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Sample records for stripes maximum pulsed

  1. Maximum likelihood estimation of the attenuated ultrasound pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus Bolding

    1994-01-01

    The attenuated ultrasound pulse is divided into two parts: a stationary basic pulse and a nonstationary attenuation pulse. A standard ARMA model is used for the basic pulse, and a nonstandard ARMA model is derived for the attenuation pulse. The maximum likelihood estimator of the attenuated...

  2. PERIOD–COLOR AND AMPLITUDE–COLOR RELATIONS AT MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM LIGHT FOR RR LYRAE STARS IN THE SDSS STRIPE 82 REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngeow, Chow-Choong [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Kanbur, Shashi M.; Schrecengost, Zachariah [Department of Physics, SUNY Oswego, Oswego, NY 13126 (United States); Bhardwaj, Anupam; Singh, Harinder P. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2017-01-10

    Investigation of period–color (PC) and amplitude–color (AC) relations at the maximum and minimum light can be used to probe the interaction of the hydrogen ionization front (HIF) with the photosphere and the radiation hydrodynamics of the outer envelopes of Cepheids and RR Lyraes. For example, theoretical calculations indicated that such interactions would occur at minimum light for RR Lyrae and result in a flatter PC relation. In the past, the PC and AC relations have been investigated by using either the ( V − R ){sub MACHO} or ( V − I ) colors. In this work, we extend previous work to other bands by analyzing the RR Lyraes in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 Region. Multi-epoch data are available for RR Lyraes located within the footprint of the Stripe 82 Region in five ( ugriz ) bands. We present the PC and AC relations at maximum and minimum light in four colors: ( u − g ){sub 0}, ( g − r ){sub 0}, ( r − i ){sub 0}, and ( i − z ){sub 0}, after they are corrected for extinction. We found that the PC and AC relations for this sample of RR Lyraes show a complex nature in the form of flat, linear or quadratic relations. Furthermore, the PC relations at minimum light for fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars are separated according to the Oosterhoff type, especially in the ( g − r ){sub 0} and ( r − i ){sub 0} colors. If only considering the results from linear regressions, our results are quantitatively consistent with the theory of HIF-photosphere interaction for both fundamental and first overtone RR Lyraes.

  3. Maximum repulsed magnetization of a bulk superconductor with low pulsed field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimoto, M.; Kamijo, H.; Fujimoto, H.

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed field magnetization of a bulk high-T c superconductor (HTS) is important technique especially for practical applications of a bulk superconducting magnet. Full magnetization is not obtained for low pulsed field and trapped field is decreased by reversed current in the HTS. The trapped field distribution by repulsed magnetization was previously reported in experiments with temperature control. In this study, repulsed magnetization technique with the low pulsed field is numerically analyzed under assumption of variable shielding current by the temperature control. The shielding current densities are discussed to obtain maximum trapped field by two times of low pulsed field magnetizations

  4. Photovoltaic High-Frequency Pulse Charger for Lead-Acid Battery under Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-I. Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A photovoltaic pulse charger (PV-PC using high-frequency pulse train for charging lead-acid battery (LAB is proposed not only to explore the charging behavior with maximum power point tracking (MPPT but also to delay sulfating crystallization on the electrode pores of the LAB to prolong the battery life, which is achieved due to a brief pulse break between adjacent pulses that refreshes the discharging of LAB. Maximum energy transfer between the PV module and a boost current converter (BCC is modeled to maximize the charging energy for LAB under different solar insolation. A duty control, guided by a power-increment-aided incremental-conductance MPPT (PI-INC MPPT, is implemented to the BCC that operates at maximum power point (MPP against the random insolation. A 250 W PV-PC system for charging a four-in-series LAB (48 Vdc is examined. The charging behavior of the PV-PC system in comparison with that of CC-CV charger is studied. Four scenarios of charging statuses of PV-BC system under different solar insolation changes are investigated and compared with that using INC MPPT.

  5. Frequency-Domain Maximum-Likelihood Estimation of High-Voltage Pulse Transformer Model Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Aguglia, D; Martins, C.D.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an offline frequency-domain nonlinear and stochastic identification method for equivalent model parameter estimation of high-voltage pulse transformers. Such kinds of transformers are widely used in the pulsed-power domain, and the difficulty in deriving pulsed-power converter optimal control strategies is directly linked to the accuracy of the equivalent circuit parameters. These components require models which take into account electric fields energies represented by stray capacitance in the equivalent circuit. These capacitive elements must be accurately identified, since they greatly influence the general converter performances. A nonlinear frequency-based identification method, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, is presented, and a sensitivity analysis of the best experimental test to be considered is carried out. The procedure takes into account magnetic saturation and skin effects occurring in the windings during the frequency tests. The presented method is validated by experim...

  6. Maximum Likelihood Time-of-Arrival Estimation of Optical Pulses via Photon-Counting Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Moision, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    Many optical imaging, ranging, and communications systems rely on the estimation of the arrival time of an optical pulse. Recently, such systems have been increasingly employing photon-counting photodetector technology, which changes the statistics of the observed photocurrent. This requires time-of-arrival estimators to be developed and their performances characterized. The statistics of the output of an ideal photodetector, which are well modeled as a Poisson point process, were considered. An analytical model was developed for the mean-square error of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator, demonstrating two phenomena that cause deviations from the minimum achievable error at low signal power. An approximation was derived to the threshold at which the ML estimator essentially fails to provide better than a random guess of the pulse arrival time. Comparing the analytic model performance predictions to those obtained via simulations, it was verified that the model accurately predicts the ML performance over all regimes considered. There is little prior art that attempts to understand the fundamental limitations to time-of-arrival estimation from Poisson statistics. This work establishes both a simple mathematical description of the error behavior, and the associated physical processes that yield this behavior. Previous work on mean-square error characterization for ML estimators has predominantly focused on additive Gaussian noise. This work demonstrates that the discrete nature of the Poisson noise process leads to a distinctly different error behavior.

  7. Spatial resolution and maximum compensation factor of two-dimensional selective excitation pulses for MRI of objects containing conductive implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeseong Woo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative diagnosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can be disturbed by radiofrequency (RF field inhomogeneity induced by the conductive implants. This inhomogeneity causes a local decrease of the signal intensity around the conductor, resulting in a deterioration of the accurate quantification. In a previous study, we developed an MRI imaging method using a two-dimensional selective excitation pulse (2D pulse to mitigate signal inhomogeneity induced by metallic implants. In this paper, the effect of 2D pulse was evaluated quantitatively by numerical simulation and MRI experiments. We introduced two factors for evaluation, spatial resolution and maximum compensation factor. Numerical simulations were performed with two groups. One group was composed of four models with different signal loss width, to evaluate the spatial resolution of the 2D pulse. The other group is also composed of four models with different amounts of signal loss for evaluating maximum compensation factor. In MRI experiments, we prepared phantoms containing conductors, which have different electrical conductivities related with the amounts of signal intensity decrease. The recovery of signal intensity was observed by 2D pulses, in both numerical simulations and experiments.

  8. European Stars and Stripes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    The European Stars and Stripes (ES&S) organization publishes a daily newspaper, The Stars and Stripes, for DoD personnel stationed in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and other DoD activities in the U.S. European Command...

  9. Computed estimates of maximum temperature elevations in fetal tissues during transabdominal pulsed Doppler examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bly, S H; Vlahovich, S; Mabee, P R; Hussey, R G

    1992-01-01

    Measured characteristics of ultrasonic fields were obtained in submissions from manufacturers of diagnostic ultrasound equipment for devices operating in pulsed Doppler mode. Simple formulae were used with these data to generate upper limits to fetal temperature elevations, delta Tlim, during a transabdominal pulsed Doppler examination. A total of 236 items were analyzed, each item being a console/transducer/operating-mode/intended-use combination, for which the spatial-peak temporal-average intensity, ISPTA, was greater than 500 mW cm-2. The largest calculated delta Tlim values were approximately 1.5, 7.1 and 8.7 degrees C for first-, second- and third-trimester examinations, respectively. The vast majority of items yielded delta Tlim values which were less than 1 degree C in the first trimester. For second- and third-trimester examinations, where heating of fetal bone determines delta Tlim, most delta Tlim values were less than 4 degrees C. The clinical significance of the results is discussed.

  10. Stock characteristics of Hudson River striped bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, T.B.; McLaren, J.B.; Cooper, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Striped bass, because of their tremendous popularity both commercially and recreationally, were a principal focus of the Hudson River power plant case. Between 1976 and 1979, over 23,000 age-II and older striped bass were studied as one facet of an extensive research program on the spring population in the Hudson River. Samples were collected from the overwintering as well as the spawning portion of the striped bass population, and included immature as well as mature fish. At least 12 age-groups contributed to spawning each year. Of these 12, age-groups III, IV, and V usually were most abundant, but the percentage of the population represented by any single age-group varied as the result of fluctuations in year-class strength. Males first became sexually mature at age II and females at age IV. Fast-growing individuals within a year class tended to mature earlier. Fecundity increased with the size of fish, reaching an observed maximum of about 3 million eggs per female. Although significant annual variations in maturity and growth were detected for Hudson River striped bass, there was no evidence of a consistent change in either variable that might be associated with increasing power plant operations and a reduction in striped bass abundance. Age at maturity and age structure are the two life history components that differ the most between the Hudson River population and other striped bass populations. 36 refs., 7 tabs

  11. Measurement report on the LHC injection kicker ripple denition and maximum pulse length (MD 1268)

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, Wolfgang; Kotzian, Gerd; Stoel, Linda; Velotti, Francesco Maria; Vlachodimitropoulos, Vasileios; Wiesner, Christoph; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The present LHC lling scheme uses a batch spacing which corresponds to the design report specication of the injection kicker rise time. A reduction of the batch spacing can be directly used to increase luminosity without detrimental eect on beam stability. Therefore, measurements were performed to understand if a tighter batch spacing would lead to increased injection oscillations of a the rst and last bunches of a bunch train and eventually also a growth of the transverse emittance. The results of theses measurement were used to dene the minimum possible batch spacing for an acceptable emittance growth. Another measurement was performed to test if a batch consisting of 320 bunches can be injected instead of the nominal 288 bunch trains. This bunch train is dierently produced in the LHC injectors and features an optimum between beam stability and luminosity gain. The pulse length of the injection kicker was measured to ensure the full batch can be injected at once.

  12. Maximum coherent superposition state achievement using a non-resonant pulse train in non-degenerate three-level atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Li; Niu, Yueping; Jin, Luling; Gong, Shangqing

    2010-01-01

    The coherent superposition state of the lower two levels in non-degenerate three-level Λ atoms is investigated using the accumulative effects of non-resonant pulse trains when the repetition period is smaller than the decay time of the upper level. First, using a rectangular pulse train, the accumulative effects are re-examined in the non-resonant two-level atoms and the modified constructive accumulation equation is analytically given. The equation shows that the relative phase and the repetition period are important in the accumulative effect. Next, under the modified equation in the non-degenerate three-level Λ atoms, we show that besides the constructive accumulation effect, the use of the partial constructive accumulation effect can also achieve the steady state of the maximum coherent superposition state of the lower two levels and the latter condition is relatively easier to manipulate. The analysis is verified by numerical calculations. The influence of the external levels in such a case is also considered and we find that it can be avoided effectively. The above analysis is also applicable to pulse trains with arbitrary envelopes.

  13. Effects of errors in velocity tilt on maximum longitudinal compression during neutralized drift compression of intense beam pulses: I. general description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Massidda, Scottt; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-21

    Neutralized drift compression offers an effective means for particle beam pulse compression and current amplification. In neutralized drift compression, a linear longitudinal velocity tilt (head-to-tail gradient) is applied to the non-relativistic beam pulse, so that the beam pulse compresses as it drifts in the focusing section. The beam current can increase by more than a factor of 100 in the longitudinal direction. We have performed an analytical study of how errors in the velocity tilt acquired by the beam in the induction bunching module limit the maximum longitudinal compression. It is found that the compression ratio is determined by the relative errors in the velocity tilt. That is, one-percent errors may limit the compression to a factor of one hundred. However, a part of the beam pulse where the errors are small may compress to much higher values, which are determined by the initial thermal spread of the beam pulse. It is also shown that sharp jumps in the compressed current density profile can be produced due to overlaying of different parts of the pulse near the focal plane. Examples of slowly varying and rapidly varying errors compared to the beam pulse duration are studied. For beam velocity errors given by a cubic function, the compression ratio can be described analytically. In this limit, a significant portion of the beam pulse is located in the broad wings of the pulse and is poorly compressed. The central part of the compressed pulse is determined by the thermal spread. The scaling law for maximum compression ratio is derived. In addition to a smooth variation in the velocity tilt, fast-changing errors during the pulse may appear in the induction bunching module if the voltage pulse is formed by several pulsed elements. Different parts of the pulse compress nearly simultaneously at the target and the compressed profile may have many peaks. The maximum compression is a function of both thermal spread and the velocity errors. The effects of the

  14. Improving File System Performance by Striping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Terance L.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This document discusses the performance and advantages of striped file systems on the SGI AD workstations. Performance of several striped file system configurations are compared and guidelines for optimal striping are recommended.

  15. Lighting up superconducting stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergeçen, Emre; Gedik, Nuh

    2018-02-01

    Cuprate superconductors display a plethora of complex phases as a function of temperature and carrier concentration, the understanding of which could provide clues into the mechanism of superconductivity. For example, when about one-eighth of the conduction electrons are removed from the copper oxygen planes in cuprates such as La2‑xBaxCuO4 (LBCO), the doped holes (missing electrons) organize into one-dimensional stripes (1). The bulk superconducting transition temperature (Tc) is greatly reduced, and just above Tc, electrical transport perpendicular to the planes (along the c axis) becomes resistive, but parallel to the copper oxygen planes, resistivity remains zero for a range of temperatures (2). It was proposed a decade ago (3) that this anisotropic behavior is caused by pair density waves (PDWs); superconducting Cooper pairs exist along the stripes within the planes but cannot tunnel to the adjacent layers. On page 575 of this issue, Rajasekaran et al. (4) now report detection of this state in LBCO using nonlinear reflection of high-intensity terahertz (THz) light.

  16. LMFBR thermal-striping evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunings, J.E.

    1982-10-01

    Thermal striping is defined as the fluctuating temperature field that is imposed on a structure when fluid streams at different temperatures mix in the vicinity of the structure surface. Because of the uncertainty in structural damage in LMFBR structures subject to thermal striping, EPRI has funded an effort for the Rockwell International Energy Systems Group to evaluate this problem. This interim report presents the following information: (1) a Thermal Striping Program Plan which identifies areas of analytic and experimental needs and presents a program of specific tasks to define damage experienced by ordinary materials of construction and to evaluate conservatism in the existing approach; (2) a description of the Thermal Striping Test Facility and its operation; and (3) results from the preliminary phase of testing to characterize the fluid environment to be applied in subsequent thermal striping damage experiments

  17. Exploding Stars and Stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The discovery of a pattern of X-ray "stripes" in the remains of an exploded star may provide the first direct evidence that a cosmic event can accelerate particles to energies a hundred times higher than achieved by the most powerful particle accelerator on Earth. This result comes from a very long observation of the Tycho supernova remnant with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. It could explain how some of the extremely energetic particles bombarding the Earth, called cosmic rays, are produced. "We've seen lots of intriguing structures in supernova remnants, but we've never seen stripes before," said Kristoffer Eriksen, a postdoctoral researcher at Rutgers University who led the study. "This made us think very hard about what's happening in the blast wave of this powerful explosion." This latest study from Chandra provides support for a theory about how magnetic fields can be dramatically amplified in such blast waves. In this theory, the magnetic fields become highly tangled and the motions of the particles very turbulent near the expanding supernova shock wave at the front edge of the supernova remnant. High-energy charged particles can bounce back and forth across the shock wave repeatedly, gaining energy with each crossing. Theoretical models of the motion of the most energetic particles -- which are mostly protons -- are predicted to leave a messy network of holes and dense walls corresponding to weak and strong regions of magnetic fields, respectively. The X-ray stripes discovered by the Chandra researchers are thought to be regions where the turbulence is greater and the magnetic fields more tangled than surrounding areas, and may be the walls predicted by the theory. Electrons become trapped in these regions and emit X-rays as they spiral around the magnetic field lines. However, the regular and almost periodic pattern of the X-ray stripes was not predicted by the theory. "It was a big surprise to find such a neatly arranged set of stripes," said co

  18. Zebra Stripes through the Eyes of Their Predators, Zebras, and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Melin

    Full Text Available The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras' primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight and 30 m (twilight zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebra's outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid pelage in masking body shape in woodlands, but the effect is stronger for humans than for predators. Zebras appear to be less able than humans to resolve stripes although they are better than their chief predators. In conclusion, compared to the uniform pelage of other sympatric herbivores it appears highly unlikely that stripes are a form of anti-predator camouflage.

  19. A High Power InGaN-Based Blue-Violet Laser Diode Array with a Broad-Area Stripe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ping; Zhao De-Gang; Feng Mei-Xin; Jiang De-Sheng; Liu Zong-Shun; Yang Hui; Zhang Li-Qun; Li De-Yao; Liu Jian-Ping; Wang Hui; Zhu Jian-Jun; Zhang Shu-Ming; Zhang Bao-Shun

    2013-01-01

    An array of high power InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well laser diodes with a broad waveguide is fabricated. The laser diode structure is grown on a GaN substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The laser diode array consists of five emitter stripes which share common electrodes on one laser chip. The electrical and optical characteristics of the laser diode array are investigated under the pulse current injection with 10kHz frequency and 100 ns pulse width. The laser diode array emits at the wavelength of 409 nm, which is located in the blue-violet region, and the threshold current is 2.9 A. The maximum output light peak power is measured to be 7.5 W at the wavelength of 411.8 nm under the current of 25 A

  20. From stripe to slab confinement for DNA linearization in nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Peter; Benkova, Zuzana; Namer, Pavol

    We investigate suggested advantageous analysis in the linearization experiments with macromolecules confined in a stripe-like channel using Monte Carlo simulations. The enhanced chain extension in a stripe that is due to significant excluded volume interactions between monomers in two dimensions weakens on transition to experimentally feasible slit-like channel. Based on the chain extension-confinement strength dependence and the structure factor behavior for the chain in stripe we infer the excluded volume regime typical for two-dimensional systems. On transition to the slab geometry, the advantageous chain extension decreases and the Gaussian regime is observed for not very long semiflexible chains. The evidence for pseudo-ideality in confined chains is based on indicators such as the extension curves, variation of the extension with the persistence length or the structure factor. The slab behavior is observed when the stripe (originally of monomer thickness) reaches the thickness larger than cca 10nm in the third dimension. This maximum height of the slab to retain the advantage of the stripe is very low and this have implication for DNA linearization experiments. The presented analysis, however, has a broader relevance for confined polymers. Support from Slovak R&D Agency (SRDA-0451-11) is acknowledged.

  1. The Stripe State in Cupratesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee T.-K.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS two decades ago, many anomalous properties have been reported. One of the most interesting properties is the possible existence of the stripe state consisting of one dimensional charge-density modulation coupled with some kind of spin ordering. X-ray and neutron scattering experiments and recently high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy have reported direct evidences of such a structure. In particular it has found in the La-Sr-Cu-O (LSCO family the existence of the half-doped stripe with average of half a hole in one charge modulation period below and about 1/8 hole density. These results have fueled the idea about the presence of these charge or spin density wave states competing with the superconducting phase in underdoped HTS. They may even contribute to the pairing mechanism. In this talk, we will demonstrate that the presence of these stripes is actually a natural consequence of the strongly interacting t-J model by using a variational approach which provides a good enough accuracy to address the subtle result. Furthermore we show that half-doped stripes could be stabilized in hole-doped systems if we assume a simple electron-phonon interaction to renormalize the electron mass. However we have not found any evidence to support half-doped stripes in electron-doped systems.

  2. Synchronized Pulsed dc - dc Converter as Maximum Power Position Tracker with Wide Load and Insolation Variation for Stand Alone PV System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardik, P. Desai; Ranjan Maheshwari

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the interest focused on employing parallel connected dc-dc converter with high tracking effectiveness under wide variation in environmental conditions (Insolation) and wide load variation. dc-dc converter is an essential part of the stand alone PV system. Paper also presents an approach on how duty cycle for maximum power position (MPP) is adjusted by taking care of varying load conditions and without iterative steps. Synchronized PWM pulses are employed for the converter. High tracking efficiency is achieved with continuous input and inductor current. In this approach, the converter can he utilized in buck as well in boost mode. The PV system simulation was verified and experimental results were in agreement to the presented scheme. (authors)

  3. Zebra: A striped network file system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, John H.; Ousterhout, John K.

    1992-01-01

    The design of Zebra, a striped network file system, is presented. Zebra applies ideas from log-structured file system (LFS) and RAID research to network file systems, resulting in a network file system that has scalable performance, uses its servers efficiently even when its applications are using small files, and provides high availability. Zebra stripes file data across multiple servers, so that the file transfer rate is not limited by the performance of a single server. High availability is achieved by maintaining parity information for the file system. If a server fails its contents can be reconstructed using the contents of the remaining servers and the parity information. Zebra differs from existing striped file systems in the way it stripes file data: Zebra does not stripe on a per-file basis; instead it stripes the stream of bytes written by each client. Clients write to the servers in units called stripe fragments, which are analogous to segments in an LFS. Stripe fragments contain file blocks that were written recently, without regard to which file they belong. This method of striping has numerous advantages over per-file striping, including increased server efficiency, efficient parity computation, and elimination of parity update.

  4. Innovative CO2 LASER-Based Pavement Striping and Stripe Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This is a Technical Report of an FY2014 NDOT funded project on Innovative CO2 Laserbased Pavement Striping and Stripe Removal. The project was concerned with adopting the laser technology for pavement stripe and markers removal and inferring on its e...

  5. Evaluation of adaptation to visually induced motion sickness based on the maximum cross-correlation between pulse transmission time and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiba Shigeru

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer graphics and virtual reality techniques are useful to develop automatic and effective rehabilitation systems. However, a kind of virtual environment including unstable visual images presented to wide field screen or a head mounted display tends to induce motion sickness. The motion sickness induced in using a rehabilitation system not only inhibits effective training but also may harm patients' health. There are few studies that have objectively evaluated the effects of the repetitive exposures to these stimuli on humans. The purpose of this study is to investigate the adaptation to visually induced motion sickness by physiological data. Methods An experiment was carried out in which the same video image was presented to human subjects three times. We evaluated changes of the intensity of motion sickness they suffered from by a subjective score and the physiological index ρmax, which is defined as the maximum cross-correlation coefficient between heart rate and pulse wave transmission time and is considered to reflect the autonomic nervous activity. Results The results showed adaptation to visually-induced motion sickness by the repetitive presentation of the same image both in the subjective and the objective indices. However, there were some subjects whose intensity of sickness increased. Thus, it was possible to know the part in the video image which related to motion sickness by analyzing changes in ρmax with time. Conclusion The physiological index, ρmax, will be a good index for assessing the adaptation process to visually induced motion sickness and may be useful in checking the safety of rehabilitation systems with new image technologies.

  6. Invasion of the striped mollusks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Introduced to this country only five years ago, the prolific zebra mussel has infested the Great Lakes and has already begun to move into fresh waters beyond the region. Dense populations in utility water systems have caused serious problems, reducing plant efficiency and blocking lines used for cooling and fire fighting. Experts say the striped mollusk has the potential to become the industry's worst biological problem, possibly affecting 70% of US power plants. While it appears that the invader is here to stay, EPRI and others continue to develop and refine techniques to control mussel growth

  7. X-RAY STRIPES IN TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT: SYNCHROTRON FOOTPRINTS OF A NONLINEAR COSMIC-RAY-DRIVEN INSTABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, Andrei M.; Osipov, Sergei M.; Uvarov, Yury A.; Ellison, Donald C.; Pavlov, George G.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution Chandra observations of Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) have revealed several sets of quasi-steady, high-emissivity, nearly parallel X-ray stripes in some localized regions of the SNR. These stripes are most likely the result of cosmic-ray (CR) generated magnetic turbulence at the SNR blast wave. However, for the amazingly regular pattern of these stripes to appear, simultaneous action of a number of shock-plasma phenomena is required, which is not predicted by most models of magnetic field amplification. A consistent explanation of these stripes yields information on the complex nonlinear plasma processes connecting efficient CR acceleration and magnetic field fluctuations in strong collisionless shocks. The nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (NL-DSA) model described here, which includes magnetic field amplification from a CR-current-driven instability, does predict stripes consistent with the synchrotron observations of Tycho's SNR. We argue that the local ambient mean magnetic field geometry determines the orientation of the stripes and therefore it can be reconstructed with the high-resolution X-ray imaging. The estimated maximum energy of the CR protons responsible for the stripes is ∼10 15 eV. Furthermore, the model predicts that a specific X-ray polarization pattern, with a polarized fraction ∼50%, accompanies the stripes, which can be tested with future X-ray polarimeter missions.

  8. Frequency locking, quasiperiodicity, subharmonic bifurcations and chaos in high frequency modulated stripe geometry DH semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yiguang

    1991-01-01

    The method of obtaining self-consistent solutions of the field equation and the rate equations of photon density and carrier concentration has been used to study frequecny locking, quasiperiodicity, subharmonic bifurcations and chaos in high frequency modulated stripe geometry DH semiconductor lasers. The results show that the chaotic behavior arises in self-pulsing stripe geometry semiconductor lasers. The route to chaos is not period-double, but quasiperiodicity to chaos. All of the results agree with the experiments. Some obscure points in previous theory about chaos have been cleared up

  9. Effects of errors in velocity tilt on maximum longitudinal compression during neutralized drift compression of intense beam pulses: II. Analysis of experimental data of the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment-I (NDCX-I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massidda, Scott; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter; Friedman, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Neutralized drift compression offers an effective means for particle beam focusing and current amplification with applications to heavy ion fusion. In the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment-I (NDCX-I), a non-relativistic ion beam pulse is passed through an inductive bunching module that produces a longitudinal velocity modulation. Due to the applied velocity tilt, the beam pulse compresses during neutralized drift. The ion beam pulse can be compressed by a factor of more than 100; however, errors in the velocity modulation affect the compression ratio in complex ways. We have performed a study of how the longitudinal compression of a typical NDCX-I ion beam pulse is affected by the initial errors in the acquired velocity modulation. Without any voltage errors, an ideal compression is limited only by the initial energy spread of the ion beam, ΔΕ b . In the presence of large voltage errors, δU⪢ΔE b , the maximum compression ratio is found to be inversely proportional to the geometric mean of the relative error in velocity modulation and the relative intrinsic energy spread of the beam ions. Although small parts of a beam pulse can achieve high local values of compression ratio, the acquired velocity errors cause these parts to compress at different times, limiting the overall compression of the ion beam pulse.

  10. Invasion of the striped mollusks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Introduced to this country only five years ago, the prolific zebra mussel has infested the Great Lakes and has already begun to move into fresh waters beyond the region. Dense populations in utility water systems have caused serious problems, reducing plant efficiency and blocking lines used for cooling and fire fighting. Experts say the striped mollusk has the potential to become the industry's worst biological problem, possibly affecting 70% of US power plants. While it appears that the invader is here to stay, EPRI and others continue to develop and refine techniques to control mussel growth. This article describes how the mollusk got here, reviews the problems it can cause and what is being done to mitigate the problems and control the growth and spread of the mollusk.

  11. Understanding stripe domains in Permalloy films via the angular dependence of permeability spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jinwu; Feng, Hongmei; Zhu, Zengtai; Song, Chengkun; Wang, Xiangqian; Liu, Qingfang [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Jianbo, E-mail: wangjb@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory for Special Function Materials and Structural Design of the Ministry of the Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A phenomenological model is proposed to analyze the angular dependence of the μ″{sub max}. • The maximum canting angle θ{sub 0} in the stripe domain structure can be estimated. • Micromagnetic simulation results are nearly in accordance with the experimental results. - Abstract: An investigation of the angular dependence of the dynamic permeability spectra has been performed. Three Permalloy films with different thickness were used as the study samples that possess the stripe domains. In order to better understand the magnetization distribution in stripe domains, a theoretical approach was proposed to analyze the variation of the resonance intensity of permeability spectra. By fitting the angular dependence of the μ″{sub max} using a theoretical function, a coefficient Λ that can be used to evaluate the average value of the periodic function of the anting angle θ in a periodic stripe is obtained. As the film thickness increases, the decrease of the ratio between domain wall width and stripe domain width is happen. This enables that the coefficient Λ decreases with the increase of film thickness. By deducing this coefficient Λ, one can estimate the maximum canting angle θ{sub 0} ∼ 8° for the Permalloy films in our experiments.

  12. DNA methylation profiles correlated to striped bass sperm fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spermatozoa are used to fertilize in vitro the eggs of white bass (Morone chrysops) to produce the preferred hybrid for the striped bass aquaculture industry. Currently, only one source of domestic striped bass juveniles are available to growers that are not obtained ...

  13. [Prediction model of meteorological grade of wheat stripe rust in winter-reproductive area, Sichuan Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Wang, Ming Tian; Zhang, Guo Zhi

    2017-12-01

    The winter reproductive areas of Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis in Sichuan Basin are often the places mostly affected by wheat stripe rust. With data on the meteorological condition and stripe rust situation at typical stations in the winter reproductive area in Sichuan Basin from 1999 to 2016, this paper classified the meteorological conditions inducing wheat stripe rust into 5 grades, based on the incidence area ratio of the disease. The meteorological factors which were biologically related to wheat stripe rust were determined through multiple analytical methods, and a meteorological grade model for forecasting wheat stripe rust was created. The result showed that wheat stripe rust in Sichuan Basin was significantly correlated with many meteorological factors, such as the ave-rage (maximum and minimum) temperature, precipitation and its anomaly percentage, relative humidity and its anomaly percentage, average wind speed and sunshine duration. Among these, the average temperature and the anomaly percentage of relative humidity were the determining factors. According to a historical retrospective test, the accuracy of the forecast based on the model was 64% for samples in the county-level test, and 89% for samples in the municipal-level test. In a meteorological grade forecast of wheat stripe rust in the winter reproductive areas in Sichuan Basin in 2017, the prediction was accurate for 62.8% of the samples, with 27.9% error by one grade and only 9.3% error by two or more grades. As a result, the model could deliver satisfactory forecast results, and predicate future wheat stripe rust from a meteorological point of view.

  14. Audiogram of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Hagedoorn, M.; Au, W.W.L.; Haan, de D.

    2003-01-01

    The underwater hearing sensitivity of a striped dolphin was measured in a pool using standard psycho-acoustic techniques. The go/no-go response paradigm and up¿down staircase psychometric method were used. Auditory sensitivity was measured by using 12 narrow-band frequency-modulated signals having

  15. Breakup Behavior of a Capillary Bridge on a Hydrophobic Stripe Separating Two Hydrophilic Stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Maximilian; Hardt, Steffen

    2017-11-01

    The breakup dynamics of a capillary bridge on a hydrophobic area between two liquid filaments occupying two parallel hydrophilic stripes is studied experimentally. In addition calculations with the finite-element software Surface Evolver are performed to obtain the corresponding stable minimal surfaces. Droplets of de-ionized water are placed on substrates with alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes of different width. Their volume decreases by evaporation. This results in a droplet shaped as the letter ``H'' covering two hydrophilic stripes separated by one hydrophobic stripe. The width of the capillary bridge d(t) on the hydrophobic stripe during the breakup process is observed using a high-speed camera mounted on a bright-field microscope. The results of the experiments and the numerical studies show that the critical width dcrit, indicating the point where the capillary bridge becomes unstable, mainly depends on the width ratio of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes. It is found that the time derivative of d(t) first decreases after dcrit has been reached. The final breakup dynamics then follows a t 2 / 3 scaling. We kindly acknowledge the financial support by the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the Collaborative Research Centre 1194 ``Interaction of Transport and Wetting Processes'', Project A02a.

  16. Partial resistance to stripe rust and its effect on sustainability of wheat yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.; Din, R.U.; Gardazi, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici) poses a serious threat to wheat production in cooler areas of Pakistan. The 70% area of wheat in Pakistan is prone to stripe rust disease. It can cause 10-17% yield losses if susceptible cultivars are planted under favorable conditions. Level of partial plant resistance in bread wheat and its impact on sustainable wheat production was studied at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad under natural conditions in the field. Eleven Pakistani commercial wheat cultivars/advance lines including check (Inqalab 91) were assessed for the level of partial resistance against stripe rust using Area Under the Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC), disease severity (DS) and epidemic growth rate in comparison with wheat cultivar, Inqalab 91. During 2007 cropping season, natural epidemic was developed and relative AUDPC was recorded from 0 to 100% whereas the 2008 cropping season was dry and no stripe rust appeared. Two advanced lines (NR 268 and NR 285) showed the infection type (IT) less than 7 (incompatible reaction) to the mixture of prevailing stripe rust inoculums. Very low level of DS and AUDPC were recorded in the remaining cultivars/lines indicating a high level of partial resistance to stripe rust compared to the susceptible check cultivar, Inqalab 91. Among eight cultivars/lines that showed compatible type of reaction (IT greater then equal to 7), one was resistant (relative AUDPC = 20% of Inqalab 91) and six showed very high resistance levels (relative AUDPC greater then equal to 5%). Maximum level of resistance (relative AUDPC = 0.1%) was observed in advanced line, NR 271. The wheat cultivars/lines that showed a slow disease development (low DS and AUDPC), could be considered as -1 partially resistant for stripe rust infection. The yield (2178 kg ha) of susceptible check cultivar Inqalab-91 during 2007 was reduced to 45% as -1 compared to its yield (3945 kg ha) in epidemic free year (2008). Thus the use

  17. Effects of temperature on sound production and auditory abilities in the Striped Raphael catfish Platydoras armatulus (Family Doradidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Papes

    Full Text Available Sound production and hearing sensitivity of ectothermic animals are affected by the ambient temperature. This is the first study investigating the influence of temperature on both sound production and on hearing abilities in a fish species, namely the neotropical Striped Raphael catfish Platydoras armatulus.Doradid catfishes produce stridulation sounds by rubbing the pectoral spines in the shoulder girdle and drumming sounds by an elastic spring mechanism which vibrates the swimbladder. Eight fish were acclimated for at least three weeks to 22°, then to 30° and again to 22°C. Sounds were recorded in distress situations when fish were hand-held. The stridulation sounds became shorter at the higher temperature, whereas pulse number, maximum pulse period and sound pressure level did not change with temperature. The dominant frequency increased when the temperature was raised to 30°C and the minimum pulse period became longer when the temperature decreased again. The fundamental frequency of drumming sounds increased at the higher temperature. Using the auditory evoked potential (AEP recording technique, the hearing thresholds were tested at six different frequencies from 0.1 to 4 kHz. The temporal resolution was determined by analyzing the minimum resolvable click period (0.3-5 ms. The hearing sensitivity was higher at the higher temperature and differences were more pronounced at higher frequencies. In general, latencies of AEPs in response to single clicks became shorter at the higher temperature, whereas temporal resolution in response to double-clicks did not change.These data indicate that sound characteristics as well as hearing abilities are affected by temperatures in fishes. Constraints imposed on hearing sensitivity at different temperatures cannot be compensated even by longer acclimation periods. These changes in sound production and detection suggest that acoustic orientation and communication are affected by temperature changes in

  18. STRIPE: Remote Driving Using Limited Image Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    Driving a vehicle, either directly or remotely, is an inherently visual task. When heavy fog limits visibility, we reduce our car's speed to a slow crawl, even along very familiar roads. In teleoperation systems, an operator's view is limited to images provided by one or more cameras mounted on the remote vehicle. Traditional methods of vehicle teleoperation require that a real time stream of images is transmitted from the vehicle camera to the operator control station, and the operator steers the vehicle accordingly. For this type of teleoperation, the transmission link between the vehicle and operator workstation must be very high bandwidth (because of the high volume of images required) and very low latency (because delayed images can cause operators to steer incorrectly). In many situations, such a high-bandwidth, low-latency communication link is unavailable or even technically impossible to provide. Supervised TeleRobotics using Incremental Polyhedral Earth geometry, or STRIPE, is a teleoperation system for a robot vehicle that allows a human operator to accurately control the remote vehicle across very low bandwidth communication links, and communication links with large delays. In STRIPE, a single image from a camera mounted on the vehicle is transmitted to the operator workstation. The operator uses a mouse to pick a series of 'waypoints' in the image that define a path that the vehicle should follow. These 2D waypoints are then transmitted back to the vehicle, where they are used to compute the appropriate steering commands while the next image is being transmitted. STRIPE requires no advance knowledge of the terrain to be traversed, and can be used by novice operators with only minimal training. STRIPE is a unique combination of computer and human control. The computer must determine the 3D world path designated by the 2D waypoints and then accurately control the vehicle over rugged terrain. The human issues involve accurate path selection, and the

  19. Crystal shapes on striped surface domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, Antoni

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium shapes of a simple cubic crystal in contact with a planar chemically patterned substrate are studied theoretically using an effective interface model. The substrate is primarily made of lyophobic material and is patterned with a lyophilic (easily wettable) stripe domain. Three regimes can be distinguished for the equilibrium shapes of the crystal. The transitions between these regimes as the volume of the crystal is changed are continuous or discontinuous depending on the strength of the couplings between the crystal and the lyophilic and lyophobic surface domains. If the crystal grows through a series of states close to equilibrium, the discontinuous transitions correspond to growth instabilities. These transitions are compared with similar results that have been obtained for a volume of liquid wetting a lyophilic stripe domain

  20. The preparation of immunochromatographic stripe of methamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jing; Liu Yibing; Zhou Ling; Guo Weizheng

    2004-01-01

    A gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) is developed for methamphetamine in urine. Colloidal gold is obtained by reducing the gold chloride with sodium citrate, and labeled methamphetamine monoclonal antibody. The drug or metabolite competes with the immobilized drug conjugate in the test area for the limited colloidal gold-labeled antibody complex in which the stripe is made to screen the drug abuser. This method has sensitivity of 1000 μg/L, and without cross-reaction with some drugs

  1. Occupational Noise Reduction in CNC Striping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmad Khairai, Kamarulzaman; Shamime Salleh, Nurul; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    Occupational noise hearing loss with high level exposure is common occupational hazards. In CNC striping process, employee that exposed to high noise level for a long time as 8-hour contributes to hearing loss, create physical and psychological stress that reduce productivity. In this paper, CNC stripping process with high level noises are measured and reduced to the permissible noise exposure. First condition is all machines shutting down and second condition when all CNC machine under operations. For both conditions, noise exposures were measured to evaluate the noise problems and sources. After improvement made, the noise exposures were measured to evaluate the effectiveness of reduction. The initial average noise level at the first condition is 95.797 dB (A). After the pneumatic system with leakage was solved, the noise reduced to 55.517 dB (A). The average noise level at the second condition is 109.340 dB (A). After six machines were gathered at one area and cover that area with plastic curtain, the noise reduced to 95.209 dB (A). In conclusion, the noise level exposure in CNC striping machine is high and exceed the permissible noise exposure can be reduced to acceptable levels. The reduction of noise level in CNC striping processes enhanced productivity in the industry.

  2. Porous Alumina Films with Width-Controllable Alumina Stripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Porous alumina films had been fabricated by anodizing from aluminum films after an electropolishing procedure. Alumina stripes without pores can be distinguished on the surface of the porous alumina films. The width of the alumina stripes increases proportionally with the anodizing voltage. And the pores tend to be initiated close to the alumina stripes. These phenomena can be ascribed to the electric field distribution in the alumina barrier layer caused by the geometric structure of the aluminum surface.

  3. Porous Alumina Films with Width-Controllable Alumina Stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Porous alumina films had been fabricated by anodizing from aluminum films after an electropolishing procedure. Alumina stripes without pores can be distinguished on the surface of the porous alumina films. The width of the alumina stripes increases proportionally with the anodizing voltage. And the pores tend to be initiated close to the alumina stripes. These phenomena can be ascribed to the electric field distribution in the alumina barrier layer caused by the geometric structure of the aluminum surface. PMID:21170406

  4. Direct visualization of the Campbell regime in superconducting stripes

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, R. B. G.; Ataklti, G. W.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Silhanek, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    A combination of scanning Hall microscopy and scanning ac-susceptibility measurements in superconducting stripes (ribbons) of width w < 10 mu m was used to observe the dimensional phase transitions of the vortex lattice and its stability under alternating fields. At low dc magnetic fields applied perpendicularly to the plane of the stripes, vortices form a one-dimensional chain at the center of the stripes. Above a certain field H*(w), the vortex chain splits in two parallel rows displaced la...

  5. Coherent quantum cascade laser micro-stripe arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. de Naurois

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated InP-based coherent quantum cascade laser micro-stripe arrays. Phase-locking is provided by evanescent coupling between adjacent stripes. Stripes are buried into semi-insulating iron doped InP. Lasing at room temperature is obtained at 8.4μm for stripe arrays comprising up to 16 emitters. Pure supermode emission is demonstrated via farfield measurements and simulations. The farfield pattern shows a dual-lobe emission, corroborating the predicted phase-locked antisymmetric supermode emission.

  6. Modeling and analyzing stripe patterns in fish skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yibo; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuan; Liang, Ping; Kang, Junjian

    2009-11-01

    The formation mechanism of stripe patterns in the skin of tropical fishes has been investigated by a coupled two variable reaction diffusion model. Two types of spatial inhomogeneities have been introduced into a homogenous system. Several Turing modes pumped by the Turing instability give rise to a simple stripe pattern. It is found that the Turing mechanism can only determine the wavelength of stripe pattern. The orientation of stripe pattern is determined by the spatial inhomogeneity. Our numerical results suggest that it may be the most possible mechanism for the forming process of fish skin patterns.

  7. Effect of the tiger stripes on the deformation of Saturn's moon Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souček, Ondřej; Hron, Jaroslav; Běhounková, Marie; Čadek, Ondřej

    2016-07-01

    Enceladus is a small icy moon of Saturn with active jets of water emanating from fractures around the south pole, informally called tiger stripes, which might be connected to a subsurface water ocean. The effect of these features on periodic tidal deformation of the moon has so far been neglected because of the difficulties associated with implementation of faults in continuum mechanics models. Here we estimate the maximum possible impact of the tiger stripes on tidal deformation and heat production within Enceladus's ice shell by representing them as narrow zones with negligible frictional and bulk resistance passing vertically through the whole ice shell. Assuming a uniform ice shell thickness of 25 km, consistent with the recent estimate of libration, we demonstrate that the faults can dramatically change the distribution of stress and strain in Enceladus's south polar region, leading to a significant increase of the heat production in this area.

  8. Portfolio Optimization Using Particle Swarms with Stripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Villalobos Arias

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is consider the Portfolio Optimization Problem developed by Markowitz [11]. The basic assumption is that the investor tries to maximize his/her profit and at the same time, wants to minimize the risk. This problem is usually solved using a scalarization approach (with one objective. Here it is solved it as a bi-objective  optimization problem. It uses a new version of the algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization for Multi-Objective Problems to which it implemented a method of the stripes to improve dispersion.

  9. A cage position monitor based on magnetically striped rope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, V M

    1978-01-01

    Following the winding disaster at Markham Colliery in July 1973 recommendations to monitor the position of the cage directly at all times throughout the winding cycle, and to provide a system of communication with persons in the conveyance were made. The system adopted by MRDE was the 'magnetically striped rope'. An experimental system was installed at Maltby Colliery, South Yorkshire, and has been working successfully for well over a year. Magnetic marking of a hoist or guide rope can be carried out using permanent magnets but a much more convenient method has been devised using a pulsed electromagnet sliding on the rope. Detection is achieved by two static magnetic sensors spaced to give quadrature output. By processing the signals and using an up/down counter it is possible to sense the direction of movement and the distance travelled by the cage from a given datum. The information can be further processed to indicate velocity, overspeed and overwind, and when referenced to drum revolutions may be used to monitor rope slip in friction winders or slack rope in drum winders. When the guide rope is magnetically marked and sensed, the information must be transmitted from the cage to the surface. Such a data communication link, developed by MRDE, also provides a base for a general shaft communication system.

  10. Transfer of stripe rust resistance from Aegilops variabilis to bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of area, the bread wheat producing regions of China comprise the largest area in the world that is constantly threatened by stripe rust epidemics. Consequently, it is important to exploit new adultplant resistance genes in breeding. This study reports the transfer of stripe rust resistance from Aegilops variabilis to ...

  11. Correlation between the ripple phase and stripe domains in membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Midtiby, Henrik; Ipsen, John Hjort; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the relationship between stripe domains and the ripple phase in membranes. These have previously been observed separately without being linked explicitly. Past results have demonstrated that solid and ripple phases exhibit rich textural patterns related to the orientational order of tilted lipids and the orientation of ripple corrugations. Here we reveal a highly complex network pattern of ripple and solid domains in DLPC, DPPC bilayers with structures covering length scales from 10 nm to 100 μm. Using spincoated double supported membranes we investigate domains by correlated AFM and fluorescence microscopy. Cooling experiments demonstrate the mode of nucleation and growth of stripe domains enriched in the fluorescent probe. Concurrent AFM imaging reveals that these stripe domains have a one-to-one correspondence with a rippled morphology running parallel to the stripe direction. Both thin and thick stripe domains are observed having ripple periods of 13.5±0.2 nm and 27.4±0.6 nm respectively. These are equivalent to previously observed asymmetric/equilibrium and symmetric/metastable ripple phases, respectively. Thin stripes grow from small solid domains and grow predominantly in length with a speed of ~3 times that of the thick stripes. Thick stripes grow by templating on the sides of thinner stripes or can emerge directly from the fluid phase. Bending and branching angles of stripes are in accordance with an underlying six fold lattice. We discuss mechanisms for the nucleation and growth of ripples and discuss a generic phase diagram that may partly rationalize the coexistence of metastable and stable phases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Competing States in the t-J Model: Uniform d-Wave State versus Stripe State versus Stripe State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corboz, P.R.; Rice, T.M.; Troyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Variational studies of the t-J model on the square lattice based on infinite projected-entangled pair states confirm an extremely close competition between a uniform d-wave superconducting state and different stripe states. The site-centered stripe with an in-phase d-wave order has an equal or only

  13. Distinct Nature of Static and Dynamic Magnetic Stripes in Cuprate Superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H.; Holm, S. L.; Lăcătuşu, M. E.

    2018-01-01

    We present detailed neutron scattering studies of the static and dynamic stripes in an optimally doped high-Temperature superconductor, La2CuO4+y. We observe that the dynamic stripes do not disperse towards the static stripes in the limit of vanishing energy transfer. Therefore, the dynamic stripes...

  14. On the orientation of stripes in fish skin patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez, David G; Muñuzuri, Alberto P

    2006-11-20

    This paper is focused on the study of the stripes orientation in the fish skin patterns. Based on microscopic observations of the pigment cells behavior at the embryonic stage, the key aspects of the pigmentation process are implemented in an experimental reaction-diffusion system. The experiment consists of a photosensitive Turing pattern of stripes growing directionally in one direction with controlled velocity. Different growth velocities of the system rearrange the stripes in the same three possible orientations observed in the skin of the colored fishes: parallel, oblique, and perpendicular. Our results suggest that the spreading velocity of the pigment cells in the fish dermis selects the orientation in the patterning processes.

  15. Presence of the Striped Seabream (Lithognathus mormyrus L., 1758 in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYDIN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Mediterranean demersal species reach to the Black Sea through the Turkish Straits System and adapt to this nearly landlocked environment. In this article, the existence of Mediterranean originated striped seabream (Lithognathus mormyrus L., 1758 in the Black Sea is studied. In this study, 25 individuals were sampled in the Middle Black Sea region (Ordu – Fatsa by trammel nets. The minimum and maximum lengths of the sampled species were measured as 16 cm and 20.1 cm respectively, while the length-weight relationship can be given by the equation, W=0.0711L2.3981 (R² = 0.8171.

  16. Stripe order from the perspective of the Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereaux, Thomas Peter

    2018-03-01

    A microscopic understanding of the strongly correlated physics of the cuprates must account for the translational and rotational symmetry breaking that is present across all cuprate families, commonly in the form of stripes. Here we investigate emergence of stripes in the Hubbard model, a minimal model believed to be relevant to the cuprate superconductors, using determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) simulations at finite temperatures and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) ground state calculations. By varying temperature, doping, and model parameters, we characterize the extent of stripes throughout the phase diagram of the Hubbard model. Our results show that including the often neglected next-nearest-neighbor hopping leads to the absence of spin incommensurability upon electron-doping and nearly half-filled stripes upon hole-doping. The similarities of these findings to experimental results on both electron and hole-doped cuprate families support a unified description across a large portion of the cuprate phase diagram.

  17. Mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in an Aegilops caudata ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PUNEET INDER TOOR

    A pair of stripe rust and leaf rust resistance genes was introgressed from Aegilops caudata, a nonprogenitor diploid species with the CC genome, to cultivated .... infector rows and experimental material with the mixture of uredinospores of Pst ...

