plane of the exciter foil and the particle velocity. (author)

  12. Alignment and orientation effects in beam-foil experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, Y.B.

    1975-01-01

    A theory of the orientation and alignment of atoms observed upon emergence from tilted foils is presented. The interaction with the foil surface is taken into account in the production process of particular states. Once they are produced, the evolution of these states, under the influence of the residual field near the surface, is calculated in the fashion introduced by Eck. The most general effect of this evolution is presented

  13. Magazine for handling stripping foils in a particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorka, A.J. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Thin foils for stripping a particle beam are stored in a magazine that is operable remotely to display an individual foil, release it when it is spent, and repeat this process. The magazine is operable in the high-vacuum, high-radiation environment in the interior of a particle accelerator, and it uses the magnetic field of the accelerator to operate the display and dropping mechanism. (U.S.)

  14. Properties of polymer foils used as solid-state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.

    1973-05-01

    Polymer foils were studied with a view to their application as solid-state alpha track detectors. The detection efficiency was determined as was its alpha energy dependence and the quality of the surface and the natural background of the foils were evaluated. The kinetics of etching was studied in three selected type of foils. Characteristic constants for the selected foils and methods of etching were calculated. The possible applications of the foils as track detectors are discussed and the effect is dealt with of the selected foil and of the method of chemical etching on the foil applicability in nuclear sciences, especially in fast neutron dosimetry and in alpha spectrometry. (author)

  15. Automatic spark counting of alpha-tracks in plastic foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.; Medveczky, L.; Hunyadi, I.; Nyako, B.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of alpha-track counting by jumping spark counter in cellulose acetate and polycarbonate nuclear track detectors was studied. A theoretical treatment is presented which predicts the optimum residual thickness of the etched foils in which completely through-etched tracks (i.e. holes) can be obtained for alpha-particles of various energies and angles of incidence. In agreement with the theoretical prediction it is shown that a successful spark counting of alpha-tracks can be performed even in polycarbonate foils. Some counting characteristics, such as counting efficiency vs particle energy at various etched foil thicknesses, surface spark density produced by electric breakdowns in unexposed foils vs foil thickness, etc. have been determined. Special attention was given to the spark counting of alpha-tracks entering thin detectors at right angle. The applicability of the spark counting technique is demonstrated in angular distribution measurements of the 27 Al(p,α 0 ) 24 Mg nuclear reaction at Ep = 1899 keV resonance energy. For this study 15 μm thick Makrofol-G foils and a jumping spark counter of improved construction were used. (orig.) [de

  16. Waste rice seed in conventional and stripper-head harvested fields in California: Implications for wintering waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Halstead, Brian J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Kohl, Jeffrey D.; Skalos, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Waste rice seed is an important food for wintering waterfowl and current estimates of its availability are needed to determine the carrying capacity of rice fields and guide habitat conservation. We used a line-intercept method to estimate mass-density of rice seed remaining after harvest during 2010 in the Sacramento Valley (SACV) of California and compared results with estimates from previous studies in the SACV and Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Posterior mean (95% credible interval) estimates of total waste rice seed mass-density for the SACV in 2010 were 388 (336–449) kg/ha in conventionally harvested fields and 245 (198–307) kg/ha in stripper-head harvested fields; the 2010 mass-density is nearly identical to the mid-1980s estimate for conventionally harvested fields but 36% lower than the mid-1990s estimate for stripped fields. About 18% of SACV fields were stripper-head harvested in 2010 vs. 9–15% in the mid-1990s and 0% in the mid-1980s; but due to a 50% increase in planted rice area, total mass of waste rice seed in SACV remaining after harvest in 2010 was 43% greater than in the mid-1980s. However, total mass of seed-eating waterfowl also increased 82%, and the ratio of waste rice seed to seed-eating waterfowl mass was 21% smaller in 2010 than in the mid-1980s. Mass-densities of waste rice remaining after harvest in SACV fields are within the range reported for MAV fields. However, because there is a lag between harvest and waterfowl use in the MAV but not in the SACV, seed loss is greater in the MAV and estimated waste seed mass-density available to wintering waterfowl in SACV fields is about 5–30 times recent MAV estimates. Waste rice seed remains an abundant food source for waterfowl wintering in the SACV, but increased use of stripper-head harvesters would reduce this food. To provide accurate data on carrying capacities of rice fields necessary for conservation planning, trends in planted rice area, harvest method, and postharvest field

  17. Health status of cows fed maize silage covered with oxo-biodegradable foil

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr SZTERK; Piotr DORSZEWSKI; Małgorzata GRABOWICZ; Lucyna PODKÓWKA

    2017-01-01

    In agricultural practice, silage production uses pure, low density polyethylene foil. This foil, after use, becomes farm waste, having a negative impact on the environment. Instead of conventional foil, an environmentally safe biodegradable foil can be used, made from naturally occurring polymers or from synthetic multiparticulates, easily degradable by microorganisms. Silage covered with this type of foil should be safe for animal health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether oxo...

  18. Finding Interstellar Particle Impacts on Stardust Aluminium Foils: The Safe Handling, Imaging, and Analysis of Samples Containing Femtogram Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Westphal, A. J.; Stadermann, F. J.; Armes, S. P.; Ball, A. D.; Borg, J.; Bridges, J. C.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M. J.; Chater, R. J.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Impact ionisation detectors on a suite of spacecraft have shown the direction, velocity, flux and mass distribution of smaller ISP entering the Solar System. During the aphelion segments of the Stardust flight, a dedicated collector surface was oriented to intercept ISP of beta = 1, and returned to Earth in January 2006. In this paper we describe the probable appeareance and size of IS particle craters from initial results of experimental impacts and numerical simulation, explain how foils are being prepared and mounted for crater searching by automated acquisition of high magnification electron images (whilst avoiding contamination of the foils) and comment on appropriate analytical techniques for Preliminary Examination (PE).

  19. A Microfabricated Involute-Foil Regenerator for Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Roy; Ibrahim, Mounir; Danila, Daniel; Simon, Terrence; Mantell, Susan; Sun, Liyong; Gedeon, David; Kelly, Kevin; McLean, Jeffrey; Qiu, Songgang

    2007-01-01

    A segmented involute-foil regenerator has been designed, microfabricated and tested in an oscillating-flow rig with excellent results. During the Phase I effort, several approximations of parallel-plate regenerator geometry were chosen as potential candidates for a new microfabrication concept. Potential manufacturers and processes were surveyed. The selected concept consisted of stacked segmented-involute-foil disks (or annular portions of disks), originally to be microfabricated from stainless-steel via the LiGA (lithography, electroplating, and molding) process and EDM. During Phase II, re-planning of the effort led to test plans based on nickel disks, microfabricated via the LiGA process, only. A stack of nickel segmented-involute-foil disks was tested in an oscillating-flow test rig. These test results yielded a performance figure of merit (roughly the ratio of heat transfer to pressure drop) of about twice that of the 90 percent random fiber currently used in small approx.100 W Stirling space-power convertors-in the Reynolds Number range of interest (50 to 100). A Phase III effort is now underway to fabricate and test a segmented-involute-foil regenerator in a Stirling convertor. Though funding limitations prevent optimization of the Stirling engine geometry for use with this regenerator, the Sage computer code will be used to help evaluate the engine test results. Previous Sage Stirling model projections have indicated that a segmented-involute-foil regenerator is capable of improving the performance of an optimized involute-foil engine by 6 to 9 percent; it is also anticipated that such involute-foil geometries will be more reliable and easier to manufacture with tight-tolerance characteristics, than random-fiber or wire-screen regenerators. Beyond the near-term Phase III regenerator fabrication and engine testing, other goals are (1) fabrication from a material suitable for high temperature Stirling operation (up to 850 C for current engines; up to 1200 C

  20. The use of radioisotopic methods to characterize metal foil monolith catalytic converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, E.W.; Vaneman, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Radioisotopic methods have been applied to nondestructive measurements on experimental automotive catalytic converters. These converters consist of thin corrugated metal foil which supports an alumina coating impregnated with noble metals. A radiogauging system, using gamma radiation from a gadolinium-153 source, was developed to determine the total quantity and distribution of alumina coating applied to the foil substrate. The radiogauging apparatus was also used to provide axial and radial profiles of lead deposited in the catalytic converter when leaded fuel was used. During dynamometer aging, iron-59 was used as a radiotracer in the alumina to monitor the coating attrition as a function of operating time. These studies demonstrate the capability of radiotracer and radiogauging techniques for rapid, nondestructive measurements on prototype catalytic converters during performance testing

  1. Interaction of relativistic H- ions with thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohagheghi, A.H.

    1990-09-01

    The response of relativistic H - ions to thin carbon foils was investigated for beam energies ranging from 226 MeV to 800 MeV. For the foil thicknesses we have studied, ranging from 15 to 300 μg/cm 2 , an appreciable fraction of the H - beam survives intact, some H - ions are stripped down to protons, and the remainder is distributed over the states of H 0 . This experiment is different from the low energy studies in that the projectile velocity is comparable to the speed of light, leading to an interaction time of typically less than a femtosecond. The present results challenge the theoretical understanding of the interaction mechanisms. An electron spectrometer was used to selectively field-ionize the Rydberg states, 9 < n < 17, at beam energies of 581 MeV and 800 MeV. The yield of low-lying states were measured by Doppler tuning a Nd:YAG laser to excite transitions to a Rydberg state which was then field-ionized and detected. A simple model is developed to fit the yield of each state as a function of foil thickness. The simple model is successful in predicting the general features of the yield data. However, the data are suggestive of a more complex structure in the yield curves. The yield of a given state depends strongly on the foil thickness, demonstrating that the excited states are formed during the passage of the ions through a foil. The optimum thickness to produce a given state increases with the principal quantum number of the state suggesting an excitation process which is at least pratially stepwise. The results of a Monte Carlo simulation are compared with the experimental data to estimate the distribution of the excited states coming out of a foil. The distributions of the excited states and their dependence on foil thickness are discussed

  2. BANGERTER FOILS IN THE POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT OF ESOTROPIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina G. Dimitrova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the application of Bangerter foils in the postoperative management of esotropia Methods: A retrospective study of 200 patients who underwent bimedial recessions for various forms of alternating/alternated esotropia in the period of 2000-2013. In the cases of residual postoperative angle, tendency of recurrence of strabismus and preferred fixation, Bangerter foil was fixed on the corrective glass of the dominant eye- either on the next day of surgery, or on the 10-th postoperative day and was in use for at least 6 months. Results: Bangerter foils were applied in 67(35,1% under corrected patients with a mean residual angle for near 7,01±3,51Δ. Mean residual angle in patients without foils was 3,47±4,06Δ (p<0,001. Statistically significant factors in patients with filters were amblyopia treatment before surgery (p<0,001, anisometropia (p=0,003 and type of esotropia (accommodative vs. non accommodative (p<0,001. Within the group without filters there was a significant increase of the residual angle for near on the third (p<0,001 and sixth month (p=0,036, while within the group with foils angle was not significantly changed (p=0,325; p=0,058 with time. In the group with foils no cases with relapse of strabismus and amblyopia were recorded and even a decrease of the postoperative angle was clinically observed in some patients. Conclusion: To our experience Bangerter foils are a reliable tool in the postoperative management of undercorrected esotropia.

  3. Transient and steady state behaviour of elasto–aerodynamic air foil bearings, considering bump foil compliance and top foil inertia and flexibility: A numerical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bjerregaard; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2017-01-01

    utilise two types of eight-node isoparametric elements. The rotor is modelled as a rigid body without rotational inertia, i.e. as a journal. The bump foil is included via a bilinear version of the simple elastic foundation model. This paper introduces the bilinear simple elastic foundation model, which...

  4. Foil-less plasma-filled diode for HPM generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltchaninov, A A; Kovalchuk, B M; Kurkan, I K; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2014-01-01

    Plasma-filled diode regarded as perspective source of electron beam feeding HPM generator of GW power level, comparing to conventional explosive emission vacuum diode. Electron beam generation occurs in plasma double layer, where plasma boundary plays as an anode. It allows cancelling the usage of anode foils or grids in HPM generators with the virtual cathode, which could limit its life time to few shots. The presence of ions in the e-beam drift space could raise the limiting current for a drift space, but it could affect to microwave generation also. Sectioned plasma-filled diode with beam current of about 100 kA, electron beam energy of about 0.5 MV and beam current density of 1-10 kA/cm 2 was realized. Cylindrical transport channel with the diameter of 200 mm and the length of about 30 cm was attached to the diode. Beam current measurements in a drift space were performed. Computer simulations of electron beam transport with the presence of ions were carried out with the 2.5D axisymmetric version of PiC-code KARAT. Obtained results would help optimizing electrodynamic system of HPM generator subjected to the presence of ions

  5. Analysis of polymer foil heaters as infrared radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek, Krzysztof; Piotrowski, Tadeusz; Skwarek, Agata

    2012-01-01

    Infrared radiation as a heat source is used in many fields. In particular, the positive effect of far-infrared radiation on living organisms has been observed. This paper presents two technological solutions for infrared heater production using polymer-silver and polymer-carbon pastes screenprinted on foil substrates. The purpose of this work was the identification of polymer layers as a specific frequency range IR radiation sources. The characterization of the heaters was determined mainly by measurement of the surface temperature distribution using a thermovision camera and the spectral characteristics were determined using a special measuring system. Basic parameters obtained for both, polymer silver and polymer carbon heaters were similar and were as follows: power rating of 10–12 W/dm 2 , continuous working surface temperature of 80–90 °C, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) about +900 ppm/K for polymer-carbon heater and about +2000 ppm/K for polymer-silver, maximum radiation intensity in the wavelength range of 6–14 μm with top intensity at 8.5 μm and heating time about 20 min. For comparison purposes, commercial panel heater was tested. The results show that the characteristics of infrared polymer heaters are similar to the characteristics of the commercial heater, so they can be taken into consideration as the alternative infrared radiation sources.

  6. Selecting foils for identification lineups: matching suspects or descriptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliff, J L; Clark, S E

    2000-04-01

    Two experiments directly compare two methods of selecting foils for identification lineups. The suspect-matched method selects foils based on their match to the suspect, whereas the description-matched method selects foils based on their match to the witness's description of the perpetrator. Theoretical analyses and previous results predict an advantage for description-matched lineups both in terms of correctly identifying the perpetrator and minimizing false identification of innocent suspects. The advantage for description-matched lineups should be particularly pronounced if the foils selected in suspect-matched lineups are too similar to the suspect. In Experiment 1, the lineups were created by trained police officers, and in Experiment 2, the lineups were constructed by undergraduate college students. The results of both experiments showed higher suspect-to-foil similarity for suspect-matched lineups than for description-matched lineups. However, neither experiment showed a difference in correct or false identification rates. Both experiments did, however, show that there may be an advantage for suspect-matched lineups in terms of no-pick and rejection responses. From these results, the endorsement of one method over the other seems premature.

  7. Dosimetric response of united, commercially available CTA foils for sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Peimel-Stuglik, Z

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of two kinds of untinted CTA foils: Fuji CTR-125 dosimetric foil and technical CTA-T foil, produced by 'Zaklady Chemiczne, 'Gorzow Wielkopolski' as support for light-sensitive layers of amateur photo-films, for sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma ray dosimetry was investigated. In spite of rather bad physical parameters of the technical foil (spread of foil thickness, high and different initial absorbance) the dosimetric response of both foils for sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays was similar. The CTA-T foil can be used for routine dosimetry providing that dosimetric signals have to be calculated exactly as recommended by the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard, i.e. as the difference of absorbance of irradiated and (the same) non-irradiated foil. Any other approach may lead to high errors of dose evaluation. The last is true also for other CTA foils, especially after long self-life.

  8. Dosimetric response of united, commercially available CTA foils for 60Co gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peimel-Stuglik, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of two kinds of untinted CTA foils: Fuji CTR-125 dosimetric foil and technical CTA-T foil, produced by 'Zaklady Chemiczne, 'Gorzow Wielkopolski' as support for light-sensitive layers of amateur photo-films, for 60 Co gamma ray dosimetry was investigated. In spite of rather bad physical parameters of the technical foil (spread of foil thickness, high and different initial absorbance) the dosimetric response of both foils for 60 Co gamma rays was similar. The CTA-T foil can be used for routine dosimetry providing that dosimetric signals have to be calculated exactly as recommended by the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard, i.e. as the difference of absorbance of irradiated and (the same) non-irradiated foil. Any other approach may lead to high errors of dose evaluation. The last is true also for other CTA foils, especially after long self-life. (author)

  9. Optimisation of solar collector foils with transparent thermal insulation. Final report; Optimierung von transparent waermegedaemmten Folien-Speicherkollektoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, M

    1995-02-01

    The report describes storage collector foils which are used as hybrid systems. Contents: State of the art - solar test facility - tests on small test collectors - cost reduction. (HW) [Deutsch] Es wird berichtet ueber Folien-Speicherkollektoren, die als Hybridsysteme zum Einsatz kommen. Inhalt der Arbeit: - Stand der Technik - solare Testanlage - Untersuchungen an kleinen Testkollektoreinheiten - Kostenreduzierung. (HW)

  10. An Experimental Study on Micro Clinching of Metal Foils with Cutting by Laser Shock Forming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Li, Cong; Ma, Youjuan; Shen, Zongbao; Sun, Xianqing; Sha, Chaofei; Gao, Shuai; Li, Liyin; Liu, Huixia

    2016-07-13

    This paper describes a novel technique for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils, namely micro clinching with cutting by laser shock forming. A series of experiments were conducted to study the deformation behavior of single layer material, during which many important process parameters were determined. The process window of the 1060 pure aluminum foils and annealed copper foils produced by micro clinching with cutting was analyzed. Moreover, similar material combination (annealed copper foils) and dissimilar material combination (1060 pure aluminum foils and 304 stainless steel foils) were successfully achieved. The effect of laser energy on the interlock and minimum thickness of upper foils was investigated. In addition, the mechanical strength of different material combinations joined by micro clinching with cutting was measured in single lap shearing tests. According to the achieved results, this novel technique is more suitable for material combinations where the upper foil is thicker than lower foil. With the increase of laser energy, the interlock increased while the minimum thickness of upper foil decreased gradually. The shear strength of 1060 pure aluminum foils and 304 stainless steel foils combination was three times as large as that of 1060 pure aluminum foils and annealed copper foils combination.

  11. An Experimental Study on Micro Clinching of Metal Foils with Cutting by Laser Shock Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel technique for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils, namely micro clinching with cutting by laser shock forming. A series of experiments were conducted to study the deformation behavior of single layer material, during which many important process parameters were determined. The process window of the 1060 pure aluminum foils and annealed copper foils produced by micro clinching with cutting was analyzed. Moreover, similar material combination (annealed copper foils and dissimilar material combination (1060 pure aluminum foils and 304 stainless steel foils were successfully achieved. The effect of laser energy on the interlock and minimum thickness of upper foils was investigated. In addition, the mechanical strength of different material combinations joined by micro clinching with cutting was measured in single lap shearing tests. According to the achieved results, this novel technique is more suitable for material combinations where the upper foil is thicker than lower foil. With the increase of laser energy, the interlock increased while the minimum thickness of upper foil decreased gradually. The shear strength of 1060 pure aluminum foils and 304 stainless steel foils combination was three times as large as that of 1060 pure aluminum foils and annealed copper foils combination.

  12. Acceleration of polyethelene foils by laser driven ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.; Burginyon, G.A.; Haas, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    The production of thermonuclear energy, by laser driven implosion of spherical DT shells, with achievable laser technology, requires the development of an efficient and stable implosion. Certain aspects of the acceleration of the spherical shells can be studied experimentally by irradiating thin, 5 to 25 μm, polyethelene foils. The results of foil acceleration experiments performed using a Nd:YAG-Glass laser capable of producing 150 J, 1 nsec pulses will be discussed. The dynamics of the accelerated foil, the ion blow off, high energy electron spectrum (6 to 180 keV), x-ray spectrum (1 to 150 keV) the spatial distribution of the x-ray emission, the laser beam focal spot energy distribution, the laser temporal pulse shape and spectrum for reflected and transmitted radiation have all been measured simultaneously. The results of these measurements are compared with detailed numerical simulations. (U.S.)

  13. Development of single mask GEM foils in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, L.M.; Mohanty, A.K.; Pinto, O.J.; Gadhadharan, S.; Menon, Pradeep; Sharma, Archana; Oliveira, Rui De; )

    2014-01-01

    There are various techniques available around the globe for making punch through holes for Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs), such as Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). The GEM foils consists of 5 μm of Cu clad on both the sides of 50 μm polymide (PMMA/kapton) (5/50/5). At present these foils are developed in South Korea without having any adhesive between the Cu and polymide. The available techniques range from chemical etching, reactive plasma etching and laser etching. However, for GEM detectors, having an active area upto 5000 cm 2 , the chemical etching process using a Single Mask has been developed at CERN which is faster from the viewpoint of mass production of such foils for the upgrades which are foreseen in a couple of years with the Large Hadron Collider facility at CERN

  14. Effects of film/foil interactions on X-ray image quality - experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, H.J.; Goos, F.

    1985-01-01

    When assessing the quality of X-ray images, the interaction between film and foil should never be left out of account. Except for the case of green-emitting foils which require green-emitting films, films and foils are normally regarded separately, so that many variations are possible. The authors review the interaction between film and foil under practical aspects. Studies published so far have concentrated either on the amplification factor of foils or an the object imaging characteristics of certain films. Systematic studies on the interaction between film and foil have never been carried out. (orig.) [de

  15. Two-dimensional thermal simulations of aluminum and carbon ion strippers for experiments at SPIRAL2 using the highest beam intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, N.A.; Kim, V.; Lamour, E.; Lomonosov, I.V.; Piriz, A.R.; Rozet, J.P.; Stöhlker, Th.; Sultanov, V.; Vernhet, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on two-dimensional numerical simulations of heating of a rotating, wheel shaped target impacted by the full intensity of the ion beam that will be delivered by the SPIRAL2 facility at Caen, France. The purpose of this work is to study heating of solid targets that will be used to strip the fast ions of SPIRAL2 to the required high charge state for the FISIC (Fast Ion–Slow Ion Collision) experiments. Strippers of aluminum with different emissivities and of carbon are exposed to high beam current of different ion species as oxygen, neon and argon. These studies show that carbon, due to its much higher sublimation temperature and much higher emissivity, is more favorable compared to aluminum. For the highest beam intensities, an aluminum stripper does not survive. However, problem of the induced thermal stresses and long term material fatigue needs to be investigated before a final conclusion can be drawn.

  16. Electrochemically replicated smooth aluminum foils for anodic alumina nanochannel arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biring, Sajal; Tsai, K-T; Sur, Ujjal Kumar; Wang, Y-L

    2008-01-01

    A fast electrochemical replication technique has been developed to fabricate large-scale ultra-smooth aluminum foils by exploiting readily available large-scale smooth silicon wafers as the masters. Since the adhesion of aluminum on silicon depends on the time of surface pretreatment in water, it is possible to either detach the replicated aluminum from the silicon master without damaging the replicated aluminum and master or integrate the aluminum film to the silicon substrate. Replicated ultra-smooth aluminum foils are used for the growth of both self-organized and lithographically guided long-range ordered arrays of anodic alumina nanochannels without any polishing pretreatment

  17. Compliant Foil Journal Bearings - Investigation of Dynamic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Santos, Ilmar

    . The influence of explicit and implicit boundary conditions are also investigated. Theoretical results for pressures, shaft equilibrium positions and film thickness are presented and compared to experimental results [17, 19]. A good agreement between experimental and theoretical results are found for large loads....../compliance of the foil structure is presented. The compliance of the foil structure is incorporated implicitly in the Reynolds equation which is accomplished through a modification of the film gap function [8]. The resulting non-linear equation is perturbed and solved by use of the finite element method following...

  18. The transmission of fast molecular ions through thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, W.J.; Gemmell, D.S.; Cooney, P.J.; Kanter, E.P.; Kurath, D.; Ratkowski, A.J.; Vager, Z.; Zabransky, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    We present new results on the transmission of fast molecular ions through thin foils and propose a mechanism for the transmission process. The main feature of the postulated mechanism is that a finite fraction of the incident molecular beam does not undergo a strong Coulomb explosion while traversing the foil. Because the emerging fragments are at large internuclear separations, there is an enhanced probability for the formation of bound, long-range, excited electronic states following electron capture at the rear surface of the target. (orig.)

  19. Transmission of fast molecular ions through thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, W.J.; Gemmell, D.S.; Cooney, P.J.; Kanter, E.P.; Kurath, D.; Ratkowski, A.J.; Vager, Z.; Zabransky, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    New results on the transmission of fast molecular ions through thin foils are presented and a mechanism for the transmission process is proposed. The main feature of the postulated mechanism is that a finite fraction of the incident molecular beam does not undergo a strong Coulomb explosion while traversing the foil. Because the emerging fragments are at large internuclear separations, there is an enhanced probability for the formation of bound, long-range, excited electronic states following electron capture at the rear surface of the target

  20. Performance Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP)Free Chemical Paint Strippers on Military Coatings for Validation to Federal Specification TT-R-2918A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ARL-TN-0742 ● MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Performance Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP)–Free Chemical Paint...the originator. ARL-TN-0742 ● MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Performance Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP...COVERED (From - To) 1–30 April 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Performance Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP)–Free Chemical Paint Strippers

  1. Concept Feasibility Report for Electroplating Zirconium onto Uranium Foil - Year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, Greg W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meinhardt, Kerry D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pederson, Larry R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Fuel Fabrication Capability within the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor Conversion Program is funded through the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) NA-26 (Office of Material Management and Minimization). An investigation was commissioned to determine the feasibility of using electroplating techniques to apply a coating of zirconium onto depleted uranium/molybdenum alloy (U-10Mo). Electroplating would provide an alternative method to the existing process of hot roll-bonding zirconium foil onto the U-10Mo fuel foil during the fabrication of fuel elements for high-performance research reactors. The objective of this research was to develop a reproducible and scalable plating process that will produce a uniform, 25 μm thick zirconium metal coating on U-10Mo foil. In previous work, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established a molten salt electroplating apparatus and protocol to plate zirconium metal onto molybdenum foil (Coffey 2015). During this second year of the research, PNNL furthered this work by moving to the U-10Mo alloy system (90 percent uranium:10 percent molybdenum). The original plating apparatus was disassembled and re-assembled in a laboratory capable of handling low-level radioactive materials. Initially, the work followed the previous year’s approach, and the salt bath composition was targeted at the eutectic composition (LiF:NaF:ZrF4 = 26:37:37 mol%). Early results indicated that the formation of uranium fluoride compounds would be problematic. Other salt bath compositions were investigated in order to eliminate the uranium fluoride production (LiF:NaF = 61:39 mol% and LiF:NaF:KF = 46.5:11.5:42 mol% ). Zirconium metal was used as the crucible for the molten salt. Three plating methods were used—isopotential, galvano static, and pulsed plating. The molten salt method for zirconium metal application provided high-quality plating on molybdenum in PNNL’s previous work. A key advantage of this approach is that

  2. Development of a new foil compounded from carbon nanotubes and sputter-deposition carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroo Hasebe; Hironori Kuboki; Hiroki Okuno; Isao Yamane; Hiroshi Imao; Nobuhisa Fukunishi; Masayuki Kase; Osamu Kamigaito

    2014-01-01

    New carbon-nanotube-sputter-deposition-carbon (CNT-SDC) foils were developed and used in the U beam time at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) from October to December 2011. The lifetimes of these new foils were drastically extended, and stable, high-intensity U beams were successfully provided to users. The lifetime of the CNT-SDC foils was 2-5 C, which was 100 times longer than those of static C-foils previously used. The qualitative analysis of the CNT-SDC foils clearly showed that the CNT structure and bundles were broken by beam irradiation. In addition, it was found that CNT bundles in the CNT-SDC foil were grown after the carbon deposition procedure. This structure was considered to be the reason that the CNT-SDC foils maintain advantages of both CNT and SDC foils. (author)

  3. Nonlinear Analysis of Rotors Supported by Air Foil Journal Bearings – Theory and Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen

    with a good margin of rotordynamical stable operation. To ensure this, good mathematical models, capable of accurately predicting the dynamic behaviour of the rotor-bearing system, are required at the design stage. This thesis focuses on developing and improving existing mathematical models for predicting...... mechanical behaviour of the bump foils was carefully examined. A mathematical model capable of predicting this nonlinear behaviour was developed and compared to the experimental results with good agreement. With the second test rig, the overall nonlinear behaviour of the rotor-bearing system was investigated...

