WorldWideScience

Sample records for strip-tillage peanut production

  1. Strip-tillage: A conservation alternative to full-width tillage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowski, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Historically no-till management has been a challenge for maize production in the Midwestern USA because crop residue slows the warming of the soil in the spring and can physically impair planting by plugging the planter. After trying no-till, producers often return to more aggressive tillage operations to address residue concerns; however these systems can cause soil erosion and can increase the cost of production. An alternative system known as strip-tillage has been suggested as a compromise between no-till and full-width tillage. This practice utilizes implements that loosen the soil and allow warming in the row area, yet maintain nearly as much residue as no-till. Strip-tillage is generally understood to be a single pass with a separate implement in the fall, although spring strip-tillage is possible if soil moisture and conditions permit. Strip-tillage can be accomplished in a shorter time, with lower energy and equipment inputs compared to full-width tillage. The first of two studies that examined the merits of strip-tillage was conducted the University of Wisconsin Lancaster Agricultural Research Station (42.84, -90.80). Natural runoff collectors were installed in a field having a silt loam soil with an 8% slope in fall chisel and fall strip-tillage system. The measured soil loss in a year that experienced substantial rainfall prior to canopy closure was 10.6 Mg ha-1 in chisel vs. 0.64 Mg ha-1 in strip-tillage. Soil loss was much less for both systems in the second year when early season rainfall was minimal. A second, ten year study was conducted at the University of Wisconsin Arlington Agricultural Research Station (43.30, -89.36) that compared fall strip-tillage with fall chisel/spring field cultivator and no-till systems in both a continuous maize and soybean-maize rotation. This work showed equal maize grain yield in maize after soybean when comparing chisel and strip-tillage. No-till yield was about 5 % lower. Yield in continuous maize was highest in

  2. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak; Harlene Hatterman-Valenti

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND), USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa) to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage) as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA...

  3. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND, USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA, oxyfluorfen, and pendimethalin as sub-plots. Neither tillage nor herbicide treatments affected onion stand counts. Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album densities were lower in strip tillage compared to conventional tillage up to three weeks after the post-emergence applied herbicides. In general, micro-rate post-emergence herbicide treatments provided greater early-season broadleaf weed control than pre-emergence herbicide treatments. Onion yield and grade did not differ among herbicide treatments because the mid-season herbicide application provided sufficient control/suppression of the early-season weed escapes that these initial weed escapes did not impact onion yield or bulb diameter. In 2007, onion in the strip tillage treatment were larger in diameter resulting in greater total and marketable yields compared to conventional tillage. Marketable onion yield was 82.1 Mg ha−1 in strip tillage and 64.9 Mg ha−1 in conventional tillage. Results indicate that strip tillage use in direct-seeded onion production was beneficial, especially when growing conditions were conducive to higher yields and that the use of strip tillage in onion may provide an alternative to using a companion crop as it did not interfere with either early-season weed management system.

  4. Peanut Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut products distributed by Peanut Corporation of...

  5. FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall widget allows you to browse the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of peanut butter and peanut-containing products...

  6. New Concept of Cultivation Using Limited Strip-Tillage with Strip Shallow Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Dry land is one of land resources which potentially used for food crop cultivation, especially in the areas which have light to medium technical obstacles. The development of technology to improve soil quality in marginal lands to be productive lands is still widely open for agricultural development in Indonesia. Rooting medium quality can be improved by changing soil tillage method and observing the proper crop irrigation technology. It can be the solution for crop cultivation in clay loam soil. This study aimed to obtain water movement model in a minimally-tilled clay soil with strip shallow irrigation. The concept is limited soil-tillage with strip shallow irrigation method, water supply technique, and crop water requirement. Method used in this study includes developing water movement model (software development in a minimally-tilled clay soil with subsurface irrigation. In the final stages, research also conducted water movement analysis testing apparatus in the laboratory, field validation of the subsurface irrigation performance, and cultivation technique testing to chili pepper growth (Capsicum annuumL.. The development of water movement simulation on a limited strip-tillage with subsurface irrigation uses the concept to quantify the amount of water in the soil. The analysis of movement pattern was demonstrated on contour patterns. It showed that the wetting process can reach depth zone – 5 cm to the rooting zone. It was an important discovery on the development of minimum stripe tillage soil with subsurface irrigation. Specifically, it can be concluded that: the result of fitting by eyes to diffusivity graphic and water content obtained the required parameter values for soil physical properties. It was then simulated on horizontal water movement model on a minimum strip-tillage with strip shallow irrigation /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso

