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Sample records for striped bass white

  1. DNA methylation profiles correlated to striped bass sperm fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spermatozoa are used to fertilize in vitro the eggs of white bass (Morone chrysops) to produce the preferred hybrid for the striped bass aquaculture industry. Currently, only one source of domestic striped bass juveniles are available to growers that are not obtained ...

  2. Stock characteristics of Hudson River striped bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, T.B.; McLaren, J.B.; Cooper, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Striped bass, because of their tremendous popularity both commercially and recreationally, were a principal focus of the Hudson River power plant case. Between 1976 and 1979, over 23,000 age-II and older striped bass were studied as one facet of an extensive research program on the spring population in the Hudson River. Samples were collected from the overwintering as well as the spawning portion of the striped bass population, and included immature as well as mature fish. At least 12 age-groups contributed to spawning each year. Of these 12, age-groups III, IV, and V usually were most abundant, but the percentage of the population represented by any single age-group varied as the result of fluctuations in year-class strength. Males first became sexually mature at age II and females at age IV. Fast-growing individuals within a year class tended to mature earlier. Fecundity increased with the size of fish, reaching an observed maximum of about 3 million eggs per female. Although significant annual variations in maturity and growth were detected for Hudson River striped bass, there was no evidence of a consistent change in either variable that might be associated with increasing power plant operations and a reduction in striped bass abundance. Age at maturity and age structure are the two life history components that differ the most between the Hudson River population and other striped bass populations. 36 refs., 7 tabs

  3. Interactions between striped bass and other gamefish in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Raborn, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions among reservoir fishes may be pronounced because fish assemblages in these artificial environments have had little time to develop niche-partitioning strategies that alleviate negative interspecific interactions. Such interactions may at times have been intensified by introductions of predators such as striped bass Morone saxatilis, introduced to create additional fisheries and control pelagic clupeids. Possible interactions between existing fish assemblages and striped bass include predation and competition. While there is a perception among angler groups that predation by striped bass on co-existing game fish is significant, most studies have reported little or no predation on game fish my striped bass and have considered predation rare and inconsequential. Moreover, predation that occurs will likely be compensatory and fail to reduce overall game fish survival. Any indirect effect of striped bass predation by restricting prey-sized game fish to limited refuge sites remains unknown. Exploitative competition may be more common. Although infrequently, introduced striped bass have depleted prey resources shared with other piscivores, particularly when stocking rates have been high, when there is a high rate of natural reproduction, or when prey supply has plunged in response to environmental fluxes. Fluctuation in prey supply, associated with ordinary environmental variability, and associated time lages in prey supply and predator demand, preclude adjusting predator densities to exactly balance demand with supply. The frequency of low supply-demand rations varies across systems and exhibits seasonal trends. Nevertheless, chronic supply-demand imbalances are manageable where the predator assemblage is at least partially controlled through stocking, harvest regulations, or both. Because of the poor state of knowledge concerning the parameters defining balance and because uncontrollable annual fluctuations preclude exact management of

  4. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Terry D.; Marking, Leif L.; Howe, George E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. We determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222) , metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degree C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin. We also determined the effects of selected levels of water temperature, hardness, and pH on the toxicity of chloramine-T, formalin, malachite green, and Roccal. There were no differences in toxicity for any of the chemicals at any water quality variable tested except for chloramine-T, which was about 25 times more toxic in soft, acid water than in soft, alkaline water. Our data show that the striped bass is as sensitive to fishery chemicals as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but is generally less resistant than bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

  5. Striped Bass Spawning in Non-Estuarine Portions of the Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.; Paller, M.

    2007-04-17

    Historically, the estuarine portions of the Savannah River have been considered to be the only portion of the river in which significant amounts of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spawning normally occur. A reexamination of data from 1983 through 1985 shows a region between River Kilometers 144 and 253 where significant numbers of striped bass eggs and larvae occur with estimated total egg production near that currently produced in the estuarine reaches. It appears possible that there are two separate spawning populations of striped bass in the Savannah River.

  6. Estimates of entrainment mortality for striped bass and other fish species inhabiting the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreman, J.; Goodyear, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    An empirically derived age-, time-, and space-variant equation was used to estimate entrainment mortality at power plants for seven fish species inhabiting the Hudson River estuary. Entrainment mortality is expressed as a conditional rate, which is the fractional reduction in year-class strength due to entrainment if other sources of mortality are density-independent. Estimates of the conditional entrainment mortality, based on historical and projected once-through cooling operation of five power plants, were 11-22% for striped bass, 11-17% for white perch, 5-7% for Atlantic tomcod, 14-21% for American shad, 4-11% for river herring (alewife and blueback herring combined), and 35-79% for bay anchovy. Closed-cycle cooling (natural-draft cooling towers) at three of the power plants (Indian Point, Bowline Point, and Roseton) would reduce entrainment mortality of striped bass by 50-80%, of white perch by 75-80%, of Atlantic tocod by 65-70%, of American shad by 80%, of river herring by 30-90%, and of bay anchovy by 45-80%. The life stages most vulnerable to entrainment mortality were post-yolk-sac larva and entrainable size juvenile. 18 refs., 7 tabs

  7. Historical development of entrainment models for Hudson River striped bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, S.W.; Englert, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the mid-1960s, concerns surfaced regarding entrainment and impingement of young-of-the-year (age-0) striped bass by electric power generating facilities on the Hudson River. These concerns stimulated the development of increasingly complex models to evaluate the impacts of these facilities. The earliest simplistic formulas, based on empirical data, proved inadequate because of conceptual shortcomings, incomplete development, and lack of data. By 1972, complex transport models based on biological and hydrodynamic principles had been developed and applied by scientists representing both the utilities and the government. Disagreements about the acceptability of these models spurred the development of even more complex models. The entrainment models stimulated the collection of substantial amounts of field data to define the spatial distributions and entrainment survival of early life stages. As the difficulties of accounting for the movement of early life stages from hydrodynamic principles became more evident and as more field data became available, simpler empirical modeling approaches became both practical and defensible. Both empirical and hydrodynamic modeling approaches were applied during the US Environmental Protection Agency's hearings on the Hudson River power case (1977-1980). The main lessons learned from the experience with entrainment-impingement modeling are that complex mechanistic models are not necessarily better than simpler empirical models for young fish, and that care must be taken to construct even the simple models correctly. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Seasonal use of a New England estuary by foraging contingents of migratory striped bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Martha E.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Finn, John T.; Deegan, Linda A.; Muth, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Using acoustic telemetry on migratory striped bass Morone saxatilis in Plum Island Estuary (PIE), Massachusetts, we found that striped bass (335–634 mm total length) tagged in the spring and summer of 2005 (n = 14) and 2006 (n = 46) stayed in the estuary for an average of 66.0 d in 2005 and 72.2 d in 2006. Striped bass spent the most time in two specific reaches: middle Plum Island Sound and lower Rowley River. In both years, three different use-groups of striped bass were observed in PIE. Short-term visitors (n = 24) stayed in the estuary only briefly (range = 5–20 d). Two groups of seasonal residents stayed for more than 30 d, either in the Rowley River (n = 14) or in Plum Island Sound (n = 22). Within PIE, the two seasonal-resident use-groups may be foraging contingents that learn how to feed efficiently in specific parts of the estuary. These distinct within-estuary use patterns could have different implications for striped bass condition and prey impact.

  9. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). STRIPED BASS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Adult striped bass were reported to survival. Time to death for unfed lar- tolerate temperatures from 0°-30°C(32 ° - vae was longer at lower...Allison, L. 0. J. A. Hutcheson, R. H. Ray. Horseman , W. H. Keirsey, and and T. L. Wellborn, Jr. 1969. C. A. Shirley. 1975. Fishes. Striped bass, 1968

  10. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the hree-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its relatives (genus Morone) are of great importance to fisheries and aquaculture in North America. As part of a collaborative effort to employ molecular genetic technologies in striped bass breeding programs, nearly 500 microsatellite markers were...

  11. Osmoregulatory effects of hypophysectomy and homologous prolactin replacement in hybrid striped bass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Leslie F; McCormick, Stephen D; Madsen, Steffen S

    2005-01-01

    The effects of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and striped bass prolactin (sbPRL; Morone saxatilis) on plasma osmolality, electrolyte balance, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity were investigated in hypophysectomized (Hx), freshwater (FW)-acclimated, hybrid striped bass (M. saxatilis x Morone chrysops...... or 100 ng/g), or hormone vehicle (0.9% NaCl) at 48-h intervals (days 0, 2, 4, and 6) in FW and then sampled for blood plasma 24 h after the fourth injection (day 7). In Hx fish, oPRL (5 and 20 microg/g) and sbPRL (10 and 100 ng/g) were effective in maintaining plasma osmolality and levels of Na+, Cl...... balance in FW-adapted hybrid striped bass, and that this may involve downregulation of branchial Na+,K+-ATPase activity....

  12. Toxicity of bromate to striped bass ichthyoplankton (Morone saxatilis) and juvenile spot (Leiostomus xanthurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, L B; Burton, D T; Rhoderick, J C

    1981-10-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatillis) eggs (12 h after fertilization) and larvae (4 d after hatching) and juvenile spot (Leiostomus xanthurus) were exposed to a series of bromate concentrations for 4, 10, and 10 d, respectively, using static replacement bioassay techniques. Three-dimensional mortality response surfaces were constructed by computerized probit regression techniques. Newly hatched striped bass prolarvae were most sensitive to bromate and had a 96-h LC50 of 30.8 mg/l (as BrO3-). Four-day-old striped bass larvae were less sensitive, with 2- to 10-d LC50s ranging from 605.0 to 92.6 mg/l BrO3-, respectively. Juvenile spot were least sensitive, with 1- to 10-d LC50s ranging from 698.0 to 278.6 mg/l BrO3-, respectively.

  13. Effect of salinity on expression of branchial ion transporters in striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek; Madsen, Steffen Søndergaard; Borski, Russell John

    2004-01-01

    The time course of osmoregulatory adjustments and expressional changes of three key ion transporters in the gill were investigated in the striped bass during salinity acclimations. In three experiments, fish were transferred from fresh water (FW) to seawater (SW), from SW to FW, and from 15-ppt b...

  14. Use of non-natal estuaries by migratory striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, M. E.; Finn, John T.; Ferry, K.H.; Deegan, Linda A.; Nelson, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    For most migratory fish, little is known about the location and size of foraging areas or how long individuals remain in foraging areas, even though these attributes may affect their growth, survival, and impact on local prey. We tested whether striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum), found in Massachusetts in summer, were migratory, how long they stayed in non-natal estuaries, whether observed spatial patterns differed from random model predictions, whether fish returned to the same area across multiple years, and whether fishing effort could explain recapture patterns. Anchor tags were attached to striped bass that were caught and released in Massachusetts in 1999 and 2000, and recaptured between 1999 and 2007. In fall, tagged striped bass were caught south of where they were released in summer, confirming that fish were coastal migrants. In the first summer, 77% and 100% of the recaptured fish in the Great Marsh and along the Massachusetts coast, respectively, were caught in the same place where they were released. About two thirds of all fish recaptured near where they were released were caught 2-7 years after tagging. Our study shows that smaller (400-500 mm total length) striped bass migrate hundreds of kilometers along the Atlantic Ocean coast, cease their mobile lifestyle in summer when they use a relatively localized area for foraging (<20 km2), and return to these same foraging areas in subsequent years.

  15. Safety of oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F) administered in feed to hybrid striped bass, walleyes, and yellow perch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Wolf, J.C.; Schleis, S.M.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F, a medicated premix containing oxytetracycline at 220 g/kg) is approved in the United States to control certain systemic bacterial diseases of salmon and catfish when fed at a rate of 55-82.5 mg per kilogram of bodyweight per day for 10 d. Although oxytetracycline may also control certain systemic bacterial infections in coolwater or scaled warmwater fish, no safety data for such species are available. Our objective was to determine the safety of oxytetracycline administered in feed at nominal doses of 0, 82.5, 248, or 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 to yellow perch Perca flavescens and hybrid striped bass (striped bass Morone saxatilis x white bass M. chrysops) for 10 d and to walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) for 20 d. Yellow perch and hybrid striped bass consumed 50% to 100% of the diet, whereas walleye feed consumption was occasionally less than 50% of the diet. Feed or fecal material was present in the gastrointestinal tract of all necropsied walleyes except for one control fish. The single growth effect was that hybrid striped bass offered a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 were significantly smaller than untreated controls. Oxytetracycline-related histopathological findings were limited to walleyes and were of low severity. The histopathological findings included decreased hematopoietic-lymphopoietic (H&L) tissue in the anterior kidneys, diffuse hyperplasia of the gill filament epithelium, and a decreased prevalence of fish with eosinophilic droplets in their renal tubular epithelial cells. Although the incidence of decreased H&L tissue tended to increase in proportion to oxytetracycline dose, this finding was statistically significant only for fish that received a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1. Given the pathogenicity of the types of bacteria that are controlled by oxytetracycline treatment and the long history of its use in major aquaculture species, the relative risk of the minor oxytetracycline

  16. Measurement Error Affects Risk Estimates for Recruitment to the Hudson River Stock of Striped Bass

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    Dennis J. Dunning

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the consequences of ignoring the distinction between measurement error and natural variability in an assessment of risk to the Hudson River stock of striped bass posed by entrainment at the Bowline Point, Indian Point, and Roseton power plants. Risk was defined as the probability that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more, relative to the equilibrium value, at least once during the time periods examined (1, 5, 10, and 15 years. Measurement error, estimated using two abundance indices from independent beach seine surveys conducted on the Hudson River, accounted for 50% of the variability in one index and 56% of the variability in the other. If a measurement error of 50% was ignored and all of the variability in abundance was attributed to natural causes, the risk that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more after 15 years was 0.308 at the current level of entrainment mortality (11%. However, the risk decreased almost tenfold (0.032 if a measurement error of 50% was considered. The change in risk attributable to decreasing the entrainment mortality rate from 11 to 0% was very small (0.009 and similar in magnitude to the change in risk associated with an action proposed in Amendment #5 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic striped bass (0.006— an increase in the instantaneous fishing mortality rate from 0.33 to 0.4. The proposed increase in fishing mortality was not considered an adverse environmental impact, which suggests that potentially costly efforts to reduce entrainment mortality on the Hudson River stock of striped bass are not warranted.

  17. Estimating abundance of adult striped bass in reservoirs using mobile hydroacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Taylor, J. Christopher; Degan, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroacoustic surveys have proven valuable for estimating reservoir forage fish abundance but are more challenging for adult predators such as striped bass Morone saxatilis. Difficulties in assessing striped bass in reservoirs include their low density and the inability to distinguish species with hydroacoustic data alone. Despite these difficulties, mobile hydroacoustic surveys have potential to provide useful data for management because of the large sample volume compared to traditional methods such as gill netting and the ability to target specific areas where striped bass are aggregated. Hydroacoustic estimates of reservoir striped bass have been made using mobile surveys, with data analysis using a threshold for target strength in order to focus on striped bass-sized targets, and auxiliary sampling with nets to obtain species composition. We provide recommendations regarding survey design, based in part on simulations that provide insight on the level of effort that would be required to achieve reasonable estimates of abundance. Future surveys may be able to incorporate telemetry or other sonar techniques such as side-scan or multibeam in order to focus survey efforts on productive habitats (within lake and vertically). However, species apportionment will likely remain the main source of error, and we see no hydroacoustic system on the horizon that will identify fish by species at the spatial and temporal scale required for most reservoir surveys. In situations where species composition can be reliably assessed using traditional gears, abundance estimates from hydroacoustic methods should be useful to fishery managers interested in developing harvest regulations, assessing survival of stocked juveniles, identifying seasonal aggregations, and examining predator–prey balance.

  18. Methods to assess impacts on Hudson River striped bass: report for the period October 1, 1977 to September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Christensen, S.W.; Kirk, B.L.; Kumar, K.D.; Van Winkle, W.

    1980-06-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop and apply quantitative methods for assessing the effects of power plant entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population. During the two years covered in this reporting period, our work dealt with five interrelated aspects of this assessment problem: (1) young-of-the year models, (2) mortality of entrained eggs, larvae, and juveniles, (3) projection of long-term impacts using stock recruitment models, (4) relative contribution of the Hudson River stock to the Atlantic coastal striped bass population, and (5) distribution of entrainable striped bass life stages in the immediate vicinity of power plant intakes

  19. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and tetrachlorodibenzofurans in Atlantic coast striped bass and in selected Hudson River fish, waterfowl and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, P; Hilker, D; Meyer, C; Aldous, K; Shane, L; Donnelly, R; Smith, R; Sloan, R; Skinner, L; Horn, E

    1884-01-01

    In striped bass samples from the lower Hudson River and its estuary 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) was found at concentrations from 16 to 120 pg/g (ppt). Striped bass from two other locations (Rhode Island coastal waters and Chesapeake Bay, Maryland) had <5 ppt, 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF), was found in striped bass from all three locations with concentrations varying from 6 ppt in Chesapeake Bay to 78 ppt in the Hudson River. Results from a limited number of non-migratory fish (carp and goldfish) and sediments suggest that the upper Hudson River is not a source for 2,3,7,8-TCDD/2,3,7,8-TCDF contamination of striped bass. 26 references, 3 tables.

  20. A large volume striped bass egg incubation chamber: design and comparison with a traditional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    I conducted a comparative study of a new jar design (experimental chamber) with a standard egg incubation vessel (McDonald jar). Experimental chambers measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. McDonald hatching jars measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96 and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg density of 21.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 21.6 – 22.1) for McDonald jars and 10.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 7.0 – 16.8) for experimental chambers. I was unable to detect an effect of container type on survival to 48, 96 or 144 h. At 144 h striped bass fry survival averaged 37.3% for McDonald jars and 34.2% for experimental chambers. Survival among replicates was significantly different. Survival of striped bass significantly decreased between 96 and 144 h. Mean survival among replicates ranged from 12.4 to 57.3%. I was unable to detect an effect of initial stocking density on survival. Experimental jars allow for incubation of a larger number of eggs in a much smaller space. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental chambers offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing manpower and cost. However, the increase in the number of eggs per rearing container does increase the risk associated with catastrophic loss of a production unit. I conclude the experimental chamber is suitable for striped bass egg incubation.

  1. Reducing dietary protein in pond production of hybrid striped bass - study shows a significant reduction is possible in digestible protein level in commercial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous work, we demonstrated that diets containing 40% digestible protein (DP) (45% crude protein) and 18 %lipid supplemented with Met and Lys resulted in superior performance and nutrient retentions in hybrid striped bass compared to less energy-dense diets when rearing hybrid striped bass at ...

  2. Striped bass ichthyoplankton abundance, mortality, and production estimation for the Potomac River population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polgar, T.T.

    1977-01-01

    Methods are developed for estimating, from field survey data, the mortality rate and production for each successive ichthyoplanktonic stage. The abundance estimators used in the computation of these quantities are also derived. An age-dependent, ichthyoplankton population model is developed assuming either a uniform age distribution or an exponential age distribution within each stage. Striped bass egg and larval data from a 1974 ichthyoplankton survey in the Potomac River are used in model computations. The various model estimates are evaluated qualitatively, and the usefulness and limitations of the models are discussed

  3. IGF-I and branchial IGF receptor expression and localization during salinity acclimation in striped bass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek; Luckenbach, John Adam; Madsen, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    The initial response of the IGF-I system and the expression and cellular localization of IGF type-I receptor (IGF-IR) were studied in the gill of a euryhaline teleost during salinity acclimation. Exposure of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) to hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic challenges induced small...... in either plasma IGF-I, liver, or gill IGF-I mRNA, or gill IGF-IR mRNA levels. In a separate experiment, FW-acclimated fish were injected with saline or IGF-I prior to a 24-h SW challenge. Rapid regain of osmotic balance following SW transfer was hindered by IGF-I. Immunohistochemistry revealed...

  4. Toxicity of agricultural subsurface drainwater from the San Joaquin Valley, California to juvenile chinook salmon and striped bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Jennings, Mark R.; Wiedmeyer, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (40-50 mm total length, TL) and striped bass Morone saxatilis (30-40 mm TL) were exposed to serial dilutions (100, 50, 25, and 12.5%) of agricultural subsurface drainwater (WWD), reconstituted drainwater (RWWD), and reconstituted seawater (IO). Agricultural subsurface drainwater contained naturally elevated concentrations of major ions (such as sodium and sulfate) and trace elements (especially boron and selenium), RWWD contained concentrations of major ions that mimicked those in WWD but trace elements were not elevated, and IO contained concentrations of total dissolved salt that were similar to those in WWD and RWWD but chloride replaced sulfate as the dominant anion. After 28 d of static exposure, over 75% of the chinook salmon in 100% WWD had died, whereas none had died in other dilutions and water types. Growth of chinook salmon in WWD and RWWD, but not in IO, exhibited dilution responses. All striped bass died in 100% WWD within 23 d, whereas 19 of 20 striped bass had died in 100% RWWD after 28 d. In contrast, none died in 100% IO. Growth of striped bass was impaired only in WWD. Fish in WWD accumulated as much as 200 μg/g (dry-weight basis) of boron, whereas fish in control water accumulated less than 3.1 μg/g. Although potentially toxic concentrations of selenium occurred in WWD (geometric means, 158-218 μg/L), chinook salmon and striped bass exposed to this water type accumulated 5.7 μg Se/g or less. These findings indicate that WWD was toxic to chinook salmon and striped bass. Judging from available data, the toxicity of WWD was due primarily to high concentrations of major ions present in atypical ratios, to high concentrations of sulfate, or to both. High concentrations of boron and selenium also may have contributed to the toxicity of WWD, but their effects were not clearly delineated.

  5. Implications of power plant mortality for management of the Hudson River striped bass fishery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodyear, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    The Atlantic coastal stock of striped bass apparently declined from colonial times to the early 1930s and subsequently recovered. The reasons for the decline and recovery are not known, but fishing remains a possible explanation, which would suggest population sensitivity to increased mortality. Evidence suggests that fishing mortality has been increasing in recent years and will continue to increase in the absence of management intervention. The consequence of increased fishing mortality is an increase in the marginal effect of the power plant mortality which based on the utilities' models and parameter fits, could result in important reductions in the Hudson River striped bass population. Any management actions imposed to arrest population decline or to increase yield per effort in the fishery would be required to mitigate the impact of the power plants by reducing fishing mortality. It is estimated that a 20% conditional power plant mortality is equivalent to a 14% increase in the number of average fishermen using the stock. Consequently, should any management intervention be required on behalf of the population, managers would be required to reduce fishing mortality by about 14% just to account for the power plant mortality. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Influence of chlorine on the susceptibility of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) to Vibrio anguillarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetrick, F M; Hall, Jr, L W; Wolski, S; Graves, W C; Roberson, B S

    1984-09-01

    The subtle effects that low levels of pollutants have on fish populations are probably more important than the effects of large spills, since the effects are less likely to be obvious and the source more difficult to detect in time to save the environment. An experiment was carried out to determine if exposure of striped bass to sublethal concentrations of chlorine affected their susceptibility to bacterial infection. Exposure of striped bass for 96 h to sublethal concentrations of total residual chlorine (TRC) (0.05-0.23 mg/L) did not increase their susceptibility to infection with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. Variables examined were TRC concentrations, length of exposure to chlorine, and the order of exposure to chlorine and the pathogen. Mortalities in the groups exposed to both chlorine and pathogen were not significantly different from those seen in groups receiving the bacteria only. Smaller fish are more susceptible than larger fish, and the LD50 is markedly affected by the ambient temperature in that fewer bacteria are needed to kill fish at lower temperatures. One contributing factor to this increased resistance of fish at higher water temperatures appears to be related to their immune status. 29 references, 5 tables.

  7. Pathological changes associated with white striping in broiler breast muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttappan, V A; Shivaprasad, H L; Shaw, D P; Valentine, B A; Hargis, B M; Clark, F D; McKee, S R; Owens, C M

    2013-02-01

    White striping is a condition in broiler chickens characterized grossly by the occurrence of white striations, seen parallel to the direction of muscle fibers, on broiler breast fillets and thighs. Based on visual evaluation of the intensity of white striping, breast fillets can be categorized into normal (NORM), moderate (MOD), and severe (SEV) categories. This study was undertaken to evaluate the details of changes in histology as well as proximate composition occurring in the fillets with respect to the 3 degrees of white striping. In experiment 1, representative breast fillets for each degree of white striping (n = 20) were collected from 45-d-old broilers, approximately 2 h postmortem. From each fillet, 2 skeletal muscle samples were obtained and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. To identify and differentiate the histological changes, slides were prepared and stained using hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's Trichrome, and Oil Red O stains. In experiment 2, samples with 3 degrees of white striping were collected from 57-d-old birds for conducting proximate analysis. Major histopathological changes observed in the MOD and SEV samples consisted of loss of cross striations, variability in fiber size, floccular/vacuolar degeneration and lysis of fibers, mild mineralization, occasional regeneration (nuclear rowing and multinucleated cells), mononuclear cell infiltration, lipidosis, and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Microscopic lesions were visually scored for degeneration and necrosis, fibrosis, and lipidosis. The scale used to score the samples ranged from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). There was an increase (P white striping increased from NORM to SEV. The results from the histopathological study were supported by the findings from proximate analysis confirming that the fat and protein contents of muscle increased (P white striping increased. In conclusion, the histopathological changes occurring in white striping indicate a degenerative myopathy that

  8. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) monitoring techniques in the Sacramento--San Joaquin Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Various methods have been used to monitor the striped bass population in the Sacramento--San Joaquin Estuary. Sampling in the spring with towed plankton nets has provided an adequate description of spawning time and area, but this sampling has not adequately measured egg standing crops and larva and post-larva mortality rates. Tow-net sampling effectively measures the abundance of young in midsummer. A midwater-trawl survey is satisfactory for measuring the abundance of young in the fall but not in the winter. Techniques have not been fully evaluated for monitoring one-year-old bass. Catch-per-unit-effort data from sportfishing party boats were useful for monitoring two-year-olds, until a change in angling regulations increased recruitment age. The Petersen method and indices developed from party-boat catches are the best methods for monitoring bass that are three years old and older. Long-term trends in catch can be monitored through postcard surveys and party-boat catches

  9. Heritability of growth traits and correlation with hepatic gene expression among hybrid striped bass exhibiting extremes in performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We set out to better understand the genetic basis behind growth variation in hybrid striped bass (HSB) by determining whether gene expression changes could be detected between the largest and smallest HSB in a population using a global gene expression approach by RNA sequencing of liver. Fingerling...

  10. Computer simulation model for the striped bass young-of-the-year population in the Hudson River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraslan, A.H.; Van Winkle, W.; Sharp, R.D.; Christensen, S.W.; Goodyear, C.P.; Rush, R.M.; Fulkerson, W.

    1975-09-01

    This report presents a daily transient (tidal-averaged), longitudinally one-dimensional (cross-section-averaged) computer simulation model for the assessment of the entrainment and impingement impacts of power plant operations on young-of-the-year populations of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, in the Hudson River

  11. Assessment of potential impact of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant thermal effluent on the Watts Bar Reservoir striped bass population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuer, J.H.; McIntosh, D.; Ostrowski, P.; Tomljanovich, D.A.

    1983-11-01

    This report is an assessment of potential adverse impact to striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Watts Bar Reservoir caused by thermal effluent from operation of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir is occupied by adult striped bass during the warmest months of the year. Concern was raised that operation of the CRBRP, specifically thermal discharges, could conflict with management of striped bass. In all cases examined the thermal plume becomes nearly imperceptible within a short distance from the discharge pipe (about 30 ft [10 m]) compared to river width (about 630 ft [190 m]). Under worst case conditions any presence of the plume in the main channel (opposite side of the river from the discharge) will be confined to the surface layer of the water. An ample portion of river cross sections containing ambient temperature water for passage or residence of adult striped bass will always be available in the vicinity of this thermal effluent. Although a small portion of river cross section would exceed the thermal tolerance of striped bass, the fish would naturally avoid this area and seek out adjacent cooler water. Therefore, it is concluded the CRBRP thermal effluent will not significantly affect the integrity of the striped bass thermal refuge in the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir. At this time there is no need to consider alternative diffuser designs and thermal modeling. 8 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  12. San Francisco Estuary Striped Bass Migration History Determined by Electron-microprobe Analysis of Otolith Sr/Ca Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrach, D J; Phillis, C C; Weber, P K; Ingram, B L; Zinkl, J G

    2004-09-17

    Habitat use has been shown to be an important factor in the bioaccumulation of contaminants in striped bass. This study examines migration in striped bass as part of a larger study investigating bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of xenobiotics to progeny in the San Francisco Estuary system. Habitat use, residence time and spawning migration over the life of females (n = 23) was studied. Female striped bass were collected between Knights Landing and Colusa on the Sacramento River during the spawning runs of 1999 and 2001. Otoliths were removed, processed and aged via otolith microstructure. Subsequently, otoliths were analyzed for strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) ratio using an electron-microprobe to measure salinity exposure and to distinguish freshwater, estuary, and marine habitat use. Salinity exposure during the last year before capture was examined more closely for comparison of habitat use by the maternal parent to contaminant burden transferred to progeny. Results were selectively confirmed by ion microprobe analyses for habitat use. The Sr/Ca data demonstrate a wide range of migratory patterns. Age of initial ocean entry differs among individuals before returning to freshwater, presumably to spawn. Some fish reside in freshwater year-round, while others return to more saline habitats and make periodic migrations to freshwater. Frequency of habitat shifts and residence times differs among fish, as well as over the lifetime of individual fish. While at least one fish spent its final year in freshwater, the majority of spawning fish spent their final year in elevated salinity. However, not all fish migrated to freshwater to spawn in the previous year. Results from this investigation concerning migration history in striped bass can be combined with contaminant and histological developmental analyses to better understand the bioaccumulation of contaminants and the subsequent effects they and habitat use have on fish populations in the San Francisco Estuary system.

  13. Siim Nestor soovitab : Supreme 7aastane. White Stripes / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Kolmik Supreme tähistab oma 7. tegutsemisaastat 24. juunil Von Krahlis, kus toimub ka Krecki debüütalbumi "If You Live" (väljaandjaks ettevõte Umblu) esitlus. Detroidi blues-rock duo White Stripes esitleb oma uut albumit "Get Behind Me Satan" 29. juunil Tallinnas klubis Hollywood

  14. Mechanical properties of striped bass fish skin: Evidence of an exotendon function of the stratum compactum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewciw, Lawrence; Barthelat, Francois

    2017-09-01

    Teleost fish skin is a multifunctional natural material with high penetration resistance owing to specialized puncture mechanisms of both the individual scale and the intact scaled integument. In this paper, we explore the possible additional role of the skin in fish undulatory locomotion by examining the structural and mechanical properties of the dermal stratum (s.) compactum layer of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) skin. The structure, mechanical response and function of s. compactum was investigated by combining several methods: optical microscopy and histology, tensile tests on descaled skin specimens in different anatomical locations and orientations, puncture tests, and flexural tests on whole fish with disruption of the s. compactum. Local histological features of the s. compactum, such as collagen fiber angle and degree of crimping, were shown to explain corresponding patterns determined for the tensile properties of the skin along the long axis of the fish, including changes in stiffness, strength and locking strain at stiffening. The fish bending tests demonstrated a tendon-like response of the whole fish and a significant contribution of the s. compactum to the flexural stiffness of the fish. Collectively, the findings show that the s. compactum is a strong tissue with a tendon-like nonlinear response, and which provides an appreciable mechanical protection against sharp puncture and lacerations. Our results also support the theory of an exotendon function of the s. compactum in teleost fish skin. These findings may inspire the design of new multifunctional protective and locomotory systems for a variety of engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) as vectors of contaminants to human consumers in northwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Snyder, Richard A.; Lange, Ted; Gibson, Suzanne; Allison, Jeffrey G.; Wagner, Matthew E.; Rao, K. Ranga

    2011-01-01

    The health benefits of regular consumption of fish and seafood have been espoused for many years. However, fish are also a potential source of environmental contaminants that have well known adverse effects on human health. We investigated the consumption risks for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides; n = 104) and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus; n = 170), two commonly harvested and consumed fish species inhabiting fresh and estuarine waters in northwest Florida. Skinless fillets were analyzed for total mercury, inorganic arsenic, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. Contaminant levels were compared to screening values (SV) calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations for establishing consumption advisories. Largemouth bass were found to contain high levels of total mercury at all sampling locations (0.37-0.89 ug/g) and one location exhibited elevated total PCBs (39.4 ng/g). All of the samples exceeded Florida fish consumption advisory trigger levels for total mercury and one location exceeded the U.S. EPA SV for total PCBs. As a result of the high mercury levels, the non-cancer health risks (hazard index-HI) for bass were above 1 for all locations. Striped mullet from several locations with known point sources contained elevated levels of PCBs (overall range 3.4-59.3 ng/g). However, total mercury levels in mullet were low. Eight of the 16 mullet sampling locations exceeded the U.S. EPA SV for total PCBs and two locations exceeded an HI of 1 due to elevated PCBs. Despite the elevated levels of total PCBs in some samples, only two locations exceeded the acceptable cancer risk range and therefore cancer health risks from consumption of bass and mullet were determined to be low at most sampling locations.

  16. Use of copper sulfate to control Saprolegniasis at a commercial sunshine bass hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  17. Biotelemetry study of spring and summer habitat selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, 1978. [Morone saxatilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaich, B.A.; Coutant, C.C.

    1980-08-01

    Habitat selection of 31 adult striped bass was monitored by temperature sensing ultrasonic and radio transmitters in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, from March through October 1978. This study sought to corroborate summer data obtained by Waddle (1979) in 1977 and to examine mechanisms of habitat selection by observing establishment of the summer distribution. During the spring and early summer months the striped bass ranged throughout the study area in the downstream half of the reservoir. Fish stayed near the bottom at the preferred temperatures throughout the whole study, and no individuals were observed in open water. Movement rates of up to 2.6 km/day were estimated, and rates of 1 km/day were common in the spring. By late July they were apparently avoiding low dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations (<3 mg/l) near the bottom of the main reservoir and epilimnion temperatures greater than 22/sup 0/C, and they moved into cool, oxygenated spring or creek channels (refuges). Low movement rates of 0 to 25 m/day within these refuges occurred. The rates of the few migrations between refuges could not be estimated. Tagged fish moved out of the refuges 3 to 4 weeks after the fall overturn when reservoir temperatures approximated 22 to 24/sup 0/C.

  18. Computer simulation model for the striped bass young-of-the-year population in the Hudson River. [Effects of entrainment and impingement at power plants on population dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eraslan, A.H.; Van Winkle, W.; Sharp, R.D.; Christensen, S.W.; Goodyear, C.P.; Rush, R.M.; Fulkerson, W.

    1975-09-01

    This report presents a daily transient (tidal-averaged), longitudinally one-dimensional (cross-section-averaged) computer simulation model for the assessment of the entrainment and impingement impacts of power plant operations on young-of-the-year populations of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, in the Hudson River.

  19. Philometra rubra (Nematoda: Philometridae) first description of the male from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and implications for re-introduction of an extirpated population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Measures, L.; Moravec, František; Douglas, S.; Lair, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 5 (2017), s. 345-352 ISSN 0008-4301 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Philometra rubra * striped bass * Morone saxatilis * re-introduction * conservation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.347, year: 2016

  20. A novel method to develop an otolith microchemistry model to determine striped bass habitat use in the San Francisco Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillis, C C; Ostrach, D J; Gras, M; Yin, Q; Ingram, B L; Zinkl, J G; Weber, P K

    2006-06-14

    Otolith Sr/Ca has become a popular tool for hind casting habitat utilization and migration histories of euryhaline fish. It can readily identify habitat shifts of diadromous fish in most systems. Inferring movements of fish within estuarine habitat, however, requires a model of that accounts of the local water chemistry and the response of individual species to that water chemistry, which is poorly understood. Modeling is further complicated by the fact that high marine Sr and Ca concentrations results in a rapid, nonlinear increase in water Sr/Ca and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr between fresh and marine waters. Here we demonstrate a novel method for developing a salinity-otolith Sr/Ca model for the purpose of reconstructing striped bass (Morone saxatilis) habitat use in the San Francisco Bay estuary. We used correlated Sr/Ca and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios measurements from adult otoliths from striped bass that experienced a range of salinities to infer striped bass otolith Sr/Ca response to changes in salinity and water Sr/Ca ratio. Otolith {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr can be assumed to accurately record water {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr because there is no biological fractionation of Sr isotopes. Water {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr can in turn be used to estimate water salinity based on the mixing of fresh and marine water with known {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios. The relationship between adjacent analyses on otoliths of Sr/Ca and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr by LA-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS (r{sup 2} = 0.65, n = 66) is used to predict water salinity from a measured Sr/Ca ratio. The nature of this non-linear model lends itself well to identifying residence in the Delta and to a lesser extent Suisun Bay, but does not do well locating residence within the more saline bays west of Carquinez Strait. An increase in the number of analyses would improve model confidence, but ultimately the precision of the model is limited by the variability in the response of individual fish to water Sr/Ca.

  1. Electron beam irradiation, oxygen, and temperature effects on nucleotide degradation in stored aquaculture hybrid striped bass fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karahadian, C.; Brannan, R.G.; Heath, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Skinless fillets from commercially-grown aquaculture hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x M. chrysops) were electron beam-irradiated in the presence of air or vacuum-packaged and stored at 4C and -20C for 14 days. A mean low dose level of 2.0 or 3.0 kGy (+/- 0.5 kGy) and high dose level of 20 kGy (+/- 4 kGy) were used for irradiated samples. Hypoxanthine (Hx) concentrations, Ki-values ([(INO + Hx)/(IMP + INO + Hx)] x 100), and H-values ([(Hx)/(IMP + INO + Hx)] x 100) indicated that irradiation did not influence the rate of nucleotide degradation compared with nonirradiated controls at either refrigerated or frozen temperatures. Vacuum packaging or freezing of stored samples resulted in lower H-values and Hx contents compared with nonirradiated controls regardless of irradiation treatment

  2. Quantity and functionality of protein fractions in chicken breast fillets affected by white striping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2014-08-01

    Recently, white striations parallel to muscle fibers direction have been observed on the surface of chicken breast, which could be ascribed to intensive growth selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of white striping on chemical composition with special emphasis on myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions that are relevant to the processing features of chicken breast meat. During this study, a total of 12 pectoralis major muscles from both normal and white striped fillets were used to evaluate chemical composition, protein solubility (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and total protein solubility), protein quantity (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and stromal proteins), water holding capacity, and protein profile by SDS-PAGE analysis. White-striped fillets exhibited a higher percentage of moisture (75.4 vs. 73.8%; P cooking loss (33.7 vs. 27.4%; P chicken breast meat with white striping defect had different chemical composition (more fat and less protein) and protein quality and quantity (low content of myofibrillar proteins and high content of stromal proteins) with respect to normal meat. Furthermore, white striped fillets had lower protein functionality (higher cooking loss). All the former changes indicate that white striping has great impact on quality characteristics of chicken breast meat. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River Estuary. Volume II. Impingement impact analyses, evaluations of alternative screening devices, and critiques of utility testimony relating to density-dependent growth, the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock, and the LMS real-time life cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Van Winkle, W.; Golumbek, J.; Cada, G.F.; Goodyear, C.P.; Christensen, S.W.; Cannon, J.B.; Lee, D.W.

    1982-04-01

    This volume includes a series of four exhibits relating to impacts of impingement on fish populations, together with a collection of critical evaluations of testimony prepared for the utilities by their consultants. The first exhibit is a quantitative evaluation of four sources of bias (collection efficiency, reimpingement, impingement on inoperative screens, and impingement survival) affecting estimates of the number of fish killed at Hudson River power plants. The two following exhibits contain, respectively, a detailed assessment of the impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population and estimates of conditional impingement mortality rates for seven Hudson River fish populations. The fourth exhibit is an evaluation of the engineering feasibility and potential biological effectiveness of several types of modified intake structures proposed as alternatives to cooling towers for reducing impingement impacts. The remainder of Volume II consists of critical evaluations of the utilities' empirical evidence for the existence of density-dependent growth in young-of-the-year striped bass and white perch, of their estimate of the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock in the Hudson River, and of their use of the Lawler, Matusky, and Skelly (LMS) Real-Time Life Cycle Model to estimate the impact of entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population

  4. Effects of antenna placement and antibiotic treatment on loss of simulated transmitters and mortality in hybrid striped bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isely, J.J.; Young, S.P.; Jones, T.A.; Schaffler, James J.

    2002-01-01

    We compared the effects of two antenna placements (trailing and nontrailing) and antibiotic treatments (treated and nontreated) on mortality and transmitter loss in hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis ?? M. chrysops (364 ?? 28 mm total length, 645 ?? 129 g [mean ?? SD]) implanted with simulated transmitters and held in the laboratory for 90 d. Although antibiotic treatment significantly increased the time to first mortality in fish surgically implanted with simulated transmitters (by an average of 14 d), we did not detect an effect on cumulative mortality. We also did not detect an effect of antenna type on the time to first mortality, but cumulative mortality was higher in the trailing antenna groups (50%) than in the nontrailing antenna groups (12%). Three transmitters were expelled during the study, all from trailing-antenna treatment groups, indicating a significant effect of antenna placement on the level of transmitter expulsion. Antibiotic treatment appears to be effective in preventing initial postsurgical infection; however, the antenna may serve as a continuous source of irritation and route of infection into the body cavity. The potential for infection and mortality in experimental animals must be weighed against the improved performance of transmitters with trailing antennas.

  5. Meat quality of broiler breast fillets with white striping and woody breast muscle myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijare, V V; Yang, F L; Kuttappan, V A; Alvarado, C Z; Coon, C N; Owens, C M

    2016-09-01

    The global poultry industry has been faced with emerging broiler breast meat quality issues including conditions known as white striping (WS, white striations parallel to muscle fibers) and woody breast (WB, hardness of raw fillet). Experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of WS and WB hardness on meat quality traits in broiler breast fillets. In Exp. 1, birds were processed at approximately 9 wk of age and deboned at 4 h postmortem (PM); in Exp. 2, birds were processed at approximately 6 and 9 wk of age and deboned at 2 h PM. Fillets were categorized as: normal for both white striping and woody breast (NORM); moderate for white striping and mild for woody breast (MILD); severe for white striping and mild for woody breast (WS); severe for woody breast and moderate for white striping (WB); or severe for both white striping and woody breast (BOTH). Sarcomere length, gravimetric fragmentation index, marination uptake, cook loss, and Meullenet-Owens razor shear energy (MORSE) values on non-marinated and marinated fillets were assessed. Sarcomeres tended to be longer (P = 0.07) with increasing severity of WS and WB in both experiments and gravimetric fragmentation index did not differ (P > 0.05) among categories. Marinade uptake decreased (P  0.05) in non-marinated fillets, the marinated BOTH fillets had greater MORSE values (P  0.05) among categories of marinated breasts. At 9 wk, WS and BOTH were higher (P white striping and woody breast, individually or in combination, negatively impact meat quality, especially water holding capacity attributes such as marinade uptake and cook loss. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Ovary transcriptome profiling via artificial intelligence reveals a transcriptomic fingerprint predicting egg quality in striped bass, Morone saxatilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Chapman

    Full Text Available Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis, a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233 representing 90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (<0.2-fold, with most individual transcripts making a small contribution (<1% to the overall prediction of egg quality. These findings indicate that the predictive power of the transcriptome as regards egg quality resides not in levels of individual genes, but rather in the collective, coordinated expression of a suite of transcripts constituting a transcriptomic "fingerprint". Correlation analyses of the corresponding candidate genes indicated that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome, COP9 signalosome, and subsequent control of the cell cycle engenders embryonic developmental incompetence. The affected gene networks are centrally involved in regulation of early development in all vertebrates, including humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to reproductive fitness.

  7. Effect of white striping on chemical composition and nutritional value of chicken breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available White striping defect (appearance of white striations parallel to muscle fiber on surface of breast is considered an emerging issue in chicken breast meat which is related to increasing growth rate of modern hybrid birds. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of white striping on chemical composition and nutritional value of chicken breast meat. During three replications, a total of 108 Pectoralis major muscles representing three degrees of white striping (absence=normal; presence classified in 2 levels as moderate or severe were selected to determine proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid and collagen as well as sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both severe and moderate white-striped fillets had higher fat content (2.53 vs 1.46 vs 0.78%; P<0.001, lower protein level (20.9 vs 22.2 vs 22.9%; P<0.001, decreased quality of protein as proven by higher collagen content (1.30 vs 1.37 vs 1.43%; P<0.001, and different pattern on myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic fractions when compared to normal fillets. Moreover, severe white-striped fillets exhibited higher energy content (450.7 vs 421.1 kJ/100g; P<0.01 with respect to normal meat. In conclusion, there was a large worsening of nutritional value of chicken breast meat following occurrence of white striping and this might impair consumer attitude towards poultry meat.

  8. Mortality of Palmetto bass following catch-and-release angling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.J.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2013-01-01

    Palmetto bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis x White Bass M. chrysops) have been stocked into reservoirs in the southeastern USA since the late 1960s and have gained widespread acceptance as a sport fish. These fisheries are growing in popularity and catch-and-release (CR) fishing is commonplace; however, there is a dearth of information on CR mortality of palmetto bass. We experimentally angled palmetto bass (n = 56; >373-mm TL) in a Tennessee reservoir using traditional angling gear in water temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 32 °C. Ultrasonic transmitters equipped with floats were externally attached to fish, which were released immediately and tracked multiple times within 10 d of release. Mortality was negligible (3.6%) in fall and spring at cool water temperatures but was high (39.3%) in summer when water temperatures exceeded 26 °C. The best logistic regression model based on Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes scores relied on water temperature alone to predict CR mortality of palmetto bass; there was little support for other models that included all possible combinations of the six other predictor variables we tested. Palmetto bass in our study experienced lower CR mortality than Striped Bass in other systems, but CR mortality rates for palmetto bass that approach or exceed 40% during summer are still problematic if the goal is to maintain fishing quality.

  9. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  10. Genetic Variation among the White-striped Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Comparison with a Trok Nong-derived Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonsirichai, Kanokporn; Segsarnviriya, Suchada; Limohpasmanee, Wanitch; Kongratarpon, Titima; Thannarin, Thodsapol; Sungsinleart; Kwanpisut

    2011-06-01

    Full text: A white-striped strain of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) had been developed for the fruit fly population control using the radiation-induced sterile insect technique (SIT). This report aimed at elucidating the inheritance of the white-striped phenotype and the genetic differences between the white-striped strain and the strain derived from Trok Nong sub district, Khlung district, Chantaburi. The white-striped phenotype appeared recessive to the wild type. Meanwhile, twelve ISSR primers yielded DNA bands with significantly different frequencies between the two populations. The analysis indicated four DNA bands which were absent from the white-striped population but apparent at frequencies 0.4 to 0.9 among the Trok Nong-derived population. Another four DNA bands were found absent from the Trok Nong-derived population but existed at frequencies 0.3 to 0.5 among the white-striped population. These data may benefit the monitoring of gene flow from the white-striped fruit flies to the natural population when released in a SIT program. Keywords: Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), SIT, genetic

  11. Implications of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities on quality traits of raw and marinated chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalal, S; Lorenzi, M; Soglia, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2015-04-01

    One of the consequences of intense genetic selection for growth of poultry is the recent appearance of abnormalities in chicken breast muscles, such as white striping (characterised by superficial white striations) and wooden breast (characterised by pale and bulged areas with substantial hardness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality traits of chicken fillets affected by white striping and wooden breast abnormalities. In two replications, 192 fillets were divided into the following four classes: normal (n=48; absence of any visual defects), white striping (n=48, presence of white striations), wooden breast (n=48; diffusely presence of hardened areas) and white striping/wooden breast (n=48; fillets affected by both abnormalities). Morphology, raw meat texture and technological properties were assessed in both unprocessed (pH, colour, drip loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force) and marinated meat (marinade uptake, purge loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force). Fillets affected by white striping, wooden breast or both abnormalities exhibited higher breast weights compared with normal fillets (305.5, 298.7, 318.3 and 244.7 g, respectively; Pcooking losses than white-striped fillets for both unprocessed and marinated meats. On the other hand, white-striped fillets showed a moderate decline in marinade and cooking yield. Fillets affected by both abnormalities had the highest (Pcooked meat, drip loss, purge loss and cooked meat shear force were negligible or relatively low and of little practical importance. Thus, the presence of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities impair not only breast meat appearance but also the quality of both raw and marinated meats mainly by reducing water holding/binding abilities.

  12. Technological quality, mineral profile, and sensory attributes of broiler chicken breasts affected by White Striping and Wooden Breast myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasoniero, G; Cullere, M; Cecchinato, M; Puolanne, E; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the research was to study the impact of white striping and wooden breast myopathies on the technological quality, mineral, and sensory profile of poultry meat. With this purpose, a total of 138 breasts were selected for a control group with normal breasts (N), a group of breasts characterised by white striping (WS) myopathy, and a group of breasts having both white striping and wooden breast myopathies (WSWB). Data revealed that the simultaneous presence of the two myopathies, with respect to the WS lesion individually considered, had a further detrimental effect on pH (6.04 vs. 5.96; P white striping and wooden breast myopathies. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Structural or pigmentary? Origin of the distinctive white stripe on the blue wing of a Morpho butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2006-01-22

    A few species of Morpho butterflies have a distinctive white stripe pattern on their structurally coloured blue wings. Since the colour pattern of a butterfly wing is formed as a mosaic of differently coloured scales, several questions naturally arise: are the microstructures the same between the blue and white scales? How is the distinctive whiteness produced, structurally or by means of pigmentation? To answer these questions, we have performed structural and optical investigations of the stripe pattern of a butterfly, Morpho cypris. It is found that besides the dorsal and ventral scale layers, the wing substrate also has the corresponding stripe pattern. Quantitative optical measurements and analysis using a simple model for the wing structure reveal the origin of the higher reflectance which makes the white stripe brighter.

  14. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or

  15. Comparison of hematologic and serologic profiles of broiler birds with normal and severe degrees of white striping in breast fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttappan, V A; Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Hargis, B M; Apple, J K; Coon, C; Owens, C M

    2013-02-01

    White striping is the white striation occasionally observed parallel to the direction of muscle fibers in broiler breast fillets and thighs at the processing plant. Broiler breast fillets can be categorized as normal (NORM), moderate (MOD), or severe (SEV) based on the degree of white striping. Histologically, SEV fillets are characterized by the highest degree of degeneration of muscle fibers along with fibrosis and lipidosis when compared with NORM. The present study was undertaken to compare the hematologic and serologic profiles of broilers with NORM and SEV degrees of white striping to get more information on the systemic changes associated with the condition. Day-old male broiler chicks of a commercial strain were grown on the same diet in 6 replicate pens (n = 32 birds/pen). Blood samples (5 mL) were collected from the wing vein of each bird on the day before processing for analyzing hematologic and serologic profiles. At 63 d, the birds were weighed and processed in a commercial inline processing system. Weight of the butterfly fillets, liver, and abdominal fat pad were recorded. Left-side fillets were scored to obtain the degree of white striping for each bird. Representative samples for NORM (n = 24) and SEV (n = 17) categories were selected to compare the hematologic and serologic profiles. The SEV birds had greater (P white striping. The elevated serum enzyme levels confirm the muscle damage associated with the degenerative myopathy in SEV birds.

  16. A comparison of mercury burdens between St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge and St. Andrew Bay, Florida: Evaluation of fish body burdens and physiological responses in largemouth bass, spotted seatrout, striped mullet, and sunfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huge, D.H.; Rauschenberger, R.H.; Wieser, F.M.; Hemming, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Musculature from the dorsal region of 130 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), 140 sunfish (Lepomis sp.), 41 spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) and 67 striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) were collected from five estuarine and five freshwater sites within the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge and two estuarine and two freshwater sites from St. Andrew Bay, Florida, United States of America. Musculature was analyzed for total mercury content, sagittal otoliths were removed for age determination and physiological responses were measured. Largemouth bass and sunfish from the refuge had higher mercury concentrations in musculature than those from the bay. Male spotted seatrout, male striped mullet, male and female sunfish and female largemouth bass had mercury burdens positively correlated with length. The majority of all four species of fish from both study areas contained mercury levels below 1.5 part per million, the limit for safe consumption recommended the Florida Department of Health. In comparison, a significant percentage of largemouth bass and sunfish from several sampled sites, most notably Otter Lake and Lake Renfroe within St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, had mercury levels consistent with the health department's guidelines of 'limited consumption' or 'no consumption guidelines.'

  17. Studies of Sterile Irradiation Effects on the White-striped Fruit Fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, Wanitch; Tannarin, Thodsapol; Khongratarpon, Titima; Segsarnviriya, Suchada

    2011-06-01

    Full text: In general, sterile irradiation can affect vigor and mating competitiveness of the fruit flies. The objective of the experiments was to study the effects of sterile irradiation on the white-striped oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), developed for sterile fly detection. A day before adult emergence, the pupae were irradiated at the dose of 90 Grays. No effects on adult emergence and flight ability were observed. However, it induced complete sterility in both sexes. Also, it decreased male mating competitiveness significantly, while increasing sexual competitiveness significantly

  18. Diversity in destinations, routes and timing of small adult and sub-adult striped bass Morone saxatilis on their southward autumn migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Martha E.; Finn, John T.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Savoy, Tom; Brundage, Harold M.; Deegan, Linda A.; Muth, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Almost three-quarters of the 46 young adult and sub-adult striped bass Morone saxatilis that were acoustically tagged in Plum Island Estuary, Massachusetts, U.S.A., in the summer of 2006 were detected in one or more southern coastal arrays during their autumn migration. On the basis of the trajectories along which these M. saxatilis moved from feeding to overwintering areas, three migratory groups emerged. After leaving Plum Island Estuary, about half of the fish were detected only in a mid-latitude array, Long Island Sound. The other half of the tagged fish were detected during autumn and winter in a more southern array, the Delaware Estuary. This latter group of fish may have used two routes. Some travelled to the Delaware Estuary through Long Island Sound while other fish may have taken a second, more direct, coastal route that did not include Long Island Sound. Consequently, a seemingly homogeneous group of fish tagged at the same time in the same non-natal feeding location exhibited a diversity of southward movement patterns that could affect population-level processes. These three groups that differed in overwintering location and migration route could be movement contingents with migratory connectivity.

  19. Critique and sensitivity analysis of the compensation function used in the LMS Hudson River striped bass models. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 944

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Winkle, W.; Christensen, S.W.; Kauffman, G.

    1976-12-01

    The description and justification for the compensation function developed and used by Lawler, Matusky and Skelly Engineers (LMS) (under contract to Consolidated Edison Company of New York) in their Hudson River striped bass models are presented. A sensitivity analysis of this compensation function is reported, based on computer runs with a modified version of the LMS completely mixed (spatially homogeneous) model. Two types of sensitivity analysis were performed: a parametric study involving at least five levels for each of the three parameters in the compensation function, and a study of the form of the compensation function itself, involving comparison of the LMS function with functions having no compensation at standing crops either less than or greater than the equilibrium standing crops. For the range of parameter values used in this study, estimates of percent reduction are least sensitive to changes in YS, the equilibrium standing crop, and most sensitive to changes in KXO, the minimum mortality rate coefficient. Eliminating compensation at standing crops either less than or greater than the equilibrium standing crops results in higher estimates of percent reduction. For all values of KXO and for values of YS and KX at and above the baseline values, eliminating compensation at standing crops less than the equilibrium standing crops results in a greater increase in percent reduction than eliminating compensation at standing crops greater than the equilibrium standing crops

  20. Critique and sensitivity analysis of the compensation function used in the LMS Hudson River striped bass models. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 944

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Winkle, W.; Christensen, S.W.; Kauffman, G.