  18. Survey of evaluation methods for thermal striping in FBR structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naoki; Nitta, Akito; Take, Kohji

    1988-01-01

    In the upper core structures or the sodium mixing tee of Fast Breeder Reactors, sodium mixing streams which are at different temperatures produce rapid temperature fluctuations, namely 'thermal striping', upon component surfaces, and it is apprehended that the high-cycle thermal fatigue causes the crack initiation and propagation. The thermal striping is one of the factors which is considered in FBR component design, however, the standard evaluation method has not built up yet because of the intricacy of that mechanism, the difficulty of an actual proof, the lack of data, and so on. In this report, it is intended to survey of the datails and the present situation of the evaluation method of crack initiation and propagation due to thermal striping, and study the appropriate method which will be made use of the rationalization of design. So it is ascertained that the method which use a quantitative prediction of crack propagation is optimum to evaluate the thermal striping phenomenon. (author)

  19. Critical analysis of the maximum non inhibitory concentration (MNIC) method in quantifying sub-lethal injury in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exposed to either thermal or pulsed electric field treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kethireddy, V; Oey, I; Jowett, Tim; Bremer, P

    2016-09-16

    Sub-lethal injury within a microbial population, due to processing treatments or environmental stress, is often assessed as the difference in the number of cells recovered on non-selective media compared to numbers recovered on a "selective media" containing a predetermined maximum non-inhibitory concentration (MNIC) of a selective agent. However, as knowledge of cell metabolic response to injury, population diversity and dynamics increased, the rationale behind the conventional approach of quantifying sub-lethal injury must be scrutinized further. This study reassessed the methodology used to quantify sub-lethal injury for Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (≈ 4.75 Log CFU/mL) exposed to either a mild thermal (45°C for 0, 10 and 20min) or a mild pulsed electric field treatment (field strengths of 8.0-9.0kV/cm and energy levels of 8, 14 and 21kJ/kg). Treated cells were plated onto either Yeast Malt agar (YM) or YM containing NaCl, as a selective agent at 5-15% in 1% increments. The impact of sub-lethal stress due to initial processing, the stress due to selective agents in the plating media, and the subsequent variation of inhibition following the treatments was assessed based on the CFU count (cell numbers). ANOVA and a generalised least squares model indicated significant effects of media, treatments, and their interaction effects (P<0.05) on cell numbers. It was shown that the concentration of the selective agent used dictated the extent of sub-lethal injury recorded owing to the interaction effects of the selective component (NaCl) in the recovery media. Our findings highlight a potential common misunderstanding on how culture conditions impact on sub-lethal injury. Interestingly for S. cerevisiae cells the number of cells recovered at different NaCl concentrations in the media appears to provide valuable information about the mode of injury, the comparative efficacy of different processing regimes and the inherent degree of resistance within a population. This

  20. Pathological changes associated with white striping in broiler breast muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttappan, V A; Shivaprasad, H L; Shaw, D P; Valentine, B A; Hargis, B M; Clark, F D; McKee, S R; Owens, C M

    2013-02-01

    White striping is a condition in broiler chickens characterized grossly by the occurrence of white striations, seen parallel to the direction of muscle fibers, on broiler breast fillets and thighs. Based on visual evaluation of the intensity of white striping, breast fillets can be categorized into normal (NORM), moderate (MOD), and severe (SEV) categories. This study was undertaken to evaluate the details of changes in histology as well as proximate composition occurring in the fillets with respect to the 3 degrees of white striping. In experiment 1, representative breast fillets for each degree of white striping (n = 20) were collected from 45-d-old broilers, approximately 2 h postmortem. From each fillet, 2 skeletal muscle samples were obtained and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. To identify and differentiate the histological changes, slides were prepared and stained using hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's Trichrome, and Oil Red O stains. In experiment 2, samples with 3 degrees of white striping were collected from 57-d-old birds for conducting proximate analysis. Major histopathological changes observed in the MOD and SEV samples consisted of loss of cross striations, variability in fiber size, floccular/vacuolar degeneration and lysis of fibers, mild mineralization, occasional regeneration (nuclear rowing and multinucleated cells), mononuclear cell infiltration, lipidosis, and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Microscopic lesions were visually scored for degeneration and necrosis, fibrosis, and lipidosis. The scale used to score the samples ranged from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). There was an increase (P white striping increased from NORM to SEV. The results from the histopathological study were supported by the findings from proximate analysis confirming that the fat and protein contents of muscle increased (P white striping increased. In conclusion, the histopathological changes occurring in white striping indicate a degenerative myopathy that

  1. The working out of a design rule in case of structures submitted to thermal striping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejeail, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal striping is a complex phenomenon involving incomplete mixing of hot and cold jets of fluid near a component surface, thus submitted to random fast temperature fluctuations. Because of his nature, the zones where thermal striping can occur in a fast breeder reactor are well known; these areas can suffer fatigue damage. It has been studied by several authors and some thermomechanical design rules against this fatigue damage have been proposed. In the french point of view, the problem is the determination of the margin between the mean and the design strain controlled fatigue curves, giving the allowable maximum temperature range that a component can sustain during his life without crack initiation. The purpose of this paper is the presentation of literature results (particularly on uniaxial smooth specimens) concerning the effects of different factors such as surface finish, environment, weldments, ageing, scatter of fatigue results, prior high strain cycling...on the high temperature fatigue life, which are of first importance for the determination of design factors in case of thermal striping. The remaining question is the combination of these factors. For the analysis of thermal striping test results, it is of great interest and importance to compare the crack initiation cycles and to use a coherent strain for uniaxial and equibiaxial fatigue results, as we show in the interpretation of FAENA and SPLASH tests (performed respectively by Y. Bergamaschi and B. Marini). An analysis based on elastic calculations as proposed in the RCCMR design code gives a good correlation, despite the ambiguous choice of some coefficients in best fit analysis. This problem disappears entirely in case of high cycles/low temperature variations. Then we present a strategy for the accomplishment of simplified thermal striping tests on the FAENA sodium loop in view of acquiring a better design factor knowledge. With this experimental program, we intend to study the interaction of

  2. Super high-power AlGaInN-based laser diodes with a single broad-area stripe emitter fabricated on a GaN substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Shu; Ohta, Makoto; Yabuki, Yoshifumi; Hoshina, Yukio; Hashizu, Toshihiro; Ikeda, Masao [Development Center, Sony Shiroishi Semiconductor, Inc., 3-53-2 Shiratori, Shiroishi, Miyagi, 989-0734 (Japan); Naganuma, Kaori; Tamamura, Koshi [Core Technology Development Group, Micro Systems Network Company, Sony Corporation, 4-14-1 Asahi-cho, Atsugi-shi Kanagawa, 243-0041 (Japan)

    2003-11-01

    AlGaInN-based blue-violet laser diodes with a single broad-area stripe emitter were successfully fabricated on GaN substrates. Three stripe widths were examined; 10, 50, and 100 {mu}m, and the maximum light output power of 0.94 W under cw operation at 20 C was achieved for the sample with a stripe width of 10 {mu}m. A super high-power laser diode array was fabricated using 11 of these high-performance laser chips, with a resultant output power of 6.1 W under cw operation at 20 C. This result represents the highest reported output power for blue-violet laser diodes. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Visualization experimental investigation on long stripe coherent structure in small-scale rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jiqiang; Sun Zhongning; Fan Guangming; Wang Shiming

    2013-01-01

    The long stripe coherent structure of the turbulent boundary layer in a small- scale vertical rectangular channel was observed by using hydrogen bubble flow trace visualization technique. The statistical properties of the long stripe in the experimental channel boundary layer were compared with that in the smooth flat plate boundary layer. The pitch characteristics were explained by the formation mechanism of the long stripe. It was analyzed that how the change of y + affected the distribution of the long stripe. In addition, the frequency characteristics of the long stripe were also investigated, and the correlation of the long stripe frequency in such a flow channel was obtained. (authors)

  4. Contact angle hysteresis on superhydrophobic stripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alexander L; Mourran, Ahmed; Möller, Martin; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2014-08-21

    We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, ϕS. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion of the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e., is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with ϕS. To interpret this we develop a theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the strong defects due to the elastic energy of the deformed contact line, which scales as ϕS(2)lnϕS. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except in a dilute regime, and its value is shown to be determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on ϕS, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at ϕS ≃ 0.5. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy due to strong defects in this direction, which is shown to be caused by the adhesion of the drop on solid sectors and is proportional to ϕS(2). Finally, the contact angle hysteresis is found to be quite large and generally anisotropic, but it becomes isotropic when ϕS ≤ 0.2.

  5. Millijansky radio variability in SDSS stripe 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, J. A.; Becker, R. H. [University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); White, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Richards, G. T., E-mail: hodge@mpia.de [Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We report on a blind survey for extragalactic radio variability that was carried out by comparing two epochs of data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters survey with a third epoch from a new 1.4 GHz survey of SDSS Stripe 82. The three epochs are spaced seven years apart and have an overlapping area of 60 deg{sup 2}. We uncover 89 variable sources down to the millijansky level, 75 of which are newly identified, and we find no evidence for transient phenomena. This new sample of variable sources allows us to infer an upper limit to the mean characteristic timescale of active galactic nucleus radio variability of 14 yr. We find that only 1% of extragalactic sources have fractional variability f {sub var} > 3, while 44% of Galactic sources vary by this much. The variable sample contains a larger fraction of quasars than a comparable non-variable control sample, though the majority of the variable sources appear to be extended galaxies in the optical. This implies that either quasars are not the dominant contributor to the variability of the sample, or that the deep optical data allow us to detect the host galaxies of some low-z quasars. We use the new, higher resolution data to report on the morphology of the variable sources. Finally, we show that the fraction of sources that are variable remains constant or increases at low flux densities. This may imply that next generation radio surveys with telescopes like Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder and MeerKAT will see a constant or even increasing fraction of variable sources down into the sub-millijansky regime.

  6. Coarsening of stripe patterns: variations with quench depth and scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ashwani K; Kumar, Deepak

    2015-02-01

    The coarsening of stripe patterns when the system is evolved from random initial states is studied by varying the quench depth ε, which is a measure of distance from the transition point of the stripe phase. The dynamics of the growth of stripe order, which is characterized by two length scales, depends on the quench depth. The growth exponents of the two length scales vary continuously with ε. The decay exponents for free energy, stripe curvature, and densities of defects like grain boundaries and dislocations also show similar variation. This implies a breakdown of the standard picture of nonequilibrium dynamical scaling. In order to understand the variations with ε we propose an additional scaling with a length scale dependent on ε. The main contribution to this length scale comes from the "pinning potential," which is unique to systems where the order parameter is spatially periodic. The periodic order parameter gives rise to an ε-dependent potential, which can pin defects like grain boundaries, dislocations, etc. This additional scaling provides a compact description of variations of growth exponents with quench depth in terms of just one exponent for each of the length scales. The relaxation of free energy, stripe curvature, and the defect densities have also been related to these length scales. The study is done at zero temperature using Swift-Hohenberg equation in two dimensions.

  7. Extended viral shedding of a low pathogenic avian influenza virus by striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeffrey Root

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis are susceptible to infection with some influenza A viruses. However, the viral shedding capability of this peri-domestic mammal and its potential role in influenza A virus ecology are largely undetermined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Striped skunks were experimentally infected with a low pathogenic (LP H4N6 avian influenza virus (AIV and monitored for 20 days post infection (DPI. All of the skunks exposed to H4N6 AIV shed large quantities of viral RNA, as detected by real-time RT-PCR and confirmed for live virus with virus isolation, from nasal washes and oral swabs (maximum ≤ 10(6.02 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL and ≤ 10(5.19 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL, respectively. Some evidence of potential fecal shedding was also noted. Following necropsy on 20 DPI, viral RNA was detected in the nasal turbinates of one individual. All treatment animals yielded evidence of a serological response by 20 DPI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that striped skunks have the potential to shed large quantities of viral RNA through the oral and nasal routes following exposure to a LP AIV. Considering the peri-domestic nature of these animals, along with the duration of shedding observed in this species, their presence on poultry and waterfowl operations could influence influenza A virus epidemiology. For example, this species could introduce a virus to a naive poultry flock or act as a trafficking mechanism of AIV to and from an infected poultry flock to naive flocks or wild bird populations.

  8. Roadway striping productivity data analysis for INDOT Greenfield and Crawfordsville districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of the SPR3650 project is to provide an accurate overview of striping operation so that INDOT finds a way to : effectively save significant investment for purchasing new striping trucks in near future without compromising roadwa...

  9. Variation in the timing of reproduction of the four-striped field mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in the timing of reproduction of the four-striped field mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio , in ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... We used the four-striped field mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio (Sparrmann, 1784), to test the hypothesis that ...

  10. Distinguishing Patterns of Charge Order: Stripes or Checkerboards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.A.

    2010-04-06

    In two dimensions, quenched disorder always rounds transitions involving the breaking of spatial symmetries so, in practice, it can often be difficult to infer what form the symmetry breaking would take in the 'ideal,' zero disorder limit. We discuss methods of data analysis which can be useful for making such inferences, and apply them to the problem of determining whether the preferred order in the cuprates is 'stripes' or 'checkerboards.' In many cases we show that the experiments clearly indicate stripe order, while in others (where the observed correlation length is short), the answer is presently uncertain.

  11. Interactions between striped bass and other gamefish in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Raborn, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions among reservoir fishes may be pronounced because fish assemblages in these artificial environments have had little time to develop niche-partitioning strategies that alleviate negative interspecific interactions. Such interactions may at times have been intensified by introductions of predators such as striped bass Morone saxatilis, introduced to create additional fisheries and control pelagic clupeids. Possible interactions between existing fish assemblages and striped bass include predation and competition. While there is a perception among angler groups that predation by striped bass on co-existing game fish is significant, most studies have reported little or no predation on game fish my striped bass and have considered predation rare and inconsequential. Moreover, predation that occurs will likely be compensatory and fail to reduce overall game fish survival. Any indirect effect of striped bass predation by restricting prey-sized game fish to limited refuge sites remains unknown. Exploitative competition may be more common. Although infrequently, introduced striped bass have depleted prey resources shared with other piscivores, particularly when stocking rates have been high, when there is a high rate of natural reproduction, or when prey supply has plunged in response to environmental fluxes. Fluctuation in prey supply, associated with ordinary environmental variability, and associated time lages in prey supply and predator demand, preclude adjusting predator densities to exactly balance demand with supply. The frequency of low supply-demand rations varies across systems and exhibits seasonal trends. Nevertheless, chronic supply-demand imbalances are manageable where the predator assemblage is at least partially controlled through stocking, harvest regulations, or both. Because of the poor state of knowledge concerning the parameters defining balance and because uncontrollable annual fluctuations preclude exact management of

  12. Mapping of stripe rust resistance QTL in Cappelle-Desprez × PBW343 RIL population effective in northern wheat belt of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sushma Kumari; Sharma, Davinder; Duhan, Joginder Singh; Saharan, Mahender Singh; Tiwari, Ratan; Sharma, Indu

    2016-06-01

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is most important and devastating disease of wheat worldwide, which affects the grain yields, quality and nutrition. To elucidate, the genetic basis of resistance, a mapping population of recombinant inbred lines was developed from a cross between resistant Cappelle-Desprez and susceptible cultivar PBW343 using single-seed descent. Variety PBW343 had been one of the most popular cultivars of North Western Plains Zone, for more than a decade, before succumbing to the stripe rust. Cappelle-Desprez, a source of durable adult plant resistance, has maintained its resistance against stripe rust for a long time in Europe. Map construction and QTL analysis were completed with 1012 polymorphic (DArT and SSR) markers. Screenings for stripe rust disease were carried out in field condition for two consecutive crop seasons (2012-2013 and 2013-2014). Susceptible parent (PBW343) achieved a significant level of disease i.e., 100 % in both the years. In present investigations, resistance in Cappelle-Desprez was found stable and response to the rust ranged from 0 to 1.5 % over the years. The estimated broad-sense heritability (h 2 ) of stripe rust rAUDPC in the mapping population was 0.82. The relative area under the disease progress curve data showed continuous distributions, indicating that trait was controlled multigenically. Genomic region identified on chromosome 2D, was located within the short arm, with flanking markers (Xgwm484-Xcfd73), explained phenotypic variation (PVE) ranged from 13.9 to 31.8 %. The genomic region identified on chromosome 5B was found with the effect of maximum contribution with flanking DArT markers (1376633|F|0-1207571|F|0), PVE ranged from 24 to 27.0 %. This can, therefore, be utilized for marker assisted selection in developing much needed stripe rust resistant lines for the northern wheat belt of India.

  13. Hexagon and stripe patterns in dielectric barrier streamer discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lifang; He Yafeng; Yin Zengqian; Chai Zhifang

    2004-01-01

    We present a specially designed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system for the study of pattern formation. Hexagon and stripe patterns have been observed in a streamer discharge in a DBD for the first time. The phase diagram of pattern types as a function of applied voltage is given

  14. Stripe domains in Fe-Zr-N nanocrystalline films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craus, C.B.; Craus, C.B.; Chezan, A.R.; Siekman, Martin Herman; Lodder, J.C.; Boerma, D.O.; Niesen, L.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the transition between a magnetic stripe domain structure and in-plane orientation of the spins, as a function of nitrogen content, for 500nm thick Fe-Zr-N films prepared by DC reactive sputtering on glass substrates. The saturation field decreases and the saturation magnetization

  15. Intervertebral Disk Disease in 3 Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krauss, M.W.; Benato, L.; McDonnell, J.; Schoemaker, N.J.; Westerhof, I.; Bronson, E.; Gielen, I.; van Caelenberg, A.; Hellebuyck, T.; Meij, B.P.; de Decker, S.

    Objective To describe diagnostic findings, surgical technique, and outcome in 3 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) with a history of paraparesis. Study Design Case series. Animals Skunks (n = 3) with paraparesis. Methods Neurologic examination revealed upper motor neuron disease (T2–L2) in 2 skunks

  16. Stripe domains and magnetoresistance in thermally deposited nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, P.D.; Stern, N.P.; Snowden, D.S.; Kappus, B.A.; Checkelsky, J.G.; Harberger, S.S.; Fusello, A.M.; Eckert, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    We report a study of the domain structure and magnetoresistance of thermally deposited nickel films. For films thicker than 17 nm, we observe striped domains with period varying with film thickness as a power law with exponent 0.21±0.02 up to 120 nm thickness. There is a negative magnetoresistance for fields out of the plane

  17. Stripe domains and magnetoresistance in thermally deposited nickel films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, P. D.; Stern, N. P.; Snowden, D. S.; Kappus, B. A.; Checkelsky, J. G.; Harberger, S. S.; Fusello, A. M.; Eckert, J. C.

    2004-05-01

    We report a study of the domain structure and magnetoresistance of thermally deposited nickel films. For films thicker than 17nm, we observe striped domains with period varying with film thickness as a power law with exponent 0.21+/-0.02 up to 120nm thickness. There is a negative magnetoresistance for fields out of the plane.

  18. Stripe domains and magnetoresistance in thermally deposited nickel films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, P.D. E-mail: sparks@hmc.edu; Stern, N.P.; Snowden, D.S.; Kappus, B.A.; Checkelsky, J.G.; Harberger, S.S.; Fusello, A.M.; Eckert, J.C

    2004-05-01

    We report a study of the domain structure and magnetoresistance of thermally deposited nickel films. For films thicker than 17 nm, we observe striped domains with period varying with film thickness as a power law with exponent 0.21{+-}0.02 up to 120 nm thickness. There is a negative magnetoresistance for fields out of the plane.

  19. Leaf and stripe rust resistance among Ethiopian grown wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result indicated that 20 varieties and lines harbor resistance to the leaf rust and 26 to the stripe rust pathotypes showing infection types <2+. Twelve bread wheat varieties and lines (Et-13 A2, HAR 1407 [Tusie], HAR 1775 [Tura], HAR 1920, HAR 2192, HAR 2534, HAR 2536, HAR 2561, HAR 2563 and three durum lines ...

  20. Anatomical studies of the gastrointestinal tract of the striped sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the gross anatomical, morphometric features and histology of the gastrointestinal tract of the Striped Sand Snake (Psammophis sibilans). Ten snakes (five males and five females) were euthanized and dissected for the study. The gastrointestinal tract appeared as a straight tubular organ from oral ...

  1. Siim Nestor soovitab : Supreme 7aastane. White Stripes / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Kolmik Supreme tähistab oma 7. tegutsemisaastat 24. juunil Von Krahlis, kus toimub ka Krecki debüütalbumi "If You Live" (väljaandjaks ettevõte Umblu) esitlus. Detroidi blues-rock duo White Stripes esitleb oma uut albumit "Get Behind Me Satan" 29. juunil Tallinnas klubis Hollywood

  2. Modulation of the innate immune responses in the striped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, most of the innate non-specific immune responses are inducible though they are constitutive of fish immune system exhibiting a basal level of activity even in the absence of pathogen challenge. Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, Experimental challenge, Innate immune response, Striped snakehead murrel ...

  3. Dewetting of thin liquid films on chemically patterned substrates : front propatation along narrow lyophobic stripes and stripe arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasjen, B.J.; Gu, H.; Darhuber, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Using experiments and numerical simulations, we investigate the dewetting of thin liquid films on chemically patterned substrates. The patterns consist of long and narrow hydrophobic stripes, separated by larger hydrophilic domains. We characterize the morphology and dynamics of the dewetting front

  4. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  5. Distinct Nature of Static and Dynamic Magnetic Stripes in Cuprate Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, H.; Holm, S. L.; Lǎcǎtuşu, M.-E.; Rømer, A. T.; Bertelsen, M.; Boehm, M.; Toft-Petersen, R.; Grivel, J.-C.; Emery, S. B.; Udby, L.; Wells, B. O.; Lefmann, K.

    2018-01-01

    We present detailed neutron scattering studies of the static and dynamic stripes in an optimally doped high-temperature superconductor, La2 CuO4 +y . We observe that the dynamic stripes do not disperse towards the static stripes in the limit of vanishing energy transfer. Therefore, the dynamic stripes observed in neutron scattering experiments are not the Goldstone modes associated with the broken symmetry of the simultaneously observed static stripes, and the signals originate from different domains in the sample. These observations support real-space electronic phase separation in the crystal, where the static stripes in one phase are pinned versions of the dynamic stripes in the other, having slightly different periods. Our results explain earlier observations of unusual dispersions in underdoped La2 -xSrx CuO4 (x =0.07 ) and La2 -xBax CuO4 (x =0.095 ).

  6. Transmission Biology of Rice Stripe Mosaic Virus by an Efficient Insect Vector Recilia dorsalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe mosaic virus (RSMV is a newly discovered species of cytorhabdovirus infecting rice plants that is transmitted by the leafhopper Recilia dorsalis. In this study, the transmission characteristics of RSMV by R. dorsalis were investigated. Under suitable growth conditions for R. dorsalis, the RSMV acquisition rate reached 71.9% in the second-generation population raised on RSMV-infected rice plants. The minimum acquisition and inoculation access periods of R. dorsalis were 3 and 30 min, respectively. The minimum and maximum latent transmission periods of RSMV in R. dorsalis were 6 and 18 d, respectively, and some R. dorsalis intermittently transmitted RSMV at 2–6 d intervals. Our findings revealed that the virus can replicate in the leafhopper body, but is likely not transovarially transmitted to offspring. These transmission characteristics will help guide the formulation of RSMV prevention and control strategies.

  7. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  8. RF Pulsed Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritzkau, David P.

    2002-01-03

    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  9. Bulk temperature measurement in thermally striped pipe flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemure, N.; Olvera, J.R.; Ruggles, A.E.

    1995-12-01

    The hot leg flows in some Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designs have a temperature distribution across the pipe cross-section. This condition is often referred to as a thermally striped flow. Here, the bulk temperature measurement of pipe flows with thermal striping is explored. An experiment is conducted to examine the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the external surface of the pipe to estimate the bulk temperature of the flow. Simple mixing models are used to characterize the development of the temperature profile in the flow. Simple averaging techniques and Backward Propagating Neural Net are used to predict bulk temperature from the external temperature measurements. Accurate bulk temperatures can be predicted. However, some temperature distributions in the flow effectively mask the bulk temperature from the wall and cause significant error in the bulk temperature predicted using this technique

  10. LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.

    2005-01-01

    The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed

  11. Extraction and characterisation of gelatin from the skin of striped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Functional properties of gelatin from skin of striped catfish with and without bleaching for 48 h by 5% H2O2 (w/v)) were studied. Gelatin from skin bleached with 5% H2O2 for 48 h showed the highest yield (16.18 g). Bleaching not only improved the colour of gelatin gel by increasing the L* (lightness)-value and decreasing ...

  12. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Terry D.; Marking, Leif L.; Howe, George E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. We determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222) , metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degree C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin. We also determined the effects of selected levels of water temperature, hardness, and pH on the toxicity of chloramine-T, formalin, malachite green, and Roccal. There were no differences in toxicity for any of the chemicals at any water quality variable tested except for chloramine-T, which was about 25 times more toxic in soft, acid water than in soft, alkaline water. Our data show that the striped bass is as sensitive to fishery chemicals as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but is generally less resistant than bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

  13. NATURAL TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS OF A PRESTRESSED ORTHOTROPIC PLATE-STRIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorychev Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a new outlook at the boundary-value problem of natural vibrations of a homogeneous pre-stressed orthotropic plate-stripe. In the paper, the motion equation represents a new approximate hyperbolic equation (rather than a parabolic equation used in the majority of papers covering the same problem describing the vibration of a homogeneous orthotropic plate-stripe. The proposed research is based on newly derived boundary conditions describing the pin-edge, rigid, and elastic (vertical types of fixing, as well as the boundary conditions applicable to the unfixed edge of the plate. The paper contemplates the application of the Laplace transformation and a non-standard representation of a homogeneous differential equation with fixed factors. The article proposes a detailed representation of the problem of natural vibrations of a homogeneous orthotropic plate-stripe if rigidly fixed at opposite sides; besides, the article also provides frequency equations (no conclusions describing the plate characterized by the following boundary conditions: rigid fixing at one side and pin-edge fixing at the opposite side; pin-edge fixing at one side and free (unfixed other side; rigid fixing at one side and elastic fixing at the other side. The results described in the article may be helpful if applied in the construction sector whenever flat structural elements are considered. Moreover, specialists in solid mechanics and theory of elasticity may benefit from the ideas proposed in the article.

  14. Pulse Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lawrence (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus and a computer-implemented method for generating pulses synchronized to a rising edge of a tachometer signal from rotating machinery are disclosed. For example, in one embodiment, a pulse state machine may be configured to generate a plurality of pulses, and a period state machine may be configured to determine a period for each of the plurality of pulses.

  15. Effect of the tiger stripes on the tidal deformation of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, Ondrej; Hron, Jaroslav; Behounkova, Marie; Cadek, Ondrej

    2016-10-01

    The south polar region of Saturn's moon Enceladus has been subjected to a thorough scientific scrutiny since the Cassini mission discovery of an enigmatic system of fractures informally known as "tiger stripes". This fault system is possibly connected to the internal water ocean and exhibits a striking geological activity manifesting itself in the form of active water geysers on the moon's surface.The effect of the faults on periodic tidal deformation of the moon has so far been neglected because of the difficulties associated with the implementation of fractures in continuum mechanics models. Employing an open source finite element FEniCS package, we provide a numerical estimate of the maximum possible impact of the tiger stripes on the tidal deformation and the heat production in Enceladus's ice shell by representing the faults as narrow zones with negligible frictional and bulk resistance passing vertically through the whole shell.For a uniform ice shell thickness of 25 km, consistent with the recent estimate of libration, and for linear elastic rheology, we demonstrate that the faults can dramatically change the distribution of stress and strain in Enceladus's south polar region, leading to a significant increase of the heat flux and to a complex deformation pattern in this area. We also present preliminary results studying the effects of (i) variable ice-shell thickness, based on the recent topography, gravity and libration inversion model by Čadek et al. (2016) and (ii) Maxwell viscoelastic rheology on the global tidal deformation of the ice shell.O.S. acknowledges support by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic through the project 15-14263Y.

  16. Microwave permeability of stripe patterned FeCoN thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yuping [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Yang, Yong, E-mail: tslyayo@nus.edu.sg [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Ma, Fusheng; Zong, Baoyu; Yang, Zhihong [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Ding, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic stripe patterns are of great importance for microwave applications owing to their highly tunable microwave permeability by adjusting the geometrical dimensions. In this work, stripe patterned FeCoN films with 160 nm thickness are fabricated by using standard UV photolithography. Their microwave permeability are investigated systematically via both experiment and micromagnetic simulation. The good agreement between experimental and simulation results suggests that stripe width is crucial for the microwave magnetic properties of the stripe pattern. It is demonstrated by simulation that with increasing stripe width from 1 to 80 µm the initial permeability shows a continuous growth from about 8–322, whiles the resonance frequency drops dramatically from 18.7 to 3.1 GHz at 4 µm gap size. Smaller gap size would result in slightly increased initial permeability due to larger magnetic volume ratio, accompanied by decreased resonance frequency because of stronger magnetostatic interaction. Moreover, the experimental investigation on stripe length effect indicates that the stripe length should be kept as long as possible to achieve uniform bulk resonance mode and high permeability value. Insufficient stripe length would result in low frequency edge mode and decayed bulk mode. This study could provide valuable guidelines on the selection of proper geometry dimensions of FeCoN stripe patterns for high frequency applications. - Highlights: • This work presents a systematic study on permeability of FeCoN stripe pattern. • Geometrical parameters of the stripe pattern are systematically optimized. • Several important conclusions has been obtained. • The results offer guideline on FeCoN stripe patterns for high frequency applications.

  17. Relationship of Soil Properties and Sugarcane Yields to Red Stripe in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard M; Grisham, Michael P; Warnke, Kathryn Z; Maggio, Jeri R

    2016-07-01

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form, which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of red stripe in the field and determine its effects on cane and sugar yields. Soil properties data, red stripe incidence, and sugarcane yields were all highly variable and were not randomly distributed in the field. Combined harvest data showed a negative correlation between yield components and red stripe incidence, with the strongest relationship between sucrose per metric ton and disease incidence. Red stripe incidence was positively correlated with several soil properties, including phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and calcium. Red stripe incidence also was found to increase with increasing nitrogen rate, with the greatest effects in heavy soils. Results also indicated that using red-stripe-infected cane as a seed source can significantly decrease shoot emergence, stalk population, and subsequent cane and sugar yields. These combined data suggest that red stripe disease can exhibit a highly variable rate of infection in commercial sugarcane fields and may also significantly decrease sugar yields.

  18. Microsatellite markers linked to the locus of the watermelon fruit stripe pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, R N C S; Santos, C A F; Dias, R C S; Alves, J C S F; Nogueira, T O

    2015-01-16

    Agronomic performance and external and internal appearance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit are important traits that should be taken into consideration during the development of a new cultivar, as well as being the principal identification elements used by the consumer, which are based on the external appearance and quality of the fruit. Externally, the fruit can be characterized in terms of the shape, the color of the lower rind, and the presence of grooves and stripes, the stripes can be classified as clearly defined or diffuse. The objective of this study was to identify microsatellite markers linked to the stripe pattern of watermelon fruit to support watermelon improvement programs, with the selection of this characteristic in the plantlet stage. F1 and F2 populations, result of a cross between the cultivars BRS Opara (clearly defined stripes) and Pérola (diffuse stripes), were phenotyped for their fruit stripe pattern. The CTAB 2X protocol was used for DNA extraction and 116 microsatellite markers were examined in a group of F2 plants that had fruit with well-defined stripes and fruit with diffuse stripes. The microsatellite loci MCPI_05 and MCPI_16 exhibited a linkage to the stripe pattern at a distance of 1.5 and 1.8 cM, respectively, with LOD scores of 39.28 and 38.11, respectively, which were located on chromosome six of the watermelon genome. These markers can be used in marker-assisted selection in watermelon improvement programs, by various research institutions.

  19. Physical Localization of a Locus from Agropyron cristatum Conferring Resistance to Stripe Rust in Common Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Song, Liqiang; Han, Haiming; Zhou, Shenghui; Zhang, Jinpeng; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

    2017-11-13

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici ( Pst ), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2 n = 28, PPPP), one of the wild relatives of wheat, exhibits resistance to stripe rust. In this study, wheat- A . cristatum 6P disomic addition line 4844-12 also exhibited resistance to stripe rust. To identify the stripe rust resistance locus from A . cristatum 6P, ten translocation lines, five deletion lines and the BC₂F₂ and BC₃F₂ populations of two wheat- A . cristatum 6P whole-arm translocation lines were tested with a mixture of two races of Pst in two sites during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017, being genotyped with genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and molecular markers. The result indicated that the locus conferring stripe rust resistance was located on the terminal 20% of 6P short arm's length. Twenty-nine 6P-specific sequence-tagged-site (STS) markers mapped on the resistance locus have been acquired, which will be helpful for the fine mapping of the stripe rust resistance locus. The stripe rust-resistant translocation lines were found to carry some favorable agronomic traits, which could facilitate their use in wheat improvement. Collectively, the stripe rust resistance locus from A . cristatum 6P could be a novel resistance source and the screened stripe rust-resistant materials will be valuable for wheat disease breeding.

  20. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  1. The calculation of maximum permissible exposure levels for laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozer, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    The maximum permissible exposure data of the revised standard BS 4803 are presented as a set of decision charts which ensure that the user automatically takes into account such details as pulse length and pulse pattern, limiting angular subtense, combinations of multiple wavelength and/or multiple pulse lengths, etc. The two decision charts given are for the calculation of radiation hazards to skin and eye respectively. (author)

  2. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  3. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  4. Fermi-surface reconstruction by stripe order in cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Francis

    2012-02-01

    The origin of pairing in a superconductor resides in the underlying normal state. In the cuprate high-temperature superconductor YBCO, application of a magnetic field to suppress superconductivity reveals a ground state that appears to break the translational symmetry of the lattice, pointing to some density-wave order [1,2,3]. In another cuprate, Eu-LSCO, the onset of stripe order - a modulation of spin and charge densities - at low temperature is well established [4]. By a comparative study of thermoelectric transport in the cuprates YBCO and Eu-LSCO, we show that the two materials exhibit a very similar process of Fermi-surface reconstruction as a function of temperature and doping [5,6]. This strongly suggests that Fermi-surface reconstruction is caused by stripe order in both cases, compelling evidence that stripe order is a generic tendency of hole-doped cuprates.[4pt] Work done in collaboration with J. Chang, N. Doiron-Leyraud, E. Hassinger, R. Daou, D. LeBoeuf, M. Rondeau, B. J. Ramshaw, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, W. N. Hardy, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, I. Sheikin, L. Malone, C. Proust, K. Behnia and L. Taillefer.[4pt] [1] N. Doiron-Leyraud et al., Nature 447, 565 (2007).[0pt] [2] D. LeBoeuf et al., Nature 450, 533 (2007).[0pt] [3] D. LeBoeuf et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 054506 (2011).[0pt] [4] J. Fink et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 092503 (2011).[0pt] [5] J. Chang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 057005 (2010).[0pt] [6] F. Lalibert'e et al., Nat. Commun. 2, 432 (2011).

  5. Response to "Critical Assessment of the Evidence for Striped Nanoparticles".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Khac Ong

    Full Text Available Stirling et al., (10.1371/journal.pone.0108482 presented an analysis on some of our publications on the formation of stripe-like domains on mixed-ligand coated gold nanoparticles. The authors shed doubts on some of our results however no valid argument is provided against what we have shown since our first publication: scanning tunneling microscopy (STM images of striped nanoparticles show stripe-like domains that are independent of imaging parameters and in particular of imaging speed. We have consistently ruled out the presence of artifacts by comparing sets of images acquired at different tip speeds, finding invariance of the stipe-like domains. Stirling and co-workers incorrectly analyzed this key control, using a different microscope and imaging conditions that do not compare to ours. We show here data proving that our approach is rigorous. Furthermore, we never solely relied on image analysis to draw our conclusions; we have always used the chemical nature of the particles to assess the veracity of our images. Stirling et al. do not provide any justification for the spacing of the features that we find on nanoparticles: ~1 nm for mixed ligand particles and ~ 0.5 nm for homoligand particles. Hence our two central arguments remain unmodified: independence from imaging parameters and dependence on ligand shell chemical composition. The paper report observations on our STM images; none is a sufficient condition to prove that our images are artifacts. We thoroughly addressed issues related to STM artifacts throughout our microscopy work. Stirling et al. provide guidelines for what they consider good STM images of nanoparticles, such images are indeed present in our literature. They conclude that the evidences we provided to date are insufficient, this is a departure from one of the authors' previous article which concluded that our images were composed of artifacts. Given that four independent laboratories have reproduced our measurements and

  6. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy L Caldwell

    Full Text Available Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  7. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  8. Unfolding of Vortices into Topological Stripes in a Multiferroic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mostovoy, M.; Han, M. G.; Horibe, Y.; Aoki, T.; Zhu, Y.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2014-06-01

    Multiferroic hexagonal RMnO3 (R =rare earths) crystals exhibit dense networks of vortex lines at which six domain walls merge. While the domain walls can be readily moved with an applied electric field, the vortex cores so far have been impossible to control. Our experiments demonstrate that shear strain induces a Magnus-type force pulling vortices and antivortices in opposite directions and unfolding them into a topological stripe domain state. We discuss the analogy between this effect and the current-driven dynamics of vortices in superconductors and superfluids.

  9. Spatially correlated disorder in striped precursor magnetic modulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, Marcel; Castan, Teresa; LLoveras, Pol; Planes, Antoni; Saxena, Avadh

    2007-01-01

    We use a Ginzburg-Landau model that includes long-range dipolar interactions and spatially correlated quenched-in disorder coupled to the local magnetization to study the properties of the precursor magnetic modulations as a function of the characteristics of the disorder. We find that although the modulation pattern is very robust and does not depend on details of the pair correlation function G(r), the scaling behaviour of the characteristic length of the striped magnetic modulations depends on the behaviour of G(r) for small values of r

  10. Producing High Intense Attosecond Pulse Train by Interaction of Three-Color Pulse and Overdense Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, M.; Mirzanejad, S.

    2017-05-01

    Amplifying the attosecond pulse by the chirp pulse amplification method is impossible. Furthermore, the intensity of attosecond pulse is low in the interaction of laser pulse and underdense plasma. This motivates us to propose using a multi-color pulse to produce the high intense attosecond pulse. In the present study, the relativistic interaction of a three-color linearly-polarized laser-pulse with highly overdense plasma is studied. We show that the combination of {{ω }}1, {{ω }}2 and {{ω }}3 frequencies decreases the instance full width at half maximum reflected attosecond pulse train from the overdense plasma surface. Moreover, we show that the three-color pulse increases the intensity of generated harmonics, which is explained by the relativistic oscillating mirror model. The obtained results demonstrate that if the three-color laser pulse interacts with overdense plasma, it will enhance two orders of magnitude of intensity of ultra short attosecond pulses in comparison with monochromatic pulse.

  11. PUSPATI Triga Reactor pulsing parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auu, Gui Ah; Abu, Puad Haji; Yunus, Yaziz [PUSPATI, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1984-06-01

    The pulsing experiment was carried out as part of the commissioning activites of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (PTR). Several parameters of PTR were deduced from the experiment. It was found that the maximum temperature of the fuel was far below the safety limit when the maximum allowable positive reactivity of $3.00 was inserted into the core. The peak power achieved was 1354 Mw.

  12. Color Fringes Bordering Black Stripes at the Bottom of a Swimming Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Gonzalo; Rojas, Roberto; Slüsarenko, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We have observed a nice example of chromatic dispersion due to refraction in water, in the form of color fringes bordering the black stripes that exist at the bottom of a swimming pool. Here we give a qualitative description of the phenomenon, explaining the role of the black stripes and the dispersive index of refraction of water.

  13. Assessing the variability of Red Stripe Disease in Louisiana sugarcane using precision agriculture methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of r...

  14. Mapping genes for resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat landrace PI 480035

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikks. is an economically important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hexaploid spring wheat landrace PI 480035 was highly resistant to stripe rust in the field in Washington during 2011 and 2012. The objective of this resear...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of directors shall monitor planning and execution of the S&S business activities. 2. The S&S board of... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and Management...

  16. Mice as stowaways? Colonization history of Danish striped field mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Jacobsen, Magnus; Vedel-Smith, Christina; Jensen, Thomas Secher

    2017-07-01

    Species from the steppe region of Eastern Europe likely colonized northwestern Europe in connection with agriculture after 6500 BP. The striped field mouse ( Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1783), is a steppe-derived species often found in human crops. It is common on the southern Danish islands of Lolland and Falster, which have been isolated from mainland Europe since approximately 10 300-8000 BP. Thus, this species could have been brought in with humans in connection with agriculture, or it could be an earlier natural invader. We sequenced 86 full mitochondrial genomes from the northwestern range of the striped field mouse, analysed phylogenetic relationships and estimated divergence time. The results supported human-induced colonization of Denmark in the Subatlantic or Subboreal period. A newly discovered population from Central Jutland in Denmark diverged from Falster approximately 100-670 years ago, again favouring human introduction. One individual from Sweden turned out to be a recent introduction from Central Jutland. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  18. Robust Maximum Association Estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation

  19. Effect of current on the maximum possible reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Leon, M; Waraczynski, M; Hanau, M S

    1991-12-01

    Using a 2-lever choice paradigm with concurrent variable interval schedules of reward, it was found that when pulse frequency is increased, the preference-determining rewarding effect of 0.5-s trains of brief cathodal pulses delivered to the medial forebrain bundle of the rat saturates (stops increasing) at values ranging from 200 to 631 pulses/s (pps). Raising the current lowered the saturation frequency, which confirms earlier, more extensive findings showing that the rewarding effect of short trains saturates at pulse frequencies that vary from less than 100 pps to more than 800 pps, depending on the current. It was also found that the maximum possible reward--the magnitude of the reward at or beyond the saturation pulse frequency--increases with increasing current. Thus, increasing the current reduces the saturation frequency but increases the subjective magnitude of the maximum possible reward.

  20. Magnetic pulse sharpener and delay-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin; Dai Guangsen; Xia Liansheng

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a method to achieve short rise time pulse which has been delayed with a delay-line and magnetic pulse sharpener. A delay-line and two shock-lines are designed to carry pulsed signal with a maximum voltage magnitude up to 80 kV. A pulse of High voltage with arise time of 48 ns at a level of 0.1%-0.9% were achieved, and the attenuation in the line is very small

  1. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  2. Magnetic stripes in the UCoGe superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Pablo de la [Departemento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-542, 04510 Mexico DF, Mexico and Institute de Investigacion en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia (Mexico); Navarro, O, E-mail: delamora@unam.m [Instituto de Investigacion en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-360, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    The magnetic superconductor UCoGe is analyzed with an electronic structure package, spin-orbit coupling and intra-atomic repulsion (via Hubbard U{sub H}) were included. The possibility of an antiferromagnetic configuration is studied, but it is found to be unstable, also the non-collinear magnetization seems to be ruled out. The magnetization is given mainly by the Co-atoms with M = 0.6 mu{sub B}/f.u. The U-atoms have two magnetic moments; M = 0.07 and 0.32 mu{sub B}/f.u. arranged in an alternated planes along the b-direction forming magnetic stripes.

  3. AlGaInAs narrow stripe selective growth on substrates patterned with different mask designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, W; Pan, J Q; Yang, H; Hou, L P; Zhou, F; Zhao, L J; Zhu, H L; Wang, W

    2006-01-01

    We have performed a narrow stripe selective growth of oxide-free AlGaInAs waveguides on InP substrates patterned with pairs of SiO 2 mask stripes under optimized growth conditions. The mask stripe width varied from 0 to 40 μm, while the window region width between a pair of mask stripes was fixed at 1.5, 2.5 or 3.5 μm. Flat and smooth AlGaInAs waveguides covered by specific InP layers are successfully grown on substrates patterned with different mask designs. The thickness enhancement ratio and the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the AlGaInAs narrow stripe waveguides are strongly dependent on the mask stripe width and the window region width. In particular, a large PL wavelength shift of 79 nm and a PL FWHM of less than 64 meV are obtained simultaneously with a small mask stripe width varying from 0 to 40 μm when the window region width is 1.5 μm. We present some possible interpretations of the experimental observations in considering both the migration effect from a masked region and the lateral vapour diffusion effect

  4. Striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Xianjun

    2011-01-01

    Research Highlights: → We investigate striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs). → For the single-impurity and two-impurity cases, modulated checkerboard pattern and stripe-like structures are induced. → When more magnetic impurities are inserted, more complex modulated structures could be induced, including rectilinear and right-angled stripes and quantum-corral-like structures. → Impurities could induce complex striped morphologies in DSCs. - Abstract: We study striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs) near optimal doping by self-consistently solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations based on the t - t' - U - V model. For the single-impurity case, it is found that the stable ground state is a modulated checkerboard pattern. For the two-impurity case, the stripe-like structures in order parameters are induced due to the impurity-pinning effect. The modulations of DSC and charge orders share the same period of four lattice constants (4a), which is half the period of modulations in the coexisting spin order. Interestingly, when three or more impurities are inserted, the impurities could induce more complex striped morphologies due to quantum interference. Further experiments of magnetic impurity substitution in DSCs are expected to check these results.

  5. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  6. The last glacial maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  7. Striped Bass Spawning in Non-Estuarine Portions of the Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.; Paller, M.

    2007-04-17

    Historically, the estuarine portions of the Savannah River have been considered to be the only portion of the river in which significant amounts of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spawning normally occur. A reexamination of data from 1983 through 1985 shows a region between River Kilometers 144 and 253 where significant numbers of striped bass eggs and larvae occur with estimated total egg production near that currently produced in the estuarine reaches. It appears possible that there are two separate spawning populations of striped bass in the Savannah River.

  8. Magnonic quantum spin Hall state in the zigzag and stripe phases of the antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Hoon; Chung, Suk Bum; Park, Kisoo; Park, Je-Geun

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the topological property of magnon bands in the collinear magnetic orders of zigzag and stripe phases for the antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice and identified Berry curvature and symmetry constraints on the magnon band structure. Different symmetries of both zigzag and stripe phases lead to different topological properties, in particular, the magnon bands of the stripe phase being disentangled with a finite Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) term with nonzero spin Chern number. This is corroborated by calculating the spin Nernst effect. Our study establishes the existence of a nontrivial magnon band topology for all observed collinear antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattices in the presence of the DM term.

  9. Magnetic stripes and holes: Complex domain patterns in perforated films with weak perpendicular anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Valdés-Bango

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal antidot arrays have been patterned on weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy NdCo films by e-beam lithography and lift off. Domain structure has been characterized by Magnetic Force Microscopy at remanence. On a local length scale, of the order of stripe pattern period, domain configuration is controlled by edge effects within the stripe pattern: stripe domains meet the hole boundary at either perpendicular or parallel orientation. On a longer length scale, in-plane magnetostatic effects dominate the system: clear superdomains are observed in the patterned film with average in-plane magnetization along the easy directions of the antidot array, correlated over several antidot array cells.

  10. Magnetic stripes and holes: Complex domain patterns in perforated films with weak perpendicular anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Bango, F.; Vélez, M.; Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Alameda, J. M.; Martín, J. I.

    2017-05-01

    Hexagonal antidot arrays have been patterned on weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy NdCo films by e-beam lithography and lift off. Domain structure has been characterized by Magnetic Force Microscopy at remanence. On a local length scale, of the order of stripe pattern period, domain configuration is controlled by edge effects within the stripe pattern: stripe domains meet the hole boundary at either perpendicular or parallel orientation. On a longer length scale, in-plane magnetostatic effects dominate the system: clear superdomains are observed in the patterned film with average in-plane magnetization along the easy directions of the antidot array, correlated over several antidot array cells.

  11. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  12. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  13. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  14. Solar maximum observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references

  15. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  17. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  18. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  19. Developing a Methodology for Elaborating a Pulsed Optical Safety Area for High Power Laser Diodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yankov, Plamen

    2006-01-01

    The laser diodes are efficient sources of optical radiation. The maximum optical peak power depends on the pulse duration of the driving current pulse - reducing the pulse duration the safety peak power is increased...

  20. Striped Marlin Hardparts and Gonads Collected by the PIRO Hawaii Longline Observer Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Compilation of all samples collected from striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) collected and brought to the Aiea Heights Research Facility by the PIRO Hawaii Longline...

  1. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.

    1981-01-01

    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  2. Propagation of dark stripe beams in nonlinear media: Snake instability and creation of optical vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamaev, A.V.; Saffman, M.; Zozulya, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of (1+1) dimensional dark stripe beams in bulk media with a photorefractive nonlinear response. These beams, including solitary wave solutions, are shown to be unstable with respect to symmetry breaking and formation of structure along the initially homogeneous coordinate....... Experimental results show the complete sequence of events starting from self-focusing of the stripe, its bending due to the snake instability, and subsequent decay into a set of optical vortices....

  3. Status of Striped Hyaena (Hyaena hyaena in Hatay and Şanlıurfa-Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Atay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an 18 month survey, involving face to face interviews with the local people and deployment camera-traps, was carried out on about 600 km2 areas in Turkey. Field surveys and camera-trapping resulted in strong evidences that striped hyenas travel and live around Hatay (Syria border and Şanlıurfa Provinces in Turkey. However, a comprehensive study was not carried out about the status of striped hyenas in this region. Our results showed that striped hyenas were frequently observed around the wasteland and the chicken farm in Hatay Province. Alternatively, they live in small groups in Şanlıurfa Province. Several caves suitable for striped hyenas were identified by footprints, feces and other animal remnants observed in and before those caves. We performed molecular characterization of striped hyenas in Turkey for the first time using Cytb mitochondrial DNA isolated from hair, ear and carcass tissues. Sequences of Cytb DNA sequences from10 different striped hyena samples from Turkey were found to be identical to each other. Comparison of the sequences with the previously reported Cytb sequences, including prehistoric ones, showed that Ctyb gene was highly conserved among the Hyaena hyaena species. During the field surveys we also observed that habitat destruction and fragmentation are detected on high level in the studied regions due to the intensive agricultural areas, settlements and quarries. Illegal hunting, frequent cave usage by shepherds, extensive porcupines hunting, water pollution from olive oil production facilities and highway crashes have been negatively affecting striped hyena population in Hatay and Şanlıurfa regions. It appears that a comprehensive study and protection plan should be exerted to preserve the habitat of striped hyenas.