  7. Occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut products determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanovska-Dimzoska Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection using immunoaffinity column clean-up was a method described for determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 in peanuts and peanut based products. The validation of the procedure was performed. Good coefficient of correlation was found for all aflatoxins in the range of 0.9993-0.9999. Limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ ranged from 0.003-0.005 mg/kg and 0.009-0.023 mg/kg, respectively, which was acceptable. The mean recovery for total aflatoxins was 88.21%. The method also showed acceptable precision values in the range of 0.171-2.626% at proposed concentration levels for all four aflatoxins. RSDR values (within laboratory reproducibility calculated from the results showed good correlation between two analysts for all aflatoxins and they ranged from 4.93-11.87%. The developed method was applied for the determination of aflatoxins in 27 samples of peanuts and peanut based products. The results showed that 21 peanut samples (77.7% were below LOD of the method. Three samples had positive results over the MRL. There was one extreme value recorded for the total aflatoxins in peanut (289.2 mg/kg and two peanut based products, peanut snack and peanut, with total content of aflatoxins being 16.3 mg/kg and 8.0 mg/kg, respectively. The obtained results demonstrated that the procedure was suitable for the de­termination of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut based products and it could be implemented for the routine analysis.

  8. Minimal effects of high-pressure treatment on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium inoculated into peanut butter and peanut products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Somerville, Jeremy A; Balasubramaniam, V M; Lee, Ken

    2010-10-01

    About 1.2 billion pounds of peanut butter are consumed annually in the United States. In 2008 to 2009, an outbreak involving Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter led to a recall of over 3900 products by over 200 companies. More than 700 people became sick, 100 were hospitalized, and 9 people died from this outbreak. This study examines the efficacy of high-pressure processing (HPP) to decrease S. Typhimurium American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 53647 inoculated into peanut butter and model systems. The viability of S. Typhimurium in peanut butter stored at room temperature was investigated. A culture of S. Typhimurium (6.88 log CFU/g) was inoculated into peanut butter. Following 28 d at 20 °C there was a 1.23-log reduction. Approximately 10(6) to 10(7) CFU/g S. Typhimurium were inoculated into 4 brands of peanut butter, 3 natural peanut butters and peanut flour slurries at 2, 5, and 10% peanut flour protein in peanut oil and in distilled water. All were treated at 600 MPa for 5 min at 45 °C. While significant differences were found between natural peanut butter and peanut protein mixtures, the reduction was oil mixtures had a 1.7, 1.6, and 1.0-log reduction from HPP (2, 5, and 10% protein, respectively) whereas peanut flour/water mixtures had a 6.7-log reduction for all protein levels. Oil had a protective effect indicating HPP may not help the microbial safety of water-in-oil food emulsions including peanut butter. Practical Application: There have been multiple outbreaks of foodborne illness involving peanut butter products. This study looks at the potential use of high-pressure processing to reduce the bacteria that may be in peanut butter.

  9. Resveratrol production in hairy root culture of peanut, Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... hypogaea L.) hairy roots and also showed varying effects on the growth and resveratrol production in hairy root cultures. ... (7.6 g/l) and resveratrol production (1.5 mg/g) in hairy root of peanut. Our results demonstrate that the .... and proliferation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells via extracellular ...

  10. Resveratrol production in hairy root culture of peanut, Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes differed in their ability to induce peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) hairy roots and also showed varying effects on the growth and resveratrol production in hairy root cultures. A. rhizogenes R1601 is the most effective strain for the induction (75.8%), growth (7.6 g/l) and ...

  11. Suppression of Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus Species by Selected Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Stilbenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Victor; Arias, Renee; Goodman, Kerestin; Walk, Travis; Orner, Valerie; Faustinelli, Paola; Massa, Alicia

    2018-01-10

    Aspergillus flavus is a soil fungus that commonly invades peanut seeds and often produces carcinogenic aflatoxins. Under favorable conditions, the fungus-challenged peanut plant produces and accumulates resveratrol and its prenylated derivatives in response to such an invasion. These prenylated stilbenoids are considered peanut antifungal phytoalexins. However, the mechanism of peanut-fungus interaction has not been sufficiently studied. We used pure peanut stilbenoids arachidin-1, arachidin-3, and chiricanine A to study their effects on the viability of and metabolite production by several important toxigenic Aspergillus species. Significant reduction or virtually complete suppression of aflatoxin production was revealed in feeding experiments in A. flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus nomius. Changes in morphology, spore germination, and growth rate were observed in A. flavus exposed to the selected peanut stilbenoids. Elucidation of the mechanism of aflatoxin suppression by peanut stilbenoids could provide strategies for preventing plant invasion by the fungi that produce aflatoxins.

  12. Using rating to evaluate quality of peanut products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    Corresponding authors E-mail: undeogunsanwo@yahoo.co.uk. Peanut butter. The preparation of peanut butter involves dry roasting of peanut seeds in the oven followed by removal of seed testa and grinding of the seeds to obtain butter. Sample ...