    1976-12-01

    The description and justification for the compensation function developed and used by Lawler, Matusky and Skelly Engineers (LMS) (under contract to Consolidated Edison Company of New York) in their Hudson River striped bass models are presented. A sensitivity analysis of this compensation function is reported, based on computer runs with a modified version of the LMS completely mixed (spatially homogeneous) model. Two types of sensitivity analysis were performed: a parametric study involving at least five levels for each of the three parameters in the compensation function, and a study of the form of the compensation function itself, involving comparison of the LMS function with functions having no compensation at standing crops either less than or greater than the equilibrium standing crops. For the range of parameter values used in this study, estimates of percent reduction are least sensitive to changes in YS, the equilibrium standing crop, and most sensitive to changes in KXO, the minimum mortality rate coefficient. Eliminating compensation at standing crops either less than or greater than the equilibrium standing crops results in higher estimates of percent reduction. For all values of KXO and for values of YS and KX at and above the baseline values, eliminating compensation at standing crops less than the equilibrium standing crops results in a greater increase in percent reduction than eliminating compensation at standing crops greater than the equilibrium standing crops.

  1. Estudo histomorfológico do músculo pectoralis de frangos de corte acometidos com white striping

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Zinn Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    A seleção de linhagens de frangos de corte com altas taxas de crescimento e aumento de rendimento muscular vem contribuindo para o surgimento de perdas significativas na indústria avícola em decorrência de modificações anatômicas. Dentre estas alterações, destaca-se uma miopatia que se caracteriza pelo aparecimento de graus de estrias esbranquiçadas no músculo Pectoralis major, as quais seguem a direção da fibra muscular, referida como white striping. A etiologia da white striping ainda é des...

  2. White striping and woody breast myopathies in the modern poultry industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttappan, V A; Hargis, B M; Owens, C M

    2016-11-01

    Myopathies are gaining the attention of poultry meat producers globally. White Striping (WS) is a condition characterized by the occurrence of white striations parallel to muscle fibers on breast, thigh, and tender muscles of broilers, while Woody Breast (WB) imparts tougher consistency to raw breast fillets. Histologically, both conditions have been characterized with myodegeneration and necrosis, fibrosis, lipidosis, and regenerative changes. The occurrence of these modern myopathies has been associated with increased growth rate in birds. The severity of the myopathies can adversely affect consumer acceptance of raw cut up parts and/or quality of further processed poultry meat products, resulting in huge economic loss to the industry. Even though gross and/or histologic characteristics of modern myopathies are similar to some of the known conditions, such as hereditary muscular dystrophy, nutritional myopathy, toxic myopathies, and marbling, WS and WB could have a different etiology. As a result, there is a need for future studies to identify markers for WS and WB in live birds and genetic, nutritional, and/or management strategies to alleviate the condition. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Implications of white striping and spaghetti meat abnormalities on meat quality and histological features in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, G; Soglia, F; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Canonico, L; Babini, E; Laghi, L; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2018-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been an increasing prevalence of broiler breast muscle abnormalities, such as white striping (WS) and wooden breast conditions. More recently, a new muscular abnormality termed as spaghetti meat (SM) because of the altered structural integrity of the Pectoralis major muscle often associated with WS has emerged. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of WS and SM conditions, occurring alone or combined within the same P. major muscle, on meat quality traits and muscle histology. In two replications, 96 P. major muscles were classified into four classes: normal (N), WS, SM and WS/SM. The whole fillet was used for weight assessment and morphometric measurements, then each sample was cut in order to separate the superficial layer from the deep one and used to evaluate proximate composition, histological features, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times, functional properties and both myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins profile. Fillets affected by WS and SM abnormalities exhibited higher weights and increased thickness and length. SM condition was associated with a relevant decrease in protein content coupled with a significant increase in moisture level, whereas fat content was affected only by the simultaneous presence of WS. Histological evaluations revealed that abnormal samples were characterized by several degenerative aspects that almost completely concerned the superficial layer of the fillets. White striped fillets exhibited necrosis and lysis of fibers, fibrosis, lipidosis, loss of cross striation and vacuolar degeneration. Moreover, SM samples were characterized by poor fiber uniformity and a progressive rarefaction of the endo- and peri-mysial connective tissue, whereas WS/SM fillets showed intermediate histological features. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analysis revealed a higher proportion of extra-myofibrillar water in the superficial section of all the abnormal fillets, especially in SM

  4. Photosynthetic Characteristics of Flag Leaves in Rice White Stripe Mutant 6001 During Senescence Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hui ZHEN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Physiological, biochemical and electron microscopy analyses were used to investigate the photosynthetic performance of flag leaves in rice white stripe mutant 6001 during the senescence process. Results showed that the chlorophyll content at the heading and milk-ripe stages in rice mutant 6001 were about 34.78% and 3.00% less than those in wild type 6028, respectively. However, the chlorophyll content at the fully-ripe stage in rice mutant 6001 was higher than that in wild type 6028. At the heading stage, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn in rice mutant 6001 was lower than that in wild type 6028. Rice mutant 6001 also exhibited a significantly slower decrease rate of Pn than wild type 6028 during the senescence progress, especially at the later stage. Furthermore, Ca2+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase and photophosphorylation activities exhibited the similar trends as the Pn. During the senescence process, the 68 kDa polypeptide concentrations in the thylakoid membrane proteins exhibited a significant change, which was one of the critical factors that contributed to the observed change in photosynthesis. We also observed that the chloroplasts of rice mutant 6001 exhibited higher integrity than those of wild type 6028, and the chloroplast membrane of rice mutant 6001 disintegrated more slow during the senescence process. In general, rice mutant 6001 had a relatively slower senescence rate than wild type 6028, and exhibited anti-senescence properties.

  5. Evaluation of White Striping prevalence and predisposing factors in broilers at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Elisa; Drigo, Michele; Longoni, Corrado; Pezzotti, Raffaele; Fasoli, Paolo; Recordati, Camilla

    2015-08-01

    White striping ( WS: ) is an alteration of breast and thigh muscles of broiler chickens characterized by the presence of white striations parallel to the direction of muscle fibers. This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence and the predisposing factors to WS in commercial broilers of different weight reared in northern Italy. Fifty seven broiler flocks, including animals of medium- and heavy-weight, were grossly evaluated at slaughter for the presence of WS. For each flock, breeding data (mean BW at slaughter, ADG, sex, color of skin and fat, genetic line, age, antibiotic treatment, and prevalence of deep pectoral myopathy) were collected and statistically analyzed to assess their correlation with WS. Histology of breast fillets affected by different grades of WS was performed to evaluate potential differences between medium- and heavy-weight broilers. The overall prevalence of WS in medium- and heavy-weight broilers (mean BW 2.59 ± 0.13 kg and 3.64 ± 0.34 kg, respectively) was 70.2 ± 7.9% and 82.51 ± 8.5%, respectively, while the percentage of severe WS was 13.3 ± 7.1% and 25.7 ± 12.8%, respectively. A strong correlation was found between presence of WS, BW at slaughter, and ADG (Pearson correlation = 0.69, P myopathy (Spearman's Rho slaughterhouse 1 = 0.74, Spearman's Rho slaughterhouse 2 = 0.51, P myopathy, and that the lesions, as expected, were more severe in heavy-weight broilers. In conclusion, WS is a major concern in commercial meat poultry reared in Italy, affecting more severely heavier broilers, and it is mainly related to the BW and ADG of animals. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  7. Leptin stimulates hepatic growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor gene expression in a teleost fish, the hybrid striped bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eugene T; Douros, Jonathan D; Hurt, David A; Borski, Russell J

    2016-04-01

    Leptin is an anorexigenic peptide hormone that circulates as an indicator of adiposity in mammals, and functions to maintain energy homeostasis by balancing feeding and energy expenditure. In fish, leptin tends to be predominantly expressed in the liver, another important energy storing tissue, rather than in fat depots as it is in mammals. The liver also produces the majority of circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which comprise the mitogenic component of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF endocrine growth axis. Based on similar regulatory patterns of leptin and IGFs that we have documented in previous studies on hybrid striped bass (HSB: Morone saxatilis×Morone chrysops), and considering the co-localization of these peptides in the liver, we hypothesized that leptin might regulate the endocrine growth axis in a manner that helps coordinate somatic growth with energy availability. Using a HSB hepatocyte culture system to simulate autocrine or paracrine exposure that might occur within the liver, this study examines the potential for leptin to modulate metabolism and growth through regulation of IGF gene expression directly, or indirectly through the regulation of GH receptors (GHR), which mediate GH-induced IGF expression. First, we verified that GH (50nM) has a classical stimulatory effect on IGF-1 and additionally show it stimulates IGF-2 transcription in hepatocytes. Leptin (5 and/or 50nM) directly stimulated in vitro GHR2 gene expression within 8h of exposure, and both GHR1 and GHR2 as well as IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression after 24h. Cells were then co-incubated with submaximal concentrations of leptin and GH (25nM each) to test if they had a synergistic effect on IGF gene expression, possibly through increased GH sensitivity following GHR upregulation by leptin. In combination, however, the treatments only had an additive effect on stimulating IGF-1 mRNA despite their capacity to increase GHR mRNA abundance. This suggests that leptin's stimulatory

  8. Differential effects of cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone on ion transport protein mRNA levels in gills of two euryhaline teleosts, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Tipsmark, Christian K; Borski, Russell J; Madsen, Steffen S

    2011-04-01

    The role of cortisol as the only corticosteroid in fish osmoregulation has recently been challenged with the discovery of a mineralocorticoid-like hormone, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), and necessitates new studies of the endocrinology of osmoregulation in fish. Using an in vitro gill explant incubation approach, DOC-mediated regulation of selected osmoregulatory target genes in the gill was investigated and compared with that of cortisol in two euryhaline teleosts, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The effects were tested in gills from both fresh water (FW)- and seawater (SW)-acclimated fish. Both cortisol and DOC caused an up-regulation of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α1 subunit in SW-acclimated tilapia but had no effect in FW-acclimated fish. Cortisol conferred an increase in Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) isoform 1a transcript levels in FW- and SW-acclimated tilapia, whereas DOC had a stimulatory effect only in SW-acclimated fish. Cortisol had no effect on NKCC isoform 1b mRNA levels at both salinities, while DOC stimulated this isoform in SW-acclimated fish. In striped bass, cortisol conferred an up-regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α1 and NKCC transcript levels in FW- and SW-acclimated fish, whereas DOC resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts in FW-acclimated fish. It was also found that both corticosteroids may rapidly (30 min) alter the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway in gill, inducing phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 in a salinity-dependent manner. The study shows a disparate organisation of corticosteroid signalling mechanisms involved in ion regulation in the two species and adds new evidence to a role of DOC as a mineralocorticoid hormone in teleosts.

  9. Effect of white striping myopathy on breast muscle (Pectoralis major) protein turnover and gene expression in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignale, Karen; Caldas, Justina V; England, Judy A; Boonsinchai, Nirun; Magnuson, Andrew; Pollock, Erik D; Dridi, Sami; Owens, Casey M; Coon, Craig N

    2017-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of white striping ( ) of broiler breast muscle ( Pectoralis major ) on protein turnover and gene expression of genes related to protein degradation and fatty acid synthesis. A total of 560 day-old male broiler chicks Cobb 500 were allocated in a total of 16 pens, 35 chicks per pen. A completely randomized design was conducted with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (2 scores: severe and normal, and 3 breast meat samples sites). At d 60, 20 birds were randomly selected, euthanized, and scored for white striping. Scoring was either normal ( , no WS) or severe ( ). Also, the same day, 17 birds (16 infused, one control) were randomly selected and infused with a solution of 15 N Phen 40% ( ). Breast muscle tissue was taken for gene expression analysis of the following genes: MuRF1, atrogin-1, IGF-1, insulin receptor ( ), fatty acid synthetase, and acetyl CoA carboxylase ( ). Each bird was humanely euthanized after 10 minutes of infusion and scored for WS (NORM or SEV). Samples of the breast muscle ( Pectoralis major ) were taken at different layers (3 samples per bird: ventral, medial, dorsal), along with a sample of excreta for 3-methylhistidine analysis. Out of the 16 breast samples taken, only 10 were selected for analysis based on the WS score (5 NORM and 5 SEV). No significant differences ( P > 0.05) were found in fractional synthesis rate ( ) between SEV WS, NORM and sample sites for breast meat. However, fractional breakdown rate ( ) was significantly higher in birds with SEV WS compared to NORM (8.2 and 4.28, respectively, P white striping are degrading more muscular protein and mobilizing more fat. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Occurrence of white striping and wooden breast in broilers fed grower and finisher diets with increasing lysine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R F A; Vieira, S L; Kindlein, L; Kipper, M; Cemin, H S; Rauber, S M

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the prevalence and severity of white striping (WS) and wooden breast (WB) in breast fillets from broilers fed diets with increasing digestible Lysine (dLys) from 12 to 28 d (Exp. 1) and from 28 to 42 d (Exp. 2). Trials were sequentially conducted using one-d-old male, slow-feathering Cobb 500 × Cobb broilers, both with 6 treatments and 8 replicates. Increasing dLys levels were equally spaced from 0.77 to 1.17% in Exp. 1 and from 0.68 to 1.07% in Exp. 2. The lowest dLys diet was not supplemented with L-Lysine (L-Lys) in either one of the studies and all other essential amino acid (AA) met or exceeded current commercial recommendations such that their dietary concentrations did not limit broiler growth. Four birds per pen were randomly selected from each replication and processed at 35 and 42 d in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. Deboned breast fillets (Pectoralis major) were submitted to a 3 subject panel evaluation to detect the presence of WS and WB, as well as to provide scores of WS (0-normal, 1-moderate, 2-severe) and WB (0-normal, 1-moderate light, 2-moderate, 3-severe). Increasing the level of dLys had a positive effect on BW, carcass, and breast weight, as well as breast yield. White striping and WB prevalences were 32.3 and 85.9% in Exp. 1 and 87.1 and 89.2% in Exp. 2. Birds fed diets not supplemented with L-Lys had the lowest average WS and WB scores (0.22 and 0.78 in Exp. 1 and 0.61 and 0.68 in Exp. 2). White striping and WB presented linear responses to performance variables in Exp. 1, whereas quadratic responses were observed for all variables in Exp. 2. In conclusion, increasing the level of dLys improved growth performance and carcass traits as well as induced the occurrence and severity of WS and WB lesions. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Detection of differentially expressed genes in broiler pectoralis major muscle affected by White Striping - Wooden Breast myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambonelli, Paolo; Zappaterra, Martina; Soglia, Francesca; Petracci, Massimiliano; Sirri, Federico; Cavani, Claudio; Davoli, Roberta

    2016-12-01

    White Striping and Wooden Breast (WS/WB) are abnormalities increasingly occurring in the fillets of high breast yield and growth rate chicken hybrids. These defects lead to consistent economic losses for poultry meat industry, as affected broiler fillets present an impaired visual appearance that negatively affects consumers' acceptability. Previous studies have highlighted in affected fillets a severely damaged muscle, showing profound inflammation, fibrosis, and lipidosis. The present study investigated the differentially expressed genes and pathways linked to the compositional changes observed in WS/WB breast muscles, in order to outline a more complete framework of the gene networks related to the occurrence of this complex pathological picture. The biochemical composition was performed on 20 pectoralis major samples obtained from high breast yield and growth rate broilers (10 affected vs. 10 normal) and 12 out of the 20 samples were used for the microarray gene expression profiling (6 affected vs. 6 normal). The obtained results indicate strong changes in muscle mineral composition, coupled to an increased deposition of fat. In addition, 204 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were found: 102 up-regulated and 102 down-regulated in affected breasts. The gene expression pathways found more altered in WS/WB muscles are those related to muscle development, polysaccharide metabolic processes, proteoglycans synthesis, inflammation, and calcium signaling pathway. On the whole, the findings suggest that a multifactorial and complex etiology is associated with the occurrence of WS/WB muscle abnormalities, contributing to further defining the transcription patterns associated with these myopathies. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Mechanisms of Egg Yolk Formation and Implications on Early Life History of White Perch (Morone americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Schilling

    Full Text Available The three white perch (Morone americana vitellogenins (VtgAa, VtgAb, VtgC were quantified accurately and precisely in the liver, plasma, and ovary during pre-, early-, mid-, and post-vitellogenic oocyte growth using protein cleavage-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PC-IDMS. Western blotting generally mirrored the PC-IDMS results. By PC-IDMS, VtgC was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic ovary tissues and VtgAb was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic liver tissues however, neither protein was detected by western blotting in these respective tissues at this time point. Immunohistochemistry indicated that VtgC was present within pre-vitellogenic oocytes and localized to lipid droplets within vitellogenic oocytes. Affinity purification coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using highly purified VtgC as a bait protein revealed a single specific interacting protein (Y-box binding protein 2a-like [Ybx2a-like] that eluted with suramin buffer and confirmed that VtgC does not bind the ovary vitellogenin receptors (LR8 and Lrp13. Western blotting for LR8 and Lrp13 showed that both receptors were expressed during vitellogenesis with LR8 and Lrp13 expression highest in early- and mid-vitellogenesis, respectively. The VtgAa within the ovary peaked during post-vitellogenesis, while VtgAb peaked during early-vitellogenesis in both white perch and the closely related striped bass (M. saxatilis. The VtgC was steadily accumulated by oocytes beginning during pre-vitellogenesis and continued until post-vitellogenesis and its composition varies widely between striped bass and white perch. In striped bass, the VtgC accounted for 26% of the vitellogenin-derived egg yolk, however in the white perch it comprised only 4%. Striped bass larvae have an extended developmental window and these larvae have yolk stores that may enable them to survive in the absence of food for twice as long as white perch after hatch. Thus, the VtgC may play an integral role in providing nutrients to

  13. Exploding Stars and Stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    -author Jack Hughes, professor of physics and astronomy at Rutgers. "We were not expecting so much order to appear in so much chaos. It could mean that the theory is incomplete, or that there's something else we don't understand." Assuming that the spacing between the X-ray stripes corresponds to the radius of the spiraling motion of the highest energy protons in the supernova remnant, the spacing corresponds to energies about 100 times higher than reached in the Large Hadron Collider. These energies equal the highest energies of cosmic rays thought to be produced in our Galaxy. Because cosmic rays are composed of charged particles, like protons and electrons, their direction of motion changes when they encounter magnetic fields throughout the galaxy. So, the origin of individual cosmic rays detected on Earth cannot be determined. Supernova remnants have long been considered a good candidate for producing the most energetic cosmic rays in our Galaxy. The protons can reach energies that are hundreds of times higher than the highest energy electrons, but since they do not radiate efficiently like the electrons, direct evidence for the acceleration of cosmic ray protons in supernova remnants has been lacking. These results also support the prediction that magnetic fields in interstellar space are greatly amplified in supernova remnants, but the difference between the observed and predicted structures means that other interpretations cannot be ruled out. "We were excited to discover these stripes because they might allow us to directly track, for the first time, the origin of the most energetic particles produced in our galaxy," said Eriksen. "But, we're not claiming victory yet." The Tycho supernova remnant is named for the famous Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe, who reported observing the supernova in 1572. Scientists think the explosion occurred when a white dwarf star grew in mass and exceeded its weight limit, forming a so-called Type Ia supernova. The Tycho remnant is located

  14. Effect of genotype, gender and feed restriction on growth, meat quality and the occurrence of white striping and wooden breast in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocino, A; Piccirillo, A; Birolo, M; Radaelli, G; Bertotto, D; Filiou, E; Petracci, M; Xiccato, G

    2015-12-01

    Due to their importance for the control of meat quality in broiler chickens, the present study aimed at identifying the factors associated with the occurrence of myopathies and characterizing the meat properties when affected by myopathies. To this aim, a total of 768 broiler chickens were reared until slaughter (46 d) to evaluate the effect of genotype, gender, and feeding regime (ad libitum vs. restricted rate, 80% from 13 to 21 d of age) on performance and meat quality. Standard broilers were heavier (3,270 vs. 3,139 g; Pbroilers. Males showed higher final live weight (3,492 vs. 2,845 g) and lower feed conversion (1.54 vs. 1.63) than females (Pwhite-striped breasts (69.5 vs. 79.5%; PWhite-striped fillets had higher pHu (5.87 vs. 5.83), and lower a* (-0.81 vs. -0.59) and b* color indexes (13.7 vs. 14.5) (Pmyopathy occurrence. In contrast, gender and feed restriction affected performance, meat quality, and breast abnormalities. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Copper sulfate controls fungus on mat-spawned largemouth bass eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is widely used by the catfish and hybrid striped bass industries as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on eggs; these industries use hatching troughs and McDonald jars, respectively, in moderate alkalinity waters. This study determined the effectivene...

  16. Hierarchical Bass model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new model about diffusion of a product which includes a memory of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing the product. This effect is lacking in the Bass model. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model

  17. Hierarchical Bass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2014-03-01

    We propose a new model about diffusion of a product which includes a memory of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing the product. This effect is lacking in the Bass model. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model.

  18. European Stars and Stripes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    The European Stars and Stripes (ES&S) organization publishes a daily newspaper, The Stars and Stripes, for DoD personnel stationed in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and other DoD activities in the U.S. European Command...

  19. The Flexible Bass Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    Multi-purpose concert halls face a dilemma. They host different performance types that require significantly different acoustic conditions in order to provide the best sound quality to both the performers, sound engineers and the audience. Pop and rock music often contains high levels of bass sound...

  20. Amino acid availability from selected animal and plant derived feedstuffs for market size sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate diet formulations are essential for the commercial production of hybrid striped bass. However, limited information is available regarding nutrient digestibility and amino acid availability of readily-used practical ingredients for different size classes of this taxon. Therefore, two trial...

  1. Onset of white striping and progression into wooden breast as defined by myopathic changes underlying Pectoralis major growth. Estimation of growth parameters as predictors for stage of myopathy progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jacqueline Reedy; Moraes, Luis; Wick, Macdonald; Lilburn, Michael Snell

    2018-02-01

    The broiler industry has incurred significant economic losses due to two muscle myopathies, white striping (WS) and wooden breast (WB), affecting the Pectoralis major (P. major) of commercial broilers. The present study documented macroscopic changes occurring with age/growth in the P. major and P. minor muscles of commercial broilers from day 2 through day 46 (n = 27/day). Distinct myopathic aberrations observed in both breast muscles corresponded to the onset of WB. These distinct morphological changes were used as determinants in developing a ranking system, defining the ontogeny of WB as the following four stages: (1) WS, (2) petechial epimysium haemorrhages, (3) intramuscular haemorrhages and (4) ischaemia. A cumulative logit proportional odds model was used to relate the rank probabilities with the following growth parameters: body weight, P. major and P. minor weight/yield/length/width/depth. The best-fit model included P. major length/width/depth, P. minor width, P. major and P. minor yield as predictors for rank. Increasing P. major depth, P. minor width and P. major yield increased the odds of falling into higher ranks (more severe myopathy). Conversely, increasing P. major length, P. major width and P. minor yield increased the odds of falling into smaller ranks (less severe myopathy). This study describes the macroscopic changes associated with WB ontogeny in the development of a ranking system and the contribution of growth parameters in the determination of rank (WB severity). Results suggest that physical measurements inherent to selection for high-yielding broiler genotypes are contributing to the occurrence and severity of WS and WB.

  2. Some Model Theoretic Remarks on Bass Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Momtahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study Bass modules, Bass rings, and related concepts from a model theoretic point of view. We observe that the class of Bass modules (over a fixed ring is not stable under elementary equivalence. We observe that under which conditions the class of Bass rings are stable under elementary equivalence.

  3. Improving File System Performance by Striping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Terance L.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This document discusses the performance and advantages of striped file systems on the SGI AD workstations. Performance of several striped file system configurations are compared and guidelines for optimal striping are recommended.

  4. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  5. Lighting up superconducting stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergeçen, Emre; Gedik, Nuh

    2018-02-01

    Cuprate superconductors display a plethora of complex phases as a function of temperature and carrier concentration, the understanding of which could provide clues into the mechanism of superconductivity. For example, when about one-eighth of the conduction electrons are removed from the copper oxygen planes in cuprates such as La2‑xBaxCuO4 (LBCO), the doped holes (missing electrons) organize into one-dimensional stripes (1). The bulk superconducting transition temperature (Tc) is greatly reduced, and just above Tc, electrical transport perpendicular to the planes (along the c axis) becomes resistive, but parallel to the copper oxygen planes, resistivity remains zero for a range of temperatures (2). It was proposed a decade ago (3) that this anisotropic behavior is caused by pair density waves (PDWs); superconducting Cooper pairs exist along the stripes within the planes but cannot tunnel to the adjacent layers. On page 575 of this issue, Rajasekaran et al. (4) now report detection of this state in LBCO using nonlinear reflection of high-intensity terahertz (THz) light.

  6. LMFBR thermal-striping evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunings, J.E.

    1982-10-01

    Thermal striping is defined as the fluctuating temperature field that is imposed on a structure when fluid streams at different temperatures mix in the vicinity of the structure surface. Because of the uncertainty in structural damage in LMFBR structures subject to thermal striping, EPRI has funded an effort for the Rockwell International Energy Systems Group to evaluate this problem. This interim report presents the following information: (1) a Thermal Striping Program Plan which identifies areas of analytic and experimental needs and presents a program of specific tasks to define damage experienced by ordinary materials of construction and to evaluate conservatism in the existing approach; (2) a description of the Thermal Striping Test Facility and its operation; and (3) results from the preliminary phase of testing to characterize the fluid environment to be applied in subsequent thermal striping damage experiments

  7. The Stripe State in Cupratesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee T.-K.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS two decades ago, many anomalous properties have been reported. One of the most interesting properties is the possible existence of the stripe state consisting of one dimensional charge-density modulation coupled with some kind of spin ordering. X-ray and neutron scattering experiments and recently high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy have reported direct evidences of such a structure. In particular it has found in the La-Sr-Cu-O (LSCO family the existence of the half-doped stripe with average of half a hole in one charge modulation period below and about 1/8 hole density. These results have fueled the idea about the presence of these charge or spin density wave states competing with the superconducting phase in underdoped HTS. They may even contribute to the pairing mechanism. In this talk, we will demonstrate that the presence of these stripes is actually a natural consequence of the strongly interacting t-J model by using a variational approach which provides a good enough accuracy to address the subtle result. Furthermore we show that half-doped stripes could be stabilized in hole-doped systems if we assume a simple electron-phonon interaction to renormalize the electron mass. However we have not found any evidence to support half-doped stripes in electron-doped systems.

  8. Identification, Molecular Cloning of IL-1β and Its Expression Profile during Nocardia seriolae Infection in Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Yueh Ho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, IL-1β cDNA was identified and analyzed from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides. Full length IL-1β mRNA was obtained using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE, which contains 78 bp 3′-UTR, a 455 bp 5′-UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF of 702 bp coding for 233 amino acid residues. The molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of largemouth bass IL-1β protein was predicted to be 26.7 kDa and 6.08 respectively. A largemouth bass IL-1β phylogenetic analysis showed a close relation to the IL-1βs of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata, Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi, and Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus. Peptidoglycan upregulated IL-1β in the spleen and head kidney, while lipopolysaccharide upregulated detectable levels of IL-1β in the spleen only. Largemouth bass, challenged with Nocardia seriolae (1.0 × 106 cfu/mL, showed a significant increase in IL-1β at 3 and 5 days post infection (dpi in the spleen, while in the head kidney significant expression was found at 2 and 3 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α showed significantly higher expression in the spleen at 3 and 5 dpi, and in the head kidney at 1 and 3 dpi, with expression decreasing at 5 dpi in both tissues.

  9. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Heather L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Glenney, Gavin W.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Blazer, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1–15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0–9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya, although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2–12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0–11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai. The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum, which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected

  10. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Heather L; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Glenney, Gavin W; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Blazer, Vicki S

    2012-04-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1-15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0-9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya , although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2-12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0-11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai . The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum , which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected bass, a

  11. Zebra: A striped network file system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, John H.; Ousterhout, John K.

    1992-01-01

    The design of Zebra, a striped network file system, is presented. Zebra applies ideas from log-structured file system (LFS) and RAID research to network file systems, resulting in a network file system that has scalable performance, uses its servers efficiently even when its applications are using small files, and provides high availability. Zebra stripes file data across multiple servers, so that the file transfer rate is not limited by the performance of a single server. High availability is achieved by maintaining parity information for the file system. If a server fails its contents can be reconstructed using the contents of the remaining servers and the parity information. Zebra differs from existing striped file systems in the way it stripes file data: Zebra does not stripe on a per-file basis; instead it stripes the stream of bytes written by each client. Clients write to the servers in units called stripe fragments, which are analogous to segments in an LFS. Stripe fragments contain file blocks that were written recently, without regard to which file they belong. This method of striping has numerous advantages over per-file striping, including increased server efficiency, efficient parity computation, and elimination of parity update.

  12. Innovative CO2 LASER-Based Pavement Striping and Stripe Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This is a Technical Report of an FY2014 NDOT funded project on Innovative CO2 Laserbased Pavement Striping and Stripe Removal. The project was concerned with adopting the laser technology for pavement stripe and markers removal and inferring on its e...

  13. Effects of reservoir hydrology on reproduction by largemouth bass and spotted bass in Normandy Reservoir, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, S.M.; Dorsey, L.G.; Bettoli, P.W.; Fiss, F.C.

    1999-01-01

    Age-O largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and spotted bass M. punctulatus were collected from Normandy Reservoir, Tennessee, 1992-1996, to evaluate effects of reservoir hydrology and hatching of shad Dorosoma spp. on hatching and first-year growth and survival of these two species. Fish were collected in cove rotenone samples in early August and electrofishing samples biweekly throughout the summer; hatch dates and age-specific growth for both species were determined from cove samples with sagittal otoliths. Hatching of both species ranged from early April to early June. Initiation of largemouth bass spawning, but not spotted bass spawning, was positively related to the first day water levels achieved full pool. Mean hatch dates of both species were positively related to the first day of full pool. Timing of spawning for both species was not related to water temperature, Largemouth bass exhibited bimodal length-frequency distributions by midsummer in two wet years and length frequencies were unimodal in dry years; spotted bass always formed unimodal length-frequency distributions. When largemouth bass exhibited bimodal length distributions, earlier hatched fish grew faster than later hatched fish. Spotted bass grew at similar rates, regardless of hatch date, every year except during 1992 when later hatched fish grew faster than earlier hatched fish. Weekly survival of largemouth bass in their first summer was positively related to reservoir water level. First-year growth of both species was not directly affected by the timing of threadfin shad D. petenense or gizzard shad D. cepedianum hatching.

  14. Invasion of the striped mollusks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Introduced to this country only five years ago, the prolific zebra mussel has infested the Great Lakes and has already begun to move into fresh waters beyond the region. Dense populations in utility water systems have caused serious problems, reducing plant efficiency and blocking lines used for cooling and fire fighting. Experts say the striped mollusk has the potential to become the industry's worst biological problem, possibly affecting 70% of US power plants. While it appears that the invader is here to stay, EPRI and others continue to develop and refine techniques to control mussel growth

  15. Cage culture of sea bass in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The article discusses the cage culture practice of sea bass (Lates calcarifer) in Malaysia. Problems on feed and seed supply and overcrowding are also discussed. Despite these problems, seabass cage culture still continuously booms.

  16. Using copper sulfate on hybrid striped bass eggs to control fungus and increase survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major obstacle in fish hatcheries is the inevitable fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but effectiveness on fish eggs hatched using different systems has only recently been investigated. Fish were spawn...

  17. Invasion of the striped mollusks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Introduced to this country only five years ago, the prolific zebra mussel has infested the Great Lakes and has already begun to move into fresh waters beyond the region. Dense populations in utility water systems have caused serious problems, reducing plant efficiency and blocking lines used for cooling and fire fighting. Experts say the striped mollusk has the potential to become the industry's worst biological problem, possibly affecting 70% of US power plants. While it appears that the invader is here to stay, EPRI and others continue to develop and refine techniques to control mussel growth. This article describes how the mollusk got here, reviews the problems it can cause and what is being done to mitigate the problems and control the growth and spread of the mollusk.

  18. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two “golden basses” found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberransand L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus,Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, includingBathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3–135 m, 30–150 m, 133–411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182–241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropomaspecies. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini.

  19. Book review: Black bass diversity: Multidisciplinary science for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelks, Howard L.

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are from the third symposium dedicated to management and conservation of black basses in the genus Micropterus. The first symposium was held in 1975 (R. H. Stroud and H. Clepper. Black Bass Biology and Management. Washington (DC): Sport Fishing Institute) followed 25 years later by Black Bass 2000 (D. P. Philipp and M. S. Ridgway. 2002. Black Bass: Ecology, Conservation, and Management. Bethesda (MD): American Fisheries Society). Although the previous books discussed conservation of genetic variation and distinct strains of basses, the bulk of the papers in those tomes emphasized management of largemouth and smallmouth bass. In contrast, this third symposium is focused on the rarer bass species and challenges for their successful management.

  20. Influence of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides , on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predatory alien fishes have been widely introduced into streams in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), South Africa, but little is known about their effect on native fishes. Results from this 2006 study suggest that the presence of alien predatory largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, may have influenced abundance and ...

  1. Beat my bass, pluck my drum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, B.J.; Funk, M.; Doing, V.

    2014-01-01

    Beating a bass, plucking a drum -- new systems of instruments make it possible. In this paper we describe recent research into networked musical instruments for group improvisation; instruments that reciprocally influence each other's behaviour, making, contrary to what we are used to, the

  2. Movement behaviour of alien largemouth bass Micropterus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The movement behaviour of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in the estuarine headwater region of the Kowie River, South Africa, was investigated using passive acoustic telemetry. Ten adult fish were tagged and released in four discrete pools below a weir that precluded possible upriver migration. Their residency ...

  3. A Diverse Family of Host-Defense Peptides (Piscidins Exhibit Specialized Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Protozoal Activities in Fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Salger

    Full Text Available Conventional antibiotics and other chemical-based drugs are currently one of the most common methods used to control disease-related mortality in animal agriculture. Use of the innate immune system to decrease disease related mortalities is a novel alternative to conventional drugs. One component of the innate immune system is the host-defense peptides, also known as antimicrobial peptides. Host-defense peptides are typically small, amphipathic, α-helical peptides with a broad-spectrum of action against viral, bacterial, fungal, and/or protozoal pathogens. Piscidins are host-defense peptides first discovered in the hybrid striped bass (white bass, Morone chrysops, x striped bass, M. saxatilis. In this paper we identify four new piscidin isoforms in the hybrid striped bass and describe their tissue distributions. We also determine the progenitor species of origin of each piscidin (orthology and propose a revised nomenclature for this newly described piscidin family based on a three class system. The Class I piscidins (22 amino acids in length; striped bass and white bass piscidin 1 and piscidin 3 show broad-spectrum activity against bacteria and ciliated protozoans, while the Class III piscidins (55 amino acids in length; striped bass and white bass piscidin 6 and striped bass piscidin 7 primarily show anti-protozoal activity. The Class II piscidins (44-46 amino acids in length; striped bass and white bass piscidin 4 and white bass piscidin 5 have a level of activity against bacteria and protozoans intermediate to Classes I and III. Knowledge of piscidin function and activity may help in the future development of disease-resistant lines of striped bass and white bass that could be used to produce superior hybrids for aquaculture.

  4. A Diverse Family of Host-Defense Peptides (Piscidins) Exhibit Specialized Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Protozoal Activities in Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salger, Scott A; Cassady, Katherine R; Reading, Benjamin J; Noga, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Conventional antibiotics and other chemical-based drugs are currently one of the most common methods used to control disease-related mortality in animal agriculture. Use of the innate immune system to decrease disease related mortalities is a novel alternative to conventional drugs. One component of the innate immune system is the host-defense peptides, also known as antimicrobial peptides. Host-defense peptides are typically small, amphipathic, α-helical peptides with a broad-spectrum of action against viral, bacterial, fungal, and/or protozoal pathogens. Piscidins are host-defense peptides first discovered in the hybrid striped bass (white bass, Morone chrysops, x striped bass, M. saxatilis). In this paper we identify four new piscidin isoforms in the hybrid striped bass and describe their tissue distributions. We also determine the progenitor species of origin of each piscidin (orthology) and propose a revised nomenclature for this newly described piscidin family based on a three class system. The Class I piscidins (22 amino acids in length; striped bass and white bass piscidin 1 and piscidin 3) show broad-spectrum activity against bacteria and ciliated protozoans, while the Class III piscidins (55 amino acids in length; striped bass and white bass piscidin 6 and striped bass piscidin 7) primarily show anti-protozoal activity. The Class II piscidins (44-46 amino acids in length; striped bass and white bass piscidin 4 and white bass piscidin 5) have a level of activity against bacteria and protozoans intermediate to Classes I and III. Knowledge of piscidin function and activity may help in the future development of disease-resistant lines of striped bass and white bass that could be used to produce superior hybrids for aquaculture.

  5. Audiogram of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Hagedoorn, M.; Au, W.W.L.; Haan, de D.

    2003-01-01

    The underwater hearing sensitivity of a striped dolphin was measured in a pool using standard psycho-acoustic techniques. The go/no-go response paradigm and up¿down staircase psychometric method were used. Auditory sensitivity was measured by using 12 narrow-band frequency-modulated signals having

  6. Spatial simulation of smallmouth bass in streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, H.I.; Schmoyer, D.D.; Sale, M.J.; Van Winkle, W.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Sabo, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The hydropower industry and its regulators are hampered by the inability to predict the relationship between alternative flow regimes and fish population response. We have developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model of populations of small-mouth bass in streams as part of the Compensatory Mechanisms in Fish Populations Program (see Sale and Otto 1991). In the model, the profitability of alternative stream locations varies in response to habitat depth and velocity through changes in the frequency of prey encounters and the metabolic costs experienced by fish. We conducted an evaluation of our hydraulic simulation at the scale of individual stream cells. The potential error in predictions for individual cell velocities suggests that larger-scale model predictions for the representative reach are most appropriate. At this scale, the model appears to produce realistic patterns in the growth and dispersal of young-of-year small-mouth bass. This verification step allows us to proceed with greater confidence in evaluating the original question of how small-mouth bass populations respond to alternative flow regimes

  7. Breakup Behavior of a Capillary Bridge on a Hydrophobic Stripe Separating Two Hydrophilic Stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Maximilian; Hardt, Steffen

    2017-11-01

    The breakup dynamics of a capillary bridge on a hydrophobic area between two liquid filaments occupying two parallel hydrophilic stripes is studied experimentally. In addition calculations with the finite-element software Surface Evolver are performed to obtain the corresponding stable minimal surfaces. Droplets of de-ionized water are placed on substrates with alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes of different width. Their volume decreases by evaporation. This results in a droplet shaped as the letter ``H'' covering two hydrophilic stripes separated by one hydrophobic stripe. The width of the capillary bridge d(t) on the hydrophobic stripe during the breakup process is observed using a high-speed camera mounted on a bright-field microscope. The results of the experiments and the numerical studies show that the critical width dcrit, indicating the point where the capillary bridge becomes unstable, mainly depends on the width ratio of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes. It is found that the time derivative of d(t) first decreases after dcrit has been reached. The final breakup dynamics then follows a t 2 / 3 scaling. We kindly acknowledge the financial support by the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the Collaborative Research Centre 1194 ``Interaction of Transport and Wetting Processes'', Project A02a.

  8. STRIPE: Remote Driving Using Limited Image Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    Driving a vehicle, either directly or remotely, is an inherently visual task. When heavy fog limits visibility, we reduce our car's speed to a slow crawl, even along very familiar roads. In teleoperation systems, an operator's view is limited to images provided by one or more cameras mounted on the remote vehicle. Traditional methods of vehicle teleoperation require that a real time stream of images is transmitted from the vehicle camera to the operator control station, and the operator steers the vehicle accordingly. For this type of teleoperation, the transmission link between the vehicle and operator workstation must be very high bandwidth (because of the high volume of images required) and very low latency (because delayed images can cause operators to steer incorrectly). In many situations, such a high-bandwidth, low-latency communication link is unavailable or even technically impossible to provide. Supervised TeleRobotics using Incremental Polyhedral Earth geometry, or STRIPE, is a teleoperation system for a robot vehicle that allows a human operator to accurately control the remote vehicle across very low bandwidth communication links, and communication links with large delays. In STRIPE, a single image from a camera mounted on the vehicle is transmitted to the operator workstation. The operator uses a mouse to pick a series of 'waypoints' in the image that define a path that the vehicle should follow. These 2D waypoints are then transmitted back to the vehicle, where they are used to compute the appropriate steering commands while the next image is being transmitted. STRIPE requires no advance knowledge of the terrain to be traversed, and can be used by novice operators with only minimal training. STRIPE is a unique combination of computer and human control. The computer must determine the 3D world path designated by the 2D waypoints and then accurately control the vehicle over rugged terrain. The human issues involve accurate path selection, and the

  9. Crystal shapes on striped surface domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, Antoni

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium shapes of a simple cubic crystal in contact with a planar chemically patterned substrate are studied theoretically using an effective interface model. The substrate is primarily made of lyophobic material and is patterned with a lyophilic (easily wettable) stripe domain. Three regimes can be distinguished for the equilibrium shapes of the crystal. The transitions between these regimes as the volume of the crystal is changed are continuous or discontinuous depending on the strength of the couplings between the crystal and the lyophilic and lyophobic surface domains. If the crystal grows through a series of states close to equilibrium, the discontinuous transitions correspond to growth instabilities. These transitions are compared with similar results that have been obtained for a volume of liquid wetting a lyophilic stripe domain

  10. The preparation of immunochromatographic stripe of methamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jing; Liu Yibing; Zhou Ling; Guo Weizheng

    2004-01-01

    A gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) is developed for methamphetamine in urine. Colloidal gold is obtained by reducing the gold chloride with sodium citrate, and labeled methamphetamine monoclonal antibody. The drug or metabolite competes with the immobilized drug conjugate in the test area for the limited colloidal gold-labeled antibody complex in which the stripe is made to screen the drug abuser. This method has sensitivity of 1000 μg/L, and without cross-reaction with some drugs

  11. Comparison of WIMS/BASS results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-06-18

    An otimization carried out by SOCIA, Paris, using the BASS computer code showed a generating cost optimum around N{sub c}/N{sub u} ratio of 350 for 90 GWd/tu. This is contradictory to other optimizations as in DPR 719 (presented at the 9th DCPM) where the optimum is around N{sub c}/N{sub u} of 300. The difference is explored briefly in the paper from two possible sources. To study the first effect, the calculations were repeated by BBC, Baden, using the WIMS computer code.

  12. Occupational Noise Reduction in CNC Striping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmad Khairai, Kamarulzaman; Shamime Salleh, Nurul; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    Occupational noise hearing loss with high level exposure is common occupational hazards. In CNC striping process, employee that exposed to high noise level for a long time as 8-hour contributes to hearing loss, create physical and psychological stress that reduce productivity. In this paper, CNC stripping process with high level noises are measured and reduced to the permissible noise exposure. First condition is all machines shutting down and second condition when all CNC machine under operations. For both conditions, noise exposures were measured to evaluate the noise problems and sources. After improvement made, the noise exposures were measured to evaluate the effectiveness of reduction. The initial average noise level at the first condition is 95.797 dB (A). After the pneumatic system with leakage was solved, the noise reduced to 55.517 dB (A). The average noise level at the second condition is 109.340 dB (A). After six machines were gathered at one area and cover that area with plastic curtain, the noise reduced to 95.209 dB (A). In conclusion, the noise level exposure in CNC striping machine is high and exceed the permissible noise exposure can be reduced to acceptable levels. The reduction of noise level in CNC striping processes enhanced productivity in the industry.

  13. Porous Alumina Films with Width-Controllable Alumina Stripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Porous alumina films had been fabricated by anodizing from aluminum films after an electropolishing procedure. Alumina stripes without pores can be distinguished on the surface of the porous alumina films. The width of the alumina stripes increases proportionally with the anodizing voltage. And the pores tend to be initiated close to the alumina stripes. These phenomena can be ascribed to the electric field distribution in the alumina barrier layer caused by the geometric structure of the aluminum surface.

  14. Porous Alumina Films with Width-Controllable Alumina Stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Porous alumina films had been fabricated by anodizing from aluminum films after an electropolishing procedure. Alumina stripes without pores can be distinguished on the surface of the porous alumina films. The width of the alumina stripes increases proportionally with the anodizing voltage. And the pores tend to be initiated close to the alumina stripes. These phenomena can be ascribed to the electric field distribution in the alumina barrier layer caused by the geometric structure of the aluminum surface. PMID:21170406

  15. Direct visualization of the Campbell regime in superconducting stripes

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, R. B. G.; Ataklti, G. W.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Silhanek, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    A combination of scanning Hall microscopy and scanning ac-susceptibility measurements in superconducting stripes (ribbons) of width w < 10 mu m was used to observe the dimensional phase transitions of the vortex lattice and its stability under alternating fields. At low dc magnetic fields applied perpendicularly to the plane of the stripes, vortices form a one-dimensional chain at the center of the stripes. Above a certain field H*(w), the vortex chain splits in two parallel rows displaced la...

  16. Coherent quantum cascade laser micro-stripe arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. de Naurois

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated InP-based coherent quantum cascade laser micro-stripe arrays. Phase-locking is provided by evanescent coupling between adjacent stripes. Stripes are buried into semi-insulating iron doped InP. Lasing at room temperature is obtained at 8.4μm for stripe arrays comprising up to 16 emitters. Pure supermode emission is demonstrated via farfield measurements and simulations. The farfield pattern shows a dual-lobe emission, corroborating the predicted phase-locked antisymmetric supermode emission.

  17. Modeling and analyzing stripe patterns in fish skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yibo; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuan; Liang, Ping; Kang, Junjian

    2009-11-01

    The formation mechanism of stripe patterns in the skin of tropical fishes has been investigated by a coupled two variable reaction diffusion model. Two types of spatial inhomogeneities have been introduced into a homogenous system. Several Turing modes pumped by the Turing instability give rise to a simple stripe pattern. It is found that the Turing mechanism can only determine the wavelength of stripe pattern. The orientation of stripe pattern is determined by the spatial inhomogeneity. Our numerical results suggest that it may be the most possible mechanism for the forming process of fish skin patterns.

  18. Reproducción natural controlada del black bass Micropterus salmoides - Controlled natural reproduction of black bass Micropterus salmoides

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral Junior, Hilton; Garcia, Silvano; Capozza Tebaldi, Paula

    2009-01-01

    ResumenPara viabilizar la reproducción, larvicutura y alevinaje del Black bass, en la región sur de Brasil, se ha buscado adaptar una tecnología, desarrollada por el Centro Nacional de Acuicultura Piscifactoría las Vegas del Guadiana Badajoz/España. Consiste en controlar el ambiente de desove, utilizando estanques con nidales, para el desove del Black bass. Optimizando esta tecnología, desarrollamos una técnica de adaptación del Black bass al cultivo intensivo durante el período de invierno, ...

  19. Portfolio Optimization Using Particle Swarms with Stripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Villalobos Arias

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is consider the Portfolio Optimization Problem developed by Markowitz [11]. The basic assumption is that the investor tries to maximize his/her profit and at the same time, wants to minimize the risk. This problem is usually solved using a scalarization approach (with one objective. Here it is solved it as a bi-objective  optimization problem. It uses a new version of the algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization for Multi-Objective Problems to which it implemented a method of the stripes to improve dispersion.

  20. The BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael

    2017-08-01

    We present the Swift BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) and discus the first four papers. The catalog represents an unprecedented census of hard-X-ray selected AGN in the local universe, with ~90% of sources at zpast studies. Consistent with previous surveys, we find an increase in the fraction of un-obscured (type 1) AGN, as measured from broad Hbeta and Halpha, with increasing 14-195 keV and 2-10 keV luminosity. We find the FWHM of the emission lines to show broad agreement with the X-ray obscuration measurements. Compared to narrow line AGN in the SDSS, the X-ray selected AGN in our sample with emission lines have a larger fraction of dustier galaxies suggesting these types of galaxies are missed in optical AGN surveys using emission line diagnostics.

  1. Transfer of stripe rust resistance from Aegilops variabilis to bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of area, the bread wheat producing regions of China comprise the largest area in the world that is constantly threatened by stripe rust epidemics. Consequently, it is important to exploit new adultplant resistance genes in breeding. This study reports the transfer of stripe rust resistance from Aegilops variabilis to ...

  2. Benthic Acoustic Stress Sensor (BASS): Electronics Check-Out Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Marinna A.; Williams, Albert

    1993-01-01

    Summary The procedures described here are presented so that a technician with limited experience with BASS can perform basic tests which, when executed properly, should be a thorough evaluation of the health of the system. This is not intended as an in depth explanation of how BASS works. Should any significant problems be found, it is suggested that you contact the manufacturer, Oceanographic Instrument Systems, North Falmouth, MA. The Tattletale controller is manufactured by the Onset Computer Corporation, Cataumet, MA.

  3. Rumble in the Jungle: City, Place and Uncanny Bass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Christodoulou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While bass powerfully resonates among the cultural discourses, lexicology and commercial marketing of a range of electronic dance music (EDM styles, little popular music scholarship has paid attention to the subjective, phenomenological and psycho-physiological significance of bass in its modulation of intense feelings of pleasure. This article examines the linking in jungle/drum 'n' bass culture of bass as a sonic space that produces a powerful sense of jouissance where identity can seem to unravel on the dance-floor and an articulation of contemporary urban space as a place of subjective loss and regression. Overlaying Freud's notion of the uncanny and Kristeva's signifying space of the chora, I discuss how this fetishisation of bass can be linked to the music's cultural formation from deindustrialised regions in London and the South-East of England during the early-1990s; its accelerated break-beats and 'dark' bass-lines can be seen to inscribe recent rapid social, cultural and environmental transformations in the urban metropolis.

  4. Potential of largemouth bass as vectors of 137Cs dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Fletcher, D.E.; Jones, T.; Dyer, S.A.; Isely, J.J.; Littrell, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a radio telemetry study on the movements of potentially contaminated largemouth bass between Steel Creek, a restricted access 137 Cs contaminated stream on the Savannah River Site (located in South Carolina, USA), and the publicly accessible Savannah River. Largemouth bass were relatively mobile in lower Steel Creek and the portion of the Savannah River near Steel Creek, and there was considerable movement between these two habitats. Largemouth bass had home ranges of about 500 linear meters of shoreline in the Savannah River but sometimes moved long distances. Such movements occurred primarily during the spawning season, largely upstream, and increased when water levels were changing or elevated. However, approximately 90% of the largemouth bass observations were within 10 km of Steel Creek. The total quantity of 137 Cs transported into the Savannah River by largemouth bass was much less than transported by water and suspended sediments discharged from Steel Creek. We conclude that largemouth bass from the Savannah River Site are unlikely to be responsible for long distance dispersal of substantial radiological contamination in the Savannah River

  5. Correlation between the ripple phase and stripe domains in membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Midtiby, Henrik; Ipsen, John Hjort; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the relationship between stripe domains and the ripple phase in membranes. These have previously been observed separately without being linked explicitly. Past results have demonstrated that solid and ripple phases exhibit rich textural patterns related to the orientational order of tilted lipids and the orientation of ripple corrugations. Here we reveal a highly complex network pattern of ripple and solid domains in DLPC, DPPC bilayers with structures covering length scales from 10 nm to 100 μm. Using spincoated double supported membranes we investigate domains by correlated AFM and fluorescence microscopy. Cooling experiments demonstrate the mode of nucleation and growth of stripe domains enriched in the fluorescent probe. Concurrent AFM imaging reveals that these stripe domains have a one-to-one correspondence with a rippled morphology running parallel to the stripe direction. Both thin and thick stripe domains are observed having ripple periods of 13.5±0.2 nm and 27.4±0.6 nm respectively. These are equivalent to previously observed asymmetric/equilibrium and symmetric/metastable ripple phases, respectively. Thin stripes grow from small solid domains and grow predominantly in length with a speed of ~3 times that of the thick stripes. Thick stripes grow by templating on the sides of thinner stripes or can emerge directly from the fluid phase. Bending and branching angles of stripes are in accordance with an underlying six fold lattice. We discuss mechanisms for the nucleation and growth of ripples and discuss a generic phase diagram that may partly rationalize the coexistence of metastable and stable phases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Competing States in the t-J Model: Uniform d-Wave State versus Stripe State versus Stripe State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corboz, P.R.; Rice, T.M.; Troyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Variational studies of the t-J model on the square lattice based on infinite projected-entangled pair states confirm an extremely close competition between a uniform d-wave superconducting state and different stripe states. The site-centered stripe with an in-phase d-wave order has an equal or only

  7. A new species of dwarf sea bass, genus Serranus (Serranidae: Actinopterygii, from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Carvalho Filho

    Full Text Available Serranus aliceae n. sp. is described from Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo States, southeastern Brazilian coast. The species is readily distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: scales around the caudal peduncle 20 or 21; total gill rakers on first branchial arch 23-29; cheek-scales rows 5 or 6; and by the coloration of live specimens, which are reddish with a broad, conspicuous, white stripe from post-orbital region to the caudal-fin base and a white abdomen. The new species apparently inhabits the deeper (30 or more meters portions of reef environments along the subtropical Brazilian coast, and is possibly associated with upwelling cold-water masses. The species was observed hovering above rocky bottoms, feeding on micro-crustaceans, squid larvae, and zooplankton. This new species increases to eight the number of valid Serranus species recorded in the southwestern Atlantic.

  8. Effects of starvation on protein synthesis and nucleic acid metabolism in the muscle of the barred sand bass Paralabrax nebulifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowery, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Starvation induced different protein synthesis responses in red and white muscle of the barred sand bass Paralabrax nebulifer. Red muscle had /sup 14/C-leucine incorporation rates into total protein which were several times higher than white muscle in both the fed and starved states. Muscle was separated into a myofibrillar fraction consisting of the structural proteins and a sarcoplasmic fraction consisting of soluble proteins. Synthesis of the myofibrillar fraction of white muscle decreased by 90%, while red muscle myofibrillar synthesis remained essentially unchanged. Changes in the labeling of several enzymes purified from the sarcoplasmic fraction were different even though the overall loss of enzyme activity was similar, suggesting that changes in synthesis rates were important in maintaining appropriate relative enzyme concentrations.

  9. Distinct Nature of Static and Dynamic Magnetic Stripes in Cuprate Superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H.; Holm, S. L.; Lăcătuşu, M. E.

    2018-01-01

    We present detailed neutron scattering studies of the static and dynamic stripes in an optimally doped high-Temperature superconductor, La2CuO4+y. We observe that the dynamic stripes do not disperse towards the static stripes in the limit of vanishing energy transfer. Therefore, the dynamic stripes...

  10. On the orientation of stripes in fish skin patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez, David G; Muñuzuri, Alberto P

    2006-11-20

    This paper is focused on the study of the stripes orientation in the fish skin patterns. Based on microscopic observations of the pigment cells behavior at the embryonic stage, the key aspects of the pigmentation process are implemented in an experimental reaction-diffusion system. The experiment consists of a photosensitive Turing pattern of stripes growing directionally in one direction with controlled velocity. Different growth velocities of the system rearrange the stripes in the same three possible orientations observed in the skin of the colored fishes: parallel, oblique, and perpendicular. Our results suggest that the spreading velocity of the pigment cells in the fish dermis selects the orientation in the patterning processes.