  4. Method for determining thickness and composition of foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessiger, V.

    1984-01-01

    Subject of the invention is a radiometric method for simultaneous determination of the thickness or mass per unit area and the chemical composition of foils consisting of two or more components. The method is based on the measurement of the attenuation of several components of a suitable polychromatic radiation

  5. PHYTOTOXICOLOGICAL TESTS - APPLICATIONS OF FOILS BASED ON GRAPHENE (GRAPHENE OXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra ROUPCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problematics of phytotoxicity of chemicals. It mainly focuses on the phytotoxicity of nanomaterials made of graphene. It describes phytotoxicological tests performed with foils from materials belonging to the graphene family. It also describes testing the influence of plants on these films. Furthermore, the paper discusses the issues of mutual influence between plants and tested nanomaterials.

  6. Tribalism as a Foiled Factor of Africa Nation-Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okogu, J. O.; Umudjere, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper tends to examine tribalism as a foiled factor on Africa nation-building and proffers useful tips to salvaging the Africa land from this deadly social problem. Africans in times past had suffered enormous attacks, injuries, losses, deaths, destruction of properties and human skills and ideas due to the presence of tribalistic views in…

  7. Dose reader of dosimetric foil; Czytnik dawki folii dozymetrycznej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B.; Strzalkowski, J.; Smolko, K.

    1997-12-31

    Read out the absorbance of a dosimetric foil is accomplished by two beam spectrophotometer. Such a solution makes possible the compensation of light source instabilities and ensures higher stability of the dose reader. The error of absorbance measurement caused by the instabilities does not exceed 0.0004 A. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs.

  8. Preparation of isotopic molybdenum foils utilizing small quantities of material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, A. R.; Lee, L. L.; Liang, J. F.; Mahon, J. C.

    1993-09-01

    A simple method utilizing a small amount of isotopic material for production of molybdenum foils is discussed. An e-gun is used in the procedure. The Mo powder undergoes reduction-sintering and melting-solidifying steps leading to the creation of a metallic droplet suitable for further cold rolling or vacuum deposition.

  9. Material Properties of Laser-Welded Thin Silicon Foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Hessmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An extended monocrystalline silicon base foil offers a great opportunity to combine low-cost production with high efficiency silicon solar cells on a large scale. By overcoming the area restriction of ingot-based monocrystalline silicon wafer production, costs could be decreased to thin film solar cell range. The extended monocrystalline silicon base foil consists of several individual thin silicon wafers which are welded together. A comparison of three different approaches to weld 50 μm thin silicon foils is investigated here: (1 laser spot welding with low constant feed speed, (2 laser line welding, and (3 keyhole welding. Cross-sections are prepared and analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD to reveal changes in the crystal structure at the welding side after laser irradiation. The treatment leads to the appearance of new grains and boundaries. The induced internal stress, using the three different laser welding processes, was investigated by micro-Raman analysis. We conclude that the keyhole welding process is the most favorable to produce thin silicon foils.

  10. Modified Monkman–Grant relationship for austenitic stainless steel foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman Ali, Hassan, E-mail: hassaninsan@gmail.com [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Tamin, Mohd Nasir, E-mail: taminmn@fkm.utm.my [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2013-02-15

    Characteristics of creep deformation for austenitic stainless steel foils are examined using the modified Monkman–Grant equation. A series of creep tests are conducted on AISI 347 steel foils at 700 °C and different stress levels ranging from 54 to 221 MPa. Results showed that at lower stress levels below 110 MPa, the creep life parameters ε{sub min},ε{sub r},t{sub r} can be expressed using the modified Monkman–Grant equation with exponent m′= 0.513. This indicates significant deviation of the creep behavior from the first order reaction kinetics theory for creep (m′ = 1.0). The true tertiary creep damage in AISI 347 steel foil begins after 65.9% of the creep life of the foil has elapsed at stress levels above 150 MPa. At this high stress levels, Monkman–Grant ductility factor λ{sup ′} saturates to a value of 1.3 with dislocation-controlled deformation mechanisms operating. At low stress levels, λ{sup ′} increases drastically (λ{sup ′}=190 at 54 MPa) when slow diffusion-controlled creep is dominant.

  11. Microcutting and forming of thin aluminium foils for MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Mortensen, Dennis; Rombach, Pirmin

    2011-01-01

    . The relation between applied pressure and forming and cutting features has been characterized for a specific set of stamp geometries and boundary conditions. The results show that 10 μm forming features can be transferred to 4 m thick Al foils, which simultaneously can be cut into products by 25 μm wide cut...

  12. The Visualization of Infrared Radiation Using Thermal Sensitive Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a set of demonstration school experiments where infrared radiation is detected using thermal sensitive foils. The possibility of using standard glass lenses for infrared imaging is discussed in detail. It is shown that with optic components made from glass, infrared radiation up to 2.5 µm of wavelength can be detected. The…

  13. Implants with 32P-foils for LDR-brachytherapy of benign stenosis in urology and gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assmann, Walter; Becker, Ricarda; Otto, Henrike

    2013-01-01

    For LDR-brachytherapy, a limited number of implant geometries and materials are available. To avoid wound healing related hyper-proliferation (stenosis, keloids) a novel radioactive foil system was developed based on beta emitting 32 P, which can be easily integrated in existing implants such as urethral catheters or bile duct stents. As substrate material for these foils PEEK (polyetherethercetone) was chosen because of its radiation hardness during neutron activation of 32 P. The activity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and gamma spectroscopy, dose distributions were measured with scintillation detectors and radiochromic films. The correlation between activity and dose was checked by Monte-Carlo-simulations (Geant4). Prototypes of the 32 P-implants have shown in wash-out tests the required tightness for sealed radioactive sources. In animal tests on urethra and bile duct, the uncomplicated and save application of 32 P-foils mounted on standard implants has been demonstrated, which is almost unchanged due to the simple radiation protection with plexiglass. This concept of radioactive implants with integrated 32 P-foils could extend essentially the application possibilities of LDR-brachytherapy. (orig.)

  14. [Implants with 32P-foils for LDR-brachytherapy of benign stenosis in urology and gastroenterology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Walter; Becker, Ricarda; Otto, Henrike; Bader, Markus; Clemente, Lucas; Reinhardt, Sabine; Schäfer, Claus; Schirra, Jörg; Uschold, Stephanie; Welzmüller, Andreas; Sroka, Ronald

    2013-02-01

    For LDR-brachytherapy, a limited number of implant geometries and materials are available. To avoid wound healing related hyper-proliferation (stenosis, keloids) a novel radioactive foil system was developed based on beta emitting (32)P, which can be easily integrated in existing implants such as urethral catheters or bile duct stents. As substrate material for these foils PEEK (polyetherethercetone) was chosen because of its radiation hardness during neutron activation of (32)P. The activity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and gamma spectroscopy, dose distributions were measured with scintillation detectors and radiochromic films. The correlation between activity and dose was checked by Monte-Carlo-simulations (Geant4). Prototypes of the (32)P-implants have shown in wash-out tests the required tightness for sealed radioactive sources. In animal tests on urethra and bile duct, the uncomplicated and save application of (32)P-foils mounted on standard implants has been demonstrated, which is almost unchanged due to the simple radiation protection with plexiglass. This concept of radioactive implants with integrated (32)P-foils could extend essentially the application possibilities of LDR-brachytherapy. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Investigation of methods to prepare carbon foils and to determine their thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoji; Guan Shouren; Luo Xinghua; Meng Xiangjin

    1988-01-01

    The development and study of methods to prepare carbon foils and to determine their thicknesses are described. The methods of making carbon foils consist of carbon-arc evaporation, resistance heating, electron bombardment, cracking ethylene and centrifugal precipitation. Weighing, α-particle measurement, Rutherford backscattering and spectrophotometer are used to determine the thickness of carbon foils

  16. Experimental and theoretical analysis of a rigid rotor supported by air foil bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Hansen, Asger J. T.; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of compressors utilizing foil bearings is increasing. Their mechanical design is challenging, and an accurate prediction of the bearing coefficients is important. A mathematical model taking into account the foil structure, and the detailed geometry of a three pad foil bearing...

  17. Heat suppression of the fiber coating on a cladding light stripper in high-power fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming-Jian; Wang, Zheng; Meng, Ling-Qiang; Yin, Lu; Han, Zhi-Gang; Shen, Hua; Wang, Hai-Lin; Zhu, Ri-Hong

    2018-01-20

    We present a theoretical model for the thermal effect of the fiber coating on a high-power cladding light stripper, which is fabricated by chemical etching. For the input and output of the fiber coating, a novel segmented corrosion method and increasing attenuation method are proposed for heat suppression, respectively. The relationship between the attenuation and temperature rise of the fiber coating at the output is experimentally demonstrated. The temperature distribution of the fiber coating at the input as well as the return light power caused by scattering are measured for the etched fiber with different surface roughness values. The results suggest that the rise in temperature is primarily caused by the scattering light propagating into the coating. Finally, an attenuation of 27 dB is achieved. At a room temperature of 23°C and input pump power of 438 W, the highest temperature of the input fiber coating decreases from 39.5°C to 27.9°C by segmented corrosion, and the temperature rise of the output fiber coating is close to 0.

  18. Non-destructive Quantitative Phase Analysis and Microstructural Characterization of Zirconium Coated U-10Mo Fuel Foils via Neutron Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, Dustin Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hollis, Kendall Jon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dombrowski, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-18

    This report uses neutron diffraction to investigate the crystal phase composition of uranium-molybdenum alloy foils (U-10Mo) for the CONVERT MP-1 Reactor Conversion Project, and determines the effect on alpha-uranium contamination following the deposition of a Zr metal diffusion layer by various methods: plasma spray deposition of Zr powders at LANL and hot co-rolling with Zr foils at BWXT. In summary, there is minimal decomposition of the gamma phase U-10Mo foil to alpha phase contamination following both plasma spraying and hot co-rolling. The average unit cell volume, i.e. lattice spacing, of the Zr layer can be mathematically extracted from the diffraction data; co-rolled Zr matches well with literature values of bulk Zr, while plasma sprayed Zr shows a slight increase in the lattice spacing, indicative of interstitial oxygen in the lattice. Neutron diffraction is a beneficial alternative to conventional methods of phase composition, i.e. x ray diffraction (XRD) and destructive metallography. XRD has minimal penetration depth in high atomic number materials, particularly uranium, and can only probe the first few microns of the fuel plate; neutrons pass completely through the foil, allowing for bulk analysis of the foil composition and no issues with addition of cladding layers, as in the final, aluminum-clad reactor fuel plates. Destructive metallography requires skilled technicians, cutting of the foil into small sections, hazardous etching conditions, long polishing and microscopy times, etc.; the neutron diffraction system has an automated sample loader and can fit larger foils, so there is minimal analysis preparation; the total spectrum acquisition time is ~ 1 hour per sample. The neutron diffraction results are limited by spectra refinement/calculation times and the availability of the neutron beam source. In the case of LANSCE at Los Alamos, the beam operates ~50% of the year. Following the lessons learned from these preliminary results, optimizations to

  19. Non-destructive Quantitative Phase Analysis and Microstructural Characterization of Zirconium Coated U-10Mo Fuel Foils via Neutron Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, Dustin Ray; Vogel, Sven C.; Hollis, Kendall Jon; Brown, Donald William; Dombrowski, David E.

    2016-01-01

    This report uses neutron diffraction to investigate the crystal phase composition of uranium-molybdenum alloy foils (U-10Mo) for the CONVERT MP-1 Reactor Conversion Project, and determines the effect on alpha-uranium contamination following the deposition of a Zr metal diffusion layer by various methods: plasma spray deposition of Zr powders at LANL and hot co-rolling with Zr foils at BWXT. In summary, there is minimal decomposition of the gamma phase U-10Mo foil to alpha phase contamination following both plasma spraying and hot co-rolling. The average unit cell volume, i.e. lattice spacing, of the Zr layer can be mathematically extracted from the diffraction data; co-rolled Zr matches well with literature values of bulk Zr, while plasma sprayed Zr shows a slight increase in the lattice spacing, indicative of interstitial oxygen in the lattice. Neutron diffraction is a beneficial alternative to conventional methods of phase composition, i.e. x ray diffraction (XRD) and destructive metallography. XRD has minimal penetration depth in high atomic number materials, particularly uranium, and can only probe the first few microns of the fuel plate; neutrons pass completely through the foil, allowing for bulk analysis of the foil composition and no issues with addition of cladding layers, as in the final, aluminum-clad reactor fuel plates. Destructive metallography requires skilled technicians, cutting of the foil into small sections, hazardous etching conditions, long polishing and microscopy times, etc.; the neutron diffraction system has an automated sample loader and can fit larger foils, so there is minimal analysis preparation; the total spectrum acquisition time is ~ 1 hour per sample. The neutron diffraction results are limited by spectra refinement/calculation times and the availability of the neutron beam source. In the case of LANSCE at Los Alamos, the beam operates ~50% of the year. Following the lessons learned from these preliminary results, optimizations to

  20. Chirality and grain boundary effects on indentation mechanical properties of graphene coated on nickel foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuping; Lv, Jiajiang; Liu, Sheng

    2018-04-01

    We investigate chirality and grain boundary (GB) effects on indentation mechanical properties of graphene coated on nickel foil using molecular dynamics simulations. The models of graphene with different chirality angles, different numbers of layers and tilt GBs were established. It was found that the chirality angle of few-layer graphene had a significant effect on the load bearing capacity of graphene/nickel systems, and this turns out to be more significant when the number of layers is greater than one. The enhancement to the contact stiffness, elastic capacity and the load bearing capacity of graphene with tilt GBs was lower than that of pristine graphene.

  1. The combination of an industrial X-ray-film with a vacuum-adapter instead of a foil-less industrial X-ray-film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, C.S.; Rotte, K.

    1980-01-01

    In clinical routine it was proved, how far an industrial X-ray-film in combination with the low-dose-system gives the same evidence as an foil-less industrial X-ray-film. Patients which had got in the past a mammography at both sides with a foil-less industrial X-ray-film received a mammography at both sides with the low-dose-system. Both X-rays were compared in the following criteria: artefacts, micro-calcifications, structure-differentiation, difinition, contrast, exposure, time of diagnosis and overal impression. Considering an evident dose reduction by the low-dose-system the result is, that a film-foil-combination with a vacuum-adapter is available without impairment of diagnostic evidence in clinical routine. (orig.) [de

  2. Development, characterization and qualification of first GEM foils produced in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aashaq; Ahmed, Asar; Gola, Mohit; Sharma, Ram Krishna; Malhotra, Shivali; Kumar, Ashok; Naimuddin, Md.; Menon, Pradeep; Srinivasan, K.

    2018-06-01

    The increasing demand for Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils has been driven by their application in many current and proposed high-energy physics experiments. Micropack, a Bengaluru-based company, has established and commercialized GEM foils for the first time in India. Micropack used the double-mask etching technique to successfully produce 10 cm × 10 cm GEM foil. In this paper, we report on the development as well as the geometrical and electrical properties of these foils, including the size uniformity of the holes and leakage current measurements. Our characterization studies show that the foils are of good quality and satisfy all the necessary quality control criteria.

  3. X-ray imaging and 3D reconstruction of in-flight exploding foil initiator flyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willey, T. M., E-mail: willey1@llnl.gov; Champley, K., E-mail: champley1@llnl.gov; Hodgin, R.; Lauderbach, L.; Bagge-Hansen, M.; May, C.; Buuren, T. van [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Sanchez, N.; Jensen, B. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Iverson, A. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada 89193 (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Exploding foil initiators (EFIs), also known as slapper initiators or detonators, offer clear safety and timing advantages over other means of initiating detonation in high explosives. This work outlines a new capability for imaging and reconstructing three-dimensional images of operating EFIs. Flyer size and intended velocity were chosen based on parameters of the imaging system. The EFI metal plasma and plastic flyer traveling at 2.5 km/s were imaged with short ∼80 ps pulses spaced 153.4 ns apart. A four-camera system acquired 4 images from successive x-ray pulses from each shot. The first frame was prior to bridge burst, the 2nd images the flyer about 0.16 mm above the surface but edges of the foil and/or flyer are still attached to the substrate. The 3rd frame captures the flyer in flight, while the 4th shows a completely detached flyer in a position that is typically beyond where slappers strike initiating explosives. Multiple acquisitions at different incident angles and advanced computed tomography reconstruction algorithms were used to produce a 3-dimensional image of the flyer at 0.16 and 0.53 mm above the surface. Both the x-ray images and the 3D reconstruction show a strong anisotropy in the shape of the flyer and underlying foil parallel vs. perpendicular to the initiating current and electrical contacts. These results provide detailed flyer morphology during the operation of the EFI.

  4. Simultaneous laser cutting and welding of metal foil to edge of a plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernicka, J.C.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1996-03-19

    A method is described for welding an ultra-thin foil to the edge of a thicker sheet to form a vacuum insulation panel comprising the steps of providing an ultra-thin foil having a thickness less than 0.002, providing a top plate having an edge and a bottom plate having an edge, clamping the foil to the edge of the plate wherein the clamps act as heat sinks to distribute heat through the foil, providing a laser, moving the laser relative to the foil and the plate edges to form overlapping weld beads to weld the foil to the plate edges while simultaneously cutting the foil along the weld line formed by the overlapping beads. 7 figs.

  5. Birefringence and dichroism of poly(vinyl-alcohol) foils containing phthalazinium ylids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogojanu, Alina; Dascalu, Carmen Felicia; Zelinschi, Beatrice Carmen; Caprosu, Maria; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2011-10-01

    Pure and colored with phthalazinium ylids poly(vinyl-alcohol) (PVA) foils were stretched under gentile heating. The birefringence of the thin foils was determined with a Babinet compensator standardized for yellow radiation of a Sodium lamp. The determined birefringence of the colored PVA foils is higher than that of the pure PVA foils. This fact indicates that the phthalazinium ylids facilitate the increase in the anisotropy of the stretched foils. The visible absorption electronic band of phthalazinium ylids was used to estimate the dichroic ratio and the degree of order of the ylid molecules in the stretched PVA foils. An increase in dichroism and birefringence with the degree of stretching has been evidenced for uncolored and colored PVA foils.

  6. Laser spot welding of cobalt-based amorphous metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runchev, Dobre; Dorn, Lutc; Jaferi, Seifolah; Purbst, Detler

    1997-01-01

    The results concerning weldability of amorphous alloy (VAC 6025F) in shape of foils and the quality of laser-spot welded joints are presented in this paper. The aim of the research was the production of a high quality welding joint, by preserving the amorphous structure. The quality of the joint was tested by shear strength analysis and microhardness measuring. The metallographic studies were made by using optical microscope and SEM. The results show that (1) overlapped Co based amorphous metals foils can be welded with high-quality by a pulsed Nd: YAG-Laser, but only within a very narrow laser parameter window; (2) the laser welded spots show comparably high strength as the basic material; (3) the structure of the welded spot remains amorphous, so that the same characteristics as the base material can be achieved. (author)

  7. Wavelength shifting reflector foils for liquid Ar scintillation light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Manuel [Physik Institut, Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Liquid argon is used as a scintillator in several present and upcoming experiments. In Gerda it is used as a coolant, shielding and will be instrumented to become an active veto in Phase II. Its scintillation light has a wavelength of 128 nm, that gets absorbed by quartz. In order to measure the light using photo multiplier tubes (PMT) for cryogenic temperatures which have a quartz window, it is converted to longer wavelength by coated reflector foils. The conversion efficiency and stability of several such coatings was optimized using VM2000 and Tetratex separately as reflector foils. The efficiency has been measured in a liquid Ar set up build especially for this purpose. It employs a 3'' low radioactivity PMT of type R11065-10 from Hamamatsu, the favorite photo sensor candidate to be used in Gerda.

  8. Thrombogenicity tests on ar-irradiated polycarbonate foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trindade, Gustavo F.; Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Silva, Tiago F.; Moro, Marcos V.; Added, Nemitala; Tabacniks, Manfredo H., E-mail: g.ferraz@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Delgado, Adriana O. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Cunha, Tatiana F. [Biosintesis P and D do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Higa, Olga Z. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Understanding polymer surface properties is extremely important for the most wide range of their applications, from basic coating to the most complex composites and biomaterials. Low energy ion beam irradiation of polymer can improve such surface properties. By modifying its surface biocompatibility, polymers are excellent candidates for biomaterials, due to its malleability and low weight, when compared to metals. In this work, we irradiated 30-μm Bisphenol-A Polycarbonate foils with 23-keV Argon ion beam at six different doses. Aluminium foils were simultaneously irradiated in order to measure the doses by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The surface modifications after the argon ion beam irradiation were analyzed by water contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. Platelet adhesion tests were used in order to investigate thrombogenicity, showing a growing tendency with the irradiated Argon dose. (author)

  9. Ground effect on a self-propelled undulatory foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Chao, Liming; Pan, Guang

    2018-04-01

    The unsteady ground effect on a self-propelled undulatory foil is numerically investigated in this paper. The situation can be widely found in nature especially for fish swimming near the ground. In this study, frequency varies from 0.1 Hz to 2 Hz and distance from the ground varies from 0.2 L to 1 L. Under most kinematics, the ground has a negative effect on the performance of the foil. The swimming velocity slows down, power spend increases and swimming economy reduces. The higher frequency can produce a larger negative effect. Only at the low frequencies f = 0.1 Hz, 0.25 Hz and 0.5 Hz with distance of 0.2 L the velocity can be enhanced by 18%, 6%, 0.8%, respectively. The lift production is found to be increased. The link between the performance and the wake dynamics is also established by studying the vortex structures.

  10. Plasma flow switch and foil implosion experiments on Pegasus II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, J.C.; Bartsch, R.R.; Benage, J.R.; Forman, P.R.; Gribble, R.F.; Ladish, J.S.; Oona, H.; Parker, J.V.; Scudder, D.W.; Shlachter, J.S.; Wysocki, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    Pegasus II is the upgraded version of Pegasus, a pulsed power machine used in the Los Alamos AGEX (Above Ground EXperiments) program. A goal of the program is to produce an intense (> 100 TW) source of soft x-rays from the thermalization of the kinetic energy of a 1 to 10 MJ plasma implosion. The radiation pulse should have a maximum duration of several 10's of nanoseconds and will be used in the study of fusion conditions and material properties. The radiating plasma source will be generated by the thermalization of the kinetic energy of an imploding cylindrical, thin, metallic foil. This paper addresses experiments done on a capacitor bank to develop a switch (plasma flow switch) to switch the bank current into the load at peak current. This allows efficient coupling of bank energy into foil kinetic energy

  11. Convergent beam thickness determination of thin foil zirconium specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cann, C.D.

    1978-07-01

    The use of convergent beam patterns to determine the thickness of zirconium foils observed in the electron microscope has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. On the basis of many-beam dynamical theory calculations, the [1012], [1013], and [1120] reflections at an accelerating voltage of 100 kV and the [1013], [1120], and [1122] reflections at 200 kV were found most suitable for convergent beam thickness determinations. Experimental convergent beam patterns were obtained in the JEOL-200B electron microscope under two different sets of conditions based on the size of the pattern desired. Computer assisted analysis of the patterns obtained gave foil thicknesses in good agreement with those determined from thickness extinction contours. (author)

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOLITHIC FUEL FOIL PROPERTIES AND BOND STRENGTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D E Burkes; D D Keiser; D M Wachs; J S Larson; M D Chapple

    2007-01-01

    Understanding fuel foil mechanical properties, and fuel/cladding bond quality and strength in monolithic plates is an important area of investigation and quantification. Specifically, what constitutes an acceptable monolithic fuel--cladding bond, how are the properties of the bond measured and determined, and what is the impact of fabrication process or change in parameters on the level of bonding? Currently, non-bond areas are quantified employing ultrasonic determinations that are challenging to interpret and understand in terms of irradiation impact. Thus, determining mechanical properties of the fuel foil and what constitutes fuel/cladding non-bonds is essential to successful qualification of monolithic fuel plates. Capabilities and tests related to determination of these properties have been implemented at the INL and are discussed, along with preliminary results

  13. Temperature dependence of the beam-foil interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, T.J.; Berry, H.G.

    1978-01-01

    The beam energy dependence between 50 and 200 keV of the linear polarization fraction (M/I) of the 2s 1 S--3p 1 P, 5016 A transition in He I on temperature was measured. The thin carbon exciter foils were heated externally by nichrome resistance elements. The measurements of Hight et al. are duplicated; the energy and current dependences are the same for corresponding between beam heating and external heating. It was also observed that γ, the number of slow secondary electrons produced per incident ion, decreases with increasing foil temperature. These two effects, in conjunction, offer a plausible explanation for the variation of polarization with beam current density. 5 figures

  14. Thrombogenicity tests on ar-irradiated polycarbonate foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, Gustavo F.; Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Silva, Tiago F.; Moro, Marcos V.; Added, Nemitala; Tabacniks, Manfredo H.; Cunha, Tatiana F.; Higa, Olga Z.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding polymer surface properties is extremely important for the most wide range of their applications, from basic coating to the most complex composites and biomaterials. Low energy ion beam irradiation of polymer can improve such surface properties. By modifying its surface biocompatibility, polymers are excellent candidates for biomaterials, due to its malleability and low weight, when compared to metals. In this work, we irradiated 30-μm Bisphenol-A Polycarbonate foils with 23-keV Argon ion beam at six different doses. Aluminium foils were simultaneously irradiated in order to measure the doses by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The surface modifications after the argon ion beam irradiation were analyzed by water contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. Platelet adhesion tests were used in order to investigate thrombogenicity, showing a growing tendency with the irradiated Argon dose. (author)

  15. A new method for alkaline dissolution of uranium metal foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, A.V.; Wilkinson, M.V.; Manzini, A.C.

    2001-01-01

    In order to develop a production process of 99 Mo by fission of low-enriched uranium, the first purification step, which consists of dissolution of a uranium metal foil target, was studied. It was found that alkaline NaClO gave good results, reaching the dissolution of up to 300 μm of uranium foil. The different conditions for the dissolution were studied and the optimum ones were found. The influence of NaClO and NaOH concentration, temperature, dissolving solution volume per unit of surface and dissolution time were investigated. During this step, a gas identified as H 2 , was generated, and a precipitate characterized as Na 2 U 2 O 7 was observed. A stoichiometric reaction for this uranium dissolution is proposed. (author)

  16. Oxidation-assisted graphene heteroepitaxy on copper foil

    OpenAIRE

    Reckinger, Nicolas; Tang, Xiaohui; Joucken, Frédéric; Lajaunie, Luc; Arenal, Raul; Dubois, Emmanuel; Hackens, Benoît; Henrard, Luc; Colomer, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    We propose an innovative, easy-to-implement approach to synthesize large-area singlecrystalline graphene sheets by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil. This method doubly takes advantage of residual oxygen present in the gas phase. First, by slightly oxidizing the copper surface, we induce grain boundary pinning in copper and, in consequence, the freezing of the thermal recrystallization process. Subsequent reduction of copper under hydrogen suddenly unlocks the delayed reconstruction, f...

  17. Beam-foil level lifetimes in krypton III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coetzer, F.J.; Kotze, P.B.; Westhuizen, P. van der

    1982-01-01

    The radiative lifetimes of levels in doubly-ionized Krypton have been measured after foil excitation of a beam of Krypton particles in the wavelength range 120-500 nm. The results are compared with the experimental values obtained by Fink et al., as well as theoretical values resulting from Coulomb (C.A.) and single configuration Hartree-Fock (H.F.) calculations. (orig.)

  18. Ablative acceleration of thin foil targets by intense proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, S.; Ozaki, T.; Imasaki, K.; Higaki, S.; Nakai, S.