  13. THE ECONOMICS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined peanut production systems and selected factors affecting the development of commercial peanut enterprises in Bulgaria. A survey of 220 individual farms and farm cooperatives engaged in the cultivation of peanuts was conducted during 2000 and 2002. Poor farm structure, low level of technology, and nonconformity to farm decision making impede the financial and economic development of Bulgarian peanut production and farm growth, thus limiting farm enterprises emergence into competitive economic units financially operative in a freemarket economy. The underlying cost structure, couple with small farms, averaging 0.8 ha in size, prevent farmers from capturing economies of scale, limit farm profitability and hence farm modernization. The lack of owned farm machinery, equipment and storage facilities renders the restructuring and specialization extremely difficult. However, peanut production is still a viable farm enterprise for Bulgarian farmers.

  14. Soil physical and X-ray computed tomographic measurements to investigate small-scale structural differences under strip tillage compared to mulch till and no-till

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlitz, Julia; Rücknagel, Jan; Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2017-04-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing application of conservation tillage techniques where the soil is no longer turned, but only loosened or left completely untilled. Dead plant material remains on the soil surface, which provides environmental and economic benefits such as the conservation of water, preventing soil erosion and saving time during seedbed preparation. There is a variety of conservation tillage systems, e.g. mulch till, no-till and strip tillage, which is a special feature. In strip tillage, the seed bed is divided into a seed zone (strip-till within the seed row: STWS) and a soil management zone (strip-till between the seed row: STBS). However, each tillage application affects physical soil properties and processes. Here, the combined application of classical soil mechanical and computed tomographic methods is used on a Chernozem (texture 0-30 cm: silt loam) to show small-scale structural differences under strip tillage (STWS, STBS) compared to no-till (NT) and mulch till (MT). In addition to the classical soil physical parameters dry bulk density and saturated conductivity (years: 2012, 2014, 2015) at soil depths 2-8 and 12-18 cm, stress-strain tests were carried out to map mechanical behavior. The stress-strain tests were performed for a load range from 5-550 kPa at 12-18 cm depth (year 2015). Mechanical precompression stress was determined on the stress-dry bulk density curves. Further, CT image cross sections and computed tomographic examinations (average pore size, porosity, connectivity, and anisotropy) were used from the same soil samples. For STBS and NT, a significant increase in dry bulk density was observed over the course of time compared to STWS and MT, which was more pronounced at 2-8 cm than at 12-18 cm depth. Despite higher dry bulk density, STBS displayed higher saturated conductivity in contrast to STWS, which can be attributed to higher earthworm abundance. In strip tillage, structural differences were identified

  15. Using rating to evaluate quality of peanut products | Ogunsanwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peanuts seeds roasted at 140°C for 40 min for either 25 or 35 min were rated to be of comparable quality with locally available commercial samples. Peanut butter prepared from seeds roasted at160°C for 30 min was also rated to be comparable with commercial samples, while Kwulinkwulis from seeds dry roasted at 150°C ...

  16. Production of recombinant peanut allergen Ara h 2 using Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenting, J.; Poulsen, Lars K.; Kato, K.

    2007-01-01

    lactis is an attractive microorganism for use in the production of protein therapeutics. L. lactis is considered food grade, free of endotoxins, and is able to secrete the heterologous product together with few other native proteins. Hypersensitivity to peanut represents a serious allergic problem. Some...... of the major allergens in peanut have been described. However, for therapeutic usage more information about the individual allergenic components is needed. In this paper we report recombinant production of the Ara h 2 peanut allergen using L. lactis. Results: A synthetic ara h 2 gene was cloned into an L...

  17. Utilization of expeller pressed partially defatted peanut cake meal in the preparation of bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, J K; Shinde, V S; Kadam, S S

    1991-07-01

    Expeller pressed partially defatted peanut cake obtained from skin-free kernels was used as graded supplements in the preparation of breads, sweet buns, cupcakes and yeast-raised doughnuts. Incorporation of cake meal lowered the specific volume and sensory properties, but improved the fresh weight, water holding capacity and protein content of the products. The products containing 10% peanut cake meal were found to be acceptable.