  11. Hybridization threatens shoal bass populations in the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin: Chapter 37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Elizabeth E; Porter, Brady A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Long, James M.; Tringali, Michael D.; Long, James M.; Birdsong, Timothy W.; Allen, Micheal S.

    2015-01-01

    Shoal bass are native only to the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river system of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, and are vulnerable to extinction as a result of population fragmentation and introduction of non-native species. We assessed the genetic integrity of isolated populations of shoal bass in the upper Chattahoochee River basin (above Lake Lanier, Big Creek, and below Morgan Falls Dam) and sought to identify rates of hybridization with non-native, illegally stocked smallmouth bass and spotted bass.

  12. Dealing with largemouth bass virus: benefits of multisector collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terre, David R.; Schramm, Harold; Grizzle , John M.; Fries, Loraine T.

    2015-01-01

    Largemouth bass virus (LMBV), a recently identified pathogen, affected largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the southeastern United States beginning in the 1990s. Concern about the impacts of this little-known pathogen on largemouth bass populations, effects on fisheries management, and the need to provide anglers and the media with consistent and accurate information prompted a private organization (Bass Anglers Sportsman Society) to invite managers and researchers from state and federal agencies and universities to a series of five annual public workshops beginning in 2000. These workshops provided a mechanism to share information, identify and prioritize action items, and develop consensus information and outreach materials that could be provided to bass anglers and the media. Regionalizing the LMBV issue and collaboration among researchers, managers, and a fishing organization may also have allayed angler and media concerns. The process embodied in these workshops is offered as a successful example of multi-agency, multi-sector collaboration to facilitate information acquisition and guide action to address a regional fisheries management issue.

  13. Stripe order from the perspective of the Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereaux, Thomas Peter

    2018-03-01

    A microscopic understanding of the strongly correlated physics of the cuprates must account for the translational and rotational symmetry breaking that is present across all cuprate families, commonly in the form of stripes. Here we investigate emergence of stripes in the Hubbard model, a minimal model believed to be relevant to the cuprate superconductors, using determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) simulations at finite temperatures and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) ground state calculations. By varying temperature, doping, and model parameters, we characterize the extent of stripes throughout the phase diagram of the Hubbard model. Our results show that including the often neglected next-nearest-neighbor hopping leads to the absence of spin incommensurability upon electron-doping and nearly half-filled stripes upon hole-doping. The similarities of these findings to experimental results on both electron and hole-doped cuprate families support a unified description across a large portion of the cuprate phase diagram.

  14. Mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in an Aegilops caudata ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PUNEET INDER TOOR

    A pair of stripe rust and leaf rust resistance genes was introgressed from Aegilops caudata, a nonprogenitor diploid species with the CC genome, to cultivated .... infector rows and experimental material with the mixture of uredinospores of Pst ...

  15. Survey of evaluation methods for thermal striping in FBR structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naoki; Nitta, Akito; Take, Kohji

    1988-01-01

    In the upper core structures or the sodium mixing tee of Fast Breeder Reactors, sodium mixing streams which are at different temperatures produce rapid temperature fluctuations, namely 'thermal striping', upon component surfaces, and it is apprehended that the high-cycle thermal fatigue causes the crack initiation and propagation. The thermal striping is one of the factors which is considered in FBR component design, however, the standard evaluation method has not built up yet because of the intricacy of that mechanism, the difficulty of an actual proof, the lack of data, and so on. In this report, it is intended to survey of the datails and the present situation of the evaluation method of crack initiation and propagation due to thermal striping, and study the appropriate method which will be made use of the rationalization of design. So it is ascertained that the method which use a quantitative prediction of crack propagation is optimum to evaluate the thermal striping phenomenon. (author)

  16. History of the Balkan Stomatological Society (BaSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Ljubomir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Some of the main activities of the Balkan Stomatological Society (BaSS over a rich 19-year history are presented. These activities have been aimed at improving oral health care provided by the dentists throughout the Balkans, and to establish ties of friendship and collaboration between researchers and clinicians in this region, creating a foundation for mutual understanding and peace. To accomplish these goals, the BaSS annually organizes congresses and publishes a scientific journal, beside many other activities, such as public oral health promotion, bringing into accordance study programmes and curricula, supporting student exchange programmes, etc.

  17. Shoal bass hybridization in the Chattahoochee River Basin near Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew T.; Tringali, Michael D.; O'Rourke, Patrick M.; Long, James M.

    2018-01-01

    The shoal bass (Micropterus cataractae) is a sportfish endemic to the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint Basin of the southeastern United States. Introgression with several non-native congeners poses a pertinent threat to shoal bass conservation, particularly in the altered habitats of the Chattahoochee River. Our primary objective was to characterize hybridization in shoal bass populations near Atlanta, Georgia, including a population inhabiting Big Creek and another in the main stem Chattahoochee River below Morgan Falls Dam (MFD). A secondary objective was to examine the accuracy of phenotypic identifications below MFD based on a simplified suite of characters examined in the field. Fish were genotyped with 16 microsatellite DNA markers, and results demonstrated that at least four black bass species were involved in introgressive hybridization. Of 62 fish genotyped from Big Creek, 27% were pure shoal bass and 65% represented either F1 hybrids of shoal bass x smallmouth bass (M. dolomieu) or unidirectional backcrosses towards shoal bass. Of 29 fish genotyped below MFD and downstream at Cochran Shoals, 45% were pure shoal bass. Six hybrid shoal bass included both F1 hybrids and backcrosses with non-natives including Alabama bass (M. henshalli), spotted bass (M. punctulatus), and smallmouth bass. Shoal bass alleles comprised only 21% of the overall genomic composition in Big Creek and 31% below MFD (when combined with Cochran Shoals). Phenotypic identification below MFD resulted in an overall correct classification rate of 86% when discerning pure shoal bass from all other non-natives and hybrids. Results suggest that although these two shoal bass populations feature some of the highest introgression rates documented, only a fleeting opportunity may exist to conserve pure shoal bass in both populations. Continued supplemental stocking of pure shoal bass below MFD appears warranted to thwart increased admixture among multiple black bass taxa, and a similar stocking

  18. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  19. Topological Hochschild homology and the Bass trace conjecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berrick, A. J.; Hesselholt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We use the methods of topological Hochschild homology to shed new light on groups satisfying the Bass trace conjecture. Factorization of the Hattori–Stallings rank map through the Bökstedt–Hsiang–Madsen cyclotomic trace map leads to Linnell's restriction on such groups. As a new consequence...

  20. The importance of bass clarity in pop and rock venues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert

    2008-01-01

    and monitor system goes to these 1.5 octaves. A recent survey [Adelman-Larsen et al., 2007] showed that the most important subjective parameter for a rock and pop music hall to score a high rating was 'bass clarity' which correlated with a coefficient of 0.74 to 'overall impression'. Informal discussions...

  1. Automatic Phrase Continuation from Guitar and Bass guitar Melodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherla, Srikanth; Purwins, Hendrik; Marchini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A framework is proposed for generating interesting, and musically similar variations of a givenmonophonicmelody. The focus is on rock/pop guitar and bass-guitarmelodies with the aim of eventual extensions to other instruments and musical styles. It is demonstrated here how learning musical style...... evaluated through a questionnaire by a group of experts, and received an overall positive response....

  2. Lifecycle1: Flute (piccolo), oboe, clarinet (bass clarinet), bassoon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lifecycle1: Flute (piccolo), oboe, clarinet (bass clarinet), bassoon, horn, 2 percussionists, 2 violins and cello, Xhosa vocal ensemble and indigenous instruments. J Zaidel-Rudoulph. Abstract. No Abstract Journal for the Musical Arts in Africa Vol. 3 2007: pp. 80-81. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  3. Movement behaviour of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... but as water temperature increased, their utilisation of shallow areas increased significantly. The results from this study demonstrate the importance of environmental factors, particularly water temperature, on the movement of largemouth bass. Keywords: acoustic telemetry, alien invasive, ecology, flow, temperature ...

  4. Visualization experimental investigation on long stripe coherent structure in small-scale rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jiqiang; Sun Zhongning; Fan Guangming; Wang Shiming

    2013-01-01

    The long stripe coherent structure of the turbulent boundary layer in a small- scale vertical rectangular channel was observed by using hydrogen bubble flow trace visualization technique. The statistical properties of the long stripe in the experimental channel boundary layer were compared with that in the smooth flat plate boundary layer. The pitch characteristics were explained by the formation mechanism of the long stripe. It was analyzed that how the change of y + affected the distribution of the long stripe. In addition, the frequency characteristics of the long stripe were also investigated, and the correlation of the long stripe frequency in such a flow channel was obtained. (authors)

  5. Contact angle hysteresis on superhydrophobic stripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alexander L; Mourran, Ahmed; Möller, Martin; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2014-08-21

    We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, ϕS. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion of the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e., is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with ϕS. To interpret this we develop a theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the strong defects due to the elastic energy of the deformed contact line, which scales as ϕS(2)lnϕS. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except in a dilute regime, and its value is shown to be determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on ϕS, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at ϕS ≃ 0.5. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy due to strong defects in this direction, which is shown to be caused by the adhesion of the drop on solid sectors and is proportional to ϕS(2). Finally, the contact angle hysteresis is found to be quite large and generally anisotropic, but it becomes isotropic when ϕS ≤ 0.2.

  6. Millijansky radio variability in SDSS stripe 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, J. A.; Becker, R. H. [University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); White, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Richards, G. T., E-mail: hodge@mpia.de [Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We report on a blind survey for extragalactic radio variability that was carried out by comparing two epochs of data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters survey with a third epoch from a new 1.4 GHz survey of SDSS Stripe 82. The three epochs are spaced seven years apart and have an overlapping area of 60 deg{sup 2}. We uncover 89 variable sources down to the millijansky level, 75 of which are newly identified, and we find no evidence for transient phenomena. This new sample of variable sources allows us to infer an upper limit to the mean characteristic timescale of active galactic nucleus radio variability of 14 yr. We find that only 1% of extragalactic sources have fractional variability f {sub var} > 3, while 44% of Galactic sources vary by this much. The variable sample contains a larger fraction of quasars than a comparable non-variable control sample, though the majority of the variable sources appear to be extended galaxies in the optical. This implies that either quasars are not the dominant contributor to the variability of the sample, or that the deep optical data allow us to detect the host galaxies of some low-z quasars. We use the new, higher resolution data to report on the morphology of the variable sources. Finally, we show that the fraction of sources that are variable remains constant or increases at low flux densities. This may imply that next generation radio surveys with telescopes like Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder and MeerKAT will see a constant or even increasing fraction of variable sources down into the sub-millijansky regime.

  7. Genetic population structure of Shoal Bass within their native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew T.; Tringali, Michael D.; Sammons, Steven M.; Ingram, Travis R.; O'Rouke, Patrick M.; Peterson, Douglas L.; Long, James M.

    2018-01-01

    Endemic to the Apalachicola River basin of the southeastern USA, the Shoal Bass Micropterus cataractae is a fluvial‐specialist sport fish that is imperiled because of anthropogenic habitat alteration. To counter population declines, restorative stocking efforts are becoming an increasingly relevant management strategy. However, population genetic structure within the species is currently unknown, but it could influence management decisions, such as brood source location. Leveraging a collaborative effort to collect and genotype specimens with 16 microsatellite loci, our objective was to characterize hierarchical population structure and genetic differentiation of the Shoal Bass across its native range, including an examination of structuring mechanisms, such as relatedness and inbreeding levels. Specimens identified as Shoal Bass were collected from 13 distinct sites (N ranged from 17 to 209 per location) and were then taxonomically screened to remove nonnative congeners and hybrids (pure Shoal Bass N ranged from 13 to 183 per location). Our results revealed appreciable population structure, with five distinct Shoal Bass populations identifiable at the uppermost hierarchical level that generally corresponded with natural geographic features and anthropogenic barriers. Substructure was recovered within several of these populations, wherein differences appeared related to spatial isolation and local population dynamics. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that 3.6% of the variation in our data set was accounted for among three larger river drainages, but substructure within each river drainage also explained an additional 8.9% of genetic variation, demonstrating that management at a scale lower than the river drainage level would likely best conserve genetic diversity. Results provide a population genetic framework that can inform future management decisions, such as brood source location, so that genetic diversity within and among populations is

  8. From stripe to slab confinement for DNA linearization in nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Peter; Benkova, Zuzana; Namer, Pavol

    We investigate suggested advantageous analysis in the linearization experiments with macromolecules confined in a stripe-like channel using Monte Carlo simulations. The enhanced chain extension in a stripe that is due to significant excluded volume interactions between monomers in two dimensions weakens on transition to experimentally feasible slit-like channel. Based on the chain extension-confinement strength dependence and the structure factor behavior for the chain in stripe we infer the excluded volume regime typical for two-dimensional systems. On transition to the slab geometry, the advantageous chain extension decreases and the Gaussian regime is observed for not very long semiflexible chains. The evidence for pseudo-ideality in confined chains is based on indicators such as the extension curves, variation of the extension with the persistence length or the structure factor. The slab behavior is observed when the stripe (originally of monomer thickness) reaches the thickness larger than cca 10nm in the third dimension. This maximum height of the slab to retain the advantage of the stripe is very low and this have implication for DNA linearization experiments. The presented analysis, however, has a broader relevance for confined polymers. Support from Slovak R&D Agency (SRDA-0451-11) is acknowledged.

  9. Coarsening of stripe patterns: variations with quench depth and scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ashwani K; Kumar, Deepak

    2015-02-01

    The coarsening of stripe patterns when the system is evolved from random initial states is studied by varying the quench depth ε, which is a measure of distance from the transition point of the stripe phase. The dynamics of the growth of stripe order, which is characterized by two length scales, depends on the quench depth. The growth exponents of the two length scales vary continuously with ε. The decay exponents for free energy, stripe curvature, and densities of defects like grain boundaries and dislocations also show similar variation. This implies a breakdown of the standard picture of nonequilibrium dynamical scaling. In order to understand the variations with ε we propose an additional scaling with a length scale dependent on ε. The main contribution to this length scale comes from the "pinning potential," which is unique to systems where the order parameter is spatially periodic. The periodic order parameter gives rise to an ε-dependent potential, which can pin defects like grain boundaries, dislocations, etc. This additional scaling provides a compact description of variations of growth exponents with quench depth in terms of just one exponent for each of the length scales. The relaxation of free energy, stripe curvature, and the defect densities have also been related to these length scales. The study is done at zero temperature using Swift-Hohenberg equation in two dimensions.

  10. Bioenergetics models to estimate numbers of larval lampreys consumed by smallmouth bass in Elk Creek, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Luke; Heck, Michael; Kowalski, Brandon M; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Coates, Kelly C.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2017-01-01

    Nonnative fishes have been increasingly implicated in the decline of native fishes in the Pacific Northwest. Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu were introduced into the Umpqua River in southwest Oregon in the early 1960s. The spread of Smallmouth Bass throughout the basin coincided with a decline in counts of upstream-migrating Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus. This suggested the potential for ecological interactions between Smallmouth Bass and Pacific Lampreys, as well as freshwater-resident Western Brook Lampreys Lampetra richardsoni. To evaluate the potential effects of Smallmouth Bass on lampreys, we sampled diets of Smallmouth Bass and used bioenergetics models to estimate consumption of larval lampreys in a segment of Elk Creek, a tributary to the lower Umpqua River. We captured 303 unique Smallmouth Bass (mean: 197 mm and 136 g) via angling in July and September. We combined information on Smallmouth Bass diet and energy density with other variables (temperature, body size, growth, prey energy density) in a bioenergetics model to estimate consumption of larval lampreys. Larval lampreys were found in 6.2% of diet samples, and model estimates indicated that the Smallmouth Bass we captured consumed 925 larval lampreys in this 2-month study period. When extrapolated to a population estimate of Smallmouth Bass in this segment, we estimated 1,911 larval lampreys were consumed between July and September. Although the precision of these estimates was low, this magnitude of consumption suggests that Smallmouth Bass may negatively affect larval lamprey populations.

  11. Roadway striping productivity data analysis for INDOT Greenfield and Crawfordsville districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of the SPR3650 project is to provide an accurate overview of striping operation so that INDOT finds a way to : effectively save significant investment for purchasing new striping trucks in near future without compromising roadwa...

  12. Variation in the timing of reproduction of the four-striped field mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in the timing of reproduction of the four-striped field mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio , in ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... We used the four-striped field mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio (Sparrmann, 1784), to test the hypothesis that ...

  13. Distinguishing Patterns of Charge Order: Stripes or Checkerboards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.A.

    2010-04-06

    In two dimensions, quenched disorder always rounds transitions involving the breaking of spatial symmetries so, in practice, it can often be difficult to infer what form the symmetry breaking would take in the 'ideal,' zero disorder limit. We discuss methods of data analysis which can be useful for making such inferences, and apply them to the problem of determining whether the preferred order in the cuprates is 'stripes' or 'checkerboards.' In many cases we show that the experiments clearly indicate stripe order, while in others (where the observed correlation length is short), the answer is presently uncertain.

  14. Spatiotemporal patterns and habitat associations of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) invading salmon-rearing habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Olden, Julian D.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2012-01-01

    1. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) have been widely introduced to fresh waters throughout the world to promote recreational fishing opportunities. In the Pacific Northwest (U.S.A.), upstream range expansions of predatory bass, especially into subyearling salmon-rearing grounds, are of increasing conservation concern, yet have received little scientific inquiry. Understanding the habitat characteristics that influence bass distribution and the timing and extent of bass and salmon overlap will facilitate the development of management strategies that mitigate potential ecological impacts of bass.2. We employed a spatially continuous sampling design to determine the extent of bass and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) sympatry in the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), a free-flowing river system in the Columbia River Basin that contains an upstream expanding population of non-native bass. Extensive (i.e. 53 km) surveys were conducted over 2 years and during an early and late summer period of each year, because these seasons provide a strong contrast in the river’s water temperature and flow condition. Classification and regression trees were applied to determine the primary habitat correlates of bass abundance at reach and channel-unit scales.3. Our study revealed that bass seasonally occupy up to 22% of the length of the mainstem NFJDR where subyearling Chinook salmon occur, and the primary period of sympatry between these species was in the early summer and not during peak water temperatures in late summer. Where these species co-occurred, bass occupied 60–76% of channel units used by subyearling Chinook salmon in the early summer and 28–46% of the channel units they occupied in the late summer. Because these rearing salmon were well below the gape limitation of bass, this overlap could result in either direct predation or sublethal effects of bass on subyearling Chinook salmon. The upstream extent of bass increased 10–23

  15. 2136-IJBCS-Article-Cesar Bassène

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    ... la flore des champs. REFERENCES. Bâ AT, Noba K. 2001. Science et changements planétaires. Sécheresse. 12(3) : 149-155. Bassène C. 2014. La flore adventice dans les cultures de maïs (Zea mays L.) dans le sud du Bassin Arachidier : structure, nuisibilité et mise au point d'un itinéraire de désherbage. Thèse Unique.

  16. Hexagon and stripe patterns in dielectric barrier streamer discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lifang; He Yafeng; Yin Zengqian; Chai Zhifang

    2004-01-01

    We present a specially designed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system for the study of pattern formation. Hexagon and stripe patterns have been observed in a streamer discharge in a DBD for the first time. The phase diagram of pattern types as a function of applied voltage is given

  17. Stripe domains in Fe-Zr-N nanocrystalline films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craus, C.B.; Craus, C.B.; Chezan, A.R.; Siekman, Martin Herman; Lodder, J.C.; Boerma, D.O.; Niesen, L.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the transition between a magnetic stripe domain structure and in-plane orientation of the spins, as a function of nitrogen content, for 500nm thick Fe-Zr-N films prepared by DC reactive sputtering on glass substrates. The saturation field decreases and the saturation magnetization

  18. Intervertebral Disk Disease in 3 Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krauss, M.W.; Benato, L.; McDonnell, J.; Schoemaker, N.J.; Westerhof, I.; Bronson, E.; Gielen, I.; van Caelenberg, A.; Hellebuyck, T.; Meij, B.P.; de Decker, S.

    Objective To describe diagnostic findings, surgical technique, and outcome in 3 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) with a history of paraparesis. Study Design Case series. Animals Skunks (n = 3) with paraparesis. Methods Neurologic examination revealed upper motor neuron disease (T2–L2) in 2 skunks

  19. Stripe domains and magnetoresistance in thermally deposited nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, P.D.; Stern, N.P.; Snowden, D.S.; Kappus, B.A.; Checkelsky, J.G.; Harberger, S.S.; Fusello, A.M.; Eckert, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    We report a study of the domain structure and magnetoresistance of thermally deposited nickel films. For films thicker than 17 nm, we observe striped domains with period varying with film thickness as a power law with exponent 0.21±0.02 up to 120 nm thickness. There is a negative magnetoresistance for fields out of the plane

  20. Stripe domains and magnetoresistance in thermally deposited nickel films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, P. D.; Stern, N. P.; Snowden, D. S.; Kappus, B. A.; Checkelsky, J. G.; Harberger, S. S.; Fusello, A. M.; Eckert, J. C.

    2004-05-01

    We report a study of the domain structure and magnetoresistance of thermally deposited nickel films. For films thicker than 17nm, we observe striped domains with period varying with film thickness as a power law with exponent 0.21+/-0.02 up to 120nm thickness. There is a negative magnetoresistance for fields out of the plane.

  1. Stripe domains and magnetoresistance in thermally deposited nickel films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, P.D. E-mail: sparks@hmc.edu; Stern, N.P.; Snowden, D.S.; Kappus, B.A.; Checkelsky, J.G.; Harberger, S.S.; Fusello, A.M.; Eckert, J.C

    2004-05-01

    We report a study of the domain structure and magnetoresistance of thermally deposited nickel films. For films thicker than 17 nm, we observe striped domains with period varying with film thickness as a power law with exponent 0.21{+-}0.02 up to 120 nm thickness. There is a negative magnetoresistance for fields out of the plane.

  2. Leaf and stripe rust resistance among Ethiopian grown wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result indicated that 20 varieties and lines harbor resistance to the leaf rust and 26 to the stripe rust pathotypes showing infection types <2+. Twelve bread wheat varieties and lines (Et-13 A2, HAR 1407 [Tusie], HAR 1775 [Tura], HAR 1920, HAR 2192, HAR 2534, HAR 2536, HAR 2561, HAR 2563 and three durum lines ...

  3. Anatomical studies of the gastrointestinal tract of the striped sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the gross anatomical, morphometric features and histology of the gastrointestinal tract of the Striped Sand Snake (Psammophis sibilans). Ten snakes (five males and five females) were euthanized and dissected for the study. The gastrointestinal tract appeared as a straight tubular organ from oral ...

  4. Modulation of the innate immune responses in the striped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, most of the innate non-specific immune responses are inducible though they are constitutive of fish immune system exhibiting a basal level of activity even in the absence of pathogen challenge. Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, Experimental challenge, Innate immune response, Striped snakehead murrel ...

  5. Competitive bass anglers: a new concern in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Connor R; Watson, Shawna L; Perez, Jorge L; Estes, A Reed

    2017-09-01

    Competitive bass angling involves sport fishing against other anglers while targeting a species of fish known as the black basses. Due to the rapidly growing popularity of high school competitive bass angling in Alabama and the nature of the casting motion similar to that of overhead athletes, we sought to examine the prevalence of sports type injuries in this population. In spring 2016, an anonymous survey was distributed across two large scale competitive high school fishing tournaments, allowing for a broad sampling of anglers throughout the state of Alabama. Survey items included demographic information, relevant past medical history, and various pains associated with the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Results were recorded and analyzed electronically using Microsoft Excel and IBM SPSS statistical software. A total of 257 surveys were recorded. The response rate was 61%. The mean age of participating anglers was 15 ± 1.61 years. The majority (42%) of anglers fished year round. On average, anglers casted nearly 1,000 more times while competing versus fishing recreationally. Approximately 15% of anglers experienced shoulder, elbow, and wrist pain. The most common factors associated with pain included higher tournament cast counts, number of competitive years, number of tournaments/year, number of tournaments, and use of light weight lures. A large portion of high school competitive anglers experience upper extremity pain. Knowledge of angling factors associated with pain allow for the creation of a modifiable routine to help reduce pain in affected anglers and prevent pain in healthy anglers.

  6. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Dewetting of thin liquid films on chemically patterned substrates : front propatation along narrow lyophobic stripes and stripe arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasjen, B.J.; Gu, H.; Darhuber, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Using experiments and numerical simulations, we investigate the dewetting of thin liquid films on chemically patterned substrates. The patterns consist of long and narrow hydrophobic stripes, separated by larger hydrophilic domains. We characterize the morphology and dynamics of the dewetting front

  8. Distinct Nature of Static and Dynamic Magnetic Stripes in Cuprate Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, H.; Holm, S. L.; Lǎcǎtuşu, M.-E.; Rømer, A. T.; Bertelsen, M.; Boehm, M.; Toft-Petersen, R.; Grivel, J.-C.; Emery, S. B.; Udby, L.; Wells, B. O.; Lefmann, K.

    2018-01-01

    We present detailed neutron scattering studies of the static and dynamic stripes in an optimally doped high-temperature superconductor, La2 CuO4 +y . We observe that the dynamic stripes do not disperse towards the static stripes in the limit of vanishing energy transfer. Therefore, the dynamic stripes observed in neutron scattering experiments are not the Goldstone modes associated with the broken symmetry of the simultaneously observed static stripes, and the signals originate from different domains in the sample. These observations support real-space electronic phase separation in the crystal, where the static stripes in one phase are pinned versions of the dynamic stripes in the other, having slightly different periods. Our results explain earlier observations of unusual dispersions in underdoped La2 -xSrx CuO4 (x =0.07 ) and La2 -xBax CuO4 (x =0.095 ).

  9. Effect of dietary fat level on carcass traits and flesh quality of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax from mariculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the effect of the reduction of dietary fat on juvenile European sea bass nutritional value and quality traits. Fish were reared in floating cages (Trieste Gulf, Italy from July (11 to October (10. Two isoproteic diets were compared: LF (low fat, EE = 19.4% vs. HF (high fat, EE = 24.6%. No significantly different growth performance was observed. LF diet-fed fish were characterized by the reduction of celomatic fat (not edible fraction and by the increase in dressing percentage. The tested dietary fat level also affected both fillet and epiaxial white muscle proximate composition, resulting in a significantly lower fillet lipid concentration in LF diet-fed fish. Dietary treatment influenced cooked fillet colour and texture probably as a consequence of the different intramuscular fat deposition. Fillet from HF-fed fish, in fact, presented higher lightness (L* value and lower instrumental strengthness.

  10. 75 FR 17618 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Recreational Fishery; Emergency Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Analyst, (978) 281-9104. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Correction Rule NMFS published an emergency rule to... reconsider their previous recommendations regarding the Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) for black sea bass for the 2010 fishing year. The SSC concluded that the ABC for black sea bass could be increased from 2...

  11. Diet Overlap and Predation between Smallmouth Bass and Walleye in a North Temperate Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron P. Frey; Michael A. Bozek; Clayton J. Edwards; Steve P. Newman

    2003-01-01

    Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) diets from Big Crooked Lake, Wisconsin were examined to assess the degree of diet overlap and predation occurring between these species in an attempt to deternine whether walleye influence smallmouth bass recruitment, which is consistently low...

  12. Contract Req Detailed Design Report Version 1: A C-BASS Component Contract Req Detailed Design Report Version 1: A C-BASS Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGurin, Denis

    1999-01-01

    .... As part of the Corporate Business Application Software System (C-BASS) suite of work flow applications, Contract Req automates preparation of a requestor's procurement package as part of the contracting process for the U.S...

  13. Reproductive cycles of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in a cooling reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.H.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Annual reproductive cycles of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) collected in the heated area of a 1120-hectare reservoir receiving thermal effluent from the Savannah River Plant were similar to cycles from bass collected in unheated waters during 1969 and 1970. Average maximum monthly temperatures at the heated area exceeded those in unheated waters by greater than 10 0 C for the 2 years. Few monthly differences in gonosomatic indices were found between heated and unheated areas. Earlier attainment of maximum gonadal size and the presence of significantly larger juvenile bass at the heated area suggested that reproduction might be accelerated by thermal discharge. However, gonadal condition indicated that the reproductive period started in March and continued through April in both areas. Reproduction may have been advanced in some heated-area bass, although this was not obvious from overall changes in the reproductive cycles of bass from unheated areas. (auth)

  14. Bulk temperature measurement in thermally striped pipe flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemure, N.; Olvera, J.R.; Ruggles, A.E.

    1995-12-01

    The hot leg flows in some Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designs have a temperature distribution across the pipe cross-section. This condition is often referred to as a thermally striped flow. Here, the bulk temperature measurement of pipe flows with thermal striping is explored. An experiment is conducted to examine the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the external surface of the pipe to estimate the bulk temperature of the flow. Simple mixing models are used to characterize the development of the temperature profile in the flow. Simple averaging techniques and Backward Propagating Neural Net are used to predict bulk temperature from the external temperature measurements. Accurate bulk temperatures can be predicted. However, some temperature distributions in the flow effectively mask the bulk temperature from the wall and cause significant error in the bulk temperature predicted using this technique

  15. Extraction and characterisation of gelatin from the skin of striped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Functional properties of gelatin from skin of striped catfish with and without bleaching for 48 h by 5% H2O2 (w/v)) were studied. Gelatin from skin bleached with 5% H2O2 for 48 h showed the highest yield (16.18 g). Bleaching not only improved the colour of gelatin gel by increasing the L* (lightness)-value and decreasing ...

  16. NATURAL TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS OF A PRESTRESSED ORTHOTROPIC PLATE-STRIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorychev Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a new outlook at the boundary-value problem of natural vibrations of a homogeneous pre-stressed orthotropic plate-stripe. In the paper, the motion equation represents a new approximate hyperbolic equation (rather than a parabolic equation used in the majority of papers covering the same problem describing the vibration of a homogeneous orthotropic plate-stripe. The proposed research is based on newly derived boundary conditions describing the pin-edge, rigid, and elastic (vertical types of fixing, as well as the boundary conditions applicable to the unfixed edge of the plate. The paper contemplates the application of the Laplace transformation and a non-standard representation of a homogeneous differential equation with fixed factors. The article proposes a detailed representation of the problem of natural vibrations of a homogeneous orthotropic plate-stripe if rigidly fixed at opposite sides; besides, the article also provides frequency equations (no conclusions describing the plate characterized by the following boundary conditions: rigid fixing at one side and pin-edge fixing at the opposite side; pin-edge fixing at one side and free (unfixed other side; rigid fixing at one side and elastic fixing at the other side. The results described in the article may be helpful if applied in the construction sector whenever flat structural elements are considered. Moreover, specialists in solid mechanics and theory of elasticity may benefit from the ideas proposed in the article.

  17. Four types of neoplasms in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and observe four types of neoplasms on different parts (external and internal organs of an Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer. Methods: The sample was collected from local fish landing center (south east coast of India. Histopathology of normal and tumour tissues were analyzed. Results: A total of 83 tumour masses (neoplasm were recorded on the fish skin, also the neoplasms were recorded in internal organs of fish such as liver, stomach and ovary. Conclusions: Aetiology of such neoplasm’s are unknown, further more researches need to confirm the causative agent for this type of neoplasm.

  18. Microwave permeability of stripe patterned FeCoN thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yuping [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Yang, Yong, E-mail: tslyayo@nus.edu.sg [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Ma, Fusheng; Zong, Baoyu; Yang, Zhihong [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Ding, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic stripe patterns are of great importance for microwave applications owing to their highly tunable microwave permeability by adjusting the geometrical dimensions. In this work, stripe patterned FeCoN films with 160 nm thickness are fabricated by using standard UV photolithography. Their microwave permeability are investigated systematically via both experiment and micromagnetic simulation. The good agreement between experimental and simulation results suggests that stripe width is crucial for the microwave magnetic properties of the stripe pattern. It is demonstrated by simulation that with increasing stripe width from 1 to 80 µm the initial permeability shows a continuous growth from about 8–322, whiles the resonance frequency drops dramatically from 18.7 to 3.1 GHz at 4 µm gap size. Smaller gap size would result in slightly increased initial permeability due to larger magnetic volume ratio, accompanied by decreased resonance frequency because of stronger magnetostatic interaction. Moreover, the experimental investigation on stripe length effect indicates that the stripe length should be kept as long as possible to achieve uniform bulk resonance mode and high permeability value. Insufficient stripe length would result in low frequency edge mode and decayed bulk mode. This study could provide valuable guidelines on the selection of proper geometry dimensions of FeCoN stripe patterns for high frequency applications. - Highlights: • This work presents a systematic study on permeability of FeCoN stripe pattern. • Geometrical parameters of the stripe pattern are systematically optimized. • Several important conclusions has been obtained. • The results offer guideline on FeCoN stripe patterns for high frequency applications.

  19. Fitness Consequences of Boldness in Juvenile and Adult Largemouth Bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballew, Nicholas G; Mittelbach, Gary G; Scribner, Kim T

    2017-04-01

    To date, most studies investigating the relationship between personality traits and fitness have focused on a single measure of fitness (such as survival) at a specific life stage. However, many personality traits likely have multiple effects on fitness, potentially operating across different functional contexts and stages of development. Here, we address the fitness consequences of boldness, under seminatural conditions, across life stages and functional contexts in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Specifically, we report the effect of boldness on (1) juvenile survivorship in an outdoor pond containing natural prey and predators and (2) adult reproductive success in three outdoor ponds across three reproductive seasons (years). Juvenile survival was negatively affected by boldness, with bolder juveniles having a lower probability of survival than shyer juveniles. In contrast, bolder adult male bass had greater reproductive success than their shyer male counterparts. Female reproductive success was not affected by boldness. These findings demonstrate that boldness can affect fitness differently across life stages. Further, boldness was highly consistent across years and significantly heritable, which suggests that boldness has a genetic component. Thus, our results support theory suggesting that fitness trade-offs across life stages may contribute to the maintenance of personality variation within populations.

  20. Species differences in contaminants in fish on and adjacent to the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Campbell, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    Risks to humans and other organisms from consuming fish have become a national concern in the USA. In this paper, we examine the concentrations of 137 Cs, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium in three species of fish from two river reaches adjacent to the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. We were interested in whether there were species and locational differences in radiocesium and metal concentrations and whether concentrations were sufficiently high to pose a potential health risk to humans or other receptors. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) were significantly larger than white bass (M. chrysops), and crappie (Pomoxis spp.) were the smallest fish. Lead was significantly lower in striped bass, mercury was significantly higher in striped bass, and selenium was significantly higher in white bass compared to the other species. There were no other species differences in contaminants. White bass, the only species that was sufficiently abundant for a comparison, had significantly higher concentrations of cadmium, lead, and selenium in fillets from the Clinch River and significantly higher concentrations of mercury in fillets from Poplar Creek. The low concentrations of most contaminants in fish from the Clinch River do not appear to present a risk to humans or other consumers, although mercury concentrations in striped bass ranged as high as 0.79 ppm, well above the 0.5-ppm action level for human consumption of some US states

  1. Relationship of Soil Properties and Sugarcane Yields to Red Stripe in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard M; Grisham, Michael P; Warnke, Kathryn Z; Maggio, Jeri R

    2016-07-01

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form, which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of red stripe in the field and determine its effects on cane and sugar yields. Soil properties data, red stripe incidence, and sugarcane yields were all highly variable and were not randomly distributed in the field. Combined harvest data showed a negative correlation between yield components and red stripe incidence, with the strongest relationship between sucrose per metric ton and disease incidence. Red stripe incidence was positively correlated with several soil properties, including phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and calcium. Red stripe incidence also was found to increase with increasing nitrogen rate, with the greatest effects in heavy soils. Results also indicated that using red-stripe-infected cane as a seed source can significantly decrease shoot emergence, stalk population, and subsequent cane and sugar yields. These combined data suggest that red stripe disease can exhibit a highly variable rate of infection in commercial sugarcane fields and may also significantly decrease sugar yields.

  2. Microsatellite markers linked to the locus of the watermelon fruit stripe pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, R N C S; Santos, C A F; Dias, R C S; Alves, J C S F; Nogueira, T O

    2015-01-16

    Agronomic performance and external and internal appearance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit are important traits that should be taken into consideration during the development of a new cultivar, as well as being the principal identification elements used by the consumer, which are based on the external appearance and quality of the fruit. Externally, the fruit can be characterized in terms of the shape, the color of the lower rind, and the presence of grooves and stripes, the stripes can be classified as clearly defined or diffuse. The objective of this study was to identify microsatellite markers linked to the stripe pattern of watermelon fruit to support watermelon improvement programs, with the selection of this characteristic in the plantlet stage. F1 and F2 populations, result of a cross between the cultivars BRS Opara (clearly defined stripes) and Pérola (diffuse stripes), were phenotyped for their fruit stripe pattern. The CTAB 2X protocol was used for DNA extraction and 116 microsatellite markers were examined in a group of F2 plants that had fruit with well-defined stripes and fruit with diffuse stripes. The microsatellite loci MCPI_05 and MCPI_16 exhibited a linkage to the stripe pattern at a distance of 1.5 and 1.8 cM, respectively, with LOD scores of 39.28 and 38.11, respectively, which were located on chromosome six of the watermelon genome. These markers can be used in marker-assisted selection in watermelon improvement programs, by various research institutions.

  3. Physical Localization of a Locus from Agropyron cristatum Conferring Resistance to Stripe Rust in Common Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Song, Liqiang; Han, Haiming; Zhou, Shenghui; Zhang, Jinpeng; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

    2017-11-13

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici ( Pst ), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2 n = 28, PPPP), one of the wild relatives of wheat, exhibits resistance to stripe rust. In this study, wheat- A . cristatum 6P disomic addition line 4844-12 also exhibited resistance to stripe rust. To identify the stripe rust resistance locus from A . cristatum 6P, ten translocation lines, five deletion lines and the BC₂F₂ and BC₃F₂ populations of two wheat- A . cristatum 6P whole-arm translocation lines were tested with a mixture of two races of Pst in two sites during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017, being genotyped with genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and molecular markers. The result indicated that the locus conferring stripe rust resistance was located on the terminal 20% of 6P short arm's length. Twenty-nine 6P-specific sequence-tagged-site (STS) markers mapped on the resistance locus have been acquired, which will be helpful for the fine mapping of the stripe rust resistance locus. The stripe rust-resistant translocation lines were found to carry some favorable agronomic traits, which could facilitate their use in wheat improvement. Collectively, the stripe rust resistance locus from A . cristatum 6P could be a novel resistance source and the screened stripe rust-resistant materials will be valuable for wheat disease breeding.

  4. Zebra Stripes through the Eyes of Their Predators, Zebras, and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Melin

    Full Text Available The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras' primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight and 30 m (twilight zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebra's outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid pelage in masking body shape in woodlands, but the effect is stronger for humans than for predators. Zebras appear to be less able than humans to resolve stripes although they are better than their chief predators. In conclusion, compared to the uniform pelage of other sympatric herbivores it appears highly unlikely that stripes are a form of anti-predator camouflage.

  5. Population growth and within-plant distribution of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae on cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin D. Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and within-plant distribution of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae on cotton. The striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, is a widely distributed and polyphagous pest species, which naturally occurs on cotton plants in Brazil. This study evaluated the establishment and population growth as well as the within-plant distribution of F. virgata on four cotton cultivars: CNPA 7H (white fibers, BRS Verde, BRS Safira, and BRS Rubi (colored fibers. The experiment was conducted in a complete randomized design with four treatments (cultivars and 18 replications of each. Thus, cotton plants of each cultivar were infested with 100 newly hatched nymphs of F. virgata. The number of adult female mealybugs and the total number of mealybugs per plant were quantified, respectively, at 25 and 50 days after infestation. The developmental and pre-reproductive periods were also determined. Furthermore, we verified the distribution of F. virgata on the plant parts at 25 and 50 days after infestation. Ferrisia virgata showed similar growth of 412-fold in the four cotton cultivars studied. Also, the nymphs were spread on infested leaves; the secondgeneration nymphs were spread and established in all plant parts. Our results characterize F. virgata as having much potential as an important cotton pest in Brazil.

  6. Otolith Sr concentration analyzed by PIXE in Ariake estuary-dependent sea bass juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Taro; Arai, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Masaru; Yoshida, Koji

    1997-01-01

    Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) is a typical euryhaline marine fish and frequently migrates from salt to freshwater environments during early life stages. We hypothesized that strontium concentrations in the otolith could be a useful index to examine freshwater entry because of its lower concentration in freshwater. Otoliths of Japanese sea bass juveniles collected in the Chikugo river and estuary were analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) to see relationship between strontium concentration and ambient salinity. Strontium concentrations in otoliths of sea bass juveniles are significantly lower in the river samples than in brackish water samples. (author)

  7. Fermi-surface reconstruction by stripe order in cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Francis

    2012-02-01

    The origin of pairing in a superconductor resides in the underlying normal state. In the cuprate high-temperature superconductor YBCO, application of a magnetic field to suppress superconductivity reveals a ground state that appears to break the translational symmetry of the lattice, pointing to some density-wave order [1,2,3]. In another cuprate, Eu-LSCO, the onset of stripe order - a modulation of spin and charge densities - at low temperature is well established [4]. By a comparative study of thermoelectric transport in the cuprates YBCO and Eu-LSCO, we show that the two materials exhibit a very similar process of Fermi-surface reconstruction as a function of temperature and doping [5,6]. This strongly suggests that Fermi-surface reconstruction is caused by stripe order in both cases, compelling evidence that stripe order is a generic tendency of hole-doped cuprates.[4pt] Work done in collaboration with J. Chang, N. Doiron-Leyraud, E. Hassinger, R. Daou, D. LeBoeuf, M. Rondeau, B. J. Ramshaw, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, W. N. Hardy, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, I. Sheikin, L. Malone, C. Proust, K. Behnia and L. Taillefer.[4pt] [1] N. Doiron-Leyraud et al., Nature 447, 565 (2007).[0pt] [2] D. LeBoeuf et al., Nature 450, 533 (2007).[0pt] [3] D. LeBoeuf et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 054506 (2011).[0pt] [4] J. Fink et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 092503 (2011).[0pt] [5] J. Chang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 057005 (2010).[0pt] [6] F. Lalibert'e et al., Nat. Commun. 2, 432 (2011).

  8. Response to "Critical Assessment of the Evidence for Striped Nanoparticles".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Khac Ong

    Full Text Available Stirling et al., (10.1371/journal.pone.0108482 presented an analysis on some of our publications on the formation of stripe-like domains on mixed-ligand coated gold nanoparticles. The authors shed doubts on some of our results however no valid argument is provided against what we have shown since our first publication: scanning tunneling microscopy (STM images of striped nanoparticles show stripe-like domains that are independent of imaging parameters and in particular of imaging speed. We have consistently ruled out the presence of artifacts by comparing sets of images acquired at different tip speeds, finding invariance of the stipe-like domains. Stirling and co-workers incorrectly analyzed this key control, using a different microscope and imaging conditions that do not compare to ours. We show here data proving that our approach is rigorous. Furthermore, we never solely relied on image analysis to draw our conclusions; we have always used the chemical nature of the particles to assess the veracity of our images. Stirling et al. do not provide any justification for the spacing of the features that we find on nanoparticles: ~1 nm for mixed ligand particles and ~ 0.5 nm for homoligand particles. Hence our two central arguments remain unmodified: independence from imaging parameters and dependence on ligand shell chemical composition. The paper report observations on our STM images; none is a sufficient condition to prove that our images are artifacts. We thoroughly addressed issues related to STM artifacts throughout our microscopy work. Stirling et al. provide guidelines for what they consider good STM images of nanoparticles, such images are indeed present in our literature. They conclude that the evidences we provided to date are insufficient, this is a departure from one of the authors' previous article which concluded that our images were composed of artifacts. Given that four independent laboratories have reproduced our measurements and

  9. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy L Caldwell

    Full Text Available Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  10. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  11. Unfolding of Vortices into Topological Stripes in a Multiferroic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mostovoy, M.; Han, M. G.; Horibe, Y.; Aoki, T.; Zhu, Y.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2014-06-01

    Multiferroic hexagonal RMnO3 (R =rare earths) crystals exhibit dense networks of vortex lines at which six domain walls merge. While the domain walls can be readily moved with an applied electric field, the vortex cores so far have been impossible to control. Our experiments demonstrate that shear strain induces a Magnus-type force pulling vortices and antivortices in opposite directions and unfolding them into a topological stripe domain state. We discuss the analogy between this effect and the current-driven dynamics of vortices in superconductors and superfluids.

  12. Spatially correlated disorder in striped precursor magnetic modulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, Marcel; Castan, Teresa; LLoveras, Pol; Planes, Antoni; Saxena, Avadh

    2007-01-01

    We use a Ginzburg-Landau model that includes long-range dipolar interactions and spatially correlated quenched-in disorder coupled to the local magnetization to study the properties of the precursor magnetic modulations as a function of the characteristics of the disorder. We find that although the modulation pattern is very robust and does not depend on details of the pair correlation function G(r), the scaling behaviour of the characteristic length of the striped magnetic modulations depends on the behaviour of G(r) for small values of r

  13. Siim Nestor soovitab : Back2Bass Helsinki. Teenage Kicks / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    Soome trummi-ja-bassi klubi Back2Bass 28. septembril KuKu klubis Tallinnas. 28. sept. Von Krahlis toimuvast live-üritusest Teenage Kicks, kus ansambel Claire's Birthaday esitleb ka oma uut singlit "Do You Remember"

  14. Ocean acidification impacts on black sea bass and scup embryos, responses of finfish in laboratory experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and scup (Stenotomus chrysops) compose important recreational and commercial fisheries along the United States Atlantic coast....

  15. Calibration of the BASS acoustic current meter with carrageenan agar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A.T.; Williams, A.J.; Martini, M.

    1993-01-01

    The BASS current meter can measure currents down to the millimeter per second range. Due to the dependence of zero offset on pressure, determining a sensor referenced velocity requires accurate in situ zeroing of the meter. Previously, flow was restricted during calibration by placing plastic bags around the acoustic volume. In this paper, bacterial grade and carrageenan agars are used in the laboratory to create a zero flow condition during calibration and are shown to be acoustically transparent. Additionally, the results of open ocean and dockside carrageenan and plastic bag comparisons are presented. Carrageenan is shown to reliably provide a low noise, zero mean flow environment that is largely independent of ambient conditions. The improved zeros make millimeter per second accuracy possible under field conditions.

  16. Color Fringes Bordering Black Stripes at the Bottom of a Swimming Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Gonzalo; Rojas, Roberto; Slüsarenko, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We have observed a nice example of chromatic dispersion due to refraction in water, in the form of color fringes bordering the black stripes that exist at the bottom of a swimming pool. Here we give a qualitative description of the phenomenon, explaining the role of the black stripes and the dispersive index of refraction of water.

  17. Assessing the variability of Red Stripe Disease in Louisiana sugarcane using precision agriculture methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of r...

  18. Mapping genes for resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat landrace PI 480035

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikks. is an economically important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hexaploid spring wheat landrace PI 480035 was highly resistant to stripe rust in the field in Washington during 2011 and 2012. The objective of this resear...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of directors shall monitor planning and execution of the S&S business activities. 2. The S&S board of... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and Management...

  20. Estradiol-induced gene expression in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C.J.; Kroll, K.J.; Gross, T.G.; Denslow, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) and estrogen receptor (ER) gene expression levels were measured in largemouth bass to evaluate the activation of the ER-mediated pathway by estradiol (E2). Single injections of E2 ranging from 0.0005 to 5 mg/kg up-regulated plasma Vtg in a dose-dependent manner. Vtg and ER mRNAs were measured using partial cDNA sequences corresponding to the C-terminal domain for Vtg and the ligand-binding domain of ER?? sequences. After acute E2-exposures (2 mg/kg), Vtg and ER mRNAs and plasma Vtg levels peaked after 2 days. The rate of ER mRNA accumulation peaked 36-42 h earlier than Vtg mRNA. The expression window for ER defines the primary response to E2 in largemouth bass and that for Vtg a delayed primary response. The specific effect of E2 on other estrogen-regulated genes was tested during these same time windows using differential display RT-PCR. Specific up-regulated genes that are expressed in the same time window as Vtg were ERp72 (a membrane-bound disulfide isomerase) and a gene with homology to an expressed gene identified in zebrafish. Genes that were expressed in a pattern that mimics the ER include the gene for zona radiata protein ZP2, and a gene with homology to an expressed gene found in winter flounder. One gene for fibrinogen ?? was down-regulated and an unidentified gene was transiently up-regulated after 12 h of exposure and returned to basal levels by 48 h. Taken together these studies indicate that the acute molecular response to E2 involves a complex network of responses over time. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and Na+,K+ -ATPase in gills of striped bass, Morone saxatilis: effect of salinity and hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steffen; Jensen, Lars Nørholm; Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek

    2007-01-01

    -regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was stimulated by EGF but not affected by IGF-I. This study is the first to report a branchial EGF response and to demonstrate a functional ERK 1/2 pathway in the teleost gill. In conclusion, CFTR and Na(+),K(+) -ATPase are differentially regulated by salinity and hormones in gills...

  2. Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation as a means to recover protein isolate from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its physicochemical properties in a nutraceutical seafood product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-06-13

    Excessive dietary intake of Na (i.e., NaCl) contributes to hypertension, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Normally, NaOH and HCl are used to dissolve and precipitate, respectively, fish muscle proteins in isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP), therefore contributing to increased Na content in the recovered fish protein isolates (FPI). Substitution of NaOH with KOH may decrease the Na content in FPI and, thus, allow development of reduced-Na seafood products. In this study, FPI was recovered with ISP using NaOH or KOH. In order to develop a nutraceutical seafood product, the FPI was extracted with NaCl or KCl-based salt substitute and subjected to cold- or heat-gelation. In addition, standard nutraceutical additives (ω-3 fatty acids-rich oil and dietary fiber) along with titanium dioxide (TiO2) were added to FPI. Color, texture, dynamic rheology, Na and K content, and lipid oxidation of the FPI gels were compared to commercial Alaska pollock surimi gels. FPI gels had greater (p color properties (L*a*b*), and generally better textural properties when compared to surimi gels. Although the ISP-recovered FPI and surimi developed similar final gel elasticity, the proteins in FPI and surimi had different gelation pattern. A reduction (p fish for subsequent development of nutraceutical seafood products tailored for reduction of diet-driven cardiovascular disease.

  3. Female morphology of Philometra rubra (Nematoda: Philometridae), a parasite of the abdominal cavity of the striped sea-bass Morone saxatilis (Moronidae, Perciformes) in the USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Dyková, Iva; de Buron, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2009), s. 64-66 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Philometra * Morone * USA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.266, year: 2009

  4. Mice as stowaways? Colonization history of Danish striped field mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Jacobsen, Magnus; Vedel-Smith, Christina; Jensen, Thomas Secher

    2017-07-01

    Species from the steppe region of Eastern Europe likely colonized northwestern Europe in connection with agriculture after 6500 BP. The striped field mouse ( Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1783), is a steppe-derived species often found in human crops. It is common on the southern Danish islands of Lolland and Falster, which have been isolated from mainland Europe since approximately 10 300-8000 BP. Thus, this species could have been brought in with humans in connection with agriculture, or it could be an earlier natural invader. We sequenced 86 full mitochondrial genomes from the northwestern range of the striped field mouse, analysed phylogenetic relationships and estimated divergence time. The results supported human-induced colonization of Denmark in the Subatlantic or Subboreal period. A newly discovered population from Central Jutland in Denmark diverged from Falster approximately 100-670 years ago, again favouring human introduction. One individual from Sweden turned out to be a recent introduction from Central Jutland. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Analysis of Yellow Striped Mutants of Zea mays Reveals Novel Loci Contributing to Iron Deficiency Chlorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chan-Rodriguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The micronutrient iron (Fe is essential for photosynthesis, respiration, and many other processes, but it is only sparingly soluble in aqueous solution, making adequate acquisition by plants a serious challenge. Fe is a limiting factor for plant growth on approximately 30% of the world’s arable lands. Moreover, Fe deficiency in humans is a global health issue, affecting 1.62 billion people, or about 25% of the world’s population. It is imperative that we gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that plants use to regulate iron homeostasis, since these will be important targets for future biofortification and crop improvement strategies. Grasses and non-grasses have evolved independent mechanisms for primary iron uptake from the soil. The grasses, which include most of the world’s staple grains, have evolved a distinct ‘chelation’ mechanism to acquire iron from the soil. Strong iron chelators called phytosiderophores (PSs are synthesized by grasses and secreted into the rhizosphere where they bind and solubilize Fe(III. The Fe(III-PS complex is then taken up into root cells via transporters specific for the Fe(III-PS complex. In this study, 31 novel, uncharacterized striped maize mutants available through the Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center (MGCSC were analyzed to determine whether their mutant phenotypes are caused by decreased iron. Many of these proved to be either pale yellow or white striped mutants. Complementation tests were performed by crossing the MGCSC mutants to ys1 and ys3 reference mutants. This allowed assignment of 10 ys1 alleles and 4 ys3 alleles among the novel mutants. In addition, four ys∗ mutant lines were identified that are not allelic to either ys1 or ys3. Three of these were characterized as being non-allelic to each other and as having low iron in leaves. These represent new genes involved in iron acquisition by maize, and future cloning of these genes may reveal novel aspects of the grass iron

  6. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Use of the White Amur for Aquatic Plant Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    the body cavities. Curvature of the spine can Black Bass Act (16 U.S.C. 856-856). This result from imbalanced diets in some areas. law, which supports... Malaysian Aquwculture Joural frequently publish papers on the white Proceeding. of te Indo-PaW Fisheries Council amur (Table Al). Publications which...prepared diets . Data on plant consumption are found in The following popular articles present Woynarovich (1968), Vietmeyer (1976) and positive and

  7. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Jump to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Donald J. Trump Get in Touch Home Briefing Room From the ... For All Americans The Administration The Administration President Donald J. Trump Vice President Mike Pence First Lady Melania Trump ...

  8. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupir, Craig A.; Brown, Michael L.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    2000-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited information exists on species interactions in the northern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assemblages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior lakes within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Percentages of empty stomachs were variable for largemouth bass (38-54%) and northern pike (34.7-66.7%). Fishes (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens) comprised greater than 60% (mean percent mass, MPM) of the northern pike diet during all seasons in both allopatric and sympatric assemblages. Aquatic insects (primarily Odonata and Hemiptera) were important in the diets of largemouth bass in all communities (0.0-79.7 MPM). Although largemouth bass were observed in the diet of northern pike, largemouth bass apparently did not prey on northern pike. Seasonal differences were observed in the proportion of aquatic insects (P = 0.010) and fishes (P = 0.023) in the diets of northern pike and largemouth bass. Based on three food categories, jackknifed classifications correctly classified 77 and 92% of northern pike and largemouth bass values, respectively. Percent resource overlap values were biologically significant (greater than 60%) during at least one season in each sympatric assemblage, suggesting some diet overlap.