  4. Are stripes beneficial? Dazzle camouflage influences perceived speed and hit rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina von Helversen

    Full Text Available In the animal kingdom, camouflage refers to patterns that help potential prey avoid detection. Mostly camouflage is thought of as helping prey blend in with their background. In contrast, disruptive or dazzle patterns protect moving targets and have been suggested as an evolutionary force in shaping the dorsal patterns of animals. Dazzle patterns, such as stripes and zigzags, are thought to reduce the probability with which moving prey will be captured by impairing predators' perception of speed. We investigated how different patterns of stripes (longitudinal-i.e., parallel to movement direction-and vertical-i.e., perpendicular to movement direction affect the probability with which humans can hit moving objects and if differences in hitting probability are caused by a misperception of speed. A first experiment showed that longitudinally striped objects were hit more often than unicolored objects. However, vertically striped objects did not differ from unicolored objects. A second study examining the link between perceived speed and hitting probability showed that longitudinally and vertically striped objects were both perceived as moving faster and were hit more often than unicolored objects. In sum, our results provide evidence that striped patterns disrupt the perception of speed, which in turn influences how often objects are hit. However, the magnitude and the direction of the effects depend on additional factors such as speed and the task setup.

  5. Quantity and functionality of protein fractions in chicken breast fillets affected by white striping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2014-08-01

    Recently, white striations parallel to muscle fibers direction have been observed on the surface of chicken breast, which could be ascribed to intensive growth selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of white striping on chemical composition with special emphasis on myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions that are relevant to the processing features of chicken breast meat. During this study, a total of 12 pectoralis major muscles from both normal and white striped fillets were used to evaluate chemical composition, protein solubility (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and total protein solubility), protein quantity (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and stromal proteins), water holding capacity, and protein profile by SDS-PAGE analysis. White-striped fillets exhibited a higher percentage of moisture (75.4 vs. 73.8%; P cooking loss (33.7 vs. 27.4%; P chicken breast meat with white striping defect had different chemical composition (more fat and less protein) and protein quality and quantity (low content of myofibrillar proteins and high content of stromal proteins) with respect to normal meat. Furthermore, white striped fillets had lower protein functionality (higher cooking loss). All the former changes indicate that white striping has great impact on quality characteristics of chicken breast meat. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Applying the Helmholtz Illusion to Fashion: Horizontal Stripes Won't Make You Look Fatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A square composed of horizontal lines appears taller and narrower than an identical square made up of vertical lines. Reporting this illusion, Hermann von Helmholtz noted that such illusions, in which filled space seems to be larger than unfilled space, were common in everyday life, adding the observation that ladies' frocks with horizontal stripes make the figure look taller. As this assertion runs counter to modern popular belief, we have investigated whether vertical or horizontal stripes on clothing should make the wearer appear taller or fatter. We find that a rectangle of vertical stripes needs to be extended by 7.1% vertically to match the height of a square of horizontal stripes and that a rectangle of horizontal stripes must be made 4.5% wider than a square of vertical stripes to match its perceived width. This illusion holds when the horizontal or vertical lines are on the dress of a line drawing of a woman. We have examined the claim that these effects apply only for 2-dimensional figures in an experiment with 3-D cylinders and find no support for the notion that horizontal lines would be ‘fattening’ on clothes. Significantly, the illusion persists when the horizontal or vertical lines are on pictures of a real half-body mannequin viewed stereoscopically. All the evidence supports Helmholtz's original assertion.

  7. Custom pulse generator for RPC testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, A.; Castro, E.; Diaz, J.; Fonte, P.; Garzon, J.A.; Montes, N.; Zapata, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a pulse generator able to generate pulses statistically similar to the ones produced by RPC cells. The device generates up to four arrays of fast and narrow random-like pulses. Polarity, maximum amplitudes, widths and pulse rate in each channel may be modified independently in order to simulate different RPC setups and environments. This portable and cost-effective pulse generator is a versatile instrument for testing FE-Electronics and different real detector features related with the signal propagation inside the detector. It has been developed in the framework of the ESTRELA project of the HADES experiment at GSI.

  8. Characterizing the Heat Flow from Between Enceladus' Tiger Stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howett, C.; Spencer, J. R.; Verbiscer, A.

    2017-12-01

    Enceladus' heat flow provides a fundamental constraint on its tidal dissipation mechanisms, orbital evolution, and the physical processes that generate the plumes. Determining the total amount of emission is proving difficult, as different techniques produce differing constraints. For example, an initial estimate of this value, 5.8±1.3 GW, was made by Spencer et al. (2006) using Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) 600 to 1100 cm-1 observations, which was refined using 10 to 600 cm-1 CIRS observations to 15.8±3.1 GW by Howett et al. (2011). However, recent reanalysis of high-spatial resolution 10 to 1100 cm-1 CIRS observations of Enceladus' active south polar region conducted by Spencer and Howett gives a heat flow of 4.64±0.23 GW. Whilst all of these heat flow estimates are much larger than those expected in a steady state, 1.1 GW (Meyer and Wisdom, 2007), their obvious discrepancy is a puzzle. In this work we seek to help understand these discrepancies by determining how much endogenic heat flow is coming from the funiscular terrain between Enceladus active tiger stripes.

  9. Change in Occurrence of Rice stripe virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Choon Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the occurrence of Rice stripe virus (RSV disease in 672 fields from 29 rice representative area inJuly 2012 as nationwide survey for RSV occurrence since 2008. We confirmed occurrence of virus disease in18 areas, in west coast region including Secheon, Taean, Buwan and Cheorwon. RSV incidence rates of plantin Sacheon and Buan were less than 0.01% and 0.15%, respectively, showing similar rate with the nationwidesurvey carried out in 2008, whereas incidence rate of field declined from 19.9% in 2008 to 4.9% in 2012.Earlier, RSV occurred largely across the southern region of Korea. In 2001, RSV disease was found inGangwha and Gyeonggi-do, the northern region of Korea. In 2007, RSV appeared in west coast; Buan inJeollabuk-do and Seocheon in Choongnam-do. After migration of the vector, small brown plant hopper, fromChina in 2009, RSV is becoming a pandemic.

  10. Current Insights into Research on Rice stripe virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kyong Cho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe virus (RSV is one of the most destructive viruses of rice, and greatly reduces rice production in China, Japan, and Korea, where mostly japonica cultivars of rice are grown. RSV is transmitted by the small brown plant-hopper (SBPH in a persistent and circulative-propagative manner. Several methods have been developed for detection of RSV, which is composed of four single-stranded RNAs that encode seven proteins. Genome sequence data and comparative phylogenetic analysis have been used to identify the origin and diversity of RSV isolates. Several rice varieties resistant to RSV have been selected and QTL analysis and fine mapping have been intensively performed to map RSV resistance loci or genes. RSV genes have been used to generate several genetically modified transgenic rice plants with RSV resistance. Recently, genome-wide transcriptome analyses and deep sequencing have been used to identify mRNAs and small RNAs involved in RSV infection; several rice host factors that interact with RSV proteins have also been identified. In this article, we review the current statues of RSV research and propose integrated approaches for the study of interactions among RSV, rice, and the SBPH.

  11. Structural lability of Barley stripe mosaic virus virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin V Makarov

    Full Text Available Virions of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV were neglected for more than thirty years after their basic properties were determined. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics of BSMV virions and virion-derived viral capsid protein (CP were analyzed, namely, the absorption and intrinsic fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, differential scanning calorimetry curves, and size distributions by dynamic laser light scattering. The structural properties of BSMV virions proved to be intermediate between those of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, a well-characterized virus with rigid rod-shaped virions, and flexuous filamentous plant viruses. The BSMV virions were found to be considerably more labile than expected from their rod-like morphology and a distant sequence relation of the BSMV and TMV CPs. The circular dichroism spectra of BSMV CP subunits incorporated into the virions, but not subunits of free CP, demonstrated a significant proportion of beta-structure elements, which were proposed to be localized mostly in the protein regions exposed on the virion outer surface. These beta-structure elements likely formed during virion assembly can comprise the N- and C-terminal protein regions unstructured in the non-virion CP and can mediate inter-subunit interactions. Based on computer-assisted structure modeling, a model for BSMV CP subunit structural fold compliant with the available experimental data was proposed.

  12. Current Flow in the Bubble and Stripe Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, B.; Umansky, V.; von Klitzing, K.; Smet, J. H.

    2018-03-01

    The spontaneous ordering of spins and charges in geometric patterns is currently under scrutiny in a number of different material systems. A topic of particular interest is the interaction of such ordered phases with itinerant electrons driven by an externally imposed current. It not only provides important information on the charge ordering itself but potentially also allows manipulating the shape and symmetry of the underlying pattern if current flow is strong enough. Unfortunately, conventional transport methods probing the macroscopic resistance suffer from the fact that the voltage drop along the sample edges provides only indirect information on the bulk properties because a complex current distribution is elicited by the inhomogeneous ground state. Here, we promote the use of surface acoustic waves to study these broken-symmetry phases and specifically address the bubble and stripe phases emerging in high-quality two-dimensional electron systems in GaAs /AlGaAs heterostructures as prototypical examples. When driving a unidirectional current, we find a surprising discrepancy between the sound propagation probing the bulk of the sample and the voltage drop along the sample edges. Our results prove that the current-induced modifications observed in resistive transport measurements are in fact a local phenomenon only, leaving the majority of the sample unaltered. More generally, our findings shed new light on the extent to which these ordered electron phases are impacted by an external current and underline the intrinsic advantages of acoustic measurements for the study of such inhomogeneous phases.

  13. Historical development of entrainment models for Hudson River striped bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, S.W.; Englert, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the mid-1960s, concerns surfaced regarding entrainment and impingement of young-of-the-year (age-0) striped bass by electric power generating facilities on the Hudson River. These concerns stimulated the development of increasingly complex models to evaluate the impacts of these facilities. The earliest simplistic formulas, based on empirical data, proved inadequate because of conceptual shortcomings, incomplete development, and lack of data. By 1972, complex transport models based on biological and hydrodynamic principles had been developed and applied by scientists representing both the utilities and the government. Disagreements about the acceptability of these models spurred the development of even more complex models. The entrainment models stimulated the collection of substantial amounts of field data to define the spatial distributions and entrainment survival of early life stages. As the difficulties of accounting for the movement of early life stages from hydrodynamic principles became more evident and as more field data became available, simpler empirical modeling approaches became both practical and defensible. Both empirical and hydrodynamic modeling approaches were applied during the US Environmental Protection Agency's hearings on the Hudson River power case (1977-1980). The main lessons learned from the experience with entrainment-impingement modeling are that complex mechanistic models are not necessarily better than simpler empirical models for young fish, and that care must be taken to construct even the simple models correctly. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. THE z = 5 QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM SDSS STRIPE 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui; Jiang Linhua; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin; Shen Yue; Schneider, Donald P.; Brandt, W. Niel; Myers, Adam D.; DeGraf, Colin; Glikman, Eilat; Ge Jian; Streblyanska, Alina

    2013-01-01

    We present a measurement of the Type I quasar luminosity function at z = 5 using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed quasars selected from optical imaging data. We measure the bright end (M 1450 2 , then extend to lower luminosities (M 1450 2 of deep, coadded imaging in the SDSS Stripe 82 region (the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap). The faint sample includes 14 quasars with spectra obtained as ancillary science targets in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, and 59 quasars observed at the MMT and Magellan telescopes. We construct a well-defined sample of 4.7 1450 * ∼-27). The bright-end slope is steep (β ∼ 1450 < –26) from z = 5 to z = 6 than from z = 4 to z = 5, suggesting a more rapid decline in quasar activity at high redshift than found in previous surveys. Our model for the quasar luminosity function predicts that quasars generate ∼30% of the ionizing photons required to keep hydrogen in the universe ionized at z = 5.

  15. PUSPATI Triga Reactor pulsing parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Ah Auu; Puad Haji Abu; Yaziz Yunus

    1984-01-01

    The pulsing experiment was carried out as part of the commissioning activites of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (PTR). Several parameters of PTR were deduced from the experiment. It was found that the maximum temperature of the fuel was far below the safety limit when the maximum allowable positive reactivity of $3.00 was inserted into the core. The peak power achieved was 1354 Mw. (author)

  16. A maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic-SPE system using a maximum current controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhida, Riza [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Physical Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Park, Minwon; Dakkak, Mohammed; Matsuura, Kenji [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyoshi, Akira; Michira, Masakazu [Kobe City College of Technology, Nishi-ku, Kobe (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic (PV)-powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis (SPE) are reported. An alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV-SPE system based on the maximum current searching methods has been designed and implemented. Based on the characteristics of voltage-current and theoretical analysis of SPE, it can be shown that the tracking of the maximum current output of DC-DC converter in SPE side will track the MPPT of photovoltaic panel simultaneously. This method uses a proportional integrator controller to control the duty factor of DC-DC converter with pulse-width modulator (PWM). The MPPT performance and hydrogen production performance of this method have been evaluated and discussed based on the results of the experiment. (Author)

  17. Pulse plating

    CERN Document Server

    Hansal, Wolfgang E G; Green, Todd; Leisner, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The electrodeposition of metals using pulsed current has achieved practical importance in recent years. Although it has long been known that changes in potential, with or without polarity reversal, can significantly affect the deposition process, the practical application of this has been slow to be adopted. This can largely be explained in terms of the complex relationship between the current regime and its effect on the electrodeposition process. In order to harness these effects, an understanding of the anodic and cathodic electrochemical processes is necessary, together with the effects of polarity reversal and the rate of such reversals. In this new monograph, the basics of metal electrodeposition from solution are laid out in great detail in seven distinct chapters. With this knowledge, the reader is able to predict how a given pulse train profile can be adopted to achieve a desired outcome. Equally important is the choice of a suitable rectifier and the ancillary control circuits to enable pulse platin...

  18. Detection, Occurrence, and Survey of Rice Stripe and Black-Streaked Dwarf Diseases in Zhejiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Heng-mu ZHANG; Hua-di WANG; Jian YANG; Michael J ADAMS; Jian-ping CHEN

    2013-01-01

    The major viral diseases that occur on rice plants in Zhejiang Province, eastern China, are stripe and rice black-streaked dwarf diseases. Rice stripe disease is only caused by rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), while rice black-streaked dwarf disease can be caused by rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV) and/or southern rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (SRBSDV). Here we review the characterization of these viruses, methods for their detection, and extensive surveys showing their occurren...

  19. Meat quality of broiler breast fillets with white striping and woody breast muscle myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijare, V V; Yang, F L; Kuttappan, V A; Alvarado, C Z; Coon, C N; Owens, C M

    2016-09-01

    The global poultry industry has been faced with emerging broiler breast meat quality issues including conditions known as white striping (WS, white striations parallel to muscle fibers) and woody breast (WB, hardness of raw fillet). Experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of WS and WB hardness on meat quality traits in broiler breast fillets. In Exp. 1, birds were processed at approximately 9 wk of age and deboned at 4 h postmortem (PM); in Exp. 2, birds were processed at approximately 6 and 9 wk of age and deboned at 2 h PM. Fillets were categorized as: normal for both white striping and woody breast (NORM); moderate for white striping and mild for woody breast (MILD); severe for white striping and mild for woody breast (WS); severe for woody breast and moderate for white striping (WB); or severe for both white striping and woody breast (BOTH). Sarcomere length, gravimetric fragmentation index, marination uptake, cook loss, and Meullenet-Owens razor shear energy (MORSE) values on non-marinated and marinated fillets were assessed. Sarcomeres tended to be longer (P = 0.07) with increasing severity of WS and WB in both experiments and gravimetric fragmentation index did not differ (P > 0.05) among categories. Marinade uptake decreased (P  0.05) in non-marinated fillets, the marinated BOTH fillets had greater MORSE values (P  0.05) among categories of marinated breasts. At 9 wk, WS and BOTH were higher (P white striping and woody breast, individually or in combination, negatively impact meat quality, especially water holding capacity attributes such as marinade uptake and cook loss. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. A plausible (overlooked) super-luminous supernova in the Sloan digital sky survey stripe 82 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Kozłowski, Szymon; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Djorgovski, S. George; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Glikman, Eilat; Koposov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of a plausible super-luminous supernova (SLSN), found in the archival data of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, called PSN 000123+000504. The supernova (SN) peaked at m g < 19.4 mag in the second half of 2005 September, but was missed by the real-time SN hunt. The observed part of the light curve (17 epochs) showed that the rise to the maximum took over 30 days, while the decline time lasted at least 70 days (observed frame), closely resembling other SLSNe of SN 2007bi type. The spectrum of the host galaxy reveals a redshift of z = 0.281 and the distance modulus of μ = 40.77 mag. Combining this information with the SDSS photometry, we found the host galaxy to be an LMC-like irregular dwarf galaxy with an absolute magnitude of M B = –18.2 ± 0.2 mag and an oxygen abundance of 12+log [O/H]=8.3±0.2; hence, the SN peaked at M g < –21.3 mag. Our SLSN follows the relation for the most energetic/super-luminous SNe exploding in low-metallicity environments, but we found no clear evidence for SLSNe to explode in low-luminosity (dwarf) galaxies only. The available information on the PSN 000123+000504 light curve suggests the magnetar-powered model as a likely scenario of this event. This SLSN is a new addition to a quickly growing family of super-luminous SNe.

  1. Adaptive Pulsed Laser Line Extraction for Terrain Reconstruction using a Dynamic Vision Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eBrandli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots need to know the terrain in which they are moving for path planning and obstacle avoidance. This paper proposes the combination of a bio-inspired, redundancy-suppressing dynamic vision sensor with a pulsed line laser to allow fast terrain reconstruction. A stable laser stripe extraction is achieved by exploiting the sensor’s ability to capture the temporal dynamics in a scene. An adaptive temporal filter for the sensor output allows a reliable reconstruction of 3D terrain surfaces. Laser stripe extractions up to pulsing frequencies of 500Hz were achieved using a line laser of 3mW at a distance of 45cm using an event-based algorithm that exploits the sparseness of the sensor output. As a proof of concept, unstructured rapid prototype terrain samples have been successfully reconstructed with an accuracy of 2mm.

  2. Pulsed power for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.

    1976-01-01

    A review which traces the development of high power pulsed accelerators from the original inception at the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston, England, for Bremsstrahlung output, through the low impedance accelerators, to the double-sided accelerators for fusion will be given. Proto II is presently being assembled at Sandia and preliminary testing on the Marx has been completed. Examples of various techniques will be shown from Sandia accelerators. Requirements for accelerators capable of achieving fusion levels will be developed and problem areas outlined. The diode insulator flashover problem presently limits the maximum current available from the accelerators

  3. Trapping of diffusing particles by striped cylindrical surfaces. Boundary homogenization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdug, Leonardo; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Skvortsov, Alexei T.

    2015-01-01

    We study trapping of diffusing particles by a cylindrical surface formed by rolling a flat surface, containing alternating absorbing and reflecting stripes, into a tube. For an arbitrary stripe orientation with respect to the tube axis, this problem is intractable analytically because it requires dealing with non-uniform boundary conditions. To bypass this difficulty, we use a boundary homogenization approach which replaces non-uniform boundary conditions on the tube wall by an effective uniform partially absorbing boundary condition with properly chosen effective trapping rate. We demonstrate that the exact solution for the effective trapping rate, known for a flat, striped surface, works very well when this surface is rolled into a cylindrical tube. This is shown for both internal and external problems, where the particles diffuse inside and outside the striped tube, at three orientations of the stripe direction with respect to the tube axis: (a) perpendicular to the axis, (b) parallel to the axis, and (c) at the angle of π/4 to the axis. PMID:26093574

  4. Seasonal use of a New England estuary by foraging contingents of migratory striped bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Martha E.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Finn, John T.; Deegan, Linda A.; Muth, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Using acoustic telemetry on migratory striped bass Morone saxatilis in Plum Island Estuary (PIE), Massachusetts, we found that striped bass (335–634 mm total length) tagged in the spring and summer of 2005 (n = 14) and 2006 (n = 46) stayed in the estuary for an average of 66.0 d in 2005 and 72.2 d in 2006. Striped bass spent the most time in two specific reaches: middle Plum Island Sound and lower Rowley River. In both years, three different use-groups of striped bass were observed in PIE. Short-term visitors (n = 24) stayed in the estuary only briefly (range = 5–20 d). Two groups of seasonal residents stayed for more than 30 d, either in the Rowley River (n = 14) or in Plum Island Sound (n = 22). Within PIE, the two seasonal-resident use-groups may be foraging contingents that learn how to feed efficiently in specific parts of the estuary. These distinct within-estuary use patterns could have different implications for striped bass condition and prey impact.

  5. Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W.; Gryk, Michael R.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system

  6. Pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The key element of our pulsed power program is concentration of power in time and space by suppression of breakdown in dielectrics and in vacuum. Magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines and magnetic suppression of insulator flashover have continued as the main reserch directions. Vacuum insulated line studies at Physics International have been expanded and a test bed at Sandia, called MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment), is under development. The choice for the baseline EBFA design will depend on the outcome of these studies and should be made in July 1977. The slow and intermediate speed pulsed power approaches to EBFA will be based on Proto I and Proto II results and several of the projected EBFA subsystems are presently being tested in Proto II. A further stage of power concentration, within the vacuum diode itself, would considerably ease the burden on dielectrics; methods of power multiplication involving magnetically imploded plasmas are being considered and tests have begun using the Ripple III apparatus

  7. Directional multimode coupler for planar magnonics: Side-coupled magnetic stripes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadovnikov, A. V., E-mail: sadovnikovav@gmail.com; Nikitov, S. A. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Kotel' nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Beginin, E. N.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Romanenko, D. V.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-16

    We experimentally demonstrate spin waves coupling in two laterally adjacent magnetic stripes. By the means of Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy, we show that the coupling efficiency depends both on the magnonic waveguides' geometry and the characteristics of spin-wave modes. In particular, the lateral confinement of coupled yttrium-iron-garnet stripes enables the possibility of control over the spin-wave propagation characteristics. Numerical simulations (in time domain and frequency domain) reveal the nature of intermodal coupling between two magnonic stripes. The proposed topology of multimode magnonic coupler can be utilized as a building block for fabrication of integrated parallel functional and logic devices such as the frequency selective directional coupler or tunable splitter, enabling a number of potential applications for planar magnonics.

  8. Osmoregulatory effects of hypophysectomy and homologous prolactin replacement in hybrid striped bass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Leslie F; McCormick, Stephen D; Madsen, Steffen S

    2005-01-01

    The effects of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and striped bass prolactin (sbPRL; Morone saxatilis) on plasma osmolality, electrolyte balance, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity were investigated in hypophysectomized (Hx), freshwater (FW)-acclimated, hybrid striped bass (M. saxatilis x Morone chrysops...... or 100 ng/g), or hormone vehicle (0.9% NaCl) at 48-h intervals (days 0, 2, 4, and 6) in FW and then sampled for blood plasma 24 h after the fourth injection (day 7). In Hx fish, oPRL (5 and 20 microg/g) and sbPRL (10 and 100 ng/g) were effective in maintaining plasma osmolality and levels of Na+, Cl...... balance in FW-adapted hybrid striped bass, and that this may involve downregulation of branchial Na+,K+-ATPase activity....

  9. Polarization sensitivity and retinal topography of the striped pyjama squid (Sepioloidea lineolata - Quoy/Gaimard 1832).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher M; Marshall, Justin

    2010-10-01

    Coleoid cephalopods (octopus, cuttlefish and squid) potentially possess polarization sensitivity (PS) based on photoreceptor structure, but this idea has rarely been tested behaviourally. Here, we use a polarized, striped optokinetic stimulus to demonstrate PS in the striped pyjama squid, Sepioloidea lineolata. This species displayed strong, consistent optokinetic nystagmic eye movements in response to a drum with stripes producing e-vectors set to 0 deg, 45 deg, 90 deg and 135 deg that would only be visible to an animal with PS. This is the first behavioural demonstration of a polarized optokinetic response in any species of cephalopod. This species, which typically sits beneath the substrate surface looking upwards for potential predators and prey, possesses a dorsally shifted horizontal pupil slit. Accordingly, it was found to possess a horizontal strip of high-density photoreceptors shifted ventrally in the retina, suggesting modifications such as a change in sensitivity or resolution to the dorsal visual field.

  10. Toxicity of bromate to striped bass ichthyoplankton (Morone saxatilis) and juvenile spot (Leiostomus xanthurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, L B; Burton, D T; Rhoderick, J C

    1981-10-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatillis) eggs (12 h after fertilization) and larvae (4 d after hatching) and juvenile spot (Leiostomus xanthurus) were exposed to a series of bromate concentrations for 4, 10, and 10 d, respectively, using static replacement bioassay techniques. Three-dimensional mortality response surfaces were constructed by computerized probit regression techniques. Newly hatched striped bass prolarvae were most sensitive to bromate and had a 96-h LC50 of 30.8 mg/l (as BrO3-). Four-day-old striped bass larvae were less sensitive, with 2- to 10-d LC50s ranging from 605.0 to 92.6 mg/l BrO3-, respectively. Juvenile spot were least sensitive, with 1- to 10-d LC50s ranging from 698.0 to 278.6 mg/l BrO3-, respectively.

  11. Striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xian-Jun

    2011-05-01

    We study striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs) near optimal doping by self-consistently solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations based on the t - t‧ - U - V model. For the single-impurity case, it is found that the stable ground state is a modulated checkerboard pattern. For the two-impurity case, the stripe-like structures in order parameters are induced due to the impurity-pinning effect. The modulations of DSC and charge orders share the same period of four lattice constants (4 a), which is half the period of modulations in the coexisting spin order. Interestingly, when three or more impurities are inserted, the impurities could induce more complex striped morphologies due to quantum interference. Further experiments of magnetic impurity substitution in DSCs are expected to check these results.

  12. Functional metasurfaces based on metallic and dielectric subwavelength slits and stripes array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yinghui; Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Gao, Ping; Wang, Yanqin; Luo, Xiangang

    2018-04-01

    Starting with the early works of extraordinary optical transmission and extraordinary Young’s interference, researchers have been fascinated by the unusual optical properties displayed by metallic holes/slits and subsequently found similar abnormities in dielectric counterparts. Benefiting from the shrinking wavelength of surface plasmon polaritons excited in metallic slits and high refractive index of dielectric stripes, one can realize local phase modulation and approach desired dispersion by engineering the geometries of a slits and stripes array. In this review, we review recent developments in functional metasurfaces composed of various metallic and dielectric subwavelength slits and stripes arrays, with special emphasis on achromatic, ultra-broadband, quasi-continuous, multifunctional and reconfigurable metasurfaces. Particular attention is paid to provide insight into the design strategies for these devices. Finally, we give an outlook of the development in this fascinating area.

  13. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  14. Effect of white striping on chemical composition and nutritional value of chicken breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available White striping defect (appearance of white striations parallel to muscle fiber on surface of breast is considered an emerging issue in chicken breast meat which is related to increasing growth rate of modern hybrid birds. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of white striping on chemical composition and nutritional value of chicken breast meat. During three replications, a total of 108 Pectoralis major muscles representing three degrees of white striping (absence=normal; presence classified in 2 levels as moderate or severe were selected to determine proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid and collagen as well as sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both severe and moderate white-striped fillets had higher fat content (2.53 vs 1.46 vs 0.78%; P<0.001, lower protein level (20.9 vs 22.2 vs 22.9%; P<0.001, decreased quality of protein as proven by higher collagen content (1.30 vs 1.37 vs 1.43%; P<0.001, and different pattern on myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic fractions when compared to normal fillets. Moreover, severe white-striped fillets exhibited higher energy content (450.7 vs 421.1 kJ/100g; P<0.01 with respect to normal meat. In conclusion, there was a large worsening of nutritional value of chicken breast meat following occurrence of white striping and this might impair consumer attitude towards poultry meat.

  15. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). STRIPED BASS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Adult striped bass were reported to survival. Time to death for unfed lar- tolerate temperatures from 0°-30°C(32 ° - vae was longer at lower...Allison, L. 0. J. A. Hutcheson, R. H. Ray. Horseman , W. H. Keirsey, and and T. L. Wellborn, Jr. 1969. C. A. Shirley. 1975. Fishes. Striped bass, 1968

  16. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the hree-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its relatives (genus Morone) are of great importance to fisheries and aquaculture in North America. As part of a collaborative effort to employ molecular genetic technologies in striped bass breeding programs, nearly 500 microsatellite markers were...

  17. Formation of self-assembled stripes on the anodic aluminum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongwen; Guo Haiming; Wang Yeliang; Shen Chengmin; Yang Haitao; Wang Yutian; Wei Long

    2004-01-01

    Non-polished aluminum sheets were anodized and the coexistence of self-assembled stripes and porous arrays on the Al surface was observed. The nanostructures were investigated in details using an atomic force microscope. And the formation mechanism of the stripes was discussed and simulated using Brusselator model in this work. The authors demonstrated that the self-assembled patterns on the Al surface were governed by the competition of formation and dissolution of alumina film during the reaction process. Moreover, this type of ordered structure could only form in certain conditions

  18. Evaluation of thermal striping risks: Limitation of cracks initiation and propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drubay, B.; Acker, D.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal striping is the effect of a rapid random oscillation of surface temperature inducing a corresponding fluctuation of surface strains. It occurs on components situated in the mixing zone of coolant streams of different temperatures and is characterised by large numbers of strain cycles having the potential to add to the fatigue damage produced by strain cycles associated with all other plant operating events. The purpose of this paper is to describe the R and D works performed in the frame of the European Fast Reactor project between 1985 and 1992 on the thermal striping: experimental works and validation of assessment methodology. (author)

  19. Magnetic anisotropy of two-dimensional nanostructures: Transition-metal triangular stripes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorantes-Davila, J.; Villasenor-Gonzalez, P.; Pastor, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of one-dimensional stripes having infinite length and triangular lateral structure are investigated in the framework of a self-consistent tight-binding method. One observes discontinuous changes in the easy magnetization direction along the crossover from one to two dimensions. The MAE oscillates as a function of stripe width and depends strongly on the considered transition metal (TM). The MAE of the two-leg ladder is strongly reduced as compared to that of the monoatomic chain and the convergence to the two-dimensional limit is rather slow

  20. Checkerboard local density of states in striped domains pinned by vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B.M.; Hedegård, P.; Bruus, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    We discuss recent elastic neutron scattering and scanning tunneling experiments on high-T-c cuprates exposed to an applied magnetic field. Antiferromagnetic vortex cores operating as pinning centers for surrounding stripes is qualitatively consistent with the neutron data provided the stripes have...... the antiphase modulation. Within a Green's function formalism we study the low energy electronic structure around the vortices and find that besides the dispersive quantum interference there exists a non-dispersive checkerboard interference pattern consistent with recent scanning tunneling measurements. Thus...

  1. Feshbach shape resonance for high Tc pairing in superlattices of quantum stripes and quantum wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bianconi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   The Feshbach shape resonances in the interband pairing in superconducting superlattices of quantum wells or quantum stripes is shown to provide the mechanism for high Tc superconductivity. This mechanism provides the Tc amplification driven by the architecture of material: superlattices of quantum wells (intercalated graphite or diborides and superlattices of quantum stripes (doped high Tc cuprate perovskites where the chemical potential is tuned to a Van Hove-Lifshitz singularity (vHs in the electronic energy spectrum of the superlattice associated with the change of the Fermi surface dimensionality in one of the subbands.

  2. Quantitative interpretation of nuclear logging data by adopting point-by-point spectrum striping deconvolution technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bin; Liu Ling; Zhou Shumin; Zhou Rongsheng

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the gamma-ray spectrum interpretation technology on nuclear logging. The principles of familiar quantitative interpretation methods, including the average content method and the traditional spectrum striping method, are introduced, and their limitation of determining the contents of radioactive elements on unsaturated ledges (where radioactive elements distribute unevenly) is presented. On the basis of the intensity gamma-logging quantitative interpretation technology by using the deconvolution method, a new quantitative interpretation method of separating radioactive elements is presented for interpreting the gamma spectrum logging. This is a point-by-point spectrum striping deconvolution technology which can give the logging data a quantitative interpretation. (authors)

  3. Sonographic anatomy of the newborn hip and high-resolution US equipments: internal capsular stripe and perichondral gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortore, P.; Fodor, G.; Psenner, F.; Stuefert, S.; Scherer, M.

    1991-01-01

    The use of high-resolution US equipments in the examination of the newborn hip allowed the evaluation of a thin echogenic stripe (the internal capsule stripe), which defines laterally the acetabular hyaline cartilage. By means of an anatomo-histological preparation the echogenic stripe can be related to either the capsular circular fibres or the interface between the latter and the hyaline cartilage. The internal capsular stripe, together with the echogenic synovial stripe, precisely delimit the whole acetabular hyaline cartilage. Further-more, in many babies high-resolution US sometimes fails to demonstrate Graft's 'perichondral gap', so that an accurate anatomic knowledge of the hip becomes necessary in the evaluation of acetabular labrum

  4. Pulse-voltage fast generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeev, R.I.; Nikiforov, M.G.; Kharchenko, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The design is described and the test results of a four-channel pulse-voltage generator with maximum output voltage 200 kV are presented. The measurement results of generator triggering time depending on the value and polarity of the triggering voltage pulse for different triggering circuits are presented. The tests have shown stable triggering of all four channels of the generator in the range up to 40 % from selfbreakdown voltage. The generator triggering delay in the given range is <25 ns, asynchronism in channel triggering is <±1 ns

  5. Variation in the electrical properties of 100 V/100 A rated mesh and stripe TDMOSFETs (trench double-diffused MOSFETs) for motor drive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Kyoung-Il; Kah, Dong-Ha; Kim, Sang-Gi; Koo, Jin-Gun; Kim, Jong-Dae; Yang, Yil-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The vertical power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with deep trench structures are the most promising candidates to overcome the trade-off relationship between the ON-resistance (R{sub ON}) and the blocking voltage (BV{sub DS}). Especially, 100 V/100 A rated trench power MOSFETs are used in components of many power systems, such as motors and LED lighting drive ICs, DC-DC converters in electric vehicles, and so on. In this work, we studied variations of the electrical characteristics, such as threshold voltage (V{sub TH}), BV{sub DS}, and drain current drivability, with p-well doping concentration via the SILVACO simulator. From simulation results, we found the BV{sub DS} and the drain current (I{sub D}) as functions of the p-well doping concentration at an ion implantation energy of 80 keV. With increasing of p-well doping concentration in the guard ring region, both V{sub TH} and BV{sub DS} slowly increased, but I{sub D} decreased, because the boron lateral diffusion during the fabrication process below gate trench region affected the doping concentration of the p-body at the active region. Additionally, 100 V/100 A rated trench double-diffused MOSFETs (TDMOSFETs) with meshes and stripes were successfully developed by using a silicon deep etching process. The variations in the electrical properties, such as V{sub TH}, BV{sub DS}, and drain current drivability, of the two different kinds of fabricated devices, with cell design and density in TDMOSFETs were also studied. The BV{sub DS} and the V{sub TH} in the stripe-type TDMOSFET were 110 and 3 V, respectively. However, the V{sub TH} of mesh-type device was smaller 0.5 V than that of stripe-type because of corner effect. The BV{sub DS} improved about 20 V compared to stripe-type TDMOSFET due to edge termination, and the maximum drain current (I{sub D.MAX}) was improved by about 10% due to an increase in the gate width at the same chip size. These effects were reflected in devices with

  6. Variation in the electrical properties of 100 V/100 A rated mesh and stripe TDMOSFETs (trench double-diffused MOSFETs) for motor drive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Kyoung-Il; Kah, Dong-Ha; Kim, Sang-Gi; Koo, Jin-Gun; Kim, Jong-Dae; Yang, Yil-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho

    2012-01-01

    The vertical power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with deep trench structures are the most promising candidates to overcome the trade-off relationship between the ON-resistance (R ON ) and the blocking voltage (BV DS ). Especially, 100 V/100 A rated trench power MOSFETs are used in components of many power systems, such as motors and LED lighting drive ICs, DC-DC converters in electric vehicles, and so on. In this work, we studied variations of the electrical characteristics, such as threshold voltage (V TH ), BV DS , and drain current drivability, with p-well doping concentration via the SILVACO simulator. From simulation results, we found the BV DS and the drain current (I D ) as functions of the p-well doping concentration at an ion implantation energy of 80 keV. With increasing of p-well doping concentration in the guard ring region, both V TH and BV DS slowly increased, but I D decreased, because the boron lateral diffusion during the fabrication process below gate trench region affected the doping concentration of the p-body at the active region. Additionally, 100 V/100 A rated trench double-diffused MOSFETs (TDMOSFETs) with meshes and stripes were successfully developed by using a silicon deep etching process. The variations in the electrical properties, such as V TH , BV DS , and drain current drivability, of the two different kinds of fabricated devices, with cell design and density in TDMOSFETs were also studied. The BV DS and the V TH in the stripe-type TDMOSFET were 110 and 3 V, respectively. However, the V TH of mesh-type device was smaller 0.5 V than that of stripe-type because of corner effect. The BV DS improved about 20 V compared to stripe-type TDMOSFET due to edge termination, and the maximum drain current (I D.MAX ) was improved by about 10% due to an increase in the gate width at the same chip size. These effects were reflected in devices with different cell densities. When the cell density was increased, however

  7. PULSE COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  8. Pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenshields, H.; Seddon, W.A.

    1982-03-01

    This supplement to two bibliographies published in 1970 and 1972 lists 734 references to the literature of pulse radiolysis, arranged under eight broad subject headings. The references were compiled by searching Biological Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts and the Weekly List of Papers in Radiation Chemistry issued by the Radiation Chemistry Data Center of Notre Dame University. Full bibliographic data is given for papers published in the period 1971 to 1974. A personal author index listing more than 600 authors and a similar number of co-authors is included

  9. Pulse pile-up. I: Short pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1990-07-01

    The search for rare large pulses against an intense background of smaller ones involves consideration of pulse pile-up. Approximate methods are presented, based on ruin theory, by which the probability of such pile-up may be estimated for pulses of arbitrary form and of arbitrary pulse-height distribution. These methods are checked against cases for which exact solutions are available. The present paper is concerned chiefly with short pulses of finite total duration. (Author) (5 refs., 24 figs.)

  10. Post-epizootic chronic dolphin morbillivirus infection in Mediterranean striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sara; Alba, Ana; Ganges, Llilianne; Vidal, Enric; Raga, Juan Antonio; Alegre, Ferrán; González, Beatriz; Medina, Pascual; Zorrilla, Irene; Martínez, Jorge; Marco, Alberto; Pérez, Mónica; Pérez, Blanca; Pérez de Vargas Mesas, Ana; Martínez Valverde, Rosa; Domingo, Mariano

    2011-10-06

    Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) has caused 2 epizootics with high mortality rates on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, in 1990 and 2006-07, mainly affecting striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba. Following the first epizootic unusual DMV infections affecting only the central nervous system of striped dolphins were found, with histological features similar to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and old dog encephalitis, the chronic latent localised infections caused by defective forms of measles virus and canine distemper virus, respectively. Between 2008 and 2010, monitoring by microscopic and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies of 118 striped dolphins stranded along Catalonia, the Valencia Region and Andalusia showed similar localised DMV nervous system infections in 25.0, 28.6 and 27.4% of cases, respectively, with no significant differences among regions or sex. The body length of DMV-infected dolphins was statistically greater than that of non-infected dolphins (196.5 vs. 160.5 cm; p dolphins with positive IHC-DMV had positive PCR results. All 6 cases were positive with the 78 bp RT-PCR. These findings contraindicate the use of the 429 bp RT-PCR protocol based on the P gene to detect this specific form of DMV. DMV localised nervous infection constitutes the most relevant single cause of stranding and death in Mediterranean striped dolphins in the years following a DMV epizootic, and it might even overwhelm the effects of the epizootic itself, at least in 2007.

  11. Long-range transverse spin Seebeck effect in permalloy stripes using Sagnac interferometer microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoliang; McLaughlin, Ryan; Sun, Dali; Valy Vardeny, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Coupling of spins and phonons in ferromagnets (FM) may persist up to mm length scale, thus generating macroscopic spatially distributed spin accumulation along the direction of an applied thermal gradient to an FM slab. This typical feature of transverse spin Seebeck effect (TSSE) has been demonstrated so far using electrical detection methods in FM films, in particular in a patterned structure, in which FM stripes grown onto a substrate perpendicular to the applied thermal gradient direction are electrically and magnetically isolated. Here we report optically detected TSSE response in isolated FM stripes based on permalloy deposited on SiN substrate, upon the application of a thermal gradient. For these measurements we used the magneto-optic Kerr effect measured by an ultrasensitive Sagnac interferometer microscope that is immune to thermo-electrics artefacts. We found that the optical TSSE coefficient in the NiFe stripes geometry is about one order of magnitude smaller than that in the continuous NiFe film, which is due to the limited phonons path in the FM stripes along the thermal gradient direction. Our results further confirm the existence of TSSE response in conducting FM compounds.

  12. Effect of salinity on expression of branchial ion transporters in striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek; Madsen, Steffen Søndergaard; Borski, Russell John

    2004-01-01

    The time course of osmoregulatory adjustments and expressional changes of three key ion transporters in the gill were investigated in the striped bass during salinity acclimations. In three experiments, fish were transferred from fresh water (FW) to seawater (SW), from SW to FW, and from 15-ppt b...

  13. Enhanced resistance to stripe rust disease in transgenic wheat expressing the rice chitinase gene RC24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan; Wang, Jian; Du, Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Li, Lan; Xu, Ziqin

    2013-10-01

    Stripe rust is a devastating fungal disease of wheat worldwide which is primarily caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp tritici. Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing rice class chitinase gene RC24 were developed by particle bombardment of immature embryos and tested for resistance to Puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici. under greenhouse and field conditions. Putative transformants were selected on kanamycin-containing media. Polymease chain reaction indicated that RC24 was transferred into 17 transformants obtained from bombardment of 1,684 immature embryos. Integration of RC24 was confirmed by Southern blot with a RC24-labeled probe and expression of RC24 was verified by RT-PCR. Nine transgenic T1 lines exhibited enhanced resistance to stripe rust infection with lines XN8 and BF4 showing the highest level of resistance. Southern blot hybridization confirmed the stable inheritance of RC24 in transgenic T1 plants. Resistance to stripe rust in transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants was confirmed over two consecutive years in the field. Increased yield (27-36 %) was recorded for transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants compared to controls. These results suggest that rice class I chitinase RC24 can be used to engineer stripe rust resistance in wheat.

  14. 3D Measurement Technology by Structured Light Using Stripe-Edge-Based Gray Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H B; Chen, Y; Wu, M Y; Guan, C R; Yu, X Y

    2006-01-01

    The key problem of 3D vision measurement using triangle method based on structured light is to acquiring projecting angle of projecting light accurately. In order to acquire projecting angle thereby determine the corresponding relationship between sampling point and image point, method for encoding and decoding structured light based on stripe edge of Gray code is presented. The method encoded with Gray code stripe and decoded with stripe edge acquired by sub-pixel technology instead of pixel centre, so latter one-bit decoding error was removed. Accuracy of image sampling point location and correspondence between image sampling point and object sampling point achieved sub-pixel degree. In addition, measurement error caused by dividing projecting angle irregularly by even-width encoding stripe was analysed and corrected. Encoding and decoding principle and decoding equations were described. Finally, 3dsmax and Matlab software were used to simulate measurement system and reconstruct measured surface. Indicated by experimental results, measurement error is about 0.05%

  15. Spatial aspects of the reproductive and feeding biology of the striped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the reproductive and feeding biology of two allopatric populations of the striped robber, Brycinus lateralis, a small characin species inhabiting the northern riverine floodplain and southern drainage rivers, were investigated. Both populations were similar in the biological aspects studied, with the flood cycle having ...

  16. Multi-location wheat stripe rust QTL analysis: genetic background and epistatic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, M Dolores; Zemetra, Robert; Peterson, C James; Chen, Xianming M; Heesacker, Adam; Mundt, Christopher C

    2015-07-01

    Epistasis and genetic background were important influences on expression of stripe rust resistance in two wheat RIL populations, one with resistance conditioned by two major genes and the other conditioned by several minor QTL. Stripe rust is a foliar disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by the air-borne fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and is present in most regions around the world where commercial wheat is grown. Breeding for durable resistance to stripe rust continues to be a priority, but also is a challenge due to the complexity of interactions among resistance genes and to the wide diversity and continuous evolution of the pathogen races. The goal of this study was to detect chromosomal regions for resistance to stripe rust in two winter wheat populations, 'Tubbs'/'NSA-98-0995' (T/N) and 'Einstein'/'Tubbs' (E/T), evaluated across seven environments and mapped with diversity array technology and simple sequence repeat markers covering polymorphic regions of ≈1480 and 1117 cM, respectively. Analysis of variance for phenotypic data revealed significant (P located in chromosomes 2AS and 6AL, with epistatic interaction between them, were responsible for the main phenotypic response. For the T/N population, eight QTL were identified, with those in chromosomes 2AL and 2BL accounting for the largest percentage of the phenotypic variance.

  17. Use of non-natal estuaries by migratory striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, M. E.; Finn, John T.; Ferry, K.H.; Deegan, Linda A.; Nelson, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    For most migratory fish, little is known about the location and size of foraging areas or how long individuals remain in foraging areas, even though these attributes may affect their growth, survival, and impact on local prey. We tested whether striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum), found in Massachusetts in summer, were migratory, how long they stayed in non-natal estuaries, whether observed spatial patterns differed from random model predictions, whether fish returned to the same area across multiple years, and whether fishing effort could explain recapture patterns. Anchor tags were attached to striped bass that were caught and released in Massachusetts in 1999 and 2000, and recaptured between 1999 and 2007. In fall, tagged striped bass were caught south of where they were released in summer, confirming that fish were coastal migrants. In the first summer, 77% and 100% of the recaptured fish in the Great Marsh and along the Massachusetts coast, respectively, were caught in the same place where they were released. About two thirds of all fish recaptured near where they were released were caught 2-7 years after tagging. Our study shows that smaller (400-500 mm total length) striped bass migrate hundreds of kilometers along the Atlantic Ocean coast, cease their mobile lifestyle in summer when they use a relatively localized area for foraging (<20 km2), and return to these same foraging areas in subsequent years.

  18. Genetics of adult plant stripe rust resistance in CSP44, a selection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    areas of temperate zones (Johnson 1988). Yield losses can be considerable, ranging from about 40 per cent to com- plete destruction of the crop depending upon the growth stage at which the disease attacks. Using diverse genes for resistance against stripe rust disease is the most eco- nomical and environmentally safe ...

  19. Dynamic Response Analysis of Linear Pulse Motor with Closed Loop Control

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 行雄; 山田, 一

    1989-01-01

    A linear pulse motor can translate digital signals into linear positions without a gear system. It is important to predict a dynamic response in order to the motor that has the good performance. In this report the maximum pulse rate and the maximum speed on the linear pulse motor are obtained by using the sampling theory.

  20. Modeling of "Stripe" Wave Phenomena Seen by the CHARM II and ACES Sounding Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, M. P.; Labelle, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Two recent sounding-rocket missions—CHARM II and ACES—have been launched from Poker Flat Research Range, carrying the Dartmouth High-Frequency Experiment (HFE) among their primary instruments. The HFE is a receiver system which effectively yields continuous (100% duty cycle) E-field waveform measurements up to 5 MHz. The CHARM II sounding rocket was launched 9:49 UT on 15 February 2010 into a substorm, while the ACES mission consisted of two rockets, launched into quiet aurora at 9:49 and 9:50 UT on 29 January 2009. At approximately 350 km on CHARM II and the ACES High-Flyer, the HFE detected short (~2s) bursts of broadband (200-500 kHz) noise with a 'stripe' pattern of nulls imposed on it. These nulls have 10 to 20 kHz width and spacing, and many show a regular, non-linear frequency-time relation. These events are different from the 'stripes' discussed by Samara and LaBelle [2006] and Colpitts et al. [2010], because of the density of the stripes, the non-linearity, and the appearance of being an absorptive rather than emissive phenomenon. These events are similar to 'stripe' features reported by Brittain et al. [1983] in the VLF range, explained as an interference pattern between a downward-traveling whistler-mode wave and its reflection off the bottom of the ionosphere. Following their analysis method, we modeled our stripes as higher-frequency interfering whistlers reflecting off of a density gradient. This model predicts the near-hyperbolic frequency-time curves and high density of the nulls, and therefore shows promise at explaining the new observations.

  1. Measurement Error Affects Risk Estimates for Recruitment to the Hudson River Stock of Striped Bass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Dunning

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the consequences of ignoring the distinction between measurement error and natural variability in an assessment of risk to the Hudson River stock of striped bass posed by entrainment at the Bowline Point, Indian Point, and Roseton power plants. Risk was defined as the probability that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more, relative to the equilibrium value, at least once during the time periods examined (1, 5, 10, and 15 years. Measurement error, estimated using two abundance indices from independent beach seine surveys conducted on the Hudson River, accounted for 50% of the variability in one index and 56% of the variability in the other. If a measurement error of 50% was ignored and all of the variability in abundance was attributed to natural causes, the risk that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more after 15 years was 0.308 at the current level of entrainment mortality (11%. However, the risk decreased almost tenfold (0.032 if a measurement error of 50% was considered. The change in risk attributable to decreasing the entrainment mortality rate from 11 to 0% was very small (0.009 and similar in magnitude to the change in risk associated with an action proposed in Amendment #5 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic striped bass (0.006— an increase in the instantaneous fishing mortality rate from 0.33 to 0.4. The proposed increase in fishing mortality was not considered an adverse environmental impact, which suggests that potentially costly efforts to reduce entrainment mortality on the Hudson River stock of striped bass are not warranted.