    1981-01-01

    A focused proton beam of up to 2 x 10 10 w/cm 2 was obtained using pinch-reflex ion diode connected to Reiden IV generator. Experiments of beam target interaction have been done using thin foil targets. In this power range the interaction was explained classically. The experimental dependence of ablation pressure on proton beam intensity was obtained as P sub(a) = 3 x 10 -3 I sup(0.7) bar (I in w/cm 2 ). (author)

  19. Effect of phototherapy with alumunium foil reflectors on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ijong Dachlan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NH is one of the most common problems in neonates, but it can be treated with blue light phototherapy. Developing countries with limited medical equipment and funds have difficulty providing effective phototherapy to treat NH, leading to increased risk of bilirubin encephalopathy. Phototherapy with white reflecting curtains can decrease the duration of phototherapy needed to reduce bilirubin levels. Objective To compare the duration of phototherapy needed in neonates with NH who underwent phototherapy with and without aluminum foil reflectors. Methods This open clinical trial was conducted from July to August 2013 at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. The inclusion criteria were term neonates with uncomplicated NH presenting in their first week of life. Subjects were randomized into two groups, those who received phototherapy with or without aluminum foil reflectors. Serum bilirubin is taken at 12th, 24th, 48th hours, then every 24 hours if needed until phototherapy can be stopped according to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. The outcome measured was the duration of phototherapy using survival analysis. The difference between the two groups was tested by Gehan method. Results Seventy newborns who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and had similar characteristics were randomized into two groups. The duration of phototherapy needed was significantly less in the group with aluminum foil reflectors than in the group without reflectors [72 vs. 96 hours, respectively, (P<0.01]. Conclusion The required duration of phototherapy with aluminum foil reflectors is significantly less than that of phototherapy without reflectors, in neonates with NH.

  20. Thermoelectric and Hall-effect studies in hydrogenerated nickel foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, R.; Nigam, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    Thermo e.m.f. and Hall constant of hydrogenerated nickel foils have been measured. Termo e.m.f. shows a sign reversal which is not due to the change in sign of the charge carriers, as indicated by the Hall-effect measurements. To account for the sign reversal of thermo e.m.f., it is found necessary to take into account the surface states of chemisorbed hydrogen on nickel

  1. Interaction of positron beams with thin silver foils and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rysholt Poulsen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental investigations of positron interactions with solid silver and the necessary platform to analyse the data have been presented. The main objective was to study Ps formation at a Ag(100) surface. The different ingredients of the scenario, including thermalization and diffusion of positrons and emission of Ps, were analysed and quantified in whatever way appropriate. The scattering and possible thermalization were described. The parametrization of Monte-Carlo simulated implantation profiles for semi-infinite materials were presented and the applicability of such profiles to thin foils assessed. The latter was done in conjunction with an analysis of experimental data on thermalization and diffusion in 1900 Aa Ag(100) foils. The necessity for MC simulated rather than parametrized implantation profiles was argued. The velocity of thermally desorbed Ps from a Ag(100) surface at ∼800 K appeared to obey and one-dimensional Maxwell Boltzmann distribution multiplied by a velocity dependent factor. More experimental investigations are needed before firm conclusions can be made on the nature of the emission process. The velocity distribution, though, was found to be near-thermal and indicative of the sample temperature. It has been shown that positrons can be converted into Ps atoms in the transmission geometry of a thin 1900 Aa Ag(100) foil with a high efficiency. Furthermore, 61% of the emitted Ps will have a mean velocity of v z =1.2x10 5 m/sec and 39% will have a maximum kinetic energy of 1.5 eV (v z =5.1x10 5 m/sec) at a foil temperature of 800 K, all velocities that are suitable for producing a 'dense' Ps gas target. (EG) 12 refs

  2. Without alternative. Oil-free piston compressor for foil production works with a half-load control system very efficiently; Ohne Alternative. Oelfreie Kolbenkompressoren fuer die Folienproduktion arbeiten mit Halblast-Steuerung sehr wirtschaftlich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlmeyer, N. [Buero fuer Kommunikation, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2003-09-29

    Oil-free piston compressors save in comparision to oil free screw compressors up to 20% of energy costs. The half-load control system enables a half conveyor rate without loss of efficiency. (GL) [German] Oelfrei verdichtende Kolbenkompressoren sparen im Vergleich zu oelfreien Schraubenverdichtern bis zu 20% an Energiekosten. Die Halblast-Steuerung ermoeglicht die halbe Liefermenge ohne Wirkungsgradverlust. (orig.)

  3. Material Parameters for Creep Rupture of Austenitic Stainless Steel Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, H.; Borhana, A.; Tamin, M. N.

    2014-08-01

    Creep rupture properties of austenitic stainless steel foil, 347SS, used in compact recuperators have been evaluated at 700 °C in the stress range of 54-221 MPa to establish the baseline behavior for its extended use. Creep curves of the foil show that the primary creep stage is brief and creep life is dominated by tertiary creep deformation with rupture lives in the range of 10-2000 h. Results are compared with properties of bulk specimens tested at 98 and 162 MPa. Thin foil 347SS specimens were found to have higher creep rates and higher rupture ductility than their bulk specimen counterparts. Power law relationship was obtained between the minimum creep rate and the applied stress with stress exponent value, n = 5.7. The value of the stress exponent is indicative of the rate-controlling deformation mechanism associated with dislocation creep. Nucleation of voids mainly occurred at second-phase particles (chromium-rich M23C6 carbides) that are present in the metal matrix by decohesion of the particle-matrix interface. The improvement in strength is attributed to the precipitation of fine niobium carbides in the matrix that act as obstacles to the movement of dislocations.

  4. Propulsive performance of pitching foils with variable chordwise flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyghami, Samane; Moored, Keith; Lehigh University Team

    2017-11-01

    Many swimming and flying animals propel themselves efficiently through water by oscillating flexible fins. These fins are not homogeneously flexible, but instead their flexural stiffness varies along their chord and span. Here we seek to evaluate the effect stiffness profile on the propulsive performance of pitching foils. Stiffness profile characterizes the variation in the local fin stiffness along the chord. To this aim, we developed a low order model of a functionally-graded material where the chordwise flexibility is modeled by two torsional springs along the chordline and the stiffness and location of the springs can be varied arbitrarily. The torsional spring structural model is then strongly coupled to a boundary element fluid model to simulate the fluid-structure interactions. Keeping the leading edge kinematics unchanged, we alter the stiffness profile of the foil and allow it to swim freely in response to the resulting hydrodynamic forces. We then detail the dependency of the hydrodynamic performance and the wake structure to the variations in the local structural properties of the foil.

  5. Electroplating of Uranium -Foil Target With Ni And Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husna AI Hasa, Muhammad; Suripto, Asmedi

    2001-01-01

    The uranium foil target, which was produced by rolling, was subjected to preparation treatment prior to the electroplating. The electroplating produced certain plate thickness on the foil surface. The electroplating was applied to the uranium foil of 71 mm long and 46 mm wide using plating materials of Ni and Zn. The plating is intended to serve as barrier for fission fragment recoils, which are produced during irradiation. The plate thickness produced by the electroplating was measured by a micrometer and an analytical balance. The electroplating with Ni produced plate-thickness of 8,9 mm when measured by the micrometer, or 11.4 mm when measured by the analytical balance, while the Zn electroplating produced greater plate-thickness, i.e. 16.2 mm by the micrometer measurement or 13.7 mm by the analytical balance measurement. The current efficiency of the electroplating was 62 % for Ni and 80 % for Zn. It was observed that the optimum condition for the electroplating depended on the plating materials, plating time, and current density. The plate-thickness produced under the optimum condition was 7-15 mm at 15 mA/cm 2 for Ni and ]0 mA/cm 2 for Zn with plating time of 60 minutes

  6. Comparison of EXAFS Foil Spectra from Around the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, S.D.; Bare, S.R.; Greenlay, N.; Azevedo, G.; Balasubramanian, M.; Barton, D.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Fakra, S.; Johannessen, B.; Newville, M.; Pena, J.; Pokrovski, G.S; Proux, O.; Priolkar, K.; Ravel, B.; Webb, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The EXAFS spectra of Cu and Pd foil from many different beamlines and synchrotrons are compared to address the dependence of the amplitude reduction factor (S 0 2 ) on beamline specific parameters. Even though S 0 2 is the same parameter as the EXAFS coordination number, the value for S 0 2 is given little attention, and is often unreported. The S 0 2 often differs for the same material due to beamline and sample attributes, such that no importance is given to S 0 2 -values within a general range of 0.7 to 1.1. EXAFS beamlines have evolved such that it should now be feasible to use standard S 0 2 values for all EXAFS measurements of a specific elemental environment. This would allow for the determination of the imaginary energy (Ei) to account for broadening of the EXAFS signal rather than folding these errors into an effective S 0 2 -value. To test this concept, we model 11 Cu-foil and 6 Pd-foil EXAFS spectra from around the world to compare the difference in S 0 2 - and Ei-values.

  7. Method for fabrication of ceramic dielectric films on copper foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beihai; Narayanan, Manoj; Dorris, Stephen E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2015-03-10

    The present invention provides a method for fabricating a ceramic film on a copper foil. The method comprises applying a layer of a sol-gel composition onto a copper foil. The sol-gel composition comprises a precursor of a ceramic material suspended in 2-methoxyethanol. The layer of sol-gel is then dried at a temperature up to about 250.degree. C. The dried layer is then pyrolyzed at a temperature in the range of about 300 to about 450.degree. C. to form a ceramic film from the ceramic precursor. The ceramic film is then crystallized at a temperature in the range of about 600 to about 750.degree. C. The drying, pyrolyzing and crystallizing are performed under a flowing stream of an inert gas. In some embodiments an additional layer of the sol-gel composition is applied onto the ceramic film and the drying, pyrolyzing and crystallizing steps are repeated for the additional layer to build up a thicker ceramic layer on the copper foil. The process can be repeated one or more times if desired.

  8. Use of CR-39 foils for personnel neutron dosimetry: improved electrochemical etching chambers and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.E.; Homann, S.G.; Westermark, J.

    1986-01-01

    The electrochemical etching procedures for the new dosimetry system that uses foils of CR-39 plastic has been improved. During 1985, the etching chambers were modified to correct several problems and the changes to the etching procedures were studied, which gave a more uniform track density and size. The currently recommended etch parameters are given. A new generation of CR-39 material from the manufacturer proved to have a considerably lower background track density and a higher sensitivity; the new foils are also more uniform in thickness, which eliminates the need to numerically compensate for thickness variations. The energy dependence of the CR-39 using monoenergetic neutrons from accelerators at Battelle Northwest Laboratories and at Los Alamos National Laboratory was determined. Some variation was found in the energy dependence, but it is believed this was caused by changes in the etching procedures and by uncertainties in the fluences of the neutrons from the accelerators. A means by which the counting of CR-39 tracks may be automated is suggested; this would be very useful in adapting the CR-39 dosimetry system to large-scale use

  9. Flexible CIGS solar cells on large area polymer foils with in-line deposition methods and application of alternative back contacts - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.

    2009-08-15

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the work performed within this project and also reports on synergies with other projects that helped to make a significant contribution to the development of CIGS thin film solar cells on flexible substrates such as polymer foils. The project's aims were to learn more about up-scaling issues and to demonstrate the abilities required for the processing of layers on large area polyimide foils for flexible CIGS solar cells. Custom-built evaporators that were designed and constructed in-house are described. A CIGS system for in-line deposition was also modified for roll-to-roll deposition and alternative electrical back contacts to conventional ones were evaluated on flexible polyimide foils. The objectives of the project and the results obtained are looked at and commented on in detail.

  10. Large-area compatible fabrication and encapsulation of inkjet-printed humidity sensors on flexible foils with integrated thermal compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Lopez, F; Quintero, A Vásquez; Mattana, G; Briand, D; De Rooij, N F

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the simultaneous fabrication of ambient relative humidity (RH) and temperature sensors arrays, inkjet-printed on flexible substrates and subsequently encapsulated at foil level. These sensors are based on planar interdigitated capacitors with an inkjet-printed sensing layer and meander-shaped resistors. Their combination allows the compensation of the RH signals variations at different temperatures. The whole fabrication of the system is carried out at foil level and involves the utilization of additive methods such as inkjet-printing and electrodeposition. Electrodeposition of the printed lines resulted in an improvement of the thermoresistors. The sensors have been characterized and their performances analyzed. The encapsulation layer does not modify the performances of the sensors in terms of sensitivity or response time. This work demonstrates the potential of inkjet-printing in the large-area fabrication of light-weight and cost-efficient gas sensors on flexible substrates. (paper)

  11. Two-dimensional modeling of x-ray output from switched foil implosions on Procyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, R. L.; Nakafuji, G.; Greene, A. E.; McLenithan, K. D.; Peterson, D. L.; Roderick, N. F.

    1996-09-01

    A series of two-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic calculations are presented of a Z-pinch implosion using a plasma flow switch. Results from a recent experiment using the high explosive driven generator Procyon, which delivered 16.5 MA to a plasma flow switch and switched about 15 MA into a static load, are used to study the implosion of a 29 mg load foil [J. H. Goforth et al., ``Review of the Procyon Explosive Pulsed Power System,'' in Ninth IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, June 1993, Albuquerque, edited by K. R. Prestwich and W. L. Baker (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 1993), p. 36]. The interaction of the switch with the load plasma and the effects of background plasma on the total radiation output is examined. Models which assume ideal switching are also included. Also included are the effects of perturbations in the load plasma which may be associated with initial vaporization of the load foil. If the background plasma density in the switch region and in the load region does not affect the dynamics, the pinch is predicted to produce a total radiation output of about 4 MJ. Including perturbations of the load plasma associated with switching and assuming a background plasma density after switching in excess of 10-7 g/cm3 results in a total output from the pinch of about 0.6 MJ.

  12. SMA Foils for MEMS: From Material Properties to the Engineering of Microdevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Manfred; Ossmer, Hinnerk; Gueltig, Marcel; Megnin, Christof

    2018-03-01

    In the early nineties, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has been still in its infancy. As silicon (Si) is not a transducer material, it was clear at the very beginning that mechanically active materials had to be introduced to MEMS in order to enable functional microdevices with actuation capability beyond electrostatics. At that time, shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been available in bulk form, mainly as SMA wires and SMA plates. On the macro scale, these materials show highest work densities compared to other actuation principles in the order of 107 J/m3, which stimulated research on the integration of SMA to MEMS. Subsequently, two approaches for producing planar materials have been initiated (1) magnetron sputtering of SMA thin films and (2) the integration of rolled SMA foils, which both turned out to be very successful creating a paradigm change in microactuation technology. The following review covers important milestones of the research and development of SMA foil-based microactuators including materials characterization, design engineering, technology, and demonstrator development as well as first commercial products.

  13. Plasma flow switch characterization for the Los Alamos Foil Implosion Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.; Greene, A.E.; Peterson, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The next system design under consideration for the Los Alamos Foil Implosion Project is projected to deliver tens of mega-amperes of electrical current produced by high-explosive driven flux compression generators on a time scale of about one microsecond to a load foil. The use of such generators, with time scales of order several tenths of a millisecond, leads to considerable pulse shaping problems. Previously it was noted that a commutating switch might serve as an efficient alternative to a closing switch in transferring current from a coaxial transmission line to a cylindrically imploding load. Research at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) has met with considerable success in efficiently transferring currents of order 10 MA to an imploding liner using the plasma flow switch concept (PFS). Besides efficiently transferring current, the plasma flow switch protects the load region from high voltages generated by an opening switch until the current is present to provide magnetic insulation. For these reasons, a PFS is being investigated as the final pulse shaping step in the design. A series of capacitor bank experiments is also being fielded to help investigate physics issues and to benchmark the codes

  14. SMA Foils for MEMS: From Material Properties to the Engineering of Microdevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Manfred; Ossmer, Hinnerk; Gueltig, Marcel; Megnin, Christof

    2017-12-01

    In the early nineties, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has been still in its infancy. As silicon (Si) is not a transducer material, it was clear at the very beginning that mechanically active materials had to be introduced to MEMS in order to enable functional microdevices with actuation capability beyond electrostatics. At that time, shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been available in bulk form, mainly as SMA wires and SMA plates. On the macro scale, these materials show highest work densities compared to other actuation principles in the order of 107 J/m3, which stimulated research on the integration of SMA to MEMS. Subsequently, two approaches for producing planar materials have been initiated (1) magnetron sputtering of SMA thin films and (2) the integration of rolled SMA foils, which both turned out to be very successful creating a paradigm change in microactuation technology. The following review covers important milestones of the research and development of SMA foil-based microactuators including materials characterization, design engineering, technology, and demonstrator development as well as first commercial products.

  15. Gas electron multiplier (GEM) foil test, repair and effective gain calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Zubair, Muhammad; Khan, Tufail A.; Khan, Ashfaq; Malook, Asad

    2018-06-01

    The focus of my research is based on the gas electron multiplier (GEM) foil test, repairing and effective gain calculation of GEM detector. During my research work define procedure of GEM foil testing short-circuit, detection short-circuits in the foil. Study different ways to remove the short circuits in the foils. Set and define the GEM foil testing procedures in the open air, and with nitrogen gas. Measure the leakage current of the foil and applying different voltages with specified step size. Define the Quality Control (QC) tests and different components of GEM detectors before assembly. Calculate the effective gain of GEM detectors using 109Cd and 55Fe radioactive source.

  16. Fuel cells based on the use of Pd foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabot, P. L.; Guezala, E. [Laboratori de Ciencia i Tecnologia Electroquimica de Materials, Barcelona (Spain); Casado, J. [Departamento de Investigacion, Carburos Metalicos, Barcelona (Spain)

    1999-10-01

    Fuel cells with hydrogen diffusion lead anodes are of particular interest because the ability of lead to filter hydrogen with 100 per cent selectively, thus making it possible to take impure hydrogen from industrial flue gases and use it as feedstock to produce clean energy. In this investigation an alkaline fuel cell with a Pd-based hydrogen diffusion anode combined with a carbon-PFTE oxygen diffusion cathode was built up and tested at low temperatures. The fuel cell was operated by feeding pure hydrogen and pure oxygen at atmospheric pressures and closing the circuit by means of different external loads. Quasi-stationary currents were obtained for each load when the Pd foils were assembled using elastic joints to allow the anode creasing. Experiments with different sections indicated that the anode was the limiting electrode. Results showed that the slowest reactions in the overall anodic process depend on the anode preparation. When Pd black was present only at the Pd/electrolyte interface, the slowest reaction occurred on the gas/Pd interface. For anodes with Pd black on both sides of the foil, the maximum anode power densities were 11 and 18 mW cm{sup 2} at 25 and 50 degrees C, respectively; the corresponding anode current densities were 30 and 65 mA cm{sup 2}. Significant improvements in the anode current and power densities were achieved via surface modification by cathodically charging Pd pieces with atomic hydrogen, and Pd foils with electrodeposited Pd+Pt blacks, obtaining roughly double the power and current density. 31 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Process analysis for the carbon dioxide chemical absorption–regeneration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madeddu, Claudio; Errico, Massimiliano; Baratti, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    The process analysis for the post-combustion CO2 capture using amine-based solvents is nowadays a fundamental step in its industrial scale design. In this work, the absorption-solvent regeneration system is deeply analyzed for different values of the loading in the solvent entering the absorber...... for the stripper is proposed together with a new criterion for the evaluation of the packing height. Finally, it is found that, in order to minimize the energy consumption in the stripper, the rich solvent must be sent at the highest possible temperature, taking into account the limitations imposed by the minimum...

  18. Modeling of high-pressure generation using the laser colliding foil technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbro, R.; Faral, B.; Virmont, J.; Cottet, F.; Romain, J.P.

    1989-03-01

    An analytical model describing the collision of two foils is presented and applied to the collision of laser-accelerated foils. Numerical simulations have been made to verify this model and to compare its results in the case of laser-accelerated foils. Scaling laws relating the different parameters (shock pressure, laser intensity, target material, etc.) have been established. The application of this technique to high-pressure equation of state experiments is then discussed.

  19. Modeling of high-pressure generation using the laser colliding foil technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbro, R.; Faral, B.; Virmont, J.; Cottet, F.; Romain, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical model describing the collision of two foils is presented and applied to the collision of laser-accelerated foils. Numerical simulations have been made to verify this model and to compare its results in the case of laser-accelerated foils. Scaling laws relating the different parameters (shock pressure, laser intensity, target material, etc.) have been established. The application of this technique to high-pressure equation of state experiments is then discussed

  20. The preparation and characterisation of reference fission foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenhove, J. van; Bievre, P. de; Pauwels, J.; Peetermans, F.; Gallet, M.; Verbruggen, A.

    1979-01-01

    Homogeneous and accurately defined uranium and plutonium reference fissionable deposits have been prepared by vacuum deposition of fluorides. The preparation of the fluorides as well as their vacuum deposition on planetary rotating multisubstrate holders are described. The characterisation of the deposits is obtained by relative α-counting and calibration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The mass per square centimeter of the deposits is corrected for the border effects and the homogeneity is determined by relative α-counting of small spots. The deposits show excellent adherence and resistance to different mediums. This makes their use as permanently available reference fission foils possible. (orig.)

  1. Optical observations of molecular dissociation in thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.; Gay, T.J.; Brooks, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    We have measured the intensity and polarizations of light emitted from atomic excited states of dissociated molecular ions. Using HeH + projectiles, we have observed factors of 1-5 enhancements of the light from n=3, sup(1,3)P,D states of He I and some He II and H I emissions. Observations of Lyman alpha emission after dissociation of H 2 + and H 3 + show rapid variations in light yield for small internuclear separations at the foil surface. (author)

  2. Measurement of neutron multiplication in Pb by Mn foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuan; Liu Rong; Guo Haiping; Jiang Wenmian; Shen Jian

    1994-01-01

    The Leakage neutron multiplication in bulk lead has been measured using the total absorption detector and relative method. The polyethylene sphere of 138 cm in diameter is used as the moderator and total absorption detector. The measured results from 55 Mn foils and 6 Li glass are compared. The neutron multiplication is 1.74 with the lead shell of 23.1 cm thick. The measured result is consistent with the calculated one with ANISN code and ENDF/B-6 evaluated data within the experimental error. (4 figs., 3 tabs.)

  3. System expectations for Pioneer I foil implosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, A.E.; Brownell, J.H.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Goforth, J.H.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Oliphant, T.A.; Weiss, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Prior to the beginning of the Pioneer I shot of the Los Alamos National Laboratory TRAIL-MASTER project, numerous computational simulations were run to provide ball-park estimates for the electrical currents and voltages in the circuit, the timing of the implosion, the kinetic energy, temperature, and radiation output of the load. The purpose of these calculations was to provide guidance in setting the timings of the various switches within the circuit and to establish operating ranges for the various diagnostics

  4. Visualization and Measurement of the Deflagration of JA2 Bonded to Various Metal Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    foil. Tapes had an acrylic -adhesive backing applied by the manufacturer. The conductive material, whether foil or tape, ran approximately ¾ the...event were obtained such that the 0.5-inch surface was facing the camera with the foil on the right edge. The thicknesses and tape/foil configuration...adhesive type, there were differences. A 2-mil Al tape was obtained from McMaster-Carr (product No. 7925A1). It had a 2- mil-thick acrylic adhesive

  5. Novel technique of making thin target foil of high density material via rolling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, C. K.; Rohilla, Aman; Singh, R. P.; Singh, Gurjot; Chamoli, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    The conventional rolling method fails to yield good quality thin foils of thicknesses less than 2 mg/cm2 for high density materials with Z ≥ 70 (e.g. gold, lead). A special and improved technique has been developed to obtain such low thickness good quality gold foils by rolling method. Using this technique thin gold foils of thickness in the range of 0.850-2.5 mg/cm2 were obtained in the present work. By making use of alcohol during rolling, foils of thickness 1 mg/cm2 can be obtained in shorter time with less effort.

  6. CFD Analysis of the Oscillating Flow within a Stirling Engine with an Additively Manufactured Foil Type Regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Songgang; Solomon, Laura

    2017-11-01

    The simplistic design, fuel independence, and robustness of Stirling convertors makes them the ideal choice for use in solar power and combined heat and power (CHP) applications. A lack of moving parts and the use of novel flexure bearings allows free-piston type Stirling engines to run in excess of ten years without degradation or maintenance. The key component to their overall efficiency is the regenerator. While a foil type regenerator outperforms a sintered random fiber regenerator, limitation in manufacturing and keeping uniform spacing between the foils has limited their overall use. However, with the advent of additive manufacturing, a robust foil type regenerator can be cheaply manufactured without traditional limitations. Currently, a CFD analysis of the oscillating internal flow within the novel design was conducted to evaluate the flow loses within the system. Particularly the pressure drop across the regenerator in comparison to a traditionally used random fiber regenerator. Additionally, the heat transfer and flow over the tubular heater hear was evaluated. The results of the investigation will be used to optimize the operation of the next generation of additively manufactured Stirling convertors. This research was supported by ARPA-E and West Virginia University.

  7. Multichord time-resolved electron temperature measurements by the x-ray absorber-foil method on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiraly, J.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.

    1985-09-01

    Absorber foils have been installed in the TFTR X-Ray Imaging System to permit measurement of the electron temperature along 10 to 30 chords spaced at 5-12.5 cm with a time resolution of less than 100 μs. The technique uses the ratio of x-ray fluxes transmitted through two different foils. The ratio depends mainly on electron temperature. Simulations show that strong impurity line radiation can distort this ratio. To correct for these effects, special beryllium-scandium filters are employed to select the line-free region between 2 and 4.5 keV. Other filter pairs allow corrections for Fe L and Ni L line radiation as well as Ti K and Ni K emission. Good accuracy is also obtained with simple beryllium filters, provided that impurity corrections are incorporated in the analysis, taking line intensities from the x-ray pulse-height analysis diagnostic. A description of modeling calculations and a comparison of temperature values from this diagnostic with data from the x-ray pulse height analysis, the electron cyclotron emission, and the Thomson scattering diagnostics are presented. Several applications of the absorber foil electron temperature diagnostic on TFTR are discussed

  8. Multichord time-resolved electron temperature measurements by the x-ray absorber-foil method on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiraly, J.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.; von Goeler, S.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Johnson, D.; McGuire, K.; Sauthoff, N.; Sesnic, S.

    1985-09-01

    Absorber foils have been installed in the TFTR X-Ray Imaging System to permit measurement of the electron temperature along 10 to 30 chords spaced at 5-12.5 cm with a time resolution of less than 100 ..mu..s. The technique uses the ratio of x-ray fluxes transmitted through two different foils. The ratio depends mainly on electron temperature. Simulations show that strong impurity line radiation can distort this ratio. To correct for these effects, special beryllium-scandium filters are employed to select the line-free region between 2 and 4.5 keV. Other filter pairs allow corrections for Fe L and Ni L line radiation as well as Ti K and Ni K emission. Good accuracy is also obtained with simple beryllium filters, provided that impurity corrections are incorporated in the analysis, taking line intensities from the x-ray pulse-height analysis diagnostic. A description of modeling calculations and a comparison of temperature values from this diagnostic with data from the x-ray pulse height analysis, the electron cyclotron emission, and the Thomson scattering diagnostics are presented. Several applications of the absorber foil electron temperature diagnostic on TFTR are discussed.

  9. RELIABILITY TESTING OF AN ON-HARVESTER COTTON WEIGHT MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A system for weighing seed cotton onboard stripper harvesters was developed and installed on several producer owned and operated machines. The weight measurement system provides critical information to producers when in the process of calibrating yield monitors or conducting on-farm research. The ...