  9. Magnetic stripes in the UCoGe superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Pablo de la [Departemento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-542, 04510 Mexico DF, Mexico and Institute de Investigacion en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia (Mexico); Navarro, O, E-mail: delamora@unam.m [Instituto de Investigacion en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-360, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    The magnetic superconductor UCoGe is analyzed with an electronic structure package, spin-orbit coupling and intra-atomic repulsion (via Hubbard U{sub H}) were included. The possibility of an antiferromagnetic configuration is studied, but it is found to be unstable, also the non-collinear magnetization seems to be ruled out. The magnetization is given mainly by the Co-atoms with M = 0.6 mu{sub B}/f.u. The U-atoms have two magnetic moments; M = 0.07 and 0.32 mu{sub B}/f.u. arranged in an alternated planes along the b-direction forming magnetic stripes.

  10. AlGaInAs narrow stripe selective growth on substrates patterned with different mask designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, W; Pan, J Q; Yang, H; Hou, L P; Zhou, F; Zhao, L J; Zhu, H L; Wang, W

    2006-01-01

    We have performed a narrow stripe selective growth of oxide-free AlGaInAs waveguides on InP substrates patterned with pairs of SiO 2 mask stripes under optimized growth conditions. The mask stripe width varied from 0 to 40 μm, while the window region width between a pair of mask stripes was fixed at 1.5, 2.5 or 3.5 μm. Flat and smooth AlGaInAs waveguides covered by specific InP layers are successfully grown on substrates patterned with different mask designs. The thickness enhancement ratio and the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the AlGaInAs narrow stripe waveguides are strongly dependent on the mask stripe width and the window region width. In particular, a large PL wavelength shift of 79 nm and a PL FWHM of less than 64 meV are obtained simultaneously with a small mask stripe width varying from 0 to 40 μm when the window region width is 1.5 μm. We present some possible interpretations of the experimental observations in considering both the migration effect from a masked region and the lateral vapour diffusion effect

  11. Striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Xianjun

    2011-01-01

    Research Highlights: → We investigate striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs). → For the single-impurity and two-impurity cases, modulated checkerboard pattern and stripe-like structures are induced. → When more magnetic impurities are inserted, more complex modulated structures could be induced, including rectilinear and right-angled stripes and quantum-corral-like structures. → Impurities could induce complex striped morphologies in DSCs. - Abstract: We study striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs) near optimal doping by self-consistently solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations based on the t - t' - U - V model. For the single-impurity case, it is found that the stable ground state is a modulated checkerboard pattern. For the two-impurity case, the stripe-like structures in order parameters are induced due to the impurity-pinning effect. The modulations of DSC and charge orders share the same period of four lattice constants (4a), which is half the period of modulations in the coexisting spin order. Interestingly, when three or more impurities are inserted, the impurities could induce more complex striped morphologies due to quantum interference. Further experiments of magnetic impurity substitution in DSCs are expected to check these results.

  12. Juvenile Chinook Salmon mortality in a Snake River Reservoir: Smallmouth Bass predation revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2018-01-01

    Predation by nonnative fishes has been identified as a contributing factor in the decline of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River basin. We examined the diet composition of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu and estimated the consumption and predation loss of juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Lower Granite Reservoir on the Snake River. We examined 4,852 Smallmouth Bass stomachs collected from shoreline habitats during April–September 2013–2015. Chinook Salmon were the second most commonly consumed fish by all size‐classes of Smallmouth Bass (≥150 mm TL) throughout the study. Over the 3 years studied, we estimated that a total of 300,373 Chinook Salmon were consumed by Smallmouth Bass in our 22‐km study area, of which 97% (291,884) were subyearlings (age 0) based on length frequency data. A majority of the loss (61%) occurred during June, which coincided with the timing of hatchery releases of subyearling fall Chinook Salmon. Compared to an earlier study, mean annual predation loss increased more than 15‐fold from 2,670 Chinook Salmon during 1996–1997 to 41,145 Chinook Salmon during 2013–2015 (in reaches that could be compared), despite lower contemporary Smallmouth Bass abundances. This increase can be explained in part by increases in Smallmouth Bass consumption rates, which paralleled increases in subyearling Chinook Salmon densities—an expected functional response by an opportunistic consumer. Smallmouth Bass are currently significant predators of subyearling Chinook Salmon in Lower Granite Reservoir and could potentially be a large source of unexplained mortality.

  13. Habitat selection and overlap of Atlantic salmon and smallmouth bass juveniles in nursery streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, G.; Coghlan, S.M.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Trial, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduced smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu have invaded much of the historic freshwater habitat of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in North America, yet little is known about the ecological interactions between the two species. We investigated the possibility of competition for habitat between age-0 Atlantic salmon and age-0 and age-1 smallmouth bass by means of in situ observations and a mesocosm experiment. We used snorkel observation to identify the degree and timing of overlap in habitat use in our in situ observations and to describe habitat shifts by Atlantic salmon in the presence of smallmouth bass in our mesocosm experiments. In late July 2008, we observed substantial overlap in the depths and mean water column velocities used by both species in sympatric in situ conditions and an apparent shift by age-0 Atlantic salmon to shallower water that coincided with the period of high overlap. In the mesocosm experiments, we detected no overlap or habitat shifts by age-0 Atlantic salmon in the presence age-1 smallmouth bass and low overlap and no habitat shifts of Atlantic salmon and age-0 smallmouth bass in fall 2009. In 2009, summer floods with sustained high flows and low temperatures resulted in the nearly complete reproductive failure of the smallmouth bass in our study streams, and we did not observe a midsummer habitat shift by Atlantic salmon similar to that seen in 2008. Although this prevented us from replicating our 2008 experiments under similar conditions, the virtual year-class failure of smallmouth bass itself is enlightening. We suggest that future studies incorporate the effects of varying temperature and discharge to determine how abiotic factors affect the interactions between these species and thus mediate the outcomes of potential competition.

  14. PERIODIC VARIABILITY OF LOW-MASS STARS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, A. C.; Hawley, S. L.; Ivezic, Z.; Kowalski, A. F.; Sesar, B.; Bochanski, J. J.; West, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a catalog of periodic stellar variability in the 'Stripe 82' region of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. After aggregating and re-calibrating catalog-level data from the survey, we ran a period-finding algorithm (Supersmoother) on all point-source light curves. We used color selection to identify systems that are likely to contain low-mass stars, in particular M dwarfs and white dwarfs. In total, we found 207 candidates, the vast majority of which appear to be in eclipsing binary systems. The catalog described in this paper includes 42 candidate M dwarf/white dwarf pairs, four white dwarf pairs, 59 systems whose colors indicate they are composed of two M dwarfs and whose light-curve shapes suggest they are in detached eclipsing binaries, and 28 M dwarf systems whose light-curve shapes suggest they are in contact binaries. We find no detached systems with periods longer than 3 days, thus the majority of our sources are likely to have experienced orbital spin-up and enhanced magnetic activity. Indeed, 26 of 27 M dwarf systems that we have spectra for show signs of chromospheric magnetic activity, far higher than the 24% seen in field stars of the same spectral type. We also find binaries composed of stars that bracket the expected boundary between partially and fully convective interiors, which will allow the measurement of the stellar mass-radius relationship across this transition. The majority of our contact systems have short orbital periods, with small variance (0.02 days) in the sample near the observed cutoff of 0.22 days. The accumulation of these stars at short orbital period suggests that the process of angular momentum loss, leading to period evolution, becomes less efficient at short periods. These short-period systems are in a novel regime for studying the effects of orbital spin-up and enhanced magnetic activity, which are thought to be the source of discrepancies between mass-radius predictions and measurements of these properties in eclipsing

  15. Magnonic quantum spin Hall state in the zigzag and stripe phases of the antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Hoon; Chung, Suk Bum; Park, Kisoo; Park, Je-Geun

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the topological property of magnon bands in the collinear magnetic orders of zigzag and stripe phases for the antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice and identified Berry curvature and symmetry constraints on the magnon band structure. Different symmetries of both zigzag and stripe phases lead to different topological properties, in particular, the magnon bands of the stripe phase being disentangled with a finite Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) term with nonzero spin Chern number. This is corroborated by calculating the spin Nernst effect. Our study establishes the existence of a nontrivial magnon band topology for all observed collinear antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattices in the presence of the DM term.

  16. Magnetic stripes and holes: Complex domain patterns in perforated films with weak perpendicular anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Valdés-Bango

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal antidot arrays have been patterned on weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy NdCo films by e-beam lithography and lift off. Domain structure has been characterized by Magnetic Force Microscopy at remanence. On a local length scale, of the order of stripe pattern period, domain configuration is controlled by edge effects within the stripe pattern: stripe domains meet the hole boundary at either perpendicular or parallel orientation. On a longer length scale, in-plane magnetostatic effects dominate the system: clear superdomains are observed in the patterned film with average in-plane magnetization along the easy directions of the antidot array, correlated over several antidot array cells.

  17. Magnetic stripes and holes: Complex domain patterns in perforated films with weak perpendicular anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Bango, F.; Vélez, M.; Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Alameda, J. M.; Martín, J. I.

    2017-05-01

    Hexagonal antidot arrays have been patterned on weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy NdCo films by e-beam lithography and lift off. Domain structure has been characterized by Magnetic Force Microscopy at remanence. On a local length scale, of the order of stripe pattern period, domain configuration is controlled by edge effects within the stripe pattern: stripe domains meet the hole boundary at either perpendicular or parallel orientation. On a longer length scale, in-plane magnetostatic effects dominate the system: clear superdomains are observed in the patterned film with average in-plane magnetization along the easy directions of the antidot array, correlated over several antidot array cells.

  18. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  19. Sound of Paddle Wheel on Sea Bass Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafri Din

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is sound effect for brackish water for Sea bass (Cynoscion nobilis. Breeding farm 25x100m, 2m of depth, and 6 paddle wheels which generate the sound are available for research. Sound profile has been measured to investigate the amplitude at various measurement points at various depths by using Cetacean hydrophone C304. The output of hydrophone has been analyzed by using SpectraPlus software. For the second measurement, two cages which size 3x3m have been used for life fish habitat. Then, fish put in the edge cage (20, center cage (20, and out of cage (12500. Sound profile has been measured for position-based (edge/center cage, time-based (morning/noon/evening, and point-based. Time series, spectrum frequency, and phase have been analysis. Fish growth progress has been monthly measured at every cage. Fish in the cage is growth as linearly, while fish growth for out of cage is exponentially. Size and weight of fish in the both cages is less than out of cage. This research concludes that sound have no significantly effect for fish growth. Limited mobility to look for food and stress are more influences to fish growth than sound effect.

  20. Electrofishing capture probability of smallmouth bass in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    Abundance estimation is an integral part of understanding the ecology and advancing the management of fish populations and communities. Mark-recapture and removal methods are commonly used to estimate the abundance of stream fishes. Alternatively, abundance can be estimated by dividing the number of individuals sampled by the probability of capture. We conducted a mark-recapture study and used multiple repeated-measures logistic regression to determine the influence of fish size, sampling procedures, and stream habitat variables on the cumulative capture probability for smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in two eastern Oklahoma streams. The predicted capture probability was used to adjust the number of individuals sampled to obtain abundance estimates. The observed capture probabilities were higher for larger fish and decreased with successive electrofishing passes for larger fish only. Model selection suggested that the number of electrofishing passes, fish length, and mean thalweg depth affected capture probabilities the most; there was little evidence for any effect of electrofishing power density and woody debris density on capture probability. Leave-one-out cross validation showed that the cumulative capture probability model predicts smallmouth abundance accurately. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  1. Maternally transferred mercury in wild largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Dana K; Aday, D Derek; Rice, James A; Cope, W Gregory

    2013-07-01

    Maternal transfer of mercury in fish represents a potential route of elimination for adult females and a risk to developing embryos. To better quantify maternal transfer, we measured Hg in female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) muscle and eggs from six waterbodies. Mercury in eggs from two waterbodies exceeded a US federal screening level (0.3 μg g(-1)) and was likely high enough to cause adverse reproductive effects. We found a curvilinear relationship between female and egg Hg. Fish with 0.37 μg g(-1) showed a direct relationship between egg and muscle Hg (Log10 egg Hg = -1.03 + 1.18 * log10 muscle tissue Hg + 2.15 * (log10 muscle tissue Hg + 0.35)(2)). We also report higher maternal transfer (0.2-13.2%) and higher ratios of egg to muscle tissue Hg (4-52%) and egg to whole body Hg concentrations (7-116%) than previously observed for teleost fish. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Embryonic development of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Patricia; Sucré, Elliott; Santos, Raphaël; Leclère, Jeremy; Charmantier, Guy; Castille, René

    2012-06-01

    The embryonic development of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax during the endotrophic period is discussed. An 8 cells stage, not reported for other studied species, results from two rapid successive cleavages. Blastula occurs at the eighth division when the embryo is made of 128 cells. During gastrulation, the infolded blastoderm creates the endomesoblastic layer. The Kupffer's vesicle is reported to drive the left/right patterning of brain, heart and digestive tract. Heart formation starts at 8 pairs of somites, differentiation of myotomes and sclerotomes starts at the stage 18 pairs of somites; main parts of the digestive tract are entirely formed at 25 pairs of somites. At 28 pairs of somites, a rectal region is detected, however, the digestive tube is closed at both ends, the jaw appears the fourth day after hatching, but the mouth is not opened before the fifth day. Although cardiac beating and blood circulation are observed, gills are not reported in newly hatched individuals; eye melanization appears concomitant with exotrophic behavior.

  3. Power output from Tage Basse's Wave Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossen, E.A.; Mikkelsen, R.

    2000-10-01

    Tage Basse's Wave Turbine is a floating, slack moored device, placed in deep water. Via a long vertical shaft a Wells turbine is connected to a circular horizontal plate, below the turbine. The plate is in still water, preventing the device from moving up and down in the waves. At the top end of the shaft there is a float containing the power take off. The efficiency was measured to 5.1 % as an average over the year. This is measured with a rigid suspension of the turbine. If the bottom plate, in the floating version, is designed properly the result is still applicable. One reason for the large increase in efficiency shown could be that when the vertical kinetic energy in the wave is tapped by the turbine, part of the potential energy in the wave is transformed into vertical kinetic energy and is then accessible to the turbine. Turbine efficiency might increase in a full-scale device due to more favorable Reynolds number. Reynolds number in the model tests is approx. 80,000. (EHS)

  4. Population trends of smallmouth bass in the upper Colorado River basin with an evaluation of removal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, André R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Hawkins, John A.; Bestgen, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu were rare in the upper Colorado River basin until the early 1990’s when their abundance dramatically increased in the Yampa River sub-basin. Increased abundance was due primarily to colonization from Elkhead Reservoir, which was rapidly drawn down twice, first to make improvements to the dam (1992) and a second time for reservoir expansion (2005), and allowed escapement of resident bass to the river through an unscreened outlet. Elkhead Reservoir is located on Elkhead Creek, a tributary of the Yampa River. The rapid Elkhead Reservoir drawdown in 1992 was followed by a period of drought years with low, early runoff in the Yampa River sub-basin that benefitted smallmouth bass reproduction. This combination of factors allowed smallmouth bass to establish a self-sustaining population in the Yampa River. Subsequently, successful recruitment allowed smallmouth bass to disperse upstream and downstream in the Yampa River and eventually move into the downstream Green River. Smallmouth bass were also likely introduced, by unknown means, into the upper Colorado River and have since dispersed in this sub-basin. The rapid increase of smallmouth bass in the upper Colorado River basin overlapped with significant reductions in native fish populations in some locations. The threat to these native fishes initiated intensive mechanical removal of smallmouth bass by the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program.In general, three factors explain fluctuating patterns in smallmouth bass density in the upper Colorado River basin in the last decade: reductions due to electrofishing removal, bass recovery after exploitation due to recruitment and immigration, and changes due to environmental factors not related to electrofishing and other management actions. Our analyses indicated that smallmouth bass densities were substantially reduced in most years by 7 electrofishing removal efforts. Less often, but dramatically in some cases

  5. Gamma irradiation prolongs the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L) storage and delays the lipids membrane degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkallah, Insaf; Mahjoub, Abdelmajid; Cheour, F.

    2005-01-01

    Sea bass have been submitted to gamma rays radiation at doses 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 KGy at 0,087KGY/min rate and stored during 21 days at 1 0 C to evaluate the effects on the development of microorganisms as well as on the conservation and the degradation of membranes lipids Microbiological analysis has revealed only the presence of mesophils germs in muscles which are totally eliminated at dose 4 KGy. The presence of psychrophiles, halophiles, coliformes, fecaux and totals, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium sulfutoreducteurs has been noted in the visceres of sea bass. They are completely eliminated at dose 1KGy. Contents in nitrogen basic fowl (ABVT) and in trimethylamine (TMA), as well as the pH increase during storage of fish in relation with the reduction of phospholipids, the diminution of the degree of insaturation of the phospholipids and the free fat acidic fraction, and the increase of the report sterols on phospholipids. The irradiation to gamma rays allows to slow these changes and consequently reduced the deterioration of the sea bass. We conclude that the irradiation to gamma rays could have prolong the conservation of sea bass sea bass by preserving probably lipids membranes of the degradation and by inhibiting the development of microorganisms

  6. Diel habitat selection of largemouth bass following woody structure installation in Table Rock Lake, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J.M.; Paukert, Craig P.; Bush, S.C.; Allen, M.J.; Siepker, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède) use of installed habitat structure was evaluated in a large Midwestern USA reservoir to determine whether or not these structures were used in similar proportion to natural habitats. Seventy largemouth bass (>380 mm total length) were surgically implanted with radio transmitters and a subset was relocated monthly during day and night for one year. The top habitat selection models (based on Akaike's information criterion) suggest largemouth bass select 2–4 m depths during night and 4–7 m during day, whereas littoral structure selection was similar across diel periods. Largemouth bass selected boat docks at twice the rate of other structures. Installed woody structure was selected at similar rates to naturally occurring complex woody structure, whereas both were selected at a higher rate than simple woody structure. The results suggest the addition of woody structure may concentrate largemouth bass and mitigate the loss of woody habitat in a large reservoir.

  7. Vortex sound in bass-reflex ports of loudspeakers : part II. a method to estimate the point of separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, N.B.; Bockholts, M.; van Eck, P.; Hirschberg, A.

    1998-01-01

    In part I of this paper, the vortex shedding that may occur in a bass-reflex port of a loudspeaker system was discussed. At the Helmholtz frequency of the bass-reflex port, air is pumped in and out at rather high velocities, vortex shedding occurs at the end of the port, and blowing sounds are

  8. 77 FR 60945 - 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 0907271173-0629-03] RIN 0648-XC152 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass... accountability measure (AM) for the commercial sector of black sea bass in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of...

  9. White Paranoia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørholt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by Alain Robbe-Grillet’s novel La Jalousie (1957), the essay contends that Michael Haneke’s Caché (2005) takes its viewers inside a postcolonial white paranoia which is, arguably, the root cause of the exclusion, segregation and racist discrimination that many immigrants from the former ...

  10. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  11. Striped Marlin Hardparts and Gonads Collected by the PIRO Hawaii Longline Observer Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Compilation of all samples collected from striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) collected and brought to the Aiea Heights Research Facility by the PIRO Hawaii Longline...

  12. Changes provoked by boiling, steaming and sous-vide cooking in the lipid and volatile profile of European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva-Echevarría, Bárbara; Manzanos, María J; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, María D

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to shed light on the changes provoked by boiling, steaming and sous-vide cooking on the lipids and volatile profile of farmed and wild European sea bass meat. None of the cooking techniques provoked changes due to hydrolytic or oxidation processes detectable by 1 H NMR on sea bass lipids. The lipid profile of main and minor lipidic components was maintained after cooking. However, study by SPME-GC/MS evidenced that steaming and sous-vide cooking modified the volatile profile of sea bass meat, especially in farmed specimens. The compounds generated came from the occurrence, to a very small extent, of lipid and protein degradation. By contrast, boiling scarcely modified the initial characteristics of raw sea bass. Thus, from a sensory point of view and considering the odour-active compounds generated, steaming and sous-vide cooking provoked more noticeable changes than boiling, especially in farmed sea bass meat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Propagation of dark stripe beams in nonlinear media: Snake instability and creation of optical vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamaev, A.V.; Saffman, M.; Zozulya, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of (1+1) dimensional dark stripe beams in bulk media with a photorefractive nonlinear response. These beams, including solitary wave solutions, are shown to be unstable with respect to symmetry breaking and formation of structure along the initially homogeneous coordinate....... Experimental results show the complete sequence of events starting from self-focusing of the stripe, its bending due to the snake instability, and subsequent decay into a set of optical vortices....

  14. Status of Striped Hyaena (Hyaena hyaena in Hatay and Şanlıurfa-Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Atay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an 18 month survey, involving face to face interviews with the local people and deployment camera-traps, was carried out on about 600 km2 areas in Turkey. Field surveys and camera-trapping resulted in strong evidences that striped hyenas travel and live around Hatay (Syria border and Şanlıurfa Provinces in Turkey. However, a comprehensive study was not carried out about the status of striped hyenas in this region. Our results showed that striped hyenas were frequently observed around the wasteland and the chicken farm in Hatay Province. Alternatively, they live in small groups in Şanlıurfa Province. Several caves suitable for striped hyenas were identified by footprints, feces and other animal remnants observed in and before those caves. We performed molecular characterization of striped hyenas in Turkey for the first time using Cytb mitochondrial DNA isolated from hair, ear and carcass tissues. Sequences of Cytb DNA sequences from10 different striped hyena samples from Turkey were found to be identical to each other. Comparison of the sequences with the previously reported Cytb sequences, including prehistoric ones, showed that Ctyb gene was highly conserved among the Hyaena hyaena species. During the field surveys we also observed that habitat destruction and fragmentation are detected on high level in the studied regions due to the intensive agricultural areas, settlements and quarries. Illegal hunting, frequent cave usage by shepherds, extensive porcupines hunting, water pollution from olive oil production facilities and highway crashes have been negatively affecting striped hyena population in Hatay and Şanlıurfa regions. It appears that a comprehensive study and protection plan should be exerted to preserve the habitat of striped hyenas.

  15. DIET AND REPRODUCTION OF LARGEMOUTH BASS IN A RECENTLY INTRODUCED POPULATION, LAKE BRACCIANO (CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINELLI A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns a study of some aspects of largemouth bass ecology in an Italian lake (Lake Bracciano. We assessed the success and possible impact of its recent introduction (1998 upon the fish community. From October 2001 to September 2002, 162 individuals were caught, measured, aged and submitted to biopsy (stomach and gonads were removed. Four age classes, from 0 + to 3 +, were observed in the population. Largemouth bass feeding activity was high in June, mostly eating fish (55.7%, crustaceans (in particular Palaemonetes antennarius, 37.5%, insects (4.5% and molluscs (2.3%. The G.S.I. values showed an autumnal breeding period (from December to February rather than the spring-summer one frequently described in North America. Moreover, bass attained sexual maturity during the second year of life (1 +. These differences could be related to its recent introduction and the apparent success could represent a problem for other species in the Lake.

  16. Are stripes beneficial? Dazzle camouflage influences perceived speed and hit rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina von Helversen

    Full Text Available In the animal kingdom, camouflage refers to patterns that help potential prey avoid detection. Mostly camouflage is thought of as helping prey blend in with their background. In contrast, disruptive or dazzle patterns protect moving targets and have been suggested as an evolutionary force in shaping the dorsal patterns of animals. Dazzle patterns, such as stripes and zigzags, are thought to reduce the probability with which moving prey will be captured by impairing predators' perception of speed. We investigated how different patterns of stripes (longitudinal-i.e., parallel to movement direction-and vertical-i.e., perpendicular to movement direction affect the probability with which humans can hit moving objects and if differences in hitting probability are caused by a misperception of speed. A first experiment showed that longitudinally striped objects were hit more often than unicolored objects. However, vertically striped objects did not differ from unicolored objects. A second study examining the link between perceived speed and hitting probability showed that longitudinally and vertically striped objects were both perceived as moving faster and were hit more often than unicolored objects. In sum, our results provide evidence that striped patterns disrupt the perception of speed, which in turn influences how often objects are hit. However, the magnitude and the direction of the effects depend on additional factors such as speed and the task setup.

  17. Applying the Helmholtz Illusion to Fashion: Horizontal Stripes Won't Make You Look Fatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A square composed of horizontal lines appears taller and narrower than an identical square made up of vertical lines. Reporting this illusion, Hermann von Helmholtz noted that such illusions, in which filled space seems to be larger than unfilled space, were common in everyday life, adding the observation that ladies' frocks with horizontal stripes make the figure look taller. As this assertion runs counter to modern popular belief, we have investigated whether vertical or horizontal stripes on clothing should make the wearer appear taller or fatter. We find that a rectangle of vertical stripes needs to be extended by 7.1% vertically to match the height of a square of horizontal stripes and that a rectangle of horizontal stripes must be made 4.5% wider than a square of vertical stripes to match its perceived width. This illusion holds when the horizontal or vertical lines are on the dress of a line drawing of a woman. We have examined the claim that these effects apply only for 2-dimensional figures in an experiment with 3-D cylinders and find no support for the notion that horizontal lines would be ‘fattening’ on clothes. Significantly, the illusion persists when the horizontal or vertical lines are on pictures of a real half-body mannequin viewed stereoscopically. All the evidence supports Helmholtz's original assertion.

  18. Indigenous development and performance evaluation of BARC aerodynamic size separator (BASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Purwar, R.C.; Das, Tanmoy; Narayanan, K.P.; Sapra, B.K.; Sunny, Faby; Khan, Arshad; Mayya, Y.S.

    2002-06-01

    Commercially available cascade impactors, commonly used for aerodynamic size separation of aerosol particles, are based on the principle of inertial impaction. As of now, these instruments are imported at a cost of several lakhs of rupees; hence an effort has been made to develop an aerodynamic particle sizer indigenously in BARC. This unit, referred to as BARC Aerodynamic Size Separator (BASS), separates aerosols into seven size classes ranging from 0.53 μm to 10 μm and operates at a flow rate of 45 Ipm. Intercomparison studies between the standard Andersen Mark-II (Grasbey Andersen Inc.) impactor and BASS using nebulizer generated aerosols have consistently shown excellent performance by BASS in all respects. In particular, BASS yielded the parameters of polydisperse aerosols quite accurately. Experiments to evaluate the individual stage cut-off diameters show that these are within 8% of their designed value for all stages except the higher two stages which indicate about 30% lower values than the designed ones. The replotting of all the mass distribution data using the experimental cut-off diameters showed perfect lognormal fits, thereby indicating that these diameters are closer to the true stage cut-off diameters for BASS. The studies show that BASS will be suitable for determining the particle size distributions in the context of the radiological safety programmes of DAE. Being indigenous in design, it may be fabricated on a commercial scale at a cost far less than that of the imported units. Such a venture will greatly help several national programmes on atmospheric pollution being carried out by many laboratories and institutions across the country. (author)

  19. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  20. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Rocklin

    Full Text Available Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  1. Vibrio lentus protects gnotobiotic sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae against challenge with Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, M; Duchateau, L; Van den Broeck, W; Van Trappen, S; De Vos, P; Coulombet, C; Boon, N; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2016-03-15

    Due to the mounting awareness of the risks associated with the use of antibiotics in aquaculture, treatment with probiotics has recently emerged as the preferred environmental-friendly prophylactic approach in marine larviculture. However, the presence of unknown and variable microbiota in fish larvae makes it impossible to disentangle the efficacy of treatment with probiotics. In this respect, the recent development of a germ-free culture model for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae opened the door for more controlled studies on the use of probiotics. In the present study, 206 bacterial isolates, retrieved from sea bass larvae and adults, were screened in vitro for haemolytic activity, bile tolerance and antagonistic activity against six sea bass pathogens. Subsequently, the harmlessness and the protective effect of the putative probiotic candidates against the sea bass pathogen Vibrio harveyi were evaluated in vivo adopting the previously developed germ-free sea bass larval model. An equivalence trial clearly showed that no harmful effect on larval survival was elicited by all three selected probiotic candidates: Bacillus sp. LT3, Vibrio lentus and Vibrio proteolyticus. Survival of Vibrio harveyi challenged larvae treated with V. lentus was superior in comparison with the untreated challenged group, whereas this was not the case for the larvae supplemented with Bacillus sp. LT3 and V. proteolyticus. In this respect, our results unmistakably revealed the protective effect of V. lentus against vibriosis caused by V. harveyi in gnotobiotic sea bass larvae, rendering this study the first in its kind. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Physiological changes in largemouth bass exposed to paper mill effluents under laboratory and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Gallagher, E.P.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    We report here on studies designed to asses the effects of paper mill effluents on non-reproductive functions of free-ranging and captive Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) This was accomplished by conducting an outdoor tank study, in which fish were exposed to well water or to 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80% full strength effluent for 28 or 56 days, and by sampling largemouth bass from sites within the St. Johns River, Florida, upstream and downstream from a paper mill plant. Blood and plasma samples from fish from the tank study and from fish sampled from the ambient sites were analyzed for over 20 variables. We also determined liver and spleen weights and examined them histologically. The most significant finding from the tank study was an increase in the concentration of albumin and hepatosomatic index for bass exposed to ???20% effluents for 56 days. Spleenosomatic index and number of melanomacrophage centers were decreased in bass from effluent-dominated sites (Palatka and Rice Creek), whereas concentrations of calcium, phosphorous, glucose, and creatinine were elevated in fish from these sites, compared to fish from reference streams. Fish from Rice Creek also had fewer red blood cells, and male bass from Palatka had lower concentrations of cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of albumin and hepatic concentrations of glutathione were elevated in males from Palatka, and both females and males from Rice Creek had higher concentrations of globulin. These results indicate a complex pattern of effects of paper mill effluents on several physiological functions. However, despite the myriad of treatment and site-related effects, most physiological parameters fell within normal ranges when compared to reports on largemouth bass and other freshwater species.

  3. Maternally transferred mercury in wild largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, Dana K.; Aday, D. Derek; Rice, James A.; Cope, W. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Maternal transfer of mercury in fish represents a potential route of elimination for adult females and a risk to developing embryos. To better quantify maternal transfer, we measured Hg in female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) muscle and eggs from six waterbodies. Mercury in eggs from two waterbodies exceeded a US federal screening level (0.3 μg g −1 ) and was likely high enough to cause adverse reproductive effects. We found a curvilinear relationship between female and egg Hg. Fish with −1 Hg had low levels of Hg in eggs; those with Hg >0.37 μg g −1 showed a direct relationship between egg and muscle Hg (Log 10 egg Hg = −1.03 + 1.18 * log 10 muscle tissue Hg + 2.15 * (log 10 muscle tissue Hg + 0.35) 2 ). We also report higher maternal transfer (0.2–13.2%) and higher ratios of egg to muscle tissue Hg (4–52%) and egg to whole body Hg concentrations (7–116%) than previously observed for teleost fish. Highlights: •Previous work suggests maternal Hg transfer in teleosts is consistently low. •We provide evidence that teleosts can have high maternal Hg transfer. •Females with low Hg had similar and low concentrations of Hg in their eggs. •Females with high Hg had Hg in eggs that increased with somatic tissue Hg. •Egg Hg from high Hg females exceeded adverse effect levels. -- Capsule: Here we report higher maternal transfer and higher ratios of egg to muscle tissue Hg than previously observed for teleost fish

  4. Characterizing the Heat Flow from Between Enceladus' Tiger Stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howett, C.; Spencer, J. R.; Verbiscer, A.

    2017-12-01

    Enceladus' heat flow provides a fundamental constraint on its tidal dissipation mechanisms, orbital evolution, and the physical processes that generate the plumes. Determining the total amount of emission is proving difficult, as different techniques produce differing constraints. For example, an initial estimate of this value, 5.8±1.3 GW, was made by Spencer et al. (2006) using Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) 600 to 1100 cm-1 observations, which was refined using 10 to 600 cm-1 CIRS observations to 15.8±3.1 GW by Howett et al. (2011). However, recent reanalysis of high-spatial resolution 10 to 1100 cm-1 CIRS observations of Enceladus' active south polar region conducted by Spencer and Howett gives a heat flow of 4.64±0.23 GW. Whilst all of these heat flow estimates are much larger than those expected in a steady state, 1.1 GW (Meyer and Wisdom, 2007), their obvious discrepancy is a puzzle. In this work we seek to help understand these discrepancies by determining how much endogenic heat flow is coming from the funiscular terrain between Enceladus active tiger stripes.

  5. Change in Occurrence of Rice stripe virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Choon Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the occurrence of Rice stripe virus (RSV disease in 672 fields from 29 rice representative area inJuly 2012 as nationwide survey for RSV occurrence since 2008. We confirmed occurrence of virus disease in18 areas, in west coast region including Secheon, Taean, Buwan and Cheorwon. RSV incidence rates of plantin Sacheon and Buan were less than 0.01% and 0.15%, respectively, showing similar rate with the nationwidesurvey carried out in 2008, whereas incidence rate of field declined from 19.9% in 2008 to 4.9% in 2012.Earlier, RSV occurred largely across the southern region of Korea. In 2001, RSV disease was found inGangwha and Gyeonggi-do, the northern region of Korea. In 2007, RSV appeared in west coast; Buan inJeollabuk-do and Seocheon in Choongnam-do. After migration of the vector, small brown plant hopper, fromChina in 2009, RSV is becoming a pandemic.

  6. Current Insights into Research on Rice stripe virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kyong Cho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe virus (RSV is one of the most destructive viruses of rice, and greatly reduces rice production in China, Japan, and Korea, where mostly japonica cultivars of rice are grown. RSV is transmitted by the small brown plant-hopper (SBPH in a persistent and circulative-propagative manner. Several methods have been developed for detection of RSV, which is composed of four single-stranded RNAs that encode seven proteins. Genome sequence data and comparative phylogenetic analysis have been used to identify the origin and diversity of RSV isolates. Several rice varieties resistant to RSV have been selected and QTL analysis and fine mapping have been intensively performed to map RSV resistance loci or genes. RSV genes have been used to generate several genetically modified transgenic rice plants with RSV resistance. Recently, genome-wide transcriptome analyses and deep sequencing have been used to identify mRNAs and small RNAs involved in RSV infection; several rice host factors that interact with RSV proteins have also been identified. In this article, we review the current statues of RSV research and propose integrated approaches for the study of interactions among RSV, rice, and the SBPH.

  7. Structural lability of Barley stripe mosaic virus virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin V Makarov

    Full Text Available Virions of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV were neglected for more than thirty years after their basic properties were determined. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics of BSMV virions and virion-derived viral capsid protein (CP were analyzed, namely, the absorption and intrinsic fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, differential scanning calorimetry curves, and size distributions by dynamic laser light scattering. The structural properties of BSMV virions proved to be intermediate between those of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, a well-characterized virus with rigid rod-shaped virions, and flexuous filamentous plant viruses. The BSMV virions were found to be considerably more labile than expected from their rod-like morphology and a distant sequence relation of the BSMV and TMV CPs. The circular dichroism spectra of BSMV CP subunits incorporated into the virions, but not subunits of free CP, demonstrated a significant proportion of beta-structure elements, which were proposed to be localized mostly in the protein regions exposed on the virion outer surface. These beta-structure elements likely formed during virion assembly can comprise the N- and C-terminal protein regions unstructured in the non-virion CP and can mediate inter-subunit interactions. Based on computer-assisted structure modeling, a model for BSMV CP subunit structural fold compliant with the available experimental data was proposed.

  8. Current Flow in the Bubble and Stripe Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, B.; Umansky, V.; von Klitzing, K.; Smet, J. H.

    2018-03-01

    The spontaneous ordering of spins and charges in geometric patterns is currently under scrutiny in a number of different material systems. A topic of particular interest is the interaction of such ordered phases with itinerant electrons driven by an externally imposed current. It not only provides important information on the charge ordering itself but potentially also allows manipulating the shape and symmetry of the underlying pattern if current flow is strong enough. Unfortunately, conventional transport methods probing the macroscopic resistance suffer from the fact that the voltage drop along the sample edges provides only indirect information on the bulk properties because a complex current distribution is elicited by the inhomogeneous ground state. Here, we promote the use of surface acoustic waves to study these broken-symmetry phases and specifically address the bubble and stripe phases emerging in high-quality two-dimensional electron systems in GaAs /AlGaAs heterostructures as prototypical examples. When driving a unidirectional current, we find a surprising discrepancy between the sound propagation probing the bulk of the sample and the voltage drop along the sample edges. Our results prove that the current-induced modifications observed in resistive transport measurements are in fact a local phenomenon only, leaving the majority of the sample unaltered. More generally, our findings shed new light on the extent to which these ordered electron phases are impacted by an external current and underline the intrinsic advantages of acoustic measurements for the study of such inhomogeneous phases.

  9. THE z = 5 QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM SDSS STRIPE 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui; Jiang Linhua; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin; Shen Yue; Schneider, Donald P.; Brandt, W. Niel; Myers, Adam D.; DeGraf, Colin; Glikman, Eilat; Ge Jian; Streblyanska, Alina

    2013-01-01

    We present a measurement of the Type I quasar luminosity function at z = 5 using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed quasars selected from optical imaging data. We measure the bright end (M 1450 2 , then extend to lower luminosities (M 1450 2 of deep, coadded imaging in the SDSS Stripe 82 region (the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap). The faint sample includes 14 quasars with spectra obtained as ancillary science targets in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, and 59 quasars observed at the MMT and Magellan telescopes. We construct a well-defined sample of 4.7 1450 * ∼-27). The bright-end slope is steep (β ∼ 1450 < –26) from z = 5 to z = 6 than from z = 4 to z = 5, suggesting a more rapid decline in quasar activity at high redshift than found in previous surveys. Our model for the quasar luminosity function predicts that quasars generate ∼30% of the ionizing photons required to keep hydrogen in the universe ionized at z = 5.

  10. A cage position monitor based on magnetically striped rope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, V M

    1978-01-01

    Following the winding disaster at Markham Colliery in July 1973 recommendations to monitor the position of the cage directly at all times throughout the winding cycle, and to provide a system of communication with persons in the conveyance were made. The system adopted by MRDE was the 'magnetically striped rope'. An experimental system was installed at Maltby Colliery, South Yorkshire, and has been working successfully for well over a year. Magnetic marking of a hoist or guide rope can be carried out using permanent magnets but a much more convenient method has been devised using a pulsed electromagnet sliding on the rope. Detection is achieved by two static magnetic sensors spaced to give quadrature output. By processing the signals and using an up/down counter it is possible to sense the direction of movement and the distance travelled by the cage from a given datum. The information can be further processed to indicate velocity, overspeed and overwind, and when referenced to drum revolutions may be used to monitor rope slip in friction winders or slack rope in drum winders. When the guide rope is magnetically marked and sensed, the information must be transmitted from the cage to the surface. Such a data communication link, developed by MRDE, also provides a base for a general shaft communication system.

  11. Pepsinogens and pepsins from largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides: purification and characterization with special reference to high proteolytic activities of bass enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yoko; Kageyama, Takashi; Moriyama, Akihiko

    2015-05-01

    Six pepsinogens were purified from the gastric mucosa of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, and Mono Q FPLC. The potential specific activities of two major pepsinogens, PG1-1 and PG2-2, against hemoglobin were 51 and 118 units/mg protein, respectively. The activity of pepsin 2-2 was the highest among the pepsins reported to date; this might be linked to the strongly carnivorous diet of the largemouth bass. The molecular masses of PG1-1 and PG2-2 were 39.0 and 41.0 kDa, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of PG1-1 and PG2-2 were LVQVPLEVGQTAREYLE- and LVRLPLIVGKTARQALLE-, respectively, showing similarities with those of fish type-A pepsinogens. The optimal pHs for hemoglobin-digestive activity of pepsins 1-1 and 2-2 were around 1.5 and 2.0, respectively, though both pepsins retained considerable activity at pHs over 3.5. They showed maximal activity around 50 and 40 °C, respectively. They were inhibited by pepstatin similarly to porcine pepsin A. The cleavage specificities clarified with oxidized insulin B chain were shown to be restricted to a few bonds consisting of hydrophobic/aromatic residues, such as the Leu(15)-Tyr(16), Phe(24)-Phe(25) and Phe(25)-Tyr(26) bonds. When hemoglobin was used as a substrate, the kcat/Km value of bass pepsin 2-2 was 4.6- to 36.8-fold larger than those of other fish pepsins. In the case of substance P, an ideal pepsin substrate mimic, the kcat/Km values were about 200-fold larger than those of porcine pepsin A, supporting the high activity of the bass pepsin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection, Occurrence, and Survey of Rice Stripe and Black-Streaked Dwarf Diseases in Zhejiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Heng-mu ZHANG; Hua-di WANG; Jian YANG; Michael J ADAMS; Jian-ping CHEN

    2013-01-01

    The major viral diseases that occur on rice plants in Zhejiang Province, eastern China, are stripe and rice black-streaked dwarf diseases. Rice stripe disease is only caused by rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), while rice black-streaked dwarf disease can be caused by rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV) and/or southern rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (SRBSDV). Here we review the characterization of these viruses, methods for their detection, and extensive surveys showing their occurren...

  13. Effects of nutritional history on stress response in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danli; Wu, Yubo; Huang, Di; Ren, Xing; Wang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    The stress response of omnivorous gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) with different nutritional history were evaluated. A 2×2 layout, including two fish species (gibel carp or largemouth bass) and two nutritional history (fasted or fed to satiation for four weeks), was used. After feeding or fasting, the fishes were subjected to an acute handling. Fasting resulted in decrease of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content of gibel carp and largemouth bass. After handling stress, plasma levels of cortisol, glucose and lactate of gibel carp and largemouth bass increased, regardless the fasted fish or fed fish. During the period from 0h to 24h post-stress, the fasted gibel carp exhibited lower plasma cortisol and glucose levels, brain and liver glycogen contents, and liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity compared with the fed counterpart. The plasma glucose level, brain glucose level, brain and liver glycogen contents were lower, while the liver PEPCK and hexokinase (HK) activities were higher, in the faster largemouth bass than the fed counterpart. This study indicates that nutritional history can influence stress response of gibel carp and largemouth bass, and the stress response is less severe in the fasted fish relative to the fed counterpart. This study also reveals that gibel carp and largemouth bass may have different strategies in response to fasting and acute handling stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Indigenous development and performance evaluation of BARC aerodynamic size separator (BASS)

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Khan, A; Mayya, Y S; Narayanan, K P; Purwar, R C; Sapra, B K; Sunny, F

    2002-01-01

    Commercially available cascade impactors, commonly used for aerodynamic size separation of aerosol particles, are based on the principle of inertial impaction. As of now, these instruments are imported at a cost of several lakhs of rupees; hence an effort has been made to develop an aerodynamic particle sizer indigenously in BARC. This unit, referred to as BARC Aerodynamic Size Separator (BASS), separates aerosols into seven size classes ranging from 0.53 mu m to 10 mu m and operates at a flow rate of 45 Ipm. Intercomparison studies between the standard Andersen Mark-II (Grasbey Andersen Inc.) impactor and BASS using nebulizer generated aerosols have consistently shown excellent performance by BASS in all respects. In particular, BASS yielded the parameters of polydisperse aerosols quite accurately. Experiments to evaluate the individual stage cut-off diameters show that these are within 8% of their designed value for all stages except the higher two stages which indicate about 30% lower values than the desig...

  15. Do the visual conditions at the point of escape affect European sea bass escape behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. PAPADAKIS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, an important species for the Mediterranean aquaculture industry, has been reported to escape from sea cage installations. Fish escapes are caused mainly by operational and technical failures that eventually result into a creation of a tear. Escapees may interact with wild stocks through interbreeding, transfer of pathogens and competition for food. The aim of this study was to examine at which extent the presence of a visible obstacle close to a tear on the net have an influence on sea bass propensity to escape. Fish were initially confined into small sea cages, with a tear at one side. The escape behavior was tested under experimental conditions. It is clearly demonstrated that sea bass was able to locate a tear on the net pen, immediately after its appearance. Crossings occurred in all cages, in singles or in a series of up to seven individuals. The presence of an obstacle close to the net tear altered the escape behavior of D. labrax resulting in a delay that eventually reduced the escape rate. Concluding, it is highly recommended that sea bass cages should be kept internally the culture array. Furthermore, the placement of artificial obstacles close to the sea cages could be an efficient practice that mitigates the escape risk after severe environmental conditions.

  16. SeaBASS 2012: A Marine BioAcoustics Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    accepted from six different countries (USA & Puerto Rico, Italy, United Kingdom, Greece, Canada, and Austria). Advertising for SeaBASS was published...there was so much good and varied information in all the lectures, I would have to give it to Paul for his storytelling . • Paul Nachtigall’s lecture

  17. 77 FR 76942 - 2013-2014 Summer Flounder and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (IRFA), and other supporting documents used by the Summer Flounder, Scup, and... http://www.nero.noaa.gov . The Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (FRFA) consists of the IRFA... Specifications Summer Flounder Scup Black Sea Bass 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 ABC million lb 22.34 22.24 38.71 35...

  18. Climate-growth relationships for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) across three southeastern USA states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel

    2009-01-01

    The role of climate variability in the ecology of freshwater fishes is of increasing interest. However, there are relatively few tools available for examining how freshwater fish populations respond to climate variations. Here, I apply tree-ring techniques to incremental growth patterns in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacepe`de) otoliths to explore...

  19. BIOACCUMULATION AND AQUATIC SYSTEM SIMULATOR (BASS) USER'S MANUAL BETA TEST VERSION 2.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASS (Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator) is a Fortran 95 simulation program that predicts the population and bioaccumulation dynamics of age-structured fish assemblages that are exposed to hydrophobic organic pollutants and class B and borderline metals that complex wi...

  20. Trapping of diffusing particles by striped cylindrical surfaces. Boundary homogenization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdug, Leonardo; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Skvortsov, Alexei T.

    2015-01-01

    We study trapping of diffusing particles by a cylindrical surface formed by rolling a flat surface, containing alternating absorbing and reflecting stripes, into a tube. For an arbitrary stripe orientation with respect to the tube axis, this problem is intractable analytically because it requires dealing with non-uniform boundary conditions. To bypass this difficulty, we use a boundary homogenization approach which replaces non-uniform boundary conditions on the tube wall by an effective uniform partially absorbing boundary condition with properly chosen effective trapping rate. We demonstrate that the exact solution for the effective trapping rate, known for a flat, striped surface, works very well when this surface is rolled into a cylindrical tube. This is shown for both internal and external problems, where the particles diffuse inside and outside the striped tube, at three orientations of the stripe direction with respect to the tube axis: (a) perpendicular to the axis, (b) parallel to the axis, and (c) at the angle of π/4 to the axis. PMID:26093574

  1. Understanding stripe domains in Permalloy films via the angular dependence of permeability spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jinwu; Feng, Hongmei; Zhu, Zengtai; Song, Chengkun; Wang, Xiangqian; Liu, Qingfang [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Jianbo, E-mail: wangjb@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory for Special Function Materials and Structural Design of the Ministry of the Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A phenomenological model is proposed to analyze the angular dependence of the μ″{sub max}. • The maximum canting angle θ{sub 0} in the stripe domain structure can be estimated. • Micromagnetic simulation results are nearly in accordance with the experimental results. - Abstract: An investigation of the angular dependence of the dynamic permeability spectra has been performed. Three Permalloy films with different thickness were used as the study samples that possess the stripe domains. In order to better understand the magnetization distribution in stripe domains, a theoretical approach was proposed to analyze the variation of the resonance intensity of permeability spectra. By fitting the angular dependence of the μ″{sub max} using a theoretical function, a coefficient Λ that can be used to evaluate the average value of the periodic function of the anting angle θ in a periodic stripe is obtained. As the film thickness increases, the decrease of the ratio between domain wall width and stripe domain width is happen. This enables that the coefficient Λ decreases with the increase of film thickness. By deducing this coefficient Λ, one can estimate the maximum canting angle θ{sub 0} ∼ 8° for the Permalloy films in our experiments.

  2. Climate-induced seasonal changes in smallmouth bass growth rate potential at the southern range extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, Christopher R.; Kessinger, Brin; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2018-01-01

    Temperature increases due to climate change over the coming century will likely affect smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) growth in lotic systems at the southern extent of their native range. However, the thermal response of a stream to warming climate conditions could be affected by the flow regime of each stream, mitigating the effects on smallmouth bass populations. We developed bioenergetics models to compare change in smallmouth bass growth rate potential (GRP) from present to future projected monthly stream temperatures across two flow regimes: runoff and groundwater-dominated. Seasonal differences in GRP between stream types were then compared. The models were developed for fourteen streams within the Ozark–Ouachita Interior Highlands in Arkansas, Oklahoma and Missouri, USA, which contain smallmouth bass. In our simulations, smallmouth bass mean GRP during summer months decreased by 0.005 g g−1 day−1 in runoff streams and 0.002 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams by the end of century. Mean GRP during winter, fall and early spring increased under future climate conditions within both stream types (e.g., 0.00019 g g−1 day−1 in runoff and 0.0014 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams in spring months). We found significant differences in change in GRP between runoff and groundwater streams in three seasons in end-of-century simulations (spring, summer and fall). Potential differences in stream temperature across flow regimes could be an important habitat component to consider when investigating effects of climate change as fishes from various flow regimes that are relatively close geographically could be affected differently by warming climate conditions.

  3. Channel unit use by Smallmouth Bass: Do land-use constraints or quantity of habitat matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Shannon K.

    2013-01-01

    I examined how land use influenced the distribution of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu in channel units (discrete morphological features—e.g., pools) of streams in the Midwestern USA. Stream segments (n = 36), from four clusters of different soil and runoff conditions, were identified that had the highest percent of forest (n = 12), pasture (n = 12), and urban land use (n = 12) within each cluster. Channel units within each stream were delineated and independently sampled once using multiple gears in summer 2006. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model procedure with a binomial distribution and odds ratio statistics. Land use and channel unit were strong predictors of age-0, age-1, and age->1 Smallmouth Bass presence. Each age-class was more likely to be present in streams within watersheds dominated by forest land use than in those with pasture or urban land uses. The interaction between land use and channel unit was not significant in any of the models, indicating channel unit use by Smallmouth Bass did not depend on watershed land use. Each of the three age-classes was more likely to use pools than other channel units. However, streams with high densities of Smallmouth Bass age >1 had lower proportions of pools suggesting a variety of channel units is important even though habitat needs exist at the channel-unit scale. Management may benefit from future research addressing the significance of channel-unit quality as a possible mechanism for how land use impacts Smallmouth Bass populations. Further, management efforts aimed at improving stream habitat would likely be more beneficial if focused at the stream segment or landscape scale, where a variety of quality habitats might be supported.

  4. Identification of Neosho Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu velox) stocks for possible introduction into Grand Lake, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew T.; Long, James M.; Schwemm, Michael R.; Tringali, Michael D.; Brewer, Shannon K.

    2016-01-01

    Stocking black basses (Micropterus spp.) is a common practice used to increase angling opportunities in impoundments; however, when non-native black basses are introduced they often invade riverine habitats where they threaten the persistence of other fishes, including native black basses. Neosho Smallmouth Bass (M. dolomieu velox) is endemic to portions of the Ozark Highlands and Boston Mountains ecoregions and is threatened by introductions of non-native Smallmouth Bass (“SMB”) forms. Because of recent interest in stocking SMB into Grand Lake o’ the Cherokees, we assessed the suitability of local Neosho SMB populations as potential broodstock sources by assessing introgression with non-native SMB forms, as well as characterizing population structure and genetic diversity. The majority of Neosho SMB populations contained low, but non-negligible, genomic proportions of two genetically distinct non-native SMB forms. Introgression was highest in the Illinois River upstream of Lake Tenkiller, where Tennessee ‘lake strain’ SMB were stocked in the early 1990’s. We recovered three genetically distinct clusters of Neosho SMB at the uppermost hierarchical level of population structure: a distinct Illinois River cluster and two Grand River clusters that appear to naturally mix at some sites. Genetic diversity measures generally increased with stream size, and smaller populations with low diversity measures may benefit from immigration of novel genetic material. Overall, introgression with non-native SMB forms appears to pose a prominent threat to Neosho SMB; however, relatively intact populations of Neosho SMB exist in some Grand Lake o’ the Cherokees tributaries. Results could be used in developing a stocking program that promotes and sustains existing genetic diversity within and among Neosho SMB populations.

  5. Directional multimode coupler for planar magnonics: Side-coupled magnetic stripes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadovnikov, A. V., E-mail: sadovnikovav@gmail.com; Nikitov, S. A. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Kotel' nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Beginin, E. N.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Romanenko, D. V.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-16

    We experimentally demonstrate spin waves coupling in two laterally adjacent magnetic stripes. By the means of Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy, we show that the coupling efficiency depends both on the magnonic waveguides' geometry and the characteristics of spin-wave modes. In particular, the lateral confinement of coupled yttrium-iron-garnet stripes enables the possibility of control over the spin-wave propagation characteristics. Numerical simulations (in time domain and frequency domain) reveal the nature of intermodal coupling between two magnonic stripes. The proposed topology of multimode magnonic coupler can be utilized as a building block for fabrication of integrated parallel functional and logic devices such as the frequency selective directional coupler or tunable splitter, enabling a number of potential applications for planar magnonics.

  6. Polarization sensitivity and retinal topography of the striped pyjama squid (Sepioloidea lineolata - Quoy/Gaimard 1832).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher M; Marshall, Justin

    2010-10-01

    Coleoid cephalopods (octopus, cuttlefish and squid) potentially possess polarization sensitivity (PS) based on photoreceptor structure, but this idea has rarely been tested behaviourally. Here, we use a polarized, striped optokinetic stimulus to demonstrate PS in the striped pyjama squid, Sepioloidea lineolata. This species displayed strong, consistent optokinetic nystagmic eye movements in response to a drum with stripes producing e-vectors set to 0 deg, 45 deg, 90 deg and 135 deg that would only be visible to an animal with PS. This is the first behavioural demonstration of a polarized optokinetic response in any species of cephalopod. This species, which typically sits beneath the substrate surface looking upwards for potential predators and prey, possesses a dorsally shifted horizontal pupil slit. Accordingly, it was found to possess a horizontal strip of high-density photoreceptors shifted ventrally in the retina, suggesting modifications such as a change in sensitivity or resolution to the dorsal visual field.

  7. Striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xian-Jun

    2011-05-01

    We study striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs) near optimal doping by self-consistently solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations based on the t - t‧ - U - V model. For the single-impurity case, it is found that the stable ground state is a modulated checkerboard pattern. For the two-impurity case, the stripe-like structures in order parameters are induced due to the impurity-pinning effect. The modulations of DSC and charge orders share the same period of four lattice constants (4 a), which is half the period of modulations in the coexisting spin order. Interestingly, when three or more impurities are inserted, the impurities could induce more complex striped morphologies due to quantum interference. Further experiments of magnetic impurity substitution in DSCs are expected to check these results.

  8. Functional metasurfaces based on metallic and dielectric subwavelength slits and stripes array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yinghui; Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Gao, Ping; Wang, Yanqin; Luo, Xiangang

    2018-04-01

    Starting with the early works of extraordinary optical transmission and extraordinary Young’s interference, researchers have been fascinated by the unusual optical properties displayed by metallic holes/slits and subsequently found similar abnormities in dielectric counterparts. Benefiting from the shrinking wavelength of surface plasmon polaritons excited in metallic slits and high refractive index of dielectric stripes, one can realize local phase modulation and approach desired dispersion by engineering the geometries of a slits and stripes array. In this review, we review recent developments in functional metasurfaces composed of various metallic and dielectric subwavelength slits and stripes arrays, with special emphasis on achromatic, ultra-broadband, quasi-continuous, multifunctional and reconfigurable metasurfaces. Particular attention is paid to provide insight into the design strategies for these devices. Finally, we give an outlook of the development in this fascinating area.