  2. Zebrin II Is Expressed in Sagittal Stripes in the Cerebellum of Dragon Lizards (Ctenophorus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Douglas R; Hoops, Daniel; Aspden, Joel W; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    Aldolase C, also known as zebrin II (ZII), is a glycolytic enzyme that is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the vertebrate cerebellum. In both mammals and birds, ZII is expressed heterogeneously, such that there are sagittal stripes of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+) alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with little or no expression (ZII-). In contrast, in snakes and turtles, ZII is not expressed heterogeneously; rather all Purkinje cells are ZII+. Here, we examined the expression of ZII in the cerebellum of lizards to elucidate the evolutionary origins of ZII stripes in Sauropsida. We focused on the central netted dragon (Ctenophorus nuchalis) but also examined cerebellar ZII expression in 5 other dragon species (Ctenophorus spp.). In contrast to what has been observed in snakes and turtles, we found that in these lizards, ZII is heterogeneously expressed. In the posterior part of the cerebellum, on each side of the midline, there were 3 sagittal stripes consisting of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+) alternating with 2 sagittal stripes with weaker ZII expression (ZIIw). More anteriorly, most of the Purkinje cells were ZII+, except laterally, where the Purkinje cells did not express ZII (ZII-). Finally, all Purkinje cells in the auricle (flocculus) were ZII-. Overall, the parasagittal heterogeneous expression of ZII in the cerebellum of lizards is similar to that in mammals and birds, and contrasts with the homogenous ZII+ expression seen in snakes and turtles. We suggest that a sagittal heterogeneous expression of ZII represents the ancestral condition in stem reptiles which was lost in snakes and turtles. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Estimating abundance of adult striped bass in reservoirs using mobile hydroacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Taylor, J. Christopher; Degan, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroacoustic surveys have proven valuable for estimating reservoir forage fish abundance but are more challenging for adult predators such as striped bass Morone saxatilis. Difficulties in assessing striped bass in reservoirs include their low density and the inability to distinguish species with hydroacoustic data alone. Despite these difficulties, mobile hydroacoustic surveys have potential to provide useful data for management because of the large sample volume compared to traditional methods such as gill netting and the ability to target specific areas where striped bass are aggregated. Hydroacoustic estimates of reservoir striped bass have been made using mobile surveys, with data analysis using a threshold for target strength in order to focus on striped bass-sized targets, and auxiliary sampling with nets to obtain species composition. We provide recommendations regarding survey design, based in part on simulations that provide insight on the level of effort that would be required to achieve reasonable estimates of abundance. Future surveys may be able to incorporate telemetry or other sonar techniques such as side-scan or multibeam in order to focus survey efforts on productive habitats (within lake and vertically). However, species apportionment will likely remain the main source of error, and we see no hydroacoustic system on the horizon that will identify fish by species at the spatial and temporal scale required for most reservoir surveys. In situations where species composition can be reliably assessed using traditional gears, abundance estimates from hydroacoustic methods should be useful to fishery managers interested in developing harvest regulations, assessing survival of stocked juveniles, identifying seasonal aggregations, and examining predator–prey balance.

  4. Remapping of the stripe rust resistance gene Yr10 in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cuiling; Wu, Jingzheng; Yan, Baiqiang; Hao, Qunqun; Zhang, Chaozhong; Lyu, Bo; Ni, Fei; Caplan, Allan; Wu, Jiajie; Fu, Daolin

    2018-02-23

    Yr10 is an important gene to control wheat stripe rust, and the search for Yr10 needs to be continued. Wheat stripe rust or yellow rust is a devastating fungal disease caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). Host disease resistance offers a primary source for controlling wheat stripe rust. The stripe rust resistance gene Yr10 confers the race-specific resistance to most tested Pst races in China including CYR29. Early studies proposed that Yr10 was a nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat gene archived as GenBank accession AF149112 (hereafter designated the Yr10 candidate gene or Yr10 CG ). In this study, we revealed that 15 Chinese wheat cultivars positive for Yr10 CG are susceptible to CYR29. We then expressed the Yr10 CG cDNA in the common wheat 'Bobwhite'. The Yr10 CG -cDNA positive transgenic plants were also susceptible to CYR29. Thus, it is highly unlikely that Yr10 CG corresponds to the Yr10 resistance gene. Using the Yr10 donor 'Moro' and the Pst-susceptible wheat 'Huixianhong', we generated two F 3 populations that displayed a single Mendelian segregation on the Yr10 gene, and used them to remap the Yr10 gene. Six markers were placed in the Yr10 region, with the Yr10 CG gene now mapping about 1.2-cM proximal to the Yr10 locus and the Xsdauw79 marker is completely linked to the Yr10 locus. Apparently, the Yr10 gene has not yet been identified. Fine mapping and positional cloning of Yr10 is important for gene pyramiding for stripe rust resistance in wheat.

  5. Genetic Variation among the White-striped Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Comparison with a Trok Nong-derived Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonsirichai, Kanokporn; Segsarnviriya, Suchada; Limohpasmanee, Wanitch; Kongratarpon, Titima; Thannarin, Thodsapol; Sungsinleart; Kwanpisut

    2011-06-01

    Full text: A white-striped strain of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) had been developed for the fruit fly population control using the radiation-induced sterile insect technique (SIT). This report aimed at elucidating the inheritance of the white-striped phenotype and the genetic differences between the white-striped strain and the strain derived from Trok Nong sub district, Khlung district, Chantaburi. The white-striped phenotype appeared recessive to the wild type. Meanwhile, twelve ISSR primers yielded DNA bands with significantly different frequencies between the two populations. The analysis indicated four DNA bands which were absent from the white-striped population but apparent at frequencies 0.4 to 0.9 among the Trok Nong-derived population. Another four DNA bands were found absent from the Trok Nong-derived population but existed at frequencies 0.3 to 0.5 among the white-striped population. These data may benefit the monitoring of gene flow from the white-striped fruit flies to the natural population when released in a SIT program. Keywords: Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), SIT, genetic

  6. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  7. Methods to assess impacts on Hudson River striped bass: report for the period October 1, 1977 to September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Christensen, S.W.; Kirk, B.L.; Kumar, K.D.; Van Winkle, W.

    1980-06-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop and apply quantitative methods for assessing the effects of power plant entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population. During the two years covered in this reporting period, our work dealt with five interrelated aspects of this assessment problem: (1) young-of-the year models, (2) mortality of entrained eggs, larvae, and juveniles, (3) projection of long-term impacts using stock recruitment models, (4) relative contribution of the Hudson River stock to the Atlantic coastal striped bass population, and (5) distribution of entrainable striped bass life stages in the immediate vicinity of power plant intakes

  8. Tidal-Induced Ocean Dynamics as Cause of Enceladus' Tiger Stripe Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersen, B. L.; Maas, L. R.; van Oers, S.; Rabitti, A.; Jara-Orue, H.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most peculiar features on Saturn moon Enceladus is its so-called tiger stripe pattern at the geologically active South Polar Terrain (SPT), as first observed in detail by the Cassini spacecraft early 2005. It is generally assumed that the four almost parallel surface lines that constitute this pattern are faults in the icy surface overlying a confined salty water reservoir. Indeed, later Cassini observations have shown that salty water jets originate from the tiger stripes [e.g., Hansen et al., Science, 311, 1422-1425, 2006; Postberg et al., Nature, 474, 620-622, 2011]. The periodic activity of the tiger stripe faults shows a strong correlation with tidal forcing. Jets emanating from specific fault lines seem to be triggered at those places of the faults where tidal-induced stresses are largest immediately following closest orbital approach with Saturn [e.g., Hurford et al., Nature, 447, 292-294, 2007]. Thus jet activity seems to be directly induced by tidal forcing. However, this does not explain the characteristic regular pattern of the stripes themselves. Here we explore the possibility that this pattern is formed and maintained by induced, tidally and rotationally driven, fluid motions in the ocean underneath the icy surface of the tiger-stripe region. The remarkable spatial regularity of Enceladus' SPT fault lines is reminiscent of that observed at the surface of confined density-stratified fluids by the action of induced internal gravity waves. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and laboratory water tank experiments all indicate that wave attractors - particular limit orbits to which waves are focused in a fluid basin - naturally emerge in gravitationally (radial salt concentration or temperature differences) or rotationally stratified confined fluids as a function of forcing periodicity and fluid basin geometry [Maas et al., Nature, 338, 557-561, 1997]. We have found that ocean dynamical wave attractors induced by tidal-effective forcing

  9. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  10. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  11. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore

  12. A portable storage maximum thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayart, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system [fr

  13. Neutron spectra unfolding with maximum entropy and maximum likelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shikoh; Tsunoda, Toshiharu

    1989-01-01

    A new unfolding theory has been established on the basis of the maximum entropy principle and the maximum likelihood method. This theory correctly embodies the Poisson statistics of neutron detection, and always brings a positive solution over the whole energy range. Moreover, the theory unifies both problems of overdetermined and of underdetermined. For the latter, the ambiguity in assigning a prior probability, i.e. the initial guess in the Bayesian sense, has become extinct by virtue of the principle. An approximate expression of the covariance matrix for the resultant spectra is also presented. An efficient algorithm to solve the nonlinear system, which appears in the present study, has been established. Results of computer simulation showed the effectiveness of the present theory. (author)

  14. Argonne National Laboratory superconducting pulsed coil program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Kim, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    The main objectives are to develop high current (approx. 100 kA) cryostable cable configurations with reasonably low ac losses, to build a demonstration pulsed coil, and to develop a rather inexpensive large fiberglass reinforced helium cryostat. A 1.5-MJ cryostable pulsed superconducting coil has been developed and constructed at ANL. The coil has a peak field of 4.5 T at an operating current of 11.0 kA. A large inexpensive plastic cryostat has been developed for testing the pulsed coil. The coil has been pulsed with a maximum dB/dt of 11 T/s. The coil was pulsed more than 4000 cycles. Detailed results of the ac loss measurements and the current sharing of the cryostability will be described

  15. Technological quality, mineral profile, and sensory attributes of broiler chicken breasts affected by White Striping and Wooden Breast myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasoniero, G; Cullere, M; Cecchinato, M; Puolanne, E; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the research was to study the impact of white striping and wooden breast myopathies on the technological quality, mineral, and sensory profile of poultry meat. With this purpose, a total of 138 breasts were selected for a control group with normal breasts (N), a group of breasts characterised by white striping (WS) myopathy, and a group of breasts having both white striping and wooden breast myopathies (WSWB). Data revealed that the simultaneous presence of the two myopathies, with respect to the WS lesion individually considered, had a further detrimental effect on pH (6.04 vs. 5.96; P white striping and wooden breast myopathies. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Structural or pigmentary? Origin of the distinctive white stripe on the blue wing of a Morpho butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2006-01-22

    A few species of Morpho butterflies have a distinctive white stripe pattern on their structurally coloured blue wings. Since the colour pattern of a butterfly wing is formed as a mosaic of differently coloured scales, several questions naturally arise: are the microstructures the same between the blue and white scales? How is the distinctive whiteness produced, structurally or by means of pigmentation? To answer these questions, we have performed structural and optical investigations of the stripe pattern of a butterfly, Morpho cypris. It is found that besides the dorsal and ventral scale layers, the wing substrate also has the corresponding stripe pattern. Quantitative optical measurements and analysis using a simple model for the wing structure reveal the origin of the higher reflectance which makes the white stripe brighter.

  17. Population Genetics of red striped mullet (Mullus surmuletus in Turkish Seas Based on Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fevzi Bardakci

    2014-07-01

    This study was determined a preview of genetic structure of red striped mullet because of few sampling localities so a further study is would be useful to determine its population structure along its distribution area in detail.

  18. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and tetrachlorodibenzofurans in Atlantic coast striped bass and in selected Hudson River fish, waterfowl and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, P; Hilker, D; Meyer, C; Aldous, K; Shane, L; Donnelly, R; Smith, R; Sloan, R; Skinner, L; Horn, E

    1884-01-01

    In striped bass samples from the lower Hudson River and its estuary 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) was found at concentrations from 16 to 120 pg/g (ppt). Striped bass from two other locations (Rhode Island coastal waters and Chesapeake Bay, Maryland) had <5 ppt, 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF), was found in striped bass from all three locations with concentrations varying from 6 ppt in Chesapeake Bay to 78 ppt in the Hudson River. Results from a limited number of non-migratory fish (carp and goldfish) and sediments suggest that the upper Hudson River is not a source for 2,3,7,8-TCDD/2,3,7,8-TCDF contamination of striped bass. 26 references, 3 tables.

  19. Programmable pulse series generator for NMR relaxometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolbunov, R.N.; Chichikov, S.A.; Lundin, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Paper describes a pulse series generator for NMR relaxometer. The operation mode is set on the basis of the PC program by the PCI bus in the internal memory. The design is based on two Altera Company MAX7000S and Cyclone family microcircuits using the Qartus II 4.0 software. The basic parameters are as follows: pulse minimum length - 50 ns, time resolution - 10 ns, pulse maximum number - 1024, number of controlled output channels - 8. The designed device as a part of the NMR hardware-software system enables to record, to process and to store the experiment results in the form of electronic document [ru

  20. 4-channel time delayed pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, L.F.S.; Rossi, J.O.; Del Bosco, E.

    1987-02-01

    It is described the project of a 4-channel delayed pulse generator employed to trigger the plasma centrifuge experiment of the Laboratorio Associado de Plasmas. The circuit delivers pulses with amplitude of 15V, full width at half maximum of 50μs and rise time of 0.7μs. The maximum time delay is 100ms. There are two channels with a fine adjustment of 0-1ms. The system can be manually or automatically driven. (author) [pt

  1. Implications of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities on quality traits of raw and marinated chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalal, S; Lorenzi, M; Soglia, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2015-04-01

    One of the consequences of intense genetic selection for growth of poultry is the recent appearance of abnormalities in chicken breast muscles, such as white striping (characterised by superficial white striations) and wooden breast (characterised by pale and bulged areas with substantial hardness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality traits of chicken fillets affected by white striping and wooden breast abnormalities. In two replications, 192 fillets were divided into the following four classes: normal (n=48; absence of any visual defects), white striping (n=48, presence of white striations), wooden breast (n=48; diffusely presence of hardened areas) and white striping/wooden breast (n=48; fillets affected by both abnormalities). Morphology, raw meat texture and technological properties were assessed in both unprocessed (pH, colour, drip loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force) and marinated meat (marinade uptake, purge loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force). Fillets affected by white striping, wooden breast or both abnormalities exhibited higher breast weights compared with normal fillets (305.5, 298.7, 318.3 and 244.7 g, respectively; Pcooking losses than white-striped fillets for both unprocessed and marinated meats. On the other hand, white-striped fillets showed a moderate decline in marinade and cooking yield. Fillets affected by both abnormalities had the highest (Pcooked meat, drip loss, purge loss and cooked meat shear force were negligible or relatively low and of little practical importance. Thus, the presence of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities impair not only breast meat appearance but also the quality of both raw and marinated meats mainly by reducing water holding/binding abilities.

  2. Race-Specific Adult-Plant Resistance in Winter Wheat to Stripe Rust and Characterization of Pathogen Virulence Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milus, Eugene A; Moon, David E; Lee, Kevin D; Mason, R Esten

    2015-08-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat in the Great Plains and southeastern United States. Growing resistant cultivars is the preferred means for managing stripe rust, but new virulence in the pathogen population overcomes some of the resistance. The objectives of this study were to characterize the stripe rust resistance in contemporary soft and hard red winter wheat cultivars, to characterize the virulence of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates based on the resistances found in the cultivars, and to determine wheat breeders' perceptions on the importance and methods for achieving stripe rust resistance. Seedlings of cultivars were susceptible to recent isolates, indicating they lacked effective all-stage resistance. However, adult-plants were resistant or susceptible depending on the isolate, indicating they had race-specific adult-plant resistance. Using isolates collected from 1990 to 2013, six major virulence patterns were identified on adult plants of twelve cultivars that were selected as adult-plant differentials. Race-specific adult-plant resistance appears to be the only effective type of resistance protecting wheat from stripe rust in eastern United States. Among wheat breeders, the importance of incorporating stripe rust resistance into cultivars ranged from high to low depending on the frequency of epidemics in their region, and most sources of stripe rust resistance were either unknown or already overcome by virulence in the pathogen population. Breeders with a high priority for stripe rust resistance made most of their selections based on adult-plant reactions in the field, whereas breeders with a low priority for resistance based selections on molecular markers for major all-stage resistance genes.

  3. Monolayer assembly and striped architecture of Co nanoparticles on organic functionalized Si surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, S.-S.; Lim, D.K.; Park, J.-I.; Kim, S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry and School of Molecular Science (BK 21), Daejeon (Korea); Cheon, J. [Yonsei University, Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Seoul (Korea); Jeon, I.C. [Chonbuk National University, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Chonbuk (Korea)

    2005-03-01

    We present a new strategy to fabricate a monolayer assembly of Br-terminated Co nanoparticles on functionalized Si surfaces by using chemical covalent bonding and microcontact printing method. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of the Co nanoparticles formed on the hydroxyl-terminated Si surface exhibit two-dimensional island networks with locally ordered arrays via covalent linkage between nanoparticles and surface. On the other hand, SAMs of the nanoparticles on the aminopropyl-terminated Si surface show an individual and random distribution over an entire surface. Furthermore, we have fabricated striped architectures of Co nanoparticles using a combination of microcontact printing and covalent linkage. Microcontact printing of octadecyltrichlorosilane and selective covalent linkage between nanoparticles and functionalized Si surfaces lead to a hybrid nanostructure with selectively assembled nanoparticles stripes on the patterned functionalized Si surfaces. (orig.)

  4. Frozen into stripes: fate of the critical Ising model after a quench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, T; Picco, M

    2013-09-01

    In this article we study numerically the final state of the two-dimensional ferromagnetic critical Ising model after a quench to zero temperature. Beginning from equilibrium at T_{c}, the system can be blocked in a variety of infinitely long lived stripe states in addition to the ground state. Similar results have already been obtained for an infinite temperature initial condition and an interesting connection to exact percolation crossing probabilities has emerged. Here we complete this picture by providing an example of stripe states precisely related to initial crossing probabilities for various boundary conditions. We thus show that this is not specific to percolation but rather that it depends on the properties of spanning clusters in the initial state.

  5. On Maximum Entropy and Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gresele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maximum entropy is a powerful concept that entails a sharp separation between relevant and irrelevant variables. It is typically invoked in inference, once an assumption is made on what the relevant variables are, in order to estimate a model from data, that affords predictions on all other (dependent variables. Conversely, maximum entropy can be invoked to retrieve the relevant variables (sufficient statistics directly from the data, once a model is identified by Bayesian model selection. We explore this approach in the case of spin models with interactions of arbitrary order, and we discuss how relevant interactions can be inferred. In this perspective, the dimensionality of the inference problem is not set by the number of parameters in the model, but by the frequency distribution of the data. We illustrate the method showing its ability to recover the correct model in a few prototype cases and discuss its application on a real dataset.

  6. Maximum Water Hammer Sensitivity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil Emadi; Abbas Solemani

    2011-01-01

    Pressure waves and Water Hammer occur in a pumping system when valves are closed or opened suddenly or in the case of sudden failure of pumps. Determination of maximum water hammer is considered one of the most important technical and economical items of which engineers and designers of pumping stations and conveyance pipelines should take care. Hammer Software is a recent application used to simulate water hammer. The present study focuses on determining significance of ...

  7. Maximum Gene-Support Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Shan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the finding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reflects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.

  8. Sustained eruptions on Enceladus explained by turbulent dissipation in tiger stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Edwin S.; Rubin, Allan M.

    2016-04-01

    Spacecraft observations suggest that the plumes of Saturn’s moon Enceladus draw water from a subsurface ocean, but the sustainability of conduits linking ocean and surface is not understood. Observations show eruptions from “tiger stripe” fissures that are sustained (although tidally modulated) throughout each orbit, and since the 2005 discovery of the plumes. Peak plume flux lags peak tidal extension by ˜1 rad, suggestive of resonance. Here, we show that a model of the tiger stripes as tidally flexed slots that puncture the ice shell can simultaneously explain the persistence of the eruptions through the tidal cycle, the phase lag, and the total power output of the tiger stripe terrain, while suggesting that eruptions are maintained over geological timescales. The delay associated with flushing and refilling of O(1)-m-wide slots with ocean water causes erupted flux to lag tidal forcing and helps to buttress slots against closure, while tidally pumped in-slot flow leads to heating and mechanical disruption that staves off slot freezeout. Much narrower and much wider slots cannot be sustained. In the presence of long-lived slots, the 106-y average power output of the tiger stripes is buffered by a feedback between ice melt-back and subsidence to O(1010) W, which is similar to observed power output, suggesting long-term stability. Turbulent dissipation makes testable predictions for the final flybys of Enceladus by Cassini. Our model shows how open connections to an ocean can be reconciled with, and sustain, long-lived eruptions. Turbulent dissipation in long-lived slots helps maintain the ocean against freezing, maintains access by future Enceladus missions to ocean materials, and is plausibly the major energy source for tiger stripe activity.

  9. Differential resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) in collections of basin wild rye (Leymus cinereus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank M. Dugan; Michael J. Cashman; Richard C. Johnson; Meinan Wang; Chen Xianming

    2014-01-01

    Differential resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) in a planting of 111 wild collections of Basin wild rye (Leymus cinereus) was noted 2011-2013. In 2011, rust severity was rated on a scale of 1-9. Much lighter infection in 2012 and 2013 was rated as the number of symptomatic leaves per plant divided by plant circumference (to adjust for plant size). Effect...

  10. Tiger Stripes and Cassini ISS High-Resolution Imaging of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, Paul; Denk, T.; Giese, B.; McEwen, A. S.; Neukum, G.; Perry, J.; Porco, C. C.; Thomas, P. C.; Turtle, E.; Verbiscer, A.; Veverka, J.

    2008-09-01

    Deciphering the mechanisms of Enceladus’ plumes is one of the most important and challenging tasks for planetary science. Cassini has provided a wealth of data by remote and in-situ data collection, but fundamental details of the vents and their context remain elusive. Three flybys of Enceladus by Cassini in 2008, on August 11 (altitude: 50km), October 9 (30km), and October 31 (200 km) are designed to further our knowledge of Enceladus’ geology and geophysics. Anticipated data include images as good as 7 m/pixel of parts of the geologically active South Polar Terrain (SPT). We targeted six different known eruption sites (Spitale and Porco 2007, Nature 449, 695-697) along Cairo Sulcus, Baghdad Suclus, and Damascus Sulcus, as well as non-active portions of the the "tiger stripes" and bright grooved terrain in between. On each of the three flybys we also plan contiguous ISS broadband multi-spectral mosaics of the entire SPT region so that we can search for volcanically and tectonically driven temporal changes and construct detailed digital terrain maps. Previous images of the tiger stripes and other rift systems on Enceladus resolve geomorphic structures on hundred meter scales or larger. Within those resolution limits, tiger stripes are morphologically distinguished most strongly from comparably sized young looking rifts elsewhere on Enceladus by their prominent upturned flanks, the muted appearance of their surface relief, and their relative absence of distinct cliff faces, probably of solid ice along scarps. The anticipated new high-resolution images will provide critical structural details needed to identify the extent to which unique attributes of tiger stripes are caused by mantling by plume fallout, tectonic deformation, seismic disruption, or perhaps thermal processes. Here, we present a first analysis of the August 11 close flyby images.

  11. Steady and unsteady calculations on thermal striping phenomena in triple-parallel jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y.Q.; Merzari, E.; Thomas, J.W.; Obabko, A.; Aithal, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Both steady (RANS) and unsteady (URANS, LES) methods were applied to study thermal striping. • The unsteady results exhibited reasonably good agreement with experimental results. • The parametric studies on the effects of mesh density and boundary conditions on the accuracy of the overall solutions were also conducted. - Abstract: The phenomenon of thermal striping is encountered in liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMFR), in which temperature fluctuation due to convective mixing between hot and cold fluids can lead to a possibility of crack initiation and propagation in the structure due to high cycle thermal fatigue. Using sodium experiments of parallel triple jets configuration performed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as benchmark, numerical simulations were carried out to evaluate the temperature fluctuation characteristics in fluid and the transfer characteristics of temperature fluctuation from fluid to structure, which is important to assess the potential thermal fatigue damage. In this study, both steady (RANS) and unsteady (URANS, LES) methods were applied to predict the temperature fluctuations of thermal striping. The parametric studies on the effects of mesh density and boundary conditions on the accuracy of the overall solutions were also conducted. The velocity, temperature and temperature fluctuation intensity distribution were compared with the experimental data. As expected, steady calculation has limited success in predicting the thermal–hydraulic characteristics of the thermal striping, highlighting the limitations of the RANS approach in unsteady heat transfer simulations. The unsteady results exhibited reasonably good agreement with experimental results for temperature fluctuation intensity, as well as the average temperature and velocity components at the measurement locations.

  12. Theoretical and experimental investigations of efficient light coupling with spatially varied all dielectric striped waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Y. A.; Tandogan, S. E.; Hayran, Z.; Giden, I. H.; Turduev, M.; Kurt, H.

    2017-07-01

    Integrated photonic systems require efficient, compact, and broadband solutions for strong light coupling into and out of optical waveguides. The present work investigates an efficient optical power transferring the problem between optical waveguides having different widths of in/out terminals. We propose a considerably practical and feasible concept to implement and design an optical coupler by introducing gradually index modulation to the coupler section. The index profile of the coupler section is modulated with a Gaussian function by the help of striped waveguides. The effective medium theory is used to replace the original spatially varying index profile with dielectric stripes of a finite length/width having a constant effective refractive index. 2D and 3D finite-difference time-domain analyzes are utilized to investigate the sampling effect of the designed optical coupler and to determine the parameters that play a crucial role in enhancing the optical power transfer performance. Comparing the coupling performance of conventional benchmark adiabatic and butt couplers with the designed striped waveguide coupler, the corresponding coupling efficiency increases from approximately 30% to 95% over a wide frequency interval. In addition, to realize the realistic optical coupler appropriate to integrated photonic applications, the proposed structure is numerically designed on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The implemented SOI platform based optical coupler operates in the telecom wavelength regime (λ = 1.55 μm), and the dimensions of the striped coupler are kept as 9.77 μm (along the transverse to propagation direction) and 7.69 μm (along the propagation direction) where the unit distance is fixed to be 465 nm. Finally, to demonstrate the operating design principle, the microwave experiments are conducted and the spot size conversion ratio as high as 7.1:1 is measured, whereas a coupling efficiency over 60% in the frequency range of 5.0-16.0 GHz has been also

  13. Steady and unsteady calculations on thermal striping phenomena in triple-parallel jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y.Q., E-mail: yyu@anl.gov [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Merzari, E.; Thomas, J.W. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Obabko, A. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Aithal, S.M. [Computing, Environment and Life Sciences Directorate, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Both steady (RANS) and unsteady (URANS, LES) methods were applied to study thermal striping. • The unsteady results exhibited reasonably good agreement with experimental results. • The parametric studies on the effects of mesh density and boundary conditions on the accuracy of the overall solutions were also conducted. - Abstract: The phenomenon of thermal striping is encountered in liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMFR), in which temperature fluctuation due to convective mixing between hot and cold fluids can lead to a possibility of crack initiation and propagation in the structure due to high cycle thermal fatigue. Using sodium experiments of parallel triple jets configuration performed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as benchmark, numerical simulations were carried out to evaluate the temperature fluctuation characteristics in fluid and the transfer characteristics of temperature fluctuation from fluid to structure, which is important to assess the potential thermal fatigue damage. In this study, both steady (RANS) and unsteady (URANS, LES) methods were applied to predict the temperature fluctuations of thermal striping. The parametric studies on the effects of mesh density and boundary conditions on the accuracy of the overall solutions were also conducted. The velocity, temperature and temperature fluctuation intensity distribution were compared with the experimental data. As expected, steady calculation has limited success in predicting the thermal–hydraulic characteristics of the thermal striping, highlighting the limitations of the RANS approach in unsteady heat transfer simulations. The unsteady results exhibited reasonably good agreement with experimental results for temperature fluctuation intensity, as well as the average temperature and velocity components at the measurement locations.

  14. Cytogenetics and stripe rust resistance of wheat-Thinopyrum elongatum hybrid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daiyan; Long, Dan; Li, Tinghui; Wu, Yanli; Wang, Yi; Zeng, Jian; Xu, Lili; Fan, Xing; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong; Kang, Houyang

    2018-01-01

    Amphidiploids generated by distant hybridization are commonly used as genetic bridge to transfer desirable genes from wild wheat species into cultivated wheat. This method is typically used to enhance the resistance of wheat to biotic or abiotic stresses, and to increase crop yield and quality. Tetraploid Thinopyrum elongatum exhibits strong adaptability, resistance to stripe rust and Fusarium head blight, and tolerance to salt, drought, and cold. In the present study, we produced hybrid derivatives by crossing and backcrossing the Triticum durum-Th. elongatum partial amphidiploid ( Trititrigia 8801, 2 n  = 6 ×  = 42, AABBEE) with wheat cultivars common to the Sichuan Basin. By means of cytogenetic and disease resistance analyses, we identified progeny harboring alien chromosomes and measured their resistance to stripe rust. Hybrid progenies possessed chromosome numbers ranging from 40 to 47 (mean = 42.72), with 40.0% possessing 42 chromosomes. Genomic in situ hybridization revealed that the number of alien chromosomes ranged from 1 to 11. Out of the 50 of analyzed lines, five represented chromosome addition (2 n  = 44 = 42 W + 2E) and other five were chromosome substitution lines (2 n  = 42 = 40 W + 2E). Importantly, a single chromosome derived from wheat- Th. elongatum intergenomic Robertsonian translocations chromosome was occurred in 12 lines. Compared with the wheat parental cultivars ('CN16' and 'SM482'), the majority (70%) of the derivative lines were highly resistant to strains of stripe rust pathogen known to be prevalent in China. The findings suggest that these hybrid-derivative lines with stripe rust resistance could potentially be used as germplasm sources for further wheat improvement.

  15. Effective genes for resistance to stripe rust and virulence of Puccinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that stripe rust resistance genes Yr3, Yr5, Yr10, Yr15, Yr26, YrSP and YrCV were resistant, while Yr18 showed moderate susceptibility at all locations. Genes YrA-, Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr17, Yr27 and gene combinations Opata (Yr27+Yr18) and Super Kauz (Yr9, Yr27, Yr18) were found susceptible.

  16. Mapping genes for resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat landrace PI 480035.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinita Sthapit Kandel

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikks. is an economically important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Hexaploid spring wheat landrace PI 480035 was highly resistant to stripe rust in the field in Washington during 2011 and 2012. The objective of this research was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for stripe rust resistance in PI 480035. A spring wheat, "Avocet Susceptible" (AvS, was crossed with PI 480035 to develop a biparental population of 110 recombinant inbred lines (RIL. The population was evaluated in the field in 2013 and 2014 and seedling reactions were examined against three races (PSTv-14, PSTv-37, and PSTv-40 of the pathogen under controlled conditions. The population was genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing and microsatellite markers across the whole wheat genome. A major QTL, QYr.wrsggl1-1BS was identified on chromosome 1B. The closest flanking markers were Xgwm273, Xgwm11, and Xbarc187 1.01 cM distal to QYr.wrsggl1-1BS, Xcfd59 0.59 cM proximal and XA365 3.19 cM proximal to QYr.wrsggl1-1BS. Another QTL, QYr.wrsggl1-3B, was identified on 3B, which was significant only for PSTv-40 and was not significant in the field, indicating it confers a race-specific resistance. Comparison with markers associated with previously reported Yr genes on 1B (Yr64, Yr65, and YrH52 indicated that QYr.wrsggl1-1BS is potentially a novel stripe rust resistance gene that can be incorporated into modern breeding materials, along with other all-stage and adult-plant resistance genes to develop cultivars that can provide durable resistance.

  17. Molecular dynamics study of lubricant depletion by pulsed laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Woo; Rosenkranz, Andreas; Talke, Frank E.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to numerically investigate the effect of pulsed laser heating on lubricant depletion. The maximum temperature, the lubricant depletion width, the number of evaporated lubricant beads and the number of fragmented lubricant chains were studied as a function of laser peak power, pulse duration and repetition rate. A continuous-wave laser and a square pulse laser were simulated and compared to a Gaussian pulse laser. With increasing repetition rate, pulsed laser heating was found to approach continuous-wave laser heating.

  18. Acousto-optic replication of ultrashort laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, Konstantin B.; Molchanov, Vladimir Ya.; Ovchinnikov, Andrey V.; Chefonov, Oleg V.

    2017-10-01

    Precisely controlled sequences of ultrashort laser pulses are required in various scientific and engineering applications. We developed a phase-only acousto-optic pulse shaping method for replication of ultrashort laser pulses in a TW laser system. A sequence of several Fourier-transform-limited pulses is generated from a single femtosecond laser pulse by means of applying a piecewise linear phase modulation over the whole emission spectrum. Analysis demonstrates that the main factor which limits maximum delay between the pulse replicas is spectral resolution of the acousto-optic dispersive delay line used for pulse shaping. In experiments with a Cr:forsterite laser system, we obtained delays from 0.3 to 3.5 ps between two replicas of 190 fs transform-limited pulses at the central wavelength of laser emission, 1230 nm.

  19. Post-deposition control of ferroelastic stripe domains and internal electric field by thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigl, L.; Iwanowska, M.; Sandu, C. S.; Setter, N. [Ceramics Laboratory, EPFL-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, CH-1015 Switzerland (Switzerland); Janolin, P.-E. [Laboratoire Structures, Propriétés et Modélisation des Solides, UMR CNRS-École Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Yamada, T. [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2015-01-19

    The dependence of the formation of ferroelastic stripe domain patterns on the thermal history is investigated by detailed piezoresponse force microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments after and during annealing of tensile strained tetragonal Pb(Ti,Zr)O{sub 3} epitaxial thin films on DyScO{sub 3} substrates. In particular, the ferroelastic pattern is reversibly interchanged between a cross-hatched and a stripe domain pattern if the films are cooled at different rates after annealing above the formation temperature of a-domains. Different types of 180° and non-180° patterns can be created, depending on the thermal treatment. The changes in the 180° domain structure and lattice parameters are attributed to a change of oxygen vacancy concentration, which results in a modification of the internal electric field and unit cell size, causing also a shift of T{sub C}. Thermal treatment is done on rhombohedral La:BiFeO{sub 3} thin films as well. It is observed that also in these films, appropriate heat treatment modifies the domain pattern and films with a stripe domain pattern can be created, confirming the general validity of the developed model.

  20. Aleutian Disease: An Emerging Disease in Free-Ranging Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) From California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Anderson, M; Ritchie, B W; Ciembor, P; Rimoldi, G; Piazza, M; Pesti, D; Clifford, D L; Giannitti, F

    2015-11-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV, Amdovirus, Parvoviridae) primarily infects farmed mustelids (mink and ferrets) but also other fur-bearing animals and humans. Three Aleutian disease (AD) cases have been described in captive striped skunks; however, little is known about the relevance of AD in free-ranging carnivores. This work describes the pathological findings and temporospatial distribution in 7 cases of AD in free-ranging striped skunks. All cases showed neurologic disease and were found in a 46-month period (2010-2013) within a localized geographical region in California. Lesions included multisystemic plasmacytic and lymphocytic inflammation (ie, interstitial nephritis, myocarditis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, and splenitis), glomerulonephritis, arteritis with or without fibrinoid necrosis in several organs (ie, kidney, heart, brain, and spleen), splenomegaly, ascites/hydrothorax, and/or encephalomalacia with cerebral microangiopathy. ADV infection was confirmed in all cases by specific polymerase chain reaction and/or in situ hybridization. The results suggest that AD is an emerging disease in free-ranging striped skunks in California. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Numerical investigation on thermal stratification and striping phenomena in various coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumao Yang; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    2000-02-01

    It is important to study thermal stratification and striping phenomena for they can induce thermal fatigue failure of structures. This presentation uses the AQUA code, which has been developed in Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), to investigate the characteristics of these thermal phenomena in water, liquid sodium, liquid lead and carbon dioxide gas. There are altogether eight calculated cases with same Richardson number and initial inlet hot velocity in thermal stratification calculations, in which four cases have same velocity difference between inlet hot and cold fluid, the other four cases with same temperature difference. The calculated results show: (1) The fluid's properties and initial conditions have considerable effects on thermal stratification, which is decided by the combination of such as thermal conduction, viscous dissipation and buoyant force, etc., and (2) The gas has distinctive thermal stratification characteristics from those of liquid because for horizontal flow in the transportation of momentum and energy, the drastic exchange usually happens at the hot-cold interface for liquid, however, the buoyancy and natural convection make the quick exchange position depart from the hot-cold interface for gas. In thermal striping analysis, only the first step work has been finished. The calculated results show: (1) the vertical flow has some difference in thermal stratification characteristics from those of horizontal flow, and (2) For deep thermal striping analysis in the calculated area, more attention should be paid to the center area along Z-direction for liquid and small velocity area for gas. (author)

  2. Random pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ya'nan; Jin Dapeng; Zhao Dixin; Liu Zhen'an; Qiao Qiao; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2007-01-01

    Due to the randomness of radioactive decay and nuclear reaction, the signals from detectors are random in time. But normal pulse generator generates periodical pulses. To measure the performances of nuclear electronic devices under random inputs, a random generator is necessary. Types of random pulse generator are reviewed, 2 digital random pulse generators are introduced. (authors)

  3. Programmable pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Zhihua; Lou Binqiao; Duan Xiaohui

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the design of programmable pulse generator that is based on a micro-controller and controlled by RS232 interface of personal computer. The whole system has good stability. The pulse generator can produce TTL pulse and analog pulse. The pulse frequency can be selected by EPLD. The voltage amplitude and pulse width of analog pulse can be adjusted by analog switches and digitally-controlled potentiometers. The software development tools of computer is National Instruments LabView5.1. The front panel of this virtual instrumentation is intuitive and easy-to-use. Parameters can be selected and changed conveniently by knob and slide

  4. Hematologic and plasma chemistry RIs for cultured Striped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) in recirculating aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagarza, Oscar A; Kuhn, David D; Smith, Stephen A; Hrubec, Terry C

    2017-09-01

    Striped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) is a valuable aquaculture fish species produced primarily in Southeast Asia. In the United States, it is bred as an ornamental species. Striped catfish has high productivity and great demand in numerous countries around the world, yet little is known about its normal physiology. The objective of this study was to establish hematologic and blood chemistry RIs for healthy juvenile Striped catfish. Blood samples were collected from 70 Striped catfish raised in recirculating aquaculture systems. Whole blood and plasma samples were analyzed for multiple hematologic and chemistry variables using standard techniques. The RIs for hematology were as follows: PCV 23.5-35.9%, MCV 106.3-156.6 fL, RBC count 1.79-2.75 × 10 6 cells/μL, thrombocytes 26,318-73,333 cells/μL, total WBC count 36,294-94,286 cells/μL, total lymphocytes 18,997-59,998 cells/μL, small lymphocytes 13,763-51,490 cells/μL, large lymphocytes 715-21,200 cells/μL, granulocytes 4504-18,291 cells/μL, and monocytes 0-7549 cells/μL. Plasma chemistry RIs were the following: ALP 32.7-74.6 U/L, AST 20.3-1235.8 U/L, sodium 135.2-147.7 mmol/L, potassium 3.3-5.0 mmol/L, chloride 120.1-133.6 mmol/L, calcium 2.7-3.6 mmol/L, magnesium 0.9-1.3 mmol/L, phosphorous 1.4-2.7 mmol/L, glucose 4.6-7.6 mmol/L, cholesterol 2.8-5.3 mmol/L, total protein 30-42 g/L, albumin 7-11 g/L, globulin 22-32 g/L, albumin:globulin ratio 0.27-0.37, creatinine 0-8 μmol/L, and osmolality 251.8-327.9 mOsm/kg. Reference intervals reported here can help veterinarians and fish health specialists monitor the health status of Striped catfish under recirculating aquaculture conditions for research, exhibition, and production purposes. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  5. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  6. Pulse amplitude and frequency effects in a pulsed packed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, S.H.

    1954-04-01

    A study has been made of the effect on the efficiency and capacity of applying pulses of varying amplitude and frequency to a packed column. In the efficiency studies, the maximum efficiency was obtained with a pulse having an amplitude of 3/8'' and a frequency of 140 cycles per minute. Under these conditions, the column was about five times as efficient as a simple packed column. Two general types of results were obtained in the capacity studies. Under certain conditions, the capacity increased over that of a simple packed column, but under others, it decreased. Some of the factors causing this were investigated but the fundamental reasons were not determined due to a lack of personnel for the necessary experiments. (author)

  7. Pulse amplitude and frequency effects in a pulsed packed column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, S H

    1954-04-15

    A study has been made of the effect on the efficiency and capacity of applying pulses of varying amplitude and frequency to a packed column. In the efficiency studies, the maximum efficiency was obtained with a pulse having an amplitude of 3/8'' and a frequency of 140 cycles per minute. Under these conditions, the column was about five times as efficient as a simple packed column. Two general types of results were obtained in the capacity studies. Under certain conditions, the capacity increased over that of a simple packed column, but under others, it decreased. Some of the factors causing this were investigated but the fundamental reasons were not determined due to a lack of personnel for the necessary experiments. (author)

  8. Pulsed neutron generator for logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibideau, F.D.

    1977-01-01

    A pulsed neutron generator for uranium logging is described. This generator is one component of a prototype uranium logging probe which is being developed by SLA to detect, and assay, uranium by borehole logging. The logging method is based on the measurement of epithermal neutrons resulting from the prompt fissioning of uranium from a pulsed source of 17.6 MeV neutrons. An objective of the prototype probe was that its diameter not exceed 2.75 inches, which would allow its use in conventional rotary drill holes of 4.75-inch diameter. This restriction limited the generator to a maximum 2.375-inch diameter. The performance requirements for the neutron generator specified that it operate with a nominal output of 5 x 10 6 neutrons/pulse at up to 100 pulses/second for a one-hour period. The development of a neutron generator meeting the preliminary design goals was completed and two prototype models were delivered to SLA. These two generators have been used by SLA to log a number of boreholes in field evaluation of the probe. The results of the field evaluations have led to the recommendation of several changes to improve the probe's operation. Some of these changes will require additional development effort on the neutron generator. It is expected that this work will be performed during 1977. The design and operation of the first prototype neutron generators is described

  9. Electron acceleration by laser produced wake field: Pulse shape effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Hitendra K.; Kumar, Sandeep; Nishida, Yasushi

    2007-12-01

    Analytical expressions are obtained for the longitudinal field (wake field: Ex), density perturbations ( ne') and the potential ( ϕ) behind a laser pulse propagating in a plasma with the pulse duration of the electron plasma period. A feasibility study on the wake field is carried out with Gaussian-like (GL) pulse, rectangular-triangular (RT) pulse and rectangular-Gaussian (RG) pulse considering one-dimensional weakly nonlinear theory ( ne'/n0≪1), and the maximum energy gain acquired by an electron is calculated for all these three types of the laser pulse shapes. A comparative study infers that the RT pulse yields the best results: In its case maximum electron energy gain is 33.5 MeV for a 30 fs pulse duration whereas in case of GL (RG) pulse of the same duration the gain is 28.6 (28.8)MeV at the laser frequency of 1.6 PHz and the intensity of 3.0 × 10 18 W/m 2. The field of the wake and hence the energy gain get enhanced for the higher laser frequency, larger pulse duration and higher laser intensity for all types of the pulses.

  10. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or

  11. Pulsed water jet generated by pulse multiplication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorský, R.; Sitek, Libor; Sochor, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2016), s. 959-967 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : high- pressure pulses * pulse intensifier * pulsed water jet * water hammer effect Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://hrcak.srce.hr/163752?lang=en

  12. Pulsed electric fields for pasteurization: defining processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology in food pasteurization has been extensively studied. Optimal PEF treatment conditions for maximum microbial inactivation depend on multiple factors including PEF processing conditions, production parameters and product properties. In order for...

  13. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  14. Radiation pressure acceleration: The factors limiting maximum attainable ion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bulanov, S. V. [KPSI, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); A. M. Prokhorov Institute of General Physics RAS, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M. [KPSI, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Pegoraro, F. [Physics Department, University of Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, CNR, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration, with near complete transfer of the laser energy to the ions in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum light speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case, finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it transparent for radiation and effectively terminating the acceleration. The off-normal incidence of the laser on the target, due either to the experimental setup, or to the deformation of the target, will also lead to establishing a limit on maximum ion energy.

  15. Ultrarelativistic electromagnetic pulses in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Leboeuf, J. N.; Tajima, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Kennel, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    The physical processes of a linearly polarized electromagnetic pulse of highly relativistic amplitude in an underdense plasma accelerating particles to very high energies are studied through computer simulation. An electron-positron plasma is considered first. The maximum momenta achieved scale as the square of the wave amplitude. This acceleration stops when the bulk of the wave energy is converted to particle energy. The pulse leaves behind as a wake a vacuum region whose length scales as the amplitude of the wave. The results can be explained in terms of a snow plow or piston-like action of the radiation on the plasma. When a mass ratio other than unity is chosen and electrostatic effects begin to play a role, first the ion energy increases faster than the electron energy and then the electron energy catches up later, eventually reaching the same value.

  16. Molecular and functional roles of 6C CC chemokine 19 in defense system of striped murrel Channa striatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Bhatt, Prasanth; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we have reported the molecular information of chemokine-19 (Chem19) from striped murrel Channa striatus (Cs). CsCC-Chem19 cDNA sequence was 555 base pair (bp) in length which is 68bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), 339bp translated region and 149bp 3' UTR. The translated region is encoded for a polypeptide of 112 amino acids. CsCC-Chem19 peptide contains a signal sequence between 1 and 26 and an interleukin (IL) 8 like domain between 24 and 89. The multiple sequence alignment showed a 'DCCL' motif, an indispensable motif present in all CC chemokines which was conserved throughout the evolution. Phylogenetic tree showed that CsCC-Chem19 formed a cluster with chemokine 19 from fishes. Secondary structure of CsCC-Chem19 revealed that the peptide contains maximum amount of coils (61.6%) compared to α-helices (25.9%%) and β-sheet (12.5%). Further, 3D analysis indicated that the cysteine residues at 33, 34, 59 and 75 making the disulfide bridges as 33 = 59 and 34 = 75. Significantly (P coding region of CsCC-Chem19, recombinant CsCC-Chem19 protein was produced. The recombinant CsCC-Chem19 protein induced the cellular proliferation and respiratory burst activity of C. striatus peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the chemotactic activity showed that the recombinant CsCC-Chem19 significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the movement of PBL of C. striatus. Conclusively, CsCC-Chem19 is a 6C CC chemokine having an ability to perform both inflammatory and homeostatic functions. However, further research is necessary to understand the potential of 6C CC chemokine 19 of C. striatus, particularly their regulatory ability on different cellular components in the defense system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing the Effects of Suomi NPP VIIRS M15/M16 Detector Radiometric Stability and Relative Spectral Response Variation on Striping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern satellite radiometers have many detectors with different relative spectral response (RSR. Effect of RSR differences on striping and the root cause of striping in sensor data record (SDR radiance and brightness temperature products have not been well studied. A previous study used MODTRAN radiative transfer model (RTM to analyze striping. In this study, we make efforts to find the possible root causes of striping. Line-by-Line RTM (LBLRTM is used to evaluate the effect of RSR difference on striping and the atmospheric dependency for VIIRS bands M15 and M16. The results show that previous study using MODTRAN is repeatable: the striping is related to the difference between band-averaged and detector-level RSR, and the BT difference has some atmospheric dependency. We also analyzed VIIRS earth view (EV data with several striping index methods. Since the EV data is complex, we further analyze the onboard calibration data. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA test shows that the noise along track direction is the major reason for striping. We also found evidence of correlation between solar diffuser (SD and blackbody (BB for detector 1 in M15. Digital Count Restoration (DCR and detector instability are possibly related to the striping in SD and EV data, but further analysis is needed. These findings can potentially lead to further SDR processing improvements.

  18. System for memorizing maximum values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1992-08-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  19. Remarks on the maximum luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Ikeda, Taishi; Moore, Christopher J.; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2018-04-01

    The quest for fundamental limitations on physical processes is old and venerable. Here, we investigate the maximum possible power, or luminosity, that any event can produce. We show, via full nonlinear simulations of Einstein's equations, that there exist initial conditions which give rise to arbitrarily large luminosities. However, the requirement that there is no past horizon in the spacetime seems to limit the luminosity to below the Planck value, LP=c5/G . Numerical relativity simulations of critical collapse yield the largest luminosities observed to date, ≈ 0.2 LP . We also present an analytic solution to the Einstein equations which seems to give an unboundedly large luminosity; this will guide future numerical efforts to investigate super-Planckian luminosities.

  20. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  1. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  2. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  3. Laser pulse stacking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  4. Formation of nanosecond SBS-compressed pulses for pumping an ultra-high power parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz’min, A. A.; Kulagin, O. V.; Rodchenkov, V. I.