  10. Monte Carlo transport of electrons and positrons through thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Idoeta, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the different measurements made with electrons traversing matter it becomes useful the knowledge of its transmission through that medium, their paths and their angular distribution through matter so as to process and get information about the traversed medium and to improve and innovate the techniques that employ electrons, as medical applications or materials irradiation. This work presents a simulation of the transport of beams of electrons and positrons through thin foils using an analog Monte Carlo code that simulates in a detailed way every electron movement or interaction in matter. As those particles penetrate thin absorbers it has been assumed that they interact with matter only through elastic scattering, with negligible energy loss. This type of interaction has been described quite precisely because its angular form influences very much the angular distribution of electrons and positrons in matter. With this code it has been calculated the number of particles, with energies between 100 and 3000 keV, that are transmitted through different media of various thicknesses as well as its angular distribution, showing a good agreement with experimental data. The discrepancies are less than 5% for thicknesses lower than about 30% of the corresponding range in the tested material. As elastic scattering is very anisotropic, angular distributions resemble a collimated incident beam for very thin foils becoming slowly more isotropic when absorber thickness is increased. (author)

  11. Nanocomposite of polystyrene foil grafted with metallaboranes for antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkocká, Monika; Kolářová, Kateřina; Matoušek, Jindřich; Semerádtová, Alena; Šícha, Václav; Kolská, Zdeňka

    2018-05-01

    The surface of polystyrene foil (PS) was chemically modified. Firstly, the surface was pre-treated with Piranha solution. The activated surface was grafted by selected amino-compounds (cysteamine, ethylenediamine or chitosan) and/or subsequently grafted with five members of inorganic metallaboranes. Selected surface properties were studied by using various methods in order to indicate significant changes before and after individual modification steps of polymer foil. Elemental composition of surface was conducted by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, chemistry and polarity by infrared spectroscopy and by electrokinetic analysis, wettability by goniometry, surface morphology by atomic force microscopy. Antimicrobial tests were performed on individual samples in order to confirm antimicrobial impact. Our results show slight antibacterial activity of PS modified with SK5 for Escherichia coli in comparison with the rest of the tested borane. On the other hand molecules of all tested metallaboranes could easier pierce through bacterial cell of Staphylococcus epidermidis due to absence of outer membrane (phospholipid bilayer). Some borane grafted on PS surface embodies the strong activity for Staphylococcus epidermidis and also for Desmodesmus quadricauda growth inhibition.

  12. A simple method for the measurement of reflective foil emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballico, M. J.; Ham, E. W. M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Reflective metal foil is widely used to reduce radiative heat transfer within the roof space of buildings. Such foils are typically mass-produced by vapor-deposition of a thin metallic coating onto a variety of substrates, ranging from plastic-coated reinforced paper to 'bubble-wrap'. Although the emissivity of such surfaces is almost negligible in the thermal infrared, typically less than 0.03, an insufficiently thick metal coating, or organic contamination of the surface, can significantly increase this value. To ensure that the quality of the installed insulation is satisfactory, Australian building code AS/NZS 4201.5:1994 requires a practical agreed method for measurement of the emissivity, and the standard ASTM-E408 is implied. Unfortunately this standard is not a 'primary method' and requires the use of specified expensive apparatus and calibrated reference materials. At NMIA we have developed a simple primary technique, based on an apparatus to thermally modulate the sample and record the apparent modulation in infra-red radiance with commercially available radiation thermometers. The method achieves an absolute accuracy in the emissivity of approximately 0.004 (k=2). This paper theoretically analyses the equivalence between the thermal emissivity measured in this manner, the effective thermal emissivity in application, and the apparent emissivity measured in accordance with ASTM-E408

  13. A simple method for the measurement of reflective foil emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballico, M. J.; van der Ham, E. W. M.

    2013-09-01

    Reflective metal foil is widely used to reduce radiative heat transfer within the roof space of buildings. Such foils are typically mass-produced by vapor-deposition of a thin metallic coating onto a variety of substrates, ranging from plastic-coated reinforced paper to "bubble-wrap". Although the emissivity of such surfaces is almost negligible in the thermal infrared, typically less than 0.03, an insufficiently thick metal coating, or organic contamination of the surface, can significantly increase this value. To ensure that the quality of the installed insulation is satisfactory, Australian building code AS/NZS 4201.5:1994 requires a practical agreed method for measurement of the emissivity, and the standard ASTM-E408 is implied. Unfortunately this standard is not a "primary method" and requires the use of specified expensive apparatus and calibrated reference materials. At NMIA we have developed a simple primary technique, based on an apparatus to thermally modulate the sample and record the apparent modulation in infra-red radiance with commercially available radiation thermometers. The method achieves an absolute accuracy in the emissivity of approximately 0.004 (k=2). This paper theoretically analyses the equivalence between the thermal emissivity measured in this manner, the effective thermal emissivity in application, and the apparent emissivity measured in accordance with ASTM-E408.

  14. Fission fragment assisted reactor concept for space propulsion: Foil reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The concept is to fabricate a reactor using thin films or foils of uranium, uranium oxide and then to coat them on substrates. These coatings would be made so thin as to allow the escaping fission fragments to directly heat a hydrogen propellant. The idea was studied of direct gas heating and direct gas pumping in a nuclear pumped laser program. Fission fragments were used to pump lasers. In this concept two substrates are placed opposite each other. The internal faces are coated with thin foil of uranium oxide. A few of the advantages of this technology are listed. In general, however, it is felt that if one look at all solid core nuclear thermal rockets or nuclear thermal propulsion methods, one is going to find that they all pretty much look the same. It is felt that this reactor has higher potential reliability. It has low structural operating temperatures, very short burn times, with graceful failure modes, and it has reduced potential for energetic accidents. Going to a design like this would take the NTP community part way to some of the very advanced engine designs, such as the gas core reactor, but with reduced risk because of the much lower temperatures

  15. Hydrodynamic studies on two traveling wavy foils in tandem arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Shao, Xue-Ming; Yu, Zhao-Sheng

    2007-11-01

    In this study, the hydrodynamic interactions between two tandem foils undergoing fishlike swimming motion are investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with the immersed-boundary method. The two foils represent two tandem propellers attached on a concept ship. The thrusts and efficiencies at three typical Strouhal numbers, i.e., St =0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, are investigated. The results show that a fish situated directly behind another one does not always undergo a lower thrust. Whether it experiences a thrust enhancement or reduction depends on the Strouhal number. At a relatively low Strouhal number (e.g., St =0.4), the usual wake drag-reduction effect predominates over the drag-enhancement effect caused by the reverse von Kármán vortices, resulting in a thrust enhancement. The opposite happens at a relatively high Strouhal number (e.g., St =0.8). The downstream fish can benefit from the upstream one by slalom between the vortices rather than through them. For the upstream fish, the thrusts and efficiencies for all Strouhal numbers studied are higher than those for a single fish when the two fish are closely spaced, and approach those for a single fish as the spacing is increased.

  16. Design of large size segmented GEM foils and Drift PCB for CBM MUCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, J.; Dubey, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-01-01

    Triple GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier), sector shaped detectors will be used for Muon tracking in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at Anti-proton Ion Research (FAIR) facility at Darmstadt, Germany. The sizes of the detectors modules in the Muon Chambers (MUCH) are of the order of 1 meter with active area of about 75cms. Progressive pad geometry is chosen for the readout from these detectors. In construction of these chambers, three GEM foils are stacked on top of each other in a 3/2/2/2 gap configuration. The GEM foils are double layered copper clad 50μm thin Kapton foil. Each GEM foil has millions of holes on it. Foils of large surface area are prone to damages due to discharges owing to the high capacitance of the foil. Hence, these foils have their top surfaces divided into segments of about 100 sq.cm. Further segmentation may be necessary when there are high rate requirements, as in the case of CBM. For the GEM foils of CBM MUCH, a 24 segment layout has been adopted. Short-circuit in any of the GEM-holes will make entire foil un-usable. To reduce such occurrences, segment to segment isolation using opto-coupler in series with the GEM-foil segments has been introduced. Hence, a novel design for GEM chamber drift-PCB and foils has been made. In this scheme, each segment is powered and controlled individually. At the same time, the design takes into account, the space constraints, not only in x-y plane, but also in the z, due to compact assembly of MUCH detector layers

  17. 26Al and 36Cl AMS system at University of Tsukuba: A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, Kimikazu; Nagashima, Yasuo; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Seki, Riki; Tosaki, Yuki; Sueki, Keisuke; Bessho, Kotaro; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Miura, Taichi; He, Ming

    2007-01-01

    With the current AMS system on the 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator at University of Tsukuba, we are able to measure the long-lived radioisotopes of 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl and 129 I by employing a molecular pilot beam method that stabilizes the terminal voltage with 0.1% accuracy. Several major improvements have been made to increase the sensitivity of the AMS system to 26 Al and 36 Cl radioisotopes. For 26 Al-AMS, the ions extracted from the ion source have been changed from Al - to AlO - by using an Al 2 O 3 target sample. In addition, 26 MgO - molecular ions are used as a pilot beam to control the terminal voltage through slit current feedback. Also, a fully-stripping AMS technique is used to achieve an effective detection limit of better than 5 x 10 -15 for the 26 Al/ 27 Al ratio. For 36 Cl-AMS, the terminal voltage has been increased from 9 MV to 10 MV, thereby increasing the energy of the 36 Cl 9+ beam to 100 MeV. This energy increment helps us to get a clearer separation between 36 Cl and 36 S in a new ΔE-E detector. In addition, the yield of 36 Cl 9+ is increased by 1.5 times as a result of the higher ion energy at the terminal stripper foil. The standard deviation of the fluctuations of the 36 Cl/ 35 Cl ratio is within ±2%, and the effective detection limit is better than 2.0 x 10 -14

  18. On the preparation of self-supporting zinc target foils of separated isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Isao.

    1975-01-01

    This is the second report on the practical method of preparation of targets for nuclear experiments following the previous one (INS-TL-121 (in Japanese)). In this report, a method is described for the preparation of self-supporting zinc foils from ZnO. The thicknesses of target foils and their uniformity were measured with an α-ray thickness gauge. (auth.)

  19. Bonding bare die LEDs on PET foils for lighting applications: Thermal design modeling and bonding experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Kusters, R.H.L.; Cauwe, M.; Waal, A. van der; Brand, J. van den

    2012-01-01

    Integration of LEDs on flexible foil substrates is of interest for flexible lighting applications and flexible photonic devices. A matrix of LEDs on a foil combined with a diffuser can be a potential alternative for flexible OLED lighting devices. Preferably, these LEDs are integrated in an

  20. Large area flexible lighting foils using distributed bare LED dies on polyester substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Kusters, R.H.L.; Cauwe, M.; Waal, A. van der; Brand, J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Integration of LEDs on flexible foil substrates is of interest for flexible lighting applications and for backlights for flexible displays. Such a large area lighting device can be made by integrating a matrix of closely spaced LEDs on a flexible foil substrate. Preferably, these LEDs are integrated

  1. Effects of polymer corrosion inhibitor on widening etch tunnels of aluminum foil for capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Chaolei; He, Yedong; Shao, Xin; Wang, Zhishen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •With PSSA, the exterior surface dissolution of etched Al foil is suppressed. •With PSSA, the interior surface dissolution of etched Al foil is facilitated. •With PSSA, the tunnels are widened along the entire length. •With PSSA, the area and capacitance of etched Al foil are significantly improved. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of polymeric corrosion inhibitor polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) additive to 3% HNO 3 solution on widening tunnels of pre-etched aluminum foil by electrochemical DC etching for aluminum electrolytic capacitors, using scanning electron microscopy and polarization curves. With trace PSSA, the dissolution of exterior surface of etch tunnels of Al foil is suppressed and the dissolution of interior surface of etch tunnels of Al foil is facilitated, respectively. The tunnels transform from circular cone to circular column in shape and pits-merging on the surface is weakened, leading to significant increase in the surface area and specific capacitance of the Al foil. The amounts of reduced thickness and weight of Al foil during the widening process of etch tunnels can be decreased if PSSA is employed

  2. Long-Term Memory for Pictures under Conditions of Difficult Foil Discriminability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Donald; Viera, Cynthia

    Research has demonstrated that subjects are sensitive to both thematic and non-thematic information in pictorial stimuli. Three experiments were conducted to investigate memory for pictures under conditions of difficult foil discriminability and lengthy retention intervals. The foils differed from the studied persons in the number and quality of…

  3. Flexible AMOLED display on polyethylene napthalate (PEN) foil with metal-oxide TFT backplane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripathi, A.K.; Putten, B. van der; Steen, J.L. van der; Tempelaars, K.; Cobb, B.; Ameys, M.; Ke, T.H.; Myny, K.; Steudel, S.; Nag, M.; Schols, S.; Vicca, P.; Smout, S.; Genoe, J.; Heremans, P.; Yakimets, I.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    We present a top emitting monochrome AMOLED display with 85dpi resolution using an amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (IGZO) TFT backplane on PEN-foil. Maximum processing temperature was limited to 150 °C in order to ensure an overlay accuracy < 3μm on PEN foil. The backplane process flow is based

  4. Corrections in the gold foil activation method for determination of neutron beam density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1967-01-01

    A finite foil thickness and deviation in the cross section from the 1ν law imply corrections in the determination of neutron beam densities by means of foil activation. These corrections, which depend on the neutron velocity distribution, have been examined in general and are given in a specific...

  5. Optimizing dc-resistance of a foil wounded toroidal inductor combining matlab and comsol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    An optimization routine is presented to optimize the shape of a foil winding of a toroid inductor in terms of the DC resistance. MATLAB was used to define the geometry of the foil winding and COMSOL was used to import the geometry and create a 3D finite element model. The initial parameters...

  6. The development of fast tantalum foil targets for short-lived isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, J R J; Drumm, P V; Ravn, H L

    2003-01-01

    The development of fast tantalum foil targets for short-lived isotopes was discussed. It was found that the effusion was faster but the diffusion out of the foils was a limiting factor. The performance of the targets at ISOLDE with beams of **1**1Li, **1**2Be and **1**4Be was also analyzed. (Edited abstract) 13 Refs.

  7. Fully solution-processed organic solar cells on metal foil substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2009-08-19

    We demonstrate fully solution-processed organic photovoltaic cells on metal foil substrates with power conversion efficiencies similar to those obtained in devices on transparent substrates. The cells are based on the regioregular poly- (3-hexylthiophene) and C61 butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction system. The bottom electrode is a silver film whose workfunction is lowered by Cs2CO3 using spin-coating to serve as a cathode. The transparent top anode consists of a conductive polymer in combination with a solution-processed silver nanowire mesh that is laminated onto the devices. Each layer of the device, including the transparent electrode, is fabricated from solution, giving rise to the possibility of completely printed solar cells on low-cost substrates.

  8. Evaluation of metal-foil strain gages for cryogenic application in magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freynik, H.S. Jr.; Roach, D.R.; Deis, D.W.; Hirzel, D.G.

    1977-01-01

    The requirement for the design and construction of large superconducting magnet systems for fusion research has raised a number of new questions regarding the properties of composite superconducting conductors. One of these, the effect of mechanical stress on the current-carrying capacity of Nb 3 Sn, is of major importance in determining the feasibility of constructing large magnets with this material. A typical experiment for determining such data involves the measurement of critical current versus magnetic field while the conductor is being mechanically strained to various degrees. Techniques are well developed for the current and field measurements, but much less so for the accurate measurement of strain at liquid-helium temperature in a high magnetic field. A study was made of commercial, metal-foil strain gages for use under these conditions. The information developed can also be applied to the use of strain gages as diagnostic tools in superconducting magnets

  9. Development of 99Mo isotope production targets employing uranium metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.; Wiencek, T.C.; Wood, E.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program has continued its effort in the past 3 yr to develop use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) to produce the fission product 99 Mo. This work comprises both target and chemical processing development and demonstration. Two major target systems are now being used to produce 99 Mo with highly enriched uranium-one employing research reactor fuel technology (either uranium-aluminum alloy or uranium aluminide-aluminum dispersion) and the other using a thin deposit of UO 2 on the inside of a stainless steel (SST) tube. This paper summarizes progress in irradiation testing of targets based on LEU uranium metal foils. Several targets of this type have been irradiated in the Indonesian RSG-GAS reactor operating at 22.5 MW

  10. Room temperature thin foil SLIM-cut using an epoxy paste: experimental versus theoretical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, Pierre; Serra, Joao; Bouchard, Pierre-Olivier; Bernacki, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The stress induced lift-off method (SLIM) -cut technique allows the detachment of thin silicon foils using a stress inducing layer. In this work, results of SLIM-cut foils obtained using an epoxy stress inducing layer at room temperature are presented. Numerical analyses were performed in order to study and ascertain the important experimental parameters. The experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. Indeed, large area (5 × 5 cm 2 ) foils were successfully detached at room temperature using an epoxy thickness of 900 μm and a curing temperature of 150 °C. Moreover, three foils (5 × 3 cm 2 ) with thickness 135, 121 and 110 μm were detached from the same monocrystalline substrate. Effective minority carrier lifetimes of 46, 25 and 20 μs were measured using quasi-steady-state photoconductance technique in these foils after iodine ethanol surface passivation. (paper)

  11. Lead foil in dental X-ray film: Backscattering rejection or image intensifier?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hönnicke, M.G.; Delben, G.J.; Godoi, W.C.; Swinka-Filho, V.

    2014-01-01

    Dental X-ray films are still largely used due to sterilization issues, simplicity and, mainly, economic reasons. These films almost always are double coated (double emulsion) and have a lead foil in contact with the film for X-ray backscattering rejection. Herein we explore the use of the lead foil as an image intensifier. In these studies, spatial resolution was investigated when images were acquired on the dental X-ray films with and without the lead foil. Also, the lead foil was subjected to atomic analysis (fluorescent measurements) and structure analysis (X-ray diffraction). We determined that the use of the lead foil reduces the exposure time, however, does not affect the spatial resolution on the acquired images. This suggests that the fluorescent radiation spread is smaller than the grain sizes of the dental X-ray films

  12. Lead foil in dental X-ray film: Backscattering rejection or image intensifier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Delben, G. J.; Godoi, W. C.; Swinka-Filho, V.

    2014-11-01

    Dental X-ray films are still largely used due to sterilization issues, simplicity and, mainly, economic reasons. These films almost always are double coated (double emulsion) and have a lead foil in contact with the film for X-ray backscattering rejection. Herein we explore the use of the lead foil as an image intensifier. In these studies, spatial resolution was investigated when images were acquired on the dental X-ray films with and without the lead foil. Also, the lead foil was subjected to atomic analysis (fluorescent measurements) and structure analysis (X-ray diffraction). We determined that the use of the lead foil reduces the exposure time, however, does not affect the spatial resolution on the acquired images. This suggests that the fluorescent radiation spread is smaller than the grain sizes of the dental X-ray films.

  13. Nondestructive analysis of silver in gold foil using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Masaaki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Nakanishi, Toshio; Shimoda, Osamu; Nishiwaki, Yoshinori; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Small particles of gold foil detached from an indoor decoration might be important evidence to associate a suspect with a crime scene. We have investigated the application of elemental analysis using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to discriminate small particles of gold foil. Eight kinds of gold foil samples collected in Japan were used in the experiments. As a result of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, only two elements, gold and silver, were detected from all gold foil samples. The intensity ratios of AgK α /AuL α showed good correlation with the content ratios of Ag/Au. The variation of intensity ratio within a same sample was sufficiently small compared with those of different samples. Therefore the comparison of this intensity ratio can be an effective method to discriminate small particles originating from different types of gold foil. (author)

  14. Irradiation tests of 99Mo isotope production targets employing uranium metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.; Wiencek, T.C.; Wood, E.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Suripto, A.; Nasution, H.; Lufti-Amin, D.; Gogo, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most of the world's supply of 99 mTc for medical purposes is currently produced from the decay of 99 Mo derived from the fissioning of high-enriched uranium (HEU). Substitution of low-enriched uranium (LEU) metal foils for the HEU UO 2 used in current target designs will allow equivalent 99 Mo yields with little change in target geometries. Substitution of uranium metal for uranium alloy and aluminide in other target designs will also allow the conversion of HEU to LEU. Several uranium-metal-foil targets have been fabricated at ANL and irradiated to prototypic burnup in the Indonesian RSG-GAS reactor. Postirradiation examination of the initial test indicated that design modifications were required to allow the irradiated foil to be removed for chemical processing. The latest test has shown good irradiation behavior, satisfactory dismantling and foil removal when the U-foil is separated from its containment by metallic, fission-recoil absorbing barriers. (author)

  15. Irradiation tests of 99Mo isotope production targets employing uranium metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.; Wiencek, T.C.; Wood, E.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Suripto, A.; Nasution, H.; Lufti-Amin, D.; Gogo, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most of the world's supply of 99m Tc for medical purposes is currently produced form the decay of 99 Mo derived from the fissioning of high-enriched uranium (HEU). Substitution of low-enriched uranium (LEU) metal foils for the HEU UO 2 used in current target designs will allow equivalent 99 Mo yields with little change in target geometries. Substitution of uranium metal for uranium alloy and aluminide in other target designs will also allow the conversion of HEU to LEU. Several uranium-metal-foil targets have been fabricated at ANL and irradiated to prototypic burnup in the Indonesian RSG-GAS reactor. Postirradiation examination of the initial test indicated that design modifications were required to allow the irradiated foil to be removed for chemical processing. The latest test has shown good irradiation behavior, satisfactory dismantling and foil removal when the U-foil is separated from its containment by metallic, fission-recoil absorbing barriers

  16. Oxidation-assisted graphene heteroepitaxy on copper foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckinger, Nicolas; Tang, Xiaohui; Joucken, Frédéric; Lajaunie, Luc; Arenal, Raul; Dubois, Emmanuel; Hackens, Benoît; Henrard, Luc; Colomer, Jean-François

    2016-11-10

    We propose an innovative, easy-to-implement approach to synthesize aligned large-area single-crystalline graphene flakes by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil. This method doubly takes advantage of residual oxygen present in the gas phase. First, by slightly oxidizing the copper surface, we induce grain boundary pinning in copper and, in consequence, the freezing of the thermal recrystallization process. Subsequent reduction of copper under hydrogen suddenly unlocks the delayed reconstruction, favoring the growth of centimeter-sized copper (111) grains through the mechanism of abnormal grain growth. Second, the oxidation of the copper surface also drastically reduces the nucleation density of graphene. This oxidation/reduction sequence leads to the synthesis of aligned millimeter-sized monolayer graphene domains in epitaxial registry with copper (111). The as-grown graphene flakes are demonstrated to be both single-crystalline and of high quality.

  17. Beam-foil lifetimes of highly ionized silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traebert, E.; Heckmann, P.H.; Buttlar, H. v.

    1977-01-01

    Electronically excited states of Si ions are created by passing a 20 MeV Si 5+ beam through a thin carbon foil. The EUV-radiation (lambda = 13-61 nm) emitted by the beam is analyzed using a grazing-incidence spectrometer. From the decay curves, lifetimes of 24 low lying levels in Si VIII to Si XII and of the 4f and 5g levels of Si XI and Si XII are derived. Cascades from doubly excited states turn out to be an important contribution to the radiation observed. The lifetime values of this work are compared to theoretical data mainly of Wiese, Sinanoglu and Dankwort/Trefftz. Most experimental values agree with at least one of the theoretical values. The decay time 560 ps of the 2s2p 3 3 D 0 3 state of Si IX is clearly longer than the theoretical prediction (highest value 455 ps by Sinanoglu). (orig.) [de

  18. Electron microscope observation of single - crystalline beryllium thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolin, J.; Poirier, J.P.; Dupouy, J.M.

    1965-01-01

    Thin foils prepared from single crystalline beryllium simples deformed at room temperature, have been observed by transmission electron microscopy. The various deformation modes have been investigated separately, from their early stages and their characteristic dislocation configurations have been observed. Basal slip is characterized at is outset by the presence of numerous dipoles and elongated prismatic loops. More pronounced cold work leads to the formation of dislocation tangles and bundles which eventually give a cellular structure. Prismatic slip begins by the cross-slip of dislocations from the basal plane into the prismatic plane. A cellular structure is equally observed in heavily deformed samples. Sessile dislocations have been observed in twin boundaries; they are produced by reactions between slip dislocations and twin dislocations. Finally, the study of samples quenched from 1100 deg. C and annealed at 200 deg. C has shown that the observed loops lie in prismatic planes and have a Burgers vector b 1/3 . (authors) [fr

  19. Print Quality of Ink Jet Printed PVC Foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kašiković

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital printing technique is used for a wide variety of substrates, one of which are PVC foils. Samples used in this research were printed by digital ink jet printing technique using Mimaki JV22 printing machine and J-Eco Subly Nano inks. As printing substrates, two different types of materials were used (ORACAL 640 - Print Vinyl and LG Hausys LP2712. A test card consisting of fields of CMYK colours was created and printed, varying the number of ink layers applied. Samples were exposed to light after the printing process. Spectrophotometric measurements were conducted before and after the light treatment. Based on spectrophotometricaly obtained data, colour differences ΔE2000 were calculated. Results showed that increasing number of layers, as well as the right choice of substrates, can improve the behaviour of printed product during exploitation.

  20. Unsteady force characteristics on foils undergoing pitching motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chang Jo

    2006-01-01

    In the present study the unsteady forces acting on the pitching foils such as a flat plate, NACA0010, NACA0020, NACA65-0910 and BTE have been measured by using a six-axis sensor in a circulating water tunnel at a low Reynolds number region. The unsteady characteristics of the dynamic drag and lift have been compared to the quasi-steady ones which are measured under the stationary condition. The pitching motion is available for keeping the lift higher after the separation occurs. Especially, the characteristics of the dynamic lift are quite different from the quasi-steady one at high pitching frequency regions. As the pitching frequency deceases, the amplitude of the dynamic lift becomes closer to the quasi-steady one. However, the phase remains different between the steady and unsteady conditions even at low pitching frequencies. On the other hand, the dynamic drag is governed strongly by the angle of attack

  1. Gas permeability through thin-foil x-ray filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveekrem, June L.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Webb, Andrew T.

    1997-10-01

    We have measured the permeation rates of helium and water through thin-foil UV-blocking filters used in the ASTRO-E/x- ray spectrometer (XRS) instrument. In the XRS program, there is a concern that outgassed contaminants such as water could permeate through the outermost filter which will be at room temperature and freeze on the inner filters which will be at cryogenic temperatures. The filters tested consisted of approximately 1000 angstroms Al on approximately 1000 angstroms of either Lexan or polyimide. Measurements were made using a vacuum apparatus consisting essentially of two small chambers separated by the filter under test. A helium leak detector was used to measure helium permeation rates, and a residual gas analyzer (RGA) was used to detect water. Results discussed include permeation rate as a function of pressure difference across a filter, the ratio of helium permeation rate over water permeation rate, and the effect of the aluminum layer thickness on permeation.

  2. Beam-foil spectroscopy of chlorine and sulfur ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frot, D.; Barchewitz, R.; Cukier, M.; Bruneau, J.

    1987-01-01

    We report on the measurement of spectra of highly stripped chlorine and sulfur ions in the energy ranges of, respectively, 2900 - 3500 eV and 2300 - 2600 eV. The spectra have been obtained after excitation of ions travelling through a thin carbon foil. X-rays emitted by the emerging beam are analysed with a Johann-type bent crystal spectrometer. The observation angle with respect to the beam axis is 54 0 . The interpretation of the spectra is performed by comparing experimental results with Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) calculated energies and intensities. All the lines are interpreted by 2p - ls transitions (K α spectrum) in excited ions with, respectively, H-, He-, Li-, Be- and B-like electron structures

  3. New membranes obtained by grafted irradiated PVDF foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzei, R.; García Bermúdez, G.; Camporotondi, D.E.; Arbeitman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes a new method to produce membranes of poly(Acrylic-acid-Xmonomer) using the grafting procedure. PVDF foils irradiated with Ar + beam with energies between 30 and 150 keV were employed as substratum. Different combinations of monomers in water solutions were used: acrylic acid (AAc); acrylic acid–glycidyl methacrylate (AAc–GMA); acrylic acid–styrene (AAc–S), acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide (AAc–NIPAAm) and acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide–glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-NIPAAm–GMA). A large percentage of grafting results for specific values of: ion fluence and energy, AAc and sulfuric acid concentration, and different substrata PVDF polymorphous (alpha or beta). At a particular time of the grafting process, the poly(AAc-Xmonomer) membranes detach from the substratum and continue their grafting in the solution. This method is useful to produce increased replicated membranes of the irradiated original surface.