  9. Pteridine, not carotenoid, pigments underlie the female-specific orange ornament of striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S L; Foerster, K; Hudon, J

    2012-02-01

    Indicator models of sexual selection suggest that signal honesty is maintained via costs of ornament expression. Carotenoid-based visual signals are a well-studied example, as carotenoids may be environmentally limited and impact signaler health. However, not all bright yellow, orange and red ornaments found in vertebrates are carotenoid-based; pteridine pigments may also produce these colors. We examine the contribution of carotenoid and pteridine pigments to the orange reproductive color of female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus). This color ornament reliably indicates female mate quality, yet costs maintaining signal honesty are currently unknown. Dietary carotenoid manipulations did not affect orange color, and orange skin differed from surrounding white skin in drosopterin, not carotenoid, content. Further, orange color positively correlated with drosopterin, not carotenoid, concentration. Drosopterin-based female ornaments avoid the direct trade-offs of using carotenoids for ornament production vs egg production, thus may relax counter-selection against color ornament exaggeration in females. Direct experimentation is needed to determine the actual costs of pteridine-based ornaments. Like carotenoids, pteridines influence important biological processes, including immune and antioxidant function; predation and social costs may also be relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 82189 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ..., 200,000 lb (90,718 kg) of butterfish, and 200,000 lb (90,718 kg) of bluefish. Project awards are... species, including summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, longfin squid, butterfish, and Atlantic bluefish...

  11. X-RAY STRIPES IN TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT: SYNCHROTRON FOOTPRINTS OF A NONLINEAR COSMIC-RAY-DRIVEN INSTABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, Andrei M.; Osipov, Sergei M.; Uvarov, Yury A.; Ellison, Donald C.; Pavlov, George G.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution Chandra observations of Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) have revealed several sets of quasi-steady, high-emissivity, nearly parallel X-ray stripes in some localized regions of the SNR. These stripes are most likely the result of cosmic-ray (CR) generated magnetic turbulence at the SNR blast wave. However, for the amazingly regular pattern of these stripes to appear, simultaneous action of a number of shock-plasma phenomena is required, which is not predicted by most models of magnetic field amplification. A consistent explanation of these stripes yields information on the complex nonlinear plasma processes connecting efficient CR acceleration and magnetic field fluctuations in strong collisionless shocks. The nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (NL-DSA) model described here, which includes magnetic field amplification from a CR-current-driven instability, does predict stripes consistent with the synchrotron observations of Tycho's SNR. We argue that the local ambient mean magnetic field geometry determines the orientation of the stripes and therefore it can be reconstructed with the high-resolution X-ray imaging. The estimated maximum energy of the CR protons responsible for the stripes is ∼10 15 eV. Furthermore, the model predicts that a specific X-ray polarization pattern, with a polarized fraction ∼50%, accompanies the stripes, which can be tested with future X-ray polarimeter missions.

  12. Formation of self-assembled stripes on the anodic aluminum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongwen; Guo Haiming; Wang Yeliang; Shen Chengmin; Yang Haitao; Wang Yutian; Wei Long

    2004-01-01

    Non-polished aluminum sheets were anodized and the coexistence of self-assembled stripes and porous arrays on the Al surface was observed. The nanostructures were investigated in details using an atomic force microscope. And the formation mechanism of the stripes was discussed and simulated using Brusselator model in this work. The authors demonstrated that the self-assembled patterns on the Al surface were governed by the competition of formation and dissolution of alumina film during the reaction process. Moreover, this type of ordered structure could only form in certain conditions

  13. Frequency locking, quasiperiodicity, subharmonic bifurcations and chaos in high frequency modulated stripe geometry DH semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yiguang

    1991-01-01

    The method of obtaining self-consistent solutions of the field equation and the rate equations of photon density and carrier concentration has been used to study frequecny locking, quasiperiodicity, subharmonic bifurcations and chaos in high frequency modulated stripe geometry DH semiconductor lasers. The results show that the chaotic behavior arises in self-pulsing stripe geometry semiconductor lasers. The route to chaos is not period-double, but quasiperiodicity to chaos. All of the results agree with the experiments. Some obscure points in previous theory about chaos have been cleared up

  14. Evaluation of thermal striping risks: Limitation of cracks initiation and propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drubay, B.; Acker, D.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal striping is the effect of a rapid random oscillation of surface temperature inducing a corresponding fluctuation of surface strains. It occurs on components situated in the mixing zone of coolant streams of different temperatures and is characterised by large numbers of strain cycles having the potential to add to the fatigue damage produced by strain cycles associated with all other plant operating events. The purpose of this paper is to describe the R and D works performed in the frame of the European Fast Reactor project between 1985 and 1992 on the thermal striping: experimental works and validation of assessment methodology. (author)

  15. Partial resistance to stripe rust and its effect on sustainability of wheat yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.; Din, R.U.; Gardazi, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici) poses a serious threat to wheat production in cooler areas of Pakistan. The 70% area of wheat in Pakistan is prone to stripe rust disease. It can cause 10-17% yield losses if susceptible cultivars are planted under favorable conditions. Level of partial plant resistance in bread wheat and its impact on sustainable wheat production was studied at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad under natural conditions in the field. Eleven Pakistani commercial wheat cultivars/advance lines including check (Inqalab 91) were assessed for the level of partial resistance against stripe rust using Area Under the Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC), disease severity (DS) and epidemic growth rate in comparison with wheat cultivar, Inqalab 91. During 2007 cropping season, natural epidemic was developed and relative AUDPC was recorded from 0 to 100% whereas the 2008 cropping season was dry and no stripe rust appeared. Two advanced lines (NR 268 and NR 285) showed the infection type (IT) less than 7 (incompatible reaction) to the mixture of prevailing stripe rust inoculums. Very low level of DS and AUDPC were recorded in the remaining cultivars/lines indicating a high level of partial resistance to stripe rust compared to the susceptible check cultivar, Inqalab 91. Among eight cultivars/lines that showed compatible type of reaction (IT greater then equal to 7), one was resistant (relative AUDPC = 20% of Inqalab 91) and six showed very high resistance levels (relative AUDPC greater then equal to 5%). Maximum level of resistance (relative AUDPC = 0.1%) was observed in advanced line, NR 271. The wheat cultivars/lines that showed a slow disease development (low DS and AUDPC), could be considered as -1 partially resistant for stripe rust infection. The yield (2178 kg ha) of susceptible check cultivar Inqalab-91 during 2007 was reduced to 45% as -1 compared to its yield (3945 kg ha) in epidemic free year (2008). Thus the use

  16. Magnetic anisotropy of two-dimensional nanostructures: Transition-metal triangular stripes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorantes-Davila, J.; Villasenor-Gonzalez, P.; Pastor, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of one-dimensional stripes having infinite length and triangular lateral structure are investigated in the framework of a self-consistent tight-binding method. One observes discontinuous changes in the easy magnetization direction along the crossover from one to two dimensions. The MAE oscillates as a function of stripe width and depends strongly on the considered transition metal (TM). The MAE of the two-leg ladder is strongly reduced as compared to that of the monoatomic chain and the convergence to the two-dimensional limit is rather slow

  17. Checkerboard local density of states in striped domains pinned by vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B.M.; Hedegård, P.; Bruus, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    We discuss recent elastic neutron scattering and scanning tunneling experiments on high-T-c cuprates exposed to an applied magnetic field. Antiferromagnetic vortex cores operating as pinning centers for surrounding stripes is qualitatively consistent with the neutron data provided the stripes have...... the antiphase modulation. Within a Green's function formalism we study the low energy electronic structure around the vortices and find that besides the dispersive quantum interference there exists a non-dispersive checkerboard interference pattern consistent with recent scanning tunneling measurements. Thus...

  18. Feshbach shape resonance for high Tc pairing in superlattices of quantum stripes and quantum wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bianconi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   The Feshbach shape resonances in the interband pairing in superconducting superlattices of quantum wells or quantum stripes is shown to provide the mechanism for high Tc superconductivity. This mechanism provides the Tc amplification driven by the architecture of material: superlattices of quantum wells (intercalated graphite or diborides and superlattices of quantum stripes (doped high Tc cuprate perovskites where the chemical potential is tuned to a Van Hove-Lifshitz singularity (vHs in the electronic energy spectrum of the superlattice associated with the change of the Fermi surface dimensionality in one of the subbands.

  19. Quantitative interpretation of nuclear logging data by adopting point-by-point spectrum striping deconvolution technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bin; Liu Ling; Zhou Shumin; Zhou Rongsheng

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the gamma-ray spectrum interpretation technology on nuclear logging. The principles of familiar quantitative interpretation methods, including the average content method and the traditional spectrum striping method, are introduced, and their limitation of determining the contents of radioactive elements on unsaturated ledges (where radioactive elements distribute unevenly) is presented. On the basis of the intensity gamma-logging quantitative interpretation technology by using the deconvolution method, a new quantitative interpretation method of separating radioactive elements is presented for interpreting the gamma spectrum logging. This is a point-by-point spectrum striping deconvolution technology which can give the logging data a quantitative interpretation. (authors)

  20. Sonographic anatomy of the newborn hip and high-resolution US equipments: internal capsular stripe and perichondral gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortore, P.; Fodor, G.; Psenner, F.; Stuefert, S.; Scherer, M.

    1991-01-01

    The use of high-resolution US equipments in the examination of the newborn hip allowed the evaluation of a thin echogenic stripe (the internal capsule stripe), which defines laterally the acetabular hyaline cartilage. By means of an anatomo-histological preparation the echogenic stripe can be related to either the capsular circular fibres or the interface between the latter and the hyaline cartilage. The internal capsular stripe, together with the echogenic synovial stripe, precisely delimit the whole acetabular hyaline cartilage. Further-more, in many babies high-resolution US sometimes fails to demonstrate Graft's 'perichondral gap', so that an accurate anatomic knowledge of the hip becomes necessary in the evaluation of acetabular labrum

  1. Farmed and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) volatile metabolites: a comparative study by SPME-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Natalia P; Manzanos, María J; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, María D

    2016-03-15

    Farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) could be distinguished by its volatile metabolites, an issue not addressed until now. The aim of this work was to study these metabolites by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Both farmed and wild sea bass have a great number of volatile metabolites, most of them being in low concentrations. These include alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, alkylfurans, acids, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, terpenes, sulfur and nitrogen derivatives, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and one derived compound, as well as 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol, this latter compound presumably resulting from environmental contamination. Important differences have been detected between both types of sea bass, and also among individuals inside each group. Farmed specimens are richer in volatile metabolites than the wild counterparts; however, these latter, in general, contain a high number and abundance of metabolites resulting from microbial and enzymatic non-oxidative activity than the former. Clear differences in the volatile metabolites of wild and farmed sea bass have been found. A great deal of valuable information on sea bass volatile metabolites has been obtained, which can be useful in understanding certain aspects of the quality and safety of raw and processed sea bass. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Spatial and temporal variation in recruitment and growth of Channel Catfish Alabama bass and Tallapoosa Bass in the Tallapoosa River and associated tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Elise R.; Goar, Taconya

    2015-01-01

    Effects of hydrology on growth and hatching success of age-0 black basses and Channel Catfish were examined in regulated and unregulated reaches of the Tallapoosa River, Alabama. Species of the family Centrarchidae, Ictalurus punctatus Channel Catfish and Pylodictis olivaris Flathead Catfish were also collected from multiple tributaries in the basin. Fish were collected from 2010-2014 and were assigned daily ages using otoliths. Hatch dates of individuals of three species (Micropterus henshalli Alabama Bass, M. tallapoosae Tallapoosa Bass and Channel Catfish) were back calculated, and growth histories were estimated every 5 d post hatch from otolith sections using incremental growth analysis. Hatch dates and incremental growth were related to hydrologic and temperature metrics from environmental data collected during the same time periods. Hatch dates at the regulated sites were related to and typically occurred during periods with low and stable flow conditions; however no clear relations between hatch and thermal or flow metrics were evident for the unregulated sites. Some fish hatched during unsuitable thermal conditions at the regulated site suggesting that some fish may recruit from unregulated tributaries. Ages and growth rates of age-0 black basses ranged from 105 to 131 d and 0.53 to 1.33 mm/day at the regulated sites and 44 to 128 d and 0.44 to 0.96 mm/d at the unregulated sites. In general, growth was highest among age-0 fish from the regulated sites, consistent with findings of other studies. Mortality of age-0 to age-1 fish was also variable among years and between sites and with the exception of one year, was lower at regulated sites. Multiple and single regression models of incremental growth versus age, discharge, and temperature metrics were evaluated with Akaike’s Information Criterion (AICc) to assess models that best described growth parameters. Of the models evaluated, the best overall models predicted that daily incremental growth was

  3. Effect of the addition of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii on the gut microbiota composition and contribution to the well-being of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvi, Stefania; Nardi, Miria; Sulpizio, Roberto; Orpianesi, Carla; Caggiano, Massimo; Carnevali, Oliana; Cresci, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the effects of probiotic treatment on gut microbiota and the contribution to the well-being of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.). A bacterial strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii (AS13B), isolated from adult European sea bass gut, was administered during sea bass development using Brachionus plicatilis and/or Artemia salina as carriers. The effective strain colonization and modulation of the gut microbiota, the mortality and the cor...

  4. Narrative Constructions of Whiteness among White Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foste, Zak

    2017-01-01

    This critical narrative inquiry was guided by two overarching research questions. First, this study examined how white undergraduates interpreted and gave meaning to their white racial identities. This line of inquiry sought to understand how participants made sense of their white racial selves, the self in relation to people of color, and the…

  5. Accurate Estimation of Target amounts Using Expanded BASS Model for Demand-Side Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Woong; Park, Jong-Jin; Kim, Jin-O.

    2008-10-01

    The electricity demand in Korea has rapidly increased along with a steady economic growth since 1970s. Therefore Korea has positively propelled not only SSM (Supply-Side Management) but also DSM (Demand-Side Management) activities to reduce investment cost of generating units and to save supply costs of electricity through the enhancement of whole national energy utilization efficiency. However study for rebate, which have influence on success or failure on DSM program, is not sufficient. This paper executed to modeling mathematically expanded Bass model considering rebates, which have influence on penetration amounts for DSM program. To reflect rebate effect more preciously, the pricing function using in expanded Bass model directly reflects response of potential participants for rebate level.

  6. BASS 4: a software system for ergonomic design and evaluation of working hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Schomann

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To extend an existing computer programme for the evaluation and design of shift schedules (BASS 3 by integrating workload as well as economic aspects. METHODS: The redesigned prototype BASS 4 includes a new module with a suitable and easily applicable screening method (EBA for the assessment of the intensity of physical, emotional and cognitive workload components and their temporal patterns. Specified criterion functions based on these ratings allow for an adjustment of shift and rest duration according to the intensity of physical and mental workload. Furthermore, with regard to interactive effects both workload and temporal conditions, e.g. time of day, are taken into account. In a second new module, important economic aspects and criteria have been implemented. Different ergonomic solutions for scheduling problems can now also be evaluated with regard to their economic costs. RESULTS: The new version of the computer programme (BASS 4 can now simultaneously take into account numerous ergonomic, legal, agreed and economic criteria for the design and evaluation of working hours. CONCLUSIONS: BASS 4 can now be used as an instrument for the design and the evaluation of working hours with regard to legal, ergonomic and economic aspects at the shop floor as well as in administrative (e.g. health and safety inspection and research problems.OBJETIVOS: Expandir um programa computacional existente para planejamento e avaliação dos horários de turnos (BASS 3 por meio da incorporação da carga de trabalho e características econômicas. MÉTODOS: O protótipo BASS 4 contém um novo módulo com um método de triagem (EBA conveniente e de fácil aplicação para a avaliação da intensidade dos componentes físico, emocional e cognitivo da carga de trabalho e seus padrões temporais. O uso de critérios específicos com base nestas avaliações possibilita ajustar a duração do turno e do descanso de acordo com a intensidade da carga de

  7. Actualisation de l'entomofaune des cultures maraîchères en Basse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avec l'essor de nouveaux bassins de production maraîchère et la mise en place de fermes agricoles, le maraîchage en Basse Casamance est devenu une activité génératrice de revenus. Les insectes ravageurs et les acariens limitent la production des spéculations par leurs dégâts. Les études effectuées sur ...

  8. Length limits fail to restructure a Largemouth Bass population: A 28‐year case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Colvin, M.E.; Shamaskin, A. C.; Bull, L. A.; Holman, T.; Jones, R.

    2017-01-01

    Length limits have been implemented by fisheries management agencies to achieve population density, size structure, and angler satisfaction objectives. By redirecting harvest towards or away from particular length‐ or age‐groups, length limits rely on harvest by anglers to maintain a population at or near a desired state. The fish population changes that follow the implementation of harvest regulations may take several years to manifest, so long‐term monitoring may be needed to adequately evaluate length limits. We used an innovative application of cluster analysis to facilitate evaluation of the effects of three consecutive length limits on a population of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides over a 28‐year period in Ross Barnett Reservoir, Mississippi. A 13–16‐in protected slot length limit (10 years), followed by a 15‐in minimum length limit (MLL; 11 years), followed by a 12‐in MLL (7 years) failed to restructure the Largemouth Bass population due to what we suggest was the expansion of a voluntary catch‐and‐release attitude that started in the first decade of the study period. Various population metrics shifted towards values expected in an unharvested population, and the observed shifts can be attributed to a harvest deficit created by the prevailing catch‐and‐release attitude. Largemouth Bass harvest regulations may no longer be relevant in many waters. The utility of regulations for restructuring Largemouth Bass populations is largely dependent on harvesting attitudes that vary geographically, depending on cultural characteristics and demographics.

  9. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Barber, David S.; Gross, Timothy S.; Johnson, Kevin G.; Sepúlveda, María S.; Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2006-01-01

    Dieldrin and p,p′-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p′-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p′-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin...

  10. Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on reproductive success of largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maria S; Quinn, Brian P; Denslow, Nancy D; Holm, Stewart E; Gross, Timothy S

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of bleached and unbleached kraft mill effluent on reproductive success of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Bass were exposed to effluent concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for 28 and 56 d. Parameters measured included hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) and plasma concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and vitellogenin (VTG). At the end of the 56-d period, bass were moved to hatchery ponds to evaluate spawning success. Spawning mats with eggs either were brought indoors for evaluation of fecundities, hatchabilities, and egg and fry size (measured at age 3 d), or were left in ponds and fry number and size recorded (average age of 14 d). Effluent exposure was verified by measuring resin acids (isopimaric, abietic. and dehydroabietic acids) in bile. Compared to controls, exposed bass had greater concentrations of resin acids in bile. In general, exposed females had lower concentrations of E2 and VTG (> or = 20% effluent), whereas males had lower concentrations of 11-KT (> or = 20% effluent) and increased E2 (> or = 20% effluent). The HSI values increased in females (> or = 10% effluent), and GSI values decreased in both sexes (> or = 40% effluent). Fecundity, egg size, and hatchability did not differ across treatments, but an increase in the frequency of fry abnormalities and a decrease in fry weights was observed at effluent exposures of 40% and higher. However, results from the pond study, revealed a significant reduction in fry growth and survival (> or = 10%). This decline may have been caused by an increased frequency of deformities, in conjunction with alterations of growth. These changes could have resulted from alterations in egg quality because of failure of parental reproductive systems, from acute embryo toxicity after translocation of contaminants from the mother to the developing embryo, or from both.

  11. Ketoconazole modulates the infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. (Mesomycetozoa) in vivo in experimentally injected European sea bass

    OpenAIRE

    Hontoria, Francisco; González, Mª Ángeles; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Palenzuela, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro studies have confirmed the inhibitory effect of the azol-derivative ketoconazole (KZ) on the growth of Ichthyophonus, an important pathogen causing epizootics in wild and cultured fish. We evaluated the effect of KZ in vivo in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with the same Ichthyophonus isolate. Liposomes were used to vehiculate different doses of KZ to increase the effect on Ichthyophonus and lower the toxicity of the drug, and KZ toxicity was assessed ...

  12. Wind energy in ''Basse Normandie'': the energies of the sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper brings together the main topics discussed during the 4. colloquium on the wind energy: the french lateness concerning the wind energy development, the regulatory framework concerning the wind turbines implementation sites, the wind energy situation in ''Basse Normandie'', the offshore wind energy, the site of Sortosville-en-Beaumont, the public relations, the employment and an analysis of some rumors and prejudices. (A.L.B.)

  13. Intersex (testicular oocytes) in smallmouth bass from the Potomac River and selected nearby drainages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, V S; Iwanowicz, L R; Iwanowicz, D D; Smith, D R; Young, J A; Hedrick, J D; Foster, S W; Reeser, S J

    2007-12-01

    Intersex, or the presence of characteristics of both sexes, in fishes that are normally gonochoristic has been used as an indicator of exposure to estrogenic compounds. In 2003, during health assessments conducted in response to kills and a high prevalence of skin lesions observed in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in the South Branch of the Potomac River, the presence of immature oocytes within testes was noted. To evaluate this condition, a severity index (0-4) was developed based on the distribution of oocytes within the testes. Using gonad samples collected from 2003 to 2005, the number of histologic sections needed to accurately detect the condition in mature smallmouth bass was statistically evaluated. The reliability of detection depended on the severity index and the number of sections examined. Examining five transverse sections taken along the length of the gonad resulted in a greater than 90% probability of detecting testicular oocytes when the severity index exceeded 0.5. Using the severity index we compared smallmouth bass collected at selected sites within the South Branch during three seasons in 2004. Seasonal differences in severity and prevalence were observed. The highest prevalence and severity were consistently noted during the prespawn-spawning season, when compared with the postspawn season. In 2005, smallmouth bass were collected at selected out-of-basin sites in West Virginia where fish kills and external skin lesions have not been reported, as well as at sites in the Shenandoah River, Virginia (part of the Potomac drainage), where kills and lesions occurred in 2004-2005. The prevalence of testicular oocytes is discussed in terms of human population and agricultural intensity.

  14. Pyrosequencing survey of intestinal microbiota diversity in cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed functional diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Carda Diéguez, Miguel; Mira, Alex; Fouz Rodríguez, Belén

    2014-01-01

    The routine use of chemotherapy to control bacterial diseases in aquatic populations has resulted in the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The inclusion of immunostimulants in fish diets (functional diets) is one of the main strategies to solve this threat. This study aimed to analyse the intestinal microbiota of cultured European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed two functional diets applying pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. Quality-filtered reads were assigned...

  15. Post-epizootic chronic dolphin morbillivirus infection in Mediterranean striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sara; Alba, Ana; Ganges, Llilianne; Vidal, Enric; Raga, Juan Antonio; Alegre, Ferrán; González, Beatriz; Medina, Pascual; Zorrilla, Irene; Martínez, Jorge; Marco, Alberto; Pérez, Mónica; Pérez, Blanca; Pérez de Vargas Mesas, Ana; Martínez Valverde, Rosa; Domingo, Mariano

    2011-10-06

    Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) has caused 2 epizootics with high mortality rates on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, in 1990 and 2006-07, mainly affecting striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba. Following the first epizootic unusual DMV infections affecting only the central nervous system of striped dolphins were found, with histological features similar to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and old dog encephalitis, the chronic latent localised infections caused by defective forms of measles virus and canine distemper virus, respectively. Between 2008 and 2010, monitoring by microscopic and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies of 118 striped dolphins stranded along Catalonia, the Valencia Region and Andalusia showed similar localised DMV nervous system infections in 25.0, 28.6 and 27.4% of cases, respectively, with no significant differences among regions or sex. The body length of DMV-infected dolphins was statistically greater than that of non-infected dolphins (196.5 vs. 160.5 cm; p dolphins with positive IHC-DMV had positive PCR results. All 6 cases were positive with the 78 bp RT-PCR. These findings contraindicate the use of the 429 bp RT-PCR protocol based on the P gene to detect this specific form of DMV. DMV localised nervous infection constitutes the most relevant single cause of stranding and death in Mediterranean striped dolphins in the years following a DMV epizootic, and it might even overwhelm the effects of the epizootic itself, at least in 2007.

  16. Long-range transverse spin Seebeck effect in permalloy stripes using Sagnac interferometer microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoliang; McLaughlin, Ryan; Sun, Dali; Valy Vardeny, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Coupling of spins and phonons in ferromagnets (FM) may persist up to mm length scale, thus generating macroscopic spatially distributed spin accumulation along the direction of an applied thermal gradient to an FM slab. This typical feature of transverse spin Seebeck effect (TSSE) has been demonstrated so far using electrical detection methods in FM films, in particular in a patterned structure, in which FM stripes grown onto a substrate perpendicular to the applied thermal gradient direction are electrically and magnetically isolated. Here we report optically detected TSSE response in isolated FM stripes based on permalloy deposited on SiN substrate, upon the application of a thermal gradient. For these measurements we used the magneto-optic Kerr effect measured by an ultrasensitive Sagnac interferometer microscope that is immune to thermo-electrics artefacts. We found that the optical TSSE coefficient in the NiFe stripes geometry is about one order of magnitude smaller than that in the continuous NiFe film, which is due to the limited phonons path in the FM stripes along the thermal gradient direction. Our results further confirm the existence of TSSE response in conducting FM compounds.

  17. Enhanced resistance to stripe rust disease in transgenic wheat expressing the rice chitinase gene RC24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan; Wang, Jian; Du, Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Li, Lan; Xu, Ziqin

    2013-10-01

    Stripe rust is a devastating fungal disease of wheat worldwide which is primarily caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp tritici. Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing rice class chitinase gene RC24 were developed by particle bombardment of immature embryos and tested for resistance to Puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici. under greenhouse and field conditions. Putative transformants were selected on kanamycin-containing media. Polymease chain reaction indicated that RC24 was transferred into 17 transformants obtained from bombardment of 1,684 immature embryos. Integration of RC24 was confirmed by Southern blot with a RC24-labeled probe and expression of RC24 was verified by RT-PCR. Nine transgenic T1 lines exhibited enhanced resistance to stripe rust infection with lines XN8 and BF4 showing the highest level of resistance. Southern blot hybridization confirmed the stable inheritance of RC24 in transgenic T1 plants. Resistance to stripe rust in transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants was confirmed over two consecutive years in the field. Increased yield (27-36 %) was recorded for transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants compared to controls. These results suggest that rice class I chitinase RC24 can be used to engineer stripe rust resistance in wheat.

  18. 3D Measurement Technology by Structured Light Using Stripe-Edge-Based Gray Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H B; Chen, Y; Wu, M Y; Guan, C R; Yu, X Y

    2006-01-01

    The key problem of 3D vision measurement using triangle method based on structured light is to acquiring projecting angle of projecting light accurately. In order to acquire projecting angle thereby determine the corresponding relationship between sampling point and image point, method for encoding and decoding structured light based on stripe edge of Gray code is presented. The method encoded with Gray code stripe and decoded with stripe edge acquired by sub-pixel technology instead of pixel centre, so latter one-bit decoding error was removed. Accuracy of image sampling point location and correspondence between image sampling point and object sampling point achieved sub-pixel degree. In addition, measurement error caused by dividing projecting angle irregularly by even-width encoding stripe was analysed and corrected. Encoding and decoding principle and decoding equations were described. Finally, 3dsmax and Matlab software were used to simulate measurement system and reconstruct measured surface. Indicated by experimental results, measurement error is about 0.05%

  19. Spatial aspects of the reproductive and feeding biology of the striped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the reproductive and feeding biology of two allopatric populations of the striped robber, Brycinus lateralis, a small characin species inhabiting the northern riverine floodplain and southern drainage rivers, were investigated. Both populations were similar in the biological aspects studied, with the flood cycle having ...

  20. Multi-location wheat stripe rust QTL analysis: genetic background and epistatic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, M Dolores; Zemetra, Robert; Peterson, C James; Chen, Xianming M; Heesacker, Adam; Mundt, Christopher C

    2015-07-01

    Epistasis and genetic background were important influences on expression of stripe rust resistance in two wheat RIL populations, one with resistance conditioned by two major genes and the other conditioned by several minor QTL. Stripe rust is a foliar disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by the air-borne fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and is present in most regions around the world where commercial wheat is grown. Breeding for durable resistance to stripe rust continues to be a priority, but also is a challenge due to the complexity of interactions among resistance genes and to the wide diversity and continuous evolution of the pathogen races. The goal of this study was to detect chromosomal regions for resistance to stripe rust in two winter wheat populations, 'Tubbs'/'NSA-98-0995' (T/N) and 'Einstein'/'Tubbs' (E/T), evaluated across seven environments and mapped with diversity array technology and simple sequence repeat markers covering polymorphic regions of ≈1480 and 1117 cM, respectively. Analysis of variance for phenotypic data revealed significant (P located in chromosomes 2AS and 6AL, with epistatic interaction between them, were responsible for the main phenotypic response. For the T/N population, eight QTL were identified, with those in chromosomes 2AL and 2BL accounting for the largest percentage of the phenotypic variance.

  1. Genetics of adult plant stripe rust resistance in CSP44, a selection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    areas of temperate zones (Johnson 1988). Yield losses can be considerable, ranging from about 40 per cent to com- plete destruction of the crop depending upon the growth stage at which the disease attacks. Using diverse genes for resistance against stripe rust disease is the most eco- nomical and environmentally safe ...

  2. Intestinal alterations in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to microplastics: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedà, Cristina; Caccamo, Letteria; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Gai, Francesco; Andaloro, Franco; Genovese, Lucrezia; Perdichizzi, Anna; Romeo, Teresa; Maricchiolo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates, for the first time, the intestinal responses of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax chronically exposed to microplastics through ingestion. Fish (n = 162) were fed with 3 different treatment diets for 90 days: control, native polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polluted polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pellets. Intestines were fixed and processed for histological analysis using standard techniques. Histopathological alterations were examined using a score value (from 0 to 4). The distal part of intestine in all samples proved to be the most affected by pathological alterations, showing a gradual change varying from moderate to severe related to exposure times. The histological picture that characterizes both groups especially after 90 days of exposure, suggests that the intestinal functions can be in some cases totally compromised. The worst condition is increasingly evident in the distal intestine of fish fed with polluted PVC pellets respect to control groups (p < 0.05) to different exposure times. These first results underline the need to assess the impact of increasing microplastics pollution on the marine trophic web. - Highlights: • Data on microplastics ingestion in European sea bass are reported. • After 60 and 90 days severe histological changes in distal intestine were observed. • Results suggest that the ingestion of microplastics alters intestinal tissues. • Plastics ingestion in fish represents a hazard for the effects on marine ecosystem. - Alterations in intestines of European sea bass exposed to microplastics.

  3. Quality changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with lemongrass essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mehraj; Benjakul, Soottawat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash

    2012-04-16

    Microbiological, chemical and physical changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with 25% (w/w) lemongrass essential oil (LEO) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with LEO film had the retarded growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), psychrophilic bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including H₂S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with the control and those wrapped with gelatin film without LEO (G film) (P<0.05). Lowered changes of colour, K value, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB) and TBARS value were also found in LEO film wrapped samples, compared with those wrapped with G film and control, respectively. Therefore, the incorporation of LEO into gelatin film could enhance the antimicrobial and antioxidative properties of the film, thereby maintaining the qualities and extending the shelf-life of the sea bass slices stored at refrigerated temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphological correlates of swimming activity in wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in their natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, K C; Hasler, C T; Suski, C D; Cooke, S J

    2007-12-01

    Individual variation in morphology has been linked to organismal performance in numerous taxa. Recently, the relationship between functional morphology and swimming performance in teleost fishes has been studied in laboratory experiments. In this study, we evaluate the relationship between morphology and swimming activity of wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) during the reproductive period, providing the first data derived on free-swimming fish not exposed to forced swim trials in the laboratory. Sixteen male largemouth bass were angled from their nests, telemetered, and subsequently monitored by a whole-lake acoustic hydrophone array with sub-meter accuracy. Additionally, eleven morphological measurements were taken from digital images of each fish. A principal components analysis of the morphological measurements described 79.8% of the variance. PC1 was characterized by measures of overall body stoutness, PC2 was characterized by measures of the length and depth of the caudal region, and PC3 characterized individuals with relatively large anterior portions of the body and relatively small caudal areas. Of these variables, only PC3 showed significant relationships to swimming activity throughout the parental care period. PC3 was negatively correlated with multiple measures of swimming activity across the parental care period. Furthermore, swimming performance of individual male bass was noted to be repeatable across the parental care period indicating that this phenomenon extends beyond the laboratory.

  5. Modeling of "Stripe" Wave Phenomena Seen by the CHARM II and ACES Sounding Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, M. P.; Labelle, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Two recent sounding-rocket missions—CHARM II and ACES—have been launched from Poker Flat Research Range, carrying the Dartmouth High-Frequency Experiment (HFE) among their primary instruments. The HFE is a receiver system which effectively yields continuous (100% duty cycle) E-field waveform measurements up to 5 MHz. The CHARM II sounding rocket was launched 9:49 UT on 15 February 2010 into a substorm, while the ACES mission consisted of two rockets, launched into quiet aurora at 9:49 and 9:50 UT on 29 January 2009. At approximately 350 km on CHARM II and the ACES High-Flyer, the HFE detected short (~2s) bursts of broadband (200-500 kHz) noise with a 'stripe' pattern of nulls imposed on it. These nulls have 10 to 20 kHz width and spacing, and many show a regular, non-linear frequency-time relation. These events are different from the 'stripes' discussed by Samara and LaBelle [2006] and Colpitts et al. [2010], because of the density of the stripes, the non-linearity, and the appearance of being an absorptive rather than emissive phenomenon. These events are similar to 'stripe' features reported by Brittain et al. [1983] in the VLF range, explained as an interference pattern between a downward-traveling whistler-mode wave and its reflection off the bottom of the ionosphere. Following their analysis method, we modeled our stripes as higher-frequency interfering whistlers reflecting off of a density gradient. This model predicts the near-hyperbolic frequency-time curves and high density of the nulls, and therefore shows promise at explaining the new observations.

  6. Zebrin II Is Expressed in Sagittal Stripes in the Cerebellum of Dragon Lizards (Ctenophorus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Douglas R; Hoops, Daniel; Aspden, Joel W; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    Aldolase C, also known as zebrin II (ZII), is a glycolytic enzyme that is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the vertebrate cerebellum. In both mammals and birds, ZII is expressed heterogeneously, such that there are sagittal stripes of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+) alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with little or no expression (ZII-). In contrast, in snakes and turtles, ZII is not expressed heterogeneously; rather all Purkinje cells are ZII+. Here, we examined the expression of ZII in the cerebellum of lizards to elucidate the evolutionary origins of ZII stripes in Sauropsida. We focused on the central netted dragon (Ctenophorus nuchalis) but also examined cerebellar ZII expression in 5 other dragon species (Ctenophorus spp.). In contrast to what has been observed in snakes and turtles, we found that in these lizards, ZII is heterogeneously expressed. In the posterior part of the cerebellum, on each side of the midline, there were 3 sagittal stripes consisting of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+) alternating with 2 sagittal stripes with weaker ZII expression (ZIIw). More anteriorly, most of the Purkinje cells were ZII+, except laterally, where the Purkinje cells did not express ZII (ZII-). Finally, all Purkinje cells in the auricle (flocculus) were ZII-. Overall, the parasagittal heterogeneous expression of ZII in the cerebellum of lizards is similar to that in mammals and birds, and contrasts with the homogenous ZII+ expression seen in snakes and turtles. We suggest that a sagittal heterogeneous expression of ZII represents the ancestral condition in stem reptiles which was lost in snakes and turtles. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Remapping of the stripe rust resistance gene Yr10 in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cuiling; Wu, Jingzheng; Yan, Baiqiang; Hao, Qunqun; Zhang, Chaozhong; Lyu, Bo; Ni, Fei; Caplan, Allan; Wu, Jiajie; Fu, Daolin

    2018-02-23

    Yr10 is an important gene to control wheat stripe rust, and the search for Yr10 needs to be continued. Wheat stripe rust or yellow rust is a devastating fungal disease caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). Host disease resistance offers a primary source for controlling wheat stripe rust. The stripe rust resistance gene Yr10 confers the race-specific resistance to most tested Pst races in China including CYR29. Early studies proposed that Yr10 was a nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat gene archived as GenBank accession AF149112 (hereafter designated the Yr10 candidate gene or Yr10 CG ). In this study, we revealed that 15 Chinese wheat cultivars positive for Yr10 CG are susceptible to CYR29. We then expressed the Yr10 CG cDNA in the common wheat 'Bobwhite'. The Yr10 CG -cDNA positive transgenic plants were also susceptible to CYR29. Thus, it is highly unlikely that Yr10 CG corresponds to the Yr10 resistance gene. Using the Yr10 donor 'Moro' and the Pst-susceptible wheat 'Huixianhong', we generated two F 3 populations that displayed a single Mendelian segregation on the Yr10 gene, and used them to remap the Yr10 gene. Six markers were placed in the Yr10 region, with the Yr10 CG gene now mapping about 1.2-cM proximal to the Yr10 locus and the Xsdauw79 marker is completely linked to the Yr10 locus. Apparently, the Yr10 gene has not yet been identified. Fine mapping and positional cloning of Yr10 is important for gene pyramiding for stripe rust resistance in wheat.

  8. The Behavioural Assessment of Self-Structuring (BASS): psychometric properties in a post-acute brain injury rehabilitation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Howard F; Tunstall, Victoria; Hague, Gemma; Daniels, Leanne; Crompton, Stacey; Taplin, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Jackson et al. (this edition) argue that structure is an important component in reducing the handicaps caused by cognitive impairments following acquired brain injury and that post-acute neuropsychological brain injury rehabilitation programmes should not only endeavour to provide structure but also aim to develop self-structuring. However, at present there is no standardized device for assessing self-structuring. To provide preliminary analysis of the psychometric properties of the Behavioural Assessment of Self-Structuring (BASS) staff rating scale (a 26 item informant five point rating scale based on the degree of support client requires to achieve self-structuring item). BASS data was utilised for clients attending residential rehabilitation. Reliability (inter-rarer and intra-rater), validity (construct, concurrent and discriminate) and sensitivity to change were investigated. Initial results indicate that the BASS has reasonably good reliability, good construct validity (via principal components analysis), good discriminant validity, and good concurrent validity correlating well with a number of other outcome measures (HoNOS; NPDS, Supervision Rating Scale, MPAI, FIM and FAM). The BASS did not correlate well with the NPCNA. Finally, the BASS was shown to demonstrate sensitivity to change. Although some caution is required in drawing firm conclusions at the present time and further exploration of the psychometric properties of the BASS is required, initial results are encouraging for the use of the BASS in assessing rehabilitation progress. These findings are discussed in terms of the value of the concept of self-structuring to the rehabilitation process for individuals with neuropsychological impairments consequent on acquired brain injury.

  9. The European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax genome puzzle: comparative BAC-mapping and low coverage shotgun sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volckaert Filip AM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food supply from the ocean is constrained by the shortage of domesticated and selected fish. Development of genomic models of economically important fishes should assist with the removal of this bottleneck. European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. (Moronidae, Perciformes, Teleostei is one of the most important fishes in European marine aquaculture; growing genomic resources put it on its way to serve as an economic model. Results End sequencing of a sea bass genomic BAC-library enabled the comparative mapping of the sea bass genome using the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus genome as a reference. BAC-end sequences (102,690 were aligned to the stickleback genome. The number of mappable BACs was improved using a two-fold coverage WGS dataset of sea bass resulting in a comparative BAC-map covering 87% of stickleback chromosomes with 588 BAC-contigs. The minimum size of 83 contigs covering 50% of the reference was 1.2 Mbp; the largest BAC-contig comprised 8.86 Mbp. More than 22,000 BAC-clones aligned with both ends to the reference genome. Intra-chromosomal rearrangements between sea bass and stickleback were identified. Size distributions of mapped BACs were used to calculate that the genome of sea bass may be only 1.3 fold larger than the 460 Mbp stickleback genome. Conclusions The BAC map is used for sequencing single BACs or BAC-pools covering defined genomic entities by second generation sequencing technologies. Together with the WGS dataset it initiates a sea bass genome sequencing project. This will allow the quantification of polymorphisms through resequencing, which is important for selecting highly performing domesticated fish.

  10. Erick A. White | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 2011 B.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder Research Assistant, Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2006-2011 Field Team Erick A. White Photo of Erick A. White Erick White Chemical Reaction Engineer Erick.White@nrel.gov

  11. Die faktorstruktuur van Bass se veelfaktor- leierskapsvraelys in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C .P. Ackermann

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire in the South African context. The aim of the study was to determine whether the factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, as a measure of transformational leadership, could be replicated within the South African context. The MLQ was chosen not only because it promised to be a valid and reliable measuring instrument of the construct in question, but also due to the fact that there was an urgent need for such an instrument in the management of human resources within organisations undergoing transformation. The MLQ was administered to 406 subjects within the military context and was subjected to factor analysis and item analysis. The factor analysis yielded three factors, namely transformational leadership, transactional leadership and avoidance of leadership ("laissez faire" leadership. The reliabilities of the scales were determined by means of Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and yielded coefficients of 0,944, 0,736 and 0,803 respectively. The factor structure as conceptualised by Bass (1985 was largely confirmed in the present study. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om vas te stel of die faktorstruktuur van die Veelfaktorleierskapsvraelys (MLQ van Bass, as maatstafvan transformasionele leierskap, in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks gerepliseer kon word. Die MLQ is gekies omdat dit belofte inhou as n geldige en betroubare meetinstrument van die onderhawige konstruk, en ook weens die feit dat daar 'n dringende behoefte bestaan aan so n instrument vir gebruik in die bestuur van menslike hulpbronne in organisasies tydens verandering. Die MLQ is op 406 proefpersone binne militêre konteks toegepas, en aan n faktorontleding en n itemontleding onderwerp. Die faktorontleding het drie faktore opgelewer, te wete transformasionele leierskap, transaksionele leierskap en vermyding van leierskap ("laissez faire"-leierskap. Die betroubaarheid van die skale is bepaal

  12. White-electroluminescent device with horizontally patterned blue/yellow phosphor-layer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won Park, Boo; Sik Choi, Nam; Won Park, Kwang; Mo Son, So; Kim, Jong Su; Kyun Shon, Pong

    2007-01-01

    White-electroluminescent (EL) devices with stripe-patterned and square-patterned phosphor-layer structures are fabricated through a screen printing method: electrode/BaTiO 3 insulator layer/patterned blue ZnS:Cu, Cl and yellow ZnS:Cu, Mn phosphor layer/ITO PET substrate. The luminous intensities of EL devices with stripe-patterned and square-patterned phosphor-layer structures are 33% and 23% higher than a conventional device with the phosphor-layer structure without any patterns using the phosphor blend. It can be explained in terms of the absorption of the emitted blue light of blue phosphor layer by the yellow-emitting phosphor layer. The EL device of our patterned phosphor-layer structure gives the possibility to enhance the luminance

  13. Effects of Different Planting Times of Different Rice Cultivars on Control of the Striped Stem Borer (Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Oskou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rice (Oryza sativa L. is one of the world’s most important staple food crops. In Asia, it is the main item of the diet of 3.5 billion people. Rice stem borers are common insect pests in many rice growing countries. Striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis Walker, belonging to Lepidoptera and family of Pyralidae is the most important rice pest in the Northern Iran. Stem borer larva damages rice stem and disturbs nutrient translocation from root to leaf. As the result, tillers in vegetative stage died, which is called dead heart. When larva infests generative stage, it causes empty panicle, which is called white head. Integrated pest management (IPM practices for controlling the stem borers in Iran have not been fully implemented because of limited control technologies which are available. Farmers often rely on heavily insecticide application, although many insecticide applications are not effective. Therefore, many physical and cultural practices have been suggested, including adjustment of planting time to escape the plant from heavy pest. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in deputy of rice research institute in Amol, Mazandaran, Iran, during 2011-2012. The experiment was arranged in split plot design with planting time as main plot and cultivar as subplot and was replicated three times. Three planting times tested were the first planting time i.e. 15 days before farmers’ planting time, the second planting time (simultaneously with farmers’ planting time, and the third planting time (15days after farmers’ planting time. Six rice cultivars tested, representing three types of rice cultivar, Tarom and Kohsar (early maturity cultivars, Shirodi and Fajr (medium maturity cultivars, Neda and Nemat (late maturity cultivar. Rice seedlings were transplanted at 25 cm planting distance in a 3 m x 9 m plot size. Weeding and fertilization were done as recommended. No insecticide was applied. Dead hearts and white heads were

  14. Interactions between walleyes and smallmouth bass in a Missouri River reservoir with consideration of the influence of temperature and prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuellner, Melissa R.; Chipps, Steven R.; Willis, David W.; Adams, Wells E.

    2010-01-01

    Walleyes Sander vitreus are the most popular fish among South Dakota anglers, but smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu were introduced to provide new angling opportunities. Some walleye anglers have reported reductions in the quality of walleye fisheries since the introduction of smallmouth bass and attribute this to the consumption of young walleyes by smallmouth bass and competition for shared prey resources. We quantified the diets of walleyes and smallmouth bass in the lower reaches of Lake Sharpe (a Missouri River reservoir), calculated the diet overlap between the two predators, and determined whether they partitioned shared prey based on size. We also quantified walleye diets in the upper reach of the reservoir, which has a different prey base and allowed us to compare the growth rates of walleyes within Lake Sharpe. Age-0 gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum composed a substantial proportion of the diets of both predators, regardless of location, for most of the growing season; the patterns in shad vulnerability appeared to drive the observed patterns in diet overlap. Smallmouth bass appeared to consume a smaller size range of gizzard shad than did walleyes, which consumed a wide range. Smallmouth bass consumed Sander spp. in some months, but in very low quantities. Given that global climate change is expected to alter the population and community dynamics in Great Plains reservoirs, we also used a bioenergetics approach to predict the potential effects of limiting prey availability (specifically, the absence of gizzard shad and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax) and increased water temperatures (as projected from global climate change models) on walleye and smallmouth bass growth. The models indicated that the absence of rainbow smelt from the diets of walleyes in upper Lake Sharpe would reduce growth but that the absence of gizzard shad would have a more marked negative effect on both predators at both locations. The models also indicated that higher

  15. Estimates of growth and mortality of under-yearling smallmouth bass in Spednic Lake, from 1970 through 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Robert W.; Trial, Joan G.

    2014-01-01

    This report is the product of a 2013 cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey, the International Joint Commission, and the Maine Bureau of Sea Run Fisheries and Habitat to quantify the effects of meteorological conditions (from 1970 through 2008) on the survival of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the first year of life in Spednic Lake. This report documents the data and methods used to estimate historical daily mean lake surface-water temperatures from early spring through late autumn, which were used to estimate the dates of smallmouth bass spawning, young-of-the-year growth, and probable strength of each year class. Mortality of eggs and fry in nests was modeled and estimated to exceed 10 percent in 17 of 39 years; during those years, cold temperatures in the early part of the spawning period resulted in mortality to fish that were estimated to have had the longest growing season and attain the greatest length. Modeled length-dependent overwinter survival combined with early mortality identified 1986, 1994, 1996, and 2004 as the years in which temperature was likely to have presented the greatest challenge to year-class strength in the Spednic Lake fishery. Age distribution of bass in fisheries on lakes in the St. Croix and surrounding watersheds confirmed that conditions in 1986 and 1996 resulted in weak smallmouth bass year classes (age-four or age-five bass representing less than 15 percent of a 100-fish sample).

  16. Tidal-Induced Ocean Dynamics as Cause of Enceladus' Tiger Stripe Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersen, B. L.; Maas, L. R.; van Oers, S.; Rabitti, A.; Jara-Orue, H.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most peculiar features on Saturn moon Enceladus is its so-called tiger stripe pattern at the geologically active South Polar Terrain (SPT), as first observed in detail by the Cassini spacecraft early 2005. It is generally assumed that the four almost parallel surface lines that constitute this pattern are faults in the icy surface overlying a confined salty water reservoir. Indeed, later Cassini observations have shown that salty water jets originate from the tiger stripes [e.g., Hansen et al., Science, 311, 1422-1425, 2006; Postberg et al., Nature, 474, 620-622, 2011]. The periodic activity of the tiger stripe faults shows a strong correlation with tidal forcing. Jets emanating from specific fault lines seem to be triggered at those places of the faults where tidal-induced stresses are largest immediately following closest orbital approach with Saturn [e.g., Hurford et al., Nature, 447, 292-294, 2007]. Thus jet activity seems to be directly induced by tidal forcing. However, this does not explain the characteristic regular pattern of the stripes themselves. Here we explore the possibility that this pattern is formed and maintained by induced, tidally and rotationally driven, fluid motions in the ocean underneath the icy surface of the tiger-stripe region. The remarkable spatial regularity of Enceladus' SPT fault lines is reminiscent of that observed at the surface of confined density-stratified fluids by the action of induced internal gravity waves. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and laboratory water tank experiments all indicate that wave attractors - particular limit orbits to which waves are focused in a fluid basin - naturally emerge in gravitationally (radial salt concentration or temperature differences) or rotationally stratified confined fluids as a function of forcing periodicity and fluid basin geometry [Maas et al., Nature, 338, 557-561, 1997]. We have found that ocean dynamical wave attractors induced by tidal-effective forcing

  17. Effect of different dose gamma radiation and refrigeration on the chemical and sensory properties and microbiological status of aqua cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozden, Ozkan; Inugur, Muege; Erkan, Nuray

    2007-01-01

    Quality and shelf life of non-irradiated and irradiated (2.5 and 5kGy) sea bass in ice conditions and stored at +4 deg. C were investigated by measurement in microbiological, chemical sensory analyses. Microbial counts for non-irradiated sea bass samples were higher than irradiated fish. Among chemical indicators of spoilage, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) values increased to 36.44mg/100g for non-irradiated sea bass during iced storage, whereas for irradiated fish lower values of 25.26mg/100g and 23.61mg/100g were recorded at 2.5 and 5kGy, respectively (day 17). Trimethylamine (TMA-N) values and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values for irradiated samples were lower than that for non-irradiated samples. Acceptability scores for odour, taste and texture of cooked sea bass decreased with storage time. The sensory scores of sea bass stored in control and 2.5-5kGy at +4 deg. C were 13 and 15 days, respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the shelf life of sea bass stored in ice, as determined by overall acceptability of all data, is 13 days for non-irradiated sea bass and 15 days for 2.5kGy irradiated and 17 days for 5kGy irradiated sea bass

  18. Population Genetics of red striped mullet (Mullus surmuletus in Turkish Seas Based on Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fevzi Bardakci

    2014-07-01

    This study was determined a preview of genetic structure of red striped mullet because of few sampling localities so a further study is would be useful to determine its population structure along its distribution area in detail.

  19. Variation and plasticity and their interaction with urbanization in Guadalupe Bass populations on and off the Edwards Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Jessica E.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Pease, Allison A.

    2017-01-01

    The Colorado River Basin in Texas has experienced major alterations to its hydrologic regime due to changing land and water use patterns. These anthropogenic influences on hydrologic variability have had major implications for riparian and aquatic ecosystems and the species dependent upon them. However, impacts are often assessed at a limited temporal and spatial scale, tending to focus on relatively short and discrete periods or portions of a river basin. It is not clear how basin-wide alterations occurring over decades affect species. Guadalupe Bass Micropterus treculii are endemic to central Texas and are typically associated with shallow runs and riffles in small streams. However, Guadalupe Bass are found throughout the Colorado River Basin, including the mainstem portion of the lower river downstream of the city of Austin where they support a popular fishery. Because Guadalupe Bass exist across a wide range of stream orders within the basin, it is unclear whether populations respond similarly to anthropogenic disturbances or to conservation and restoration activities. Therefore, our objectives were to:Assess the effects of urbanization and hydrology on the population structure and dynamics of Guadalupe Bass.Evaluate the effects of environmental gradients on ecomorphological variation in Guadalupe Bass populations across multiple spatial scales.Describe the life history, habitat use, and behavior of the Guadalupe Bass population in the lower Colorado River and compare it to populations in more “typical” habitats.Results contribute to an understanding of the response of Guadalupe Bass to anthropogenic disturbances, including increased urbanization in central Texas and further assist in the conservation of the species. The ability of the population to not only persist, but flourish downstream of a heavily populated urban area presented a unique opportunity to investigate a native species response to anthropogenic disturbance. This research revealed

  20. Race-Specific Adult-Plant Resistance in Winter Wheat to Stripe Rust and Characterization of Pathogen Virulence Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milus, Eugene A; Moon, David E; Lee, Kevin D; Mason, R Esten

    2015-08-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat in the Great Plains and southeastern United States. Growing resistant cultivars is the preferred means for managing stripe rust, but new virulence in the pathogen population overcomes some of the resistance. The objectives of this study were to characterize the stripe rust resistance in contemporary soft and hard red winter wheat cultivars, to characterize the virulence of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates based on the resistances found in the cultivars, and to determine wheat breeders' perceptions on the importance and methods for achieving stripe rust resistance. Seedlings of cultivars were susceptible to recent isolates, indicating they lacked effective all-stage resistance. However, adult-plants were resistant or susceptible depending on the isolate, indicating they had race-specific adult-plant resistance. Using isolates collected from 1990 to 2013, six major virulence patterns were identified on adult plants of twelve cultivars that were selected as adult-plant differentials. Race-specific adult-plant resistance appears to be the only effective type of resistance protecting wheat from stripe rust in eastern United States. Among wheat breeders, the importance of incorporating stripe rust resistance into cultivars ranged from high to low depending on the frequency of epidemics in their region, and most sources of stripe rust resistance were either unknown or already overcome by virulence in the pathogen population. Breeders with a high priority for stripe rust resistance made most of their selections based on adult-plant reactions in the field, whereas breeders with a low priority for resistance based selections on molecular markers for major all-stage resistance genes.

  1. [Prediction model of meteorological grade of wheat stripe rust in winter-reproductive area, Sichuan Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Wang, Ming Tian; Zhang, Guo Zhi

    2017-12-01

    The winter reproductive areas of Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis in Sichuan Basin are often the places mostly affected by wheat stripe rust. With data on the meteorological condition and stripe rust situation at typical stations in the winter reproductive area in Sichuan Basin from 1999 to 2016, this paper classified the meteorological conditions inducing wheat stripe rust into 5 grades, based on the incidence area ratio of the disease. The meteorological factors which were biologically related to wheat stripe rust were determined through multiple analytical methods, and a meteorological grade model for forecasting wheat stripe rust was created. The result showed that wheat stripe rust in Sichuan Basin was significantly correlated with many meteorological factors, such as the ave-rage (maximum and minimum) temperature, precipitation and its anomaly percentage, relative humidity and its anomaly percentage, average wind speed and sunshine duration. Among these, the average temperature and the anomaly percentage of relative humidity were the determining factors. According to a historical retrospective test, the accuracy of the forecast based on the model was 64% for samples in the county-level test, and 89% for samples in the municipal-level test. In a meteorological grade forecast of wheat stripe rust in the winter reproductive areas in Sichuan Basin in 2017, the prediction was accurate for 62.8% of the samples, with 27.9% error by one grade and only 9.3% error by two or more grades. As a result, the model could deliver satisfactory forecast results, and predicate future wheat stripe rust from a meteorological point of view.