    2018-04-01

    Compression of pulsed Nd : glass laser radiation under stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in perfluorooctane is investigated. Compression of 16-ns pulses at a beam diameter of 30 mm is implemented. The maximum compression coefficient is 28 in the optimal range of laser pulse energies from 2 to 4 J. The Stokes pulse power exceeds that of the initial laser pulse by a factor of about 11.5. The Stokes pulse jitter (fluctuations of the Stokes pulse exit time from the compressor) is studied. The rms spread of these fluctuations is found to be 0.85 ns.

  5. Pulse to pulse klystron diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, J.; Davidson, V.; Genova, L.; Johnson, R.; Reagan, D.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes a system used to study the behavior of SLAC high powered klystrons operating with a twice normal pulse width of 5 μs. At present, up to eight of the klystrons installed along the accelerator can be operated with long pulses and monitored by this system. The report will also discuss some of the recent findings and investigations

  6. Twenty-channel high-voltage pulse generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'in, P.S.; Kashirin, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A 20-channel high-voltage pulse generator operating with a mismatched load is described. The generator contains shaping lines 20 m long made of coaxial cable, a trigatron-type discharged, and isolating plates. The channel characteristic impedance is 50 Ohm. The maximum pulse amplitude is up to 15 kV on a high-resistance load and 7.5 kV on a matched one. The pulse duration is 100 ns at a pulse rise time of 12 ns, the delay introduced by the generator is 200 +-2.5 ns. Provision is made in the control circuit for compensation of the shaped pulse and separation of a pulse reflected from the load. The reflected pulse shape and amplitude characterize load parameters. Generator tests proved its high operational reliability (after 10 5 operations no significant changes in generator performances have been observed). The generator is intended for filmless data output from spark chambers

  7. A method to reduce the suppression of relevant pulses in pulse weight discriminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, P.

    1975-01-01

    The pulse height analyzer is used, for instance, with proportional counters. Pulses are broken down into amplitude ranges in accordance with their maximum amplitudes. In pulse height analyzers with real time analog-digital conversion only one deadtime is needed for the respective range selected. For this purpose, all discriminator thresholds of the amplitude stores connected parallel are actuated as an input pulse arrives. The leading edges of the discriminator signals set the amplitude range flip-flop. Only the flip-flop circuit of the maximum amplitude range reached remains set whilst all the others are erased. The trailing edge of the discriminator signals actuates the evaluation of the information stored by the flip-flop circuit selected. It triggers a pulse extender and resets the flip-flop selected. Therefore, only the amplitude range selected needs a deadtime. The pulse extender in addition reduces the processing time of the analyzer by the output pulse length. The characteristic used for the trailing edge is the backward count of the real time analog-digital converter. (DG/RF) [de

  8. Comparison of hematologic and serologic profiles of broiler birds with normal and severe degrees of white striping in breast fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttappan, V A; Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Hargis, B M; Apple, J K; Coon, C; Owens, C M

    2013-02-01

    White striping is the white striation occasionally observed parallel to the direction of muscle fibers in broiler breast fillets and thighs at the processing plant. Broiler breast fillets can be categorized as normal (NORM), moderate (MOD), or severe (SEV) based on the degree of white striping. Histologically, SEV fillets are characterized by the highest degree of degeneration of muscle fibers along with fibrosis and lipidosis when compared with NORM. The present study was undertaken to compare the hematologic and serologic profiles of broilers with NORM and SEV degrees of white striping to get more information on the systemic changes associated with the condition. Day-old male broiler chicks of a commercial strain were grown on the same diet in 6 replicate pens (n = 32 birds/pen). Blood samples (5 mL) were collected from the wing vein of each bird on the day before processing for analyzing hematologic and serologic profiles. At 63 d, the birds were weighed and processed in a commercial inline processing system. Weight of the butterfly fillets, liver, and abdominal fat pad were recorded. Left-side fillets were scored to obtain the degree of white striping for each bird. Representative samples for NORM (n = 24) and SEV (n = 17) categories were selected to compare the hematologic and serologic profiles. The SEV birds had greater (P white striping. The elevated serum enzyme levels confirm the muscle damage associated with the degenerative myopathy in SEV birds.

  9. Some effects of temperature, chlorine, and copper on the survival and growth of the coon stripe shrimp, Pandalus danae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, C.I.; Thatcher, T.O.; Apts, C.W.

    1975-03-01

    The CTM (Critical Thermal Maxima) values for coon stripe shrimp increase with an increase in shrimp size. The CTM values for coon strip shrimp increase with an increase in the rate at which the temperature is elevated. Coon stripe shrimp are more resistant to chlorine when acclimated and exposed at 7.5 0 C-10 0 C than (a) when acclimated at 7.5 0 C and exposed at 15 0 C or 20 0 C, or when (b) acclimated and exposed at 15 0 C which is near their optimum short-term growth temperature (16 0 C). The optimal growing temperature for (1 to 7g) coon stripe shrimp for periods up to one month is 16 0 C. Copper at a concentration of 0.04 mg/l effectively retards the growth of (1-2g) coon stripe shrimp at 16 0 C over a one-month period. Chlorine at a concentration of 0.18 mg/l is lethal to (1-2g) coon stripe shrimp at 16 0 C and reduced their growth at 0.08 mg/l over a one-month period. (U.S.)

  10. Magnetization dynamics of weak stripe domains in Fe-N thin films: a multi-technique complementary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Ibrahima; Tacchi, Silvia; Garnier, Louis-Charles; Eddrief, Mahmoud; Fortuna, Franck; Carlotti, Giovanni; Marangolo, Massimiliano

    2017-09-26

    The resonant eigenmodes of a nitrogen-implanted iron α'-FeN characterized by weak stripe domains are investigated by Brillouin light scattering and broadband ferromagnetic resonance experiments, assisted by micromagnetic simulations. The spectrum of the dynamic eigenmodes in the presence of the weak stripes is very rich and two different families of modes can be selectively detected using different techniques or different experimental configurations. Attention is paid to the evolution of the mode frequencies and spatial profiles under the application of an external magnetic field, of variable intensity, in the direction parallel or transverse to the stripes. The different evolution of the modes with the external magnetic field is accompanied by a distinctive spatial localization in specific regions, such as the closure domains at the surface of the stripes and the bulk domains localized in the inner part of the stripes. The complementarity of BLS and FMR techniques, based on different selection rules, is found to be a fruitful tool for the study of the wealth of localized mag-netic excitations generally found in nanostructures. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the limits to the maximum output power of laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, H; Crump, P; Pietrzak, A; Wang, X; Erbert, G; Traenkle, G

    2010-01-01

    The factors that limit both the continuous wave (CW) and the pulsed output power of broad-area laser diodes driven at very high currents are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The decrease in the gain due to self-heating under CW operation and spectral holeburning under pulsed operation, as well as heterobarrier carrier leakage and longitudinal spatial holeburning, are the dominant mechanisms limiting the maximum achievable output power.

  12. A search for optical variability of type 2 quasars in SDSS stripe 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Carson, Daniel J.; Voevodkin, Alexey; Woźniak, Przemysław

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of Type 2 quasars have been identified in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, and there is substantial evidence that they are generally galaxies with highly obscured central engines, in accord with unified models for active galactic nuclei (AGNs). A straightforward expectation of unified models is that highly obscured Type 2 AGNs should show little or no optical variability on timescales of days to years. As a test of this prediction, we have carried out a search for variability in Type 2 quasars in SDSS Stripe 82 using difference-imaging photometry. Starting with the Type 2 AGN catalogs of Zakamska et al. and Reyes et al., we find evidence of significant g-band variability in 17 out of 173 objects for which light curves could be measured from the Stripe 82 data. To determine the nature of this variability, we obtained new Keck spectropolarimetry observations for seven of these variable AGNs. The Keck data show that these objects have low continuum polarizations (p ≲ 1% in most cases) and all seven have broad Hα and/or Mg II emission lines in their total (unpolarized) spectra, indicating that they should actually be classified as Type 1 AGNs. We conclude that the primary reason variability is found in the SDSS-selected Type 2 AGN samples is that these samples contain a small fraction of Type 1 AGNs as contaminants, and it is not necessary to invoke more exotic possible explanations such as a population of 'naked' or unobscured Type 2 quasars. Aside from misclassified Type 1 objects, the Type 2 quasars do not generally show detectable optical variability over the duration of the Stripe 82 survey.

  13. Alternative reproductive tactics in female striped mice: Solitary breeders have lower corticosterone levels than communal breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Davina L; Pillay, Neville; Schradin, Carsten

    2015-05-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs), where members of the same sex and population show distinct reproductive phenotypes governed by decision-rules, have been well-documented in males of many species, but are less well understood in females. The relative plasticity hypothesis (RPH) predicts that switches between plastic ARTs are mediated by changes in steroid hormones. This has received much support in males, but little is known about the endocrine control of female ARTs. Here, using a free-living population of African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) over five breeding seasons, we tested whether females following different tactics differed in corticosterone and testosterone levels, as reported for male striped mice using ARTs, and in progesterone and oestrogen, which are important in female reproduction. Female striped mice employ three ARTs: communal breeders give birth in a shared nest and provide alloparental care, returners leave the group temporarily to give birth, and solitary breeders leave to give birth and do not return. We expected communal breeders and returners to have higher corticosterone, owing to the social stress of group-living, and lower testosterone than solitary breeders, which must defend territories alone. Solitary breeders had lower corticosterone than returners and communal breeders, as predicted, but testosterone and progesterone did not differ between ARTs. Oestrogen levels were higher in returners (measured before leaving the group) than in communal and solitary breeders, consistent with a modulatory role. Our study demonstrates hormonal differences between females following (or about to follow) different tactics, and provides the first support for the RPH in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A large volume striped bass egg incubation chamber: design and comparison with a traditional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    I conducted a comparative study of a new jar design (experimental chamber) with a standard egg incubation vessel (McDonald jar). Experimental chambers measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. McDonald hatching jars measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96 and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg density of 21.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 21.6 – 22.1) for McDonald jars and 10.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 7.0 – 16.8) for experimental chambers. I was unable to detect an effect of container type on survival to 48, 96 or 144 h. At 144 h striped bass fry survival averaged 37.3% for McDonald jars and 34.2% for experimental chambers. Survival among replicates was significantly different. Survival of striped bass significantly decreased between 96 and 144 h. Mean survival among replicates ranged from 12.4 to 57.3%. I was unable to detect an effect of initial stocking density on survival. Experimental jars allow for incubation of a larger number of eggs in a much smaller space. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental chambers offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing manpower and cost. However, the increase in the number of eggs per rearing container does increase the risk associated with catastrophic loss of a production unit. I conclude the experimental chamber is suitable for striped bass egg incubation.

  15. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Erickson, G.J.; Neudorfer, P.O.

    1992-01-01

    Bayesian probability theory and Maximum Entropy methods are at the core of a new view of scientific inference. These 'new' ideas, along with the revolution in computational methods afforded by modern computers allow astronomers, electrical engineers, image processors of any type, NMR chemists and physicists, and anyone at all who has to deal with incomplete and noisy data, to take advantage of methods that, in the past, have been applied only in some areas of theoretical physics. The title workshops have been the focus of a group of researchers from many different fields, and this diversity is evident in this book. There are tutorial and theoretical papers, and applications in a very wide variety of fields. Almost any instance of dealing with incomplete and noisy data can be usefully treated by these methods, and many areas of theoretical research are being enhanced by the thoughtful application of Bayes' theorem. Contributions contained in this volume present a state-of-the-art overview that will be influential and useful for many years to come

  16. Laser Pulse Heating of Spherical Metal Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. Tribelsky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the general problem of laser pulse heating of spherical metal particles with the sizes ranging from nanometers to millimeters. We employ the exact Mie solution of the diffraction problem and solve the heat-transfer equation to determine the maximum temperature rise at the particle surface as a function of optical and thermometric parameters of the problem. Primary attention is paid to the case when the thermal diffusivity of the particle is much larger than that of the environment, as it is in the case of metal particles in fluids. We show that, in this case, for any given duration of the laser pulse, the maximum temperature rise as a function of the particle size reaches a maximum at a certain finite size of the particle. We suggest simple approximate analytical expressions for this dependence, which cover the entire parameter range of the problem and agree well with direct numerical simulations.

  17. Wall thickness dependence of the scaling law for ferroic stripe domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalan, G; Scott, J F; Schilling, A; Gregg, J M

    2007-01-01

    The periodicity of 180 0 stripe domains as a function of crystal thickness scales with the width of the domain walls, both for ferroelectric and for ferromagnetic materials. Here we derive an analytical expression for the generalized ferroic scaling factor and use this to calculate the domain wall thickness and gradient coefficients (exchange constants) in some ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials. We then use these to discuss some of the wider implications for the physics of ferroelectric nanodevices and periodically poled photonic crystals. (fast track communication)

  18. Studies of Sterile Irradiation Effects on the White-striped Fruit Fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, Wanitch; Tannarin, Thodsapol; Khongratarpon, Titima; Segsarnviriya, Suchada

    2011-06-01

    Full text: In general, sterile irradiation can affect vigor and mating competitiveness of the fruit flies. The objective of the experiments was to study the effects of sterile irradiation on the white-striped oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), developed for sterile fly detection. A day before adult emergence, the pupae were irradiated at the dose of 90 Grays. No effects on adult emergence and flight ability were observed. However, it induced complete sterility in both sexes. Also, it decreased male mating competitiveness significantly, while increasing sexual competitiveness significantly

  19. Striped bass ichthyoplankton abundance, mortality, and production estimation for the Potomac River population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polgar, T.T.

    1977-01-01

    Methods are developed for estimating, from field survey data, the mortality rate and production for each successive ichthyoplanktonic stage. The abundance estimators used in the computation of these quantities are also derived. An age-dependent, ichthyoplankton population model is developed assuming either a uniform age distribution or an exponential age distribution within each stage. Striped bass egg and larval data from a 1974 ichthyoplankton survey in the Potomac River are used in model computations. The various model estimates are evaluated qualitatively, and the usefulness and limitations of the models are discussed

  20. Electronic structure of a striped nickelate studied by the exact exchange for correlated electrons (EECE) approach

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-12-01

    Motivated by a RIXS study of Wakimoto, et al.(Phys. Rev. Lett., 102 (2009) 157001) we use density functional theory to analyze the magnetic order in the nickelate La5/3Sr1/3NiO4 and the details of its crystal and electronic structure. We compare the generalized gradient approximation to the hybrid functional approach of exact exchange for correlated electrons (EECE). In contrast to the former, the latter reproduces the insulating state of the compound and the midgap states. The EECE approach, in general, appears to be appropriate for describing stripe phases in systems with orbital degrees of freedom. Copyright © EPLA, 2009.

  1. IGF-I and branchial IGF receptor expression and localization during salinity acclimation in striped bass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek; Luckenbach, John Adam; Madsen, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    The initial response of the IGF-I system and the expression and cellular localization of IGF type-I receptor (IGF-IR) were studied in the gill of a euryhaline teleost during salinity acclimation. Exposure of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) to hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic challenges induced small...... in either plasma IGF-I, liver, or gill IGF-I mRNA, or gill IGF-IR mRNA levels. In a separate experiment, FW-acclimated fish were injected with saline or IGF-I prior to a 24-h SW challenge. Rapid regain of osmotic balance following SW transfer was hindered by IGF-I. Immunohistochemistry revealed...

  2. Stripes and honeycomb lattice of quantized vortices in rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Sakashita, Kouhei

    2018-05-01

    We study numerically the structure of a vortex lattice in rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with equal atomic masses and equal intra- and intercomponent coupling strengths. The numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation show that the quantized vortices in this situation form lattice configuration accompanying vortex stripes, honeycomb lattices, and their complexes. This is a result of the degeneracy of the system for the SU(2) symmetric operation, which causes a continuous transformation between the above structures. In terms of the pseudospin representation, the complex lattice structures are identified as a hexagonal lattice of doubly winding half skyrmions.

  3. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  4. Stripe segregation and magnetic coupling in the nickelate La 5/3Sr1/3NiO4

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-03-02

    We investigate the consequences of the stripe formation in the nickelate La5/3Sr1/3NiO4 for the details of its crystal structure and electronic states. Our data are based on numerical simulations within density functional theory (DFT) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The on-site Coulomb interaction is included in terms of the LDA+U scheme. Structure optimization of preliminary experimental data indicates a strong interaction between the structural and electronic degrees of freedom. In particular, we find a segregation of the diagonal filled stripes induced by a delicate interplay with the magnetic coupling. Beyond the cooperative effect of stripe segregation and spin order, distinct octahedral distortions are essential for the formation of an insulating state. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Evidence for Increased Aggressiveness in a Recent Widespread Strain of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Causing Stripe Rust of Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milus, Eugene A; Kristensen, Kristian; Hovmøller, Mogens S

    2009-01-01

    Stripe rust (yellow rust) of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has become more severe in eastern United States, Australia, and elsewhere since 2000. Recent research has shown that this coincided with a global spread of two closely related strains that were similar based on vir...... that wheat rust fungi can adapt to warmer temperatures and cause severe disease in previously unfavorable environments......Stripe rust (yellow rust) of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has become more severe in eastern United States, Australia, and elsewhere since 2000. Recent research has shown that this coincided with a global spread of two closely related strains that were similar based...... regimes for latent period, lesion length, lesion width, lesion area, and spore production on adult plants of a susceptible wheat cultivar with no known genes for resistance to stripe rust. "New" isolates (since 2000) were significantly more aggressive than "old" isolates (before 2000) for all variables...

  6. Mapping bound plasmon propagation on a nanoscale stripe waveguide using quantum dots: influence of spacer layer thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamanei S. Perera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we image the highly confined long range plasmons of a nanoscale metal stripe waveguide using quantum emitters. Plasmons were excited using a highly focused 633 nm laser beam and a specially designed grating structure to provide stronger incoupling to the desired mode. A homogeneous thin layer of quantum dots was used to image the near field intensity of the propagating plasmons on the waveguide. We observed that the photoluminescence is quenched when the QD to metal surface distance is less than 10 nm. The optimised spacer layer thickness for the stripe waveguides was found to be around 20 nm. Authors believe that the findings of this paper prove beneficial for the development of plasmonic devices utilising stripe waveguides.

  7. Study the effect of striping in two-step anodizing process on pore arrangement of nano-porous alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, M.H.; Saramad, S.; Tabaian, S.H.; Marashi, S.P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mohammadalinezhad, M.

    2009-01-01

    Two-step anodic oxidation of aluminum is generally employed to produce the ordered porous anodized alumina (PAA). Dissolving away (striping) the oxide film after the first anodizing step plays a key role in the final arrangement of nano-pores. In this work, different striping durations between 1 and 6 h were applied to the sample that was initially anodized at a constant voltage of 40 V at 17 deg. C for 15 h. The striping duration of 3 h was realized as the optimum time for achieving the best ordering degree for the pores. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used during and at the end of the process to examine the cross section and finishing surface of the specimens. Linear-angular fast Fourier transform (LA-FFT), an in-house technique based on MATLAB software, was employed to assess the ordering degree of the anodized samples.

  8. Study the effect of striping in two-step anodizing process on pore arrangement of nano-porous alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, M.H. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saramad, S., E-mail: ssaramad@aut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabaian, S.H.; Marashi, S.P. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zolfaghari, A. [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Centre of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadalinezhad, M. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Two-step anodic oxidation of aluminum is generally employed to produce the ordered porous anodized alumina (PAA). Dissolving away (striping) the oxide film after the first anodizing step plays a key role in the final arrangement of nano-pores. In this work, different striping durations between 1 and 6 h were applied to the sample that was initially anodized at a constant voltage of 40 V at 17 deg. C for 15 h. The striping duration of 3 h was realized as the optimum time for achieving the best ordering degree for the pores. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used during and at the end of the process to examine the cross section and finishing surface of the specimens. Linear-angular fast Fourier transform (LA-FFT), an in-house technique based on MATLAB software, was employed to assess the ordering degree of the anodized samples.

  9. Study the effect of striping in two-step anodizing process on pore arrangement of nano-porous alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, M. H.; Saramad, S.; Tabaian, S. H.; Marashi, S. P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mohammadalinezhad, M.

    2009-10-01

    Two-step anodic oxidation of aluminum is generally employed to produce the ordered porous anodized alumina (PAA). Dissolving away (striping) the oxide film after the first anodizing step plays a key role in the final arrangement of nano-pores. In this work, different striping durations between 1 and 6 h were applied to the sample that was initially anodized at a constant voltage of 40 V at 17 °C for 15 h. The striping duration of 3 h was realized as the optimum time for achieving the best ordering degree for the pores. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used during and at the end of the process to examine the cross section and finishing surface of the specimens. Linear-angular fast Fourier transform (LA-FFT), an in-house technique based on MATLAB software, was employed to assess the ordering degree of the anodized samples.

  10. Adaptive striping watershed segmentation method for processing microscopic images of overlapping irregular-shaped and multicentre particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X; Bai, B; Xu, N; Wu, K

    2015-04-01

    Oversegmentation is a major drawback of the morphological watershed algorithm. Here, we study and reveal that the oversegmentation is not only because of the irregular shapes of the particle images, which people are familiar with, but also because of some particles, such as ellipses, with more than one centre. A new parameter, the striping level, is introduced and the criterion for striping parameter is built to help find the right markers prior to segmentation. An adaptive striping watershed algorithm is established by applying a procedure, called the marker searching algorithm, to find the markers, which can effectively suppress the oversegmentation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by analysing some typical particle images including the images of gold nanorod ensembles. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Toxicity of agricultural subsurface drainwater from the San Joaquin Valley, California to juvenile chinook salmon and striped bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Jennings, Mark R.; Wiedmeyer, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (40-50 mm total length, TL) and striped bass Morone saxatilis (30-40 mm TL) were exposed to serial dilutions (100, 50, 25, and 12.5%) of agricultural subsurface drainwater (WWD), reconstituted drainwater (RWWD), and reconstituted seawater (IO). Agricultural subsurface drainwater contained naturally elevated concentrations of major ions (such as sodium and sulfate) and trace elements (especially boron and selenium), RWWD contained concentrations of major ions that mimicked those in WWD but trace elements were not elevated, and IO contained concentrations of total dissolved salt that were similar to those in WWD and RWWD but chloride replaced sulfate as the dominant anion. After 28 d of static exposure, over 75% of the chinook salmon in 100% WWD had died, whereas none had died in other dilutions and water types. Growth of chinook salmon in WWD and RWWD, but not in IO, exhibited dilution responses. All striped bass died in 100% WWD within 23 d, whereas 19 of 20 striped bass had died in 100% RWWD after 28 d. In contrast, none died in 100% IO. Growth of striped bass was impaired only in WWD. Fish in WWD accumulated as much as 200 μg/g (dry-weight basis) of boron, whereas fish in control water accumulated less than 3.1 μg/g. Although potentially toxic concentrations of selenium occurred in WWD (geometric means, 158-218 μg/L), chinook salmon and striped bass exposed to this water type accumulated 5.7 μg Se/g or less. These findings indicate that WWD was toxic to chinook salmon and striped bass. Judging from available data, the toxicity of WWD was due primarily to high concentrations of major ions present in atypical ratios, to high concentrations of sulfate, or to both. High concentrations of boron and selenium also may have contributed to the toxicity of WWD, but their effects were not clearly delineated.

  12. Modelling of the energy density deposition profiles of ultrashort laser pulses focused in optical media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, F; Lavertu, P-L; Bigaouette, N; Moore, F; Brunette, I; Giguere, D; Kieffer, J-C; Olivie, G; Ozaki, T

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in dense optical media is investigated theoretically by solving numerically the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. It is shown that the maximum energy density deposition as a function of the pulse energy presents a well-defined threshold that increases with the pulse duration. As a consequence of plasma defocusing, the maximum energy density deposition is generally smaller and the size of the energy deposition zone is generally larger for shorter pulses. Nevertheless, significant values of the energy density deposition can be obtained near threshold, i.e., at lower energy than for longer pulses

  13. Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varju, K.; Gustafsson, E.; Johnsson, P.; Mauritsson, J.; L'Huillier, A.; Mairesse, Y.; Agostini, P.; Breger, P.; Carre, B.; Merdji, H.; Monchicourt, P.; Salieres, P.; Frasinski, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a new method to reconstruct the electric field of attosecond pulse trains. The phase of the high-order harmonic emission electric field is Taylor expanded around the maximum of the laser pulse envelope in the time domain and around the central harmonic in the frequency domain. Experimental measurements allow us to determine the coefficients of this expansion and to characterize the radiation with attosecond accuracy over a femtosecond time scale. The method gives access to pulse-to-pulse variations along the train, including the timing, the chirp, and the attosecond carrier envelope phase

  14. Boron distribution in silicon after multiple pulse excimer laser annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, E.V.; Svensson, B.G.; Linnarsson, M.K.; La Magna, A.; Italia, M.; Privitera, V.; Fortunato, G.; Cuscuna, M.; Mariucci, L.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied B redistribution in Si after excimer laser annealing (ELA) with multiple laser pulses. B was implanted with energies of 1 and 10 keV and doses of 1x10 14 and 1x10 15 cm -2 . ELA with the number of pulses from 1 to 100 was performed at room temperature and 450 deg. C in vacuum. Irrespective of the implantation parameters and the ELA conditions used, a pile-up in the B concentration is observed near the maximum melting depth after ten pulses of ELA. Moreover, a detailed study has revealed that B accumulates at the maximum melt depth gradually with the number of ELA pulses. Besides, an increase in the carrier concentration is observed at the maximum melt depth, suggesting electrical activity of the accumulated B. Formation of Si-B complexes and vacancy accumulation during multiple ELA are discussed as possible mechanisms for the B build-up

  15. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  16. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  17. Study of general digital DC/pulse neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gang; Liu Zheng; Li Wensheng; Liu Hanlin; Liu Linmao

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary experimental results of digital DC/pulse neutron generator based on a ceramic drive-in target neutron tube for explosives detection are presented. The generator is a portable and on-off neutron source, and it can be controlled by remote PC. The generator can produce DC neutrons, pulse neutrons and multiple pulse neutrons. The maximum neutron yield is about 2 × 10"8 n/s, the minimum pulse width is 10 μs and the maximum pulse frequency is 10 kHz. Neutron yield and time-spectrum is measured in China Academy of Engineering Physics. The generator is suitable for explosive detection with PFTNA technology, and it can be used in other areas such as reactor measurements and on-line industrial test systems. (authors)

  18. Reducing dietary protein in pond production of hybrid striped bass - study shows a significant reduction is possible in digestible protein level in commercial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous work, we demonstrated that diets containing 40% digestible protein (DP) (45% crude protein) and 18 %lipid supplemented with Met and Lys resulted in superior performance and nutrient retentions in hybrid striped bass compared to less energy-dense diets when rearing hybrid striped bass at ...

  19. Estudo histomorfológico do músculo pectoralis de frangos de corte acometidos com white striping

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Zinn Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    A seleção de linhagens de frangos de corte com altas taxas de crescimento e aumento de rendimento muscular vem contribuindo para o surgimento de perdas significativas na indústria avícola em decorrência de modificações anatômicas. Dentre estas alterações, destaca-se uma miopatia que se caracteriza pelo aparecimento de graus de estrias esbranquiçadas no músculo Pectoralis major, as quais seguem a direção da fibra muscular, referida como white striping. A etiologia da white striping ainda é des...

  20. Picosecond, single pulse electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Riichi; Kawanishi, Masaharu

    1979-01-01

    The picosecond, single pulse electron linear accelerators, are described, which were installed in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Tokyo and in the Nuclear Radiation Laboratory of the Osaka University. The purpose of the picosecond, single pulse electron linear accelerators is to investigate the very short time reaction of the substances, into which gamma ray or electron beam enters. When the electrons in substances receive radiation energy, the electrons get high kinetic energy, and the energy and the electric charge shift, at last to the quasi-stable state. This transient state can be experimented with these special accelerators very accurately, during picoseconds, raising the accuracy of the time of incidence of radiation and also raising the accuracy of observation time. The outline of these picosecond, single pulse electron linear accelerators of the University of Tokyo and the Osaka University, including the history, the systems and components and the output beam characteristics, are explained. For example, the maximum energy 30 -- 35 MeV, the peak current 1 -- 8 n C, the pulse width 18 -- 40 ps, the pulse repetition rate 200 -- 720 pps, the energy spectrum 1 -- 1.8% and the output beam diameter 2 -- 5 mm are shown as the output beam characteristics of the accelerators in both universities. The investigations utilizing the picosecond single pulse electron linear accelerators, such as the investigation of short life excitation state by pulsed radiation, the dosimetry study of pulsed radiation, and the investigation of the transforming mechanism and the development of the transforming technology from picosecond, single pulse electron beam to X ray, vacuum ultraviolet ray and visual ray, are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  1. Estimates of entrainment mortality for striped bass and other fish species inhabiting the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreman, J.; Goodyear, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    An empirically derived age-, time-, and space-variant equation was used to estimate entrainment mortality at power plants for seven fish species inhabiting the Hudson River estuary. Entrainment mortality is expressed as a conditional rate, which is the fractional reduction in year-class strength due to entrainment if other sources of mortality are density-independent. Estimates of the conditional entrainment mortality, based on historical and projected once-through cooling operation of five power plants, were 11-22% for striped bass, 11-17% for white perch, 5-7% for Atlantic tomcod, 14-21% for American shad, 4-11% for river herring (alewife and blueback herring combined), and 35-79% for bay anchovy. Closed-cycle cooling (natural-draft cooling towers) at three of the power plants (Indian Point, Bowline Point, and Roseton) would reduce entrainment mortality of striped bass by 50-80%, of white perch by 75-80%, of Atlantic tocod by 65-70%, of American shad by 80%, of river herring by 30-90%, and of bay anchovy by 45-80%. The life stages most vulnerable to entrainment mortality were post-yolk-sac larva and entrainable size juvenile. 18 refs., 7 tabs

  2. Calibration of Binocular Vision Sensors Based on Unknown-Sized Elliptical Stripe Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing calibration methods for binocular stereo vision sensor (BSVS depend on a high-accuracy target with feature points that are difficult and costly to manufacture and. In complex light conditions, optical filters are used for BSVS, but they affect imaging quality. Hence, the use of a high-accuracy target with certain-sized feature points for calibration is not feasible under such complex conditions. To solve these problems, a calibration method based on unknown-sized elliptical stripe images is proposed. With known intrinsic parameters, the proposed method adopts the elliptical stripes located on the parallel planes as a medium to calibrate BSVS online. In comparison with the common calibration methods, the proposed method avoids utilizing high-accuracy target with certain-sized feature points. Therefore, the proposed method is not only easy to implement but is a realistic method for the calibration of BSVS with optical filter. Changing the size of elliptical curves projected on the target solves the difficulty of applying the proposed method in different fields of view and distances. Simulative and physical experiments are conducted to validate the efficiency of the proposed method. When the field of view is approximately 400 mm × 300 mm, the proposed method can reach a calibration accuracy of 0.03 mm, which is comparable with that of Zhang’s method.

  3. Implications of power plant mortality for management of the Hudson River striped bass fishery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodyear, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    The Atlantic coastal stock of striped bass apparently declined from colonial times to the early 1930s and subsequently recovered. The reasons for the decline and recovery are not known, but fishing remains a possible explanation, which would suggest population sensitivity to increased mortality. Evidence suggests that fishing mortality has been increasing in recent years and will continue to increase in the absence of management intervention. The consequence of increased fishing mortality is an increase in the marginal effect of the power plant mortality which based on the utilities' models and parameter fits, could result in important reductions in the Hudson River striped bass population. Any management actions imposed to arrest population decline or to increase yield per effort in the fishery would be required to mitigate the impact of the power plants by reducing fishing mortality. It is estimated that a 20% conditional power plant mortality is equivalent to a 14% increase in the number of average fishermen using the stock. Consequently, should any management intervention be required on behalf of the population, managers would be required to reduce fishing mortality by about 14% just to account for the power plant mortality. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Stem and stripe rust resistance in wheat induced by gamma rays and thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorda, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts were made to produce rust-resistant mutants in wheat cultivars. Seeds of G-38290 and G-58383 (T. aestivum), Methoni and Ilectra (T. durum) varieties were irradiated with different doses of γ-rays (3.5, 5, 8, 11, 15 and 21 krad) and thermal neutrons (1.7, 4, 5.5, 7.5, 10.5 and 12.5x10 12 ) and the M 1 plants were grown under isolation in the field. The objective was mainly to induce stripe, leaf and stem rust resistance in G-38290, Methoni and Ilectra varieties and leaf rust resistance in G-58383. Mutations for rust resistance were detected by using the ''chimera method'' under natural and artificial field epiphytotic conditions in M 2 and successive generations. The mutants detected were tested for resistance to a broad spectrum of available races. Mutants resistant or moderately resistant to stripe and stem rusts but not to leaf rust, were selected from G-38290. From the other three varieties tested no rust-resistant mutants were detected. The frequency of resistant mutants obtained increased with increased γ-ray dose-rate, but not with increased thermal neutron doses. Some mutants proved to be resistant or moderately resistant to both rusts and others to one of them. Twenty of these mutants were evaluated for yield from M 5 to M 8 . Some of them have reached the final stage of regional yield trials and one, induced by thermal neutrons, was released this year. (author)

  5. M DWARFS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82: PHOTOMETRIC LIGHT CURVES AND FLARE RATE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hilton, Eric J.; Becker, Andrew C.; Sesar, Branimir; West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, John J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a flare rate analysis of 50,130 M dwarf light curves in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82. We identified 271 flares using a customized variability index to search ∼2.5 million photometric observations for flux increases in the u and g bands. Every image of a flaring observation was examined by eye and with a point-spread function-matching and image subtraction tool to guard against false positives. Flaring is found to be strongly correlated with the appearance of Hα in emission in the quiet spectrum. Of the 99 flare stars that have spectra, we classify eight as relatively inactive. The flaring fraction is found to increase strongly in stars with redder colors during quiescence, which can be attributed to the increasing flare visibility and increasing active fraction for redder stars. The flaring fraction is strongly correlated with |Z| distance such that most stars that flare are within 300 pc of the Galactic plane. We derive flare u-band luminosities and find that the most luminous flares occur on the earlier-type m dwarfs. Our best estimate of the lower limit on the flaring rate (averaged over Stripe 82) for flares with Δu ≥ 0.7 mag on stars with u -1 deg -2 but can vary significantly with the line of sight.

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-07-27

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  7. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaolin Dong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  8. The effect of environmental hypercapnia and size on nitrite toxicity in the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Malthe; Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong

    2016-01-01

    Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) are farmed intensively at high stocking densities in Vietnam where they are likely to encounter environmental hypercapnia as well as occasional high levels of aquatic nitrite. Nitrite competes with Cl- for uptake at the branchial HCO3-/Cl- exchanger, ...... the ambient concentration, while small fish did not. Small P. hypophthalmus instead had significantly higher plasma [nitrate], and haemoglobin concentrations, revealing greater capacity for detoxifying nitrite by oxidising it to nitrate.......Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) are farmed intensively at high stocking densities in Vietnam where they are likely to encounter environmental hypercapnia as well as occasional high levels of aquatic nitrite. Nitrite competes with Cl- for uptake at the branchial HCO3-/Cl- exchanger...... to a reduced nitrite uptake. To assess the effect of hypercapnia on nitrite uptake, fish were cannulated in the dorsal aorta, allowing repeated blood sampling for measurements of haemoglobin derivatives, plasma ions and acid-base status during exposure to 0.9 mM nitrite alone and in combination with acute...

  9. Influence of chlorine on the susceptibility of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) to Vibrio anguillarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetrick, F M; Hall, Jr, L W; Wolski, S; Graves, W C; Roberson, B S

    1984-09-01

    The subtle effects that low levels of pollutants have on fish populations are probably more important than the effects of large spills, since the effects are less likely to be obvious and the source more difficult to detect in time to save the environment. An experiment was carried out to determine if exposure of striped bass to sublethal concentrations of chlorine affected their susceptibility to bacterial infection. Exposure of striped bass for 96 h to sublethal concentrations of total residual chlorine (TRC) (0.05-0.23 mg/L) did not increase their susceptibility to infection with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. Variables examined were TRC concentrations, length of exposure to chlorine, and the order of exposure to chlorine and the pathogen. Mortalities in the groups exposed to both chlorine and pathogen were not significantly different from those seen in groups receiving the bacteria only. Smaller fish are more susceptible than larger fish, and the LD50 is markedly affected by the ambient temperature in that fewer bacteria are needed to kill fish at lower temperatures. One contributing factor to this increased resistance of fish at higher water temperatures appears to be related to their immune status. 29 references, 5 tables.

  10. DE-STRIPING FOR TDICCD REMOTE SENSING IMAGE BASED ON STATISTICAL FEATURES OF HISTOGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-T. Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim to striping noise brought by non-uniform response of remote sensing TDI CCD, a novel de-striping method based on statistical features of image histogram is put forward. By analysing the distribution of histograms,the centroid of histogram is selected to be an eigenvalue representing uniformity of ground objects,histogrammic centroid of whole image and each pixels are calculated first,the differences between them are regard as rough correction coefficients, then in order to avoid the sensitivity caused by single parameter and considering the strong continuity and pertinence of ground objects between two adjacent pixels,correlation coefficient of the histograms is introduces to reflect the similarities between them,fine correction coefficient is obtained by searching around the rough correction coefficient,additionally,in view of the influence of bright cloud on histogram,an automatic cloud detection based on multi-feature including grey level,texture,fractal dimension and edge is used to pre-process image.Two 0-level panchromatic images of SJ-9A satellite with obvious strip noise are processed by proposed method to evaluate the performance, results show that the visual quality of images are improved because the strip noise is entirely removed,we quantitatively analyse the result by calculating the non-uniformity ,which has reached about 1% and is better than histogram matching method.

  11. The nasty neighbour in the striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio steals paternity and elicits aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Carola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Territoriality functions to monopolize access to resources including mates, but is costly in terms of energy and time investment. Some species reduce these costs by being less aggressive towards their neighbours than towards unfamiliar strangers, the so called dear enemy phenomenon. However, in other species individuals are more, not less aggressive towards their neighbours. It has been hypothesised that this is due to the fact that neighbours can impose a greater threat than strangers, but this has not been tested previously. Results We tested aggression in wild group-living male striped mice in a neutral test arena and demonstrate that breeders are more aggressive than non-breeding philopatrics, and that more aggression occurs during the breeding than during the non-breeding season. Male breeders were significantly more aggressive towards their neighbours than towards strangers, leading to the prediction that neighbours are the most important competitors for paternity. Using a molecular parentage analysis we show that 28% of offspring are sired by neighbouring males and only 7% by strangers. Conclusions We conclude that in male striped mice the main function of male aggression is defending paternity against their territorial neighbours.

  12. The nasty neighbour in the striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio) steals paternity and elicits aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schradin, Carsten; Schneider, Carola; Lindholm, Anna K

    2010-06-23

    Territoriality functions to monopolize access to resources including mates, but is costly in terms of energy and time investment. Some species reduce these costs by being less aggressive towards their neighbours than towards unfamiliar strangers, the so called dear enemy phenomenon. However, in other species individuals are more, not less aggressive towards their neighbours. It has been hypothesised that this is due to the fact that neighbours can impose a greater threat than strangers, but this has not been tested previously. We tested aggression in wild group-living male striped mice in a neutral test arena and demonstrate that breeders are more aggressive than non-breeding philopatrics, and that more aggression occurs during the breeding than during the non-breeding season. Male breeders were significantly more aggressive towards their neighbours than towards strangers, leading to the prediction that neighbours are the most important competitors for paternity. Using a molecular parentage analysis we show that 28% of offspring are sired by neighbouring males and only 7% by strangers. We conclude that in male striped mice the main function of male aggression is defending paternity against their territorial neighbours.

  13. Striped aeolian bedforms: a novel longitudinal pattern observed in ripples and megaripples on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, T. R.; Hugenholtz, C.; Barchyn, T.; Martin, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Striped aeolian bedforms (SABs) are a previously undocumented longitudinal pattern consisting of streamwise corridors of ripples or megaripples separated by corridors containing smaller bedforms. Similar patterns of spanwise variations in bed texture and/or bed topography are observed in water flumes. SABs have been observed in satellite imagery at sites in Peru, Iran, California, the Puna region of northwestern Argentina, and on Mars. The spanwise periodicity varies from automated image-based grain size analysis, we found that median grain size was larger on the ripples and megaripples than on the intervening corridors containing smaller bedforms. This result is consistent with fluvial stripes, for which it is suggested that instability-driven streamwise vortices produce lateral sediment transport and sorting. We found no consistent evidence upwind of the SAB patterns to indicate topographic seeding is necessary. Therefore, we hypothesize that SABs are a self-organized bedform pattern that develops from secondary (lateral) transport of sediment in mixed sediment deposits. We also hypothesize that the development and maintenance of SABs requires unimodal wind regimes.

  14. Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (non-ortho, PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169 and mono-ortho, PCB 105, PCB 118, and PCB 156) were measured in different organs and tissues (melon, blubber, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea). The mean highest levels were in blubber and melon, followed by liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue. PCB profiles were similar in all tissues and organs being dominated by the higher chlorinated homologues (hexa-CBs, 55.8-62.1%; penta-CBs, 15.4-20.0%; and hepta-CB PCB 180, 12.7-16.5%). Major PCBs in all tissues were congeners 138 and 153 collectively accounting for 50.6-58.3% of the total PCB concentrations, followed by PCB 101, 105, 118, and 180 constituting from 27.0% to 31.0%. PCB levels were higher in adult males than in adult females. The estimated 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs were much higher than the threshold level above which adverse effects have been observed in other marine mammals species, suggesting that striped dolphins in this region are at risk for toxic effects.

  15. Broadband Photometric Reverberation Mapping Analysis on SDSS-RM and Stripe 82 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haowen; Yang, Qian; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2018-02-01

    We modified the broadband photometric reverberation mapping (PRM) code, JAVELIN, and tested the availability to get broad-line region time delays that are consistent with the spectroscopic reverberation mapping (SRM) project SDSS-RM. The broadband light curves of SDSS-RM quasars produced by convolution with the system transmission curves were used in the test. We found that under similar sampling conditions (evenly and frequently sampled), the key factor determining whether the broadband PRM code can yield lags consistent with the SRM project is the flux ratio of the broad emission line to the reference continuum, which is in line with the previous findings. We further found a critical line-to-continuum flux ratio, about 6%, above which the mean of the ratios between the lags from PRM and SRM becomes closer to unity, and the scatter is pronouncedly reduced. We also tested our code on a subset of SDSS Stripe 82 quasars, and found that our program tends to give biased lag estimations due to the observation gaps when the R-L relation prior in Markov Chain Monte Carlo is discarded. The performance of the damped random walk (DRW) model and the power-law (PL) structure function model on broadband PRM were compared. We found that given both SDSS-RM-like or Stripe 82-like light curves, the DRW model performs better in carrying out broadband PRM than the PL model.

  16. Emergent Ising degrees of freedom above a double-stripe magnetic ground state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanghua; Flint, Rebecca

    2017-12-01

    Double-stripe magnetism [Q =(π /2 ,π /2 )] has been proposed as the magnetic ground state for both the iron-telluride and BaTi2Sb2O families of superconductors. Double-stripe order is captured within a J1-J2-J3 Heisenberg model in the regime J3≫J2≫J1 . Intriguingly, besides breaking spin-rotational symmetry, the ground-state manifold has three additional Ising degrees of freedom associated with bond ordering. Via their coupling to the lattice, they give rise to an orthorhombic distortion and to two nonuniform lattice distortions with wave vector (π ,π ) . Because the ground state is fourfold degenerate, modulo rotations in spin space, only two of these Ising bond order parameters are independent. Here, we introduce an effective field theory to treat all Ising order parameters, as well as magnetic order, and solve it within a large-N limit. All three transitions, corresponding to the condensations of two Ising bond order parameters and one magnetic order parameter are simultaneous and first order in three dimensions, but lower dimensionality, or equivalently weaker interlayer coupling, and weaker magnetoelastic coupling can split the three transitions, and in some cases allows for two separate Ising phase transitions above the magnetic one.

  17. Stripes instability of an oscillating non-Brownian iso-dense suspension of spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roht, Y. L.; Ippolito, I.; Hulin, J. P.; Salin, D.; Gauthier, G.

    2018-03-01

    We analyze experimentally the behavior of a non-Brownian, iso-dense suspension of spheres submitted to periodic square wave oscillations of the flow in a Hele-Shaw cell of gap H. We do observe an instability of the initially homogeneous concentration in the form of concentration variation stripes transverse to the flow. The wavelength of these regular spatial structures scales roughly as the gap of the cell and is independent of the particle concentration and of the period of oscillation. This instability requires large enough particle volume fractions φ≥ 0.25 and a gap large enough compared to the sphere diameter (H/d ≥ 8) . Mapping the domain of the existence of this instability in the space of the control parameters shows that it occurs only in a limited range of amplitudes of the fluid displacement. The analysis of the concentration distribution across the gap supports a scenario of particle migration towards the wall followed by an instability due to a particle concentration gradient with a larger concentration at the walls. In order to account for the main features of this stripes instability, we use the theory of longitudinal instability due to normal stresses difference and recent observations of a dependence of the first normal stresses difference on the particle concentration.

  18. Evaluation of dynamic range for LLNL streak cameras using high contrast pulsed and pulse podiatry on the Nova laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.B.; Weiland, T.L.; Prior, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a standard LLNL streak camera that has been used to analyze high contrast pulses on the Nova laser facility. These pulses have a plateau at their leading edge (foot) with an amplitude which is approximately 1% of the maximum pulse height. Relying on other features of the pulses and on signal multiplexing, we were able to determine how accurately the foot amplitude was being represented by the camera. Results indicate that the useful single channel dynamic range of the instrument approaches 100:1

  19. Optimal Linear Filters for Pulse Height Measurements in the Presence of Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygaard, K.

    1966-07-01

    For measurements of nuclear pulse height spectra a linear filter is used between the pulse amplifier and the pulse height recorder so as to improve the signal/noise ratio. The problem of finding the optimal filter is investigated with emphasis on technical realizability. The maximum available signal/noise ratio is theoretically calculated on the basis of all the information which can be found in the output of the pulse amplifier, and on an assumed a priori knowledge of the pulse time of arrival. It is then shown that the maximum available signal/noise ratio can be obtained with practical measurements without any a priori knowledge of pulse time of arrival, and a general description of the optimal linear filter is given. The solution is unique, technically realizable, and based solely on data (noise power spectrum and pulse shape) which can be measured at the output terminals of the pulse amplifier used

  20. Optimal Linear Filters for Pulse Height Measurements in the Presence of Noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, K

    1966-07-15

    For measurements of nuclear pulse height spectra a linear filter is used between the pulse amplifier and the pulse height recorder so as to improve the signal/noise ratio. The problem of finding the optimal filter is investigated with emphasis on technical realizability. The maximum available signal/noise ratio is theoretically calculated on the basis of all the information which can be found in the output of the pulse amplifier, and on an assumed a priori knowledge of the pulse time of arrival. It is then shown that the maximum available signal/noise ratio can be obtained with practical measurements without any a priori knowledge of pulse time of arrival, and a general description of the optimal linear filter is given. The solution is unique, technically realizable, and based solely on data (noise power spectrum and pulse shape) which can be measured at the output terminals of the pulse amplifier used.

  1. Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.

    1977-07-01

    An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures

  2. Arabidopsis thaliana Yellow Stripe1-Like4 and Yellow Stripe1-Like6 localize to internal cellular membranes and are involved in metal ion homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Hsuan eChu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Several members of the Yellow Stripe1-Like (YSL family of transporter proteins are able to transport metal-nicotianamine (NA complexes. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the roles of the Arabidopsis YSLs that are most closely related to the founding member of the family, ZmYS1 (e.g., AtYSL1, AtYSL2 and AtYSL3, but there is little information concerning members of the other two well-conserved YSL clades. Here, we provide evidence that AtYSL4 and AtYSL6, which are the only genes in Arabidopsis belong to YSL Group II, are localized to vacuole membranes and to internal membranes resembling endoplasmic reticulum. Both single and double mutants for YSL4 and YSL6 were rigorously analyzed, and have surprisingly mild phenotypes, in spite of the strong and wide-ranging expression of YSL6. However, in the presence of toxic levels of Mn and Ni, plants with mutations in YSL4 and YSL6 and plants overexpressing GFP-tagged YSL6 showed growth defects, indicating a role for these transporters in heavy metal stress responses.

  3. Pulsed dc self-sustained magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiatrowski, A.; Posadowski, W. M.; Radzimski, Z. J.