  4. Recalibration of indium foil for personnel screening in criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, C; Tsujimura, N; Mikami, S

    2011-03-01

    At the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), small pieces of indium foil incorporated into personal dosemeters have been used for personnel screening in criticality accidents. Irradiation tests of the badges were performed using the SILENE reactor to verify the calibration of the indium activation that had been made in the 1980s and to recalibrate them for simulated criticalities that would be the most likely to occur in the solution process line. In addition, Monte Carlo calculations of the indium activation using the badge model were also made to complement the spectral dependence. The results lead to a screening level of 15 kcpm being determined that corresponds to a total dose of 0.25 Gy, which is also applicable in posterior-anterior exposure. The recalibration based on the latest study will provide a sounder basis for the screening procedure in the event of a criticality accident.

  5. New membranes obtained by grafted irradiated PVDF foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzei, R. [Unidad de Actividades Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, Laboratorio de Polimeros, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garcia Bermudez, G. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Camporotondi, D.E., E-mail: camporotondi@cae.cnea.gov.ar [Unidad de Actividades Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, Laboratorio de Polimeros, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arbeitman, C. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2012-09-15

    The present work describes a new method to produce membranes of poly(Acrylic-acid-Xmonomer) using the grafting procedure. PVDF foils irradiated with Ar{sup +} beam with energies between 30 and 150 keV were employed as substratum. Different combinations of monomers in water solutions were used: acrylic acid (AAc); acrylic acid-glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-GMA); acrylic acid-styrene (AAc-S), acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide (AAc-NIPAAm) and acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide-glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-NIPAAm-GMA). A large percentage of grafting results for specific values of: ion fluence and energy, AAc and sulfuric acid concentration, and different substrata PVDF polymorphous (alpha or beta). At a particular time of the grafting process, the poly(AAc-Xmonomer) membranes detach from the substratum and continue their grafting in the solution. This method is useful to produce increased replicated membranes of the irradiated original surface.

  6. Use of special radioactive molds of gold-198 foils for brachytherapy in skin tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marco Antonio Rodrigues

    2000-01-01

    This work presents a methodology for manufacturing molds of radioactive gold-198 foils for treatment of skin tumors. The metallic purity of the gold foils produced by the Brazilian market is analyzed and compared to the characteristics of imported materials. Techniques for analyses of the activation homogeneity and dose profile in the plane of the mold are presented. The MicroShield, Version 4 System is used in the theoretical determination of the dose rate along the radioactive molds with different geometries and a comparison with experimental values obtained by optic density readings from special films used in quality control of radiotherapy equipment, dosimetry for thimble ionization chamber and thermoluminescent dosimeters is performed. The dosimeter calibration curve (dose-answer) obtained for the gold-198 energy, is compared with that obtained by a high dose rate iridium-192 small source, commonly used in the brachytherapy procedures. The studies show that the best homogeneity of dose distribution is obtained distributing the radioactive material in the form of concentric rings, with different activities, in number and dimensions dependent on the area to be treated. The method of the radiation dose calculation of the molds presented in this work, is compared with the traditional method used by brachytherapy services for low dose rate. Twenty lesions were treated with the proposed molds. The effectiveness of this methodology is further supported by the cosmetic-therapeutic results of the clinical applications, as well as cost analysis of the procedures. Also, it is analyzed the homogeneity of the dose rate distribution for an irradiated disk with attenuation by two silver coin, objectifying to eliminate loss of mass and consequently uncertainties in the activation when the sections of the disks are made in concentric rings. (author)

  7. Health status of cows fed maize silage covered with oxo-biodegradable foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr SZTERK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural practice, silage production uses pure, low density polyethylene foil. This foil, after use, becomes farm waste, having a negative impact on the environment. Instead of conventional foil, an environmentally safe biodegradable foil can be used, made from naturally occurring polymers or from synthetic multiparticulates, easily degradable by microorganisms. Silage covered with this type of foil should be safe for animal health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether oxo-biodegradable film could be used instead of conventional film in agricultural practice, to produce silage that is safe for the cows' health. Dairy cows were fed a partly mixed ratio (PMR, the component of which was silage made of whole maize plants, covered with oxo-biodegradable foil. The cow blood serum was marked for content of: glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triacylglycerols and enzyme activity: aspartic and alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase and amylase. The total protein concentration in the serum of cows analyzed at the end of the experiment was higher than the commonly accepted normal values. The content of glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerols and the activity of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase and amylase was within reference limits. Feeding of silage from whole maize plants covered withoxo-biodegradable foil did not negatively affect the biochemical indicators of the cows' blood serum. The silage proved to be safe for the cows' health.

  8. Transient oxidation of Al-deposited Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, A.

    1997-01-01

    The oxide phases formed on an Al-deposited Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil and an Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil of the same levels of Al and (La+Ce) contents, and their oxidation kinetics have been studied in air at 1173 and 1373 K using TGA, XRD and SEM. Al deposition promotes the growth of metastable aluminas (θ-Al 2 O 3 , γ-Al 2 O 3 ). Scales consisting of θ-Al 2 O 3 and a small amount of α-Al 2 O 3 develop on the Al-deposited foil at 1173 K and exhibit the whisker-type morphology. In the early stage of oxidation at 1373 K, thick scales consisting of θ-Al 2 O 3 and α-Al 2 O 3 grow rapidly on the Al-deposited foil. The transformation from θ-Al 2 O 3 to α-Al 2 O 3 is very fast, and the scales result in only α-Al 2 O 3 . In contrast, α-Al 2 O 3 scales containing a minor amount of FeAl 2 O 4 develop on the alloy foil. The growth rate of α-Al 2 O 3 scales on the Al-deposited foil is smaller than that on the alloy foil and very close to that on NiAl at 1373 K. (orig.)

  9. Goal-directed mechanisms that constrain retrieval predict subsequent memory for new "foil" information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, David A; Bonnici, Heidi M; Bergström, Zara M; Ranganath, Charan; Simons, Jon S

    2016-08-01

    To remember a previous event, it is often helpful to use goal-directed control processes to constrain what comes to mind during retrieval. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that incidental learning of new "foil" words in a recognition test is superior if the participant is trying to remember studied items that were semantically encoded compared to items that were non-semantically encoded. Here, we applied subsequent memory analysis to fMRI data to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the "foil effect". Participants encoded information during deep semantic and shallow non-semantic tasks and were tested in a subsequent blocked memory task to examine how orienting retrieval towards different types of information influences the incidental encoding of new words presented as foils during the memory test phase. To assess memory for foils, participants performed a further surprise old/new recognition test involving foil words that were encountered during the previous memory test blocks as well as completely new words. Subsequent memory effects, distinguishing successful versus unsuccessful incidental encoding of foils, were observed in regions that included the left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior parietal cortex. The left inferior frontal gyrus exhibited disproportionately larger subsequent memory effects for semantic than non-semantic foils, and significant overlap in activity during semantic, but not non-semantic, initial encoding and foil encoding. The results suggest that orienting retrieval towards different types of foils involves re-implementing the neurocognitive processes that were involved during initial encoding. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of Kelvin probe force microscopy for identification of CVD grown graphene flakes on copper foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Mehta, B. R.; Kanjilal, D.

    2017-05-01

    Graphene flakes have been grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method on Cu foils. The obtained graphene flakes have been characterized by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The graphene flakes grown on Cu foil comprise mainly single layer graphene and confirm that the nucleation for graphene growth starts very quickly. Moreover, KPFM has been found to be a valuable technique to differentiate between covered and uncovered portion of Cu foil by graphene flakes deposited for shorter duration. The results show that KPFM can be a very useful technique in understanding the mechanism of graphene growth.

  11. Development of super thin foil metal supported catalyst; Chousuhaku metal tantai shokubai no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanji, F; Takada, T [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to improve warm-up performance, high heat resistance and long life durability of catalysts, the reduction of the metal support heat capacity has been focused. The effects of both reducing foil thickness and lowering cell density on low heat capacity have been investigated. As a result of engine bench and vehicle test, it was apparent that the reduction of foil thickness has greater effects. Newly developed 30 {mu} m foil thickness metal supported catalyst has quicker warm-up performance, and its structural durability up to 950degC is confirmed. 3 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Full size U-10Mo monolithic fuel foil and fuel plate fabrication-technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.A.; Jue, J-F.; Rabin, B.H.; Nilles, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full-size U-10Mo foils are being developed for use in high density LEU monolithic fuel plates. The application of a zirconium barrier layer to the foil is performed using a hot co-rolling process. Aluminium clad fuel plates are fabricated using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) or a Friction Bonding (FB) process. An overview is provided of ongoing technology development activities, including: the co-rolling process, foil shearing/slitting and polishing, cladding bonding processes, plate forming, plate-assembly swaging, and fuel plate characterization. Characterization techniques being employed include, Ultrasonic Testing (UT), radiography, and microscopy. (author)

  13. Electroplating fission-recoil barriers onto LEU-metal foils for 99Mo-production targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaga, J.A.; Sedlet, J.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M.W.; Walker, D.E.; Wygmans, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    Electroplating experiments on uranium foil have been conducted in order to develop low-enriched uranium composite targets suitable for the production of 99 Mo. Preparation of the foil surface prior to plating was found to play a key role in the quality of the resultant coating. A surface preparation procedure was developed that produces both zinc and nickel coatings with the desired level of coating adherence and coverage. Modifications of the existing plating processes now need investigation to improve to uniformity of the plating thickness, especially at the foil perimeter. (author)

  14. Electroplating fission-recoil barriers onto LEU-metal foils for 99Mo-production targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaga, J.A.; Sedlet, J.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M.W.; Walker, D.E.; Wygmans, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-10-01

    Electroplating experiments on uranium foil have been conducted in order to develop low-enriched uranium composite targets suitable for the production of 99 Mo. Preparation of the foil surface prior to plating was found to play a key role in the quality of the resultant coating. A surface preparation procedure was developed that produces both zinc and nickel coatings with the desired level of coating adherence and coverage. Modifications of the existing plating processes now need investigation to improve to uniformity of the plating thickness, especially at the foil perimeter

  15. Formation and evolution of tweed structures on high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, P. V.; Vlasov, I. V.; Sklyarova, E. A.; Smekalina, T. V.

    2015-01-01

    Peculiarities of formation and evolution of tweed structures on the surface of high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension were studied using an atom force microscope and a white light interferometer. Tweed structures of micron and submicron sizes were found on the foils at different number of cycles. In the range of 42,000 < N < 95,000 cycles destruction of tweed patterns is observed, which leads to their disappearance from the surface of the foils. Formation of tweed structures of various scales is discussed in terms of the Grinfeld instability

  16. Measurement of the thickness and homogeneity of thin foils by slowing down alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.; Della Negra, S.; Deprun, C.; Gardes, D.; Rivet, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    The energy loss of 8.785 MeV α particles passing through a thin foil is used to measure the foil thickness. The measurement is performed in various points of the target, the abscissa and ordinate of which are set with precision from the outside of the chamber. This gives a thickness map of the target. The working up of the data, and the use of energy loss tables are made in a standard way. The absolute uncertainty is of some percent for 100 μg/cm 2 foils. The technique has been refined to reach the same precision for 10 μg/cm 2 targets [fr

  17. Microstructured boron foil scintillating G-GEM detector for neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Takeshi, E-mail: fujiwara-t@aist.go.jp [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Center for Advanced Photonics, Neutron Beam Technology Team, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Bautista, Unico [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Philippine Nuclear Research Institute-Department of Science and Technology (PNRI-DOST), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Mitsuya, Yuki [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, Norifumi L. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute of Material Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Otake, Yoshie; Taketani, Atsushi [Center for Advanced Photonics, Neutron Beam Technology Team, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Uesaka, Mitsuru [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Toyokawa, Hiroyuki [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a new simple neutron imaging gaseous detector was successfully developed by combining a micro-structured {sup 10}B foil, a glass gas electron multiplier (G-GEM), and a mirror–lens–charge-coupled device (CCD)–camera system. The neutron imaging system consists of a chamber filled with Ar/CF{sub 4} scintillating gas mixture. Inside this system, the G-GEM is mounted for gas multiplication. The neutron detection in this system is based on the reaction between {sup 10}B and neutrons. A micro-structured {sup 10}B is developed to overcome the issue of low detection efficiency. Secondary electrons excite Ar/CF{sub 4} gas molecules, and high-yield visible photons are emitted from those excited gas molecules during the gas electron multiplication process in the G-GEM holes. These photons are easily detected by a mirror–lens–CCD–camera system. A neutron radiograph is then simply formed. We obtain the neutron images of different materials with a compact accelerator-driven neutron source. We confirm that the new scintillating G-GEM-based neutron imager works properly with low gamma ray sensitivity and exhibits a good performance as a new simple digital neutron imaging device.

  18. Optical fiber sensors embedded in flexible polymer foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoe, Bram; van Steenberge, Geert; Bosman, Erwin; Missinne, Jeroen; Geernaert, Thomas; Berghmans, Francis; Webb, David; van Daele, Peter

    2010-04-01

    In traditional electrical sensing applications, multiplexing and interconnecting the different sensing elements is a major challenge. Recently, many optical alternatives have been investigated including optical fiber sensors of which the sensing elements consist of fiber Bragg gratings. Different sensing points can be integrated in one optical fiber solving the interconnection problem and avoiding any electromagnetical interference (EMI). Many new sensing applications also require flexible or stretchable sensing foils which can be attached to or wrapped around irregularly shaped objects such as robot fingers and car bumpers or which can even be applied in biomedical applications where a sensor is fixed on a human body. The use of these optical sensors however always implies the use of a light-source, detectors and electronic circuitry to be coupled and integrated with these sensors. The coupling of these fibers with these light sources and detectors is a critical packaging problem and as it is well-known the costs for packaging, especially with optoelectronic components and fiber alignment issues are huge. The end goal of this embedded sensor is to create a flexible optical sensor integrated with (opto)electronic modules and control circuitry. To obtain this flexibility, one can embed the optical sensors and the driving optoelectronics in a stretchable polymer host material. In this article different embedding techniques for optical fiber sensors are described and characterized. Initial tests based on standard manufacturing processes such as molding and laser structuring are reported as well as a more advanced embedding technique based on soft lithography processing.

  19. GEM Foil Quality Assurance For The ALICE TPC Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brücken Erik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN is dedicated to heavy ion physics to explore the structure of strongly interacting matter. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC of ALICE is a tracking detector located in the central region of the experiment. It offers excellent tracking capabilities as well as particle identification. After the second long shutdown (LS2 the LHC will run at substantially higher luminosities. To be able to increase the data acquisition rate by a factor of 100, the ALICE TPC experiment has to replace the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC –based readout chambers. The MWPC are operated with gating grid that limits the rate to O(kHz. The new ReadOut Chamber (ROC design is based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM technology operating in continuous mode. The current GEM productions scheme foresees the production of more than 800 GEM foils of different types. To fulfill the requirements on the performance of the GEM TPC readout, necessitates thorough Quality Assurance (QA measures. The QA scheme, developed by the ALICE collaboration, will be presented in detail.

  20. GEM Foil Quality Assurance For The ALICE TPC Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücken, Erik; Hildén, Timo

    2018-02-01

    The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is dedicated to heavy ion physics to explore the structure of strongly interacting matter. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of ALICE is a tracking detector located in the central region of the experiment. It offers excellent tracking capabilities as well as particle identification. After the second long shutdown (LS2) the LHC will run at substantially higher luminosities. To be able to increase the data acquisition rate by a factor of 100, the ALICE TPC experiment has to replace the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) -based readout chambers. The MWPC are operated with gating grid that limits the rate to O(kHz). The new ReadOut Chamber (ROC) design is based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology operating in continuous mode. The current GEM productions scheme foresees the production of more than 800 GEM foils of different types. To fulfill the requirements on the performance of the GEM TPC readout, necessitates thorough Quality Assurance (QA) measures. The QA scheme, developed by the ALICE collaboration, will be presented in detail.

  1. Magnetic collimation and metal foil filtering for electron range and fluence modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaisangittisakul, N.; D'Souza, W.D.; Ma Lijun

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the use of magnetically collimated electron beams together with metal filters for electron fluence and range modulation. A longitudinal magnetic field collimation method was developed to reduce skin dose and to improve the electron beam penumbra. Thin metal foils were used to adjust the energies of magnetically collimated electrons. The effects for different types of foils such as Al, Be, Cu, Pb, and Ti were studied using Monte Carlo calculations. An empirical pencil beam dose calculation model was developed to calculate electron dose distributions under magnetic collimation and foil modulation. An optimization method was developed to produce conformal dose distributions for simulated targets such as a horseshoe-shaped target. Our results show that it is possible to produce an electron depth dose enhancement peak using similar techniques of producing a spread-out Bragg peak. In conclusion, our study demonstrates new aspects of using magnetic collimation and foil filtration for producing fluence and range modulated electron dose distributions

  2. Ultrathin foils used for low-energy neutral atom imaging of the terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Barraclough, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetospheric imaging by remote detection of low-energy neutral atoms (LENAs) that are created by charge exchange between magnetospheric plasma ions and neutral geocoronal atoms has been proposed as a method to provide global information of magnetospheric dynamics. For LENA detecting, carbon foils can be implemented to (1) ionize the LENAs and electrostatically remove them from the large background of solar UV scattered by the geocorona to which LENA detectors (e.g., microchannel plates) are sensitive and (2) generate secondary electrons to provide coincidence and/or LENA trajectory information. Quantification of LENA-foil interactions are crucial in defining LENA imager performance. The authors present equilibrium charge state distributions due to foil contamination from exposure to air. Angular scattering that results from the projectile-foil interaction is quantified and is shown to be independent of the charge state distribution

  3. Flexible supercapacitor electrodes with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes grown on aluminum foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itir Bakis Dogru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs grown on aluminum foils were used as flexible supercapacitor electrodes. Aluminum foils were used as readily available, cheap and conductive substrates, and VACNTs were grown directly on these foils through chemical vapor deposition (CVD method. Solution based ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP method was used for the deposition of the CNT catalyst. Direct growth of VACNTs on aluminum foils ruled out both the internal resistance of the supercapacitor electrodes and the charge transfer resistance between the electrode and electrolyte. A specific capacitance of 2.61 mF/cm2 at a scan rate of 800 mV/s was obtained from the fabricated electrodes, which is further improved through the bending cycles.

  4. Fully solution-processed organic solar cells on metal foil substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney; Lee, Jung-Yong; Peumans, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate fully solution-processed organic photovoltaic cells on metal foil substrates with power conversion efficiencies similar to those obtained in devices on transparent substrates. The cells are based on the regioregular poly- (3

  5. Evidence of circular Rydberg states in beam-foil experiments: Role of the surface wake field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Puri, Nitin K.; Kumar, Pravin; Nandi, T.

    2017-12-01

    We have employed the concept of the surface wake field to model the formation of the circular Rydberg states in the beam-foil experiments. The experimental studies of atomic excitation processes show the formation of circular Rydberg states either in the bulk of the foil or at the exit surface, and the mechanism is explained by several controversial theories. The present model is based on the interesting fact that the charge state fraction as well as the surface wake field depend on the foil thickness and it resolves a long-standing discrepancy on the mechanism of the formation of circular Rydberg states. The influence of exit layers is twofold. Initially, the high angular momentum Rydberg states are produced in the last layers of the foil by the Stark switching due to the bulk wake field and finally, they are transferred to the circular Rydberg states as a single multiphoton process due to the influence of the surface wake field.

  6. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E.

    1981-09-22

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readily-corrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature.

  7. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhaupt, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readilycorrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of positron induced secondary electrons in thin carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, L H; Yang, B; Ling, C C; Beling, C D; Fung, S

    2011-01-01

    Emission of secondary electrons induced by the passage of low energy positrons through thin carbon foils was studied by the Monte Carlo method. The positron and electron elastic cross sections were calculated by partial wave analysis. The inelastic positron-valence-electron was described by the energy loss function obtained from dielectric theory. The positron-core-electron interaction was modelled by the Gryzinski's excitation function. Positron transport inside the carbon foil was simulated in detail. Secondary electrons created by positrons and high energy secondary electrons through inelastic interactions were tracked through the foil. The positron transmission coefficient and secondary electron yielded in forward and backward geometry are calculated and dependences on positron energy and carbon foil thickness are discussed.

  9. Gas Gain Measurement Of GEM-Foil In Argon-Carbon Dioxide Mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ngoc Duy; Vuong Huu Tan; Le Hong Khiem

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear reaction measurement with radioactive beam at low energy plays an important role in nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure. The trajectory of particle beams can be obtained by using an active gas target, multiple-sampling and tracking proportional chamber (MSTPC), as a proportional counter. Because of intensity of low energy radioactive beam, in the stellar reaction such as (α, p), (p, α), it is necessary to increase the gain for the counter. In this case, a gas electrons multiplier (GEM) foil will be used, so the proportional counter is called GEM-MSTPC. The efficient gas gain of GEM foils which relates to foil thickness and operating pressure was investigated with two type of the foils, 400 μm and 200 μm, in Argon (70%) + Carbon dioxide (30%) mixture. (author)

  10. Carbon footprint of a reflective foil and comparison with other solutions for thermal insulation in building envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proietti, Stefania; Desideri, Umberto; Sdringola, Paolo; Zepparelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Environmental and energy assessment of thermal insulating materials in building envelope. ► Carbon footprint of a reflective foil, conceived and produced by an Italian company. ► Study conducted according to principles of LCA – Life Cycle Assessment. ► Identification of main impacting processes and measures for reducing emissions. ► Comparison with traditional insulating materials (EPS and rockwool). - Abstract: The present study aims at assessing environmental and energy compatibility of different solutions of thermal insulation in building envelope. In fact a good insulation results in a reduction of heating/cooling energy consumptions; on the other hand construction materials undergo production, transformation and transport processes, whose energy and resources consumptions may lead to a significant decrease of the environmental benefits. The paper presents a detailed carbon footprint of a product (CFP, defined as the sum of greenhouse gas emissions and removals of a product system, expressed in CO 2 equivalents), which is a reflective foil conceived and produced by an Italian company. CFP can be seen as a Life Cycle Assessment with climate change as the single impact category; it does not assess other potential social, economic and environmental impacts arising from the provision of products. The analysis considers all stages of the life cycle, from the extraction of raw materials to the product’s disposal, i.e. “from cradle to grave”; it was carried out according to UNI EN ISO 14040 and 14044, and LCA modelling was performed using SimaPro software tool. On the basis of obtained results, different measures have been proposed in order to reduce emissions in the life cycle and neutralize residual carbon footprint. The results allowed to make an important comparison concerning the environmental performance of the reflective foil in comparison with other types of insulating materials

  11. Method to Increase Performance of Foil Bearings Through Passive Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a new approach to designing foil bearings to increase their load capacity and improve their reliability through passive thermal management. In the present case, the bearing is designed in such a way as to prevent the carryover of lubricant from the exit of one sector to the inlet of the ensuing sector of the foil bearing. When such passive thermal management techniques are used, bearing load capacity is improved by multiples, and reliability is enhanced when compared to current foil bearings. This concept has recently been tested and validated, and shows that load capacity performance of foil bearings can be improved by a factor of two at relatively low speeds with potentially greater relative improvements at higher speeds. Such improvements in performance with respect to speed are typical of foil bearings. Additionally, operation of these newly conceived bearings shows much more reliability and repeatable performance. This trait can be exploited in machine design to enhance safety, reliability, and overall performance. Finally, lower frictional torque has been demonstrated when operating at lower (non-load capacity) loads, thus providing another improvement above the current state of the art. The objective of the invention is to incorporate features into a foil bearing that both enhance passive thermal management and temperature control, while at the same time improve the hydrodynamic (load capacity) performance of the foil bearing. Foil bearings are unique antifriction devices that can utilize the working fluid of a machine as a lubricant (typically air for turbines and motors, liquids for pumps), and as a coolant to remove excess energy due to frictional heating. The current state of the art of foil bearings utilizes forced cooling of the bearing and shaft, which represents poor efficiency and poor reliability. This invention embodies features that utilize the bearing geometry in such a manner as to both support load and provide an inherent and

  12. High quality graphene synthesized by atmospheric pressure CVD on copper foil

    OpenAIRE

    Trinsoutrot, Pierre; Rabot, Caroline; Vergnes, Hugues; Delamoreanu, Alexandru; Zenasni, Aziz; Caussat, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Graphene was synthesized at 1000 °C by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition on copper foil from methane diluted in argon and hydrogen. The influence of the main synthesis parameters was studied on 2 × 2 cm2 foils in order to obtain continuous monolayer graphenewithout crystalline defect. The uniformity, crystal quality and number of layers of graphenewere analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electronic Microscopy. First, an increase of the annealing pr...

  13. Electronic excitation in transmission of relativistic H- ions through thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhold, C.O.; Kuerpick, P.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Yoshida, S.

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe a theoretical model to study the transmission of relativistic H - ions through thin carbon foils. The approach is based on a Monte Carlo solution of the Langevin equation describing electronic excitations of the atoms during the transport through the foil. Calculations for the subshell populations of outgoing hydrogen atoms are found to be in good agreement with recent experimental data on an absolute scale and show that there exists a propensity for populating extreme Stark states

  14. Large-area thin self-supporting carbon foils with MgO coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarz, Anna; Maier-Komor, Peter

    2002-03-01

    Large area self-supporting carbon foils in the thickness of range of 8-22 μg/cm 2, coated with approximately 4 μg/cm 2 MgO have been prepared by e-gun evaporation. They were mounted on frames with apertures of 130 cm 2. Problems related to the parting agent preparation, floating procedure, and mounting onto frames are discussed. Special precautions necessary to avoid damage during foil drying, storage and transportation are suggested.

  15. Connection factor calculation for isotopic neutron flux measurements with foil detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila L, J.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal and resonance neutron self-shielding factors, neutron flux distortion and edge effects as well as a connection factor for neutron flux profile around a foil detector have been calculated. A general expression for resonance self shielding factor is presented in order to take into account the most important resonances for a given isotope. A computer program SPRESYTER.BAS was written and results for In-115 and Au-197 foils are given

  16. Dissociation of fast HeH+ ions in foils and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmell, D.S.; Cooney, P.J.; Pietsch, W.J.; Ratkowski, A.J.; Vager, Z.

    1978-01-01

    To gain understanding of phenomena observed when very simple light diatomic ions are incident at high velocities upon thin foils and gaseous targets, an extensive set of measurements on the dissociation products arising from beams of HeH + was made. Experimental and calculated joint distributions in energy and angle for protons emerging (near the beam direction) from an 85-A carbon foil bombarded by 2.0-MeV HeH + ions are presented

  17. Search for Rayleigh-Taylor instability in laser irradiated layered thin foil targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, J.D.; Hares, J.D.; Rumsby, P.T.

    1980-01-01

    An experiment to measure the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the vacuum-ablation surface of laser irradiated layered targets by time resolved x-ray spectroscopy is described. The time taken to burn through a layer of material is measured to be the same for massive targets as for thin foil accelerating targets. It is inferred that the thin foil targets might be Rayleigh-Taylor stable despite the values of γtauapproximately equal to15 calculated from classical theory. (author)

  18. Electrochemical etching of a niobium foil in methanolic HF for electrolytic capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Park, Jiyoung; Cha, Gihoon; Yoo, Jeong Eun; Choi, Jinsub

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical etching of niobium foil in order to enlarge the surface area for the application in electrolytic capacitor was carried out in a methanolic electrolyte. We found that the pit density and depth are not linearly proportional to concentration of HF and applied potential: there is the optimal concentration of HF at each applied potential. The optimal etching condition was obtained at 50 V in 0.99 vol.% HF, which exhibited the capacitance of 350 μF cm −2 . Pit density and depth of pits on electrochemical etched Nb foil under different conditions were counted from SEM images and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of the etched Nb foils was carried out for the capacitance measurement. Equivalent circuit model showing less than 5% error was suggested for applying to the etched niobium foil. - Highlights: • Surface enlargement of Nb foil can be achieved by electrochemical etching in methanolic HF. • Electrolytic capacitor of etched niobium foil exhibits a capacitance of 350 μF cm −2 . • The method provides a way of developing commercially viable process

  19. Foil Strain Gauges Using Piezoresistive Carbon Nanotube Yarn: Fabrication and Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandro L. Abot

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube yarns are micron-scale fibers comprised by tens of thousands of carbon nanotubes in their cross section and exhibiting piezoresistive characteristics that can be tapped to sense strain. This paper presents the details of novel foil strain gauge sensor configurations comprising carbon nanotube yarn as the piezoresistive sensing element. The foil strain gauge sensors are designed using the results of parametric studies that maximize the sensitivity of the sensors to mechanical loading. The fabrication details of the strain gauge sensors that exhibit the highest sensitivity, based on the modeling results, are described including the materials and procedures used in the first prototypes. Details of the calibration of the foil strain gauge sensors are also provided and discussed in the context of their electromechanical characterization when bonded to metallic specimens. This characterization included studying their response under monotonic and cyclic mechanical loading. It was shown that these foil strain gauge sensors comprising carbon nanotube yarn are sensitive enough to capture strain and can replicate the loading and unloading cycles. It was also observed that the loading rate affects their piezoresistive response and that the gauge factors were all above one order of magnitude higher than those of typical metallic foil strain gauges. Based on these calibration results on the initial sensor configurations, new foil strain gauge configurations will be designed and fabricated, to increase the strain gauge factors even more.