  2. Effect of the tiger stripes on the deformation of Saturn's moon Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souček, Ondřej; Hron, Jaroslav; Běhounková, Marie; Čadek, Ondřej

    2016-07-01

    Enceladus is a small icy moon of Saturn with active jets of water emanating from fractures around the south pole, informally called tiger stripes, which might be connected to a subsurface water ocean. The effect of these features on periodic tidal deformation of the moon has so far been neglected because of the difficulties associated with implementation of faults in continuum mechanics models. Here we estimate the maximum possible impact of the tiger stripes on tidal deformation and heat production within Enceladus's ice shell by representing them as narrow zones with negligible frictional and bulk resistance passing vertically through the whole ice shell. Assuming a uniform ice shell thickness of 25 km, consistent with the recent estimate of libration, we demonstrate that the faults can dramatically change the distribution of stress and strain in Enceladus's south polar region, leading to a significant increase of the heat production in this area.

  3. Monolayer assembly and striped architecture of Co nanoparticles on organic functionalized Si surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, S.-S.; Lim, D.K.; Park, J.-I.; Kim, S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry and School of Molecular Science (BK 21), Daejeon (Korea); Cheon, J. [Yonsei University, Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Seoul (Korea); Jeon, I.C. [Chonbuk National University, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Chonbuk (Korea)

    2005-03-01

    We present a new strategy to fabricate a monolayer assembly of Br-terminated Co nanoparticles on functionalized Si surfaces by using chemical covalent bonding and microcontact printing method. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of the Co nanoparticles formed on the hydroxyl-terminated Si surface exhibit two-dimensional island networks with locally ordered arrays via covalent linkage between nanoparticles and surface. On the other hand, SAMs of the nanoparticles on the aminopropyl-terminated Si surface show an individual and random distribution over an entire surface. Furthermore, we have fabricated striped architectures of Co nanoparticles using a combination of microcontact printing and covalent linkage. Microcontact printing of octadecyltrichlorosilane and selective covalent linkage between nanoparticles and functionalized Si surfaces lead to a hybrid nanostructure with selectively assembled nanoparticles stripes on the patterned functionalized Si surfaces. (orig.)

  4. Frozen into stripes: fate of the critical Ising model after a quench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, T; Picco, M

    2013-09-01

    In this article we study numerically the final state of the two-dimensional ferromagnetic critical Ising model after a quench to zero temperature. Beginning from equilibrium at T_{c}, the system can be blocked in a variety of infinitely long lived stripe states in addition to the ground state. Similar results have already been obtained for an infinite temperature initial condition and an interesting connection to exact percolation crossing probabilities has emerged. Here we complete this picture by providing an example of stripe states precisely related to initial crossing probabilities for various boundary conditions. We thus show that this is not specific to percolation but rather that it depends on the properties of spanning clusters in the initial state.

  5. Sustained eruptions on Enceladus explained by turbulent dissipation in tiger stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Edwin S.; Rubin, Allan M.

    2016-04-01

    Spacecraft observations suggest that the plumes of Saturn’s moon Enceladus draw water from a subsurface ocean, but the sustainability of conduits linking ocean and surface is not understood. Observations show eruptions from “tiger stripe” fissures that are sustained (although tidally modulated) throughout each orbit, and since the 2005 discovery of the plumes. Peak plume flux lags peak tidal extension by ˜1 rad, suggestive of resonance. Here, we show that a model of the tiger stripes as tidally flexed slots that puncture the ice shell can simultaneously explain the persistence of the eruptions through the tidal cycle, the phase lag, and the total power output of the tiger stripe terrain, while suggesting that eruptions are maintained over geological timescales. The delay associated with flushing and refilling of O(1)-m-wide slots with ocean water causes erupted flux to lag tidal forcing and helps to buttress slots against closure, while tidally pumped in-slot flow leads to heating and mechanical disruption that staves off slot freezeout. Much narrower and much wider slots cannot be sustained. In the presence of long-lived slots, the 106-y average power output of the tiger stripes is buffered by a feedback between ice melt-back and subsidence to O(1010) W, which is similar to observed power output, suggesting long-term stability. Turbulent dissipation makes testable predictions for the final flybys of Enceladus by Cassini. Our model shows how open connections to an ocean can be reconciled with, and sustain, long-lived eruptions. Turbulent dissipation in long-lived slots helps maintain the ocean against freezing, maintains access by future Enceladus missions to ocean materials, and is plausibly the major energy source for tiger stripe activity.

  6. Differential resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) in collections of basin wild rye (Leymus cinereus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank M. Dugan; Michael J. Cashman; Richard C. Johnson; Meinan Wang; Chen Xianming

    2014-01-01

    Differential resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) in a planting of 111 wild collections of Basin wild rye (Leymus cinereus) was noted 2011-2013. In 2011, rust severity was rated on a scale of 1-9. Much lighter infection in 2012 and 2013 was rated as the number of symptomatic leaves per plant divided by plant circumference (to adjust for plant size). Effect...

  7. Tiger Stripes and Cassini ISS High-Resolution Imaging of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, Paul; Denk, T.; Giese, B.; McEwen, A. S.; Neukum, G.; Perry, J.; Porco, C. C.; Thomas, P. C.; Turtle, E.; Verbiscer, A.; Veverka, J.

    2008-09-01

    Deciphering the mechanisms of Enceladus’ plumes is one of the most important and challenging tasks for planetary science. Cassini has provided a wealth of data by remote and in-situ data collection, but fundamental details of the vents and their context remain elusive. Three flybys of Enceladus by Cassini in 2008, on August 11 (altitude: 50km), October 9 (30km), and October 31 (200 km) are designed to further our knowledge of Enceladus’ geology and geophysics. Anticipated data include images as good as 7 m/pixel of parts of the geologically active South Polar Terrain (SPT). We targeted six different known eruption sites (Spitale and Porco 2007, Nature 449, 695-697) along Cairo Sulcus, Baghdad Suclus, and Damascus Sulcus, as well as non-active portions of the the "tiger stripes" and bright grooved terrain in between. On each of the three flybys we also plan contiguous ISS broadband multi-spectral mosaics of the entire SPT region so that we can search for volcanically and tectonically driven temporal changes and construct detailed digital terrain maps. Previous images of the tiger stripes and other rift systems on Enceladus resolve geomorphic structures on hundred meter scales or larger. Within those resolution limits, tiger stripes are morphologically distinguished most strongly from comparably sized young looking rifts elsewhere on Enceladus by their prominent upturned flanks, the muted appearance of their surface relief, and their relative absence of distinct cliff faces, probably of solid ice along scarps. The anticipated new high-resolution images will provide critical structural details needed to identify the extent to which unique attributes of tiger stripes are caused by mantling by plume fallout, tectonic deformation, seismic disruption, or perhaps thermal processes. Here, we present a first analysis of the August 11 close flyby images.

  8. Steady and unsteady calculations on thermal striping phenomena in triple-parallel jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y.Q.; Merzari, E.; Thomas, J.W.; Obabko, A.; Aithal, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Both steady (RANS) and unsteady (URANS, LES) methods were applied to study thermal striping. • The unsteady results exhibited reasonably good agreement with experimental results. • The parametric studies on the effects of mesh density and boundary conditions on the accuracy of the overall solutions were also conducted. - Abstract: The phenomenon of thermal striping is encountered in liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMFR), in which temperature fluctuation due to convective mixing between hot and cold fluids can lead to a possibility of crack initiation and propagation in the structure due to high cycle thermal fatigue. Using sodium experiments of parallel triple jets configuration performed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as benchmark, numerical simulations were carried out to evaluate the temperature fluctuation characteristics in fluid and the transfer characteristics of temperature fluctuation from fluid to structure, which is important to assess the potential thermal fatigue damage. In this study, both steady (RANS) and unsteady (URANS, LES) methods were applied to predict the temperature fluctuations of thermal striping. The parametric studies on the effects of mesh density and boundary conditions on the accuracy of the overall solutions were also conducted. The velocity, temperature and temperature fluctuation intensity distribution were compared with the experimental data. As expected, steady calculation has limited success in predicting the thermal–hydraulic characteristics of the thermal striping, highlighting the limitations of the RANS approach in unsteady heat transfer simulations. The unsteady results exhibited reasonably good agreement with experimental results for temperature fluctuation intensity, as well as the average temperature and velocity components at the measurement locations.

  9. Theoretical and experimental investigations of efficient light coupling with spatially varied all dielectric striped waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Y. A.; Tandogan, S. E.; Hayran, Z.; Giden, I. H.; Turduev, M.; Kurt, H.

    2017-07-01

    Integrated photonic systems require efficient, compact, and broadband solutions for strong light coupling into and out of optical waveguides. The present work investigates an efficient optical power transferring the problem between optical waveguides having different widths of in/out terminals. We propose a considerably practical and feasible concept to implement and design an optical coupler by introducing gradually index modulation to the coupler section. The index profile of the coupler section is modulated with a Gaussian function by the help of striped waveguides. The effective medium theory is used to replace the original spatially varying index profile with dielectric stripes of a finite length/width having a constant effective refractive index. 2D and 3D finite-difference time-domain analyzes are utilized to investigate the sampling effect of the designed optical coupler and to determine the parameters that play a crucial role in enhancing the optical power transfer performance. Comparing the coupling performance of conventional benchmark adiabatic and butt couplers with the designed striped waveguide coupler, the corresponding coupling efficiency increases from approximately 30% to 95% over a wide frequency interval. In addition, to realize the realistic optical coupler appropriate to integrated photonic applications, the proposed structure is numerically designed on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The implemented SOI platform based optical coupler operates in the telecom wavelength regime (λ = 1.55 μm), and the dimensions of the striped coupler are kept as 9.77 μm (along the transverse to propagation direction) and 7.69 μm (along the propagation direction) where the unit distance is fixed to be 465 nm. Finally, to demonstrate the operating design principle, the microwave experiments are conducted and the spot size conversion ratio as high as 7.1:1 is measured, whereas a coupling efficiency over 60% in the frequency range of 5.0-16.0 GHz has been also

  10. Steady and unsteady calculations on thermal striping phenomena in triple-parallel jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y.Q., E-mail: yyu@anl.gov [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Merzari, E.; Thomas, J.W. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Obabko, A. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Aithal, S.M. [Computing, Environment and Life Sciences Directorate, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Both steady (RANS) and unsteady (URANS, LES) methods were applied to study thermal striping. • The unsteady results exhibited reasonably good agreement with experimental results. • The parametric studies on the effects of mesh density and boundary conditions on the accuracy of the overall solutions were also conducted. - Abstract: The phenomenon of thermal striping is encountered in liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMFR), in which temperature fluctuation due to convective mixing between hot and cold fluids can lead to a possibility of crack initiation and propagation in the structure due to high cycle thermal fatigue. Using sodium experiments of parallel triple jets configuration performed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as benchmark, numerical simulations were carried out to evaluate the temperature fluctuation characteristics in fluid and the transfer characteristics of temperature fluctuation from fluid to structure, which is important to assess the potential thermal fatigue damage. In this study, both steady (RANS) and unsteady (URANS, LES) methods were applied to predict the temperature fluctuations of thermal striping. The parametric studies on the effects of mesh density and boundary conditions on the accuracy of the overall solutions were also conducted. The velocity, temperature and temperature fluctuation intensity distribution were compared with the experimental data. As expected, steady calculation has limited success in predicting the thermal–hydraulic characteristics of the thermal striping, highlighting the limitations of the RANS approach in unsteady heat transfer simulations. The unsteady results exhibited reasonably good agreement with experimental results for temperature fluctuation intensity, as well as the average temperature and velocity components at the measurement locations.

  11. Cytogenetics and stripe rust resistance of wheat-Thinopyrum elongatum hybrid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daiyan; Long, Dan; Li, Tinghui; Wu, Yanli; Wang, Yi; Zeng, Jian; Xu, Lili; Fan, Xing; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong; Kang, Houyang

    2018-01-01

    Amphidiploids generated by distant hybridization are commonly used as genetic bridge to transfer desirable genes from wild wheat species into cultivated wheat. This method is typically used to enhance the resistance of wheat to biotic or abiotic stresses, and to increase crop yield and quality. Tetraploid Thinopyrum elongatum exhibits strong adaptability, resistance to stripe rust and Fusarium head blight, and tolerance to salt, drought, and cold. In the present study, we produced hybrid derivatives by crossing and backcrossing the Triticum durum-Th. elongatum partial amphidiploid ( Trititrigia 8801, 2 n  = 6 ×  = 42, AABBEE) with wheat cultivars common to the Sichuan Basin. By means of cytogenetic and disease resistance analyses, we identified progeny harboring alien chromosomes and measured their resistance to stripe rust. Hybrid progenies possessed chromosome numbers ranging from 40 to 47 (mean = 42.72), with 40.0% possessing 42 chromosomes. Genomic in situ hybridization revealed that the number of alien chromosomes ranged from 1 to 11. Out of the 50 of analyzed lines, five represented chromosome addition (2 n  = 44 = 42 W + 2E) and other five were chromosome substitution lines (2 n  = 42 = 40 W + 2E). Importantly, a single chromosome derived from wheat- Th. elongatum intergenomic Robertsonian translocations chromosome was occurred in 12 lines. Compared with the wheat parental cultivars ('CN16' and 'SM482'), the majority (70%) of the derivative lines were highly resistant to strains of stripe rust pathogen known to be prevalent in China. The findings suggest that these hybrid-derivative lines with stripe rust resistance could potentially be used as germplasm sources for further wheat improvement.

  12. Effective genes for resistance to stripe rust and virulence of Puccinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that stripe rust resistance genes Yr3, Yr5, Yr10, Yr15, Yr26, YrSP and YrCV were resistant, while Yr18 showed moderate susceptibility at all locations. Genes YrA-, Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr17, Yr27 and gene combinations Opata (Yr27+Yr18) and Super Kauz (Yr9, Yr27, Yr18) were found susceptible.

  13. Mapping genes for resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat landrace PI 480035.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinita Sthapit Kandel

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikks. is an economically important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Hexaploid spring wheat landrace PI 480035 was highly resistant to stripe rust in the field in Washington during 2011 and 2012. The objective of this research was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for stripe rust resistance in PI 480035. A spring wheat, "Avocet Susceptible" (AvS, was crossed with PI 480035 to develop a biparental population of 110 recombinant inbred lines (RIL. The population was evaluated in the field in 2013 and 2014 and seedling reactions were examined against three races (PSTv-14, PSTv-37, and PSTv-40 of the pathogen under controlled conditions. The population was genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing and microsatellite markers across the whole wheat genome. A major QTL, QYr.wrsggl1-1BS was identified on chromosome 1B. The closest flanking markers were Xgwm273, Xgwm11, and Xbarc187 1.01 cM distal to QYr.wrsggl1-1BS, Xcfd59 0.59 cM proximal and XA365 3.19 cM proximal to QYr.wrsggl1-1BS. Another QTL, QYr.wrsggl1-3B, was identified on 3B, which was significant only for PSTv-40 and was not significant in the field, indicating it confers a race-specific resistance. Comparison with markers associated with previously reported Yr genes on 1B (Yr64, Yr65, and YrH52 indicated that QYr.wrsggl1-1BS is potentially a novel stripe rust resistance gene that can be incorporated into modern breeding materials, along with other all-stage and adult-plant resistance genes to develop cultivars that can provide durable resistance.

  14. There's More to Groove than Bass in Electronic Dance Music: Why Some People Won't Dance to Techno.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Wesolowski

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between audio descriptors for groove-based electronic dance music (EDM and raters' perceived cognitive, affective, and psychomotor responses. From 198 musical excerpts (length: 15 sec. representing 11 subgenres of EDM, 19 low-level audio feature descriptors were extracted. A principal component analysis of the feature vectors indicated that the musical excerpts could effectively be classified using five complex measures, describing the rhythmical properties of: (a the high-frequency band, (b the mid-frequency band, and (c the low-frequency band, as well as overall fluctuations in (d dynamics, and (e timbres. Using these five complex audio measures, four meaningful clusters of the EDM excerpts emerged with distinct musical attributes comprising music with: (a isochronous bass and static timbres, (b isochronous bass with fluctuating dynamics and rhythmical variations in the mid-frequency range, (c non-isochronous bass and fluctuating timbres, and (d non-isochronous bass with rhythmical variations in the high frequencies. Raters (N = 99 were each asked to respond to four musical excerpts using a four point Likert-Type scale consisting of items representing cognitive (n = 9, affective (n = 9, and psychomotor (n = 3 domains. Musical excerpts falling under the cluster of "non-isochronous bass with rhythmical variations in the high frequencies" demonstrated the overall highest composite scores as evaluated by the raters. Musical samples falling under the cluster of "isochronous bass with static timbres" demonstrated the overall lowest composite scores as evaluated by the raters. Moreover, music preference was shown to significantly affect the systematic patterning of raters' responses for those with a musical preference for "contemporary" music, "sophisticated" music, and "intense" music.

  15. Testicular oocytes in smallmouth bass in northeastern Minnesota in relation to varying levels of human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Sarah M; Johnson, Rodney D; Mount, David R; Olker, Jennifer H; Borkholder, Brian D; Schoff, Patrick K

    2017-12-01

    Testicular oocytes (TOs) have been found in black bass (Micropterus spp.) from many locations in North America. The presence of TOs is often assumed to imply exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs); however, a definitive causal relationship has yet to be established, and TO prevalence is not consistently low in fish from areas lacking evident EDC sources. This might indicate any of a number of situations: 1) unknown or unidentified EDCs or EDC sources, 2) induction of TOs by other stressors, or 3) testicular oocytes occurring spontaneously during normal development. In the present study, we analyzed TO occurrence in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) from 8 populations in northeastern Minnesota watersheds with differing degrees of human development and, hence, presumed likelihood of exposure to anthropogenic chemicals. Three watersheds were categorized as moderately developed, based on the presence of municipal wastewater discharges and higher human population density (4-81 per km 2 ), and 5 watersheds were minimally developed, with very low human population density (0-1 per km 2 ) and minimal built environment. Testicular tissues from mature fish were evaluated using a semiquantitative method that estimated TO density, normalized by cross-sectional area. Testicular oocyte prevalence and density among populations from moderately developed watersheds was higher than in populations from minimally developed watersheds. However, TO prevalence was unexpectedly high and variable (7-43%) in some populations from minimally developed watersheds, and only weak evidence was found for a relationship between TO density and watershed development, suggesting alternative or more complex explanations for TO presence in smallmouth bass from this region. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3424-3435. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. The ΓX-L/LEdd relation in BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Ricci, Claudio; Koss, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin; Mushotzky, Richard; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Veilleux, Sylvain; Lamperti, Isabella; Oh, Kyuseok; Treister, Ezequiel; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona; Balokovic, Mislav

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the relation between accretion rate (in terms of L/LEdd) and shape of the hard X-ray spectral energy distribution (namely the photon index Γx) for a large sample of over 200 hard X-ray-selected, low-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs), drawn from the Swift/BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). This includes 30 AGNs for which black hole mass (and therefore L/LEdd) is measured directly through masers, spatially resolved gas or stellar dynamics, or reverberation mapping. The high-quality and broad energy coverage of the data provided through BASS allow us to examine several alternative determinations of both Γx and L/LEdd. We find very weak correlation between Γx and L/LEdd for the BASS sample as a whole, with best-fitting relations that are considerably shallower than those reported in previous studies. Moreover, we find no corresponding correlations among the subsets of AGN with different MBH determination methodology, and in particular those AGN with direct or single-epoch MBH estimates. This latter finding is in contrast to several previous studies which focused on z > 0.5 broad-line AGN. We conclude that this tension can be partially accounted for if one adopts a simplified, power-law X-ray spectral model, combined with L/LEdd estimates that are based on the continuum emission and on single-epoch broad-line spectroscopy in the optical regime. Given these findings, we highlight the limitations of using Γx as a probe of supermassive black hole evolution in deep extragalactic X-ray surveys.

  17. Ketoconazole modulates the infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. (Mesomycetozoa) in vivo in experimentally injected European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontoria, Francisco; González, Ma Angeles; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar

    2013-09-03

    In vitro studies have confirmed the inhibitory effect of the azol-derivative ketoconazole (KZ) on the growth of Ichthyophonus, an important pathogen causing epizootics in wild and cultured fish. We evaluated the effect of KZ in vivo in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with the same Ichthyophonus isolate. Liposomes were used to vehiculate different doses of KZ to increase the effect on Ichthyophonus and lower the toxicity of the drug, and KZ toxicity was assessed in cultured sea bass juveniles. We also studied the effect of liposome-vehiculated KZ included in medicated food on ichthyophoniasis. KZ causes clear toxic effects in D. labrax juveniles at doses >80 mg kg-1, apparent in the reduced survival of fish and histological alterations to livers, kidneys and spleens. Fish injected with Ichthyophonus and treated with KZ dosages of ≤80 mg kg-1 d-1 presented lower ichthyophoniasis prevalence, fewer organs infected per fish, and fewer spores in the affected organs than the untreated fish. KZ seems to delay the onset of infection, but cannot stop further progression once established. However, this behaviour is not clearly reflected in the biometric and haematological data collected from these fish. We hypothesise that KZ's delaying effect would increase, if lower infective doses (more similar to natural situations) were used. The drug administration vehicle (liposomes vs. emulsions) did not affect the results. Our data confirm the potential utility of KZ in treating ichthyophoniasis and reveal its low toxicity for sea bass. Nevertheless, the optimal dose and appropriate application protocol remain to be determined.

  18. A redescription of Myxobolus inornatus from young-of-the-year smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, H L; Blazer, V S; Iwanowicz, L R; Smith, G

    2012-12-01

    During investigations of young-of-the year smallmouth bass ( Micropterus dolomieu ) mortalities in the Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. and affected tributaries, raised areas were noted in the muscle in the vicinity of the caudal peduncle. The raised areas were caused by plasmodia of a myxozoan parasite. Spores found within plasmodia were similar to those of Myxobolus inornatus previously described from the caudal peduncle of fingerling largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides ) in Montana. Here, M. inornatus is redescribed based on histologic comparisons and spore measurements. The addition of spore photographs, line drawings, a voucher specimen, and partial small-subunit ribosomal (rSSU) DNA gene sequence are new in this study. This is also the first description of M. inornatus from smallmouth bass. The plasmodia of M. inornatus were grossly observed at the base of the caudal and dorsal fins and were 280.3 ± 33.5 (range 77.1-920.3) μm long and 320.6 ± 41.0 (range 74.85-898.4) μm wide. In some instances, plasmodia of M. inornatus were large enough to rupture the epidermis or were associated with misaligned vertebrae. The slightly pyriform spores were 11.3 ± 0.2 (range 8.6-17.4) μm in length and 8.6 ± 0.2 (range 7.1-13.7) μm wide with an iodinophilous vacuole and a sutural ridge with 8 to 10 sutural folds. The SSU rDNA gene sequence places M. inornatus in a sister group with Myxobolus osburni .

  19. Post-deposition control of ferroelastic stripe domains and internal electric field by thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigl, L.; Iwanowska, M.; Sandu, C. S.; Setter, N. [Ceramics Laboratory, EPFL-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, CH-1015 Switzerland (Switzerland); Janolin, P.-E. [Laboratoire Structures, Propriétés et Modélisation des Solides, UMR CNRS-École Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Yamada, T. [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2015-01-19

    The dependence of the formation of ferroelastic stripe domain patterns on the thermal history is investigated by detailed piezoresponse force microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments after and during annealing of tensile strained tetragonal Pb(Ti,Zr)O{sub 3} epitaxial thin films on DyScO{sub 3} substrates. In particular, the ferroelastic pattern is reversibly interchanged between a cross-hatched and a stripe domain pattern if the films are cooled at different rates after annealing above the formation temperature of a-domains. Different types of 180° and non-180° patterns can be created, depending on the thermal treatment. The changes in the 180° domain structure and lattice parameters are attributed to a change of oxygen vacancy concentration, which results in a modification of the internal electric field and unit cell size, causing also a shift of T{sub C}. Thermal treatment is done on rhombohedral La:BiFeO{sub 3} thin films as well. It is observed that also in these films, appropriate heat treatment modifies the domain pattern and films with a stripe domain pattern can be created, confirming the general validity of the developed model.

  20. Aleutian Disease: An Emerging Disease in Free-Ranging Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) From California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Anderson, M; Ritchie, B W; Ciembor, P; Rimoldi, G; Piazza, M; Pesti, D; Clifford, D L; Giannitti, F

    2015-11-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV, Amdovirus, Parvoviridae) primarily infects farmed mustelids (mink and ferrets) but also other fur-bearing animals and humans. Three Aleutian disease (AD) cases have been described in captive striped skunks; however, little is known about the relevance of AD in free-ranging carnivores. This work describes the pathological findings and temporospatial distribution in 7 cases of AD in free-ranging striped skunks. All cases showed neurologic disease and were found in a 46-month period (2010-2013) within a localized geographical region in California. Lesions included multisystemic plasmacytic and lymphocytic inflammation (ie, interstitial nephritis, myocarditis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, and splenitis), glomerulonephritis, arteritis with or without fibrinoid necrosis in several organs (ie, kidney, heart, brain, and spleen), splenomegaly, ascites/hydrothorax, and/or encephalomalacia with cerebral microangiopathy. ADV infection was confirmed in all cases by specific polymerase chain reaction and/or in situ hybridization. The results suggest that AD is an emerging disease in free-ranging striped skunks in California. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Numerical investigation on thermal stratification and striping phenomena in various coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumao Yang; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    2000-02-01

    It is important to study thermal stratification and striping phenomena for they can induce thermal fatigue failure of structures. This presentation uses the AQUA code, which has been developed in Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), to investigate the characteristics of these thermal phenomena in water, liquid sodium, liquid lead and carbon dioxide gas. There are altogether eight calculated cases with same Richardson number and initial inlet hot velocity in thermal stratification calculations, in which four cases have same velocity difference between inlet hot and cold fluid, the other four cases with same temperature difference. The calculated results show: (1) The fluid's properties and initial conditions have considerable effects on thermal stratification, which is decided by the combination of such as thermal conduction, viscous dissipation and buoyant force, etc., and (2) The gas has distinctive thermal stratification characteristics from those of liquid because for horizontal flow in the transportation of momentum and energy, the drastic exchange usually happens at the hot-cold interface for liquid, however, the buoyancy and natural convection make the quick exchange position depart from the hot-cold interface for gas. In thermal striping analysis, only the first step work has been finished. The calculated results show: (1) the vertical flow has some difference in thermal stratification characteristics from those of horizontal flow, and (2) For deep thermal striping analysis in the calculated area, more attention should be paid to the center area along Z-direction for liquid and small velocity area for gas. (author)

  2. Effect of in vitro exposure to cadmium and copper on sea bass blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Arizza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood cells freshly collected from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu at 10-7 M, 10-5 M, 10-3 M, and exam- ined for neutral red retention capacity and for cell vitality with MTT assay. A relationship between heavy metal exposure and alteration in responses of blood cells in a dose-time-dependent was found. Our results showed that fish blood cells may constitute an interesting biological model for experimen- tal and applied toxicology, especially in the case of environmental pollution.

  3. [Gonadal ontogenesis and sex differentiation in the sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, under fish-farming conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblin, C; Bruslé, J

    1983-01-01

    The histology of the different stages of gonadal development (appearance of PGC, edification of gonad primordium, organization of an undifferentiated gonad, testicular or ovarian development) has been studied in fingerlings and juveniles of sea-bass in fish-culture conditions. Sex differentiation with a caudo-cranial gradient was direct and more in accordance with length than with age. Ovarian and testicular differentiation occurred in fish 11 to 23 months old and from 90 to 187 mm SL. Testis ova were frequently observed.

  4. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Badini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  5. Cellular and molecular immune responses of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) experimentally infected with betanodavirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scapigliati, G.; Buonocore, F.; Randelli, E.

    2010-01-01

    and acquired responses: type I IFN, Mx, IL-1, Cox-2; IL-10, TGF-β, TCRβ, CD4, CD8α, IgM, by using a quantitative PCR array system developed for sea bass. The obtained results showed a detectable increase of T cells and B cells in PBL during betanodavirus infection. Furthermore, leucocytes obtained from blood...... was also observed, while the other tested genes did not show any significant variations with respect to mock-treated fish. Overall, our work represents a first comprehensive analysis of cellular and molecular immune parameters in a fish species exposed to a pathogenic virus....

  6. Modeling of gene expression pattern alteration by p,p′-DDE and dieldrin in largemouth bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Barber, David; Gross, Timothy; Denslow, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    In this study, largemouth bass (LMB) were subchronically exposed to p,p′-DDE or dieldrin in their diet to evaluate the effect of exposure on expression of genes involved in reproduction and steroid homeostasis. Using real-time PCR, we detected a different gene expression pattern for each OCP, suggesting that they each affect LMB in a different way. We also detected a different expression pattern among sexes, suggesting that sexes are affected differently by OCPs perhaps reflecting the different adaptive responses of each sex to dysregulation caused by OCP exposure.

  7. Four new bass strait platforms -a project manager's view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, J.W.

    1982-05-01

    The offshore development by Esso/BHP of the West Kingfish, Cobia, Fortescue and Flounder oil fields in the Gippsland Basin is one of the significant undertakings by the petroleum industry during the 1980s. Production from the fields will help sustain the current level of production from Bass Strait into the latter part of this decade. This paper examines some of the principal project management issues and actions involved in the planning and execution of the design and construction phases of the platforms and pipelines associated with each of these fields.

  8. Effects of herbal supplements on growth performance of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax: Change in body composition and some blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVDAN YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary thyme (Thymus vulgaris, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum as feed additives on growth performance, proximate composition and ammonia excretion of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (21 kj/g diets were formulated to contain 0% (control or 1% of thyme, rosemary or fenugreek. The thyme supplementation significantly increased protein efficiency ratio, fillet protein levels, protein and energy retentions (P0.05. The results indicate that dietary thyme improved the protein and energy retentions of sea bass.

  9. Hematologic and plasma chemistry RIs for cultured Striped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) in recirculating aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagarza, Oscar A; Kuhn, David D; Smith, Stephen A; Hrubec, Terry C

    2017-09-01

    Striped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) is a valuable aquaculture fish species produced primarily in Southeast Asia. In the United States, it is bred as an ornamental species. Striped catfish has high productivity and great demand in numerous countries around the world, yet little is known about its normal physiology. The objective of this study was to establish hematologic and blood chemistry RIs for healthy juvenile Striped catfish. Blood samples were collected from 70 Striped catfish raised in recirculating aquaculture systems. Whole blood and plasma samples were analyzed for multiple hematologic and chemistry variables using standard techniques. The RIs for hematology were as follows: PCV 23.5-35.9%, MCV 106.3-156.6 fL, RBC count 1.79-2.75 × 10 6 cells/μL, thrombocytes 26,318-73,333 cells/μL, total WBC count 36,294-94,286 cells/μL, total lymphocytes 18,997-59,998 cells/μL, small lymphocytes 13,763-51,490 cells/μL, large lymphocytes 715-21,200 cells/μL, granulocytes 4504-18,291 cells/μL, and monocytes 0-7549 cells/μL. Plasma chemistry RIs were the following: ALP 32.7-74.6 U/L, AST 20.3-1235.8 U/L, sodium 135.2-147.7 mmol/L, potassium 3.3-5.0 mmol/L, chloride 120.1-133.6 mmol/L, calcium 2.7-3.6 mmol/L, magnesium 0.9-1.3 mmol/L, phosphorous 1.4-2.7 mmol/L, glucose 4.6-7.6 mmol/L, cholesterol 2.8-5.3 mmol/L, total protein 30-42 g/L, albumin 7-11 g/L, globulin 22-32 g/L, albumin:globulin ratio 0.27-0.37, creatinine 0-8 μmol/L, and osmolality 251.8-327.9 mOsm/kg. Reference intervals reported here can help veterinarians and fish health specialists monitor the health status of Striped catfish under recirculating aquaculture conditions for research, exhibition, and production purposes. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. The working out of a design rule in case of structures submitted to thermal striping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejeail, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal striping is a complex phenomenon involving incomplete mixing of hot and cold jets of fluid near a component surface, thus submitted to random fast temperature fluctuations. Because of his nature, the zones where thermal striping can occur in a fast breeder reactor are well known; these areas can suffer fatigue damage. It has been studied by several authors and some thermomechanical design rules against this fatigue damage have been proposed. In the french point of view, the problem is the determination of the margin between the mean and the design strain controlled fatigue curves, giving the allowable maximum temperature range that a component can sustain during his life without crack initiation. The purpose of this paper is the presentation of literature results (particularly on uniaxial smooth specimens) concerning the effects of different factors such as surface finish, environment, weldments, ageing, scatter of fatigue results, prior high strain cycling...on the high temperature fatigue life, which are of first importance for the determination of design factors in case of thermal striping. The remaining question is the combination of these factors. For the analysis of thermal striping test results, it is of great interest and importance to compare the crack initiation cycles and to use a coherent strain for uniaxial and equibiaxial fatigue results, as we show in the interpretation of FAENA and SPLASH tests (performed respectively by Y. Bergamaschi and B. Marini). An analysis based on elastic calculations as proposed in the RCCMR design code gives a good correlation, despite the ambiguous choice of some coefficients in best fit analysis. This problem disappears entirely in case of high cycles/low temperature variations. Then we present a strategy for the accomplishment of simplified thermal striping tests on the FAENA sodium loop in view of acquiring a better design factor knowledge. With this experimental program, we intend to study the interaction of

  11. White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Kepler, S. O.; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Ourique, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    White dwarf stars are the final stage of most stars, born single or in multiple systems. We discuss the identification, magnetic fields, and mass distribution for white dwarfs detected from spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 13 in 2016, which lead to the increase in the number of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars from 5000 to 39000. This number includes only white dwarf stars with log g >= 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dw...

  12. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  13. Effect of fishing effort on catch rate and catchability of largemouth bass in small impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, M. G.; Schramm, Harold; Neal, J. W.; Gerard, P.D.

    2018-01-01

    Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède) catch rates decline with sustained fishing effort, even without harvest. It is unclear why declines in catch rate occur, and little research has been directed at how to improve catch rate. Learning has been proposed as a reason for declining catch rate, but has never been tested on largemouth bass. If catch rate declines because fish learn to avoid lures, periods of no fishing could be a management tool for increasing catch rate. In this study, six small impoundments with established fish populations were fished for two May to October fishing seasons to evaluate the effect of fishing effort on catch rate. Closed seasons were implemented to test whether a 2‐month period of no fishing improved catch rates and to determine whether conditioning from factors other than being captured reduced catch rate. Mixed‐model analysis indicated catch rate and catchability declined throughout the fishing season. Catch rate and catchability increased after a 2‐month closure but soon declined to the lowest levels of the fishing season. These changes in catch rate and catchability support the conclusion of learned angler avoidance, but sustained catchability of fish not previously caught does not support that associative or social learning affected catchability.

  14. A stochastic formulation of the Bass model of new-product diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Shun-Chen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For a large variety of new products, the Bass Model (BM describes the empirical cumulative-adoptions curve extremely well. The BM postulates that the trajectory of cumulative adoptions of a new product follows a deterministic function whose instantaneous growth rate depends on two parameters, one of which captures an individual's intrinsic tendency to purchase, independent of the number of previous adopters, and the other captures a positive force of influence on an individual by previous adopters. In this paper, we formulate a stochastic version of the BM, which we call the Stochastic Bass Model (SBM, where the trajectory of cumulative number of adoptions is governed by a pure birth process. We show that with an appropriately-chosen set of birth rates, the fractions of individuals who have adopted the product by time t in a family of SBMs indexed by the size of the target population converge in probability to the deterministic fraction in a corresponding BM, when the population size approaches infinity. The formulation therefore supports and expands the BM by allowing stochastic trajectories.

  15. Gene expression patterns during the larval development of European sea bass (dicentrarchus labrax) by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darias, M J; Zambonino-Infante, J L; Hugot, K; Cahu, C L; Mazurais, D

    2008-01-01

    During the larval period, marine teleosts undergo very fast growth and dramatic changes in morphology, metabolism, and behavior to accomplish their metamorphosis into juvenile fish. Regulation of gene expression is widely thought to be a key mechanism underlying the management of the biological processes required for harmonious development over this phase of life. To provide an overall analysis of gene expression in the whole body during sea bass larval development, we monitored the expression of 6,626 distinct genes at 10 different points in time between 7 and 43 days post-hatching (dph) by using heterologous hybridization of a rainbow trout cDNA microarray. The differentially expressed genes (n = 485) could be grouped into two categories: genes that were generally up-expressed early, between 7 and 23 dph, and genes up-expressed between 25 and 43 dph. Interestingly, among the genes regulated during the larval period, those related to organogenesis, energy pathways, biosynthesis, and digestion were over-represented compared with total set of analyzed genes. We discuss the quantitative regulation of whole-body contents of these specific transcripts with regard to the ontogenesis and maturation of essential functions that take place over larval development. Our study is the first utilization of a transcriptomic approach in sea bass and reveals dynamic changes in gene expression patterns in relation to marine finfish larval development.

  16. Cloning and characterization of largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides) myostatin encoding gene and its promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengjie; Bai, Junjie; Wang, Lin

    2008-08-01

    Myostatin or GDF-8, a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, has been demonstrated to be a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass in mammals. In the present study, we obtained a 5.64 kb sequence of myostatin encoding gene and its promoter from largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides). The myostatin encoding gene consisted of three exons (488 bp, 371 bp and 1779 bp, respectively) and two introns (390 bp and 855 bp, respectively). The intron-exon boundaries were conservative in comparison with those of mammalian myostatin encoding genes, whereas the size of introns was smaller than that of mammals. Sequence analysis of 1.569 kb of the largemouth bass myostatin gene promoter region revealed that it contained two TATA boxes, one CAAT box and nine putative E-boxes. Putative muscle growth response elements for myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), serum response factor (SRF), activator protein 1 (AP1), etc., and muscle-specific Mt binding site (MTBF) were also detected. Some of the transcription factor binding sites were conserved among five teleost species. This information will be useful for studying the transcriptional regulation of myostatin in fish.

  17. The Bass diffusion model on networks with correlations and inhomogeneous advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, M. L.; Brunner, J.; Modanese, G.

    2016-09-01

    The Bass model, which is an effective forecasting tool for innovation diffusion based on large collections of empirical data, assumes an homogeneous diffusion process. We introduce a network structure into this model and we investigate numerically the dynamics in the case of networks with link density $P(k)=c/k^\\gamma$, where $k=1, \\ldots , N$. The resulting curve of the total adoptions in time is qualitatively similar to the homogeneous Bass curve corresponding to a case with the same average number of connections. The peak of the adoptions, however, tends to occur earlier, particularly when $\\gamma$ and $N$ are large (i.e., when there are few hubs with a large maximum number of connections). Most interestingly, the adoption curve of the hubs anticipates the total adoption curve in a predictable way, with peak times which can be, for instance when $N=100$, between 10% and 60% of the total adoptions peak. This may allow to monitor the hubs for forecasting purposes. We also consider the case of networks with assortative and disassortative correlations and a case of inhomogeneous advertising where the publicity terms are "targeted" on the hubs while maintaining their total cost constant.

  18. Methoxychlor affects multiple hormone signaling pathways in the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Spade, Daniel J.; Blum, Jason L.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that has been shown to have estrogenic activity by activating estrogen receptors and inducing vitellogenin production in male fish. Previous studies report that exposure to MXC induces changes in mRNA abundance of reproductive genes in the liver and testes of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The objective of the present study was to better characterize the mode of action of MXC by measuring the global transcriptomic response in the male largemouth liver using an oligonucleotide microarray. Microarray analysis identified highly significant changes in the expression of 37 transcripts (p<0.001) (20 induced and 17 decreased) in the liver after MXC injection and a total of 900 expression changes (p<0.05) in transcripts with high homology to known genes. Largemouth bass estrogen receptor alpha (esr1) and androgen receptor (ar) were among the transcripts that were increased in the liver after MXC treatment. Functional enrichment analysis identified the molecular functions of steroid binding and androgen receptor activity as well as steroid hormone receptor activity as being significantly over-represented gene ontology terms. Pathway analysis identified c-fos signaling as being putatively affected through both estrogen and androgen signaling. This study provides evidence that MXC elicits transcriptional effects through the estrogen receptor as well as androgen receptor-mediated pathways in the liver. PMID:21276474

  19. Responsiveness of pituitary to galanin throughout the reproductive cycle of male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, P; Velez, Z; Sousa, C; Santos, S; Andrade, A; Alvarado, M V; Felip, A; Zanuy, S; Canário, A V M

    2017-09-01

    The neuropeptide galanin (Gal) is a putative factor regulating puberty onset and reproduction through its actions on the pituitary. The present study investigated the pituitary responsiveness to galanin and the patterns of galanin receptors (Galrs) expression throughout the reproductive cycle of two years old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), an important aquaculture species. Quantitative analysis of pituitary and hypothalamus transcript expression of four galr subtypes revealed differential regulation according to the testicular developmental stage, with an overall decrease in expression from the immature stage to the mid-recrudescence stage. Incubation of pituitary cells with mammalian 1-29Gal peptide induced significant changes in cAMP concentration, with sensitivities that varied according to the testicular development stages. Furthermore 1-29Gal was able to stimulate both follicle stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) release from pituitary cell suspensions. The magnitude of the effects and effective concentrations varied according to reproductive stage, with generalized induction of Fsh and Lh release in animals sampled in January (full spermiation). The differential expression of galrs in pituitary and hypothalamus across the reproductive season, together with the differential effects of Gal on gonadotropins release in vitro strongly suggests the involvement of the galaninergic system in the regulation the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis of male sea bass. This is to our knowledge the first clear evidence for the involvement of galanin in the regulation of reproduction in non-mammalian vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Combustion of Solids in Microgravity: Results from the BASS-II Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkul, Paul V.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Miller, Fletcher; Olson, Sandra L.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; T’ien, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The Burning and Suppression of Solids-II (BASS-II) experiment was performed on the International Space Station. Microgravity combustion tests burned thin and thick flat samples, acrylic slabs, spheres, and cylinders. The samples were mounted inside a small wind tunnel which could impose air flow speeds up to 53 cms. The wind tunnel was installed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox which supplied power, imaging, and a level of containment. The effects of air flow speed, fuel thickness, fuel preheating, and oxygen concentration on flame appearance, growth, spread rate, and extinction were examined in both the opposed and concurrent flow configuration. The flames are quite sensitive to air flow speed in the range 0 to 5 cms. They can be sustained at very low flow speeds of less than 1 cms, when they become dim blue and stable. In this state they are not particularly dangerous from a fire safety perspective, but they can flare up quickly with a sudden increase in air flow speed. Including earlier BASS-I results, well over one hundred tests have been conducted of the various samples in the different geometries, flow speeds, and oxygen concentrations. There are several important implications related to fundamental combustion research as well as spacecraft fire safety. This work was supported by the NASA Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications Division (SLPSRA).

  1. Numerical study of the aerodynamics of sound sources in a bass-reflex port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Garcia-Alcaide

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the aerodynamics phenomena of a bass-reflex port that causes noise in the audible frequency range. After discarding structural and mechanical vibration issues, the hypothesis considered is that vortex shedding is the source of the noise. Experimental and numerical evidences of the vortex, an analysis of its noise and the similarities between real and simulated performance are presented. The numerically simulated cases with the original geometry are excited at different frequencies and with modifications of the port geometry. Likewise, the internal performance of an enclosure with a closed port was simulated. The simulations have been performed with axisymmetrical geometries using the open-source OpenFOAM® toolbox. Moreover, experimental measurements were carried out. First, acoustic signal experiments were done to analyse the response of the bass-reflex ports. Secondly, a structure vibration measurement was conducted in order to exclude the cabinet structure vibration as a source of the noise in question. A good agreement was found between numerical and experimental results, especially in the frequency band of the detected noise, i.e. the 1000–1500 Hz range. Despite no remarkable improvement being made with the geometry changes explored, the presented CFD approach has proved a useful and cost-effective tool to address this kind of phenomenon.

  2. Abundance and distribution of northern squawfish, walleyes, and smallmouth bass in John Day Reservoir, Columbia river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamesderfer, R.C.; Rieman, B.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors used mark-recapture and catch-per-unit effort data to estimate abundances and distributions of three potential predators on juvenile salmonids migrating through John Day Reservoir in 1984-1986. The northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis was the most abundant predator (estimated population: 85, 316), followed by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu (34,954) and walleye Stizostedion vitreum (15,168). Because of uncertainty in sampling and assumption of the mark-recapture estimator, the combined abundance of these three predators could lie between 50,000 and 500,000. They believe, however, that bias is probably negative, and that any errors should result in conservative estimates. Northern squawfish were common reservoir-wide, but large concentrations occurred immediately below McNary Dam near the head of John Day Reservoir. Walleyes were largely restricted to the upper third of the reservoir, whereas the number of smallmouth bass increased progressively downriver. As judged by abundance and distribution, northern squawfish have by far the greatest potential for predation on juvenile salmonids. They also expect predation to be unevenly distributed in time and space as a result of variations in the number and distribution of predators

  3. Assessing the Effects of Suomi NPP VIIRS M15/M16 Detector Radiometric Stability and Relative Spectral Response Variation on Striping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern satellite radiometers have many detectors with different relative spectral response (RSR. Effect of RSR differences on striping and the root cause of striping in sensor data record (SDR radiance and brightness temperature products have not been well studied. A previous study used MODTRAN radiative transfer model (RTM to analyze striping. In this study, we make efforts to find the possible root causes of striping. Line-by-Line RTM (LBLRTM is used to evaluate the effect of RSR difference on striping and the atmospheric dependency for VIIRS bands M15 and M16. The results show that previous study using MODTRAN is repeatable: the striping is related to the difference between band-averaged and detector-level RSR, and the BT difference has some atmospheric dependency. We also analyzed VIIRS earth view (EV data with several striping index methods. Since the EV data is complex, we further analyze the onboard calibration data. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA test shows that the noise along track direction is the major reason for striping. We also found evidence of correlation between solar diffuser (SD and blackbody (BB for detector 1 in M15. Digital Count Restoration (DCR and detector instability are possibly related to the striping in SD and EV data, but further analysis is needed. These findings can potentially lead to further SDR processing improvements.

  4. Evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption in smallmouth and largemouth bass inhabiting Northeast U.S. National Wildlife Refuge waters: A reconnaissance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Pinkney, A.E.; Guy, C.P.; Major, A.M.; Munney, K.; Mierzykowski, S.; Lingenfelser, S.; Secord, A.; Patnode, K.; Kubiak, T.J.; Stern, C.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Walsh, Heather L.; Sperry, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008–2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0–100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73 ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2 mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies.

  5. Evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption in smallmouth and largemouth bass inhabiting Northeast U.S. national wildlife refuge waters: A reconnaissance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L R; Blazer, V S; Pinkney, A E; Guy, C P; Major, A M; Munney, K; Mierzykowski, S; Lingenfelser, S; Secord, A; Patnode, K; Kubiak, T J; Stern, C; Hahn, C M; Iwanowicz, D D; Walsh, H L; Sperry, A

    2016-02-01

    Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008-2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0-100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Walleye recruitment success is less resilient to warming water temperatures in lakes with abundant largemouth bass populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Lakes respond heterogeneously to climate, with implications for fisheries management. We analyzed walleye (Sander vitreus) recruitment to age-0 in 359 lakes in Wisconsin, USA, to (i) quantify the relationship between annual water temperature degree days (DD) and walleye recruitment success and (ii) identify the influence of lake characteristics — area, conductivity, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) catch rates, and mean DD — on this relationship. The relationship between walleye recruitment and annual DD varied among lakes and was not distinguishable from zero overall (posterior mean = −0.11, 90% CI = −0.34, 0.15). DD effects on recruitment were negative in 198 lakes (55%) and positive in 161 (45%). The effect of annual DD was most negative in lakes with high largemouth bass densities, and, on average, the probability of recruitment was highest in large lakes with low largemouth bass densities. Conductivity and mean DD influenced neither recruitment nor the effect of annual DD. Walleye recruitment was most resilient to warming in lakes with few largemouth bass, suggesting that the effects of climate change depend on lake-specific food-web and habitat contexts.

  7. MEASUREMENT OF MECURY IN FISH SCALES AS AN ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR PREDICTING MUSCLE TISSUE MERCURY CNOCENTRATIONS IN LARGEMOUTH BASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentration in fish scales and in tissues of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 20 freshwater sites was developed and evaluated to determine whether scale analysis would allow a non lethal and convenient method for predicti...

  8. 77 FR 28305 - Temporary Rule To Delay Start Date of 2012-2013 South Atlantic Black Sea Bass Commercial Fishing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    .... 120501426-2426-01] RIN 0648-BB98 Temporary Rule To Delay Start Date of 2012-2013 South Atlantic Black Sea... this temporary rule to delay the start date of the 2012-2013 fishing season for the commercial black... temporary rule delays the start date of the 2012-2013 commercial fishing season for black sea bass from June...

  9. First isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida from diseased sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L., cultured in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fernández-Álvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the first description of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida as causative agent of furunculosis in cultured sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.. Cumulative mortality in affected fish from two floating cages in the Mediterranean coast of Spain was 3.8%. Affected sea bass did not show the typical external signs of furunculosis in the first stages of the disease, however, when the disease progressed, open ulcers appeared on the skin and muscle. Internally, splenomegaly was the only pathological sign observed. Samples from diseased fish were subjected to standardized assays for pathogens screening. Negative results were obtained for parasites and fish viruses. A Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacterium was observed in smears from liver, kidney and spleen of all analysed fish. Pure bacterial cultures were recovered from liver, kidney and spleen of all diseased fish sampled during the two different outbreaks. Bacteriological, serological, molecular and chemotaxonomic analysis allowed the identification of the causative agent of sea bass mortalities as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The bacterial strains were susceptible to most of antimicrobial agents usually employed in aquaculture except to oxytetracycline. Pathogenicity assays demonstrated that the isolated bacteria were virulent for sea bass, turbot and rainbow trout.

  10. Husbandry streaa during early life stages affects the stress response and health status of juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varsamos, S.; Flik, G.; Pepin, S.E.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Breuil, G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In aquaculture management it is important to establish objective criteria to assess health and welfare of the fish. Here we show that European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) confronted with husbandry-associated stress (tank cleaning, i.e. scrubbing, and water temperature variation) during

  11. 77 FR 68723 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... flounder, scup, black sea bass, longfin squid, butterfish, and Atlantic bluefish fisheries. If the total... of butterfish; and 715,830 lb of bluefish. For 2014, projects may collectively be awarded up to 587... Atlantic bluefish, and assessment-quality data for weakfish, Atlantic croaker, spot, several skate and ray...

  12. 75 FR 70192 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... squid, butterfish, and Atlantic bluefish fisheries. If the total amount of RSA is not awarded, NMFS will...; 727,527 lb (330 mt) of Loligo squid; 818,790 lb (371 mt) of bluefish; and 33,069 lb (15 mt) of... stock assessment data for summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, Loligo squid, butterfish, bluefish...

  13. Some effects of temperature, chlorine, and copper on the survival and growth of the coon stripe shrimp, Pandalus danae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, C.I.; Thatcher, T.O.; Apts, C.W.

    1975-03-01

    The CTM (Critical Thermal Maxima) values for coon stripe shrimp increase with an increase in shrimp size. The CTM values for coon strip shrimp increase with an increase in the rate at which the temperature is elevated. Coon stripe shrimp are more resistant to chlorine when acclimated and exposed at 7.5 0 C-10 0 C than (a) when acclimated at 7.5 0 C and exposed at 15 0 C or 20 0 C, or when (b) acclimated and exposed at 15 0 C which is near their optimum short-term growth temperature (16 0 C). The optimal growing temperature for (1 to 7g) coon stripe shrimp for periods up to one month is 16 0 C. Copper at a concentration of 0.04 mg/l effectively retards the growth of (1-2g) coon stripe shrimp at 16 0 C over a one-month period. Chlorine at a concentration of 0.18 mg/l is lethal to (1-2g) coon stripe shrimp at 16 0 C and reduced their growth at 0.08 mg/l over a one-month period. (U.S.)

  14. Magnetization dynamics of weak stripe domains in Fe-N thin films: a multi-technique complementary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Ibrahima; Tacchi, Silvia; Garnier, Louis-Charles; Eddrief, Mahmoud; Fortuna, Franck; Carlotti, Giovanni; Marangolo, Massimiliano

    2017-09-26

    The resonant eigenmodes of a nitrogen-implanted iron α'-FeN characterized by weak stripe domains are investigated by Brillouin light scattering and broadband ferromagnetic resonance experiments, assisted by micromagnetic simulations. The spectrum of the dynamic eigenmodes in the presence of the weak stripes is very rich and two different families of modes can be selectively detected using different techniques or different experimental configurations. Attention is paid to the evolution of the mode frequencies and spatial profiles under the application of an external magnetic field, of variable intensity, in the direction parallel or transverse to the stripes. The different evolution of the modes with the external magnetic field is accompanied by a distinctive spatial localization in specific regions, such as the closure domains at the surface of the stripes and the bulk domains localized in the inner part of the stripes. The complementarity of BLS and FMR techniques, based on different selection rules, is found to be a fruitful tool for the study of the wealth of localized mag-netic excitations generally found in nanostructures. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Diseases of white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnosis of white matter abnormalities was revolutionized by the advent of computed tomography (CT), which provided a noninvasive method of detection and assessment of progression of a variety of white matter processes. However, the inadequacies of CT were recognized early, including its relative insensitivity to small foci of abnormal myelin in the brain when correlated with autopsy findings and its inability to image directly white matter diseases of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, sensitive to the slight difference in tissue composition of normal gray and white matter and to subtle increase in water content associated with myelin disorders, is uniquely suited for the examination of white matter pathology. Its clinical applications include the evaluation of the normal process of myelination in childhood and the various white matter diseases, including disorders of demyelination and dysmyelination

  16. WHITE PANICLE3, a Novel Nucleus-Encoded Mitochondrial Protein, Is Essential for Proper Development and Maintenance of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchang Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria and chloroplasts are interacting organelles that play important roles in plant development. In addition to a small number proteins encoded by their own genomes, the majority of mitochondrial and chloroplast proteins are encoded in the cell nucleus and imported into the organelle. As a consequence, coordination between mitochondria, chloroplasts, and the nucleus is of crucial importance to plant cells. Variegated mutants are chloroplast-defective mutants and are considered to be ideal models for studying the intercommunication between these organelles. Here, we report the isolation of WHITE PANICLE3 (WP3, a nuclear gene involved in variegation, from a naturally occurring white panicle rice mutant. Disrupted expression of WP3 in the mutant leads to severe developmental defects in both chloroplasts and mitochondria, and consequently causes the appearance of white-striped leaves and white panicles in the mutant plants. Further investigation showed that WP3 encodes a protein most likely targeted to mitochondria and is specifically expressed in rice panicles. Interestingly, we demonstrate that the recessive white-panicle phenotype in the wp3 mutant is inherited in a typical Mendelian manner, while the white-striped leaf phenotype in wp3 is maternally inherited. Our data collectively suggest that the nucleus-encoded mitochondrial protein, WP3, plays an essential role in the regulation of chloroplast development in rice panicles by maintaining functional mitochondria. Therefore, the wp3 mutant is an excellent model in which to explore the communication between the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts in plant cells.