    2008-01-01

    The magnetron sputtering has become one of the commonly used techniques for industrial deposition of thin films and coatings due to its simplicity and reliability. At standard magnetron sputtering conditions (argon pressure of ∼0.5 Pa) inert gas particles (necessary to sustain discharge) are often entrapped in the deposited films. Inert gas contamination can be eliminated during the self-sustained magnetron sputtering (SSS) process, where the presence of the inert gas is not a necessary requirement. Moreover the SSS process that is possible due to the high degree of ionization of the sputtered material also gives a unique condition during the transport of sputtered particles to the substrate. So far it has been shown that the self-sustained mode of magnetron operation can be obtained using dc powering (dc-SSS) only. The main disadvantage of the dc-SSS process is its instability related to random arc formation. In such case the discharge has to be temporarily extinguished to prevent damaging both the magnetron source and power supply. The authors postulate that pulsed powering could protect the SSS process against arcs, similarly to reactive pulsed magnetron deposition processes of insulating thin films. To put this concept into practice, (i) the high enough plasma density has to be achieved and (ii) the type of pulsed powering has to be chosen taking plasma dynamics into account. In this article results of pulsed dc self-sustained magnetron sputtering (pulsed dc-SSS) are presented. The planar magnetron equipped with a 50 mm diameter and 6 mm thick copper target was used during the experiments. The maximum target power was about 11 kW, which corresponded to the target power density of ∼560 W/cm 2 . The magnetron operation was investigated as a function of pulse frequency (20-100 kHz) and pulse duty factor (50%-90%). The discharge (argon) extinction pressure level was determined for these conditions. The plasma emission spectra (400-410 nm range) and deposition

  4. Differences in the response of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Jennings, N.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, D.de; Schooneman, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. However, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. Therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously

  5. Differences in the response of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour popoise (Phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Jennings, N.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, de D.; Schooneman, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. However, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. Therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously

  6. Virulence and molecular characterization of experimental isolates of the stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis) indicate somatic recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinia striiformis causes stripe rust on wheat, barley, and grasses. Natural population studies have indicated that somatic recombination plays a possible role in the pathogen variation. To determine if somatic recombination can occur, susceptible wheat or barley plants were inoculated with mixe...

  7. Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tu; Hien, T.T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The ingredients' particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish

  8. 76 FR 32911 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Striped...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ...; Dodd and Cade 1998, p. 337, Johnson 2003, p. 19; Kirkman et al. 1999, p. 557; Semlitsch and Bodie 2003... habitats in the persistence of populations (Semlitsch and Bodie 2003, p. 1219). Semi- aquatic species (such...; Semlitsch 1998, p. 1116; Semlitsch and Bodie 2003, p. 1219). Distribution The range of the striped newt...

  9. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Standard Star Catalog for Stripe 82: The Dawn of Industrial 1% Optical Photometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivezic, Zeljko; Smith, J. A; Miknaitis, Gajus; Lin, Huan; Tucker, Douglas; Lupton, Robert H; Gunn, James E; Knapp, Gillian R; Strauss, Michael A; Sesar, Branimir

    2007-01-01

    ... (at least four per band, with a median of 10) in the ugriz system. The catalog includes 1.01 million nonvariable unresolved objects from the equatorial stripe 82 in the right ascension range and with the corresponding r-band...

  10. Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tu; Hien, T.T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2018-01-01

    The ingredients' particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish

  11. Heritability of growth traits and correlation with hepatic gene expression among hybrid striped bass exhibiting extremes in performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We set out to better understand the genetic basis behind growth variation in hybrid striped bass (HSB) by determining whether gene expression changes could be detected between the largest and smallest HSB in a population using a global gene expression approach by RNA sequencing of liver. Fingerling...

  12. Interactions with the actin cytoskeleton are required for cell wall localization of barley stripe mosaic virus TGB proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The host cytoskeleton and membrane system are the main routes by which plant viruses move within or between cells. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) -induced actin filament thickening was visualized in the cytoskeleton of agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells expressing DsRed:Talin. ...

  13. {mu}SR studies of the interplay of magnetic spin stripe order with superconductivity in transition metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauss, Hans-Henning, E-mail: h.klauss@physik.tu-dresden.de [Institute for Solid State Physics, TU Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In this work we review muon spin relaxation experiments on the layered La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4} nickelate as well as La{sub 2-x}Ba{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} cuprate systems to examine spin stripe order. In particular, the interplay of stripe order with superconductivity in Nd and Eu doped La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} cuprates is discussed. Detailed studies of the electronic phase diagrams as well as the magnetic and superconducting order parameters for different rare-earth and Sr doping levels in La{sub 2-x-y}RE{sub y}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} revealed the strong correlation of static spin stripe order with the structural distortion in the low temperature tetragonal (LTT) phase and the competition with the superconducting ground state. High magnetic field studies demonstrate the nearly degenerate ground state energy of the different electronic phases. Slow transverse fluctuations of the charge stripes are found in nickelates and cuprates at low temperatures.

  14. Computer simulation model for the striped bass young-of-the-year population in the Hudson River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraslan, A.H.; Van Winkle, W.; Sharp, R.D.; Christensen, S.W.; Goodyear, C.P.; Rush, R.M.; Fulkerson, W.

    1975-09-01

    This report presents a daily transient (tidal-averaged), longitudinally one-dimensional (cross-section-averaged) computer simulation model for the assessment of the entrainment and impingement impacts of power plant operations on young-of-the-year populations of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, in the Hudson River

  15. [Genetic variation and differentiation in striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius inferred from RAPD-PCR analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atopkin, D M; Bogdanov, A S; Chelomina, G N

    2007-06-01

    Genetic variation and differentiation of the trans-Palearctic species Apodemus agrarius (striped field mouse), whose range consists of two large isolates-European-Siberian and Far Eastern-Chinese, were examined using RAPD-PCR analysis. The material from the both parts of the range was examined (41 individual of A. agrarius from 18 localities of Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, and Kazakhstan); the Far-Eastern part was represented by samples from the Amur region, Khabarovsk krai, and Primorye (Russia). Differences in frequencies of polymorphic RAPD loci were found between the European-Siberian and the Far Eastern population groups of striped field mouse. No "fixed" differences between them in RAPD spectra were found, and none of the used statistical methods permitted to distinguish with absolute certainty animals from the two range parts. Thus, genetic isolation of the European-Siberian and the Far Eastern population groups of A. agrarius is not strict. These results support the hypothesis on recent dispersal of striped field mouse from East to West Palearctics (during the Holocene climatic optimum, 7000 to 4500 years ago) and subsequent disjunction of the species range (not earlier than 4000-4500 years ago). The Far Eastern population group is more polymorphic than the European-Siberian one, while genetic heterogeneity is more uniformly distributed within it. This is probably explained by both historical events that happened during the species dispersal in the past, and different environmental conditions for the species in different parts of its range. The Far Eastern population group inhabits the area close to the distribution center of A. agrarius. It is likely that this group preserved genetic variation of the formerly integral ancestral form, while some amount of genetic polymorphism could be lost during the species colonization of the Siberian and European areas. To date, the settlement density and population number in general are higher than within the European

  16. Appraisal of wheat germplasm for adult plant resistance against stripe rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Kamran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The resurgence of wheat stripe rust is of great concern for world food security. Owing to resistance breakdown and the appearance of new virulent high-temperature adapted races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, many high yielding commercial varieties in the country lost their yield potential. Searching for new sources of resistance is the best approach to mitigate the problem. Quantitative resistance (partial or adult plant or durable resistance is reported to be more stable than race specific resistance. In the current perusal, a repertoire of 57 promising wheat lines along with the KLcheck line Morocco, developed through hybridisation and selection of local and international lines with International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT origin, were evaluated under natural field conditions at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB during the 2012−2013 and 2013−2014 time periods. Final rust severity (FRS, the area under the rust progress curve (AURPC, the relative area under the rust progress curve (rAURPC, and the coefficient of infection (CI were unraveled to infer the level of quantitative resistance. Final rust severity was recorded when the susceptible check exhibited 100% severity. There were 21 lines which were immune (no disease, 16 which were resistant, five moderately resistant, two resistant-to-moderately resistant, one moderately resistant-to-moderately susceptible, 5 moderately susceptible-to-susceptible, one moderately susceptible, and six exhibited a susceptible response. Nevertheless, 51 lines exhibited a high level of partial resistance while the three lines, NW-5-1212-1, NW-7-30-1, and NW-7-5 all showed a moderate level of partial resistance based on FRS, while 54 lines, on the basis of AURPC and rAURPC, were identified as conferring a high level of partial resistance. Moreover, adult plant resistance was conferred by 47 wheat lines, based on CI value. It was striking that, 13 immune lines

  17. Ionization and pulse lethargy effects in inverse Cherenkov accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprangle, P.; Hubbard, R.F.; Hafizi, B.

    1997-01-01

    Ionization processes limit the accelerating gradient and place an upper limit on the pulse duration of the electromagnetic driver in the inverse Cherenkov accelerator (ICA). Group velocity slippage, i.e., pulse lethargy, on the other hand, imposes a lower limit on the pulse duration. These limits are obtained for two ICA configurations in which the electromagnetic driver (e.g., laser or millimeter wave source) is propagated in a waveguide that is (i) lined with a dielectric material or (ii) filled with a neutral gas. In either configuration the electromagnetic driving field is guided and has an axial electric field with phase velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum, c. The intensity of the driver in the ICA, and therefore the acceleration gradient, is limited by tunneling and collisional ionization effects. Partial ionization of the dielectric liner or gas can lead to significant modification of the dispersive properties of the waveguide, altering the phase velocity of the accelerating field and causing particle slippage, thus disrupting the acceleration process. An additional limitation on the pulse duration is imposed since the group velocity of the driving pulse is less than c and the pulse slips behind the accelerated electrons. Hence for sufficiently short pulses the electrons outrun the pulse, terminating the acceleration. Limitations on the driver pulse duration and accelerating gradient, due to ionization and pulse lethargy, are estimated for the two ICA configurations. Maximum accelerating gradients and pulse durations are presented for a 10 μm, 1 mm, and 1 cm wavelength electromagnetic driver. The combination of ionization and pulse lethargy effects impose severe limitations on the maximum energy gain in inverse Cherenkov accelerators. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  19. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  20. Pulsed-DC selfsputtering of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiatrowski, A; Posadowski, W M; Radzimski, Z J

    2008-01-01

    At standard magnetron sputtering conditions (argon pressure ∼0.5 Pa) inert gas particles are often entrapped in the formed films. Inert gas contamination can be eliminated by using the self-sustained magnetron sputtering process because it is done in the absence of the inert gas atmosphere. The self-sustained sputtering (SSS) gives also a unique condition during the transport of sputtered particles to the substrate. It is especially useful for filling high aspect ratio submicron scale structures for microelectronics. So far it has been shown that the self-sputtering process can be sustained in the DC operation mode (DC-SSS) only. The main disadvantage of DC-SSS process is instability related to possible arc formation. Usage of pulsed sputtering, similarly to reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering, could eliminate this problem. In this paper results of pulsed-DC self-sustained magnetron sputtering (pulsed DC-SSS) of copper are presented for the first time. The planar magnetron equipped with a 50 mm in diameter and 6 mm thick copper target was powered by DC-power supply modulated by power switch. The maximum target power was about 11 kW (∼550W/cm 2 ). The magnetron operation was investigated as a function of pulsing frequency (20-100 kHz) and duty factor (50-90%). The discharge extinction pressure was determined for these conditions. The plasma emission spectra (400-410nm range) and deposition rates were observed for both DC and pulsed DC sustained self-sputtering processes. The presented results illustrate that stable pulsed DC-SSS process can be obtained at pulsing frequency in the range of 60-100 kHz and duty factor of 70-90%

  1. Pulsed-DC selfsputtering of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiatrowski, A.; Posadowski, W. M.; Radzimski, Z. J.

    2008-03-01

    At standard magnetron sputtering conditions (argon pressure ~0.5 Pa) inert gas particles are often entrapped in the formed films. Inert gas contamination can be eliminated by using the self-sustained magnetron sputtering process because it is done in the absence of the inert gas atmosphere. The self-sustained sputtering (SSS) gives also a unique condition during the transport of sputtered particles to the substrate. It is especially useful for filling high aspect ratio submicron scale structures for microelectronics. So far it has been shown that the self-sputtering process can be sustained in the DC operation mode (DC-SSS) only. The main disadvantage of DC-SSS process is instability related to possible arc formation. Usage of pulsed sputtering, similarly to reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering, could eliminate this problem. In this paper results of pulsed-DC self-sustained magnetron sputtering (pulsed DC-SSS) of copper are presented for the first time. The planar magnetron equipped with a 50 mm in diameter and 6 mm thick copper target was powered by DC-power supply modulated by power switch. The maximum target power was about 11 kW (~550W/cm2). The magnetron operation was investigated as a function of pulsing frequency (20-100 kHz) and duty factor (50-90%). The discharge extinction pressure was determined for these conditions. The plasma emission spectra (400-410nm range) and deposition rates were observed for both DC and pulsed DC sustained self-sputtering processes. The presented results illustrate that stable pulsed DC-SSS process can be obtained at pulsing frequency in the range of 60-100 kHz and duty factor of 70-90%.

  2. THE 31 DEG{sup 2} RELEASE OF THE STRIPE 82 X-RAY SURVEY: THE POINT SOURCE CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Urry, C. Megan; Ananna, Tonima; Civano, Francesca; Marchesi, Stefano; Pecoraro, Robert [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics Department, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Cappelluti, Nico; Comastri, Andrea; Brusa, Marcella [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Glikman, Eilat [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States); Richards, Gordon [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Cardamone, Carie [Department of Math and Science, Wheelock College, 200 Riverway, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Farrah, Duncan [Department of Physics MC 0435, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 850 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Gilfanov, Marat [Max-Planck Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Postfach 1317, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Green, Paul [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Makler, Martin [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22290-180 (Brazil); and others

    2016-02-01

    We release the next installment of the Stripe 82 X-ray survey point-source catalog, which currently covers 31.3 deg{sup 2} of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 Legacy field. In total, 6181 unique X-ray sources are significantly detected with XMM-Newton (>5σ) and Chandra (>4.5σ). This catalog release includes data from XMM-Newton cycle AO 13, which approximately doubled the Stripe 82X survey area. The flux limits of the Stripe 82X survey are 8.7 × 10{sup −16} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, 4.7 × 10{sup −15} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and 2.1 × 10{sup −15} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in the soft (0.5–2 keV), hard (2–10 keV), and full bands (0.5–10 keV), respectively, with approximate half-area survey flux limits of 5.4 × 10{sup −15} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, 2.9 × 10{sup −14} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and 1.7 × 10{sup −14} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. We matched the X-ray source lists to available multi-wavelength catalogs, including updated matches to the previous release of the Stripe 82X survey; 88% of the sample is matched to a multi-wavelength counterpart. Due to the wide area of Stripe 82X and rich ancillary multi-wavelength data, including coadded SDSS photometry, mid-infrared WISE coverage, near-infrared coverage from UKIDSS and VISTA Hemisphere Survey, ultraviolet coverage from GALEX, radio coverage from FIRST, and far-infrared coverage from Herschel, as well as existing ∼30% optical spectroscopic completeness, we are beginning to uncover rare objects, such as obscured high-luminosity active galactic nuclei at high-redshift. The Stripe 82X point source catalog is a valuable data set for constraining how this population grows and evolves, as well as for studying how they interact with the galaxies in which they live.

  3. Predicting the growth of nanoscale nuclei by histotripsy pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, Kenneth B; Holland, Christy K

    2016-01-01

    Histotripsy is a focused ultrasound therapy that ablates tissue through the mechanical action of cavitation. Histotripsy-initiated cavitation activity is generated from shocked ultrasound pulses that scatter from incidental nuclei (shock scattering histotripsy), or purely tensile ultrasound pulses (microtripsy). The Yang/Church model was numerically integrated to predict the behavior of the cavitation nuclei exposed to measured shock scattering histotripsy pulses. The bubble motion exhibited expansion only behavior, suggesting that the ablative action of a histotripsy pulse is related to the maximum size of the bubble. The analytic model of Holland and Apfel was extended to predict the maximum size of cavitation nuclei for both shock scattering histotripsy and microtripsy excitations. The predictions of the analytic model and the numerical model agree within 2% for fully developed shock scattering histotripsy pulses (>72 MPa peak positive pressure). For shock scattering histotripsy pulses that are not fully developed (<72 MPa), the analytic model underestimated the maximum size by less than 5%. The analytic model was also used to predict bubble growth nucleated from microtripsy insonations, and was found to be consistent with experimental observations. Based on the extended analytic model, metrics were developed to predict the extent of the treatment zone from histotripsy pulses. (paper)

  4. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  5. Controlling output pulse and prepulse in a resonant microwave pulse compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlapakovski, A.; Artemenko, S.; Chumerin, P.; Yushkov, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    A resonant microwave pulse compressor with a waveguide H-plane-tee-based energy extraction unit was studied in terms of its capability to produce output pulses that comprise a low-power long-duration (prepulse) and a high-power short-duration part. The application of such combined pulses with widely variable prepulse and high-power pulse power and energy ratios is of interest in the research area of electronic hardware vulnerability. The characteristics of output radiation pulses are controlled by the variation of the H-plane tee transition attenuation at the stage of microwave energy storage in the compressor cavity. Results of theoretical estimations of the parameters tuning range and experimental investigations of the prototype S-band compressor (1.5 MW, 12 ns output pulse; ∼13.2 dB gain) are presented. The achievable maximum in the prepulse power is found to be about half the power of the primary microwave source. It has been shown that the energy of the prepulse becomes comparable with that of the short-duration (nanosecond) pulse, while the power of the latter decreases insignificantly. The possible range of variation of the prepulse power and energy can be as wide as 40 dB. In the experiments, the prepulse level control within the range of ∼10 dB was demonstrated.

  6. A compact high-voltage pulse generator based on pulse transformer with closed magnetic core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Jinliang; Cheng, Xinbing; Bai, Guoqiang; Zhang, Hongbo; Feng, Jiahuai; Liang, Bo

    2010-03-01

    A compact high-voltage nanosecond pulse generator, based on a pulse transformer with a closed magnetic core, is presented in this paper. The pulse generator consists of a miniaturized pulse transformer, a curled parallel strip pulse forming line (PFL), a spark gap, and a matched load. The innovative design is characterized by the compact structure of the transformer and the curled strip PFL. A new structure of transformer windings was designed to keep good insulation and decrease distributed capacitance between turns of windings. A three-copper-strip structure was adopted to avoid asymmetric coupling of the curled strip PFL. When the 31 microF primary capacitor is charged to 2 kV, the pulse transformer can charge the PFL to 165 kV, and the 3.5 ohm matched load can deliver a high-voltage pulse with a duration of 9 ns, amplitude of 84 kV, and rise time of 5.1 ns. When the load is changed to 50 ohms, the output peak voltage of the generator can be 165 kV, the full width at half maximum is 68 ns, and the rise time is 6.5 ns.

  7. A compact bipolar pulse-forming network-Marx generator based on pulse transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huibo; Yang, Jianhua; Lin, Jiajin; Yang, Xiao

    2013-11-01

    A compact bipolar pulse-forming network (PFN)-Marx generator based on pulse transformers is presented in this paper. The high-voltage generator consisted of two sets of pulse transformers, 6 stages of PFNs with ceramic capacitors, a switch unit, and a matched load. The design is characterized by the bipolar pulse charging scheme and the compact structure of the PFN-Marx. The scheme of bipolar charging by pulse transformers increased the withstand voltage of the ceramic capacitors in the PFNs and decreased the number of the gas gap switches. The compact structure of the PFN-Marx was aimed at reducing the parasitic inductance in the generator. When the charging voltage on the PFNs was 35 kV, the matched resistive load of 48 Ω could deliver a high-voltage pulse with an amplitude of 100 kV. The full width at half maximum of the load pulse was 173 ns, and its rise time was less than 15 ns.

  8. Optimal pulse fishing policy in stage-structured models with birth pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shujing; Chen Lansun; Sun Lihua

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose exploited models with stage structure for the dynamics in a fish population for which periodic birth pulse and pulse fishing occur at different fixed time. Using the stroboscopic map, we obtain an exact cycle of system, and obtain the threshold conditions for its stability. Bifurcation diagrams are constructed with the birth rate (or pulse fishing time or harvesting effort) as the bifurcation parameter, and these are observed to display complex dynamic behaviors, including chaotic bands with period windows, period-doubling, multi-period-halving and incomplete period-doubling bifurcation, pitch-fork and tangent bifurcation, non-unique dynamics (meaning that several attractors or attractor and chaos coexist) and attractor crisis. This suggests that birth pulse and pulse fishing provide a natural period or cyclicity that make the dynamical behaviors more complex. Moreover, we show that the pulse fishing has a strong impact on the persistence of the fish population, on the volume of mature fish stock and on the maximum annual-sustainable yield. An interesting result is obtained that, after the birth pulse, the population can sustain much higher harvesting effort if the mature fish is removed as early as possible

  9. Performance Analysis of the Effect of Pulsed-Noise Interference on WLAN Signals Transmitted Over a Nakagami Fading Channel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsoumanis, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    ...) coding with soft decision decoding (SDD) and maximum- likelihood detection improves performance as compared to uncoded signals, In addition, the combination of maximum-likelihood detection and error connection coding renders pulsed-noise...

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of the Small Brown Planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Carrying Rice stripe virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hyun Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe virus (RSV, the type member of the genus Tenuivirus, transmits by the feeding behavior of small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus. To investigate the interactions between the virus and vector insect, total RNA was extracted from RSV-viruliferous SBPH (RVLS and non-viruliferous SBPH (NVLS adults to construct expressed sequence tag databases for comparative transcriptome analysis. Over 30 million bases were sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing to construct 1,538 and 953 of isotigs from the mRNA of RVLS and NVLS, respectively. The gene ontology (GO analysis demonstrated that both libraries have similar GO structures, however, the gene expression pattern analysis revealed that 17.8% and 16.8% of isotigs were up- and down-regulated significantly in the RVLS, respectively. These RSV-dependently regulated genes possibly have important roles in the physiology of SBPH, transmission of RSV, and RSV and SBPH interaction.

  11. Gait transition and oxygen consumption in swimming striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis Agassiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannas, M.; Schaefer, J.; Domenici, P.

    2006-01-01

    A flow-through respirometer and swim tunnel was used to estimate the gait transition speed (Up-c) of striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis, a labriform swimmer, and to investigate metabolic costs associated with gait transition. The Up-c was defined as the lowest speed at which fish decrease...... the use of pectoral fins significantly. While the tail was first recruited for manoeuvring at relatively low swimming speeds, the use of the tail at these low speeds [as low as 0·75 body (fork) lengths s-1, LF s-1) was rare (..., either in addition to pectoral fins or during burst-and-coast mode. Oxygen consumption increased exponentially with swimming speeds up to gait transition, and then levelled off. Similarly, cost of transport (CT) decreased with increasing speed, and then levelled off near Up-c. When speeds =Up...

  12. Hypoxia tolerance and partitioning of bimodal respiration in the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Wang, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Air-breathing fish are common in the tropics, and their importance in Asian aquaculture is increasing, but the respiratory physiology of some of the key species such as the striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Sauvage 1878 is unstudied. P. hypophthalmus is an interesting species...... to air-breathe. The possibility of reducing air-breathing frequency may be energetically beneficial for the fish, leaving more of the aerobic scope for growth and other activities, due to the proposed energetic costs of surfacing behavior....... as it appears to possess both well-developed gills and a modified swim bladder that functions as an air-breathing organ indicating a high capacity for both aquatic and aerial respiration. Using newly developed bimodal intermittent-closed respirometry, the partitioning of oxygen consumption in normoxia...

  13. Kinematics and energetic benefits of schooling in the labriform fish, striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J. L.; Vaknin, R.; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    Schooling can provide fish with a number of behavioural and ecological advantages, including increased food supply and reduced predator risk. Previous work suggests that fish swimming using body and caudal fin locomotion may also experience energetic advantages when trailing behind neighbours......, based on correlations between swimming speeds and pectoral fin beat frequency and between swimming speeds and oxygen consumption of solitary fish. In addition, leading individuals in a school were estimated to have higher oxygen consumption than solitary individuals swimming at the same speed, based....... However, little is known about the potential energetic advantages associated with schooling in fish that swim using their pectoral fins. Using the striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis, a labriform fish that swims routinely with its pectoral fins, we found that pectoral fin beat frequencies were...

  14. Mass-mortality in green striped tree dragons (Japalura splendida) associated with multiple viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behncke, H; Stöhr, A C; Heckers, K O; Ball, I; Marschang, R E

    2013-09-14

    In spring 2011, high mortality in association with skin lesions, systemic haemorrhages and necrosis occurred in a group of green striped tree dragons (Japalura splendida) which were imported from southwestern China via Florida to Germany. Infections with various endoparasites were diagnosed in coprological examinations. Different antiparasitic and antibiotic treatments over a period of three months did not reduce the mortality rate. The remaining animals were therefore euthanased and submitted for additional testing. Predominant findings in pathological examination were granulomatous and necrotising inflammation of the skin, vacuolar tubulonephrosis of the distal renal tubules, hyperaemia and liver necrosis. Eosinophilic intranuclear and basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were detected in the liver. Virological testing (PCR and virus isolation methods) demonstrated the presence of ranavirus, adenovirus and invertebrate iridovirus.

  15. A Piston-Rotaxane with Two Potential Stripes: Force Transitions and Yield Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith M. Sevick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine a rod piston-rotaxane system, where the positions of several mobile rings on the axle are controlled by an external force acting on one of the rings. This allows us to access the translational entropy of the rings. For a simple rotaxane molecule with an axle that has uniform ring-axle interactions along its length, the molecule behaves like a miniature piston filled with a one-dimensional ideal gas. We then examine the effect of two stripes on the axle, having different ring-axle interactions with the mobile rings, so that one section is of high energy (repulsive for the rings and another section is of lower energy (or attractive. This kind of rotaxane can exhibit rapid changes in displacement or force, and in particular, this molecule can exhibit a yield stress in which the piston suddenly compresses under a small increase in the applied force.

  16. Selective Transgenic Expression of Mutant Ubiquitin in Purkinje Cell Stripes in the Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Bert M; Gentier, Romina J G; Hermes, Denise J H P; van Leeuwen, Fred W; Hopkins, David A

    2017-06-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is one of the major mechanisms for protein breakdown in cells, targeting proteins for degradation by enzymatically conjugating them to ubiquitin molecules. Intracellular accumulation of ubiquitin-B +1 (UBB +1 ), a frameshift mutant of ubiquitin-B, is indicative of a dysfunctional UPS and has been implicated in several disorders, including neurodegenerative disease. UBB +1 -expressing transgenic mice display widespread labeling for UBB +1 in brain and exhibit behavioral deficits. Here, we show that UBB +1 is specifically expressed in a subset of parasagittal stripes of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex of a UBB +1 -expressing mouse model. This expression pattern is reminiscent of that of the constitutively expressed Purkinje cell antigen HSP25, a small heat shock protein with neuroprotective properties.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the critically endangered Vietnamese three-striped box turtle (Testudines: Geoemydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Jian; Shi, Yan; Xiao, Feng-Fang; Zhang, Xin-Cheng; Zhu, Xin-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Vietnamese three-striped box turtle (Cuora cyclornata) was first determined in this study. It was a circular molecule of 16,594 bp in length, consisting of 37 genes typically found in other vertebrates. The AT content of the overall base composition of the whole mitogenome was 60.39%, while the control region was 70.23%. Two ETAS and 4 CSBs were identified, while a remarkable feature was found in the control region: a large number of (TTATTATA)10 direct tandem repeats followed by (TTATA)n (n=10, 8 and 1), which were spaced into three domains by (TA)n (n=1, 1 and 2). The sequence information could play an important role in the study of phylogenetic relationships in turtles and preservation of genetic resources for helping conservation of the endangered species.

  18. High polarization purity operation of 99% in 9xx-nm broad stripe laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohashi, Rintaro; Yamagata, Yuji; Kaifuchi, Yoshikazu; Tada, Katsuhisa; Nogawa, Ryozaburo; Yamada, Yumi; Yamaguchi, Masayuki

    2018-02-01

    Polarization characteristics of self-aligned stripe (SAS) laser diodes (LDs) and Ridge-LDs are investigated to realize highly efficient polarization beam combined (PBC) LD modules. Vertical layers of both lasers are designed identically. Near field patterns (NFP) of TM polarization for the Ridge-LD showed peaks at the side edges, as expected by the strain simulation. On the other hand, SAS-LD showed a relatively flat and weak profile. Polarization purity (ITE/ (ITE+ITM)) of SAS-LDs exceeds 99%, while those of the Ridge-LDs are as low as 96%. It is confirmed that our SAS-LDs are suitable sources for PBC with low power loss.

  19. Stripe-teeth metamaterial Al- and Nb-based rectennas (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Richard M.; Giardini, Stephen A.; Carlson, Joel B.; Joghee, Prabhuram; O'Hayre, Ryan P.; Diest, Kenneth; Rothschild, Mordechai

    2015-09-01

    Unlike a semiconductor, where the absorption is limited by the band gap, a "microrectenna array" could theoretically very efficiently rectify any desired portion of the infrared frequency spectrum (25 - 400 THz). We investigated vertical metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes that rectify vertical high-frequency fields produced by a metamaterial planar stripe-teeth Al or Au array (above the diodes), similar to stripe arrays that have demonstrated near-perfect absorption in the infrared due to critical coupling [1]. Using our design rules that maximize asymmetry (and therefore the component of the electric field pointed into the substrate, analogous to Second Harmonic Generation), we designed, fabricated, and analyzed these metamaterial-based microrectenna arrays. NbOx and Al2O3 were produced by anodization and ALD, respectively. Smaller visible-light Pt-NbOx-Nb rectennas have produced output power when illuminated by visible (514 nm) light [2]. The resonances of these new Au/NbOx/Nb and Al/Al2O3/Al microrectenna arrays, with larger dimensions and more complex nanostructures than in Ref. 1, were characterized by microscopic FTIR microscopy and agreed well with FDTD models, once the experimental refractive index values were entered into the model. Current-voltage measurements were carried out, showed that the Al/Al2O3/Al diodes have very large barrier heights and breakdown voltages, and were compared to our model of the MIM diode. We calculate expected THz-rectification using classical [3] and quantum [4] rectification models, and compare to measurements of direct current output, under infrared illumination. [1] C. Wu, et. al., Phys. Rev. B 84 (2011) 075102. [2] R. M. Osgood III, et. al., Proc. SPIE 8096, 809610 (2011). [3] A. Sanchez, et. al., J. Appl. Phys. 49 (1978) 5270. [4] J. R. Tucker and M. J. Feldman, Rev. of Mod. Phys. 57, (1985)1055.

  20. Effectiveness of Alkali and Acid to Produce Collagen from Fish Skin of Striped Catifish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Lu’lu’in Nanda Alfira Devi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin is one of the alternative sources contained high protein  to isolate collagen. Fish skin generally extracted by the method of acid, alkali and enzymes. The study aim to determine the effectiveness of NaOHand acetic acid on catfish (Pangasius sp. skin extraction  process.  The concentrations of alkaline pretreatment were 0,05; 0,1; 0,15 and 0,2 M with the soaking time of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h by NaOH replacement in every 2 h. The concentrations of acetic acid for hydrolisis process were 0.05; 0.1; 0.15 and 0.2 M with the soaking time of 1, 2, and 3 h. The experimental design used for pretreatment process is split splot, while for the hydrolysis process is factorial completely randomized design. The results showed that pretreatment with a concentration of 0.05 M NaOH for 4 h has a significant effect for eliminating non-collagen protein (p<0.05. The acetic acid concentration of 0.15 M for 1 h also has a significant effect on fish skin swelling. The yield of striped catfish collagen was 17.272%, the protein content was 86%, and the viscosity was 12 cP. Fish skin extract was identified as type I collagen by functional groups and electrophoretic analysis. Collagen from striped catfish skin has α1 and α2 and protein structure with the molecular weight of α chain were 94 and 98 kDa, meanwhile the molecular wheight of β chain was 204 kD.

  1. Trillions of quantum dots, fingerprints, nanolithography with diblock copolymers and annealing of striped phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaikin, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Full text: We have been using diblock copolymers as a new way to make ultradense patterns which cover wide areas on a variety of inorganic substrates. The feature sizes are determined by the length of the polymers and can range from ∼ 5 to 50 nm. The diblock copolymers form lamellar, cylindrical (hexagonal cross-section), and spherical (BCC) phases in bulk. We use monolayer films to make templates to transfer these patterns to metals, semiconductors etc. For example we cover a three inch wafer with ∼ 3 trillion posts, holes, etc. spaced by ∼ 25nm, to make quantum dots (for semiconductor lasers), metal particles and other structures. In trying to understand how the polymer patterns order we have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image the cylindrical phase which lies flat on a substrate. The patterns look like fingerprints and Benard rolls and the coarsening (annealing) law we observe is t (1/4) as in previous studies of these striped phases. This law remained unexplained for decades. However, we made time lapse AFM movies which show that the annealing dynamics is governed by the attraction of disclination PAIRS, quadrupoles, rather than simple +/- annihilation. This directly provides an explanation for the alignment of the striped patterns as a function of time. Thus these systems, while aimed at technological and fundamental electronic applications are also ideal materials for studying the dynamics of ordering. Recently we have also studied the thermodynamics and kinetics of the monolayer hexatic phase and used shear strain to macroscopically align the cylindrical and hexagonal patterns. (author)

  2. Pulsed positive corona streamer propagation and branching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Rutgers, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    The propagation and branching of pulsed positive corona streamers in a short gap is observed with high resolution in space and time. The appearance of the pre-breakdown phenomena can be controlled by the electrode configuration, the gas composition and the impedance of the pulsed power circuit. In a point-wire gap the positive corona shows much more branching than in the parallel plane gap with a protrusion. In air, the branching is more pronounced than in argon. The pulsed power circuit appears to operate in two modes, either as an inductive circuit creating a lower number of thick streamers or as a resistive circuit giving a higher number of thin streamers. A possible cause for branching is electrostatic repulsion of two parts of the streamer head. The electric field at the streamer head is limited, the maximum values found are ∼170 kV cm -1 in air and ∼100 kV cm -1 in argon. At these maximum field strengths, the electrons have 5-10 eV energy, so the ionization is dominated by two-step processes. Differences between argon and ambient air in the field strength at which streamers propagate are ascribed to the difference in de-excitation processes in noble and molecular gases. The fact that the pulsed power circuit can control the streamer structure is important for applications, but this effect must also be taken into account in fundamental studies of streamer propagation and branching. (author)

  3. Pulsed positive corona streamer propagation and branching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhuizen, E.M. van [Department of Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)]. E-mail: e.m.v.veldhuizen@tue.nl; Rutgers, W.R. [Department of Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2002-09-07

    The propagation and branching of pulsed positive corona streamers in a short gap is observed with high resolution in space and time. The appearance of the pre-breakdown phenomena can be controlled by the electrode configuration, the gas composition and the impedance of the pulsed power circuit. In a point-wire gap the positive corona shows much more branching than in the parallel plane gap with a protrusion. In air, the branching is more pronounced than in argon. The pulsed power circuit appears to operate in two modes, either as an inductive circuit creating a lower number of thick streamers or as a resistive circuit giving a higher number of thin streamers. A possible cause for branching is electrostatic repulsion of two parts of the streamer head. The electric field at the streamer head is limited, the maximum values found are {approx}170 kV cm{sup -1} in air and {approx}100 kV cm{sup -1} in argon. At these maximum field strengths, the electrons have 5-10 eV energy, so the ionization is dominated by two-step processes. Differences between argon and ambient air in the field strength at which streamers propagate are ascribed to the difference in de-excitation processes in noble and molecular gases. The fact that the pulsed power circuit can control the streamer structure is important for applications, but this effect must also be taken into account in fundamental studies of streamer propagation and branching. (author)

  4. Gas phase pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Andong Liu; Mulac, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Gas phase pulse radiolysis, a technique which can be used to study many different phenomena in chemistry and physics, is discussed. As a source of small radicals, pulse radiolysis is important to the field of chemistry, particularly to combustion and atmospheric kinetics. The reactions of 1,3-butadiene, allene, ethylene and acetylene with OH are presented. 52 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Pulse duration discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosakovskij, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Basic circuits of a discriminator for discrimination of pulses with the duration greater than the preset one, and of a multifunctional discriminator allowing to discriminate pulses with the duration greater (tsub(p)>tsub(s)) and lesser (tsub(p) tsub(s) and with the duration tsub(p) [ru

  6. Sources of pulsed radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, M.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics of various sources of pulsed radiation are examined from the viewpoint of their importance to the radiation chemist, and some examples of uses of such sources are mentioned. A summary is given of the application of methods of physical dosimetry to pulsed sources, and the calibration of convenient chemical dosimeters by physical dosimetry is outlined. 7 figures, 1 table

  7. Pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, D.F.; Bykovskii, Yu.A.; Vergun, I.I.; Kozlovskii, K.I.; Kozyrev, Yu.P.; Leonov, R.K.; Simagin, B.I.; Tsybin, A.S.; Shikanov, A.Ie.

    1986-03-01

    The paper describes a new device for generating pulsed neutron fields, utilized in nuclear geophysics for carrying out pulsed neutron logging and activation analysis under field conditions. The invention employs a sealed-off neutron tube with a laser ion source which increases neutron yield to the level of 10 neutrons per second or higher. 2 refs., 1 fig

  8. Bipolar pulse generator for intense pulsed ion beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Igawa, K.; Kitamura, I.; Masugata, K.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named ''bipolar pulse accelerator'' (BPA) has been proposed in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. To confirm the principle of the BPA, we developed a bipolar pulse generator for the bipolar pulse experiment, which consists of a Marx generator and a pulse forming line (PFL) with a rail gap switch on its end. In this article, we report the first experimental result of the bipolar pulse and evaluate the electrical characteristics of the bipolar pulse generator. When the bipolar pulse generator was operated at 70% of the full charge condition of the PFL, the bipolar pulse with the first (-138 kV, 72 ns) and the second pulse (+130 kV, 70 ns) was successfully obtained. The evaluation of the electrical characteristics indicates that the developed generator can produce the bipolar pulse with fast rise time and sharp reversing time

  9. Optical pulse coupling in a photorefractive crystal, propagation of encoded pulses in an optical fiber, and phase conjugate optical interconnections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, X.S.

    1992-01-01

    In Part I, the author presents a theory to describe the interaction between short optical pulses in a photorefractive crystal. This theory provides an analytical framework for pulse coherence length measurements using a photorefractive crystal. The theory also predicts how a pulse changes its temporal shape due to its coupling with another pulse in a photorefractive crystal. The author describes experiments to demonstrate how photorefractive coupling alters the temporal shape and the frequency spectrum of an optical pulse. The author describes a compact optical field correlator. Using this correlator, the author measured the field cross-correlation function of optical pulses using a photorefractive crystal. The author presents a more sophisticated theory to describe the photorefractive coupling of optical pulses that are too short for the previous theory to be valid. In Part II of this dissertation, the author analyzes how the group-velocity dispersion and the optical nonlinearity of an optical fiber ruin an fiberoptic code-division multiple-access (CDMA) communication system. The author treats the optical fiber's nonlinear response with a novel approach and derives the pulse propagation equation. Through analysis and numerically simulations, the author obtains the maximum and the maximum allowed peak pulse power, as well as the minimum and the maximum allowed pulse width for the communication system to function properly. The author simulates how the relative misalignment between the encoding and the decoding masks affects the system's performance. In Part III the author demonstrates a novel optical interconnection device based on a mutually pumped phase conjugator. This device automatically routes light from selected information-sending channels to selected information-receiving channels, and vice versa. The phase conjugator eliminates the need for critical alignment. It is shown that a large number of optical channels can be interconnected using this

  10. Pulse induction heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, A S; Kachanov, B Y; Kogan, B V

    1993-12-31

    Induction heating and three types of pulse processes were studied. It was found that in pulse processes the frequency and pulse duration of heat treatments do not remain constant. High frequency pulse heat treatments can be used on sprayed coatings; such treatments will result in stronger surfaces with no cracks. For induction hardening, the rate of specific power was 1 to 1.5 kW/sq.cm, for forging it was 0.2 to 0.3 kW/sq.cm and for melting it was 0.05 to 0.1 kW/sq.cm. The application of pulse heating will result in higher rates of specific power.

  11. Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....

  12. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  13. Comparison of drive systems for pulsed synchronous machines - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgart, G.E.; Boenig, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetically confined plasma fusion experiments require large pulses of energy to be delivered into coil systems. One of the most effective methods of generating these high energy pulses is to convert stored inertial energy into electrical energy. Large synchronous generators of both the vertical and horizontal shaft type have been successfully used for this purpose. As the pulsed energy is delivered to the load, the inertial energy of the rotor of the machine is changed into electrical energy, causing the rotor to slow down. A drive system is required to accelerate the generator from standstill to the maximum operating speed and between load pulses from a reduced operating speed to the maximum speed. There are several types of drive systems that can be used for this application. An overview of six candidate drive systems is presented and comparisons of cost, performance, efficiency and line effects for these systems are described

  14. Comparison of drive systems for pulsed synchronous machines: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgart, G.E.; Boenig, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetically confined plasma fusion experiments require large pulses of energy to be delivered into coil systems. One of the most effective methods of generating these high energy pulses is to convert stored inertial energy into electrical energy. Large synchronous generators of both the vertical and horizontal shaft type have been successfully used for this purpose. As the pulsed energy is delivered to the load, the inertial energy of the rotor of the machine is changed into electrical energy, causing the rotor to slow down. A drive system is required to accelerate the generator from standstill to the maximum operating speed and between load pulses from a reduced operating speed to the maximum speed. There are several types of drive systems that can be used for this application. An overview of six candidate drive systems is presented and comparisons of cost, performance, efficiency, and line effects for these systems are described

  15. Eddy currents in pulsed field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuepferling, M.; Groessinger, R.; Wimmer, A.; Taraba, M.; Scholz, W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: One problem of pulsed field magnetometry is an error in magnetization, which appears in measurements of conducting samples. This error is due to eddy currents induced by a time varying field. To allow predictions how eddy currents exert influence on the hysteresis loop, systematic experimental and theoretical studies of pulsed field measurements of metallic samples were performed. The theoretical studies include analytical calculations as well as numerical ones using a 2D finite element software. In the measurements three physical parameters have been varied: i) the conductivity of the sample by using two different materials, in this case technical Cu and Al ii) size and shape of the sample by using cylinders, spheres and cuboids iii) the pulse duration of the external field by changing the capacitor battery from 8mF ( =9.1ms) to 24mF ( =15.7ms). The time dependence of the external field corresponds with a pulsed damped harmonic oscillation with a maximum value of 5.2T. The samples were studied in the as cast state (after machining) as well as after heat treatment. Theoretical calculations showed not only good agreement with the absolute values of the measured eddy current m agnetization , they also gave an explanation of the shape of the eddy current hysteresis and the dependence of the eddy current 'magnetization' on parameters as pulse duration of the external field and conductivity of the sample. (author)

  16. Optical pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The interest in using large lasers to achieve a very short and intense pulse for generating fusion plasma has provided a strong impetus to reexamine the possibilities of optical pulse compression at high energy. Pulse compression allows one to generate pulses of long duration (minimizing damage problems) and subsequently compress optical pulses to achieve the short pulse duration required for specific applications. The ideal device for carrying out this program has not been developed. Of the two approaches considered, the Gires--Tournois approach is limited by the fact that the bandwidth and compression are intimately related, so that the group delay dispersion times the square of the bandwidth is about unity for all simple Gires--Tournois interferometers. The Treacy grating pair does not suffer from this limitation, but is inefficient because diffraction generally occurs in several orders and is limited by the problem of optical damage to the grating surfaces themselves. Nonlinear and parametric processes were explored. Some pulse compression was achieved by these techniques; however, they are generally difficult to control and are not very efficient. (U.S.)

  17. Expansion of the South China Sea basin: Constraints from magnetic anomaly stripes, sea floor topography, satellite gravity and submarine geothermics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely distributed E–W-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the central basin and the N–E-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the southwest sub-basin provide the most important evidence for Neogene expansion of the South China Sea. The expansion mechanism remains, however, controversial because of the lack of direct drilling data, non-systematic marine magnetic survey data, and irregular magnetic anomaly stripes with two obvious directions. For example, researchers have inferred different ages and episodes of expansion for the central basin and southwest sub-basin. Major controversy centers on the order of basinal expansion and the mechanism of expansion for the entire South China Sea basin. This study attempts to constrain these problems from a comprehensive analysis of the seafloor topography, magnetic anomaly stripes, regional aeromagnetic data, satellite gravity, and submarine geothermics. The mapped seafloor terrain shows that the central basin is a north-south rectangle that is relatively shallow with many seamounts, whereas the southwest sub-basin is wide in northeast, gradually narrows to the southwest, and is relatively deeper with fewer seamounts. Many magnetic anomaly stripes are present in the central basin with variable dimensions and directions that are dominantly EW-trending, followed by the NE-, NW- and NS-trending. Conversely such stripes are few in the southwest sub-basin and mainly NE-trending. Regional magnetic data suggest that the NW-trending Ailaoshan-Red River fault extends into the South China Sea, links with the central fault zone in the South China Sea, which extends further southward to Reed Tablemount. Satellite gravity data show that both the central basin and southwest sub-basin are composed of oceanic crust. The Changlong seamount is particularly visible in the southwest sub-basin and extends eastward to the Zhenbei seamount. Also a low gravity anomaly zone coincides with the central fault zone in the sub

  18. Tidal-Induced Internal Ocean Waves as an Explanation for Enceladus' Tiger Stripe Pattern and Hotspot Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersen, B. L. A.; Maas, L. R.; van Oers, S.; Rabitti, A.; Jara-Orue, H.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most peculiar features on Saturn moon Enceladus is its so-called tiger stripe pattern at the geologically active South Polar Terrain (SPT), as first observed in detail by the Cassini spacecraft early 2005. It is generally assumed that the four almost parallel surface lines that constitute this pattern are faults in the icy surface overlying a confined salty water reservoir. Indeed, later Cassini observations have shown that salty water jets originate from the tiger stripes [e.g., Hansen et al., Science, 311, 1422-1425, 2006; Postberg et al., Nature, 474, 620-622, 2011]. More recently, Porco et al. [Astron. J., 148:45, Sep. 2014] and Nimmo et al. [Astron. J., 148:46, Sep. 2014] have reported strong evidence that the geysers are not caused by frictional heating at the surface, but that geysers must originate deeper in Enceladus' interior. Tidal flexing models, like those of Hurford et al., Nature, 447, 292-294, 2007, give a good match for the brightness variations Cassini observes, but they seem to fail to reproduce the exact timing of plume brightening. Although jet activity is thus strongly connected to tidal forcing, another mechanism must be involved as well. Last year, we formulated the original idea [Vermeersen et al., AGU Fall Meeting 2013, abstract #P53B-1848] that the tiger stripe pattern is formed and maintained by induced, tidally and rotationally driven, wave-attractor motions in the ocean underneath the icy surface of the tiger-stripe region. Such wave-attractor motions are observed in water tank experiments in laboratories on Earth and in numerical experiments [Maas et al., Nature, 338, 557-561, 1997; Drijfhout and Maas, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 2740-2763, 2007; Hazewinkel et al., Phys. Fluids, 22, 107102, 2010]. The latest observations by Porco et al. and Nimmo et al. seem to be in agreement with this tidal-induced wave attractor phenomenon, both with respect to tiger stripe pattern and with respect to timing of hotspot activity. However, in

  19. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  20. Modelling maximum canopy conductance and transpiration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is much current interest in predicting the maximum amount of water that can be transpired by Eucalyptus trees. It is possible that industrial waste water may be applied as irrigation water to eucalypts and it is important to predict the maximum transpiration rates of these plantations in an attempt to dispose of this ...

  1. Optimum design of exploding pusher target to produce maximum neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Y.; Miyanaga, N.; Kato, Y.; Nakatsuka, M.; Nishiguchi, A.; Yabe, T.; Yamanaka, C.

    1985-03-01

    Exploding pusher target experiments have been conducted with the 1.052-μm GEKKO MII two-beam glass laser system to design an optimum target, which couples to the incident laser light most effectively to produce the maximum neutrons. Since hot electrons preheat the shell entirely in spite of strongly nonuniform irradiation, a simple model can design the optimum target, of which the shell/fuel interface is accelerated to 0.5 to 0.7 times the initial radius within a laser pulse. A 2-dimensional computer simulation supports this target design. The scaling of the neutron yield N with the laser power P is N ∝ P 2.4±0.4 . (author)

  2. Dynamic pulse difference circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    A digital electronic circuit of especial use for subtracting background activity pulses in gamma spectrometry is disclosed which comprises an up-down counter connected to count up with signal-channel pulses and to count down with background-channel pulses. A detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal when the up-down counter has completed one scaling sequence cycle of counts in the up direction. In an alternate embodiment, a detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal upon overflow of the counter

  3. Coaxial pulse matching transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledenev, V.V.; Khimenko, L.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a coaxial pulse matching transformer with comparatively simple design, increased mechanical strength, and low stray inductance. The transformer design makes it easy to change the turns ratio. The circuit of the device and an expression for the current multiplication factor are presented; experiments confirm the efficiency of the transformer. Apparatus with a coaxial transformer for producing high-power pulsed magnetic fields is designed (current pulses of 1-10 MA into a load and a natural frequency of 100 kHz)

  4. Pulse-width discriminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budyashov, Yu.G.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    A pulse duration discriminator is described which is intended for processing signals from multilayer scintillators. The basic elements of the scintillator are: an input gate, a current generator, an integrating capacitor, a Schmidt trigger and an anticoincidence circuit. The basic circuit of the discriminator and its time diagrams explaining its operating are given. The discriminator is based on microcircuits. Pulse duration discrimination threshold changes continuously from 20 to 100 ns, while its amplitude threshold changes within 20 to 100 mV. The temperature instability of discrimination thresholds (both in pulse width and in amplitude) is better than 0.1 per cent/deg C

  5. Multimode pulse counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natanzon, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    A pulse counter with code conversion is described. The counter is based on the integrated circuits of direct-counting devices of medium integration. The counter ensures various modes of pulse counting depending on the logical control signals: reversible, two-channel summing, one-channel summing binary, summing with ''storage'' signal code fixation without interrupting pulse counting. Arrangement of the suggested structure as a microcircuit of medium integration might contribute to reduction in the counter type nomenclature in digital families of widely used integrated circuits

  6. Pulsed atomic soliton laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, L.D.; Brand, J.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that simultaneously changing the scattering length of an elongated, harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate from positive to negative and inverting the axial portion of the trap, so that it becomes expulsive, results in a train of self-coherent solitonic pulses. Each pulse is itself a nondispersive attractive Bose-Einstein condensate that rapidly self-cools. The axial trap functions as a waveguide. The solitons can be made robustly stable with the right choice of trap geometry, number of atoms, and interaction strength. Theoretical and numerical evidence suggests that such a pulsed atomic soliton laser can be made in present experiments

  7. DogPulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christoffer; Thomsen, Josephine Raun; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DogPulse, an ambient awareness system to support the coordination of dog walking among family members at home. DogPulse augments a dog collar and leash set to activate an ambient shape-changing lamp and visualize the last time the dog was taken for a walk. The lamp gradually...... changes its form and pulsates its lights in order to keep the family members aware of the dog walking activity. We report the iterative prototyping of DogPulse, its implementation and its preliminary evaluation. Based on our initial findings, we present the limitations and lessons learned as well...