  20. Alpha Oscillations during Incidental Encoding Predict Subsequent Memory for New "Foil" Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, David A; Gruber, Matthias; Bergström, Zara M; Ranganath, Charan; Simons, Jon S

    2018-05-01

    People can employ adaptive strategies to increase the likelihood that previously encoded information will be successfully retrieved. One such strategy is to constrain retrieval toward relevant information by reimplementing the neurocognitive processes that were engaged during encoding. Using EEG, we examined the temporal dynamics with which constraining retrieval toward semantic versus nonsemantic information affects the processing of new "foil" information encountered during a memory test. Time-frequency analysis of EEG data acquired during an initial study phase revealed that semantic compared with nonsemantic processing was associated with alpha decreases in a left frontal electrode cluster from around 600 msec after stimulus onset. Successful encoding of semantic versus nonsemantic foils during a subsequent memory test was related to decreases in alpha oscillatory activity in the same left frontal electrode cluster, which emerged relatively late in the trial at around 1000-1600 msec after stimulus onset. Across participants, left frontal alpha power elicited by semantic processing during the study phase correlated significantly with left frontal alpha power associated with semantic foil encoding during the memory test. Furthermore, larger left frontal alpha power decreases elicited by semantic foil encoding during the memory test predicted better subsequent semantic foil recognition in an additional surprise foil memory test, although this effect did not reach significance. These findings indicate that constraining retrieval toward semantic information involves reimplementing semantic encoding operations that are mediated by alpha oscillations and that such reimplementation occurs at a late stage of memory retrieval, perhaps reflecting additional monitoring processes.

  1. Dynamics of laser mass-limited foil interaction at ultra-high laser intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, T. P., E-mail: tongpu@nudt.edu.cn [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Computing, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Sheng, Z. M. [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Yin, Y.; Zhuo, H. B.; Ma, Y. Y.; Shao, F. Q. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Pukhov, A. [Institut für Theoretische Physik I, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    By using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations with synchrotron radiation damping incorporated, dynamics of ultra-intense laser driven mass-limited foils is presented. When a circularly polarized laser pulse with a peak intensity of ∼10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} irradiates a mass-limited nanofoil, electrons are pushed forward collectively and a strong charge separation field forms which acts as a “light sail” and accelerates the protons. When the laser wing parts overtake the foil from the foil boundaries, electrons do a betatron-like oscillation around the center proton bunch. Under some conditions, betatron-like resonance takes place, resulting in energetic circulating electrons. Finally, bright femto-second x rays are emitted in a small cone. It is also shown that the radiation damping does not alter the foil dynamics radically at considered laser intensities. The effects of the transverse foil size and laser polarization on x-ray emission and foil dynamics are also discussed.

  2. Study of nuclear tracks on different polycarbonate foils and their feasibility for use in personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayalakshmi, V.; Rohatgi, Rupali; Sathian, Deepa; Marathe, P.K.; Nair, Sarala; Chourasiya, G.; Kannan, S.

    2009-01-01

    CR-39 (PDAC) a solid state nuclear track detector, is used as a routine personnel monitor. 1800 workers are being monitored quarterly for fast neutron using CR-39 foils. These foils procured from Pershore Mouldings, UK are very expensive and indigenous development will make the foils cost effective. The aim of this paper is to find a suitable alternative to the imported CR-39 foils for use in personnel monitoring. The foils from three different manufacturers have been compared with CR-39 foils from Pershore Moulding, UK, presently in use. Out of the three, only sample no 1 is promising. It has a background and sensitivity comparable with CR-39 presently used. The sample 2 is CR-39 being developed in India, has a relatively high background and poor sensitivity. Efforts are being made to improve the quality of this sample. The sample 3 was a poly carbonate from local manufacturer which produced very few tracks and the standard deviation of track counts was very large and hence not useful for personnel monitoring. (author)

  3. The effect of chordwise flexibility on flapping foil propulsion in quiescent fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Sachin; Arakeri, Jaywant

    2010-11-01

    Motivated to understand the role of wing flexibility of flying creatures during hovering, we experimentally study the effect of chordwise flexibility on the flow generated in quiescent fluid by a sinusoidally pitching rigid symmetrical foil with a flexible flap attached at the trailing edge. This foil produces a narrow, coherent jet containing reverse Karman vortex street, and a corresponding thrust. The thrust and flow is similar to that produced by a hovering bird or insect, however the mechanism seems to be different from known hovering mechanisms. Novelty of the present hovering mechanism is that the thrust generation is due to the coordinated pushing action of rigid foil and flexible flap. We identify the flow and vortex generation mechanism. This foil produces jet flows over a range of flapping frequencies and amplitudes. In contrast, the foil without flap i.e. with rigid trailing edge produces a weak, divergent jet that meanders randomly. Appending a flexible flap to the foil suppresses jet-meandering and strengthens the jet. Flexibility of flap is crucial in determining the flow structure. This study is useful in designing MAVs and thrusters.

  4. Numerical simulation of the pressure pulses produced by a pressure screen foil rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, M.; Ollivier-Gooch, C.; Gooding, R.W.; Olson, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Pressure screening is the most industrially efficient and effective means of removing contaminants that degrade the appearance and strength of paper and fractionating fibres for selective treatments and specialty products. A critical design component of a screen is the rotor which produces pressure pulses on the screen cylinder surface to keep the screening apertures clear. To understand the effect of the key design and operating variables for a NACA 0012 foil rotor, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation tool was developed with FLUENT software, and the numerical results were compared with experimental measurements. The computational results of pressure pulses were shown to be in good agreement with experimental pressure measurements over a wide range of foil tip-speeds, clearances and angles of attack. In addition, it was shown that the magnitude of the pressure pulse peak increases as the rotating speed increases linearly with the square of tip-speed for all the angles of attack studied. The maximum negative pressure pulse occurred for the foil at 5 degrees angle of attack. Flow began to separate from foil surface near the screen plate beyond 10 degrees angle of attack. The positive pressure peak near the leading edge of the foil is completely eliminated for foils operating at a positive angle of attack. The magnitude of the negative pressure peak increased as clearance decreased. In addition to, and more important than, these specific results, we have shown that CFD is a viable tool for the optimal design and operation of rotors in industrial pressure screens. (author)

  5. Foil Strain Gauges Using Piezoresistive Carbon Nanotube Yarn: Fabrication and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora-Rubio, Mário R.; Kiyono, César Y.; Mello, Luis A. M.; Cardoso, Valtemar F.; Rosa, Reinaldo L. S.; Kuebler, Derek A.; Brodeur, Grace E.; Alotaibi, Amani H.; Coene, Marisa P.; Coene, Lauren M.; Jean, Elizabeth; Santiago, Rafael C.; Oliveira, Francisco H. A.; Rangel, Ricardo; Thomas, Gilles P.; Belay, Kalayu; da Silva, Luciana W.; Moura, Rafael T.; Seabra, Antonio C.; Silva, Emílio C. N.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon nanotube yarns are micron-scale fibers comprised by tens of thousands of carbon nanotubes in their cross section and exhibiting piezoresistive characteristics that can be tapped to sense strain. This paper presents the details of novel foil strain gauge sensor configurations comprising carbon nanotube yarn as the piezoresistive sensing element. The foil strain gauge sensors are designed using the results of parametric studies that maximize the sensitivity of the sensors to mechanical loading. The fabrication details of the strain gauge sensors that exhibit the highest sensitivity, based on the modeling results, are described including the materials and procedures used in the first prototypes. Details of the calibration of the foil strain gauge sensors are also provided and discussed in the context of their electromechanical characterization when bonded to metallic specimens. This characterization included studying their response under monotonic and cyclic mechanical loading. It was shown that these foil strain gauge sensors comprising carbon nanotube yarn are sensitive enough to capture strain and can replicate the loading and unloading cycles. It was also observed that the loading rate affects their piezoresistive response and that the gauge factors were all above one order of magnitude higher than those of typical metallic foil strain gauges. Based on these calibration results on the initial sensor configurations, new foil strain gauge configurations will be designed and fabricated, to increase the strain gauge factors even more. PMID:29401745

  6. A suspended boron foil multi-wire proportional counter neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Kyle A.; Edwards, Nathaniel S.; Hinson, Niklas J.; Wayant, Clayton D.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2014-12-11

    Three natural boron foils, approximately 1.0 cm in diameter and 1.0 µm thick, were obtained from The Lebow Company and suspended in a multi-wire proportional counter. Suspending the B foils allowed the alpha particle and Li ion reaction products to escape simultaneously, one on each side of the foil, and be measured concurrently in the gas volume. The thermal neutron response pulse-height spectrum was obtained and two obvious peaks appear from the 94% and 6% branches of the {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li neutron reaction. Scanning electron microscope images were collected to obtain the exact B foil thicknesses and MCNP6 simulations were completed for those same B thicknesses. Pulse-height spectra obtained from the simulations were compared to experimental data and matched well. The theoretical intrinsic thermal–neutron detection efficiency for enriched {sup 10}B foils was calculated and is presented. Additionally, the intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of the three natural B foils was calculated to be 3.2±0.2%.

  7. A suspended boron foil multi-wire proportional counter neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kyle A.; Edwards, Nathaniel S.; Hinson, Niklas J.; Wayant, Clayton D.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2014-12-01

    Three natural boron foils, approximately 1.0 cm in diameter and 1.0 μm thick, were obtained from The Lebow Company and suspended in a multi-wire proportional counter. Suspending the B foils allowed the alpha particle and Li ion reaction products to escape simultaneously, one on each side of the foil, and be measured concurrently in the gas volume. The thermal neutron response pulse-height spectrum was obtained and two obvious peaks appear from the 94% and 6% branches of the 10B(n,α)7Li neutron reaction. Scanning electron microscope images were collected to obtain the exact B foil thicknesses and MCNP6 simulations were completed for those same B thicknesses. Pulse-height spectra obtained from the simulations were compared to experimental data and matched well. The theoretical intrinsic thermal-neutron detection efficiency for enriched 10B foils was calculated and is presented. Additionally, the intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of the three natural B foils was calculated to be 3.2±0.2%.

  8. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, R., E-mail: roberto.martini@imec.be [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A. [Department of Physics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Poortmans, J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Universiteit Hasselt, Martelarenlaan 42, B-3500 Hasselt (Belgium)

    2014-10-27

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ∼100 μs or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 μm of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 μs. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  9. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, R.; Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A.; Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I.; Poortmans, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ∼100 μs or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 μm of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 μs. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  10. Thrust generation by a heaving flexible foil: Resonance, nonlinearities, and optimality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraz, Florine; Schouveiler, Lionel; Eloy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility of marine animal fins has been thought to enhance swimming performance. However, despite numerous experimental and numerical studies on flapping flexible foils, there is still no clear understanding of the effect of flexibility and flapping amplitude on thrust generation and swimming efficiency. Here, to address this question, we combine experiments on a model system and a weakly nonlinear analysis. Experiments consist in immersing a flexible rectangular plate in a uniform flow and forcing this plate into a heaving motion at its leading edge. A complementary theoretical model is developed assuming a two-dimensional inviscid problem. In this model, nonlinear effects are taken into account by considering a transverse resistive drag. Under these hypotheses, a modal decomposition of the system motion allows us to predict the plate response amplitude and the generated thrust, as a function of the forcing amplitude and frequency. We show that this model can correctly predict the experimental data on plate kinematic response and thrust generation, as well as other data found in the literature. We also discuss the question of efficiency in the context of bio-inspired propulsion. Using the proposed model, we show that the optimal propeller for a given thrust and a given swimming speed is achieved when the actuating frequency is tuned to a resonance of the system, and when the optimal forcing amplitude scales as the square root of the required thrust.

  11. Proton probing of ultra-thin foil dynamics in high intensity regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Aktan, Esin; Aurand, Bastian; Cerchez, Mirela; Willi, Oswald

    2017-10-01

    The field of laser driven ion acceleration has been enriched significantly over the past decade, thanks to the advanced laser technologies. Already, from 100s TW class systems, laser driven sources of particles and radiations are being considered in number of potential applications in science and medicine due to their unique properties. New physical effects unearthed at these systems may help understand and conduct successful experiments at several PW class multi-beam facilities with high rep rate systems, e.g. ELI. Here we present the first experimental results on ultra-thin foil dynamics irradiated by an ultra-high intensity (1020 W/cm2) , ultra-high contrast (10-12) laser pulse at ARCTURUS laser facility at HHU Duesseldorf. By employing the elegant proton probing technique it is observed that for the circular polarization of laser light, a 100nm thin target is pushed forward as a compressed layer due to the radiation pressure of light. Whereas, the linear polarization seems to decompress the target drastically. 2D particle-in-cell simulations corroborate the experimental findings. Our results confirm the previous simulation studies investigating the fundamental role played by light polarization, finite focus spot size effect and eventually electron heating including the oblique incidence at the target edges.

  12. Mystery of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-free Turbomachinery Unlocked: Load Capacity Rule-of-thumb Allows Simple Estimation of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

    2002-01-01

    The Oil-Free Turbomachinery team at the NASA Glenn Research Center has unlocked one of the mysteries surrounding foil air bearing performance. Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings that use ambient air, or any fluid, as their lubricant. In operation, the motion of the shaft's surface drags fluid into the bearing by viscous action, creating a pressurized lubricant film. This lubricating film separates the stationary foil bearing surface from the moving shaft and supports load. Foil bearings have been around for decades and are widely employed in the air cycle machines used for cabin pressurization and cooling aboard commercial jetliners. The Oil-Free Turbomachinery team is fostering the maturation of this technology for integration into advanced Oil-Free aircraft engines. Elimination of the engine oil system can significantly reduce weight and cost and could enable revolutionary new engine designs. Foil bearings, however, have complex elastic support structures (spring packs) that make the prediction of bearing performance, such as load capacity, difficult if not impossible. Researchers at Glenn recently found a link between foil bearing design and load capacity performance. The results have led to a simple rule-of-thumb that relates a bearing's size, speed, and design to its load capacity. Early simple designs (Generation I) had simple elastic (spring) support elements, and performance was limited. More advanced bearings (Generation III) with elastic supports, in which the stiffness is varied locally to optimize gas film pressures, exhibit load capacities that are more than double those of the best previous designs. This is shown graphically in the figure. These more advanced bearings have enabled industry to introduce commercial Oil-Free gas-turbine-based electrical generators and are allowing the aeropropulsion industry to incorporate the technology into aircraft engines. The rule-of-thumb enables engine and bearing designers to easily size and

  13. Measurements by activation foils and comparative computations by MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyncl, J.

    2008-01-01

    Systematic study of the radioactive waste minimisation problem is subject of the SPHINX project. Its idea is that burning or transmutation of the waste inventory problematic part will be realized in a nuclear reactor the fuel of which is in the form of liquid fluorides. In frame of the project, several experiments have been performed with so-called inserted experimental channel. The channel was filled up by the fluorides mixture, surrounded by six fuel assemblies with moderator and placed into LR-0 reactor vessel. This formation was brought to critical state and measurement with activation foil detectors were carried out at selected positions of the inserted channel. Main aim of the measurements was to determine reaction rates for the detectors mentioned. For experiment evaluation, comparative computations were accomplished by code MCNP4a. The results obtained show that very often, computed values of reaction rates differ substantially from the values that were obtained from the experiment. This contribution deals with analysis of the reasons of these differences from the point of view of computations by Monte Carlo method. The analysis of concrete cases shows that the inaccuracy of reaction rate computed is caused mostly by three circumstances:-space region that is occupied by detector is relatively very small;- microscopic effective cross-section R(E) of the reaction changes strongly with energy just in the energy interval that gives the greatest contribution to the reaction; - in the energy interval that gives the greatest contribution to reaction rate, the error of the computed neutron flux is great. These circumstances evoke that the computation of reaction rate with casual accuracy submits extreme demands on computing time. (Author)

  14. Charge fraction of 6.0 MeV/n heavy ions with a carbon foil: Dependence on the foil thickness and projectile atomic number

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Y; Muramatsu, M; Murakami, T; Yamada, S; Kobayashi, C; Kageyama, Y; Miyoshi, T; Ogawa, H; Nakabushi, H; Fujimoto, T; Miyata, T; Sano, Y

    2003-01-01

    We measured the charge fraction of 6.0 MeV/n heavy ions (C, Ne, Si, Ar, Fe and Cu) with a carbon foil at the NIRS-HIMAC injector. At this energy they are stripped with a carbon foil before being injected into two synchrotron rings with a maximum energy of 800 MeV/n. In order to find the foil thickness (D sub E) at which an equilibrium charge state distribution occurs, and to study the dependence of the D sub E -values on the projectile atomic number, we measured the exit charge fractions for foil thicknesses of between 10 and 350 mu g/cm sup 2. The results showed that the D sub E -values are 21.5, 62.0, 162, 346, 121, 143 mu g/cm sup 2 for C, Ne, Si, Ar, Fe, Cu, respectively. The fraction of Ar sup 1 sup 8 sup + ions was actually improved to 33% at 320 mu g/cm sup 2 from approx 15% at 100 mu g/cm sup 2. For Fe and Cu ions, the D sub E -values were found to be only 121 and 143 mu g/cm sup 2; there is a large gap between Ar and Fe, which is related to the differences in the ratio of the binding energy of the K-...

  15. Fabrication of a micro-hole array on metal foil by nanosecond pulsed laser beam machining using a cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Se Won; Jee, Won Young; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Janggil

    2015-01-01

    A novel laser beam machining (LBM) method is proposed to achieve higher precision and better quality beyond the limits of a commercialized nanosecond pulsed laser system. The use of a cover plate is found to be effective for the precision machining of a thin metal foil at micro scale. For verifying the capability of cover plate laser beam machining (c-LBM) technology, a 30 by 30 array of micro-holes was fabricated on 8 µm-thick stainless steel 304 (STS) foil. As a result, thermal deformation and cracks were significantly reduced in comparison with the results using LBM without a cover plate. The standard deviation of the inscribed and circumscribed circle of the holes with a diameter of 12 µm was reduced to 33% and 81%, respectively and the average roundness improved by 77%. Moreover, the smallest diameter obtainable by c-LBM in the given equipment was found to be 6.9 µm, which was 60% less than the minimum size hole by LBM without a cover plate. (technical note)

  16. Fully roll-to-roll gravure printed rectenna on plastic foils for wireless power transmission at 13.56 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Kang, Hwiwon; Lee, Yonggil; Park, Yongsu; Noh, Jinsoo; Cho, Gyoujin

    2012-08-31

    Wireless power transmission to inexpensive and disposable smart electronic devices is one of the key issues for the realization of a ubiquitous society where sensor networks such as RFID tags, price tags, smart logos, signage and sensors could be fully interconnected and utilized by DC power of less than 0.3 W. This DC power can be provided by inductively coupled AC from a 13.56 MHz power transmitter through a rectenna, consisting of an antenna, a diode and a capacitor, which would be cheap to integrate with inexpensive smart electronic devices. To integrate the rectenna with a minimum cost, a roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure printing process has been considered to print the rectenna on plastic foils. In this paper, R2R gravure printing systems including printing condition and four different nanoparticle based inks will be reported to print the rectenna (antenna, diode and capacitor) on plastic foils at a printing speed of 8 m min(-1) and more than 90% device yield for a wireless power transmission of 0.3 W using a standard 13.56 MHz power transmitter.

  17. Generation of an electromotive force by hydrogen-to-water oxidation with Pt-coated oxidized titanium foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schierbaum, Klaus; El Achhab, Mhamed [Department of Materials Science, Institute for Experimental Condensed Matter Physics, Heinrich-Heine University, 40225 Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1 (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We show that chemically induced current densities up to 20 mA cm{sup -2} and an electromotive force (EMF) up to 465 mV are generated during the hydrogen-to-water-oxidation over Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Ti devices. We prepare the samples by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of titanium foils and deposition of Pt contact paste. This process yields porous structures and, depending on the anodization voltage, Schottky diode-type current-voltage curves of various ideality parameters. Our experiments demonstrate that Pt coated anodized titanium can also be utilized as hydrogen sensor; the system offers a number of advantages such as a wide temperature range of operation from -40 to 80 C, quick response and decay times of signals, and good electrical stability. Idealized sketch of the Pt coated anodized Ti foil and application as hydrogen sensor and electric generator. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Annealing of (DU-10Mo)-Zr Co-Rolled Foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Robin Montoya; Alexander, David John; Mccabe, Rodney James; Clarke, Kester Diederik; Scott, Jeffrey E.; Montalvo, Joel Dwayne; Papin, Pallas; Ansell, George S.

    2017-01-01

    Producing uranium-10wt% molybdenum (DU-10Mo) foils to clad with Al first requires initial bonding of the DU-10Mo foil to zirconium (Zr) by hot rolling, followed by cold rolling to final thickness. Rolling often produces wavy (DU-10Mo)-Zr foils that should be flattened before further processing, as any distortions could affect the final alignment and bonding of the Al cladding to the Zr co-rolled surface layer; this bonding is achieved by a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process. Distortions in the (DU-10Mo)-Zr foil may cause the fuel foil to press against the Al cladding and thus create thinner or thicker areas in the Al cladding layer during the HIP cycle. Post machining is difficult and risky at this stage in the process since there is a chance of hitting the DU-10Mo. Therefore, it is very important to establish a process to flatten and remove any waviness. This study was conducted to determine if a simple annealing treatment could flatten wavy foils. Using the same starting material (i.e. DU-10Mo coupons of the same thickness), five different levels of hot rolling and cold rolling, combined with five different annealing treatments, were performed to determine the effect of these processing variables on flatness, bonding of layers, annealing response, microstructure, and hardness. The same final thickness was reached in all cases. Micrographs, textures, and hardness measurements were obtained for the various processing combinations. Based on these results, it was concluded that annealing at 650°C or higher is an effective treatment to appreciably reduce foil waviness.

  19. An Effort to Improve U Foil Fabrication Technology of Roll-casting for Fission Mo Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Woo, Yun Myeong; Kim, Ki Hwan; Oh, Jong Myeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Moon Soo [Chungnam University, Green Energy Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Mo-99 isotope has been produced mainly by extracting fission products of {sup 235}U. The targets for irradiating in reactor have used as stainless tube coated with highly enriched UO{sub 2} at the inside surface and highly enriched UAlx plate cladded with aluminum. In connection with non-proliferation policy the RERTR program developed a new process of Mo-99 using low enriched uranium (LEU) instead of highly enriched uranium (HEU). LEU should be put about five times more quantity than HEU because the {sup 235}U contents of LEU and HEU are 20% and higher than 90%, respectively. Accordingly pure uranium metal foil target was adopted as a promising target material due to high uranium density. ANL and BATAN developed a Cintichem process using uranium metal foil target of 130 {mu}m in thickness jointly and the RERTR program is trying to disseminate the new process world-widely. However, uranium foil is made by lots of times rolling work on uranium plate, which is laborious and tedious. In order to avoid this difficulty KAERI developed a new process of making foil directly from uranium melt by roll casting. This process is very much simple, productive, and cost-effective. But the outside surface of foil is generally very rough. A typical transverse cross section had a minimum thickness of 65 {mu}m and a maximum thickness of 205 {mu}m. This roughness could affect (1) target fabrication, where the U foil, or the Ni foil might be damaged during drawing, and (2) irradiation behavior, where gaps between the target walls and the U metal might affect cooling of the target

  20. Thin Foil Acceleration Method for Measuring the Unloading Isentropes of Shock-Compressed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, J.R.; Chhabildas, L.C.; Fortov, V.E.; Kanel, G.I.; Khishchenko, K.V.; Lomonosov, I.V.; Mehlhorn, T.; Razorenov, S.V.; Utkin, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    This work has been performed as part of the search for possible ways to utilize the capabilities of laser and particle beams techniques in shock wave and equation of state physics. The peculiarity of these techniques is that we have to deal with micron-thick targets and not well reproducible incident shock wave parameters, so all measurements should be of a high resolution and be done in one shot. Besides the Hugoniots, the experimental basis for creating the equations of state includes isentropes corresponding to unloading of shock-compressed matter. Experimental isentrope data are most important in the region of vaporization. With guns or explosive facilities, the unloading isentrope is recovered from a series of experiments where the shock wave parameters in plates of standard low-impedance materials placed behind the sample are measured [1,2]. The specific internal energy and specific volume are calculated from the measured p(u) release curve which corresponds to the Riemann integral. This way is not quite suitable for experiments with beam techniques where the incident shock waves are not well reproducible. The thick foil method [3] provides a few experimental points on the isentrope in one shot. When a higher shock impedance foil is placed on the surface of the material studied, the release phase occurs by steps, whose durations correspond to that for the shock wave to go back and forth in the foil. The velocity during the different steps, connected with the knowledge of the Hugoniot of the foil, allows us to determine a few points on the isentropic unloading curve. However, the method becomes insensitive when the low pressure range of vaporization is reached in the course of the unloading. The isentrope in this region can be measured by recording the smooth acceleration of a thin witness plate foil. With the mass of the foil known, measurements of the foil acceleration will give us the vapor pressure

  1. Annealing of (DU-10Mo)-Zr Co-Rolled Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Robin Montoya [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alexander, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mccabe, Rodney James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clarke, Kester Diederik [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scott, Jeffrey E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montalvo, Joel Dwayne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Papin, Pallas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ansell, George S. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-20

    Producing uranium-10wt% molybdenum (DU-10Mo) foils to clad with Al first requires initial bonding of the DU-10Mo foil to zirconium (Zr) by hot rolling, followed by cold rolling to final thickness. Rolling often produces wavy (DU-10Mo)-Zr foils that should be flattened before further processing, as any distortions could affect the final alignment and bonding of the Al cladding to the Zr co-rolled surface layer; this bonding is achieved by a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process. Distortions in the (DU-10Mo)-Zr foil may cause the fuel foil to press against the Al cladding and thus create thinner or thicker areas in the Al cladding layer during the HIP cycle. Post machining is difficult and risky at this stage in the process since there is a chance of hitting the DU-10Mo. Therefore, it is very important to establish a process to flatten and remove any waviness. This study was conducted to determine if a simple annealing treatment could flatten wavy foils. Using the same starting material (i.e. DU-10Mo coupons of the same thickness), five different levels of hot rolling and cold rolling, combined with five different annealing treatments, were performed to determine the effect of these processing variables on flatness, bonding of layers, annealing response, microstructure, and hardness. The same final thickness was reached in all cases. Micrographs, textures, and hardness measurements were obtained for the various processing combinations. Based on these results, it was concluded that annealing at 650°C or higher is an effective treatment to appreciably reduce foil waviness.