  17. Extended viral shedding of a low pathogenic avian influenza virus by striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeffrey Root

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis are susceptible to infection with some influenza A viruses. However, the viral shedding capability of this peri-domestic mammal and its potential role in influenza A virus ecology are largely undetermined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Striped skunks were experimentally infected with a low pathogenic (LP H4N6 avian influenza virus (AIV and monitored for 20 days post infection (DPI. All of the skunks exposed to H4N6 AIV shed large quantities of viral RNA, as detected by real-time RT-PCR and confirmed for live virus with virus isolation, from nasal washes and oral swabs (maximum ≤ 10(6.02 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL and ≤ 10(5.19 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL, respectively. Some evidence of potential fecal shedding was also noted. Following necropsy on 20 DPI, viral RNA was detected in the nasal turbinates of one individual. All treatment animals yielded evidence of a serological response by 20 DPI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that striped skunks have the potential to shed large quantities of viral RNA through the oral and nasal routes following exposure to a LP AIV. Considering the peri-domestic nature of these animals, along with the duration of shedding observed in this species, their presence on poultry and waterfowl operations could influence influenza A virus epidemiology. For example, this species could introduce a virus to a naive poultry flock or act as a trafficking mechanism of AIV to and from an infected poultry flock to naive flocks or wild bird populations.

  18. A search for optical variability of type 2 quasars in SDSS stripe 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Carson, Daniel J.; Voevodkin, Alexey; Woźniak, Przemysław

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of Type 2 quasars have been identified in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, and there is substantial evidence that they are generally galaxies with highly obscured central engines, in accord with unified models for active galactic nuclei (AGNs). A straightforward expectation of unified models is that highly obscured Type 2 AGNs should show little or no optical variability on timescales of days to years. As a test of this prediction, we have carried out a search for variability in Type 2 quasars in SDSS Stripe 82 using difference-imaging photometry. Starting with the Type 2 AGN catalogs of Zakamska et al. and Reyes et al., we find evidence of significant g-band variability in 17 out of 173 objects for which light curves could be measured from the Stripe 82 data. To determine the nature of this variability, we obtained new Keck spectropolarimetry observations for seven of these variable AGNs. The Keck data show that these objects have low continuum polarizations (p ≲ 1% in most cases) and all seven have broad Hα and/or Mg II emission lines in their total (unpolarized) spectra, indicating that they should actually be classified as Type 1 AGNs. We conclude that the primary reason variability is found in the SDSS-selected Type 2 AGN samples is that these samples contain a small fraction of Type 1 AGNs as contaminants, and it is not necessary to invoke more exotic possible explanations such as a population of 'naked' or unobscured Type 2 quasars. Aside from misclassified Type 1 objects, the Type 2 quasars do not generally show detectable optical variability over the duration of the Stripe 82 survey.

  19. Alternative reproductive tactics in female striped mice: Solitary breeders have lower corticosterone levels than communal breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Davina L; Pillay, Neville; Schradin, Carsten

    2015-05-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs), where members of the same sex and population show distinct reproductive phenotypes governed by decision-rules, have been well-documented in males of many species, but are less well understood in females. The relative plasticity hypothesis (RPH) predicts that switches between plastic ARTs are mediated by changes in steroid hormones. This has received much support in males, but little is known about the endocrine control of female ARTs. Here, using a free-living population of African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) over five breeding seasons, we tested whether females following different tactics differed in corticosterone and testosterone levels, as reported for male striped mice using ARTs, and in progesterone and oestrogen, which are important in female reproduction. Female striped mice employ three ARTs: communal breeders give birth in a shared nest and provide alloparental care, returners leave the group temporarily to give birth, and solitary breeders leave to give birth and do not return. We expected communal breeders and returners to have higher corticosterone, owing to the social stress of group-living, and lower testosterone than solitary breeders, which must defend territories alone. Solitary breeders had lower corticosterone than returners and communal breeders, as predicted, but testosterone and progesterone did not differ between ARTs. Oestrogen levels were higher in returners (measured before leaving the group) than in communal and solitary breeders, consistent with a modulatory role. Our study demonstrates hormonal differences between females following (or about to follow) different tactics, and provides the first support for the RPH in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biotransformation and detoxication of molinate (Ordram) in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjeerdema, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Bioconcentration, deputation, and biotransformation of molinate were compared in common carp (cyprinus carpio), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), and white sturgeon (acipenser transmontanus) using a flow-through metabolism system. When compared to static conditions, flowing water improved oxygenation, decreased chemical volatilization and remetabolism, and run through a macroreticular resin, improved waste-product collection. Metabolite analysis employed gradient high-pressure liquid chromatography. Exposure to 100 μg L -1 [ring- 14 C]molinate for 24 h resulted in bioconcentration factors of 30.5 (carp), 25.3 (bass), and 19.7 (sturgeon); differences were not significant (all, P > 0.05). 14 C depuration by common carp was significantly slower than that by either striped bass or white sturgeon (both, P < 0.01). All three species oxidized molinate to a number of products and hydrolyzed, or conjugated with glutathione (GSH), the sulfoxide or sulfone, ultimately producing the mercapturic acid; carp and sturgeon also formed a D-glucuronic acid conjugate. Common carp were significantly less capable of sulfoxidation and GSH conjugation than either striped bass (P < 0.05) or white sturgeon (P < 0.01). Therefore, the selective toxicity of molinate in carp may be due to less efficient depuration and metabolic deactivation

  1. Wall thickness dependence of the scaling law for ferroic stripe domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalan, G; Scott, J F; Schilling, A; Gregg, J M

    2007-01-01

    The periodicity of 180 0 stripe domains as a function of crystal thickness scales with the width of the domain walls, both for ferroelectric and for ferromagnetic materials. Here we derive an analytical expression for the generalized ferroic scaling factor and use this to calculate the domain wall thickness and gradient coefficients (exchange constants) in some ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials. We then use these to discuss some of the wider implications for the physics of ferroelectric nanodevices and periodically poled photonic crystals. (fast track communication)

  2. Presence of the Striped Seabream (Lithognathus mormyrus L., 1758 in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYDIN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Mediterranean demersal species reach to the Black Sea through the Turkish Straits System and adapt to this nearly landlocked environment. In this article, the existence of Mediterranean originated striped seabream (Lithognathus mormyrus L., 1758 in the Black Sea is studied. In this study, 25 individuals were sampled in the Middle Black Sea region (Ordu – Fatsa by trammel nets. The minimum and maximum lengths of the sampled species were measured as 16 cm and 20.1 cm respectively, while the length-weight relationship can be given by the equation, W=0.0711L2.3981 (R² = 0.8171.

  3. Electronic structure of a striped nickelate studied by the exact exchange for correlated electrons (EECE) approach

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-12-01

    Motivated by a RIXS study of Wakimoto, et al.(Phys. Rev. Lett., 102 (2009) 157001) we use density functional theory to analyze the magnetic order in the nickelate La5/3Sr1/3NiO4 and the details of its crystal and electronic structure. We compare the generalized gradient approximation to the hybrid functional approach of exact exchange for correlated electrons (EECE). In contrast to the former, the latter reproduces the insulating state of the compound and the midgap states. The EECE approach, in general, appears to be appropriate for describing stripe phases in systems with orbital degrees of freedom. Copyright © EPLA, 2009.

  4. Stripes and honeycomb lattice of quantized vortices in rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Sakashita, Kouhei

    2018-05-01

    We study numerically the structure of a vortex lattice in rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with equal atomic masses and equal intra- and intercomponent coupling strengths. The numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation show that the quantized vortices in this situation form lattice configuration accompanying vortex stripes, honeycomb lattices, and their complexes. This is a result of the degeneracy of the system for the SU(2) symmetric operation, which causes a continuous transformation between the above structures. In terms of the pseudospin representation, the complex lattice structures are identified as a hexagonal lattice of doubly winding half skyrmions.

  5. Stripe segregation and magnetic coupling in the nickelate La 5/3Sr1/3NiO4

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-03-02

    We investigate the consequences of the stripe formation in the nickelate La5/3Sr1/3NiO4 for the details of its crystal structure and electronic states. Our data are based on numerical simulations within density functional theory (DFT) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The on-site Coulomb interaction is included in terms of the LDA+U scheme. Structure optimization of preliminary experimental data indicates a strong interaction between the structural and electronic degrees of freedom. In particular, we find a segregation of the diagonal filled stripes induced by a delicate interplay with the magnetic coupling. Beyond the cooperative effect of stripe segregation and spin order, distinct octahedral distortions are essential for the formation of an insulating state. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Evidence for Increased Aggressiveness in a Recent Widespread Strain of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Causing Stripe Rust of Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milus, Eugene A; Kristensen, Kristian; Hovmøller, Mogens S

    2009-01-01

    Stripe rust (yellow rust) of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has become more severe in eastern United States, Australia, and elsewhere since 2000. Recent research has shown that this coincided with a global spread of two closely related strains that were similar based on vir...... that wheat rust fungi can adapt to warmer temperatures and cause severe disease in previously unfavorable environments......Stripe rust (yellow rust) of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has become more severe in eastern United States, Australia, and elsewhere since 2000. Recent research has shown that this coincided with a global spread of two closely related strains that were similar based...... regimes for latent period, lesion length, lesion width, lesion area, and spore production on adult plants of a susceptible wheat cultivar with no known genes for resistance to stripe rust. "New" isolates (since 2000) were significantly more aggressive than "old" isolates (before 2000) for all variables...

  7. Mapping bound plasmon propagation on a nanoscale stripe waveguide using quantum dots: influence of spacer layer thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamanei S. Perera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we image the highly confined long range plasmons of a nanoscale metal stripe waveguide using quantum emitters. Plasmons were excited using a highly focused 633 nm laser beam and a specially designed grating structure to provide stronger incoupling to the desired mode. A homogeneous thin layer of quantum dots was used to image the near field intensity of the propagating plasmons on the waveguide. We observed that the photoluminescence is quenched when the QD to metal surface distance is less than 10 nm. The optimised spacer layer thickness for the stripe waveguides was found to be around 20 nm. Authors believe that the findings of this paper prove beneficial for the development of plasmonic devices utilising stripe waveguides.

  8. Study the effect of striping in two-step anodizing process on pore arrangement of nano-porous alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, M.H.; Saramad, S.; Tabaian, S.H.; Marashi, S.P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mohammadalinezhad, M.

    2009-01-01

    Two-step anodic oxidation of aluminum is generally employed to produce the ordered porous anodized alumina (PAA). Dissolving away (striping) the oxide film after the first anodizing step plays a key role in the final arrangement of nano-pores. In this work, different striping durations between 1 and 6 h were applied to the sample that was initially anodized at a constant voltage of 40 V at 17 deg. C for 15 h. The striping duration of 3 h was realized as the optimum time for achieving the best ordering degree for the pores. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used during and at the end of the process to examine the cross section and finishing surface of the specimens. Linear-angular fast Fourier transform (LA-FFT), an in-house technique based on MATLAB software, was employed to assess the ordering degree of the anodized samples.

  9. Study the effect of striping in two-step anodizing process on pore arrangement of nano-porous alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, M.H. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saramad, S., E-mail: ssaramad@aut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabaian, S.H.; Marashi, S.P. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zolfaghari, A. [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Centre of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadalinezhad, M. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Two-step anodic oxidation of aluminum is generally employed to produce the ordered porous anodized alumina (PAA). Dissolving away (striping) the oxide film after the first anodizing step plays a key role in the final arrangement of nano-pores. In this work, different striping durations between 1 and 6 h were applied to the sample that was initially anodized at a constant voltage of 40 V at 17 deg. C for 15 h. The striping duration of 3 h was realized as the optimum time for achieving the best ordering degree for the pores. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used during and at the end of the process to examine the cross section and finishing surface of the specimens. Linear-angular fast Fourier transform (LA-FFT), an in-house technique based on MATLAB software, was employed to assess the ordering degree of the anodized samples.

  10. Study the effect of striping in two-step anodizing process on pore arrangement of nano-porous alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, M. H.; Saramad, S.; Tabaian, S. H.; Marashi, S. P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mohammadalinezhad, M.

    2009-10-01

    Two-step anodic oxidation of aluminum is generally employed to produce the ordered porous anodized alumina (PAA). Dissolving away (striping) the oxide film after the first anodizing step plays a key role in the final arrangement of nano-pores. In this work, different striping durations between 1 and 6 h were applied to the sample that was initially anodized at a constant voltage of 40 V at 17 °C for 15 h. The striping duration of 3 h was realized as the optimum time for achieving the best ordering degree for the pores. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used during and at the end of the process to examine the cross section and finishing surface of the specimens. Linear-angular fast Fourier transform (LA-FFT), an in-house technique based on MATLAB software, was employed to assess the ordering degree of the anodized samples.

  11. Adaptive striping watershed segmentation method for processing microscopic images of overlapping irregular-shaped and multicentre particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X; Bai, B; Xu, N; Wu, K

    2015-04-01

    Oversegmentation is a major drawback of the morphological watershed algorithm. Here, we study and reveal that the oversegmentation is not only because of the irregular shapes of the particle images, which people are familiar with, but also because of some particles, such as ellipses, with more than one centre. A new parameter, the striping level, is introduced and the criterion for striping parameter is built to help find the right markers prior to segmentation. An adaptive striping watershed algorithm is established by applying a procedure, called the marker searching algorithm, to find the markers, which can effectively suppress the oversegmentation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by analysing some typical particle images including the images of gold nanorod ensembles. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  12. C-SCAMP Cruise Report #3 - C-BASS Cruise Report - 2016-04-CS04-C02 - RV Weatherbird II - April 07-12, 2016 (EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Camera-Based Assessment Survey System (C-BASS) was used to image new areas around Madison-Swanson Marine Protected Area (MPA) located in the northeastern Gulf of...

  13. Low frequency sound field control for loudspeakers in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Rectangular rooms are the most common shape for sound reproduction, but at low frequencies the reflections from the boundaries of the room cause large spatial variations in the sound pressure level.  Variations up to 30 dB are normal, not only at the room modes, but basically at all frequencies....... As sound propagates in time, it seems natural that the problems can best be analyzed and solved in the time domain. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System) has been developed for sound reproduction in rectangular listening rooms. It can control the sound...... sound field in the whole room, and short impulse response.  In a standard listening room (180 m3) only 4 loudspeakers are needed, 2 more than a traditional stereo setup. CABS is controlled by a developed DSP system. The time based approached might help with the understanding of sound field control...

  14. Establishing nursery estuary otolith geochemical tags for Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Is temporal stability estuary dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Diarmuid; Wögerbauer, Ciara; Roche, William

    2016-12-01

    The ability to determine connectivity between juveniles in nursery estuaries and adult populations is an important tool for fisheries management. Otoliths of juvenile fish contain geochemical tags, which reflect the variation in estuarine elemental chemistry, and allow discrimination of their natal and/or nursery estuaries. These tags can be used to investigate connectivity patterns between juveniles and adults. However, inter-annual variability of geochemical tags may limit the accuracy of nursery origin determinations. Otolith elemental composition was used to assign a single cohort of 0-group sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax to their nursery estuary thus establishing an initial baseline for stocks in waters around Ireland. Using a standard LDFA model, high classification accuracies to nursery sites (80-88%) were obtained. Temporal stability of otolith geochemical tags was also investigated to assess if annual sampling is required for connectivity studies. Geochemical tag stability was found to be strongly estuary dependent.

  15. Nature de la phase basse temperature des verres de spin Heisenberg en dimension 3

    OpenAIRE

    PETIT , Dorothée

    2002-01-01

    I. A Campbell (Directeur) D.R. Grempel F. Hippert (rapporteur) O. Martin P. Norblad (rapporteur) E. Vincent; La question de l'existence d'une réelle transition de phase entre l'état paramagnétique et l'état verre de spin est une question qui a été débattue pendant de nombreuses années. Il semble dorénavant admis que le gel des spins à basse température ne se fasse pas de façon progressive, et l'existence d'une véritable transition à T9. finie est communément acceptée, mais de nombreuses quest...

  16. Identification of largemouth bass virus in the introduced Northern Snakehead inhabiting the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L; Densmore, C; Hahn, C; McAllister, P; Odenkirk, J

    2013-09-01

    The Northern Snakehead Channa argus is an introduced species that now inhabits the Chesapeake Bay. During a preliminary survey for introduced pathogens possibly harbored by these fish in Virginia waters, a filterable agent was isolated from five specimens that produced cytopathic effects in BF-2 cells. Based on PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the major capsid protein (MCP), DNA polymerase (DNApol), and DNA methyltransferase (Mtase) genes, the isolates were identified as Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV). Nucleotide sequences of the MCP (492 bp) and DNApol (419 pb) genes were 100% identical to those of LMBV. The nucleotide sequence of the Mtase (206 bp) gene was 99.5% identical to that of LMBV, and the single nucleotide substitution did not lead to a predicted amino acid coding change. This is the first report of LMBV from the Northern Snakehead, and provides evidence that noncentrarchid fishes may be susceptible to this virus.

  17. Identification of largemouth bass virus in the introduced Northern snakehead inhabiting the Cheasapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Densmore, Christine L.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; McAllister, Phillip; Odenkirk, John

    2013-01-01

    The Northern Snakehead Channa argus is an introduced species that now inhabits the Chesapeake Bay. During a preliminary survey for introduced pathogens possibly harbored by these fish in Virginia waters, a filterable agent was isolated from five specimens that produced cytopathic effects in BF-2 cells. Based on PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the major capsid protein (MCP), DNA polymerase (DNApol), and DNA methyltransferase (Mtase) genes, the isolates were identified as Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV). Nucleotide sequences of the MCP (492 bp) and DNApol (419 pb) genes were 100% identical to those of LMBV. The nucleotide sequence of the Mtase (206 bp) gene was 99.5% identical to that of LMBV, and the single nucleotide substitution did not lead to a predicted amino acid coding change. This is the first report of LMBV from the Northern Snakehead, and provides evidence that noncentrarchid fishes may be susceptible to this virus.

  18. Double Bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenfelt, Anders

    The study of the acoustics of bowed instruments has for several reasons focused on the violin. A substantial amount of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century (see Hutchins 1975, 1976; Hutchins and Benade 1997). The violin is discussed in Chap. 13, while the cello is discussed in Chap. 14. The bow is discussed in Chap. 16.

  19. A strain of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus causes high mortality among cultured Largemouth Bass in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongmei; Deng, Guocheng; Bai, Junjie; Li, Shengjie; Yu, Lingyun; Quan, Yingchun; Yang, Xiaojing; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zemin; Ye, Xing

    2013-09-01

    In April 2011, 40% mortality of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides juveniles occurred at a farm of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, China. Infected fish became lethargic, exhibited corkscrew and irregular swimming, and developed a distended abdomen and crooked body. Fish began to die within 2 d after the appearance of clinical signs. In order to analyze the pathogeny and diagnose the disease earlier, observation of clinical signs, cell infection, titer calculation, electron microscopy, immersion infection assay for fish, and nucleotide sequence analysis were carried out. Fathead minnow (FHM) cell cultures, inoculated with filtrate of liver and spleen homogenates from the diseased fish, developed the obvious cytopathic effect 46 h after inoculation in the primary culture and 24 h at the first passage. Typical rhabdovirus particles, 115-143 nm in length and 62-78 nm in diameter, were observed in infected FHM cells by direct transmission electron microscopy. The isolated virus produced a titer of 10(7.15) TCID50/mL. Immersion-Fish infected with the virus had similar clinical signs and 80% mortality with 10(2.5) LD50/mL. The data indicated that the rhabdovirus was the lethal pathogeny of the current disease. Based on nucleoprotein-gene nucleotide sequence multiple alignment analysis, the newly isolated virus is a strain of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) under family Rhabdoviridae, which was initially isolated from Mandarin Fish Siniperca chuatsi. Up to the present, at least four virus strains have been isolated from diseased Largemouth Bass, which have had different clinical signs. Comparison of the clinical signs can help in an early diagnosis of the disease.

  20. Attractants in plant protein-based diets for the carnivorous largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Ana Maria Barretto de Menezes Sampaio de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding attractants can improve acceptability of artificial diets by carnivorous fish fry and fingerlings, increasing intake of unpalatable feeds and improving growth rate, while reducing feeding time and feeding wastes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of levels of inclusion of different attractants in plant protein-based diets on the performance of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Nine hundred juvenile largemouth bass (26.54 ± 1.53 g conditioned to accept dry, artificial feed were stocked in 60, 90-L polyethylene tanks (15 fish per group in a completely randomized design trial (n=3. Fish were fed two daily meals ad libitum at 7h00 and 17h00, for 13 days, with a diet (100% plant protein source containing either soluble fish protein - SFP (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0%; FisharonTM - FA (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12%; fish silage - FS (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0%; a positive control diet - pCD (10% fish meal and a negative control diet - nCD (basal diet without attractants. DL-methionine (98% and L-lysine (80% were added automatically by the formulation software to adjust available amino-acid profile of diets. Recorded performance data were: final weight, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Fish fed diet FA0.02 presented the best growth rate, best weight gain and best feed conversion ratio. Fish fed diets containing FS as attractant presented the poorest performance.

  1. LPXRFa peptide system in the European sea bass: A molecular and immunohistochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paullada-Salmerón, José A; Cowan, Mairi; Aliaga-Guerrero, María; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia; Mañanos, Evaristo; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a neuropeptide that suppresses reproduction in birds and mammals by inhibiting GnRH and gonadotropin secretion. GnIH orthologs with a C-terminal LPXRFamide (LPXRFa) motif have been identified in teleost fish. Although recent work also suggests its role in fish reproduction, studies are scarce and controversial, and have mainly focused on cyprinids. In this work we cloned a full-length cDNA encoding an LPXRFa precursor in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. In contrast to other teleosts, the sea bass LPXRFa precursor contains only two putative RFamide peptides, termed sbLPXRFa1 and sbLPXRFa2. sblpxrfa transcripts were expressed predominantly in the olfactory bulbs/telencephalon, diencephalon, midbrain tegmentum, retina, and gonads. We also developed a specific antiserum against sbLPXRFa2, which revealed sbLPXRFa-immunoreactive (ir) perikarya in the olfactory bulbs-terminal nerve, ventral telencephalon, caudal preoptic area, dorsal mesencephalic tegmentum, and rostral rhombencephalon. These sbLPXRFa-ir cells profusely innervated the preoptic area, hypothalamus, optic tectum, semicircular torus, and caudal midbrain tegmentum, but conspicuous projections also reached the olfactory bulbs, ventral/dorsal telencephalon, habenula, ventral thalamus, pretectum, rostral midbrain tegmentum, posterior tuberculum, reticular formation, and viscerosensory lobe. The retina, pineal, vascular sac, and pituitary were also targets of sbLPXRFa-ir cells. In the pituitary, this innervation was observed close to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) cells. Tract-tracing retrograde labeling suggests that telencephalic and preoptic sbLPXRFa cells might represent the source of pituitary innervation. The immunohistochemical distribution of sbLPXRFa cells and fibers suggest that LPXRFa peptides might be involved in some functions as well as reproduction, such as feeding, growth, and behavior.

  2. Behavioural stress responses predict environmental perception in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, Sandie; Cerqueira, Marco; Castanheira, Maria-Filipa; Overli, Oyvind; Oliveira, Rui F; Martins, Catarina I M

    2014-01-01

    Individual variation in the response to environmental challenges depends partly on innate reaction norms, partly on experience-based cognitive/emotional evaluations that individuals make of the situation. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pre-existing differences in behaviour predict the outcome of such assessment of environmental cues, using a conditioned place preference/avoidance (CPP/CPA) paradigm. A comparative vertebrate model (European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax) was used, and ninety juvenile individuals were initially screened for behavioural reactivity using a net restraining test. Thereafter each individual was tested in a choice tank using net chasing as aversive stimulus or exposure to familiar conspecifics as appetitive stimulus in the preferred or non preferred side respectively (called hereafter stimulation side). Locomotor behaviour (i.e. time spent, distance travelled and swimming speed in each tank side) of each individual was recorded and analysed with video software. The results showed that fish which were previously exposed to appetitive stimulus increased significantly the time spent on the stimulation side, while aversive stimulus led to a strong decrease in time spent on the stimulation side. Moreover, this study showed clearly that proactive fish were characterised by a stronger preference for the social stimulus and when placed in a putative aversive environment showed a lower physiological stress responses than reactive fish. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time in sea bass, that the CPP/CPA paradigm can be used to assess the valence (positive vs. negative) that fish attribute to different stimuli and that individual behavioural traits is predictive of how stimuli are perceived and thus of the magnitude of preference or avoidance behaviour.

  3. Spawning chronology, nest site selection and nest success of smallmouth bass during benign streamflow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    We documented the nesting chronology, nest site selection and nest success of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in an upstream (4th order) and downstream (5th order) reach of Baron Fork Creek, Oklahoma. Males started nesting in mid-Apr. when water temperatures increased to 16.9 C upstream, and in late-Apr. when temperatures increased to 16.2 C downstream. Streamflows were low (77% upstream to 82% downstream of mean Apr. streamflow, and 12 and 18% of meanjun. streamflow; 47 and 55 y of record), and decreased throughout the spawning period. Larger males nested first upstream, as has been observed in other populations, but not downstream. Upstream, progeny in 62 of 153 nests developed to swim-up stage. Downstream, progeny in 31 of 73 nests developed to swim-up. Nesting densities upstream (147/km) and downstream (100/km) were both higher than any densities previously reported. Males selected nest sites with intermediate water depths, low water velocity and near cover, behavior that is typical of smallmouth bass. Documented nest failures resulted from human disturbance, angling, and longear sunfish predation. Logistic exposure models showed that water velocity at the nest was negatively related and length of the guarding male was positively related to nest success upstream. Male length and number of degree days were both positively related to nest success downstream. Our results, and those of other studies, suggest that biological factors account for most nest failures during benign (stable, low flow) streamflow conditions, whereas nest failures attributed to substrate mobility or nest abandonment dominate when harsh streamflow conditions (spring floods) coincide with the spawning season.

  4. Methylmercury-induced changes in gene transcription associated with neuroendocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Annis, Mandy L; Brumbaugh, William G; Chasar, Lia C; Denslow, Nancy D; Tillitt, Donald E

    2014-07-01

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) is a potent neuroendocrine disruptor that impairs reproductive processes in fish. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize transcriptomic changes induced by MeHg exposure in the female largemouth bass (LMB) hypothalamus under controlled laboratory conditions, (2) investigate the health and reproductive impacts of MeHg exposure on male and female largemouth bass (LMB) in the natural environment, and (3) identify MeHg-associated gene expression patterns in whole brain of female LMB from MeHg-contaminated habitats. The laboratory experiment was a single injection of 2.5 μg MeHg/g body weight for 96 h exposure. The field survey compared river systems in Florida, USA with comparably lower concentrations of MeHg (Wekiva, Santa Fe, and St. Johns Rivers) in fish and one river system with LMB that contained elevated concentrations of MeHg (St. Marys River). Microarray analysis was used to quantify transcriptomic responses to MeHg exposure. Although fish at the high-MeHg site did not show overt health or reproductive impairment, there were MeHg-responsive genes and pathways identified in the laboratory study that were also altered in fish from the high-MeHg site relative to fish at the low-MeHg sites. Gene network analysis suggested that MeHg regulated the expression targets of neuropeptide receptor and steroid signaling, as well as structural components of the cell. Disease-associated gene networks related to MeHg exposure, based upon expression data, included cerebellum ataxia, movement disorders, and hypercalcemia. Gene responses in the CNS are consistent with the documented neurotoxicological and neuroendocrine disrupting effects of MeHg in vertebrates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Gene expression fingerprints of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denslow, Nancy D; Kocerha, Jannet; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Gross, Timothy; Holm, Stewart E

    2004-08-18

    Effluents from pulp and paper mills that historically have used elemental chlorine in the bleaching process have been implicated in inhibiting reproduction in fish. Compounds with estrogenic and androgenic binding affinities have been found in these effluents, suggesting that the impairment of reproduction is through an endocrine-related mode of action. To date, a great deal of attention has been paid to phytoestrogens and resin acids that are present in mill process streams as a result of pulping trees. Estrogen and estrogen mimics interact directly with the estrogen receptor and have near immediate effects on gene transcription by turning on the expression of a unique set of genes. Using differential display (DD) RT-PCR, we examined changes in gene expression induced by exposure to paper mill effluents. Largemouth bass were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80% paper mill effluent concentrations in large flow-through tanks for varied periods of time including 7, 28 or 56 days. Plasma hormone levels in males and females and plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) in females decreased with dose and time. Measurements of changes in gene expression using DD RT-PCR suggest that the gene expression patterns of male fish do not change much with exposure, except for the induction of a few genes including CYP 1A, a protein that is induced through the action of the Ah receptor in response to dioxin and similar polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, in the case of females, exposure to these effluents resulted in an up-regulation of CYP 1A that was accompanied by a generalized down-regulation of genes normally expressed during the reproductive season. These antiestrogenic changes are in agreement with previous studies in bass exposed to these effluents, and could result in decreased reproductive success in affected populations.

  6. Methylmercury-induced changes in gene transcription associated with neuroendocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A.; Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Chasar, Lia C.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) is a potent neuroendocrine disruptor that impairs reproductive processes in fish. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize transcriptomic changes induced by MeHg exposure in the female largemouth bass (LMB) hypothalamus under controlled laboratory conditions, (2) investigate the health and reproductive impacts of MeHg exposure on male and female largemouth bass (LMB) in the natural environment, and (3) identify MeHg-associated gene expression patterns in whole brain of female LMB from MeHg-contaminated habitats. The laboratory experiment was a single injection of 2.5 μg MeHg/g body weight for 96 h exposure. The field survey compared river systems in Florida, USA with comparably lower concentrations of MeHg (Wekiva, Santa Fe, and St. Johns Rivers) in fish and one river system with LMB that contained elevated concentrations of MeHg (St. Marys River). Microarray analysis was used to quantify transcriptomic responses to MeHg exposure. Although fish at the high-MeHg site did not show overt health or reproductive impairment, there were MeHg-responsive genes and pathways identified in the laboratory study that were also altered in fish from the high-MeHg site relative to fish at the low-MeHg sites. Gene network analysis suggested that MeHg regulated the expression targets of neuropeptide receptor and steroid signaling, as well as structural components of the cell. Disease-associated gene networks related to MeHg exposure, based upon expression data, included cerebellum ataxia, movement disorders, and hypercalcemia. Gene responses in the CNS are consistent with the documented neurotoxicological and neuroendocrine disrupting effects of MeHg in vertebrates.

  7. THE WHITE BLOOD ANCESTOR?

    OpenAIRE

    M.Arulmani; V.R.Hema Latha

    2014-01-01

    This scientific research article focus that “Red colour blood” of human shall be considered as the 3rd generation Blood and the Human on origin shall be considered having white colour Blood. The white colour blood of human Ancestor shall be considered composed of only ions of Photon, Electron, Proton and free from Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Ozone.

  8. Racializing white drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyne, Ragan

    2004-01-01

    While drag is primarily understood as a performance of gender, other performative categories such as race, class, and sexuality create drag meaning as well. Though other categories of identification are increasingly understood as essential elements of drag by performers of color, whiteness remains an unmarked category in the scholarship on drag performances by white queens. In this paper, I argue that drag by white queens must be understood as a performance of race as well as gender and that codes of gender excess are specifically constructed through the framework of these other axes of identity. This essay asks whether white performance by white queens necessarily reinscribes white supremacy through the performance of an unmarked white femininity, or might drag performance complicate (though not necessarily subvert) categories of race as well as gender? In this essay, I will suggest that camp drag performances, through the deployment of class as a crucial category of performative femininity, might indeed be a key site through which whiteness is denaturalized and its power challenged. Specifically, I will read on camp as a politicized mode of race, class and gender performance, focusing on the intersections of these categories of identity in the drag performance of Divine.

  9. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  10. Surface-water hydrology and quality, and macroinvertebrate and smallmouth bass populations in four stream basins in southwestern Wisconsin, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Lillie, Richard A.; Schlesser, Roger A.; Mason, John W.; Lyons, John D.; Kerr, Roger A.; Graczyk, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data on streamflow, water quality, and macroinvertebrate and smallmouth bass (microptercus dolomieni) populations were collected from July 1987 through September 1990, in four streams in southwestern Wisconsin to determine the effect of surface-water hydrology and quality on populations of macroinvertebrates and smallmouth bass. The study was a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  11. Calibration of Binocular Vision Sensors Based on Unknown-Sized Elliptical Stripe Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing calibration methods for binocular stereo vision sensor (BSVS depend on a high-accuracy target with feature points that are difficult and costly to manufacture and. In complex light conditions, optical filters are used for BSVS, but they affect imaging quality. Hence, the use of a high-accuracy target with certain-sized feature points for calibration is not feasible under such complex conditions. To solve these problems, a calibration method based on unknown-sized elliptical stripe images is proposed. With known intrinsic parameters, the proposed method adopts the elliptical stripes located on the parallel planes as a medium to calibrate BSVS online. In comparison with the common calibration methods, the proposed method avoids utilizing high-accuracy target with certain-sized feature points. Therefore, the proposed method is not only easy to implement but is a realistic method for the calibration of BSVS with optical filter. Changing the size of elliptical curves projected on the target solves the difficulty of applying the proposed method in different fields of view and distances. Simulative and physical experiments are conducted to validate the efficiency of the proposed method. When the field of view is approximately 400 mm × 300 mm, the proposed method can reach a calibration accuracy of 0.03 mm, which is comparable with that of Zhang’s method.

  12. Stem and stripe rust resistance in wheat induced by gamma rays and thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorda, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts were made to produce rust-resistant mutants in wheat cultivars. Seeds of G-38290 and G-58383 (T. aestivum), Methoni and Ilectra (T. durum) varieties were irradiated with different doses of γ-rays (3.5, 5, 8, 11, 15 and 21 krad) and thermal neutrons (1.7, 4, 5.5, 7.5, 10.5 and 12.5x10 12 ) and the M 1 plants were grown under isolation in the field. The objective was mainly to induce stripe, leaf and stem rust resistance in G-38290, Methoni and Ilectra varieties and leaf rust resistance in G-58383. Mutations for rust resistance were detected by using the ''chimera method'' under natural and artificial field epiphytotic conditions in M 2 and successive generations. The mutants detected were tested for resistance to a broad spectrum of available races. Mutants resistant or moderately resistant to stripe and stem rusts but not to leaf rust, were selected from G-38290. From the other three varieties tested no rust-resistant mutants were detected. The frequency of resistant mutants obtained increased with increased γ-ray dose-rate, but not with increased thermal neutron doses. Some mutants proved to be resistant or moderately resistant to both rusts and others to one of them. Twenty of these mutants were evaluated for yield from M 5 to M 8 . Some of them have reached the final stage of regional yield trials and one, induced by thermal neutrons, was released this year. (author)

  13. M DWARFS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82: PHOTOMETRIC LIGHT CURVES AND FLARE RATE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hilton, Eric J.; Becker, Andrew C.; Sesar, Branimir; West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, John J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a flare rate analysis of 50,130 M dwarf light curves in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82. We identified 271 flares using a customized variability index to search ∼2.5 million photometric observations for flux increases in the u and g bands. Every image of a flaring observation was examined by eye and with a point-spread function-matching and image subtraction tool to guard against false positives. Flaring is found to be strongly correlated with the appearance of Hα in emission in the quiet spectrum. Of the 99 flare stars that have spectra, we classify eight as relatively inactive. The flaring fraction is found to increase strongly in stars with redder colors during quiescence, which can be attributed to the increasing flare visibility and increasing active fraction for redder stars. The flaring fraction is strongly correlated with |Z| distance such that most stars that flare are within 300 pc of the Galactic plane. We derive flare u-band luminosities and find that the most luminous flares occur on the earlier-type m dwarfs. Our best estimate of the lower limit on the flaring rate (averaged over Stripe 82) for flares with Δu ≥ 0.7 mag on stars with u -1 deg -2 but can vary significantly with the line of sight.

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-07-27

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  15. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaolin Dong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  16. The effect of environmental hypercapnia and size on nitrite toxicity in the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Malthe; Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong

    2016-01-01

    Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) are farmed intensively at high stocking densities in Vietnam where they are likely to encounter environmental hypercapnia as well as occasional high levels of aquatic nitrite. Nitrite competes with Cl- for uptake at the branchial HCO3-/Cl- exchanger, ...... the ambient concentration, while small fish did not. Small P. hypophthalmus instead had significantly higher plasma [nitrate], and haemoglobin concentrations, revealing greater capacity for detoxifying nitrite by oxidising it to nitrate.......Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) are farmed intensively at high stocking densities in Vietnam where they are likely to encounter environmental hypercapnia as well as occasional high levels of aquatic nitrite. Nitrite competes with Cl- for uptake at the branchial HCO3-/Cl- exchanger...... to a reduced nitrite uptake. To assess the effect of hypercapnia on nitrite uptake, fish were cannulated in the dorsal aorta, allowing repeated blood sampling for measurements of haemoglobin derivatives, plasma ions and acid-base status during exposure to 0.9 mM nitrite alone and in combination with acute...

  17. DE-STRIPING FOR TDICCD REMOTE SENSING IMAGE BASED ON STATISTICAL FEATURES OF HISTOGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-T. Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim to striping noise brought by non-uniform response of remote sensing TDI CCD, a novel de-striping method based on statistical features of image histogram is put forward. By analysing the distribution of histograms,the centroid of histogram is selected to be an eigenvalue representing uniformity of ground objects,histogrammic centroid of whole image and each pixels are calculated first,the differences between them are regard as rough correction coefficients, then in order to avoid the sensitivity caused by single parameter and considering the strong continuity and pertinence of ground objects between two adjacent pixels,correlation coefficient of the histograms is introduces to reflect the similarities between them,fine correction coefficient is obtained by searching around the rough correction coefficient,additionally,in view of the influence of bright cloud on histogram,an automatic cloud detection based on multi-feature including grey level,texture,fractal dimension and edge is used to pre-process image.Two 0-level panchromatic images of SJ-9A satellite with obvious strip noise are processed by proposed method to evaluate the performance, results show that the visual quality of images are improved because the strip noise is entirely removed,we quantitatively analyse the result by calculating the non-uniformity ,which has reached about 1% and is better than histogram matching method.

  18. The nasty neighbour in the striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio steals paternity and elicits aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Carola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Territoriality functions to monopolize access to resources including mates, but is costly in terms of energy and time investment. Some species reduce these costs by being less aggressive towards their neighbours than towards unfamiliar strangers, the so called dear enemy phenomenon. However, in other species individuals are more, not less aggressive towards their neighbours. It has been hypothesised that this is due to the fact that neighbours can impose a greater threat than strangers, but this has not been tested previously. Results We tested aggression in wild group-living male striped mice in a neutral test arena and demonstrate that breeders are more aggressive than non-breeding philopatrics, and that more aggression occurs during the breeding than during the non-breeding season. Male breeders were significantly more aggressive towards their neighbours than towards strangers, leading to the prediction that neighbours are the most important competitors for paternity. Using a molecular parentage analysis we show that 28% of offspring are sired by neighbouring males and only 7% by strangers. Conclusions We conclude that in male striped mice the main function of male aggression is defending paternity against their territorial neighbours.

  19. The nasty neighbour in the striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio) steals paternity and elicits aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schradin, Carsten; Schneider, Carola; Lindholm, Anna K

    2010-06-23

    Territoriality functions to monopolize access to resources including mates, but is costly in terms of energy and time investment. Some species reduce these costs by being less aggressive towards their neighbours than towards unfamiliar strangers, the so called dear enemy phenomenon. However, in other species individuals are more, not less aggressive towards their neighbours. It has been hypothesised that this is due to the fact that neighbours can impose a greater threat than strangers, but this has not been tested previously. We tested aggression in wild group-living male striped mice in a neutral test arena and demonstrate that breeders are more aggressive than non-breeding philopatrics, and that more aggression occurs during the breeding than during the non-breeding season. Male breeders were significantly more aggressive towards their neighbours than towards strangers, leading to the prediction that neighbours are the most important competitors for paternity. Using a molecular parentage analysis we show that 28% of offspring are sired by neighbouring males and only 7% by strangers. We conclude that in male striped mice the main function of male aggression is defending paternity against their territorial neighbours.

  20. Striped aeolian bedforms: a novel longitudinal pattern observed in ripples and megaripples on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, T. R.; Hugenholtz, C.; Barchyn, T.; Martin, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Striped aeolian bedforms (SABs) are a previously undocumented longitudinal pattern consisting of streamwise corridors of ripples or megaripples separated by corridors containing smaller bedforms. Similar patterns of spanwise variations in bed texture and/or bed topography are observed in water flumes. SABs have been observed in satellite imagery at sites in Peru, Iran, California, the Puna region of northwestern Argentina, and on Mars. The spanwise periodicity varies from automated image-based grain size analysis, we found that median grain size was larger on the ripples and megaripples than on the intervening corridors containing smaller bedforms. This result is consistent with fluvial stripes, for which it is suggested that instability-driven streamwise vortices produce lateral sediment transport and sorting. We found no consistent evidence upwind of the SAB patterns to indicate topographic seeding is necessary. Therefore, we hypothesize that SABs are a self-organized bedform pattern that develops from secondary (lateral) transport of sediment in mixed sediment deposits. We also hypothesize that the development and maintenance of SABs requires unimodal wind regimes.

  1. Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (non-ortho, PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169 and mono-ortho, PCB 105, PCB 118, and PCB 156) were measured in different organs and tissues (melon, blubber, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea). The mean highest levels were in blubber and melon, followed by liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue. PCB profiles were similar in all tissues and organs being dominated by the higher chlorinated homologues (hexa-CBs, 55.8-62.1%; penta-CBs, 15.4-20.0%; and hepta-CB PCB 180, 12.7-16.5%). Major PCBs in all tissues were congeners 138 and 153 collectively accounting for 50.6-58.3% of the total PCB concentrations, followed by PCB 101, 105, 118, and 180 constituting from 27.0% to 31.0%. PCB levels were higher in adult males than in adult females. The estimated 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs were much higher than the threshold level above which adverse effects have been observed in other marine mammals species, suggesting that striped dolphins in this region are at risk for toxic effects.

  2. Broadband Photometric Reverberation Mapping Analysis on SDSS-RM and Stripe 82 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haowen; Yang, Qian; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2018-02-01

    We modified the broadband photometric reverberation mapping (PRM) code, JAVELIN, and tested the availability to get broad-line region time delays that are consistent with the spectroscopic reverberation mapping (SRM) project SDSS-RM. The broadband light curves of SDSS-RM quasars produced by convolution with the system transmission curves were used in the test. We found that under similar sampling conditions (evenly and frequently sampled), the key factor determining whether the broadband PRM code can yield lags consistent with the SRM project is the flux ratio of the broad emission line to the reference continuum, which is in line with the previous findings. We further found a critical line-to-continuum flux ratio, about 6%, above which the mean of the ratios between the lags from PRM and SRM becomes closer to unity, and the scatter is pronouncedly reduced. We also tested our code on a subset of SDSS Stripe 82 quasars, and found that our program tends to give biased lag estimations due to the observation gaps when the R-L relation prior in Markov Chain Monte Carlo is discarded. The performance of the damped random walk (DRW) model and the power-law (PL) structure function model on broadband PRM were compared. We found that given both SDSS-RM-like or Stripe 82-like light curves, the DRW model performs better in carrying out broadband PRM than the PL model.

  3. Emergent Ising degrees of freedom above a double-stripe magnetic ground state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanghua; Flint, Rebecca

    2017-12-01

    Double-stripe magnetism [Q =(π /2 ,π /2 )] has been proposed as the magnetic ground state for both the iron-telluride and BaTi2Sb2O families of superconductors. Double-stripe order is captured within a J1-J2-J3 Heisenberg model in the regime J3≫J2≫J1 . Intriguingly, besides breaking spin-rotational symmetry, the ground-state manifold has three additional Ising degrees of freedom associated with bond ordering. Via their coupling to the lattice, they give rise to an orthorhombic distortion and to two nonuniform lattice distortions with wave vector (π ,π ) . Because the ground state is fourfold degenerate, modulo rotations in spin space, only two of these Ising bond order parameters are independent. Here, we introduce an effective field theory to treat all Ising order parameters, as well as magnetic order, and solve it within a large-N limit. All three transitions, corresponding to the condensations of two Ising bond order parameters and one magnetic order parameter are simultaneous and first order in three dimensions, but lower dimensionality, or equivalently weaker interlayer coupling, and weaker magnetoelastic coupling can split the three transitions, and in some cases allows for two separate Ising phase transitions above the magnetic one.

  4. Stripes instability of an oscillating non-Brownian iso-dense suspension of spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roht, Y. L.; Ippolito, I.; Hulin, J. P.; Salin, D.; Gauthier, G.

    2018-03-01

    We analyze experimentally the behavior of a non-Brownian, iso-dense suspension of spheres submitted to periodic square wave oscillations of the flow in a Hele-Shaw cell of gap H. We do observe an instability of the initially homogeneous concentration in the form of concentration variation stripes transverse to the flow. The wavelength of these regular spatial structures scales roughly as the gap of the cell and is independent of the particle concentration and of the period of oscillation. This instability requires large enough particle volume fractions φ≥ 0.25 and a gap large enough compared to the sphere diameter (H/d ≥ 8) . Mapping the domain of the existence of this instability in the space of the control parameters shows that it occurs only in a limited range of amplitudes of the fluid displacement. The analysis of the concentration distribution across the gap supports a scenario of particle migration towards the wall followed by an instability due to a particle concentration gradient with a larger concentration at the walls. In order to account for the main features of this stripes instability, we use the theory of longitudinal instability due to normal stresses difference and recent observations of a dependence of the first normal stresses difference on the particle concentration.

  5. Branchial expression and localization of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor and changes in plasma IGF-1 and IGF-1 binding protein in striped bass during salinity acclimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Madsen, Steffen; Borski, Russell

    2006-01-01

    In euryhaline teleosts the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/growth hormone axis is known to affect salinity tolerance and gill Na,K-ATPase activity. However, virtually nothing is known on expression and cellular localization of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in the teleost gill during salinity a...

  6. Regulation of endocrine and paracrine sources of insulin-like growth factors and growth hormone receptor during compensatory growth in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picha, Matthew E; Turano, Marc J; Tipsmark, Christian K

    2008-01-01

    relieved, renders a subsequent phase of CG. The catabolic state was characterized by depressed levels of hepatic Type I and II GH receptor (Ghr1, Ghr2) and insulin-like growth factor-I (Igf-I) mRNA, along with considerable decreases in plasma IGF-I. The state of catabolism also resulted in significant...... liver production, rather than as a fraction of total RNA, may be a more biologically appropriate method of quantifying hepatic gene expression when using real-time PCR....

  7. Transcriptional networks associated with the immune system are disrupted by organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Feswick, April; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida are exposed to high levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and dietary uptake is a significant route of exposure for these apex predators. The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary effects of two organochlorine pesticides (p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; p, p' DDE and methoxychlor; MXC) on the reproductive axis of largemouth bass. Reproductive bass (late vitellogenesis) were fed one of the following diets: control pellets, 125ppm p, p'-DDE, or 10ppm MXC (mg/kg) for 84days. Due to the fact that both p,p' DDE and MXC have anti-androgenic properties, the anti-androgenic pharmaceutical flutamide was fed to a fourth group of largemouth bass (750ppm). Following a 3 month exposure, fish incorporated p,p' DDE and MXC into both muscle and ovary tissue, with the ovary incorporating 3 times more organochlorine pesticides compared to muscle. Endpoints assessed were those related to reproduction due to previous studies demonstrating that these pesticides impact the reproductive axis and we hypothesized that a dietary exposure would result in impaired reproduction. However, oocyte distribution, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin, and plasma sex steroids (17β-estradiol, E2 and testosterone, T) were not different between control animals and contaminant-fed largemouth bass. Moreover, neither p, p' DDE nor MXC affected E2 or T production in ex vivo oocyte cultures from chemical-fed largemouth bass. However, both pesticides did interfere with the normal upregulation of androgen receptor that is observed in response to human chorionic gonadotropin in ex vivo cultures, an observation that may be related to their anti-androgenic properties. Transcriptomics profiling in the ovary revealed that gene networks related to cell processes such as leukocyte cell adhesion, ossification, platelet function and inhibition, xenobiotic metabolism, fibrinolysis, and thermoregulation

  8. Analysis of impingement impacts on Hudson River fish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; van Winkle, W.

    1988-01-01

    Impacts of impingement, expressed as reductions in year-class abundance, were calculated for six Hudson River fish populations. Estimates were made for the 1974 and 1975 year classes of white perch, striped bass, Atlantic tomcod, and American shad, and the 1974 year classes of alewife and blueback herring. The maximum estimated reductions in year-class abundance were less than 5% for all year classes except the 1974 and 1975 white perch year classes and the 1974 striped bass year class. Only for white perch were the estimates greater than 10% per year. For striped bass, the 146,000 fish from the 1974 year class that were killed by impingement could have produced 12,000-16,000 5-year-old fish or 270-300 10-year-olds. Also estimated were the reductions in mortality that could have been achieved had closed-cycle cooling systems been installed at one or more of three power plants (Bowline point, Indian Point, and Roseton) and had the screen-wash systems at Bowline Point and Indian Point been modified to improve the survival of impinged fish. Closed-cycle cooling at all three plants would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch, striped bass, and Atlantic tomcod by 75% or more; installation of closed-cycle cooling at Indian Point alone would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch and Atlantic tomcod by 50%-80%. Modified traveling screens would have been less effective than closed-cycle cooling, but still would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch by roughly 20%. 23 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  9. The Embeddedness of White Fragility within White Pre-Service Principals' Reflections on White Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of white fragility within the six white, pre-service principals' online responses to readings about white privilege. Six white, pre-service principals were asked to provide commentary to class readings on the relevance of white privilege to their preparation for future positions as principals. The findings showed…

  10. Arabidopsis thaliana Yellow Stripe1-Like4 and Yellow Stripe1-Like6 localize to internal cellular membranes and are involved in metal ion homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Hsuan eChu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Several members of the Yellow Stripe1-Like (YSL family of transporter proteins are able to transport metal-nicotianamine (NA complexes. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the roles of the Arabidopsis YSLs that are most closely related to the founding member of the family, ZmYS1 (e.g., AtYSL1, AtYSL2 and AtYSL3, but there is little information concerning members of the other two well-conserved YSL clades. Here, we provide evidence that AtYSL4 and AtYSL6, which are the only genes in Arabidopsis belong to YSL Group II, are localized to vacuole membranes and to internal membranes resembling endoplasmic reticulum. Both single and double mutants for YSL4 and YSL6 were rigorously analyzed, and have surprisingly mild phenotypes, in spite of the strong and wide-ranging expression of YSL6. However, in the presence of toxic levels of Mn and Ni, plants with mutations in YSL4 and YSL6 and plants overexpressing GFP-tagged YSL6 showed growth defects, indicating a role for these transporters in heavy metal stress responses.

  11. Notes on Myxobolus inoratus, n sp, a Myxosporidian, parasitic in the black bass (Huro floridana, Le Sueur)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, F.F.

    1939-01-01

    A largemouth black bass fingerling preserved in formalin was sent to the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Pathology Laboratory at Seattle, Washington, during the autumn of 1937, by a hatchery employee at Miles City, Montana. The fish exhibited several wart-like protuberances on the caudal peduncle, which aroused the curiosity of Mr. H. C. Topel, in charge of fish distribution at Miles City. He had observed the gradually increasing numbers of these lesions on the fish at this station for several years previous to 1937. Mr. Topel estimated that in 1937, 20 per cent of the adult bass were infected at the time of distribution, and lesions were noted on the fingerling and yearling stock as well.

  12. Hypermedicalization in White Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Josef

    2015-09-01

    The Nazis hijacked Germany's medical establishment and appropriated medical language to hegemonize their ideology. In White Noise, shifting medical information stifles the public into docility. In Nazi Germany the primacy of language and medical authority magnified the importance of academic doctors. The muddling of identities caused complex insecurities and the need for psychological doubles. In White Noise, Professor Gladney is driven by professional insecurities to enact a double in Murray. Through the manipulation of language and medical overreach the U.S., exemplified in the novel White Noise, has become a hypermedicalized society where the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath has eroded.

  13. Differences in the response of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Jennings, N.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, D.de; Schooneman, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. However, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. Therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously

  14. Differences in the response of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour popoise (Phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Jennings, N.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, de D.; Schooneman, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. However, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. Therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously

  15. Virulence and molecular characterization of experimental isolates of the stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis) indicate somatic recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinia striiformis causes stripe rust on wheat, barley, and grasses. Natural population studies have indicated that somatic recombination plays a possible role in the pathogen variation. To determine if somatic recombination can occur, susceptible wheat or barley plants were inoculated with mixe...

  16. Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tu; Hien, T.T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The ingredients' particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish

  17. 76 FR 32911 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Striped...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ...; Dodd and Cade 1998, p. 337, Johnson 2003, p. 19; Kirkman et al. 1999, p. 557; Semlitsch and Bodie 2003... habitats in the persistence of populations (Semlitsch and Bodie 2003, p. 1219). Semi- aquatic species (such...; Semlitsch 1998, p. 1116; Semlitsch and Bodie 2003, p. 1219). Distribution The range of the striped newt...

  18. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Standard Star Catalog for Stripe 82: The Dawn of Industrial 1% Optical Photometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivezic, Zeljko; Smith, J. A; Miknaitis, Gajus; Lin, Huan; Tucker, Douglas; Lupton, Robert H; Gunn, James E; Knapp, Gillian R; Strauss, Michael A; Sesar, Branimir

    2007-01-01

    ... (at least four per band, with a median of 10) in the ugriz system. The catalog includes 1.01 million nonvariable unresolved objects from the equatorial stripe 82 in the right ascension range and with the corresponding r-band...

  19. Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tu; Hien, T.T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2018-01-01

    The ingredients' particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish

  20. Interactions with the actin cytoskeleton are required for cell wall localization of barley stripe mosaic virus TGB proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The host cytoskeleton and membrane system are the main routes by which plant viruses move within or between cells. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) -induced actin filament thickening was visualized in the cytoskeleton of agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells expressing DsRed:Talin. ...

  1. {mu}SR studies of the interplay of magnetic spin stripe order with superconductivity in transition metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauss, Hans-Henning, E-mail: h.klauss@physik.tu-dresden.de [Institute for Solid State Physics, TU Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In this work we review muon spin relaxation experiments on the layered La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4} nickelate as well as La{sub 2-x}Ba{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} cuprate systems to examine spin stripe order. In particular, the interplay of stripe order with superconductivity in Nd and Eu doped La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} cuprates is discussed. Detailed studies of the electronic phase diagrams as well as the magnetic and superconducting order parameters for different rare-earth and Sr doping levels in La{sub 2-x-y}RE{sub y}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} revealed the strong correlation of static spin stripe order with the structural distortion in the low temperature tetragonal (LTT) phase and the competition with the superconducting ground state. High magnetic field studies demonstrate the nearly degenerate ground state energy of the different electronic phases. Slow transverse fluctuations of the charge stripes are found in nickelates and cuprates at low temperatures.

  2. Controlled Acoustic Bass System (CABS) A Method to Achieve Uniform Sound Field Distribution at Low Frequencies in Rectangular Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    The sound field produced by loudspeakers at low frequencies in small- and medium-size rectangular listening rooms is highly nonuniform due to the multiple reflections and diffractions of sound on the walls and different objects in the room. A new method, called controlled acoustic bass system (CA......-frequency range. CABS has been simulated and measured in two different standard listening rooms with satisfactory results....