  8. Asymptotic strength of thermal pulses in the helium shell burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, M Y [Niigata Univ. (Japan); Sugimoto, D

    1979-03-01

    Secular growth in the strength of the recurrent thermal pulses of helium shell burning is discussed for the purpose of determining its asymptotic strength. It is shown that the pulse grows stronger if the helium zone has been cooled more before the initiation of the pulse. The secular growth of the pulse is related with the increasing degree of cooling. Thermal pulses are computed for an initial model corresponding to the maximum possible cooling, i.e., for a model in which the steady-state entropy distribution was realized in the helium zone. Such thermal pulses are shown to give an upper bound to the asymptotic strength, which is close enough to the asymptotic strength itself for relatively large core masses. Numerical results are given for the core mass of 1.07 M sub(sun), for which the asymptotic strength is found to be 9 x 10/sup 6/ L sub(sun). Thermal pulses are also computed for an initial model which has been cooled artificially more than the steady-state model. The first pulse results in a much greater strength than in the normal model, but a later pulse approaches the normal asymptotic value. Such models are also discussed in relation to the shell flashes on accreting white dwarfs.

  9. A high pulsed power supply system designed for pulsed high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kefu; Wang Shaorong; Zhong Heqing; Xu Yan; Pan Yuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of high pulsed power supply system for producing pulsed high magnetic field up to 70 T. This system consists of 58 sets of 55 μF of capacitor bank which provides 1.0 MJ energy storage. A set of vacuum closing switch is chosen as main switch for energy discharge into magnetic coil. A crowbar circuit with high power diodes in series with resistor is used to absorb the redundant energy and adjust pulse width. The resistance of magnetic coil changing with current is deduced by energy balance equations. A capacitor-charging power supply using a series-resonant, constant on-time variable frequency control, and zero-current switching charges the capacitor bank in one minute time with high efficiency. The pulsed power supply provides adjustable current and pulse width with 30 kA peak and 30 ms maximum. The primary experiments demonstrate the system reliability. This work provides an engineering guidance for future development of pulsed high magnetic field. (authors)

  10. Analytical Approximation of Spectrum for Pulse X-ray Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavilov, S; Fofanof, O; Koshkin, G; Udod, V

    2016-01-01

    Among the main characteristics of the pulsed X-ray apparatuses the spectral energy characteristics are the most important ones: the spectral distribution of the photon energy, effective and maximum energy of quanta. Knowing the spectral characteristics of the radiation of pulse sources is very important for the practical use of them in non-destructive testing. We have attempted on the analytical approximation of the pulsed X-ray apparatuses spectra obtained in the different experimental papers. The results of the analytical approximation of energy spectrum for pulse X-ray tube are presented. Obtained formulas are adequate to experimental data and can be used by designing pulsed X-ray apparatuses. (paper)

  11. Active manipulation of the selective alignment by two laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng-Qiang, Yang; Zhi-Rong, Guo; Gui-Xian, Ge

    2010-01-01

    This paper solves numerically the full time-dependent Schrödinger equation based on the rigid rotor model, and proposes a novel strategy to determine the optimal time delay of the two laser pulses to manipulate the molecular selective alignment. The results illustrate that the molecular alignment generated by the first pulse can be suppressed or enhanced selectively, the relative populations of even and odd rotational states in the final rotational wave packet can be manipulated selectively by precisely inserting the peak of the second laser pulse at the time when the slope for the alignment parameter by the first laser locates a local maximum for the even rotational states and a local minimum for the odds, and vice versa. The selective alignment can be further optimised by selecting the intensity ratio of the two laser pulses on the condition that the total laser intensity and pulse duration are kept constant. (atomic and molecular physics)

  12. Improvement in light-output efficiency of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs fabricated on stripe patterned sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.J.; Hsu, T.C.; Kuo, H.C.; Wang, S.C.; Yang, Y.L.; Yen, S.N.; Chu, Y.T.; Shen, Y.J.; Hsieh, M.H.; Jou, M.J.; Lee, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells near ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated on a patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) with parallel stripe along the sapphire direction by using low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The forward- and reverse-bias electrical characteristics of the stripe PSS LEDs are, respectively, similar and better than those of conventional LEDs on sapphire substrate. The output power of the epoxy package of stripe PSS LED was 20% higher than that of the conventional LEDs. The enhancement of output power is due not only to the reduction of dislocation density but also to the release of the guided light in LEDs by the geometric shape of the stripe PSS, according to the ray-tracing analysis

  13. Research of long pulse high current diode radial insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jie; Chang Anbi; Hu Kesong; Liu Qingxiang; Ma Qiaosheng; Liu Zhong

    2002-01-01

    A radial insulation structure which is used in long pulse high current diode is introduced. The theory of vacuum flashover and the idea of design are briefly introduced. In the research, cone-shaped insulator was used. The geometry structure parameters were optimized by simulating the static electrical field distribution. Experiment was done on a pulse power source with 200 ns pulse width. The maximum voltage 750 kV was obtained, and the average stand-off electrical field of insulator is about 50 kV/cm

  14. High voltage pulsed cable design: a practical example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kewish, R.W. Jr.; Boicourt, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    The design of optimum high voltage pulse cable is difficult because very little emperical data are available on performance in pulsed applications. This paper follows the design and testing of one high voltage pulse cable, 40/100 trigger cable. The design was based on an unproven theory and the impressive outcome lends support to the theory. The theory is outlined and it is shown that there exists an inductance which gives a cable of minimum size for a given maximum stress. Test results on cable manufactured according to the design are presented and compared with the test results on the cable that 40/100 replaces.

  15. High voltage pulsed cable design: a practical example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kewish, R.W. Jr.; Boicourt, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    The design of optimum high voltage pulse cable is difficult because very little emperical data are available on performance in pulsed applications. This paper follows the design and testing of one high voltage pulse cable, 40/100 trigger cable. The design was based on an unproven theory and the impressive outcome lends support to the theory. The theory is outlined and it is shown that there exists an inductance which gives a cable of minimum size for a given maximum stress. Test results on cable manufactured according to the design are presented and compared with the test results on the cable that 40/100 replaces

  16. Timing A Pulsed Thin Film Pyroelectric Generator For Maximum Power Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.N.; Hanrahan, B.M.; Neville, C.J.; Jankowski, N.R

    2016-01-01

    Pyroelectric thermal-to-electric energy conversion is accomplished by a cyclic process of thermally-inducing polarization changes in the material under an applied electric field. The pyroelectric MEMS device investigated consisted of a thin film PZT capacitor with platinum bottom and iridium oxide top electrodes. Electric fields between 1-20 kV/cm with a 30% duty cycle and frequencies from 0.1 - 100 Hz were tested with a modulated continuous wave IR laser with a duty cycle of 20% creating temperature swings from 0.15 - 26 °C on the pyroelectric receiver. The net output power of the device was highly sensitive to the phase delay between the laser power and the applied electric field. A thermal model was developed to predict and explain the power loss associated with finite charge and discharge times. Excellent agreement was achieved between the theoretical model and the experiment results for the measured power density versus phase delay. Limitations on the charging and discharging rates result in reduced power and lower efficiency due to a reduced net work per cycle. (paper)

  17. Rapid thermal pulse annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.G.; Koehn, B.W.; Chaplin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of recovery processes have been investigated for cases of heating a sample to successively higher temperatures by means of isochronal annealing or by using a rapid pulse annealing. A recovery spectra shows the same features independent of which annealing procedure is used. In order to determine which technique provides the best resolution, a study was made of how two independent first-order processes are separated for different heating rates and time increments of the annealing pulses. It is shown that the pulse anneal method offers definite advantages over isochronal annealing when annealing for short time increments. Experimental data by means of the pulse anneal techniques are given for the various substages of stage I of aluminium. (author)

  18. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Baik, Seong Hoon; Hong, Seok Kyung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-01-01

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  19. IAE pulsed electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, V.P.; Ganzhelyuk, M.L.; Kozlov, L.D.; Koltypin, E.A.; Molchanov, Yu.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    The modernized pulse electrostatic accelerator using the klystron ion grouping and the beam interruption system prior to acceleration is described. The accelerator is modernized in order to improve parameters of a current pulse and to decrease the background in the measurement room. The ion beam of needed dimensions is obtained with the help of a high-frequency source and a beam grouping and deflection system. The general view of the beam grouping and deflection system is shown. The ion beam forming process is considered in detail. The modernized electrostatic accelerator permits to obtain a pulse current with a pulse length of 1.5 ns and an amplitude of 1.5 - 2 μA. With the repetition frequency of 2 MHz, the average target current is about 6 μA

  20. Magnetic pulse compression circuits for plasma devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgescu, N; Zoita, V; Presura, R [Inst. of Physics and Technology of Radiation Devices, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    Two magnetic pulse compression circuits (MPCC), for two different plasma devices, are presented. The first is a 20 J/pulse, 3-stage circuit designed to trigger a low pressure discharge. The circuit has 16-18 kV working voltage, and 200 nF in each stage. The saturable inductors are realized with toroidal 25 {mu}m strip-wound cores, made of a Fe-Ni alloy, with 1.5 T saturation induction. The total magnetic volume is around 290 cm{sup 3}. By using a 25 kV/1 A thyratron as a primary switch, the time compression is from 3.5 {mu}s to 450 ns, in a short-circuit load. The second magnetic pulser is a 200 J/pulse circuit, designed to drive a high average power plasma focus soft X-ray source, for X-ray microlithography as the main application. The 3-stage pulser should supply a maximum load current of 100 kA with a rise-time of 250 - 300 ns. The maximum pulse voltage applied on the plasma discharge chamber is around 20 - 25 kV. The three saturable inductors in the circuit are made of toroidal strip-wound cores with METGLAS 2605 CO amorphous alloy as the magnetic material. The total, optimized mass of the magnetic material is 34 kg. The maximum repetition rate is limited at 100 Hz by the thyratron used in the first stage of the circuit, the driver supplying to the load about 20 kW average power. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs., 3 refs.

  1. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Connecticut

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, S. M.; Richardson, D. J.; Lindsay, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was examined in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from 8 cities in Connecticut. Ten (42%) of the 24 striped skunks, 2 of 7 (29%) opossums, and 12 of 12 (100%) raccoons were positive at dilutions of 1:50 or greater. These results suggest that T. gondii is prevalent in the environment, or prey items, or both, of these omnivores in Connecticut.

  2. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sheila M; Richardson, Dennis J; Lindsay, David S

    2006-06-01

    The prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was examined in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from 8 cities in Connecticut. Ten (42%) of the 24 striped skunks, 2 of 7 (29%) opossums, and 12 of 12 (100%) raccoons were positive at dilutions of 1:50 or greater. These results suggest that T. gondii is prevalent in the environment, or prey items, or both, of these omnivores in Connecticut.

  3. Genome-wide association mapping for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici) in US Pacific Northwest winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruoka, Y; Garland-Campbell, K A; Carter, A H

    2015-06-01

    Potential novel and known QTL for race-specific all-stage and adult plant resistance to stripe rust were identified by genome-wide association mapping in the US PNW winter wheat accessions. Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici; also known as yellow rust) is a globally devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and a major threat to wheat production in the US Pacific Northwest (PNW), therefore both adult plant and all-stage resistance have been introduced into the winter wheat breeding programs in the PNW. The goal of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and molecular markers for these resistances through genome-wide association (GWAS) mapping in winter wheat accessions adapted to the PNW. Stripe rust response for adult plants was evaluated in naturally occurring epidemics in a total of nine environments in Washington State, USA. Seedling response was evaluated with three races under artificial inoculation in the greenhouse. The panel was genotyped with the 9K Illumina Wheat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and additional markers linked to previously reported genes and QTL for stripe rust resistance. The population was grouped into three sub-populations. Markers linked to Yr17 and previously reported QTL for stripe rust resistance were identified on chromosomes 1B, 2A, and 2B. Potentially novel QTL associated with race-specific seedling response were identified on chromosomes 1B and 1D. Potentially novel QTL associated with adult plant response were located on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 3B, 4A, and 4B. Stripe rust was reduced when multiple alleles for resistance were present. The resistant allele frequencies were different among sub-populations in the panel. This information provides breeders with germplasm and closely linked markers for stripe rust resistance to facilitate the transfer of multiple loci for durable stripe rust resistance into wheat breeding lines and cultivars.

  4. International Year of Pulses 2016 | 2016 International Year of Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Year in collaboration with Governments, relevant organizations, non-governmental organizations and the composition of pulses Image 4 Wrapping up the International Year of Pulses The 5 key messages to food security Infographic Pulses and climate change International Year of Pulses 2016 The 68th UN

  5. Realtime aspects of pulse-to-pulse modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.; Riedel, C.; Roesch, W.

    1992-01-01

    The pulse-to-pulse modulation of the SIS-ESR control system is described. Fast response to operator interaction and to changes in process conditions is emphasized as well as the essential part played by the timing system in pulse-to-pulse modulation. (author)

  6. Pulsed spallation Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development at Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provides a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology

  7. Pulsed spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development ar Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provide a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology

  8. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, a Gram-negative bacterium in internal organs of blue striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira from Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Daniele; Work, Thierry M.

    2012-01-01

    The blue-striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira (Perciformes, Lutjanidae) are cosmopolitan in the Indo-Pacific but were introduced into Oahu, Hawaii, USA, in the 1950s and have since colonized most of the archipelago. Studies of microparasites in blue-striped snappers from Hawaii revealed chlamydia-like organisms (CLO) infecting the spleen and kidney, characterized by intracellular basophilic granular inclusions containing Gram-negative and Gimenez-positive bacteria similar in appearance to epitheliocysts when seen under light microscopy. We provide molecular evidence that CLO are a new member of Chlamydiae, i.e. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, that represents the first reported case of chlamydial infection in organs other than the gill in fishes.

  9. Antiphase boundaries, inversion, and ferroelastic domains in the striped-type superstructure of γ-brass Cu-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Y.; Hatano, M.; Tanimura, M.

    1996-05-01

    Features of the striped-type superstructure in γ-brass Cu-Al alloys have been investigated mainly by transmission electron microscopy in order to understand the role of a rhombohedral distortion in its stability. From dark field images taken from alloys exhibiting the superstructure, it was found that there exist two types of ferroelastic rhombohedral domains, which are in a twin relation. In other words, the superstructure is characterized by a periodic array of the ferroelastic domains as well as inversion antiphase boundaries. Because charge density waves should be responsible for the formation of the superstructure, as suggested in our previous paper [Phys. Rev. B 40, 5378 (1989)], the rhombohedral distortion must play a crucial role in their appearance. Presumably the distortion enlarges parallel portions of the Fermi surface. On the basis of the present experimental data, the interplay between the striped-type superstructure and the rhombohedral γ-brass structure is also discussed.

  10. Constraining the heat flux between Enceladus’ tiger stripes: numerical modeling of funiscular plains formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Michael T.; McKinnon, William B; Schenk, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft’s Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has observed at least 5 GW of thermal emission at Enceladus’ south pole. The vast majority of this emission is localized on the four long, parallel, evenly-spaced fractures dubbed tiger stripes. However, the thermal emission from regions between the tiger stripes has not been determined. These spatially localized regions have a unique morphology consisting of short-wavelength (∼1 km) ridges and troughs with topographic amplitudes of ∼100 m, and a generally ropy appearance that has led to them being referred to as “funiscular terrain.” Previous analysis pursued the hypothesis that the funiscular terrain formed via thin-skinned folding, analogous to that occurring on a pahoehoe flow top (Barr, A.C., Preuss, L.J. [2010]. Icarus 208, 499–503). Here we use finite element modeling of lithospheric shortening to further explore this hypothesis. Our best-case simulations reproduce funiscular-like morphologies, although our simulated fold wavelengths after 10% shortening are 30% longer than those observed. Reproducing short-wavelength folds requires high effective surface temperatures (∼185 K), an ice lithosphere (or high-viscosity layer) with a low thermal conductivity (one-half to one-third that of intact ice or lower), and very high heat fluxes (perhaps as great as 400 mW m−2). These conditions are driven by the requirement that the high-viscosity layer remain extremely thin (≲200 m). Whereas the required conditions are extreme, they can be met if a layer of fine grained plume material 1–10 m thick, or a highly fractured ice layer >50 m thick insulates the surface, and the lithosphere is fractured throughout as well. The source of the necessary heat flux (a factor of two greater than previous estimates) is less obvious. We also present evidence for an unusual color/spectral character of the ropy terrain, possibly related to its unique surface texture. Our simulations demonstrate

  11. Analysis of Yellow Striped Mutants of Zea mays Reveals Novel Loci Contributing to Iron Deficiency Chlorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chan-Rodriguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The micronutrient iron (Fe is essential for photosynthesis, respiration, and many other processes, but it is only sparingly soluble in aqueous solution, making adequate acquisition by plants a serious challenge. Fe is a limiting factor for plant growth on approximately 30% of the world’s arable lands. Moreover, Fe deficiency in humans is a global health issue, affecting 1.62 billion people, or about 25% of the world’s population. It is imperative that we gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that plants use to regulate iron homeostasis, since these will be important targets for future biofortification and crop improvement strategies. Grasses and non-grasses have evolved independent mechanisms for primary iron uptake from the soil. The grasses, which include most of the world’s staple grains, have evolved a distinct ‘chelation’ mechanism to acquire iron from the soil. Strong iron chelators called phytosiderophores (PSs are synthesized by grasses and secreted into the rhizosphere where they bind and solubilize Fe(III. The Fe(III-PS complex is then taken up into root cells via transporters specific for the Fe(III-PS complex. In this study, 31 novel, uncharacterized striped maize mutants available through the Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center (MGCSC were analyzed to determine whether their mutant phenotypes are caused by decreased iron. Many of these proved to be either pale yellow or white striped mutants. Complementation tests were performed by crossing the MGCSC mutants to ys1 and ys3 reference mutants. This allowed assignment of 10 ys1 alleles and 4 ys3 alleles among the novel mutants. In addition, four ys∗ mutant lines were identified that are not allelic to either ys1 or ys3. Three of these were characterized as being non-allelic to each other and as having low iron in leaves. These represent new genes involved in iron acquisition by maize, and future cloning of these genes may reveal novel aspects of the grass iron

  12. Implications of white striping and spaghetti meat abnormalities on meat quality and histological features in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, G; Soglia, F; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Canonico, L; Babini, E; Laghi, L; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2018-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been an increasing prevalence of broiler breast muscle abnormalities, such as white striping (WS) and wooden breast conditions. More recently, a new muscular abnormality termed as spaghetti meat (SM) because of the altered structural integrity of the Pectoralis major muscle often associated with WS has emerged. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of WS and SM conditions, occurring alone or combined within the same P. major muscle, on meat quality traits and muscle histology. In two replications, 96 P. major muscles were classified into four classes: normal (N), WS, SM and WS/SM. The whole fillet was used for weight assessment and morphometric measurements, then each sample was cut in order to separate the superficial layer from the deep one and used to evaluate proximate composition, histological features, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times, functional properties and both myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins profile. Fillets affected by WS and SM abnormalities exhibited higher weights and increased thickness and length. SM condition was associated with a relevant decrease in protein content coupled with a significant increase in moisture level, whereas fat content was affected only by the simultaneous presence of WS. Histological evaluations revealed that abnormal samples were characterized by several degenerative aspects that almost completely concerned the superficial layer of the fillets. White striped fillets exhibited necrosis and lysis of fibers, fibrosis, lipidosis, loss of cross striation and vacuolar degeneration. Moreover, SM samples were characterized by poor fiber uniformity and a progressive rarefaction of the endo- and peri-mysial connective tissue, whereas WS/SM fillets showed intermediate histological features. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analysis revealed a higher proportion of extra-myofibrillar water in the superficial section of all the abnormal fillets, especially in SM

  13. MXLKID: a maximum likelihood parameter identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavel, D.T.

    1980-07-01

    MXLKID (MaXimum LiKelihood IDentifier) is a computer program designed to identify unknown parameters in a nonlinear dynamic system. Using noisy measurement data from the system, the maximum likelihood identifier computes a likelihood function (LF). Identification of system parameters is accomplished by maximizing the LF with respect to the parameters. The main body of this report briefly summarizes the maximum likelihood technique and gives instructions and examples for running the MXLKID program. MXLKID is implemented LRLTRAN on the CDC7600 computer at LLNL. A detailed mathematical description of the algorithm is given in the appendices. 24 figures, 6 tables

  14. Passive bookshelf faulting driven by gravitational spreading as the cause of the tiger-stripe-fracture formation and development in the South Polar Terrain of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2013-12-01

    Detailed photogeologic mapping of the tiger-stripe fractures in the South Polar Terrain (SPT) of Enceladus indicates that these structures are left-slip faults and terminate at hook-shaped fold-thrust zones and/or Y-shaped horsetail splay-fault zones. The semi-square-shaped tectonic domain that hosts the tiger-stripe faults is bounded by right-slip and left-slip faults on the north and south edges and fold-thrust and extensional zones on the western and eastern edges. We explain the above observations by a passive bookshelf-faulting model in which individual tiger-stripe faults are bounded by deformable wall rocks accommodating distributed deformation. Based on topographic data, we suggest that gravitational spreading had caused the SPT to spread unevenly from west to east. This process was accommodated by right-slip and left-slip faulting on the north and south sides and thrusting and extension along the eastern and southern margins of the tiger-stripe tectonic domain. The uneven spreading, expressed by a gradual northward increase in the number of extensional faults and thrusts/folds along the western and eastern margins, was accommodated by distributed right-slip simple shear across the whole tiger-stripe tectonic domain. This mode of deformation in turn resulted in the development of a passive bookshelf-fault system characterized by left-slip faulting on individual tiger-stripe fractures.

  15. Influence of stripe rust infection on the photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant system of susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars at the adult plant stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Su, Yan-Qiu; Yuan, Shu; Yuan, Ming; Zhang, Huai-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Wheat stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst), is one of the most serious diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To gain a better understanding of the protective mechanism against stripe rust at the adult plant stage, the differences in photosystem II and antioxidant enzymatic systems between susceptible and resistant wheat in response to stripe rust disease (P. striiformis) were investigated. We found that chlorophyll fluorescence and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes were higher in resistant wheat than in susceptible wheat after stripe rust infection. Compared with the susceptible wheat, the resistant wheat accumulated a higher level of D1 protein and a lower level of reactive oxygen species after infection. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that D1 and light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) phosphorylation are involved in the resistance to stripe rust in wheat. The CP29 protein was phosphorylated under stripe rust infection, like its phosphorylation in other monocots under environmental stresses. More extensive damages occur on the thylakoid membranes in the susceptible wheat compared with the resistant wheat. The findings provide evidence that thylakoid protein phosphorylation and antioxidant enzyme systems play important roles in plant responses and defense to biotic stress.

  16. Assessment of potential impact of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant thermal effluent on the Watts Bar Reservoir striped bass population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuer, J.H.; McIntosh, D.; Ostrowski, P.; Tomljanovich, D.A.

    1983-11-01

    This report is an assessment of potential adverse impact to striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Watts Bar Reservoir caused by thermal effluent from operation of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir is occupied by adult striped bass during the warmest months of the year. Concern was raised that operation of the CRBRP, specifically thermal discharges, could conflict with management of striped bass. In all cases examined the thermal plume becomes nearly imperceptible within a short distance from the discharge pipe (about 30 ft [10 m]) compared to river width (about 630 ft [190 m]). Under worst case conditions any presence of the plume in the main channel (opposite side of the river from the discharge) will be confined to the surface layer of the water. An ample portion of river cross sections containing ambient temperature water for passage or residence of adult striped bass will always be available in the vicinity of this thermal effluent. Although a small portion of river cross section would exceed the thermal tolerance of striped bass, the fish would naturally avoid this area and seek out adjacent cooler water. Therefore, it is concluded the CRBRP thermal effluent will not significantly affect the integrity of the striped bass thermal refuge in the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir. At this time there is no need to consider alternative diffuser designs and thermal modeling. 8 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  17. Overfishing of small pelagic fishes increases trophic overlap between immature and mature striped dolphins in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, Encarna; Borrell, Assumpció; Cardona, Luis; Forcada, Jaume; Aguilar, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The interactions among diet, ecology, physiology, and biochemistry affect N and C stable isotope signatures in animal tissues. Here, we examined if ecological segregation among animals in relation to sex and age existed by analyzing the signatures of δ(15)N and δ(13)C in the muscle of Western Mediterranean striped dolphins. Moreover, we used a Bayesian mixing model to study diet composition and investigated potential dietary changes over the last two decades in this population. For this, we compared isotope signatures in samples of stranded dolphins obtained during two epizootic events occurring in 1990 and 2007-2008. Mean δ(13)C values for females and males were not significantly different, but age-related variation indicated δ(13)C enrichment in both sexes, suggesting that females and males most likely fed in the same general areas, increasing their consumption of benthic prey with age. Enrichment of δ(15)N was only observed in females, suggesting a preference for larger or higher trophic level prey than males, which could reflect different nutritional requirements. δ(13)C values showed no temporal variation, although the mean δ(15)N signature decreased from 1990 to 2007-2008, which could indicate a dietary shift in the striped dolphin over the last two decades. The results of SIAR indicated that in 1990, hake and sardine together contributed to 60% on the diet of immature striped dolphins, and close to 90% for mature striped dolphins. Conversely, the diet of both groups in 2007-2008 was more diverse, as hake and sardine contributed to less than 40% of the entire diet. These results suggest a dietary change that was possibly related to changes in food availability, which is consistent with the depletion of sardine stocks by fishing.

  18. San Francisco Estuary Striped Bass Migration History Determined by Electron-microprobe Analysis of Otolith Sr/Ca Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrach, D J; Phillis, C C; Weber, P K; Ingram, B L; Zinkl, J G

    2004-09-17

    Habitat use has been shown to be an important factor in the bioaccumulation of contaminants in striped bass. This study examines migration in striped bass as part of a larger study investigating bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of xenobiotics to progeny in the San Francisco Estuary system. Habitat use, residence time and spawning migration over the life of females (n = 23) was studied. Female striped bass were collected between Knights Landing and Colusa on the Sacramento River during the spawning runs of 1999 and 2001. Otoliths were removed, processed and aged via otolith microstructure. Subsequently, otoliths were analyzed for strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) ratio using an electron-microprobe to measure salinity exposure and to distinguish freshwater, estuary, and marine habitat use. Salinity exposure during the last year before capture was examined more closely for comparison of habitat use by the maternal parent to contaminant burden transferred to progeny. Results were selectively confirmed by ion microprobe analyses for habitat use. The Sr/Ca data demonstrate a wide range of migratory patterns. Age of initial ocean entry differs among individuals before returning to freshwater, presumably to spawn. Some fish reside in freshwater year-round, while others return to more saline habitats and make periodic migrations to freshwater. Frequency of habitat shifts and residence times differs among fish, as well as over the lifetime of individual fish. While at least one fish spent its final year in freshwater, the majority of spawning fish spent their final year in elevated salinity. However, not all fish migrated to freshwater to spawn in the previous year. Results from this investigation concerning migration history in striped bass can be combined with contaminant and histological developmental analyses to better understand the bioaccumulation of contaminants and the subsequent effects they and habitat use have on fish populations in the San Francisco Estuary system.

  19. Genome Sequence of Acidovorax avenae Strain T10_61 Associated with Sugarcane Red Stripe in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Cecilia A.; Bassi, Daniela; Puglisi, Edoardo; Salazar, Sergio M.; Vignolo, Graciela M.; Coccocelli, Pier S.

    2016-01-01

    Red stripe of sugarcane in Argentina is a bacterial disease caused by Acidovorax avenae. The genome sequence from the first isolate of this bacterium in Argentina is presented here. The draft genome of the A. avenae T10_61 strain contains 5,646,552 bp and has a G+C content of 68.6 mol%. PMID:26847889

  20. First record of the Indo-Pacific striped eel catfish, Plotosus lineatus (Thunberg, 1787 from Turkish marine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Ahmet Doğdu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three specimens of striped eel catfish, Plotosus lineatus (Thunberg, 1787 were caught by a spear gun at depths of 20 m on 4 April 2016 from Iskenderun Bay (Çevlik harbour, Northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. With the present study, P. lineatus is the first time reported from Turkish marine waters, in the Iskenderun Bay, the Northeastern Mediterranean and also this is the first Plotosid species recorded from Turkish Seas.

  1. The Indo-Pacific striped eel catfish, Plotosus lineatus (Thunberg, 1787, (Osteichtyes: Siluriformes, a new record from the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Golani

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The striped eel catfish, Plotosus lineatus (Thunberg, 1787, is recorded for the first time from the eastern Mediterranean coast of Israel. Seventeen specimens of this highly-venomous fish were caught by a commercial trawler at depths of 20 m. This species´ occurrence in the Mediterranean is the result of migration from the Red Sea via the Suez Canal (Lessepsian migration.

  2. Naturally occurring deletions of hunchback binding sites in the even-skipped stripe 3+7 enhancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnar Palsson

    Full Text Available Changes in regulatory DNA contribute to phenotypic differences within and between taxa. Comparative studies show that many transcription factor binding sites (TFBS are conserved between species whereas functional studies reveal that some mutations segregating within species alter TFBS function. Consistently, in this analysis of 13 regulatory elements in Drosophila melanogaster populations, single base and insertion/deletion polymorphism are rare in characterized regulatory elements. Experimentally defined TFBS are nearly devoid of segregating mutations and, as has been shown before, are quite conserved. For instance 8 of 11 Hunchback binding sites in the stripe 3+7 enhancer of even-skipped are conserved between D. melanogaster and Drosophila virilis. Oddly, we found a 72 bp deletion that removes one of these binding sites (Hb8, segregating within D. melanogaster. Furthermore, a 45 bp deletion polymorphism in the spacer between the stripe 3+7 and stripe 2 enhancers, removes another predicted Hunchback site. These two deletions are separated by ∼250 bp, sit on distinct haplotypes, and segregate at appreciable frequency. The Hb8Δ is at 5 to 35% frequency in the new world, but also shows cosmopolitan distribution. There is depletion of sequence variation on the Hb8Δ-carrying haplotype. Quantitative genetic tests indicate that Hb8Δ affects developmental time, but not viability of offspring. The Eve expression pattern differs between inbred lines, but the stripe 3 and 7 boundaries seem unaffected by Hb8Δ. The data reveal segregating variation in regulatory elements, which may reflect evolutionary turnover of characterized TFBS due to drift or co-evolution.

  3. Naturally occurring deletions of hunchback binding sites in the even-skipped stripe 3+7 enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsson, Arnar; Wesolowska, Natalia; Reynisdóttir, Sigrún; Ludwig, Michael Z; Kreitman, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Changes in regulatory DNA contribute to phenotypic differences within and between taxa. Comparative studies show that many transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) are conserved between species whereas functional studies reveal that some mutations segregating within species alter TFBS function. Consistently, in this analysis of 13 regulatory elements in Drosophila melanogaster populations, single base and insertion/deletion polymorphism are rare in characterized regulatory elements. Experimentally defined TFBS are nearly devoid of segregating mutations and, as has been shown before, are quite conserved. For instance 8 of 11 Hunchback binding sites in the stripe 3+7 enhancer of even-skipped are conserved between D. melanogaster and Drosophila virilis. Oddly, we found a 72 bp deletion that removes one of these binding sites (Hb8), segregating within D. melanogaster. Furthermore, a 45 bp deletion polymorphism in the spacer between the stripe 3+7 and stripe 2 enhancers, removes another predicted Hunchback site. These two deletions are separated by ∼250 bp, sit on distinct haplotypes, and segregate at appreciable frequency. The Hb8Δ is at 5 to 35% frequency in the new world, but also shows cosmopolitan distribution. There is depletion of sequence variation on the Hb8Δ-carrying haplotype. Quantitative genetic tests indicate that Hb8Δ affects developmental time, but not viability of offspring. The Eve expression pattern differs between inbred lines, but the stripe 3 and 7 boundaries seem unaffected by Hb8Δ. The data reveal segregating variation in regulatory elements, which may reflect evolutionary turnover of characterized TFBS due to drift or co-evolution.

  4. Pulsed chemical oxygen - iodine laser initiated by a transverse electric discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, Nikolai P; Yuryshev, Nikolai N

    2001-01-01

    A pulsed chemical oxygen - iodine laser with a volume production of atomic iodine in a pulsed transverse electric discharge is studied. An increase in the partial oxygen pressure was shown to increase the pulse energy with retention of the pulse duration. At the same time, an increase in the iodide pressure and the discharge energy shortens the pulse duration. Pulses with a duration of 6.5 μs were obtained, which corresponds to a concentration of iodine atoms of 1.8 x 10 15 cm -3 . This concentration is close to the maximum concentration attained in studies of both cw and pulsed oxygen-iodine lasers. A specific energy output of 0.9 J litre -1 and a specific power of 75 kW litre -1 were obtained. The ways of increasing these parameters were indicated. It was found that SF 6 is an efficient buffer gas favouring improvements in the energy pulse parameters. (lasers)

  5. Stripe-PZT Sensor-Based Baseline-Free Crack Diagnosis in a Structure with a Welded Stiffener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Kyu An

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a stripe-PZT sensor-based baseline-free crack diagnosis technique in the heat affected zone (HAZ of a structure with a welded stiffener. The proposed technique enables one to identify and localize a crack in the HAZ using only current data measured using a stripe-PZT sensor. The use of the stripe-PZT sensor makes it possible to significantly improve the applicability to real structures and minimize man-made errors associated with the installation process by embedding multiple piezoelectric sensors onto a printed circuit board. Moreover, a new frequency-wavenumber analysis-based baseline-free crack diagnosis algorithm minimizes false alarms caused by environmental variations by avoiding simple comparison with the baseline data accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure. The proposed technique is numerically as well as experimentally validated using a plate-like structure with a welded stiffener, reveling that it successfully identifies and localizes a crack in HAZ.

  6. Nonintrusive iris image acquisition system based on a pan-tilt-zoom camera and light stripe projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jung, Ho Gi; Park, Kang Ryoung; Kim, Jaihie

    2009-03-01

    Although iris recognition is one of the most accurate biometric technologies, it has not yet been widely used in practical applications. This is mainly due to user inconvenience during the image acquisition phase. Specifically, users try to adjust their eye position within small capture volume at a close distance from the system. To overcome these problems, we propose a novel iris image acquisition system that provides users with unconstrained environments: a large operating range, enabling movement from standing posture, and capturing good-quality iris images in an acceptable time. The proposed system has the following three contributions compared with previous works: (1) the capture volume is significantly increased by using a pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera guided by a light stripe projection, (2) the iris location in the large capture volume is found fast due to 1-D vertical face searching from the user's horizontal position obtained by the light stripe projection, and (3) zooming and focusing on the user's irises at a distance are accurate and fast using the estimated 3-D position of a face by the light stripe projection and the PTZ camera. Experimental results show that the proposed system can capture good-quality iris images in 2.479 s on average at a distance of 1.5 to 3 m, while allowing a limited amount of movement by the user.

  7. Fish condensate as effective replacer of fish meal protein in diet for striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanakul, Wattana; Wattanakul, Uraiwan; Thongprajukaew, Karun; Muenpo, Chutchawan

    2017-02-01

    The optimal protein replacement of fish meal (FM) by fish condensate (FC) was investigated in striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch) (1.78 ± 0.02 g initial weight). The FM-based diet (0FC) was replaced by substituting protein from FC for 100 (100FC), 200 (200FC), 300 (300FC), 400 (400FC), 500 (500FC) or 600 (600FC) g kg -1 of the FM, and a commercial diet (CD) for carnivorous fish was included for comparison. The experiment was conducted indoors under completely randomized design (8 treatments × 3 replications × 60 fish per pond) over a 6-month trial. There were no significant differences in water quality during the experiment. The fish fed with 500FC had superior growth performance and feed utilization. This dietary treatment gave similar levels to all observed specific activities of digestive enzymes as did baseline 0FC. Survival, carcass composition, hematological parameters and liver histopathology were not negatively impacted by this protein replacement level. Economic analysis also supports the use of this by-product as a potent protein replacer in striped snakehead diet. Findings from the current study indicate that a 500 g kg -1 protein replacement of FM by FC is near optimal for striped snakehead, and similar use of it in the aquafeed of other species appears worth further studies.

  8. Simulation study of a depth-encoding positron emission tomography detector inserting horizontal-striped glass between crystal layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu Bom; Choi, Yong; Kang, Jihoon

    2017-10-01

    This study introduces a depth-encoding positron emission tomography (PET) detector inserting a horizontal-striped glass between the pixilated scintillation crystal layers. This design allows light spreading so that scintillation photons can travel only through the X direction and allows alteration in the light distribution so that it can generate a unique pattern diagram of the two-dimensional (2-D) flood histogram that identifies depth position as well as X-Y position of γ-ray interaction. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted for the assessment of the depth of interaction (DOI)-PET detector. The traced light distribution for each event was converted into the 2-D flood histogram. Light loss caused by inserting the horizontal-striped glass between the crystal layers was estimated. Applicable weighting factors were examined for each DOI-PET detector. No considerable degradation of light loss was observed. The flood histogram, without overlapping of each crystal position, can be generated for the DOI detector based on each crystal block by inserting the horizontal-striped glass with a thickness of >1 mm and the modified resistive charge division networks with applicable weighting factors. This study demonstrated that the proposed DOI-PET detector can extract the three-dimensional γ-ray interaction position without considerable performance degradations of the PET detector from the 2-D flood histogram.

  9. Stripe-PZT Sensor-Based Baseline-Free Crack Diagnosis in a Structure with a Welded Stiffener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yun-Kyu; Shen, Zhiqi; Wu, Zhishen

    2016-09-16

    This paper proposes a stripe-PZT sensor-based baseline-free crack diagnosis technique in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a structure with a welded stiffener. The proposed technique enables one to identify and localize a crack in the HAZ using only current data measured using a stripe-PZT sensor. The use of the stripe-PZT sensor makes it possible to significantly improve the applicability to real structures and minimize man-made errors associated with the installation process by embedding multiple piezoelectric sensors onto a printed circuit board. Moreover, a new frequency-wavenumber analysis-based baseline-free crack diagnosis algorithm minimizes false alarms caused by environmental variations by avoiding simple comparison with the baseline data accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure. The proposed technique is numerically as well as experimentally validated using a plate-like structure with a welded stiffener, reveling that it successfully identifies and localizes a crack in HAZ.

  10. Toward nonlinear magnonics: Intensity-dependent spin-wave switching in insulating side-coupled magnetic stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Odintsov, S. A.; Beginin, E. N.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate that the nonlinear spin-wave transport in two laterally parallel magnetic stripes exhibit the intensity-dependent power exchange between the adjacent spin-wave channels. By the means of Brillouin light scattering technique, we investigate collective nonlinear spin-wave dynamics in the presence of magnetodipolar coupling. The nonlinear intensity-dependent effect reveals itself in the spin-wave mode transformation and differential nonlinear spin-wave phase shift in each adjacent magnetic stripe. The proposed analytical theory, based on the coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations, predicts the geometry design involving the reduction of power requirement to the all-magnonic switching. A very good agreement between calculation and experiment was found. In addition, a micromagnetic and finite-element approach has been independently used to study the nonlinear behavior of spin waves in adjacent stripes and the nonlinear transformation of spatial profiles of spin-wave modes. Our results show that the proposed spin-wave coupling mechanism provides the basis for nonlinear magnonic circuits and opens the perspectives for all-magnonic computing architecture.

  11. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Ben-Yehuda, P; Distelfeld, A; Deek, J; Wan, A; Chen, X; Steffenson, B J

    2014-06-01

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relative of wheat, exhibits a high frequency of leaf and stripe rust resistance. We used the resistant AES accession TH548 and induced homoeologous recombination by the ph1b allele to obtain resistant wheat recombinant lines carrying AES chromosome segments in the genetic background of the spring wheat cultivar Galil. The gametocidal effect from AES was overcome by using an "anti-gametocidal" wheat mutant. These recombinant lines were found resistant to highly virulent races of the leaf and stripe rust pathogens in Israel and the United States. Molecular DArT analysis of the different recombinant lines revealed different lengths of AES segments on wheat chromosome 6B, which indicates the location of both resistance genes.

  12. Genetic effects for controlling stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici resistance in wheat through joint segregation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalim Ullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mixed inheritance analysis using joint segregation analysis (JSA for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici resistance was carried out in six basic populations (P1, F1, P2, BC1, BC2 and F2 of four wheat crosses (Hashim-08 × LU-26, Farid-06 × Shafaq, Parula × Blue Silver, TD-1 × D-97603 during crop season 2009 to 2012. Genes controlling stripe rust resistance were assessed by using area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. The AUDPC was controlled by mixed two additive-dominant-epistatic major genes plus additive-dominant-epistasis of polygenes in cross Hashim-08 × LU-26 (model E, while in Farid-06 × Shafaq, it was controlled by mixed two major additive-dominant genes plus additive-dominant polygenes (model E-2. In cross Parula × Blue Silver, the AUDPC was managed by additive, dominance and epistasis of two major genes (model B-1, however, it was controlled by mixed one major gene and additive dominant polygenes in cross TD-1 × D-97603 (model D-1. Genetic variation and heritability was higher in major genes than polygene for all the crosses showing that AUDPC was mainly controlled by major genes. The genetic behavior of the AUDPC revealed that stripe rust resistance was controlled by mixed interaction of one to two major genes plus polygenes.

  13. Melanophore migration and survival during zebrafish adult pigment stripe development require the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule Igsf11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Dae Seok; Inoue, Shinya; Patterson, Larissa B; Gordon, Tiffany N; Slingwine, Rebecca; Kondo, Shigeru; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Parichy, David M

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish adult pigment pattern has emerged as a useful model for understanding the development and evolution of adult form as well as pattern-forming mechanisms more generally. In this species, a series of horizontal melanophore stripes arises during the larval-to-adult transformation, but the genetic and cellular bases for stripe formation remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the seurat mutant phenotype, consisting of an irregular spotted pattern, arises from lesions in the gene encoding Immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (Igsf11). We find that Igsf11 is expressed by melanophores and their precursors, and we demonstrate by cell transplantation and genetic rescue that igsf11 functions autonomously to this lineage in promoting adult stripe development. Further analyses of cell behaviors in vitro, in vivo, and in explant cultures ex vivo demonstrate that Igsf11 mediates adhesive interactions and that mutants for igsf11 exhibit defects in both the migration and survival of melanophores and their precursors. These findings identify the first in vivo requirements for igsf11 as well as the first instance of an immunoglobulin superfamily member functioning in pigment cell development and patterning. Our results provide new insights into adult pigment pattern morphogenesis and how cellular interactions mediate pattern formation.

  14. Melanophore migration and survival during zebrafish adult pigment stripe development require the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule Igsf11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Seok Eom

    Full Text Available The zebrafish adult pigment pattern has emerged as a useful model for understanding the development and evolution of adult form as well as pattern-forming mechanisms more generally. In this species, a series of horizontal melanophore stripes arises during the larval-to-adult transformation, but the genetic and cellular bases for stripe formation remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the seurat mutant phenotype, consisting of an irregular spotted pattern, arises from lesions in the gene encoding Immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (Igsf11. We find that Igsf11 is expressed by melanophores and their precursors, and we demonstrate by cell transplantation and genetic rescue that igsf11 functions autonomously to this lineage in promoting adult stripe development. Further analyses of cell behaviors in vitro, in vivo, and in explant cultures ex vivo demonstrate that Igsf11 mediates adhesive interactions and that mutants for igsf11 exhibit defects in both the migration and survival of melanophores and their precursors. These findings identify the first in vivo requirements for igsf11 as well as the first instance of an immunoglobulin superfamily member functioning in pigment cell development and patterning. Our results provide new insights into adult pigment pattern morphogenesis and how cellular interactions mediate pattern formation.

  15. Detecting Rice stripe virus (RSV) in the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus) with high specificity by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijun, Cai; Xizhi, Ma; Lin, Kang; Kejing, Deng; Shouyuan, Zhao; Changben, Li

    2003-09-01

    Rice stripe disease, caused by Rice stripe virus (RSV), may lead to severe or even crippling losses in many rice-cultured countries and regions. As the most important vector of RSV, the small brown planthopper (SBPH) (Laodelphax striatellus) is largely responsible for the epidemic phase of the disease. Therefore, a rapid identification of RSV in the SBPH is of a great need for disease forecasting. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is described to amplify a RSV gene in individual L. striatellus. By using primers matched to the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase gene in RNA1, a 445 bp product was detected in viruliferous SBPHs. Meanwhile, the PCR products produced by the SBPH actin primers constructed across the boundary of an intron and an exon were used as RNA specific positive control for each stage of the experiment to ensure the validity of the negative results. Duplex RT-PCR conditions were established for the simultaneous detection of RSV and actin. This approach can be used for the early detection of RSV in L. striatellus and the subsequent rice stripe disease forecasting.

  16. Particle acceleration by electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    Particle interaction with plane electromagnetic pulses is studied. It is shown that particle acceleration by a wavy pulse, depending on the shape of the pulse, may not be small. Further, a diffusive-type particle acceleration by multiple weak pulses is described and discussed. (author)

  17. Maximum neutron flux in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.V.

    1968-12-01

    Direct approach to the problem is to calculate spatial distribution of fuel concentration if the reactor core directly using the condition of maximum neutron flux and comply with thermal limitations. This paper proved that the problem can be solved by applying the variational calculus, i.e. by using the maximum principle of Pontryagin. Mathematical model of reactor core is based on the two-group neutron diffusion theory with some simplifications which make it appropriate from maximum principle point of view. Here applied theory of maximum principle are suitable for application. The solution of optimum distribution of fuel concentration in the reactor core is obtained in explicit analytical form. The reactor critical dimensions are roots of a system of nonlinear equations and verification of optimum conditions can be done only for specific examples

  18. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  19. Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collect...

  20. Maximum Entropy Closure of Balance Equations for Miniband Semiconductor Superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis L. Bonilla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Charge transport in nanosized electronic systems is described by semiclassical or quantum kinetic equations that are often costly to solve numerically and difficult to reduce systematically to macroscopic balance equations for densities, currents, temperatures and other moments of macroscopic variables. The maximum entropy principle can be used to close the system of equations for the moments but its accuracy or range of validity are not always clear. In this paper, we compare numerical solutions of balance equations for nonlinear electron transport in semiconductor superlattices. The equations have been obtained from Boltzmann–Poisson kinetic equations very far from equilibrium for strong fields, either by the maximum entropy principle or by a systematic Chapman–Enskog perturbation procedure. Both approaches produce the same current-voltage characteristic curve for uniform fields. When the superlattices are DC voltage biased in a region where there are stable time periodic solutions corresponding to recycling and motion of electric field pulses, the differences between the numerical solutions produced by numerically solving both types of balance equations are smaller than the expansion parameter used in the perturbation procedure. These results and possible new research venues are discussed.

  1. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  2. Dynamics of traveling reaction pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovzhenko, A. Yu.; Rumanov, E. N.