  2. Forensic discrimination of aluminum foil by SR-XRF and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Masaaki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Miyamoto, Naoki; Watanabe, Seiya; Shimoda, Osamu; Takatsu, Masahisa; Nakanishi, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    The application of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) was investigated for the forensic discrimination of aluminum foil by comparisons of the elemental components. Small fragments (1 x 1 mm) were taken from 4 kinds of aluminum foils produced by different manufactures and used for measurements of the XRF spectrum at BL37XU of SPring-8. A comparison of the XRF spectra was effective for the discrimination of aluminum foils from different sources, because significant differences were observed in the X-ray peak intensities of Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, Zr and Sn. These elements, except for Zr and Sn in the aluminum foils and NIST SRM1258 (Aluminium Alloy 6011), were also determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The observed values of Fe, Cu, Zn and Ga in NIST standard samples by ICP-AES showed satisfactorily good agreements with the certified or information values with relative standard deviations from 1.1% for Zn to 6.7% for Ga. The observed values for the aluminum foils by ICP-AES were compared with those by SR-XRF. Correlation coefficients from 0.997 for Cu/Fe to 0.999 for Zn/Fe and Ga/Fe were obtained between the ratio of the elemental concentration by ICP-AES and normalized the X-ray intensity by SR-XRF. This result demonstrates that a comparison of the normalized X-ray intensity is nearly as effective for the discrimination of aluminum foils as quantitative analysis by ICP-AES. Comparisons of the analytical results by SR-XRF allow the discrimination of all aluminum foils using only a 1 mm 2 fragment with no destruction of the samples. (author)

  3. Prediction and characterization of heat-affected zone formation due to neighboring nickel-aluminum multilayer foil reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, David P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hirschfeld, Deidre A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hooper, Ryan J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manuel, Michelle V. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Reactive multilayer foils have the potential to be used as local high intensity heat sources for a variety of applications. Much of the past research effort concerning these materials have focused on understanding the structure-property relationships of the foils that govern the energy released during a reaction. To enhance the ability of researchers to more rapidly develop technologies based on reactive multilayer foils, a deeper and more predictive understanding of the relationship between the heat released from the foil and microstructural evolution in the neighboring materials is needed. This work describes the development of a numerical model for the purpose of evaluating new foil-substrate combinations for screening and optimization. The model is experimentally validated using a commercially available Ni-Al multilayer foils and different alloys.

  4. Experiments on helical modes in magnetized thin foil-plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager-Elorriaga, David

    2017-10-01

    This paper gives an in-depth experimental study of helical features on magnetized, ultrathin foil-plasmas driven by the 1-MA linear transformer driver at University of Michigan. Three types of cylindrical liner loads were designed to produce: (a) pure magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modes (defined as being void of the acceleration-driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability, MRT) using a non-imploding geometry, (b) pure kink modes using a non-imploding, kink-seeded geometry, and (c) MRT-MHD coupled modes in an unseeded, imploding geometry. For each configuration, we applied relatively small axial magnetic fields of Bz = 0.2-2.0 T (compared to peak azimuthal fields of 30-40 T). The resulting liner-plasmas and instabilities were imaged using 12-frame laser shadowgraphy and visible self-emission on a fast framing camera. The azimuthal mode number was carefully identified with a tracking algorithm of self-emission minima. Our experiments show that the helical structures are a manifestation of discrete eigenmodes. The pitch angle of the helix is simply m / kR , from implosion to explosion, where m, k, and R are the azimuthal mode number, axial wavenumber, and radius of the helical instability. Thus, the pitch angle increases (decreases) during implosion (explosion) as R becomes smaller (larger). We found that there are one, or at most two, discrete helical modes that arise for magnetized liners, with no apparent threshold on the applied Bz for the appearance of helical modes; increasing the axial magnetic field from zero to 0.5 T changes the relative weight between the m = 0 and m = 1 modes. Further increasing the applied axial magnetic fields yield higher m modes. Finally, the seeded kink instability overwhelms the intrinsic instability modes of the plasma. These results are corroborated with our analytic theory on the effects of radial acceleration on the classical sausage, kink, and higher m modes. Work supported by US DOE award DE-SC0012328, Sandia National Laboratories

  5. Laser-induced desorption of organic molecules from front- and back-irradiated metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinovev, Alexander V.; Veryovkin, Igor V.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption (LIAD) from thin metal foils is a promising technique for gentle and efficient volatilization of intact organic molecules from surfaces of solid substrates. Using the Single Photon Ionization (SPI) method combined with time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (TOF MS), desorbed flux in LIAD was examined and compared to that from direct laser desorption (LD). Molecules of various organic dyes were used in experiments. Translational velocities of the desorbed intact molecules did not depend on the desorbing laser intensity, which implies the presence of more sophisticated mechanism of energy transfer than the direct mechanical or thermal coupling between the laser pulse and the adsorbed molecules. The results of our experiments indicate that the LIAD phenomenon cannot be described in terms of a simple mechanical shake-off nor the direct laser desorption. Rather, they suggest that multi-step energy transfer processes are involved. Possible qualitative mechanism of LIAD that are based on formation of non-equilibrium energy states in the adsorbate-substrate system are proposed and discussed.

  6. A metal foil vacuum pump for the fuel cycle of fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giegerich, Thomas; Day, Christian [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Technische Physik (ITEP), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    At KIT Karlsruhe, a new vacuum pump based on the physical principle of superpermeation is under development. This metal foil pump shall be used in the fuel cycle of a fusion reactors and forms the central part of the Direct Internal Recycling concept (DIR), a shortcut between the machine exhaust pumping and the fuelling systems. This vacuum pump simplifies the fusion fuel cycle dramatically and provides two major functions simultaneously: A separating and pumping function. It separates a hydrogen isotopes and impurities containing gas flow sharply into a pure H-isotopes flow that is also being compressed. The remaining impurity enriched gas flow passes the pump without being pumped. For superpermeability, a source of molecular hydrogen is needed. This can be achieved by different methods inside of the pump. Most important are plasma based or hot rod (atomizer) based methods. In this talk, the physical working principle and the modeling of this pump is presented and the development towards a technical separator pumping module is shown up.

  7. Experimental Studies of the Electrothermal and Magneto-Rayleigh Taylor Instabilities on Thin Metal Foil Ablations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Adam; Yager-Elorriaga, David; Patel, Sonal; Jordan, Nicholas; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Lau, Y. Y.

    2015-11-01

    The electrothermal instability (ETI) and magneto-Rayleigh Taylor instability (MRT) are important in the implosion of metallic liners, such as magnetized liner implosion fusion (MagLIF). The MAIZE linear transformer driver (LTD) at the University of Michigan generates 200 ns risetime-current pulses of 500 to 600 kA into Al foil liners to study plasma instabilities and implosion dynamics, most recently MRT growth on imploding cylindrical liners. A full circuit model of MAIZE, along with I-V measurements, yields time-resolved load inductance. This has enabled measurements of an effective current-carrying radius to determine implosion velocity and plasma-vacuum interface acceleration. Measurements are also compared to implosion data from 4-time-frame laser shadowgraphy. Improved resolution measurements on the laser shadowgraph system have been used to examine the liner interface early in the shot to examine surface perturbations resulting from ETI for various seeding conditions. Fourier analysis examines the growth rates of wavelength bands of these structures to examine the transition from ETI to MRT. This work was supported by the U.S. DoE through award DE-SC0012328. S.G. Patel is supported by Sandia National Labs. D.A. Yager is supported by NSF fellowship grant DGE 1256260.

  8. SMA foil-based elastocaloric cooling: from material behavior to device engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruederlin, F.; Ossmer, H.; Wendler, F.; Miyazaki, S.; Kohl, M.

    2017-10-01

    The elastocaloric effect associated with the stress-induced first order phase transformation in pseudoelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) films and foils is of special interest for cooling applications on a miniature scale enabling fast heat transfer and high cycling frequencies as well as tunable transformation temperatures. The focus is on TiNi-based materials having the potential to meet the various challenges associated with elastocaloric cooling including large adiabatic temperature change and ultra-low fatigue. The evolution of strain and temperature bands during tensile load cycling is investigated with respect to strain and strain-rate by in situ digital image correlation and infrared thermography with a spatial resolution in the order of 25 µm. Major design issues and challenges in fabrication of SMA film-based elastocaloric cooling devices are discussed including the efficiency of heat transfer as well as force recovery to enhance the coefficient of performance (COP) on the system level. Advanced demonstrators show a temperature span of 13 °C after 30 s, while the COP of the overall device reaches almost 10% of Carnot efficiency.

  9. Microchannel neural interface manufacture by stacking silicone and metal foil laminae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancashire, Henry T.; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne; Pendegrass, Catherine J.; Ajam, Yazan Al; Magee, Elliot; Donaldson, Nick; Blunn, Gordon W.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Microchannel neural interfaces (MNIs) overcome problems with recording from peripheral nerves by amplifying signals independent of node of Ranvier position. Selective recording and stimulation using an MNI requires good insulation between microchannels and a high electrode density. We propose that stacking microchannel laminae will improve selectivity over single layer MNI designs due to the increase in electrode number and an improvement in microchannel sealing. Approach. This paper describes a manufacturing method for creating MNIs which overcomes limitations on electrode connectivity and microchannel sealing. Laser cut silicone—metal foil laminae were stacked using plasma bonding to create an array of microchannels containing tripolar electrodes. Electrodes were DC etched and electrode impedance and cyclic voltammetry were tested. Main results. MNIs with 100 μm and 200 μm diameter microchannels were manufactured. High electrode density MNIs are achievable with electrodes present in every microchannel. Electrode impedances of 27.2 ± 19.8 kΩ at 1 kHz were achieved. Following two months of implantation in Lewis rat sciatic nerve, micro-fascicles were observed regenerating through the MNI microchannels. Significance. Selective MNIs with the peripheral nervous system may allow upper limb amputees to control prostheses intuitively.

  10. Spatial distribution of the neutron flux in the IEA-R1 reactor core obtained by means of foil activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestnik Filho, J.

    1979-01-01

    A three-dimensional distribution of the neutron flux in IEA-R1 reactor, obtained by activating gold foils, is presented. The foils of diameter 8mm and thickness 0,013mm were mounted on lucite plates and located between the fuel element plates. Foil activities were measured using a 3x3 inches Nal(Tl) scintilation detector calibrated against a 4πβγ coincidence detector. Foil positions were chosen to minimize the errors of measurement; the overall estimated error on the measured flux is 5%. (Author) [pt

  11. Uranium Anodic Dissolution under Slightly Alkaline Conditions Progress Report Full-Scale Demonstration with DU Foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelis, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brown, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiedmeyer, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, G. F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) is developing an alternative method for digesting irradiated low enriched uranium (LEU) foil targets to produce 99Mo in neutral/alkaline media. This method consists of the electrolytic dissolution of irradiated uranium foil in sodium bicarbonate solution, followed by precipitation of base-insoluble fission and activation products, and uranyl-carbonate species with CaO. The addition of CaO is vital for the effective anion exchange separation of 99MoO42- from the fission products, since most of the interfering anions (e.g., CO32-) are removed from the solution, while molybdate remains in solution. An anion exchange is used to retain and to purify the 99Mo from the filtrate. The electrochemical dissolver has been designed and fabricated in 304 stainless-steel (SS), and tested for the dissolution of a full-size depleted uranium (DU) target, wrapped in Al foil. Future work will include testing with low-burn-up DU foil at Argonne and later with high-burn-up LEU foils at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  12. Structural stiffness and Coulomb damping in compliant foil journal bearings: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, C.-P. Roger; Heshmat, Hooshang

    1994-07-01

    Compliant foil bearings operate on either gas or liquid, which makes them very attractive for use in extreme environments such as in high-temperature aircraft turbine engines and cryogenic turbopumps. However, a lack of analytical models to predict the dynamic characteristics of foil bearings forces the bearing designer to rely on prototype testing, which is time-consuming and expensive. In this paper, the authors present a theoretical model to predict the structural stiffness and damping coefficients of the bump foil strip in a journal bearing or damper. Stiffness is calculated based on the perturbation of the journal center with respect to its static equilibrium position. The equivalent viscous damping coefficients are determined based on the area of a closed hysteresis loop of the journal center motion. The authors found, theoretically, that the energy dissipated from this loop was mostly contributed by the frictional motion between contact surfaces. In addition, the source and mechanism of the nonlinear behavior of the bump foil strips were examined. With the introduction of this enhanced model, the analytical tools are now available for the design of compliant foil bearings.

  13. Surface structure deduced differences of copper foil and film for graphene CVD growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Junjun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Hu, Baoshan, E-mail: hubaoshan@cqu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wei, Zidong; Jin, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Luo, Zhengtang [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hongkong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Xia, Meirong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Qingjiang [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Liu, Yunling [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • We demonstrate the significant differences between Cu foil and film in the surface morphology and crystal orientation distribution. • The different surface structure leads to the distinctive influences of the CH₄ and H₂ concentrations on the thickness and quality of as-grown graphene. • Nucleation densities and growth rate differences at the initial growth stages on the Cu foil and film were investigated and discussed. Abstract: Graphene was synthesized on Cu foil and film by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with CH₄ as carbon source. Electron backscattered scattering diffraction (EBSD) characterization demonstrates that the Cu foil surface after the H₂-assisted pre-annealing was almost composed of Cu(1 0 0) crystal facet with larger grain size of ~100 μm; meanwhile, the Cu film surface involved a variety of crystal facets of Cu(1 1 1), Cu(1 0 0), and Cu(1 1 0), with the relatively small grain size of ~10 μm. The different surface structure led to the distinctive influences of the CH₄ and H₂ concentrations on the thickness and quality of as-grown graphene. Further data demonstrate that the Cu foil enabled more nucleation densities and faster growth rates at the initial growth stages than the Cu film. Our results are beneficial for understanding the relationship between the metal surface structure and graphene CVD growth.

  14. Gas permeability of thin polyimide foils prepared by in-situ polymerisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolarz, Anna; Varlam, Mihai; Wellum, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The entrance windows to the gas detector chambers as well as to the target containers used in high-energy and high-intensity accelerators must be as thin as possible to minimise energy losses of the particles used in astrophysics and nuclear physics studies. Because of their good physical properties, polyimide foils are often considered as suitable material for such windows, but commercially available foils, having a thickness greater than 7-8 μm (>1 mg/cm 2 ), would cause energy losses of particles significant for some nuclear reactions studied. Foils prepared by in-situ polymerisation can, however, be as thin as 0.07 μm (∼10 μg/cm 2 ). The permeability of 4 μm foils produced by in-situ polymerisation has been measured at room temperature for He and Ar. For He measurements were performed in the pressure range of 4-70 mbar and for Ar in the range of 20-140 mbar and the permeability was found to be in good agreement with the values published for the thicker commercial foils

  15. Selecting lineup foils in eyewitness identification experiments: experimental control and real-world simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S E; Tunnicliff, J L

    2001-06-01

    Experimental research on eyewitness identification follows a standard principle of experimental design. Perpetrator-present and perpetrator-absent lineups are constructed with the same foils, so that the two conditions are identical except for the presence or absence ofthe trueperpetrator ofthe crime. However, this aspect of the design simulates conditions that do not correspond to those of real criminal investigations. Specifically, these conditions can create perp-absent lineups in which the foils are selected based on their similarity to an unknown person--the real perpetrator. Analysis of the similarity relations predicts that when foils for perp-absent lineups are selected based on their match to the perpetrator the false identification rate will be lower than if the foils are selected based on their match to the innocent suspect. This prediction was confirmed in an experiment that compared these two perp-absent lineup conditions. These results suggest that false identification rates in previous experiments would have been higher if the foils had been selected based on their match to the innocent suspect, rather than the absent perpetrator.

  16. The target-to-foils shift in simultaneous and sequential lineups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven E; Davey, Sherrie L

    2005-04-01

    A theoretical cornerstone in eyewitness identification research is the proposition that witnesses, in making decisions from standard simultaneous lineups, make relative judgments. The present research considers two sources of support for this proposal. An experiment by G. L. Wells (1993) showed that if the target is removed from a lineup, witnesses shift their responses to pick foils, rather than rejecting the lineups, a result we will term a target-to-foils shift. Additional empirical support is provided by results from sequential lineups which typically show higher accuracy than simultaneous lineups, presumably because of a decrease in the use of relative judgments in making identification decisions. The combination of these two lines of research suggests that the target-to-foils shift should be reduced in sequential lineups relative to simultaneous lineups. Results of two experiments showed an overall advantage for sequential lineups, but also showed a target-to-foils shift equal in size for simultaneous and sequential lineups. Additional analyses indicated that the target-to-foils shift in sequential lineups was moderated in part by an order effect and was produced with (Experiment 2) or without (Experiment 1) a shift in decision criterion. This complex pattern of results suggests that more work is needed to understand the processes which underlie decisions in simultaneous and sequential lineups.

  17. Spectroscopic Measurements of Planar Foil Plasmas Driven by a MA LTD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sonal; Yager-Elorriaga, David; Steiner, Adam; Jordan, Nick; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Lau, Y. Y.

    2014-10-01

    Planar foil ablation experiments are being conducted on the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) at the University of Michigan. The experiment consists of a 400 nm-thick, Al planar foil and a current return post. An optical fiber is placed perpendicular to the magnetic field and linear polarizers are used to isolate the pi and sigma lines. The LTD is charged to +/-70 kV with approximately 400-500 kA passing through the foil. Laser shadowgraphy has previously imaged the plasma and measured anisotropy in the Magneto Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. Localized magnetic field measurements using Zeeman splitting during the current rise is expected to yield some insight into this anisotropy. Initial experiments use Na D lines of Al foils seeded with sodium to measure Zeeman splitting. Several ion lines are also currently being studied, such as Al III and C IV, to probe the higher temperature core plasma. In planned experiments, several lens-coupled optical fibers will be placed across the foil, and local magnetic field measurements will be taken to measure current division within the plasma. This work was supported by US DoE. S.G. Patel and A.M. Steiner supported by NPSC funded by Sandia. D.A. Yager supported by NSF fellowship Grant DGE 1256260.

  18. Investigations on electroluminescent tapes and foils in relation to their applications in automotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotog, Ioan

    2015-02-01

    The electroluminescent (EL) tapes or foils having barrier films for an additional level of protection against the toughest environments conditions, offer a large area of applications. The EL lights, due to their characteristics, began to be used not only in the entertainment industry, but also for automotive and aerospace applications. In the paper, the investigations regarding EL foils technical performances in relation to their applications as light sources in automotive ambient light were presented. The experiments were designed based on the results of EL foils electrical properties previous investigations done in laboratory conditions, taking into account the range of automotive ambient temperatures for sinusoidal alternative supply voltage. The measurements for different temperatures were done by keeping the EL foils into electronic controlled oven that ensures the dark enclosure offering conditions to use a lux-meter in order to measure and maintain under control light emission intensity. The experiments results define the EL foils characteristics as load in automotive ambient temperatures condition, assuring so the data for optimal design of a dedicated inverter.

  19. UV Ink-Jet printability and durability of stone and foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Muck

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available he use of ultraviolet (UV printing technology has impacted printing industry in last years due to its applicability on many different »absorptive« as well as »non-absorptive« printing materials. The printability of building materials and recycled foils is relatively unknown. For primary building materials like stones, functionality can be explored with the use of UV printing technology; increased visual, informative effect or even “creative printing” of buildings. Also several aspects of recycled foils reusability as a printing material could be find (printed packaging material or also like secondary building materials. In the present study, printability of the stone and recycled foil and durability of UV prints was explored by means of macroscopically and microscopically characterization. Results indicate that higher print quality can be achieved on polished stone and on coated foil, which surfaces have higher smoothness. Durability of UV prints at freezing is higher at unpolished stone and coated foil that is at materials with the higher surface energy.

  20. The Chevron Foil Thrust Bearing: Improved Performance Through Passive Thermal Management and Effective Lubricant Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    An improved foil thrust bearing is described that eliminates or reduces the need for forced cooling of the bearing foils while at the same time improves the load capacity of the bearing, enhances damping, provides overload tolerance, and eliminates the high speed load capacity drop-off that plagues the current state of the art. The performance improvement demonstrated by the chevron foil thrust bearing stems from a novel trailing edge shape that splays the hot lubricant in the thin film radially, thus preventing hot lubricant carry-over into the ensuing bearing sector. Additionally, the chevron shaped trailing edge induces vortical mixing of the hot lubricant with the gas that is naturally resident within the inter-pad region of a foil thrust bearing. The elimination of hot gas carry-over in combination with the enhanced mixing has enabled a completely passive thermally managed foil bearing design. Laboratory testing at NASA has confirmed the original analysis and reduced this concept to practice.

  1. Effects of temperature and Mo2C layer on stress and structural properties in CVD diamond film grown on Mo foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Fen; Wei, Qiuping; Yu, Z.M.; Luo, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiongwei; Long, Hangyu; Wu, Xianzhe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Polycrystalline diamond films were grown on Mo foil substrates by HF-CVD. •We investigated the temperature dependence of the film stress for each sample. •We show that how the thermal stress and intrinsic stress affects the total stress. •The stress of Mo foil substrate obtained by XRD was investigated in this study. •The effect of Mo 2 C interface layer for stress of multilayer system was considered. -- Abstract: Polycrystalline diamond films have been prepared by hot-filament-assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) on Mo foils. The morphology, growth rate, phase composition, element distribution and residual stress of the films at different temperature were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrum, field emission electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. Results show that the residual stress of the diamond films is compressive. The thermal stress plays a decisive role in the total stress, while the intrinsic stress can change the trend of the total stress. The residual stress of substrate gradually changes from tensile stress to compressive stress with the increase of the deposited temperature. A Mo 2 C interlayer is formed during deposition process, and this layer has an important influence on the stresses of films and substrates

  2. The development of uranium foil farication technology utilizing twin roll method for Mo-99 irradiation target

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C K; Park, H D

    2002-01-01

    MDS Nordion in Canada, occupying about 75% of global supply of Mo-99 isotope, has provided the irradiation target of Mo-99 using the rod-type UAl sub x alloys with HEU(High Enrichment Uranium). ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) through co-operation with BATAN in Indonesia, leading RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) program substantially for nuclear non-proliferation, has designed and fabricated the annular cylinder of uranium targets, and successfully performed irradiation test, in order to develop the fabrication technology of fission Mo-99 using LEU(Low Enrichment Uranium). As the uranium foils could be fabricated in laboratory scale, not in commercialized scale by hot rolling method due to significant problems in foil quality, productivity and economic efficiency, attention has shifted to the development of new technology. Under these circumstances, the invention of uranium foil fabrication technology utilizing twin-roll casting method in KAERI is found to be able to fabricate LEU or...

  3. Local deposition of Copper on Aluminum based MWT Back Contact Foil using Cold Spray Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goris, M.J.A.A.; Bennett, I.J.; Eerenstein, W. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    MWT cell and module technology has been shown to result in modules with up to 5% higher power output than H-pattern modules and to be suitable for use with thin and fragile cells. In this study, the use of a low cost conductive back-sheet with aluminium as the current carrier in combination with locally applied copper (5 to 30 {mu}m) using the cold spray method is benchmarked against a standard PVF-PET-copper foil in 2 x 2 cell modules. Cell to module losses and reliability during climate chamber tests according to IEC61215 ed. 2, are comparable to module made with the standard foil. Optimizing the cold spray process can result in a cost reduction of more than a factor 10 of the current carrying component, when compared to a full copper conductive back-sheet foil.

  4. Bi-Directional Ion Emission from Massive Gold Cluster Impacts on Nanometric Carbon Foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debord, J Daniel; Della-Negra, Serge; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco A; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V; Schweikert, Emile A

    2012-04-12

    Carbon cluster emission from thin carbon foils (5-40 nm) impacted by individual Au(n) (+q) cluster projectiles (95-125 qkeV, n/q = 3-200) reveals features regarding the energy deposition, projectile range, and projectile fate in matter as a function of the projectile characteristics. For the first time, the secondary ion emission from thin foils has been monitored simultaneously in both forward and backward emission directions. The projectile range and depth of emission were examined as a function of projectile size, energy, and target thickness. A key finding is that the massive cluster impact develops very differently from that of a small polyatomic projectile. The range of the 125 qkeV Au(100q) (+q) (q ≈ 4) projectile is estimated to be 20 nm (well beyond the range of an equal velocity Au(+)) and projectile disintegration occurs at the exit of even a 5 nm thick foil.

  5. The Anomalous Currents In The Front Foils of the JET Lost Alpha Diagnostic KA-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, F.E.; Kiptily, V.; Salmi, A.; Horton, A.; Fullard, K.; Murari, A.; Darrow, D.; Hill, K.

    2011-01-01

    We have examined the observed currents in the front foils of the JET Faraday cup lost alpha particle diagnostic KA-2. In particular, we have sought to understand the currents during Ohmic plasmas for which the ion flux at the detectors was initially assumed to be negligible. We have considered two sources of this current: plasma ions (both deuterium and impurity) in the vicinity of the detector (including charge exchange neutrals) and photoemission from scattered UV radiation. Based upon modeling and empirical observation, the latter source appears most likely and, moreover, seems to be applicable to the currents in the front foil during ELMy H-mode plasmas. A very thin gold or nickel foil attached to the present detector aperture is proposed as a solution to this problem, and realistic calculations of expected fluxes of lost energetic neutral beam ions during TF ripple experiments are presented as justification of this proposed solution.

  6. Slowing down of 100 keV antiprotons in Al foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, K.

    2018-03-01

    Using energy degrading foils to slow down antiprotons is of interest for producing antihydrogen atoms. I consider here the slowing down of 100 keV antiprotons, that will be produced in the ELENA storage ring under construction at CERN, to energies below 10 keV. At these low energies, they are suitable for efficient antihydrogen production. I simulate the antihydrogen motion and slowing down in Al foils using a recently developed molecular dynamics approach. The results show that the optimal Al foil thickness for slowing down the antiprotons to below 5 keV is 910 nm, and to below 10 keV is 840 nm. Also the lateral spreading of the transmitted antiprotons is reported and the uncertainties discussed.

  7. The Anomalous Currents In The Front Foils of the JET Lost Alpha Diagnostic KA-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil, F. E.; Kiptily, V.; Salmi, A.; Horton, A.; Fullard, K.; Murari, A.; Darrow, D.; Hill, K.

    2011-05-04

    We have examined the observed currents in the front foils of the JET Faraday cup lost alpha particle diagnostic KA-2. In particular, we have sought to understand the currents during Ohmic plasmas for which the ion flux at the detectors was initially assumed to be negligible. We have considered two sources of this current: plasma ions both deuterium and impurity in the vicinity of the detector including charge exchange neutrals and photoemission from scattered UV radiation. Based upon modeling and empirical observation, the latter source appears most likely and, moreover, seems to be applicable to the currents in the front foil during ELMy H-mode plasmas. A very thin gold or nickel foil attached to the present detector aperture is proposed as a solution to this problem, and realistic calculations of expected fluxes of lost energetic neutral beam ions during TF ripple experiments are presented as justification of this proposed solution.

  8. UV-transmission and fluorescence properties of polymer thin foils for use in microlens array fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvano, Donati; Wei, Mao-Kuo; Cai, Jhih-Hao; Lee, Jiun-Haw

    2010-01-01

    There is a report of measurements of optical transmission and fluorescence of thin foils of polyethylene terephthalate polymer, data that are unavailable in literature to the best of our knowledge. The foils are those commonly used as substrate and lens material in microlens arrays designed for use in multi-pixel image photodetectors with the purpose of fill-factor recovery. The wavelength range covered by the measurements is 200 to 800 nm and the thickness of polyethylene terephthalate foils is 40-80 μm. It was found a UV-transmission cutoff of 320 nm for polyethylene terephthalate and 330 nm for cured epoxy on polyethylene terephthalate. Fluorescence of the samples is peaked at 385 nm and the wavelength of most effective fluorescence is 340 nm

  9. X-ray scattering measurements from thin-foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; BYRNAK, BP; Hornstrup, Allan

    1992-01-01

    Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positioned...... in a test quadrant of the telescope structure and from ASTRO-D foils held in a simple fixture. The X-ray data is compared with laser data and other surface structure data such as STM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), TEM, and electron micrography. The data obtained at Cu K-alpha(1), (8.05 keV) from all...

  10. Bright betatronlike x rays from radiation pressure acceleration of a mass-limited foil target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tong-Pu; Pukhov, Alexander; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Liu, Feng; Shvets, Gennady

    2013-01-25

    By using multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we study the electromagnetic emission from radiation pressure acceleration of ultrathin mass-limited foils. When a circularly polarized laser pulse irradiates the foil, the laser radiation pressure pushes the foil forward as a whole. The outer wings of the pulse continue to propagate and act as a natural undulator. Electrons move together with ions longitudinally but oscillate around the latter transversely, forming a self-organized helical electron bunch. When the electron oscillation frequency coincides with the laser frequency as witnessed by the electron, betatronlike resonance occurs. The emitted x rays by the resonant electrons have high brightness, short durations, and broad band ranges which may have diverse applications.