  3. Reproductive biology of the peacock bass Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae), an exotic species in a Neotropical reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Augusto B. C.; Salvador-Jr., Luiz F.; Melo, Rafael M. C.; Santos, Gilmar B.; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the reproductive biology of the peacock bass Cichla piquiti, 361 specimens were collected bimonthly in the Itumbiara Reservoir, southeast Brazil, from December 2004 to November 2005. Males and females in reproductive activity occurred during almost the entire year, with reproductive peak occurring before the beginning of the rains when the water temperature remained low, indicating that these environmental variables do not directly influence in the reproduction of C. piquiti. The l...

  4. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacépède): reproduction management and larval rearing in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dees; P. Melotti; R. Vicenzi; A. Roncarati

    2010-01-01

    Micropterus salmoides (Lacépède) was originally present into the waters of the eastern United States of America, northern Mexico and southern Canada. This species can be distinguished from the other black basses by the fact that its mouth extends to and beyond the edge of the eye and the first and the second dorsal fins are almost separated by a deep dip and there are no scales on the soft rayed of the second dorsal fin.

  5. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacépède: reproduction management and larval rearing in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dees

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropterus salmoides (Lacépède was originally present into the waters of the eastern United States of America, northern Mexico and southern Canada. This species can be distinguished from the other black basses by the fact that its mouth extends to and beyond the edge of the eye and the first and the second dorsal fins are almost separated by a deep dip and there are no scales on the soft rayed of the second dorsal fin.

  6. Seasonal Relationship between Gonadotropin, Growth Hormone, and Estrogen Receptor mRNA Expression in the Pituitary Gland of Largemouth Bass

    OpenAIRE

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J.; Porak, Wesley F.; Steward, Cheree; Grier, Harry J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal changes in pituitary gonadotropins, growth hormone (GH), and estrogen receptor (ER) isoform mRNA in wild female and male largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides) from an unpolluted habitat to better understand reproductive physiology in this ecologically important species. Female pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) β subunit and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β subunit mRNA showed significant seasonal variation with levels ...

  7. Multinomial N-mixture models improve the applicability of electrofishing for developing population estimates of stream-dwelling Smallmouth Bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Robert; Brewer, Shannon K.

    2017-01-01

    Failure to account for variable detection across survey conditions constrains progressive stream ecology and can lead to erroneous stream fish management and conservation decisions. In addition to variable detection’s confounding long-term stream fish population trends, reliable abundance estimates across a wide range of survey conditions are fundamental to establishing species–environment relationships. Despite major advancements in accounting for variable detection when surveying animal populations, these approaches remain largely ignored by stream fish scientists, and CPUE remains the most common metric used by researchers and managers. One notable advancement for addressing the challenges of variable detection is the multinomial N-mixture model. Multinomial N-mixture models use a flexible hierarchical framework to model the detection process across sites as a function of covariates; they also accommodate common fisheries survey methods, such as removal and capture–recapture. Effective monitoring of stream-dwelling Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu populations has long been challenging; therefore, our objective was to examine the use of multinomial N-mixture models to improve the applicability of electrofishing for estimating absolute abundance. We sampled Smallmouth Bass populations by using tow-barge electrofishing across a range of environmental conditions in streams of the Ozark Highlands ecoregion. Using an information-theoretic approach, we identified effort, water clarity, wetted channel width, and water depth as covariates that were related to variable Smallmouth Bass electrofishing detection. Smallmouth Bass abundance estimates derived from our top model consistently agreed with baseline estimates obtained via snorkel surveys. Additionally, confidence intervals from the multinomial N-mixture models were consistently more precise than those of unbiased Petersen capture–recapture estimates due to the dependency among data sets in the

  8. Impact of a plant-based diet on behavioural and physiological traits in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    OpenAIRE

    Benhaim, David; Begout, Marie-laure; Pean, Samuel; Manca, Michael; Prunet, Patrick; Chatain, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    Replacing aquaculture feeds based on fisheries-derived resources with plant-based diets could be a relevant strategy to improve the sustainability of aquaculture. Recent studies on sea bass have shown that the total and early replacement of marine products by plant products would have a moderate effect on fish growth and body lipid content. Whether a plant-based diet impacts behavioural and physiological traits possibly linked to fish welfare, is not known, however. Here, we studied the effec...

  9. [Genetic variation and differentiation in striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius inferred from RAPD-PCR analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atopkin, D M; Bogdanov, A S; Chelomina, G N

    2007-06-01

    Genetic variation and differentiation of the trans-Palearctic species Apodemus agrarius (striped field mouse), whose range consists of two large isolates-European-Siberian and Far Eastern-Chinese, were examined using RAPD-PCR analysis. The material from the both parts of the range was examined (41 individual of A. agrarius from 18 localities of Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, and Kazakhstan); the Far-Eastern part was represented by samples from the Amur region, Khabarovsk krai, and Primorye (Russia). Differences in frequencies of polymorphic RAPD loci were found between the European-Siberian and the Far Eastern population groups of striped field mouse. No "fixed" differences between them in RAPD spectra were found, and none of the used statistical methods permitted to distinguish with absolute certainty animals from the two range parts. Thus, genetic isolation of the European-Siberian and the Far Eastern population groups of A. agrarius is not strict. These results support the hypothesis on recent dispersal of striped field mouse from East to West Palearctics (during the Holocene climatic optimum, 7000 to 4500 years ago) and subsequent disjunction of the species range (not earlier than 4000-4500 years ago). The Far Eastern population group is more polymorphic than the European-Siberian one, while genetic heterogeneity is more uniformly distributed within it. This is probably explained by both historical events that happened during the species dispersal in the past, and different environmental conditions for the species in different parts of its range. The Far Eastern population group inhabits the area close to the distribution center of A. agrarius. It is likely that this group preserved genetic variation of the formerly integral ancestral form, while some amount of genetic polymorphism could be lost during the species colonization of the Siberian and European areas. To date, the settlement density and population number in general are higher than within the European

  10. Appraisal of wheat germplasm for adult plant resistance against stripe rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Kamran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The resurgence of wheat stripe rust is of great concern for world food security. Owing to resistance breakdown and the appearance of new virulent high-temperature adapted races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, many high yielding commercial varieties in the country lost their yield potential. Searching for new sources of resistance is the best approach to mitigate the problem. Quantitative resistance (partial or adult plant or durable resistance is reported to be more stable than race specific resistance. In the current perusal, a repertoire of 57 promising wheat lines along with the KLcheck line Morocco, developed through hybridisation and selection of local and international lines with International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT origin, were evaluated under natural field conditions at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB during the 2012−2013 and 2013−2014 time periods. Final rust severity (FRS, the area under the rust progress curve (AURPC, the relative area under the rust progress curve (rAURPC, and the coefficient of infection (CI were unraveled to infer the level of quantitative resistance. Final rust severity was recorded when the susceptible check exhibited 100% severity. There were 21 lines which were immune (no disease, 16 which were resistant, five moderately resistant, two resistant-to-moderately resistant, one moderately resistant-to-moderately susceptible, 5 moderately susceptible-to-susceptible, one moderately susceptible, and six exhibited a susceptible response. Nevertheless, 51 lines exhibited a high level of partial resistance while the three lines, NW-5-1212-1, NW-7-30-1, and NW-7-5 all showed a moderate level of partial resistance based on FRS, while 54 lines, on the basis of AURPC and rAURPC, were identified as conferring a high level of partial resistance. Moreover, adult plant resistance was conferred by 47 wheat lines, based on CI value. It was striking that, 13 immune lines

  11. THE 31 DEG{sup 2} RELEASE OF THE STRIPE 82 X-RAY SURVEY: THE POINT SOURCE CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Urry, C. Megan; Ananna, Tonima; Civano, Francesca; Marchesi, Stefano; Pecoraro, Robert [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics Department, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Cappelluti, Nico; Comastri, Andrea; Brusa, Marcella [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Glikman, Eilat [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States); Richards, Gordon [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Cardamone, Carie [Department of Math and Science, Wheelock College, 200 Riverway, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Farrah, Duncan [Department of Physics MC 0435, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 850 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Gilfanov, Marat [Max-Planck Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Postfach 1317, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Green, Paul [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Makler, Martin [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22290-180 (Brazil); and others

    2016-02-01

    We release the next installment of the Stripe 82 X-ray survey point-source catalog, which currently covers 31.3 deg{sup 2} of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 Legacy field. In total, 6181 unique X-ray sources are significantly detected with XMM-Newton (>5σ) and Chandra (>4.5σ). This catalog release includes data from XMM-Newton cycle AO 13, which approximately doubled the Stripe 82X survey area. The flux limits of the Stripe 82X survey are 8.7 × 10{sup −16} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, 4.7 × 10{sup −15} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and 2.1 × 10{sup −15} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in the soft (0.5–2 keV), hard (2–10 keV), and full bands (0.5–10 keV), respectively, with approximate half-area survey flux limits of 5.4 × 10{sup −15} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, 2.9 × 10{sup −14} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and 1.7 × 10{sup −14} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. We matched the X-ray source lists to available multi-wavelength catalogs, including updated matches to the previous release of the Stripe 82X survey; 88% of the sample is matched to a multi-wavelength counterpart. Due to the wide area of Stripe 82X and rich ancillary multi-wavelength data, including coadded SDSS photometry, mid-infrared WISE coverage, near-infrared coverage from UKIDSS and VISTA Hemisphere Survey, ultraviolet coverage from GALEX, radio coverage from FIRST, and far-infrared coverage from Herschel, as well as existing ∼30% optical spectroscopic completeness, we are beginning to uncover rare objects, such as obscured high-luminosity active galactic nuclei at high-redshift. The Stripe 82X point source catalog is a valuable data set for constraining how this population grows and evolves, as well as for studying how they interact with the galaxies in which they live.

  12. Victims Themselves of a Close Encounter: On the Sensory Language and Bass Fiction of Space Ape (In Memoriam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tobias c. van Veen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This text is written in memoriam to dubstep emcee and poet Space Ape (Stephen Samuel Gordon, b. June 17th, 1970; d. October 2nd, 2014. By his own words, Space Ape arose from the depths of the black Atlantic, on a mission to relieve the “pressure” through bass fiction. My aim is to explicate Space Ape’s bass fiction as the intersection of material and imaginal forces, connecting it to a broader Afrofuturist constellation of mythopoetic becomings. Memory and matter converge in the affect and sounding of Space Ape the “hostile alien” (“Space Ape”, Burial, 2006, a figure shaped at the intersection of the dread body, riddim warfare, and speculative lyricism. Space Ape set out to “xorcise” that which consumed him from within by embracing the “spirit of change”. Turning to process philosophy, I demonstrate how Space Ape’s bass fiction—his virtual body—activates the abstract concepts of becoming in the “close encounter” with the hostile alien.

  13. Characterization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Bacillus cereus and Brachybacterium sp. Isolated from Asian Sea Bass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Orsod

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: EPS extracted from marine bacteria, which associated with Asian sea bass has potential antimicrobial activities.Methodology and Results: Two marine Bacteria were isolated from Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer obtained from aquaculture farm, located at Johor bahru Malaysia. 16S rRNA analysis for bacteria identity revealed that bacteria ors1 had 99 % identity to Bacillus cereus and ors2 had 96 % identity with Brachybacterium sp. All bacteria shared many similarities and variation in terms of biochemical reactions and microscopic observation. Exopolysaccharides (EPSs were extracted and purified from bacteria as they produced mucous colonies. Average analysis of EPS components showed 50 % carbohydrates, 26 % protein and 24 % fatty acids. The FTIR analysis confirmed the functional groups of the EPS. Screening for antimicrobial activities assays using Kirby-Bauer methods against both grams positive and negative had shown presence of inhibition zones.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This study recommends that bacteria isolated from Asian sea bass are having antimicrobial activities and could be used as a potential source for the development of marine drugs.

  14. Growth performance of sea bass fed increasing levels of pea-wheat protein in diets varying in fish meal quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tibaldi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A 11-week trial was carried out to compare the growth performance of sea bass (D. labrax fed six isonitrogenous isocaloric diets where protein from two fish meals of different nutritive value was replaced with graded levels (0, 50 or 75% of a mixture made up by a pea protein concentrate and wheat gluten. Fish meal quality did not affect (P>0.05 weight gain or feed efficiency in fish fed graded levels of plant protein in the diet. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 as the level of plant protein was increased in the diet but this did not led to impaired growth or feed conversion rate. Protein efficiency and retention were equally improved (P<0.05 only with diets where a poor quality fish meal was substituted by protein rich-plant ingredients. Calculations based on the mass balance of nutrients of sea bass proven the inclusion of a mixture of highly purified plant-protein derivatives in complete diets for the sea bass, to be beneficial in reducing pollution load.

  15. Effect of long-term oral administration of an immunostimulant diet on innate immunity in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagni, M; Archetti, L; Amadori, M; Marino, G

    2000-12-01

    Immunostimulants represent a modern and promising tool in aquaculture, enhancing the resistance of cultured fish to disease and stress. This study investigated the effect of a combination of dietary glucans, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on the innate immune response of cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). After 5 weeks of adaptation on a commercial diet containing 100 p.p.m. ascorbic acid and 200 p.p.m. alpha-tocopherol, sea bass were switched to a diet supplemented with 2% beta-1.3/beta-1.6 glucans and ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol at 500 p.p.m. The supplemented diet was given at 2% of body weight per day over a 2-week period, every 3 months. Plasma lysozyme concentration, content and distribution of major plasma proteins and complement activity were measured prior to feeding the supplemented diet and after 40 weeks. Alternative pathways of complement activation and lysozyme activity were both significantly enhanced in fish fed on glucans and elevated doses of vitamins. No significant differences were observed in protein content or in albumin/globulin ratio. Compared to lysozyme activity, which showed marked individual variation, complement-mediated haemolytic activity has been shown to be a more reliable indicator of sea bass immunocompetence. Further studies are in progress to clarify the effect of each dietary component on the innate immune response and disease resistance.

  16. Consumer preferences regarding the introduction of new organic products. The case of the Mediterranean sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauracher, C; Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D

    2013-04-01

    The introduction of new products on the market poses several challenges; in particular, whether the characteristics of the proposed product will be judged positively by potential consumers. This paper analyses the preferences of consumers regarding the introduction on the Italian market of a new product: organic Mediterranean sea bass. The aim of this study is to assess the importance given by consumers to four main characteristics of sea bass (country of origin, size, production method - organic or conventional - and price) so as to be able to formulate marketing strategies. We applied a choice experiment (CE) in order to define not only the ordinal ranking of preferences but also the willingness to pay (WTP) for the key characteristics of the newly-introduced product. We found that consumers show a higher WTP for the sea bass country of origin than for the breeding method used. Our results suggest that while organic aquaculture might be a new and important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication, either from a public policy or commercial perspective, and labelling/certification are not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by the final consumers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Infestation of gill copepod Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) and its effect on cage-cultured Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kua, B C; Noraziah, M R; Nik Rahimah, A R

    2012-09-01

    Twenty Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer from a floating cage in Bt. Tambun, Penang were examined for the presence of parasitic gill copepod, Lernanthropus latis. The prevalence of L. latis was 100% with the intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 18 parasites per host or 3.75 of mean intensity. Female parasites having oblong cephalothorax and egg-strings were seen mainly on the entire gill of examined Asian sea bass. The infected gill of Asian sea bass was pale and had eccessive mucus production. Under light and scanning electron microscopies (SEM), L. latis was seen grasping or holding tightly to the gill filament using their antenna, maxilla and maxilliped. These structures are characteristically prehensile and uncinate for the parasite to attach onto the host tissue. The damage was clearly seen under SEM as the hooked end of the antenna was embedded into the gill filament. The parasite also has the mandible which is styliform with eight teeth on the inner margin. The pathological effects such as erosion, haemorrhages, hyperplasia and necrosis along the secondary lamellae of gill filaments were seen and more severe at the attachment site. The combined actions of the antenna, maxilla and maxilliped together with the mandible resulted in extensive damage as L. latis attached and fed on the host tissues.

  18. Effect of mercury on general and reproductive health of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from three lakes in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Andrew S; Costain, E Kimble; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Stansley, William; Washuta, Edmund J

    2002-06-01

    The influence of mercury on the general and reproductive health of wild fish populations has not been well studied. Therefore, a variety of health and reproductive indicators were measured in male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) collected from three bodies of water in New Jersey: Assunpink Lake, Manasquan Reservoir, and Atlantic City Reservoir. The mean mercury content in fish muscle from Assunpink Lake was 0.30 microg/g; from Manasquan Reservoir, 1.23 microg/g; and from Atlantic City Reservoir, 5.42 microg/g. Body weight, length, condition factor, and gonadosomatic index were similar for all three lakes. Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between muscle mercury content and adrenocortical function, indicated by interrenal nuclear diameter and serum cortisol levels following stress. Bass from the Atlantic City Reservoir had a slightly lower, although significant, liver somatic index than bass from the two other lakes. A significant, positive correlation between 11-ketotestosterone serum concentrations and mercury muscle content was detected, although no significant relationship between testosterone serum concentrations and mercury muscle content was found. The findings of this study suggest that, while elevated levels of mercury in fish potentially alter androgen profiles, they do not substantially decrease other indicators of general and reproductive health. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  19. Interactive effects of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and methoxychlor on hormone synthesis in largemouth bass ovarian cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgert, Christopher J; Gross, Timothy S; Guiney, Patrick D; Osimitz, Tomas G; Price, Bertram; Wells, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and methoxychlor were tested alone and in combination to assess the similarity of their actions on hormone synthesis in gonadal tissue from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus), a species whose reproductive fitness has relevance to ecosystem health in Florida (USA). Gonads were harvested from adult female bass (age, two to three years) during the peak reproductive season (January-May), minced, and incubated in culture medium with or without test agents for 48 h. Duplicates of each treatment were performed in each of three experiments using tissue from a different female. Both 17beta-estradiol and testosterone were measured in aliquots of culture medium by validated radioimmunoassay procedures. Dose-response relationships of individual agents were characterized over a 6-log concentration range (1 X 10(-2) to 1 X 10(4) ppb). Both DDE and methoxychlor, tested individually, produced a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. 17beta-Estradiol levels were unaffected. Mixtures of the agents were tested at all concentration combinations of 0.01, 1, 100, and 10,000 ppb in culture medium. Statistical tests indicated that of 16 dose combinations tested, 15 were antagonistic, and only 1 was additive based on the Loewe additivity model of no interaction. These results imply that methoxychlor and DDE inhibit testosterone production by different mechanisms in bass ovaries.

  20. ESCO White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed this white paper to explore energy performance contracting with Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) and its potential to be a best practice for installing solar thermal water heating systems in the commercial and industrial sector.

  1. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  2. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    ...; and the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested the audit. The Deputy Secretary of Defense emphasized that this review should be as thorough as possible of all White House Communications Agency (WHCA...

  3. Precision of four otolith techniques for estimating age of white perch from a thermally altered reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Richard A.; Porta, Michael J.; Long, James M.

    2018-01-01

    The White Perch Morone americana is an invasive species in many Midwestern states and is widely distributed in reservoir systems, yet little is known about the species' age structure and population dynamics. White Perch were first observed in Sooner Reservoir, a thermally altered cooling reservoir in Oklahoma, by the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation in 2006. It is unknown how thermally altered systems like Sooner Reservoir may affect the precision of White Perch age estimates. Previous studies have found that age structures from Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides and Bluegills Lepomis macrochirus from thermally altered reservoirs had false annuli, which increased error when estimating ages. Our objective was to quantify the precision of White Perch age estimates using four sagittal otolith preparation techniques (whole, broken, browned, and stained). Because Sooner Reservoir is thermally altered, we also wanted to identify the best month to collect a White Perch age sample based on aging precision. Ages of 569 White Perch (20–308 mm TL) were estimated using the four techniques. Age estimates from broken, stained, and browned otoliths ranged from 0 to 8 years; whole‐view otolith age estimates ranged from 0 to 7 years. The lowest mean coefficient of variation (CV) was obtained using broken otoliths, whereas the highest CV was observed using browned otoliths. July was the most precise month (lowest mean CV) for estimating age of White Perch, whereas April was the least precise month (highest mean CV). These results underscore the importance of knowing the best method to prepare otoliths for achieving the most precise age estimates and the best time of year to obtain those samples, as these factors may affect other estimates of population dynamics.

  4. Progenitors of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drilling, J.S.; Schoenberner, D.

    1985-01-01

    Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs

  5. Black and white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Ya.; Novikov, I.; Starobinskij, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius Rsub(r). At t>>Rsub(r)/c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius. (J.B.)

  6. Black and white holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, Ya; Novikov, I; Starobinskii, A

    1978-07-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius R/sub r/. At t>>R/sub r//c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of the Small Brown Planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Carrying Rice stripe virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hyun Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe virus (RSV, the type member of the genus Tenuivirus, transmits by the feeding behavior of small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus. To investigate the interactions between the virus and vector insect, total RNA was extracted from RSV-viruliferous SBPH (RVLS and non-viruliferous SBPH (NVLS adults to construct expressed sequence tag databases for comparative transcriptome analysis. Over 30 million bases were sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing to construct 1,538 and 953 of isotigs from the mRNA of RVLS and NVLS, respectively. The gene ontology (GO analysis demonstrated that both libraries have similar GO structures, however, the gene expression pattern analysis revealed that 17.8% and 16.8% of isotigs were up- and down-regulated significantly in the RVLS, respectively. These RSV-dependently regulated genes possibly have important roles in the physiology of SBPH, transmission of RSV, and RSV and SBPH interaction.

  8. Gait transition and oxygen consumption in swimming striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis Agassiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannas, M.; Schaefer, J.; Domenici, P.

    2006-01-01

    A flow-through respirometer and swim tunnel was used to estimate the gait transition speed (Up-c) of striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis, a labriform swimmer, and to investigate metabolic costs associated with gait transition. The Up-c was defined as the lowest speed at which fish decrease...... the use of pectoral fins significantly. While the tail was first recruited for manoeuvring at relatively low swimming speeds, the use of the tail at these low speeds [as low as 0·75 body (fork) lengths s-1, LF s-1) was rare (..., either in addition to pectoral fins or during burst-and-coast mode. Oxygen consumption increased exponentially with swimming speeds up to gait transition, and then levelled off. Similarly, cost of transport (CT) decreased with increasing speed, and then levelled off near Up-c. When speeds =Up...

  9. Transmission Biology of Rice Stripe Mosaic Virus by an Efficient Insect Vector Recilia dorsalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe mosaic virus (RSMV is a newly discovered species of cytorhabdovirus infecting rice plants that is transmitted by the leafhopper Recilia dorsalis. In this study, the transmission characteristics of RSMV by R. dorsalis were investigated. Under suitable growth conditions for R. dorsalis, the RSMV acquisition rate reached 71.9% in the second-generation population raised on RSMV-infected rice plants. The minimum acquisition and inoculation access periods of R. dorsalis were 3 and 30 min, respectively. The minimum and maximum latent transmission periods of RSMV in R. dorsalis were 6 and 18 d, respectively, and some R. dorsalis intermittently transmitted RSMV at 2–6 d intervals. Our findings revealed that the virus can replicate in the leafhopper body, but is likely not transovarially transmitted to offspring. These transmission characteristics will help guide the formulation of RSMV prevention and control strategies.

  10. Hypoxia tolerance and partitioning of bimodal respiration in the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Wang, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Air-breathing fish are common in the tropics, and their importance in Asian aquaculture is increasing, but the respiratory physiology of some of the key species such as the striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Sauvage 1878 is unstudied. P. hypophthalmus is an interesting species...... to air-breathe. The possibility of reducing air-breathing frequency may be energetically beneficial for the fish, leaving more of the aerobic scope for growth and other activities, due to the proposed energetic costs of surfacing behavior....... as it appears to possess both well-developed gills and a modified swim bladder that functions as an air-breathing organ indicating a high capacity for both aquatic and aerial respiration. Using newly developed bimodal intermittent-closed respirometry, the partitioning of oxygen consumption in normoxia...

  11. Kinematics and energetic benefits of schooling in the labriform fish, striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J. L.; Vaknin, R.; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    Schooling can provide fish with a number of behavioural and ecological advantages, including increased food supply and reduced predator risk. Previous work suggests that fish swimming using body and caudal fin locomotion may also experience energetic advantages when trailing behind neighbours......, based on correlations between swimming speeds and pectoral fin beat frequency and between swimming speeds and oxygen consumption of solitary fish. In addition, leading individuals in a school were estimated to have higher oxygen consumption than solitary individuals swimming at the same speed, based....... However, little is known about the potential energetic advantages associated with schooling in fish that swim using their pectoral fins. Using the striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis, a labriform fish that swims routinely with its pectoral fins, we found that pectoral fin beat frequencies were...

  12. Mass-mortality in green striped tree dragons (Japalura splendida) associated with multiple viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behncke, H; Stöhr, A C; Heckers, K O; Ball, I; Marschang, R E

    2013-09-14

    In spring 2011, high mortality in association with skin lesions, systemic haemorrhages and necrosis occurred in a group of green striped tree dragons (Japalura splendida) which were imported from southwestern China via Florida to Germany. Infections with various endoparasites were diagnosed in coprological examinations. Different antiparasitic and antibiotic treatments over a period of three months did not reduce the mortality rate. The remaining animals were therefore euthanased and submitted for additional testing. Predominant findings in pathological examination were granulomatous and necrotising inflammation of the skin, vacuolar tubulonephrosis of the distal renal tubules, hyperaemia and liver necrosis. Eosinophilic intranuclear and basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were detected in the liver. Virological testing (PCR and virus isolation methods) demonstrated the presence of ranavirus, adenovirus and invertebrate iridovirus.

  13. A Piston-Rotaxane with Two Potential Stripes: Force Transitions and Yield Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith M. Sevick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine a rod piston-rotaxane system, where the positions of several mobile rings on the axle are controlled by an external force acting on one of the rings. This allows us to access the translational entropy of the rings. For a simple rotaxane molecule with an axle that has uniform ring-axle interactions along its length, the molecule behaves like a miniature piston filled with a one-dimensional ideal gas. We then examine the effect of two stripes on the axle, having different ring-axle interactions with the mobile rings, so that one section is of high energy (repulsive for the rings and another section is of lower energy (or attractive. This kind of rotaxane can exhibit rapid changes in displacement or force, and in particular, this molecule can exhibit a yield stress in which the piston suddenly compresses under a small increase in the applied force.

  14. Selective Transgenic Expression of Mutant Ubiquitin in Purkinje Cell Stripes in the Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Bert M; Gentier, Romina J G; Hermes, Denise J H P; van Leeuwen, Fred W; Hopkins, David A

    2017-06-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is one of the major mechanisms for protein breakdown in cells, targeting proteins for degradation by enzymatically conjugating them to ubiquitin molecules. Intracellular accumulation of ubiquitin-B +1 (UBB +1 ), a frameshift mutant of ubiquitin-B, is indicative of a dysfunctional UPS and has been implicated in several disorders, including neurodegenerative disease. UBB +1 -expressing transgenic mice display widespread labeling for UBB +1 in brain and exhibit behavioral deficits. Here, we show that UBB +1 is specifically expressed in a subset of parasagittal stripes of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex of a UBB +1 -expressing mouse model. This expression pattern is reminiscent of that of the constitutively expressed Purkinje cell antigen HSP25, a small heat shock protein with neuroprotective properties.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the critically endangered Vietnamese three-striped box turtle (Testudines: Geoemydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Jian; Shi, Yan; Xiao, Feng-Fang; Zhang, Xin-Cheng; Zhu, Xin-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Vietnamese three-striped box turtle (Cuora cyclornata) was first determined in this study. It was a circular molecule of 16,594 bp in length, consisting of 37 genes typically found in other vertebrates. The AT content of the overall base composition of the whole mitogenome was 60.39%, while the control region was 70.23%. Two ETAS and 4 CSBs were identified, while a remarkable feature was found in the control region: a large number of (TTATTATA)10 direct tandem repeats followed by (TTATA)n (n=10, 8 and 1), which were spaced into three domains by (TA)n (n=1, 1 and 2). The sequence information could play an important role in the study of phylogenetic relationships in turtles and preservation of genetic resources for helping conservation of the endangered species.

  16. High polarization purity operation of 99% in 9xx-nm broad stripe laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohashi, Rintaro; Yamagata, Yuji; Kaifuchi, Yoshikazu; Tada, Katsuhisa; Nogawa, Ryozaburo; Yamada, Yumi; Yamaguchi, Masayuki

    2018-02-01

    Polarization characteristics of self-aligned stripe (SAS) laser diodes (LDs) and Ridge-LDs are investigated to realize highly efficient polarization beam combined (PBC) LD modules. Vertical layers of both lasers are designed identically. Near field patterns (NFP) of TM polarization for the Ridge-LD showed peaks at the side edges, as expected by the strain simulation. On the other hand, SAS-LD showed a relatively flat and weak profile. Polarization purity (ITE/ (ITE+ITM)) of SAS-LDs exceeds 99%, while those of the Ridge-LDs are as low as 96%. It is confirmed that our SAS-LDs are suitable sources for PBC with low power loss.

  17. Neutron moderation at very low temperatures (1691); Moderation des neutrons aux tres basses temperatures (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacaze, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-04-15

    Starting from Harwell experiment carried out inside a low-power reactor, we intended to maintain a liquid hydrogen cell in a channel of the EL3 reactor (at Saclay) whose thermal neutrons flux is 10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}/s. We tried to work out a device giving off an important beam of cold neutrons and able to operate in a way as automatic as possible during many consecutive day without a stop. Several circuits have already been achieved at very low temperatures but they brought out volumes and fluxes much lower than those we used this time. The difficulties we have met in carrying out such a device arose on the one hand from the very high energy release to which any kind of experiment is inevitably submitted when placed near the core of the reactor, on the other, hand from the very little room which is available in experimental channels of reactors. In such condition, it is necessary to use a moderator as effective as possible. This study is divided into three parts ; in the first part, we try to determine: a) conditions in which moderation takes place, hence the volume of the cell; b) materials likely to be used at low temperature and in pile; c) cooling system; hence we had to study fluid flow conditions at very low temperatures in very long ducts. The second part is devoted to the description of the device. The third part ventilates the results we have obtained. (author) [French] Partant de l'experience de Harwell faite dans une pile de faible puissance, nous nous sommes propose de maintenir une cellule d'hydrogene liquide dans un canal de la pile EL3 de Saclay dont le flux de neutrons thermiques est de 10{sup 14} neutrons par seconde et par cm{sup 2}. Nous avons cherche a realiser une installation donnant un faisceau de neutrons froids important, et pouvant fonctionner d'une maniere aussi automatique que possible, pendant des periodes de plusieurs jours sans arret. Plusieurs circuits aux tres basses temperatures ont deja ete realises, mais ils ne mettaient

  18. Effect of the tiger stripes on the tidal deformation of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, Ondrej; Hron, Jaroslav; Behounkova, Marie; Cadek, Ondrej

    2016-10-01

    The south polar region of Saturn's moon Enceladus has been subjected to a thorough scientific scrutiny since the Cassini mission discovery of an enigmatic system of fractures informally known as "tiger stripes". This fault system is possibly connected to the internal water ocean and exhibits a striking geological activity manifesting itself in the form of active water geysers on the moon's surface.The effect of the faults on periodic tidal deformation of the moon has so far been neglected because of the difficulties associated with the implementation of fractures in continuum mechanics models. Employing an open source finite element FEniCS package, we provide a numerical estimate of the maximum possible impact of the tiger stripes on the tidal deformation and the heat production in Enceladus's ice shell by representing the faults as narrow zones with negligible frictional and bulk resistance passing vertically through the whole shell.For a uniform ice shell thickness of 25 km, consistent with the recent estimate of libration, and for linear elastic rheology, we demonstrate that the faults can dramatically change the distribution of stress and strain in Enceladus's south polar region, leading to a significant increase of the heat flux and to a complex deformation pattern in this area. We also present preliminary results studying the effects of (i) variable ice-shell thickness, based on the recent topography, gravity and libration inversion model by Čadek et al. (2016) and (ii) Maxwell viscoelastic rheology on the global tidal deformation of the ice shell.O.S. acknowledges support by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic through the project 15-14263Y.

  19. Stripe-teeth metamaterial Al- and Nb-based rectennas (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Richard M.; Giardini, Stephen A.; Carlson, Joel B.; Joghee, Prabhuram; O'Hayre, Ryan P.; Diest, Kenneth; Rothschild, Mordechai

    2015-09-01

    Unlike a semiconductor, where the absorption is limited by the band gap, a "microrectenna array" could theoretically very efficiently rectify any desired portion of the infrared frequency spectrum (25 - 400 THz). We investigated vertical metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes that rectify vertical high-frequency fields produced by a metamaterial planar stripe-teeth Al or Au array (above the diodes), similar to stripe arrays that have demonstrated near-perfect absorption in the infrared due to critical coupling [1]. Using our design rules that maximize asymmetry (and therefore the component of the electric field pointed into the substrate, analogous to Second Harmonic Generation), we designed, fabricated, and analyzed these metamaterial-based microrectenna arrays. NbOx and Al2O3 were produced by anodization and ALD, respectively. Smaller visible-light Pt-NbOx-Nb rectennas have produced output power when illuminated by visible (514 nm) light [2]. The resonances of these new Au/NbOx/Nb and Al/Al2O3/Al microrectenna arrays, with larger dimensions and more complex nanostructures than in Ref. 1, were characterized by microscopic FTIR microscopy and agreed well with FDTD models, once the experimental refractive index values were entered into the model. Current-voltage measurements were carried out, showed that the Al/Al2O3/Al diodes have very large barrier heights and breakdown voltages, and were compared to our model of the MIM diode. We calculate expected THz-rectification using classical [3] and quantum [4] rectification models, and compare to measurements of direct current output, under infrared illumination. [1] C. Wu, et. al., Phys. Rev. B 84 (2011) 075102. [2] R. M. Osgood III, et. al., Proc. SPIE 8096, 809610 (2011). [3] A. Sanchez, et. al., J. Appl. Phys. 49 (1978) 5270. [4] J. R. Tucker and M. J. Feldman, Rev. of Mod. Phys. 57, (1985)1055.

  20. Effectiveness of Alkali and Acid to Produce Collagen from Fish Skin of Striped Catifish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Lu’lu’in Nanda Alfira Devi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin is one of the alternative sources contained high protein  to isolate collagen. Fish skin generally extracted by the method of acid, alkali and enzymes. The study aim to determine the effectiveness of NaOHand acetic acid on catfish (Pangasius sp. skin extraction  process.  The concentrations of alkaline pretreatment were 0,05; 0,1; 0,15 and 0,2 M with the soaking time of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h by NaOH replacement in every 2 h. The concentrations of acetic acid for hydrolisis process were 0.05; 0.1; 0.15 and 0.2 M with the soaking time of 1, 2, and 3 h. The experimental design used for pretreatment process is split splot, while for the hydrolysis process is factorial completely randomized design. The results showed that pretreatment with a concentration of 0.05 M NaOH for 4 h has a significant effect for eliminating non-collagen protein (p<0.05. The acetic acid concentration of 0.15 M for 1 h also has a significant effect on fish skin swelling. The yield of striped catfish collagen was 17.272%, the protein content was 86%, and the viscosity was 12 cP. Fish skin extract was identified as type I collagen by functional groups and electrophoretic analysis. Collagen from striped catfish skin has α1 and α2 and protein structure with the molecular weight of α chain were 94 and 98 kDa, meanwhile the molecular wheight of β chain was 204 kD.

  1. Trillions of quantum dots, fingerprints, nanolithography with diblock copolymers and annealing of striped phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaikin, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Full text: We have been using diblock copolymers as a new way to make ultradense patterns which cover wide areas on a variety of inorganic substrates. The feature sizes are determined by the length of the polymers and can range from ∼ 5 to 50 nm. The diblock copolymers form lamellar, cylindrical (hexagonal cross-section), and spherical (BCC) phases in bulk. We use monolayer films to make templates to transfer these patterns to metals, semiconductors etc. For example we cover a three inch wafer with ∼ 3 trillion posts, holes, etc. spaced by ∼ 25nm, to make quantum dots (for semiconductor lasers), metal particles and other structures. In trying to understand how the polymer patterns order we have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image the cylindrical phase which lies flat on a substrate. The patterns look like fingerprints and Benard rolls and the coarsening (annealing) law we observe is t (1/4) as in previous studies of these striped phases. This law remained unexplained for decades. However, we made time lapse AFM movies which show that the annealing dynamics is governed by the attraction of disclination PAIRS, quadrupoles, rather than simple +/- annihilation. This directly provides an explanation for the alignment of the striped patterns as a function of time. Thus these systems, while aimed at technological and fundamental electronic applications are also ideal materials for studying the dynamics of ordering. Recently we have also studied the thermodynamics and kinetics of the monolayer hexatic phase and used shear strain to macroscopically align the cylindrical and hexagonal patterns. (author)

  2. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sanchez, Brian C. [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sepulveda, Maria S., E-mail: mssepulv@purdue.edu [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2009-10-19

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens ({mu}g/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl{sub 2}) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 {mu}g/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 {mu}g/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 {mu}g/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 {mu}g/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  3. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Sanchez, Brian C.; Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2009-01-01

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens (μg/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl 2 ) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 μg/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 μg/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 μg/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 μg/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  4. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Sanchez, Brian C; Szabo, Nancy J; Denslow, Nancy D; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2009-10-19

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens (microg/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl(2)) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 microg/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 microg/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 microg/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 microg/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  5. Survival of fishes after impingement on traveling screens at Hudson River power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muessig, P.H.; Hutchison, J.B.; King, L.R.; Ligotino, R.J.; Daley, M.

    1988-01-01

    The survival of Hudson River fishes, juveniles and adults, after they had been impinged on continuously rotated traveling screens at the Bowline Point and Danskammer Point power plants was examined. Survival of principal species was similar at the two plants, and estimates of survival improved as monitoring stress was reduced. Adjusted for survival of control fish, survival over 84-108 h after fish were recovered from the screens was highest for Atlantic tomcod, striped bass, and white perch (50-90%) and lowest for bay anchovy, alewife, and blueback herring; other species showed intermediate survival. Survival of striped bass and white perch was positively correlated with water temperature in winter and with conductivity in spring and fall. Continual rotation of the screens, which shortens the average time that fish are impinged, increased survival over that associated with intermittent rotation. 24 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  6. An evaluation of biomarkers of reproductive function and potential contaminant effects in Florida largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoidesfloridanus) sampled from the St. Johns River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, María S; Johnson, William E; Higman, John C; Denslow, Nancy D; Schoeb, Trenton R; Gross, Timothy S

    2002-04-22

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare several reproductive parameters for Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) inhabiting the St. Johns River and exposed to different types and/or degrees of contamination. Welaka was selected as the reference site in this study because of its low urban and agricultural development, Palatka is in close proximity to a paper mill plant, the Green Cove site is influenced by marine shipping activities and Julington Creek site receives discharges of domestic wastewater and storm water runoff from recreational boating marinas. For this study, bass were sampled both prior to (September 1996) and during the spawning season (February 1997). In order to characterize chemical exposure, bass livers were analyzed for up to 90 trace organics and 11 trace metal contaminants. Reproductive parameters measured included gonadosomatic index (GSI), histological evaluation of gonads and plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG), 17beta-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). In general, the sum of organic chemicals was highest in livers from Palatka bass and bass from Green Cove and Julington Creek had higher hepatic concentrations of low molecular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls when compared to fish from Welaka. Metals were more variable across sites, with highest mean concentrations found in bass from either Julington Creek (Ag, As, Cr, Cu, Zn) or Welaka (Cd, Hg, Pb, Se, Tn). Female bass from Palatka and Green Cove had lower concentrations of E2, VTG and lower GSI in relation to Welaka. Males from Palatka and Green Cove showed comparable declines in 11-KT in relation to males from Julington Creek and GSI were decreased only in Palatka males. These results indicate a geographical trend in reproductive effects, with changes being most pronounced at the site closest to the paper mill (Palatka) and decreasing as the St. Johns River flows downstream. Since reproductive

  7. Mycobiota and Aflatoxin B1 in Feed for Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Manuel d´Almeida Bernardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The safety characteristics of feed used in fish and crustacean aquaculture systems are an essential tool to assure the productivity of those animal exploitations. Safety of feed may be affected by different hazards, including biological and chemical groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate fungi contamination and the presence of aflatoxins in 87 samples of feed for sea bass, collected in Portugal. Molds were found in 35 samples (40.2% in levels ranging from 1 to 3.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. Six genera of molds were found. Aspergillus flavus was the most frequent, found in all positive samples, with a range from 2 to 3.2 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus niger was found in 34 samples (39.1%, ranging from 1 to 2.7 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus glaucus was found in 26 samples (29.9% with levels between 1 and 2.4 log10 CFU∙g−1. Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were both found in 25 samples (28.7%. Fusarium spp. was found in 22 samples (25.3%, ranging from 1 to 2.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. All feed samples were screened for aflatoxins using a HPLC technique, with a detection limit of 1.0 μg∙kg−1. All samples were aflatoxin negative.

  8. New insights into the factors mediating the onset of puberty in sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espigares, F; Rocha, A; Molés, G; Gómez, A; Carrillo, M; Zanuy, S

    2015-12-01

    In populations of 1-year-old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), only large males are able to acquire for the first time a functional competence of their reproductive axis; in other words, to attain puberty. To examine the causes and mechanisms involved in the onset of puberty in this species, a size sorting sampling was carried out to obtain two experimental groups of small and large male fish exhibiting different growth rates. As expected, only large fish reached full spermiogenesis (stage V of testicular development) by the end of the experiment. Our study suggests that fish size is a permissive condition to ensure full effectiveness of the hormonal (Gnrh1, gonadotropins and sexual steroids) actions. Thus, though small fish had endocrine profiles similar to those of large fish, their amplitude was much lower, and was most likely the reason why functional competence of the reproductive axis was not achieved. Moreover, this work provides evidence of the involvement of kisspeptin and Gnrh1 systems in the onset of puberty in a marine teleost fish. It also indicates that very likely kisspeptin and Gnrh1 may regulate gonadotropins and sex steroids at specific stages of testicular development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Skeletal deformities in smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieui, from southern Appalachian reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Avyle, M J; Garvick, S J; Blazer, V S; Hamilton, S J; Brumbaugh, W G

    1989-09-01

    Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) populations in two of five reservoirs sampled in the southern Appalachian Mountains contained high percentages of individuals with lordosis, kyphosis, or scoliosis. Deformities of the vertebral column occurred in several year classes and varied with fish size; they were absent in small fish, present in 25-30% of the fish 241-300 mm long, and then decreased in occurrence with increased length. Because environmental contamination is often responsible for high occurrences of deformed fish, whole-body concentrations of contaminants, bone development characteristics, and blood plasma concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in normal and deformed fish were measured and compared the results with those for fish from reservoirs where no deformities were found. Vertebrae were significantly weaker and more elastic in deformed than in normal fish, but biochemical properties of vertebrae were similar among the groups tested. Concentrations of pesticides and metals were not elevated in deformed fish, and concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in blood plasma were similar in normal and deformed groups. Most environmental contaminants that have been shown to cause fish deformities could be discounted as causative agents on the basis of these results; however, the exact cause was not determined. Further attempts to diagnose the cause of the deformities were limited by the lack of background information on relationships among bone development processes, types of stresses that cause deformities, and types of bone tissue in fish.

  10. Vitamin D3 affects innate immune status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioguardi, M; Guardiola, F A; Vazzana, M; Cuesta, A; Esteban, M A; Cammarata, M

    2017-08-01

    The effects of vitamin D 3 dietary administration on certain innate immune parameters on the expression of immune-related genes in head-kidney (HK) and gut were investigated in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Vitamin D 3 (vD 3 ) was orally administered to fish in a commercial pellet food supplemented with 0 (control); 3750; 18,750; or 37,500 U kg -1 . Furthermore, gut histology was considered. This study showed a modulation in the activities examined in fish fed with the addition of vD 3 . After just 2 weeks of administration, diet supplementation with the vitamin resulted in increased phagocytic ability, while serum peroxidase content was increased in fish fed with all experimental diets after 4 weeks, no significant differences were observed in protease, anti-protease, natural haemolytic complement activities and total IgM level. At gene level, fbl and rbl transcripts were up-regulated in HK in fish fed with the highest concentration of vD 3 -supplemented diets after 4 weeks, while in the gut, an up-regulation of hep gene was observed in fish fed with the different doses of vD 3 . These results suggest that vD 3 may be of great interest for immunostimulatory purposes in fish farms.

  11. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting reservoirs contaminated with mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundage, S.; Jagoe, C.H.; Shaw-Allen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Active transport of Na + and K + for osmoregulation in fish involves gill Na + , K + -ATPase, a membrane-bound enzyme powered by hydrolysis of ATP. Na + , K + -ATPase is inhibited by many dissolved metals including Al, Cd, Cu and Hg, resulting in ionoregulatory dysfunction. However, dissolved Hg concentrations are quite low in most aquatic systems, and dietary sources are the most important contributors to Hg burdens in fish. One recent study demonstrated relationships between muscle Hg concentration and gill Na + , K + -ATPase in a marine fish, suggesting that Hg accumulated via diet can affect osmoregulation. The authors tested for such a relationship in several age-classes of a freshwater fish (Micropterus salmoides) collected from three reservoirs. Fish from Par Pond and L Lake, on the USDOE Savannah River Site in South Carolina had relatively high Hg content: for Par Pond, muscle and liver ranged from 1.58--12.01 and 1.46--23.22 microg Hg/g dry mass, respectively, and for L Lake muscle and liver ranged from 3.11--5.16 and 1.28--12.59 microg Hg/g dry mass, respectively. Bass from an offsite location, Thurmond Lake, had significantly (P + , K + -ATPase activity was not evident

  12. Sex-specific consequences of experimental cortisol elevation in pre-reproductive wild largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Constance M; Nannini, Michael; Wahl, David H; Wilson, Samantha M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Cooke, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Experimental implants were used to investigate the effect of elevated cortisol (the primary stress hormone in teleost fish) on energetic and physiological condition prior to reproduction in male and female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Fish were wild-caught from lakes in Illinois, and held in experimental ponds for the duration of the study. Between 9 and 13 days after cortisol treatment, and immediately prior to the start of the reproductive period, treated and control animals were sampled. Females exhibited lower muscle lipid content, lower liver glycogen content, and higher hepatosomatic indices than males, regardless of treatment. Also, cortisol-treated females had higher hepatosomatic indices and lower final mass than control females, whereas males showed no differences between treatment groups. Finally, cortisol-treated females had higher gonadal cortisol concentrations than control females. In general, we found evidence of reduced energetic stores in female fish relative to male fish, likely due to timing differences in the allocation of resources during reproduction between males and females. Perhaps driven by the difference in energetic reserves, our data further suggest that females are more sensitive than males to elevated cortisol during the period immediately prior to reproduction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Barber, David S; Gross, Timothy S; Johnson, Kevin G; Sepúlveda, María S; Szabo, Nancy J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2006-07-20

    Dieldrin and p,p'-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p'-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p'-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin on the other hand, decreased estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Both pesticides also altered steady state mRNA expression levels of a set of genes chosen to represent three possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption: (1) direct interaction with soluble sex steroid receptors, (2) biosynthesis of endogenous sex hormones, and (3) metabolism of endogenous hormones. p,p'-DDE acted as a weak estrogen, increasing the expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor alpha in the liver. p,p'-DDE also altered the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of endogenous hormones as well as their metabolism. Dieldrin, on the other hand, only altered expression of vitellogenin and not estrogen receptor alpha. Dieldrin also altered the expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis and metabolism, and it dramatically lowered plasma hormone levels. Both pesticides targeted expression of genes involved in all three modes of action, suggesting that they each have multiple modes of action.

  14. Differential expression of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) estrogen receptor isotypes alpha, beta, and gamma by estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2004-04-15

    The expression levels of three estrogen receptor (ER) isotypes alpha, beta, and gamma were quantified in female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (LMB) liver, ovary, brain, and pituitary tissues. ER alpha and beta expression predominated in the liver, while ERs beta and gamma predominated in the other tissues. Temporally in females, ER alpha was highly up-regulated, ER gamma was slightly up-regulated, and ER beta levels remained unchanged in the liver when plasma 17-beta estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (Vtg) levels were elevated in the spring. In ovarian tissue from these same fish, all three ERs were maximally expressed in the fall, during early oocyte development and prior to peak plasma E2 levels. When males were injected with E2, ER alpha was highly inducible, ER gamma was moderately up-regulated, and ER beta levels were not affected. None of the ER isotypes were induced by E2 in gonadal tissues. These results combined suggest that the ERs themselves are not regulated in the same manner by E2, and furthermore, do not contribute equally to the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in fish reproduction such as Vtg.

  15. The BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) DR1-Spectral Measurements, Derived Quantities, and AGN Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael; BASS Team

    2018-01-01

    We present the first catalog and data release of the Swift-BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). We analyze optical spectra of the majority of AGN (77%, 641/836) detected based on their 14-195 keV emission in the 70-month Swift BAT all-sky catalog. This includes redshift determination, absorption and emission line measurements, and black hole mass and accretion rate estimates for the majority of obscured and un-obscured AGN (74%, 473/641) with 340 measured for the first time. With ~90% of sources at z10^21.9 cm^-2. Seyfert 1.9 show a range of column densities. Compared to narrow line AGN in the SDSS, the X-ray selected AGN have a larger fraction of dusty host galaxies suggesting these types of AGN are missed in optical surveys. Using the most sensitive [OIII]/Hbeta and [NII]/Halpha emission line diagnostic, about half of the sources are classified as Seyferts, ~15% reside in dusty galaxies that lack an Hbeta detection, but for which the line upper limits imply either a Seyfert or LINER, ~15% are in galaxies with weak or no emission lines despite high quality spectra, and a few percent each are LINERS, composite galaxies, HII regions, or in known beamed AGN.

  16. A radioisotope study of the dispersion of ferric hydroxide floc in Bass Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, A.

    1983-01-01

    The dispersion of ferric hydroxide floc in Bass Strait waters adjacent to Burnie, Tasmania, has been investigated using radioisotope tracer techniques. Gold-198 labelled floc was employed to follow the movement of floc produced by dilution of the iron-rich effluent from a titanium dioxide plant. Dispersion was determined under calm and storm conditions. Tidal and wind-driven currents were measured, oscillating wave generated currents were calculated, and lateral and vertical dispersion coefficients were determined. It is concluded that floc disperses episodically during storms. The agglomerated floc remains trapped in a stable seabed layer which spreads slowly at seabed level when wind velocities are less than 15 m s -1 . When wind velocities exceed this level, the wave generated oscillating currents at seabed level, 30 m below the surface, are strong enough to raise the floc into suspension where advective dispersion occurs. Since tidal currents in the area are negligible, the direction of floc movement depends on the direction of the wind-driven current during each storm

  17. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Barber, D.S.; Gross, T.S.; Johnson, K.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Szabo, N.J.; Denslow, N.D.

    2006-01-01

    Dieldrin and p,p???-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p???-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p???-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin on the other hand, decreased estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Both pesticides also altered steady state mRNA expression levels of a set of genes chosen to represent three possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption: (1) direct interaction with soluble sex steroid receptors, (2) biosynthesis of endogenous sex hormones, and (3) metabolism of endogenous hormones. p,p???-DDE acted as a weak estrogen, increasing the expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor ?? in the liver. p,p???-DDE also altered the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of endogenous hormones as well as their metabolism. Dieldrin, on the other hand, only altered expression of vitellogenin and not estrogen receptor ??. Dieldrin also altered the expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis and metabolism, and it dramatically lowered plasma hormone levels. Both pesticides targeted expression of genes involved in all three modes of action, suggesting that they each have multiple modes of action. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of killed vaccine from Streptococcus sp. and its application in sea bass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanman, CH.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish with an average length of 3.0-4.0 inches vaccinated with formalin-killed vaccine of Streptococcus sp. either by intraperitoneal injection and immersion methods had a survival rate of 100% indicating that the vaccine is safe to be used with sea bass. The highest efficacy was received when the vaccine containing bacterin at 2.50x1010 CFU/ml. Injection of vaccine together with adjuvant (CFA was highly effective against Streptococcus sp. infection. The relative percent survival (RPS of fish injected with vaccine alone and vaccine plus adjuvant were 100 (10 days post vaccination, 54.06 and 92.29 (20 days post vaccination and 31.58 and 73.68 (30 days post vaccination respectively. The fish which received vaccine by hyperosmotic immersion showed higher resistance to the disease than by direct immersion with the RPS of 30.77 and 71.80 (10 days post vaccination, 9.75 and 70.73 (20 days post vaccination and 7.14 and 16.67 (30 days post vaccination for direct immersion and hyperosmotic immersion, respectively.

  19. In situ reproduction, abundance, and growth of young-of-year and adult largemouth bass in a population exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Dudley W; Greenberg, Emily S; Helser, Thomas E; Branton, Margaret; Jenkins, Kenneth D

    2004-07-01

    We conducted a two-year field study (2000-2001) in the Housatonic River, Massachusetts (USA) to determine if we could detect in situ population-level effects on largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Calculated whole-body PCB concentrations in adult bass in 2002 averaged 121 mg/kg (range = 34-556 mg/kg). Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in young-of-year (YOY) composites in 2000 and 2002 averaged 28 mg/kg (range = 21-41 mg/kg) and 19 mg/kg (range = 16-24 mg/kg), respectively. Laboratory studies of fish have reported PCB toxicity at exposure levels below and within the range of those found in the Housatonic River. We evaluated five field-derived metrics: reproductive activity, relative abundance of YOY, YOY growth rates, adult growth, and adult condition to determine whether we could detect effects of PCBs in the largemouth bass population. These computed metrics, when compared with data sets assembled for numerous largemouth bass populations in North America, provided no evidence of population-level impairment. Results of this study suggest that PCB tissue concentrations associated with effects in laboratory studies do not necessarily translate to detectable effects on largemouth bass populations in their natural environment.

  20. Expansion of the South China Sea basin: Constraints from magnetic anomaly stripes, sea floor topography, satellite gravity and submarine geothermics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely distributed E–W-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the central basin and the N–E-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the southwest sub-basin provide the most important evidence for Neogene expansion of the South China Sea. The expansion mechanism remains, however, controversial because of the lack of direct drilling data, non-systematic marine magnetic survey data, and irregular magnetic anomaly stripes with two obvious directions. For example, researchers have inferred different ages and episodes of expansion for the central basin and southwest sub-basin. Major controversy centers on the order of basinal expansion and the mechanism of expansion for the entire South China Sea basin. This study attempts to constrain these problems from a comprehensive analysis of the seafloor topography, magnetic anomaly stripes, regional aeromagnetic data, satellite gravity, and submarine geothermics. The mapped seafloor terrain shows that the central basin is a north-south rectangle that is relatively shallow with many seamounts, whereas the southwest sub-basin is wide in northeast, gradually narrows to the southwest, and is relatively deeper with fewer seamounts. Many magnetic anomaly stripes are present in the central basin with variable dimensions and directions that are dominantly EW-trending, followed by the NE-, NW- and NS-trending. Conversely such stripes are few in the southwest sub-basin and mainly NE-trending. Regional magnetic data suggest that the NW-trending Ailaoshan-Red River fault extends into the South China Sea, links with the central fault zone in the South China Sea, which extends further southward to Reed Tablemount. Satellite gravity data show that both the central basin and southwest sub-basin are composed of oceanic crust. The Changlong seamount is particularly visible in the southwest sub-basin and extends eastward to the Zhenbei seamount. Also a low gravity anomaly zone coincides with the central fault zone in the sub