    2007-01-01

    The growth of activator losses is accompanied by the decay of a traveling reaction pulse. In a ring reactor, this propagation threshold is present simultaneously with a threshold related to the ring diameter. The results of numerical experiments with pulses of an exothermal reaction reveal the transition from pulse propagation to a homogeneous hot regime, established regimes with periodic variations of the pulse velocity, and oscillatory decay of the pulse. When the medium becomes 'bistable' as a result of the variation in parameters, this factor does not prevent the propagation of pulses, but leads to changes in the pulse structure

  3. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Aquaculture in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Tran Minh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials) commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture. PMID:25897517

  4. White striping and woody breast myopathies in the modern poultry industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttappan, V A; Hargis, B M; Owens, C M

    2016-11-01

    Myopathies are gaining the attention of poultry meat producers globally. White Striping (WS) is a condition characterized by the occurrence of white striations parallel to muscle fibers on breast, thigh, and tender muscles of broilers, while Woody Breast (WB) imparts tougher consistency to raw breast fillets. Histologically, both conditions have been characterized with myodegeneration and necrosis, fibrosis, lipidosis, and regenerative changes. The occurrence of these modern myopathies has been associated with increased growth rate in birds. The severity of the myopathies can adversely affect consumer acceptance of raw cut up parts and/or quality of further processed poultry meat products, resulting in huge economic loss to the industry. Even though gross and/or histologic characteristics of modern myopathies are similar to some of the known conditions, such as hereditary muscular dystrophy, nutritional myopathy, toxic myopathies, and marbling, WS and WB could have a different etiology. As a result, there is a need for future studies to identify markers for WS and WB in live birds and genetic, nutritional, and/or management strategies to alleviate the condition. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. RED RUNAWAYS II: LOW-MASS HILLS STARS IN SDSS STRIPE 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Smith, Martin C. [Key Laboratory of Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Carlin, Jeffrey L., E-mail: zhangyq@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: msmith@shao.ac.cn [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Stars ejected from the Galactic Center can be used to place important constraints on the Milky Way potential. Since existing hypervelocity stars are too distant to accurately determine orbits, we have conducted a search for nearby candidates using full three-dimensional velocities. Since the efficacy of such studies is often hampered by deficiencies in proper motion catalogs, we have chosen to utilize the reliable, high-precision Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 proper motion catalog. Although we do not find any candidates which have velocities in excess of the escape speed, we identify 226 stars on orbits that are consistent with Galactic Center ejection. This number is significantly larger than what we would expect for halo stars on radial orbits and cannot be explained by disk or bulge contamination. If we restrict ourselves to metal-rich stars, we find 29 candidates with [Fe/H] > −0.8 dex and 10 with [Fe/H] > −0.6 dex. Their metallicities are more consistent with what we expect for bulge ejecta, and so we believe these candidates are especially deserving of further study. We have supplemented this sample using our own radial velocities, developing an algorithm to use proper motions for optimizing candidate selection. This technique provides considerable improvement on the blind spectroscopic sample of SDSS, being able to identify candidates with an efficiency around 20 times better than a blind search.

  6. Morphometric assessment of the red stripe weevils, Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from several localities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazali, Siti Nurlydia; Hazmi, Izfa Riza; Rahim, Faszly; Abang, Fatimah; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2018-04-01

    The recognition of intraspecific variation could enhance knowledge and understanding on the population divergence that might be resulted from different geographical areas. To study the possible effect derived from different locations, a morphometric study of the red stripe weevils, Rhynchophorus vulneratus from different localities in Malaysia was conducted using field and voucher specimens. A total of twenty-three morphological characters were examined from 108 individuals of R. vulneratus representing population of Kota Samarahan, Mukah and central of Peninsular Malaysia. The data were subjected to univariate one-way single factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysed in factor analysis using SPSS version 22.0 software. Univariate ANOVA showed that all tested variables were significantly different (panalysis, the first three factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 were successfully extracted, resulting in a high variation of 82.687%. For factor 1, 39.213% of total variation was recorded, factor 2 accounted for 34.096% and factor 3 contributing to 9.377%, respectively. The mixed plotting among the twenty-three morphological characters suggests a strong correlation among the parameters examined and further statistical analysis should be conducted to include environmental factors such as habitat types, food availability and predation effect.

  7. Energy budget, behavior and leptin in striped hamsters subjected to food restriction and refeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Food restriction induces a loss of body mass that is often followed by rapid regaining of the lost weight when the restriction ends, consequently increasing a risk of development of obesity. To determine the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlining the regaining, striped hamsters were restricted to 85% of initial food intake for 4 weeks and refed ad libitum for another 4 weeks. Changes in body mass, energy budget, activity, body composition and serum leptin level were measured. Body mass, body fat mass and serum leptin level significantly decreased in food-restricted hamsters, and increased when the restriction ended, showing a short "compensatory growth" rather than over-weight or obesity compared with ad libitum controls. During restriction, the time spent on activity increased significantly, which was opposite to the changes in serum leptin level. Food intake increased shortly during refeeding, which perhaps contributed to the rapid regaining of body mass. No correlation was observed between serum leptin and energy intake, while negative correlations were found in hamsters that were refed for 7 and 28 days. Exogenous leptin significantly decreased the time spent on activity during food restriction and attenuated the increase in food intake during refeeding. This suggests that low leptin in restricted animals may function as a starvation signal to induce an increase in activity behavior, and high leptin likely serves as a satiety signal to prevent activity during refeeding. Leptin may play a crucial role in controlling food intake when the restriction ends, and consequently preventing overweight.

  8. Complementary striped expression patterns of NK homeobox genes during segment formation in the annelid Platynereis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saudemont, Alexandra; Dray, Nicolas; Hudry, Bruno; Le Gouar, Martine; Vervoort, Michel; Balavoine, Guillaume

    2008-05-15

    NK genes are related pan-metazoan homeobox genes. In the fruitfly, NK genes are clustered and involved in patterning various mesodermal derivatives during embryogenesis. It was therefore suggested that the NK cluster emerged in evolution as an ancestral mesodermal patterning cluster. To test this hypothesis, we cloned and analysed the expression patterns of the homologues of NK cluster genes Msx, NK4, NK3, Lbx, Tlx, NK1 and NK5 in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii, a representative of trochozoans, the third great branch of bilaterian animals alongside deuterostomes and ecdysozoans. We found that most of these genes are involved, as they are in the fly, in the specification of distinct mesodermal derivatives, notably subsets of muscle precursors. The expression of the homologue of NK4/tinman in the pulsatile dorsal vessel of Platynereis strongly supports the hypothesis that the vertebrate heart derived from a dorsal vessel relocated to a ventral position by D/V axis inversion in a chordate ancestor. Additionally and more surprisingly, NK4, Lbx, Msx, Tlx and NK1 orthologues are expressed in complementary sets of stripes in the ectoderm and/or mesoderm of forming segments, suggesting an involvement in the segment formation process. A potentially ancient role of the NK cluster genes in segment formation, unsuspected from vertebrate and fruitfly studies so far, now deserves to be investigated in other bilaterian species, especially non-insect arthropods and onychophorans.

  9. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) monitoring techniques in the Sacramento--San Joaquin Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Various methods have been used to monitor the striped bass population in the Sacramento--San Joaquin Estuary. Sampling in the spring with towed plankton nets has provided an adequate description of spawning time and area, but this sampling has not adequately measured egg standing crops and larva and post-larva mortality rates. Tow-net sampling effectively measures the abundance of young in midsummer. A midwater-trawl survey is satisfactory for measuring the abundance of young in the fall but not in the winter. Techniques have not been fully evaluated for monitoring one-year-old bass. Catch-per-unit-effort data from sportfishing party boats were useful for monitoring two-year-olds, until a change in angling regulations increased recruitment age. The Petersen method and indices developed from party-boat catches are the best methods for monitoring bass that are three years old and older. Long-term trends in catch can be monitored through postcard surveys and party-boat catches

  10. Structural transitions and hysteresis in clump- and stripe-forming systems under dynamic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, Danielle; Reichhardt, Charles

    2016-01-01

    In using numerical simulations, we study the dynamical evolution of particles interacting via competing long-range repulsion and short-range attraction in two dimensions. The particles are compressed using a time-dependent quasi-one dimensional trough potential that controls the local density, causing the system to undergo a series of structural phase transitions from a low density clump lattice to stripes, voids, and a high density uniform state. The compression proceeds via slow elastic motion that is interrupted with avalanche-like bursts of activity as the system collapses to progressively higher densities via plastic rearrangements. The plastic events vary in magnitude from small rearrangements of particles, including the formation of quadrupole-like defects, to large-scale vorticity and structural phase transitions. In the dense uniform phase, the system compresses through row reduction transitions mediated by a disorder-order process. We also characterize the rearrangement events by measuring changes in the potential energy, the fraction of sixfold coordinated particles, the local density, and the velocity distribution. At high confinements, we find power law scaling of the velocity distribution during row reduction transitions. We observe hysteresis under a reversal of the compression when relatively few plastic rearrangements occur. The decompressing system exhibits distinct phase morphologies, and the phase transitions occur at lower compression forces as the system expands compared to when it is compressed.

  11. A 3D model for rubber tyres contact, based on Kalker's methods through the STRIPES model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    A project on the pavement-rutting evolution under the effect of a tram on tyre, led the author to make a link between road and railway approaches to the problem of rolling contact. A simplified model is proposed with a fine description of the contact patch between a tyre and the road, and a more realistic pressure and shear stresses distribution than that available from basic models previously available. Experimental measurements are used to identify some characteristics of the force description, while the geometric shape of the tyre-road section are used, like in the traditional rail-wheel contact models, to build the 3D model. The last part validates a plausible contact pressure shape from self-aligning torque measurements and from Kalker's contact stresses gradient applied to the real tyre used in the project. The final result is a brush model extended from the wheel-rail STRIPES one, applicable to dynamics or contact studies of real tyres, with a physical coupling between longitudinal, lateral and spin effects, and a relatively fine description of the contact stresses along each strip of each tyre of the vehicle on an uneven road.

  12. Photosynthetic Characteristics of Flag Leaves in Rice White Stripe Mutant 6001 During Senescence Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hui ZHEN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Physiological, biochemical and electron microscopy analyses were used to investigate the photosynthetic performance of flag leaves in rice white stripe mutant 6001 during the senescence process. Results showed that the chlorophyll content at the heading and milk-ripe stages in rice mutant 6001 were about 34.78% and 3.00% less than those in wild type 6028, respectively. However, the chlorophyll content at the fully-ripe stage in rice mutant 6001 was higher than that in wild type 6028. At the heading stage, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn in rice mutant 6001 was lower than that in wild type 6028. Rice mutant 6001 also exhibited a significantly slower decrease rate of Pn than wild type 6028 during the senescence progress, especially at the later stage. Furthermore, Ca2+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase and photophosphorylation activities exhibited the similar trends as the Pn. During the senescence process, the 68 kDa polypeptide concentrations in the thylakoid membrane proteins exhibited a significant change, which was one of the critical factors that contributed to the observed change in photosynthesis. We also observed that the chloroplasts of rice mutant 6001 exhibited higher integrity than those of wild type 6028, and the chloroplast membrane of rice mutant 6001 disintegrated more slow during the senescence process. In general, rice mutant 6001 had a relatively slower senescence rate than wild type 6028, and exhibited anti-senescence properties.

  13. Ornamentation, age, and survival of female striped plateau lizards, Sceloporus virgatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stacey L.

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with greater expression of secondary sexual traits are often older and have higher survivorship than individuals with lower expression; if so, assessment of such indicator traits may provide genetic and/or direct benefits to potential mates. I examined the relationship between ornament expression, age, and survival in the striped plateau lizard, Sceloporus virgatus, a species with female-specific ornamentation that honestly signals reproductive quality. I followed a group of females from 2008 to 2013, examined ornament color and size as females aged, and compared ornamentation of survivors versus non-survivors. In addition, I explored whether other (non-ornamental) phenotypic characters predicted survival. I found that peak ornament expression (both color and size) of individual females changed year to year but appeared to be a weak signal of age due to high among-female variation in ornament expression that occurred independent of age and a non-linear pattern of change for ornament color. However, both absolute and relative ornament size did increase significantly as an individual aged and therefore may provide some age-related information such as reproductive investment, which is expected to increase as residual reproductive value declines with age. Individual survival was unrelated to peak ornament expression and to other phenotypic variables measured, providing no support for the ornament as a viability indicator and suggesting that individual survival prospects are affected by stochastic and environmental factors.

  14. What to copy: the key factor of observational learning in striped jack (Pseudocaranx dentex) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Masuda, R; Yamashita, Y

    2014-03-01

    Animals in social environments can enhance their learning efficiency by observing the behaviour of others. Our previous study showed that learning efficiency of schooling fish increased through the observation of the behaviour of trained demonstrator conspecifics. The present study aimed to verify the key factor of observational learning by investigating what information is important for social transmission of feeding information. A striped jack (Pseudocaranx dentex) observer was provided with one of the five observation treatments: (a) pellets observation, where pellets were dropped near the aeration in an adjacent tank; (b) responding conspecific observation, where a trained conspecific demonstrator responded to the aeration without food in the adjacent tank; (c) foraging conspecific observation, where a conspecific demonstrator foraged near the aeration in the adjacent tank; (d) nearby pellets observation, where pellets were dropped in a transparent column near the aeration in the observer tank; and (e) foraging heterospecific observation, where a filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) demonstrator foraged near the aeration in the adjacent tank. The response to the aeration in these observers was compared with that of controls who did not observe any behaviour. Only individuals who observed foraging conspecifics showed a response to the aeration after observing. These results suggest that observer fish acquire feeding information not through recognition of prey items or through imitation of the demonstrator, but through the vicarious reinforcement of a conspecific for foraging.

  15. RED RUNAWAYS II: LOW-MASS HILLS STARS IN SDSS STRIPE 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Smith, Martin C.; Carlin, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Stars ejected from the Galactic Center can be used to place important constraints on the Milky Way potential. Since existing hypervelocity stars are too distant to accurately determine orbits, we have conducted a search for nearby candidates using full three-dimensional velocities. Since the efficacy of such studies is often hampered by deficiencies in proper motion catalogs, we have chosen to utilize the reliable, high-precision Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 proper motion catalog. Although we do not find any candidates which have velocities in excess of the escape speed, we identify 226 stars on orbits that are consistent with Galactic Center ejection. This number is significantly larger than what we would expect for halo stars on radial orbits and cannot be explained by disk or bulge contamination. If we restrict ourselves to metal-rich stars, we find 29 candidates with [Fe/H] > −0.8 dex and 10 with [Fe/H] > −0.6 dex. Their metallicities are more consistent with what we expect for bulge ejecta, and so we believe these candidates are especially deserving of further study. We have supplemented this sample using our own radial velocities, developing an algorithm to use proper motions for optimizing candidate selection. This technique provides considerable improvement on the blind spectroscopic sample of SDSS, being able to identify candidates with an efficiency around 20 times better than a blind search.

  16. Physiological adaptations to prolonged fasting in the overwintering striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Bowman, Jeff; Sadowski, Carrie; Nituch, Larissa A; Bruce, Laura; Halonen, Toivo; Puukka, Katri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Aho, Jari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2013-12-01

    Wintertime physiology of captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in response to cold ambient temperature (Ta) and fasting was investigated with body temperature (Tb) and activity recordings and analyses of hematology, plasma biochemistry and tissue fatty acids (FA). After 105 days of food deprivation, the skunks were in phase II of fasting indicated by the elevated plasma nonesterified FA and glycerol but no accumulation of nitrogen end products. Shorter-chain saturated and monounsaturated FA together with C18-20 n-3 polyunsaturated FA were preferentially mobilized. Individual amino acids responded to fasting in a complex manner, while essential and nonessential amino acid sums remained stable. Increases in hemoglobin and hematocrit suggested dehydration. The activity levels were lower in mid-January-early March, and the activity bouts were mostly displayed between 17:00-23:00 h. Daily torpor was observed in two females with 29 and 46 bouts. The deepest torpor (Tb<31 °C) occurred between dawn and early afternoon and lasted for 3.3 ± 0.18 h. The average minimum Tb was 29.2 ± 0.15 °C and the lowest recorded Tb was 25.8 °C. There was significant relation between the average 24-h Tb and Ta. Increases in wintertime Ta, as predicted by climate change scenarios, could influence torpor patterns in the species. © 2013.

  17. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Aquaculture in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Minh Phu

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture.

  18. Responses of striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), from Taiwan to a range of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuan; Chang, Cheng; Dai, Shu-Mei

    2010-07-01

    Information on the insecticide susceptibility of striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is essential for an effective pest management programme. An early detection of resistance development can prompt the modification of current control methods and increase the lifespan of insecticides through the rotation of chemicals with different modes of action. In this study, the susceptibility of this pest in Taiwan to four classes of insecticides has been examined. Over 1000-fold resistance to carbofuran was detected in C. suppressalis collected from Chiayi and Changhua prefectures, with estimated LC(50) values of > 3 mg cm(-2). In addition, 61-fold resistance to cartap was found in the Chiayi population. On the other hand, all tested populations of rice stem borer were still relatively susceptible to chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, with LC(50) values ranging from 30 to 553 ng cm(-2). Chilo suppressalis populations collected from the central parts of Taiwan have a higher degree of resistance to the tested insecticides than those from northern areas. The occurrence of high resistance to carbofuran in the Chiayi and Changhua areas suggests that this compound should be replaced with chemicals having a different mode of action, such as chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, to which low cross-resistance has been detected. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Study on mixing behavior in a tee piping and numerical analyses for evaluation of thermal striping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, H.; Igarashi, M.; Kawashima, S.; Kimura, N.; Hayashi, K.

    2009-01-01

    Water experiments were carried out for thermal hydraulic aspects of thermal striping in a mixing tee, which has main to branch diameter ratio of 3. Detailed temperature and velocity fields were measured by a movable thermocouple tree and particle image velocimetry. Flow patterns in the tee were classified into three groups; wall jet, deflecting jet, and impinging jet, which had their own temperature fluctuation profiles, depending on a momentum ratio between the main and branch pipes. Non-dimensional power spectrum density (PSD) of temperature fluctuation showed a unique profile, when the momentum ratio was identical. Numerical simulation based on finite difference method showed alternative vortex development, like Karman vortex series, behind the jet from the branch pipe in the wall jet case. The prominent frequency of the temperature fluctuation in the calculation was 0.2 of St number based on the branch pipe diameter and in good agreement with the experimental results. Mixing behavior in the tee was characterized by the relatively large vortex structures defined by the diameters and the velocities in the pipes

  20. Temperature-dependent striped antiferromagnetism of LaFeAsO in a Green's function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guibin; Liu Banggui

    2009-01-01

    We use a Green's function method to study the temperature-dependent average moment and magnetic phase-transition temperature of the striped antiferromagnetism of LaFeAsO, and other similar compounds, as the parents of FeAs-based superconductors. We consider the nearest and the next-nearest couplings in the FeAs layer, and the nearest coupling for inter-layer spin interaction. The dependence of the transition temperature T N and the zero-temperature average spin on the interaction constants is investigated. We obtain an analytical expression for T N and determine our temperature-dependent average spin from zero temperature to T N in terms of unified self-consistent equations. For LaFeAsO, we obtain a reasonable estimation of the coupling interactions with the experimental transition temperature T N = 138 K. Our results also show that a non-zero antiferromagnetic (AFM) inter-layer coupling is essential for the existence of a non-zero T N , and the many-body AFM fluctuations reduce substantially the low-temperature magnetic moment per Fe towards the experimental value. Our Green's function approach can be used for other FeAs-based parent compounds and these results should be useful to understand the physical properties of FeAs-based superconductors.

  1. Characterization of the pulse plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosavljevic, V; Karkari, S K; Ellingboe, A R

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of the pulse plasma source through the determination of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) threshold is described. The maximum electron density measured at the peak in discharge current is determined by the width of the He II Paschen alpha spectral line, and the electron temperature is determined from the ratios of the relative intensities of spectral lines emitted from successive ionized stages of atoms. The electron density and temperature maximum values are measured to be 1.3 x 10 17 cm -3 and 19 000 K, respectively. These are typical characteristics for low-pressure, pulsed plasma sources for input energy of 15.8 J at 130 Pa pressure in helium-argon mixture. The use of LTE-based analysis of the emission spectra is justified by measurement of the local plasma electron density at four positions in the discharge tube using a floating hairpin resonance probe. The hairpin resonance probe data are collected during the creation and decay phases of the pulse. From the spatio-temporal profile of the plasma density a 60 μs time-window during which LTE exists throughout the entire plasma source is determined

  2. Boron distribution in silicon after excimer laser annealing with multiple pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, E.V.; Svensson, B.G.; Linnarsson, M.K.; La Magna, A.; Italia, M.; Privitera, V.; Fortunato, G.; Cuscuna, M.; Mariucci, L.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied B re-distribution in Si after excimer laser annealing (ELA) with multiple laser pulses. B was implanted using both B and BF 2 ions with energies from 1 to 20 keV and doses of 1 x 10 14 and 1 x 10 15 cm -2 . ELA with the number of pulses from 1 to 100 was performed in vacuum with the sample kept at room temperature and 450 deg. C. Independently of the implantation parameters and the ELA conditions used, a peak in the B concentration is observed near the maximum melting depth after 10 pulses of ELA. A detailed study has revealed that B accumulates at the maximum melt depth gradually with the number of ELA pulses. An increase in the carrier concentration at the maximum melt depth is observed after ELA with 100 pulses. No structural defects have been detected by transmission electron microscopy in the region of the B accumulation

  3. Digital pulse processing: new possibilities in nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, W.K.; Momayezi, M.; Hubbard-Nelson, B.; Skulski, W.

    2000-01-01

    Digital pulse processing is a signal processing technique in which detector (preamplifier output) signals are directly digitized and processed to extract quantities of interest. This approach has several significant advantages compared to traditional analog signal shaping. First, analyses can be developed which take pulse-by-pulse differences into account, as in making ballistic deficit compensations. Second, transient induced charge signals, which deposit no net charge on an electrode, can be analyzed to give, for example, information on the position of interaction within the detector. Third, deadtimes from transient overload signals are greatly reduced, from tens of μs to hundreds of ns. Fourth, signals are easily captured, so that more complex analyses can be postponed until the source event has been deemed 'interesting'. Fifth, signal capture and processing may easily be based on coincidence criteria between different detectors or different parts of the same detector. XIAs recently introduced CAMAC module, the DGF-4C, provides many of these features for four input channels, including two levels of digital processing and a FIFO for signal capture for each signal channel. The first level of digital processing is 'immediate', taking place in a gate array at the 40 MHz digitization rate, and implements pulse detection, pileup inspection, trapezoidal energy filtering, and control of an external 25.6 μs long FIFO. The second level of digital processing is provided by a digital signal processor (DSP), where more complex algorithms can be implemented. To illustrate digital pulse processing's possibilities, we describe the application of the DGF-4C to a series of experiments. The first, for which the DGF was originally developed, involves locating gamma-ray interaction sites within large segmented Ge detectors. The goal of this work is to attain spatial resolutions of order 2 mm σ within 70 mm x 90 mm detectors. We show how pulse shape analysis allows ballistic

  4. Pulsed-laser atom-probe field-ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, G.L.; Tsong, T.T.

    1980-01-01

    A time-of-flight atom-probe field-ion microscope has been developed which uses nanosecond laser pulses to field evaporate surface species. The ability to operate an atom-probe without using high-voltage pulses is advantageous for several reasons. The spread in energy arising from the desorption of surface species prior to the voltage pulse attaining its maximum amplitude is eliminated, resulting in increased mass resolution. Semiconductor and insulator samples, for which the electrical resistivity is too high to transmit a short-duration voltage pulse, can be examined using pulsed-laser assisted field desorption. Since the electric field at the surface can be significantly smaller, the dissociation of molecular adsorbates by the field can be reduced or eliminated, permitting well-defined studies of surface chemical reactions. In addition to atom-probe operation, pulsed-laser heating of field emitters can be used to study surface diffusion of adatoms and vacancies over a wide range of temperatures. Examples demonstrating each of these advantages are presented, including the first pulsed-laser atom-probe (PLAP) mass spectra for both metals (W, Mo, Rh) and semiconductors (Si). Molecular hydrogen, which desorbs exclusively as atomic hydrogen in the conventional atom probe, is shown to desorb undissociatively in the PLAP. Field-ion microscope observations of the diffusion and dissociation of atomic clusters, the migration of adatoms, and the formation of vacancies resulting from heating with a 7-ns laser pulse are also presented

  5. Kinetic studies on a repetitively pulsed fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.

    1982-01-01

    Neutronic analysis of an earlier proposed periodically pulsed fast reactor at Kalpakkam (KPFR) has been carried out numerically under equilibrium and transient conditions using the one-point model of reactor kinetics and the experimentally measured total worth of reactivity modulator, the parabolic coefficient of reactivity of the movable reflector and the mean prompt neutron lifetime. Results of steady-state calculations - treated on the basis of delayed neutron precursor and energy balances during a period of operation - have been compared with the analytical formulae of Larrimore for a parabolic reactivity input. Empirical relations for half-width of the fast neutron pulse, the peak pulse power and the power at first crossing of prompt criticality have been obtained and shown to be accurate enough for predicting steady-state power pulse characteristics of a periodically pulsed fast reactor. The concept of a subprompt-critical reactor has been used to calculate the fictitious delayed neutron fraction, β of the KPFR through a numerical experiment. Relative pulse height stability and pulse shape sensitivity to changes of maximum reactivity is discussed. With the aid of new safety concepts, the Power Amplification Factor (PAF) and the Pulse Growth Factor (Rsub(p)), the dynamics KPFR under accidental conditions has been studied for step and ramp reactivity perturbations. All the analysis has been done without taking account of reactivity feedback. (orig.)

  6. Pulsed rf excited spectrometer having improved pulse width control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    RF excitation for a spectrometer is obtained by pulse width modulating an RF carrier to produce the desired broadband RF exciting spectrum. The RF excitation includes a train of composite RF pulses, each composite pulse having a primary pulse portion of a first RF phase and a second pulse portion of a second RF phase opposite that of the first. In this manner, the finite rise and fall times of the primary pulse portion are compensated for by the corresponding rise and fall times of the secondary pulse portion. The primary pulse portion is lengthened by an amount equal to the secondary pulse portion so that the secondary pulse portion cancels the added primary pulse portion. In a spectrometer, the compensating second pulse component removes certain undesired side bands of the RF excitation caused by the finite rise and fall times of the applied RF pulses. The compensating second pulse component removes certain undesired side bands associated with each of the resonant lines of the excited resonance spectrum of the sample under analysis, particularly for wide band RF excitation

  7. Flat-top pulse generation by the optical Fourier transform technique for ultrahigh speed signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super-Gaussian sp......This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super...

  8. High-intensity pulsed electric field variables affecting Staphylococcus aureus inoculated in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino-López, A; Raybaudi-Massilia, R; Martín-Belloso, O

    2006-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important milk-related pathogen that is inactivated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF). In this study, inactivation of Staph. aureus suspended in milk by HIPEF was studied using a response surface methodology, in which electric field intensity, pulse number, pulse width, pulse polarity, and the fat content of milk were the controlled variables. It was found that the fat content of milk did not significantly affect the microbial inactivation of Staph. aureus. A maximum value of 4.5 log reductions was obtained by applying 150 bipolar pulses of 8 mus each at 35 kV/cm. Bipolar pulses were more effective than those applied in the monopolar mode. An increase in electric field intensity, pulse number, or pulse width resulted in a drop in the survival fraction of Staph. aureus. Pulse widths close to 6.7 micros lead to greater microbial death with a minimum number of applied pulses. At a constant treatment time, a greater number of shorter pulses achieved better inactivation than those treatments performed at a lower number of longer pulses. The combined action of pulse number and electric field intensity followed a similar pattern, indicating that the same fraction of microbial death can be reached with different combinations of the variables. The behavior and relationship among the electrical variables suggest that the energy input of HIPEF processing might be optimized without decreasing the microbial death.

  9. Herophilus on pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonasin, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first detailed study of the pulse (sphygmology is associated in antiquity with Herophilus (the end of the 4th century BCE, an Alexandrian physician, renowned for his anatomical discoveries. The scholars also attribute to him a discovery of a portable and adjustable water-clock, used for measuring ‘natural’ and ‘unnatural’ pulse and, accordingly, temperature of the patient. In the article we translate the principal ancient evidences and comment upon them. We study both the practical aspects of ancient sphygmology and the theoretical speculations associated with it. Ancient theory of proportion and musical harmony allowed to build a classification of the pulses, but the medical experience did not fit well in the Procrustean bed of this rather simple theory.

  10. Current Extensions on PULSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Dragos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a learning management system (LMS is a common practise nowadays. Such instruments are used in educational institutions to enhance and support the teaching act as well as in industry for training purposes. In a computer science department of an university such instrument tends to be a basic requirement. That is because not only it allows a better management of courses and a better communication between students and professors, but can also serve as a perfect instrument for presenting teaching related materials for computer science subjects. During the years I have created and used several such instruments: a System with Interactive ackNowledgement and Evaluation of students work during laboratory sessions (SINE, a Php Utility used in Laboratories for Student Evaluation (PULSE, and PULSE Extended. The aim of this paper is to present the current enhancements of PULSE.

  11. High-order harmonic generation spectra and isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color time delayed pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Liqiang; Chu Tianshu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigation of HHG spectra and single isolated attosecond pulse generation. ► Irradiation from a model Ne atom by two-color time delayed pulse. ► Observation of time delay effect and relative phase effect. ► Revelation of the optimal condition for generating isolated attosecond pulse. ► Generation of a single isolated attosecond pulse of 45as. - Abstract: In this paper, we theoretically investigate the delay time effect on the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) when a model Ne atom is exposed to a two-color time delayed pulse, consisting of a 5fs/800 nm fundamental field and a 20fs/2000 nm controlling field. It shows that the HHG spectra are strongly sensitive to the delay time between the two laser fields, in particular, for the zero carrier-envelope phase (CEP) φ case (corresponding to the 800 nm fundamental field), the maximum cutoff energy has been achieved at zero delay time. However, with the introduction of the CEP (φ = 180°), the delay effect on HHG is changed, exhibiting a ‘U’ structure harmonic emission from −1 T to 1 T. In addition, the combinations of different controlling pulse frequencies and pulse intensities have also been considered, showing the similar results as the original controlling field case, but with some characteristics. Finally, by properly superposing the optimal harmonic spectrum, an isolated 45as pulse is generated without phase compensation.

  12. Design and development of a high-power, 500 kV pulsed line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, A.

    A study was made of very high voltage (500 kV) pulse production for 50 ns at half height. A coaxial line was coupled to a Marx generator for obtaining the pulses on an impedance-adapted electron diode. The maximum power obtained was 6.4 x 10 10 W with a current front in the diode of about 30 ns (80 ns pulse length at half height)

  13. Electron laser acceleration in vacuum by a quadratically chirped laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamin, Yousef I; Jisrawi, Najeh M

    2014-01-01

    Single MeV electrons in vacuum subjected to single high-intensity quadratically chirped laser pulses are shown to gain multi-GeV energies. The laser pulses are modelled by finite-duration trapezoidal and cos  2 pulse-shapes and the equations of motion are solved numerically. It is found that, typically, the maximum energy gain from interaction with a quadratic chirp is about half of what would be gained from a linear chirp. (paper)

  14. Reactor kinetics - pulse and steady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, B F; Morris, F M [Sandia Laboratories (United States)

    1974-07-01

    An analytical model has been developed which couples the nuclear and thermal characteristics of the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) into a solution which describes both the neutron kinetics of the reactor and the temperature behavior of a fuel-moderator element. The model describes both pulse and steady state operations. This paper describes the important aspects of the reactor, the fuel- moderator elements, the neutron kinetic equations of the reactor, and the time-temperature behavior of a fuel-moderator element that is being subjected to the maximum power density in the core. The parameters which are utilized in the equations are divided into two classes, those that can be measured directly and those that are assumed to be known (each is described briefly). Some of the solutions which demonstrate the versatility of the analytical model are described. (author)

  15. Millimicrosecond pulse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ian A D

    1959-01-01

    Millimicrosecond Pulse Techniques, Second Edition focuses on millimicrosecond pulse techniques and the development of devices of large bandwidth, extending down to comparatively low frequencies (1 Mc/s). Emphasis is on basic circuit elements and pieces of equipment of universal application. Specific applications, mostly in the field of nuclear physics instrumentation, are considered. This book consists of eight chapters and opens with an introduction to some of the terminology employed by circuit engineers as well as theoretical concepts, including the laws of circuit analysis, Fourier analysi

  16. Pulsed Plasma Electron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Yakov

    2008-11-01

    Pulsed (˜10-7 s) electron beams with high current density (>10^2 A/cm^2) are generated in diodes with electric field of E > 10^6 V/cm. The source of electrons in these diodes is explosive emission plasma, which limits pulse duration; in the case E Saveliev, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 093308 (2005). Ya. E. Krasik, A. Dunaevsky, and J. Felsteiner, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2466 (2001). D. Yarmolich, V. Vekselman, V. Tz. Gurovich, and Ya. E. Krasik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 075004 (2008). J. Z. Gleizer, Y. Hadas and Ya. E. Krasik, Europhysics Lett. 82, 55001 (2008).

  17. Spallation neutrons pulsed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the range of scientific applications which can use these pulsed neutrons sources: Studies on super fluids, measures to verify the crawling model for the polymers diffusion; these sources are also useful to study the neutron disintegration, the ultra cold neutrons. In certain applications which were not accessible by neutrons diffusion, for example, radiations damages, radionuclides production and activation analysis, the spallation sources find their use and their improvement will bring new possibilities. Among others contributions, one must notice the place at disposal of pulsed muons sources and neutrinos sources. (N.C.). 3 figs

  18. Pulse Doppler radar

    CERN Document Server

    Alabaster, Clive

    2012-01-01

    This book is a practitioner's guide to all aspects of pulse Doppler radar. It concentrates on airborne military radar systems since they are the most used, most complex, and most interesting of the pulse Doppler radars; however, ground-based and non-military systems are also included. It covers the fundamental science, signal processing, hardware issues, systems design and case studies of typical systems. It will be a useful resource for engineers of all types (hardware, software and systems), academics, post-graduate students, scientists in radar and radar electronic warfare sectors and milit

  19. Pulse Synchronization System (PSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    This document is intended to serve as an operations manual, as well as a documentation of the backup analyses pertinent to the design as delivered. A history of earlier unsuccessful versions of the Pulse Synchronization System (PSS) is not included. The function of the PSS is to synchronize the time of arrival at the fusion target of laser pulses that are propagated through the 20 amplifier chains of the SHIVA laser. The positional accuracy requirement is +-1.5 mm (+-5 psec), and is obtained by the PSS with a wide margin factor

  20. Mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in an Aegilops caudate introgression line in wheat and its genetic association with leaf rust resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Puneet Inder; Kaur, Satinder; Bansal, Mitaly; Yadav, Bharat; Chhuneja, Parveen

    2016-12-01

    A pair of stripe rust and leaf rust resistance genes was introgressed from Aegilops caudata, a nonprogenitor diploid species with the CC genome, to cultivated wheat. Inheritance and genetic mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in backcrossrecombinant inbred line (BC-RIL) population derived from the cross of a wheat-Ae. caudata introgression line (IL) T291- 2(pau16060) with wheat cv. PBW343 is reported here. Segregation of BC-RILs for stripe rust resistance depicted a single major gene conditioning adult plant resistance (APR) with stripe rust reaction varying from TR-20MS in resistant RILs signifying the presence of some minor genes as well. Genetic association with leaf rust resistance revealed that two genes are located at a recombination distance of 13%. IL T291-2 had earlier been reported to carry introgressions on wheat chromosomes 2D, 3D, 4D, 5D, 6D and 7D. Genetic mapping indicated the introgression of stripe rust resistance gene on wheat chromosome 5DS in the region carrying leaf rust resistance gene LrAc, but as an independent introgression. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence-tagged site (STS) markers designed from the survey sequence data of 5DS enriched the target region harbouring stripe and leaf rust resistance genes. Stripe rust resistance locus, temporarily designated as YrAc, mapped at the distal most end of 5DS linked with a group of four colocated SSRs and two resistance gene analogue (RGA)-STS markers at a distance of 5.3 cM. LrAc mapped at a distance of 9.0 cM from the YrAc and at 2.8 cM from RGA-STS marker Ta5DS_2737450, YrAc and LrAc appear to be the candidate genes for marker-assisted enrichment of the wheat gene pool for rust resistance.

  1. Physical model of reactor pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, A.; Ravnik, M.

    2004-01-01

    Pulse experiments have been performed at J. Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor since 1991. In total, more than 130 pulses have been performed. Extensive experimental information on the pulse physical characteristics has been accumulated. Fuchs-Hansen adiabatic model has been used for predicting and analysing the pulse parameters. The model is based on point kinetics equation, neglecting the delayed neutrons and assuming constant inserted reactivity in form of step function. Deficiencies of the Fuchs-Hansen model and systematic experimental errors have been observed and analysed. Recently, the pulse model was improved by including the delayed neutrons and time dependence of inserted reactivity. The results explain the observed non-linearity of the pulse energy for high pulses due to finite time of pulse rod withdrawal and the contribution of the delayed neutrons after the prompt part of the pulse. The results of the improved model are in good agreement with experimental results. (author)

  2. Maximum gravitational redshift of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of uniformly rotating, cold white dwarfs is examined in the framework of the Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism of Will and Nordtvedt. The maximum central density and gravitational redshift of a white dwarf are determined as functions of five of the nine PPN parameters (γ, β, zeta 2 , zeta 3 , and zeta 4 ), the total angular momentum J, and the composition of the star. General relativity predicts that the maximum redshifts is 571 km s -1 for nonrotating carbon and helium dwarfs, but is lower for stars composed of heavier nuclei. Uniform rotation can increase the maximum redshift to 647 km s -1 for carbon stars (the neutronization limit) and to 893 km s -1 for helium stars (the uniform rotation limit). The redshift distribution of a larger sample of white dwarfs may help determine the composition of their cores

  3. Effects of a pulsed operation on ozone production in dielectric barrier air discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggero Barni; Ilaria Biganzoli; Elisa Dell’Orto; Claudia Riccardi

    2014-01-01

    We have performed an experimental investigation of ozone production in a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Measurements of ozone in the gas-phase as a function of the power level show that in continuous mode a maximum concentration is achieved before a decrease presumably connected with gas-phase heating. When the reactor is employed in pulsed mode, by applying a definite duty cycle, a strong increase in ozone concentration is generally observed, with a maximum which happens...

  4. Percolation-enhanced generation of terahertz pulses by optical rectification on ultrathin gold films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishnan, G.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Emission of pulses of electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz range is observed when ultrathin gold films on glass are illuminated with femtosecond near-IR laser pulses. A distinct maximum is observed in the emitted terahertz amplitude from films of average thickness just above the percolation

  5. Pondermotive absorption of a short intense laser pulse in a non-uniform plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, A A; Platonov, K Yu [Inst. for Laser Physics, SC ` Vavilov State Optical Inst.` 12, Birzhevaya line, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K A

    1998-03-01

    An analytical description of the pondermotive absorption mechanism at a short high intense laser pulse interaction with a strong inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The optimal conditions for the maximum of resonance absorption of laser pulse interaction with non-uniform plasma at normal incidence are founded. (author)

  6. Lunar phase and catch success of the striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax in sport fishing at Los Cabos, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ponce-Díaz

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the lunar phases on the catch-per-unit effort (CPUE of the striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax captured by the Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico sport-fishing fleet from October 1987 to June 1989 was analyzed. The information is from 3 377 fishing trips by 13 vessels that represent about 10 % of the fleet. The analysis of the CPUE showed a maximum in January 1988 and a minimum in February 1989. Taking into account the knowledge of the factors that had influence on the fishing success is important in the resource management. No significant difference during the full moon compared with results during other lunar phases was found.Se analizó la influencia de las fases lunares sobre la captura por unidad de esfuerzo en el marlín rayado (Tetraptus audax capturado por la flota deportiva en Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, desde octubre de 1987 a junio de 1989. La información de 3377 viajes de pesca por 13 embarcaciones que representan cerca de un 10% de la flota. El análisis mostró un máximo en enero de 1988 y un mínimo en febrero de 1989. Tomar en consideración el conocimiento de los factores que tuvieron influencia en el éxito en la pesca es importante en el manejo de los recursos. No se encontró diferencias significativas durante la luna llena comparado con los resultados obtenidos durante las otras fases de la luna.

  7. Rigor index, fillet yield and proximate composition of cultured striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus for its suitability in processing industries in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Noor-E Islami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rigor-index in market-size striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, locally called Thai-Pangas was determined to assess fillet yield for production of value-added products. In whole fish, rigor started within 1 hr after death under both iced and room temperature conditions while rigor-index reached a maximum of 72.23% within 8 hr and 85.5% within 5 hr at room temperature and iced condition, respectively, which was fully relaxed after 22 hr under both storage conditions. Post-mortem muscle pH decreased to 6.8 after 2 hr, 6.2 after 8 hr and sharp increase to 6.9 after 9 hr. There was a positive correlation between rigor progress and pH shift in fish fillets. Hand filleting was done post-rigor and fillet yield experiment showed 50.4±2.1% fillet, 8.0±0.2% viscera, 8.0±1.3% skin and 32.0±3.2% carcass could be obtained from Thai-Pangas. Proximate composition analysis of four regions of Thai-Pangas viz., head region, middle region, tail region and viscera revealed moisture 78.36%, 81.14%, 81.45% and 57.33%; protein 15.83%, 15.97%, 16.14% and 17.20%; lipid 4.61%, 1.82%, 1.32% and 24.31% and ash 1.09%, 0.96%, 0.95% and 0.86%, respectively indicating suitability of Thai-Pangas for production of value-added products such as fish fillets.

  8. Evaluation of dynamic range for LLNL streak cameras using high contrast pulses and pulse podiatry'' on the Nova laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, J.B.; Weiland, T.L.; Prior, J.A.

    1990-07-01

    A standard LLNL streak camera has been used to analyze high contrast pulses on the Nova laser facility. These pulses have a plateau at their leading edge (foot) with an amplitude which is approximately 1% of the maximum pulse height. Relying on other features of the pulses and on signal multiplexing, we were able to determine how accurately the foot amplitude was being represented by the camera. Results indicate that the useful single channel dynamic range of the instrument approaches 100:1. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....

  10. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  11. Shower maximum detector for SDC calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernwein, J.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype for the SDC end-cap (EM) calorimeter complete with a pre-shower and a shower maximum detector was tested in beams of electrons and Π's at CERN by an SDC subsystem group. The prototype was manufactured from scintillator tiles and strips read out with 1 mm diameter wave-length shifting fibers. The design and construction of the shower maximum detector is described, and results of laboratory tests on light yield and performance of the scintillator-fiber system are given. Preliminary results on energy and position measurements with the shower max detector in the test beam are shown. (authors). 4 refs., 5 figs

  12. Topics in Bayesian statistics and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Cicuttin, A.; Cerdeira, A.; Stanciulescu, C.

    1998-12-01

    Notions of Bayesian decision theory and maximum entropy methods are reviewed with particular emphasis on probabilistic inference and Bayesian modeling. The axiomatic approach is considered as the best justification of Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy principle applied in natural sciences. Particular emphasis is put on solving the inverse problem in digital image restoration and Bayesian modeling of neural networks. Further topics addressed briefly include language modeling, neutron scattering, multiuser detection and channel equalization in digital communications, genetic information, and Bayesian court decision-making. (author)

  13. Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets

  14. Pulsed high-current electron source: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindt, C.A.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to investigate ways to realize the cathode's potential as a source for high power pulse operation. The questions that needed to be studied were those of large area coverage, maximum emission that the cathode arrays are capable of producing practically, uniformity of emission over large areas, and the ability to operate with high voltage anodes. 9 figs

  15. The characterisation of magnetic pigment dispersions using pulsed magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, J.J.; O'Grady, K.; Nelson, N.K.; Sharrock, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we describe the application of pulsed field magnetometry techniques for the characterisation of magnetic pigment dispersions. Magnetic pigment dispersions are important technological materials as in one form they are the material which are used to coat base film in order to make magnetic recording tape. It is these materials that have been evaluated. In this work, we describe the use of two pulsed field magnetometers, one being a low-field instrument with a maximum field of 750 Oe and the other a high-field instrument with a maximum field of 4.1 kOe. Using inductive sensing, the magnetisation is monitored in real time as the pulse is applied. We find that using these techniques we can successfully monitor the progress of the dispersion process, the effects of different resin systems and the effect of different processing conditions. We find that our results are consistent with rheological and other measurements

  16. The characterisation of magnetic pigment dispersions using pulsed magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, J.J.; O' Grady, K. E-mail: kog1@york.ac.uk; Nelson, N.K.; Sharrock, M.P

    2003-10-01

    In this work, we describe the application of pulsed field magnetometry techniques for the characterisation of magnetic pigment dispersions. Magnetic pigment dispersions are important technological materials as in one form they are the material which are used to coat base film in order to make magnetic recording tape. It is these materials that have been evaluated. In this work, we describe the use of two pulsed field magnetometers, one being a low-field instrument with a maximum field of 750 Oe and the other a high-field instrument with a maximum field of 4.1 kOe. Using inductive sensing, the magnetisation is monitored in real time as the pulse is applied. We find that using these techniques we can successfully monitor the progress of the dispersion process, the effects of different resin systems and the effect of different processing conditions. We find that our results are consistent with rheological and other measurements.

  17. Pulse power modulators - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.

    2006-01-01

    Pulse power modulators are electronic devices to provide, high voltage, high current, power bursts. Ideally, a modulator, with the means to shape and control the pulses, acts as a switch between a high voltage power supply and its load. This article gives an overview of the pulse power modulators: starting with the basics of pulse and modulation, it covers modulation topologies, different types of modulators, major subsystems and pulse measurement techniques. The various applications of pulse power modulators and the recent trends have been included at the end. (author)

  18. Ultra High Resolution Imaging of Enceladus Tiger Stripe Thermal Emission with Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John R.; Gorius, Nicolas; Howett, Carly; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Cassini CIRS Team

    2017-10-01

    In October 2015, Cassini flew within 48 km of Enceladus’ south pole. The spacecraft attitude was fixed during the flyby, but the roll angle of the spacecraft was chosen so that the remote sensing instrument fields of view passed over Damascus, Baghdad, and Cairo Sulci. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument obtained a single interferometer scan during the flyby, using a special mode, enabled by a flight software update, which bypassed numerical filters to improve the fidelity of the interferograms. This generated a total of 11 interferograms, at 5 contiguous spatial locations for each of the 7 - 9 micron (FP4) and 9 - 17 micron (FP3) focal planes, and a single larger field of view for the 17 - 500 micron focal plane (FP1). Strong spikes were seen in the interferograms when crossing each of the sulci, due to the rapid passage of warm material through the field of view. For FP3 and FP4, the temporal variations of the signals from the 5 contiguous detectors can be used to generated 5-pixel-wide images of the thermal emission, which show excellent agreement between the two focal planes. FP3 and FP4 spatial resolution, limited along track by the 5 msec time sampling of the interferogram, and across track by the CIRS field of view, is a remarkable 40 x 40 meters. At this resolution, the tiger stripe thermal emission shows a large amount of structure, including both continuous emission along the fractures, discrete hot spots less than 100 meters across, and extended emission with complex structure.

  19. Evaluation of White Striping prevalence and predisposing factors in broilers at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Elisa; Drigo, Michele; Longoni, Corrado; Pezzotti, Raffaele; Fasoli, Paolo; Recordati, Camilla

    2015-08-01

    White striping ( WS: ) is an alteration of breast and thigh muscles of broiler chickens characterized by the presence of white striations parallel to the direction of muscle fibers. This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence and the predisposing factors to WS in commercial broilers of different weight reared in northern Italy. Fifty seven broiler flocks, including animals of medium- and heavy-weight, were grossly evaluated at slaughter for the presence of WS. For each flock, breeding data (mean BW at slaughter, ADG, sex, color of skin and fat, genetic line, age, antibiotic treatment, and prevalence of deep pectoral myopathy) were collected and statistically analyzed to assess their correlation with WS. Histology of breast fillets affected by different grades of WS was performed to evaluate potential differences between medium- and heavy-weight broilers. The overall prevalence of WS in medium- and heavy-weight broilers (mean BW 2.59 ± 0.13 kg and 3.64 ± 0.34 kg, respectively) was 70.2 ± 7.9% and 82.51 ± 8.5%, respectively, while the percentage of severe WS was 13.3 ± 7.1% and 25.7 ± 12.8%, respectively. A strong correlation was found between presence of WS, BW at slaughter, and ADG (Pearson correlation = 0.69, P myopathy (Spearman's Rho slaughterhouse 1 = 0.74, Spearman's Rho slaughterhouse 2 = 0.51, P myopathy, and that the lesions, as expected, were more severe in heavy-weight broilers. In conclusion, WS is a major concern in commercial meat poultry reared in Italy, affecting more severely heavier broilers, and it is mainly related to the BW and ADG of animals. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Galaxy clusters in the SDSS Stripe 82 based on photometric redshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durret, F.; Adami, C.; Bertin, E.; Hao, J.; Márquez, I.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a recent photometric redshift galaxy catalogue, we have searched for galaxy clusters in the Stripe ~82 region of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by applying the Adami & MAzure Cluster FInder (AMACFI). Extensive tests were made to fine-tune the AMACFI parameters and make the cluster detection as reliable as possible. The same method was applied to the Millennium simulation to estimate our detection efficiency and the approximate masses of the detected clusters. Considering all the cluster galaxies (i.e. within a 1 Mpc radius of the cluster to which they belong and with a photoz differing by less than 0.05 from that of the cluster), we stacked clusters in various redshift bins to derive colour-magnitude diagrams and galaxy luminosity functions (GLFs). For each galaxy with absolute magnitude brighter than -19.0 in the r band, we computed the disk and spheroid components by applying SExtractor, and by stacking clusters we determined how the disk-to-spheroid flux ratio varies with cluster redshift and mass. We also detected 3663 clusters in the redshift range 0.15< z<0.70, with estimated mean masses between 10"1"3 and a few 10"1"4 solar masses. Furthermore, by stacking the cluster galaxies in various redshift bins, we find a clear red sequence in the (g'-r') versus r' colour-magnitude diagrams, and the GLFs are typical of clusters, though with a possible contamination from field galaxies. The morphological analysis of the cluster galaxies shows that the fraction of late-type to early-type galaxies shows an increase with redshift (particularly in high mass clusters) and a decrease with detection level, i.e. cluster mass. From the properties of the cluster galaxies, the majority of the candidate clusters detected here seem to be real clusters with typical cluster properties.