  11. Slowing down of 100 keV antiprotons in Al foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nordlund

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using energy degrading foils to slow down antiprotons is of interest for producing antihydrogen atoms. I consider here the slowing down of 100 keV antiprotons, that will be produced in the ELENA storage ring under construction at CERN, to energies below 10 keV. At these low energies, they are suitable for efficient antihydrogen production. I simulate the antihydrogen motion and slowing down in Al foils using a recently developed molecular dynamics approach. The results show that the optimal Al foil thickness for slowing down the antiprotons to below 5 keV is 910 nm, and to below 10 keV is 840 nm. Also the lateral spreading of the transmitted antiprotons is reported and the uncertainties discussed. Keywords: Antiprotons, Stopping power, Slowing down, Molecular dynamics

  12. Induction of subterahertz surface waves on a metal wire by intense laser interaction with a foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Kensuke; Inoue, Shunsuke; Tokita, Shigeki; Yasuhara, Ryo; Nakamiya, Yoshihide; Nagashima, Takeshi; Mori, Kazuaki; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji

    2018-02-01

    We have demonstrated that a pulsed electromagnetic wave (Sommerfeld wave) of subterahertz frequency and 11-MV/m field strength can be induced on a metal wire by the interaction of an intense femtosecond laser pule with an adjacent metal foil at a laser intensity of 8.5 × 1018W /c m2 . The polarity of the electric field of this surface wave is opposite to that obtained by the direct interaction of the laser with the wire. Numerical simulations suggest that an electromagnetic wave associated with electron emission from the foil induces the surface wave. A tungsten wire is placed normal to an aluminum foil with a gap so that the wire is not irradiated and damaged by the laser pulse, thus making it possible to generate surface waves on the wire repeatedly.

  13. Simulation of the molecular recombination yield for swift H2+ ions through thin carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the recombination yield for swift H 2 + molecular ions at the exit of thin amorphous carbon foils, as a function of the dwell time and incident energy. Our results are based on a detailed simulation of the motion through the target of the H 2 + molecular ion (before dissociation takes place) and its constituent fragments (after dissociation), including the following effects: Coulomb repulsion, nuclear scattering, electron capture and loss, as well as self-retarding and wake forces, which provide the relative distance and velocity of the dissociated fragments at the foil exit. The recombination of an H 2 + ion at the exit of the foil depends on the interproton separation and internal energy of the dissociated fragments, and on their probability to capture an electron. Comparison of our results with the available experimental data shows a good agreement

  14. Resonance effects of transition radiation emitted from thin foil stacks using electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awata, Takaaki; Yajima, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; and others

    1997-03-01

    Transition Radiation(TR) X rays are expected to be a high brilliant X-ray source because the interference among TR X rays emitted from many thin foils placed periodically in vacuum can increase their intensity and make them quasi-monochromatic. In order to study the interference (resonance) effects of TR, we measured the energy spectra of TR for several sets of thin-foil stacks at various emission angles. It was found that the resonance effects of TR are classified into intrafoil and interfoil resonances and the intensity of TR X rays increases nonlinearly with increasing foil number, attributing to the interfoil resonance. It became evident that the brilliance of TR is as high as that of SR. (author)

  15. Determination of low-energy ion-induced electron yields from thin carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, Frederic; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Wurz, Peter; Bochsler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Ion beams crossing thin carbon foils can cause electron emission from the entrance and exit surface. Thin carbon foils are used in various types of time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers to produce start pulses for TOF measurements. The yield of emitted electrons depends, among other parameters, on the energy of the incoming ion and its mass, and it has been experimentally determined for a few projectile elements. The electron emission yield is of great importance for deriving abundance ratios of elements and isotopes in space plasmas using TOF mass spectrometers. We have developed a detector for measuring ion-induced electron yields, and we have extended the electron yield measurements for oxygen to energies relevant for solar wind research. We also present first measurements of the carbon foil electron emission yield for argon and iron in the solar wind energy range

  16. Applications of beam-foil spectroscopy to atomic collisions in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, I. A.

    1976-01-01

    Some selected papers presented at the Fourth International Conference on Beam-Foil Spectroscopy, whose results are of particular pertinence to ionic collision phenomena in solids, are reviewed. The topics discussed include solid target effects and means of surmounting them in the measurement of excited projectile ion lifetimes for low-energy heavy element ions; the electron emission accompanying the passage of heavy particles through solid targets; the collision broadening of X rays emitted from 100 keV ions moving in solids; residual K-shell excitation in chlorine ions penetrating carbon; comparison between 40 MeV Si on gaseous SiH4 targets at 300 mtorr and 40 MeV Si on Al; and the emergent surface interaction in beam-foil spectroscopy. A distinct overlap of interests between the sciences of beam-foil spectroscopy and atomic collisions in solids is pointed out.

  17. Effects of differently hardened brass foil laminate on the electromechanical property of externally laminated CC tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista, Zhierwinjay; Shin, Hyung Seop [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Mean, Byoung Jean; Lee, Jae Hun [SuNAM Co Ltd., Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The mechanical properties of REBCO coated conductor (CC) wires under uniaxial tension are largely determined by the thick component layers in the architecture, namely, the substrate and the stabilizer or even the reinforcement layer. Depending on device applications of the CC tapes, it is necessary to reinforce thin metallic foils externally to one-side or both sides of the CC tapes. Due to the external reinforcement of brass foils, it was found that this could increase the reversible strain limit from the Cu-stabilized CC tapes. In this study, the effects of differently hardened brass foil laminate on the electromechanical property of CC tapes were investigated under uniaxial tension loading. The tensile strain dependence of the critical current (I{sub c}) was measured at 77 K and self-field. Depending on whether the I{sub c} of CC tapes were measured during loading or after unloading, a reversible strain (or stress) limit could be determined, respectively. The both-sides of the Cu-stabilized CC tapes were laminated with brass foils with different hardness, namely 1/4H, 1H and EH. From the obtained results, it showed that the yield strength of the brass laminated CC tapes with EH brass foil laminate was comparable to the one of the Cu-stabilized CC tape due to its large yield strength even though its large volume fraction. It was found that the brass foil with different hardness was mainly sensitive on the stress dependence of I{sub c}, but not on the strain sensitivity due to the residual strain induced in the laminated CC tapes during unloading.

  18. Extraction of Solar Wind Nitrogen and Noble Gases From the Genesis Gold Foil Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlutter, D. J.; Pepin, R. O.

    2005-12-01

    The Genesis gold foil is a bulk solar wind collector, integrating fluences from all three of the wind regimes. Pyrolytic extraction of small foil samples at Minnesota yielded He fluences, corrected for backscatter, in good agreement with measurements by on-board spacecraft instruments, and He/Ne elemental ratios close to those implanted in collector foils deployed on the lunar surface during the Apollo missions. Isotopic distributions of He, Ne and Ar are under study. Pyrolysis to temperatures above the gold melting point generates nitrogen blanks large enough to obscure the solar-wind nitrogen component. An alternative technique for nitrogen and noble gas extraction, by room-temperature amalgamation of the gold foil surface, will be discussed. Ne and Ar releases in preliminary tests of this technique on small foil samples were close to 100% of the amounts expected from the high-temperature pyrolysis yields, indicating that amalgamation quantitatively liberates gases from several hundred angstroms deep in the gold, beyond the implantation depth of most of the solar wind. Present work is focused on two problems currently interfering with accurate nitrogen measurements at the required picogram to sub-picogram levels: a higher than expected blank likely due to tiny air bubbles rolled into the gold sheet during fabrication, and the presence of a refractory hydrocarbon film on Genesis collector surfaces (the "brown stain") that, if left in place on the foil, shields the underlying gold from mercury attack. We have found, however, that the film is efficiently removed within tens of seconds by oxygen plasma ashing. Potential nitrogen contaminants introduced during the crash of the sample return canister are inert in amalgamation, and so are not hazards to the measurements.

  19. MULPEX: A compact multi-layered polymer foil collector for micrometeoroids and orbital debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Graham, G. A.; Burchell, M. J.; Taylor, E. A.; Drolshagen, G.; Chater, R. J.; McPhail, D.

    Detailed studies of preserved hypervelocity impact residues on spacecraft multi-layer insulation foils have yielded important information about the flux of small particles from different sources in low-Earth orbit (LEO). We have extended our earlier research on impacts occurring in LEO to design and testing of a compact capture device. MUlti- Layer Polymer EXperiment (MULPEX) is simple, cheap to build, lightweight, of no power demand, easy to deploy, and optimised for the efficient collection of impact residue for analysis on return to Earth. The capture medium is a stack of very thin (8 and 40 μm) polyimide foils, supported on poly-tetrafluoroethylene sheet frames, surrounded by a protective aluminium casing. The uppermost foil has a very thin metallic coating for thermal protection and resistance to atomic oxygen and ultra-violet exposure. The casing provides a simple detachable interface for deployment on the spacecraft, facing into the desired direction for particle collection. On return to the laboratory, the stacked foils are separated for examination in a variable pressure scanning electron microscope, without need for surface coating. Analysis of impact residue is performed using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers. Our laboratory experiments, utilising buck-shot firings of analogues to micrometeoroids (35-38 μm olivine) and space debris (4 μm alumina and 1 mm stainless steel) in a light gas gun, have shown that impact residue is abundant within the foil layers, and preserves a record of the impacting particle, whether of micrometer or millimetre dimensions. Penetrations of the top foil are easily recognised, and act as a proxy for dimensions of the penetrating particle. Impact may cause disruption and melting, but some residue retains sufficient crystallographic structure to show clear Raman lines, diagnostic of the original mineral.

  20. Effect of foil orientation on damage accumulation during irradiation in magnesium and annealing response of dislocation loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.K.; Yao, Z.; Daymond, M.R.; Holt, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of foil orientation on electron irradiation damage in Mg is analyzed. ► Prism plane defects increases in prism foils as compared to basal foils. ► Basal faults were interstitial and prism plane defects were mixed in character. ► Shrinkage of interstitial dislocations takes place by the self diffusion mechanism. - Abstract: The effect of foil orientation on damage accumulation behavior in commercial purity magnesium is investigated by in situ electron and ion irradiation. Transmission electron microscope has been used to study the dislocation loops formed by the agglomeration of point defects during irradiation. It has been observed that the ratio of prism plane to basal plane defects increases as the foil orientation is changed from basal to the prism foil. The ratio of vacancy to interstitial defects also increases in prism foils as compared to the basal foils. This point defect accumulation behavior is reversed when magnesium is irradiated with 1 MeV Kr 2+ ions and the formation of basal plane dislocation loops were only observed in prism foils and did not take place in the basal foils. Analysis showed that all the basal plane dislocation loops have Burgers vector of the type 1/(6〈202 ¯ 3〉) and are interstitial in nature whereas prism plane dislocation loops have Burgers vector of the type 1/(3〈112 ¯ 0〉) and are of mixed interstitial/vacancy in character. In situ annealing experiments at different temperatures performed on electron irradiated magnesium foils suggest that those dislocation loops that become thermodynamically unstable anneal out in a matter of few seconds whereas other stable dislocation loops continue to shrink by absorbing surrounding vacancy clusters. The activation energy for the shrinkage of the interstitial dislocation loops has been derived and the results show that the shrinkage of interstitial dislocation loops takes place by the mechanism of vacancy assisted self diffusion.

  1. Design, construction and testing of holographic PV concentrator modules and construction of a pilot plant for serial production of the holographic optical concentrator system on flexible foils. Follow-up project: Completion of the production process for mass production of large format holographic optical elements on flexible foils for solar technology. Final report; Auslegung, Konstruktion und Test von holographischen PV-Konzentratormodulen und Aufbau einer Pilotanlage zur Serienfertigung der holographischen Konzentratoroptik auf flexiblen Folien. Anschlussvorhaben: Vervollstaendigung der Produktionsverfahren fuer die Serienfertigung von grossformatigen holographischen optischen Elementen auf flexiblen Folien fuer die Solartechnik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanoff, C.G.; Froehlich, K.; Froening, P.; Schulat, J.; Schuette, H.; Wagemann, E.U.

    1997-06-30

    The aim of the research project is the development of a technique for value for money mass-production of large area holographic focussers made of dichromate gelatine for photo-electrics. The holograms act simultaneously as spectrally dispersing and focussing optical elements, which focus the sunlight in discrete bands on the spectrally matched solar cells. The three marked characteristics of the holographic focussers are the diffraction efficiency, the spectral bandwidth and the central working wavelength. The optimum values of these parameters depend on the variation of the layer thickness and the index of refraction over the aperture of the hologram, and on the ability of the DCG layer to provide great modulation of the index of refraction. Mass-production of large format holographic lenses (transmission holograms) and mirrors (reflection holograms) demands precise coating of the supporting substrate (glass or PET foil) with dichromate gelatine. Mass-production of the holographic lenses requires a matrix hologram with 50% diffraction efficiency and is done with two copier plants developed in the project. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens ist die Entwicklung einer Technologie fuer die preiswerte serielle Herstellung von grossflaechigen holographischen Konzentratoren in Dichromatgelatine fuer die Photovoltaik. Die Hologramme wirken gleichzeitig als spektral dispergierende und fokussierende optische Elemente, die das Sonnenlicht in diskreten Baendern auf spektral angepasste Solarzellen konzentrieren. Die drei kennzeichnenden Charakteristiken der holographischen Konzentratoren sind die Beugungseffizienz, die spektrale Bandbreite und die zentrale Arbeitswellenlaenge. Die optimalen Werte dieser Parameter sind durch die Variation der Schichtdicke und des Brechnungsindexes ueber die Apertur des Hologramms, sowie durch die Faehigkeit der DCG-Schicht grosse Brechungsindexmodulation zu ermoeglichen, eindeutig bedingt. Die serielle Fertigung der

  2. Bi-Directional Ion Emission from Massive Gold Cluster Impacts on Nanometric Carbon Foils

    OpenAIRE

    DeBord, J. Daniel; Della-Negra, Serge; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco A.; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V.; Schweikert, Emile A.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon cluster emission from thin carbon foils (5–40 nm) impacted by individual Aun+q cluster projectiles (95–125 qkeV, n/q = 3–200) reveals features regarding the energy deposition, projectile range, and projectile fate in matter as a function of the projectile characteristics. For the first time, the secondary ion emission from thin foils has been monitored simultaneously in both forward and backward emission directions. The projectile range and depth of emission were examined as a function...

  3. Observation of Rayleigh-Taylor-like structures in a laser-accelerated foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, R.R.; Emery, M.H.; Stamper, J.A.; McLean, E.A.; Obenschain, S.P.; Peckerar, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Laser-accelerated targets have been predicted to be subject to the Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instability. The development of the instability was studied by introducing mass thickness variations in foil targets and observing the development of the target nonuniformities by side-on flash x radiography. Observations were made of target structures and mass redistribution effects which resemble Rayleigh-Taylor bubbles and spikes, including not only advanced broadening of the spike tips on the laser-irradiated side of the foil but also projections of mass on the unirradiated side. The observations compare well with numerical simulations

  4. Quality assurance of GEM foils in the framework of the TPC upgrade in the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ozcelik, Melih Arslan

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the TPC upgrade of the ALICE Experiment, new readout chambers will be installed during the LHC long shutdown 2, which is scheduled to start in July 2018. The current MWPCs (Multi Wire Proportional Chambers) will be replaced by readout chambers consisting of GEM (Gas Electron Multipliers) foils in order to meet the increasing readout rate requirements. QA (Quality Assurance) tests on the GEMs are performed to classify the foils. In this report we present the work done during the CERN Summer Student Programme 2016.

  5. Hydrodynamic simulations of light ion beam-matter interactions: ablative acceleration of thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devore, C.R.; Gardner, J.H.; Boris, J.P.; Mosher, D.

    1984-01-01

    A one-dimensional model is used to study the hydrodynamic response of thin foils to bombardment by an intense proton beam. The beam targets are single- and multilayer planar foils of gold and polystyrene. The main conclusion is that the efficiency of conversion of incident beam energy to directed kinetic energy of the target is maximized by using a multilayer design. For beam parameters associated with the Gamble II device at the Naval Research Laboratory, the simulations yield payload velocities of over 5 cm/μs and energy conversion efficiencies of over 30%. The implications of these results for inertial confinement fusion research are discussed. (author)

  6. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube emitter on metal foil for medical X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Je Hwang; Kim, Wan Sun; Lee, Seung Ho; Eom, Young Ju; Park, Hun Kuk; Park, Kyu Chang

    2013-10-01

    A simple method is proposed for growing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on metal foil using the triode direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The carbon nanotube (CNT) electron emitter was fabricated using fewer process steps with an acid treated metal substrate. The CNT emitter was used for X-ray generation, and the X-ray image of mouse's joint was obtained with an anode current of 0.5 mA at an anode bias of 60 kV. The simple fabrication of a well-aligned CNT with a protection layer on metal foil, and its X-ray application, were studied.

  7. Large-area thin self-supporting carbon foils with MgO coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarz, A

    2002-01-01

    Large area self-supporting carbon foils in the thickness of range of 8-22 mu g/cm sup 2 , coated with approximately 4 mu g/cm sup 2 MgO have been prepared by e-gun evaporation. They were mounted on frames with apertures of 130 cm sup 2. Problems related to the parting agent preparation, floating procedure, and mounting onto frames are discussed. Special precautions necessary to avoid damage during foil drying, storage and transportation are suggested.

  8. Large-area thin self-supporting carbon foils with MgO coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolarz, Anna E-mail: anna@slcj.uw.edu.pl; Maier-Komor, Peter

    2002-03-11

    Large area self-supporting carbon foils in the thickness of range of 8-22 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}, coated with approximately 4 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} MgO have been prepared by e-gun evaporation. They were mounted on frames with apertures of 130 cm{sup 2}. Problems related to the parting agent preparation, floating procedure, and mounting onto frames are discussed. Special precautions necessary to avoid damage during foil drying, storage and transportation are suggested.

  9. Wake structure and thrust generation of a flapping foil in two-dimensional flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Schnipper, Teis

    2017-01-01

    We present a combined numerical (particle vortex method) and experimental (soap film tunnel) study of a symmetric foil undergoing prescribed oscillations in a two-dimensional free stream. We explore pure pitching and pure heaving, and contrast these two generic types of kinematics. We compare...... measurements and simulations when the foil is forced with pitching oscillations, and we find a close correspondence between flow visualisations using thickness variations in the soap film and the numerically determined vortex structures. Numerically, we determine wake maps spanned by oscillation frequency...

  10. Foil cycling technique for the VESUVIO spectrometer operating in the resonance detector configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schooneveld, E. M.; Mayers, J.; Rhodes, N. J.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Senesi, R.; Gorini, G.; Perelli-Cippo, E.; Tardocchi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a novel experimental technique, namely, the foil cycling technique, developed on the VESUVIO spectrometer (ISIS spallation source) operating in the resonance detector configuration. It is shown that with a proper use of two foils of the same neutron absorbing material it is possible, in a double energy analysis process, to narrow the width of the instrumental resolution of a spectrometer operating in the resonance detector configuration and to achieve an effective subtraction of the neutron and gamma backgrounds. Preliminary experimental results, obtained from deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements on lead, zirconium hydride, and deuterium chloride samples, are presented

  11. Foil cycling technique for the VESUVIO spectrometer operating in the resonance detector configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooneveld, E. M.; Mayers, J.; Rhodes, N. J.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Senesi, R.; Gorini, G.; Perelli-Cippo, E.; Tardocchi, M.

    2006-09-01

    This article reports a novel experimental technique, namely, the foil cycling technique, developed on the VESUVIO spectrometer (ISIS spallation source) operating in the resonance detector configuration. It is shown that with a proper use of two foils of the same neutron absorbing material it is possible, in a double energy analysis process, to narrow the width of the instrumental resolution of a spectrometer operating in the resonance detector configuration and to achieve an effective subtraction of the neutron and gamma backgrounds. Preliminary experimental results, obtained from deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements on lead, zirconium hydride, and deuterium chloride samples, are presented.

  12. Charge-state-distributions of foil-excited heavy Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faibis, A.; Kanter, E.P.; Koenig, W.; Zabransky, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of foil-excited fast (MeV/amu) heavy ions have demonstrated large yields of high Rydberg atoms formed in such beams. Further experiments have suggested a strong target-thickness dependence of the yields of such atoms. These results have been puzzling in view of the supposed short mean free paths of such atoms in solids. In an effort to better understand these results, the authors have measured the yields of Rydberg atoms (napprox.100-200) in foil-excited 32 S ions at an incident energy of 125 MeV

  13. A Wirelessly-Powered Homecage With Segmented Copper Foils and Closed-Loop Power Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Jia, Yaoyao; Canales, Daniel; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-10-01

    A new wireless electrophysiology data acquisition system, built around a standard homecage, is presented in this paper, which can power up and communicate with sensors and actuators/stimulators attached to or implanted in small freely behaving animal subjects, such as rodents. Key abilities of the energized homecage (EnerCage) system is enabling longitudinal experiments with minimal operator involvement or interruption, while providing test subjects with an enriched environment closer to their natural habitat, without the burden of being tethered or carrying bulky batteries. The magnetic resonant multi-coil design used in the new EnerCage-HC2 automatically localizes the transmitted electromagnetic power from a single transmitter (Tx) coil at the bottom of the cage toward the receiver coil (Rx), carried on/in the animal body, obviating the need for tracking the animal or switching the coils. In order to increase the resonators' quality factor (Q > 166) at the desired operating frequency of 13.56 MHz, while maintaining a high self-resonance frequency [Formula: see text], they are made of wide copper foils and optimally segmented based on a set of design rules that can be adopted for experimental arenas with different shapes and dimensions. The Rx rectified voltage is regulated at a user-defined window [Formula: see text] by a Tx-Rx closed-loop power control (CLPC) mechanism that creates a volume inside the homecage with 42 mW of power delivered to the load (PDL), and a homogeneous power transfer efficiency (PTE) plane of 14% on average at ∼7 cm height, plus stability against angular mis-alignments of up to 80°.

  14. Relative level populations in S VI after beam-foil excitation, obtained from ANDC analyses of measured decay curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports the relative population of the levels 3p, 3d, 4d, 5d, 4f, 5g, 6g, 6h, 7h, 7i, 8i and 8k in Na-like sulfur, S VI, after beam-foil excitation at an energy of 3 MeV. For the first time the ANDC technique has been used to obtain the relative efficiency calibration of the detection system at discrete points in the wavelength interval 400-5000 A, from the analyses of measured decay curves. The advantages and limitations of this method are discussed. The populations obtained with this new technique are compared to previous measurements in multiply ionized atoms. The preferential population of the 3p and 3d levels observed in other Na-like ions is now accurately established. For the higher lying levels an almost constant population is observed. (Auth.)

  15. Charge-state distributions of 100, 175, 275, and 352 MeV gold ions emerging from thin carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.; Auble, R.L.; Erb, K.A.; Jones, C.M.; Olsen, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    These measurements were undertaken as a consequence of our failure early this year to accelerate Au +46 ions in the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron using an injected beam of 352 MeV 197 Au +17 from the 25 MV tandem accelerator. Following that unsuccessful test, we made a preliminary measurement of the charge-state distribution of 352 MeV 197 Au ions emerging from a carbon foil using the bending magnet that is a part of the cyclotron beam injection system. The measured mean charge was approx.38.5, about 4.5 charge-states lower than predicted by the Sayer semi-empirical formula. The measurements reported here were done more precisely and systematically confirm that preliminary result. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Charge-state distributions of 100, 175, 275, and 352 MeV gold ions emerging from thin carbon foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.A.; Auble, R.L.; Erb, K.A.; Jones, C.M.; Olsen, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    These measurements were undertaken as a consequence of our failure early this year to accelerate Au/sup +46/ ions in the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron using an injected beam of 352 MeV /sup 197/Au/sup +17/ from the 25 MV tandem accelerator. Following that unsuccessful test, we made a preliminary measurement of the charge-state distribution of 352 MeV /sup 197/Au ions emerging from a carbon foil using the bending magnet that is a part of the cyclotron beam injection system. The measured mean charge was approx.38.5, about 4.5 charge-states lower than predicted by the Sayer semi-empirical formula. The measurements reported here were done more precisely and systematically confirm that preliminary result. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Research of plating aluminum and aluminum foil on internal surface of carbon fiber composite material centrifuge rotor drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuqi; Dong Jinping; Dai Xingjian

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity and sealability of the internal surface of carbon fiber/epoxy composite material centrifuge rotor drum, magnetron sputtering aluminum and pasting an aluminum foil on the inner wall of the drum are adopted to realize the aim. By means of XRD, SEM/EDS and OM, the surface topography of aluminum coated (thickness of 5 μm and 12 μm) and aluminum foil (12 μm) are observed and analyzed; the cohesion of between aluminum coated (or aluminum foil) and substrate material (CFRP) is measured by scratching experiment, direct drawing experiment, and shear test. Besides, the ultra-high-speed rotation experiment of CFRP ring is carried out to analyze stress and strain of coated aluminum (or aluminum foil) which is adhered on the ring. The results showed aluminum foil pasted on inner surface do better performance than magnetron sputtering aluminum on CFRP centrifuge rotor drum. (authors)

  18. Influence of UV and Gamma radiations on the induced birefringence of stretched poly(vinyl) alcohol foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechifor, Cristina-Delia; Zelinschi, Carmen Beatrice; Dorohoi, Dana-Ortansa

    2014-03-01

    The aim of our paper is to evidence the influence of Gamma and UV radiations on the induced birefringence of poly(vinyl alcohol) stretched foils. Thin foils of PVA were prepared and dried without modifying their surfaces. The polymeric foils were irradiated from 15 min to 6 h using UV and Gamma radiations. The induced by stretching under heating birefringence of PVA films was measured at λ = 589.3 nm with a Babinet Compensator. Physico-chemical processes (photo stabilization, photo degradation, oxidation) induced by irradiation of polymer matrix influence both the stretching degree and the anisotropy of etired foils. An increase of birefringence versus the stretching ratio of the PVA foils was evidenced for all studied samples. The dependence of the birefringence on the exposure time, stretching ratio and nature of radiation was also confirmed.

  19. Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing multilayer-coated segmented conical optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    We fabricated x-ray mirrors for hard x-ray (greater than or equal to 10 keV) telescopes using multilayer coatings and an improved epoxy-replicated aluminum foil (ERAF) nonvacuum technology. The ERAF optics have similar to1 arcmin axial figure half-power diameter (HPD) and passed environmental...... telescope HPD, we designed a figure metrology system and a new mounting technique. We describe a cylindrical metrology system built for fast axial and roundness figure measurement of hard x-ray conical optics. These developments lower cost and improve the optics performance of the HEFT (high-energy focusing...

  20. Experimental and theoretical study on minimum achievable foil thickness during asymmetric rolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Delin; Liu, Xianghua; Song, Meng; Yu, Hailiang

    2014-01-01

    Parts produced by microforming are becoming ever smaller. Similarly, the foils required in micro-machines are becoming ever thinner. The asymmetric rolling technique is capable of producing foils that are thinner than those produced by the conventional rolling technique. The difference between asymmetric rolling and conventional rolling is the 'cross-shear' zone. However, the influence of the cross-shear zone on the minimum achievable foil thickness during asymmetric rolling is still uncertain. In this paper, we report experiments designed to understand this critical influencing factor on the minimum achievable thickness in asymmetric rolling. Results showed that the minimum achievable thickness of rolled foils produced by asymmetric rolling with a rolling speed ratio of 1.3 can be reduced to about 30% of that possible by conventional rolling technique. Furthermore, the minimum achievable thickness during asymmetric rolling could be correlated to the cross-shear ratio, which, in turn, could be related to the rolling speed ratio. From the experimental results, a formula to calculate the minimum achievable thickness was established, considering the parameters cross-shear ratio, friction coefficient, work roll radius, etc. in asymmetric rolling.