  18. Consumer-based optimization of a third-generation product made from peanut and rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I-D; Phillips, R D; Resurreccion, A V A

    2007-09-01

    Indirectly puffed snacks were produced by an extrusion process with partially defatted (12% fat) peanut flour (30%, 40%, 50%) at different levels of screw speed (200, 300, 400 rpm) and feed rate (4, 5, 6 kg/h). Extrudates were dried to obtain half-products (11% to 12% MC) followed by puffing with deep-fat frying. The puffed snack prototypes were subjected to consumer acceptance test. Consumers rated higher than 6.0 (= like slightly) for all products produced within the experimental factor ranges on the attributes of crispness and texture, whereas consumer scores for appearance, color, flavor, and overall liking were lower than 6.0 for the product containing 50% peanut flour regardless of screw speed and feed rate. The product extruded with 50% peanut flour at screw speed of 400 rpm and feed rate of 6 kg/h received the lowest score of 5.5 on overall liking in a 9-point hedonic score. Predicted regression models indicated that feed rate had the largest effect on consumer attributes followed by peanut flour and screw speed. From the superimposed contour plot of individual contour plot of consumer attributes, the optimum region was identified as the area beginning at the 42.0% to 43.0% peanut flour and 4.0 kg/h feed rates, rising to a maximum at 45% peanut flour and 4.6 kg/h feed rates and decreasing to the 33.0% to 34.0% peanut flour and 6.0 kg/h feed rates. Verification confirmed the ability of predictive regression models to identify peanut-based snacks, which would be scored higher than 6.0 by consumer evaluation.

  19. Applying linear programming model to aggregate production planning of coated peanut products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmah, W. G.; Purwaningsih, I.; Santoso, EF S. M.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to set the overall production level for each grade of coated peanut product to meet market demands with a minimum production cost. The linear programming model was applied in this study. The proposed model was used to minimize the total production cost based on the limited demand of coated peanuts. The demand values applied to the method was previously forecasted using time series method and production capacity aimed to plan the aggregate production for the next 6 month period. The results indicated that the production planning using the proposed model has resulted a better fitted pattern to the customer demands compared to that of the company policy. The production capacity of product family A, B, and C was relatively stable for the first 3 months of the planning periods, then began to fluctuate over the next 3 months. While, the production capacity of product family D and E was fluctuated over the 6-month planning periods, with the values in the range of 10,864 - 32,580 kg and 255 – 5,069 kg, respectively. The total production cost for all products was 27.06% lower than the production cost calculated using the company’s policy-based method.

  20. Evaluation of productive performance of 51 different peanut cocoon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In our study, 51 peanut strains of Iran silkworm germplasm were evaluated for 36 economically important traits and for the feasibility of using these strains for breeding programs. After hatching of eggs, neonates were brushed and reared up separately on fresh leaves of mulberry (Morus alba). Newly hatched larvae of all ...

  1. Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Peanut Allergy Peanut Allergy Learn about peanut allergy, how to read food ... informed decision. Will My Child Outgrow a Peanut Allergy? Allergy to peanuts appears to be on the ...

  2. Biosurfactant production by Corynebacterium kutscheri from waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavasi, R; Jayalakshmi, S; Balasubramanian, T; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2007-12-01

    Production and characterization of biosurfactant from renewable sources. Biosurfactant production was carried out in 3-l fermentor using waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Maximum biomass (9.8 mg ml(-l)) and biosurfactant production (6.4 mg ml(-l)) occurred with peanut oil cake at 120 and 132 h, respectively. Chemical characterization of the biosurfactant revealed that it is a glycolipopeptide with chemical composition of carbohydrate (40%), lipid (27%) and protein (29%). The biosurfactant is able to emulsify waste motor lubricant oil, crude oil, peanut oil, kerosene, diesel, xylene, naphthalene and anthracene; the emulsification activity was comparatively higher than the activity found with Triton X-100. This study indicates the possibility of biosurfactant production using renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources like waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Emulsification activity found with the biosurfactant against different hydrocarbons showed the possibility of the application of biosurfactants against diverse hydrocarbon pollution. The data obtained from the study could be useful for large-scale biosurfactant production using economically cheaper substrates. Information obtained in emulsification activity and laboratory-scale experiment on bioremediation inferred that bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites may be treated with biosurfactants or the bacteria that produces it.

  3. Effect of C6 to C9 alkenals on aflatoxin production in corn, cottonseed, and peanuts.

    OpenAIRE

    Zeringue, H J

    1991-01-01

    The effect on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus-inoculated corn, cottonseed, and peanuts in static culture in the presence of gaseous phase C6 to C9 alkenals was investigated. Aflatoxin B1 production was stimulated in corn at the lowest alkenal concentration (1-microliters level) tested. Aflatoxin B1 was completely eliminated at the highest alkenal concentrations (20-microliters level) tested in both treated corn and cottonseed cultures.

  4. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxins in the Brazilian peanut production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Ligia Manoel; de Souza Sant'Ana, Anderson; Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Maria Helena

    2017-01-01

    , the potential for aflatoxin production by the isolates was tested using the agar plug technique and the presence of aflatoxins in peanuts was assessed using an immunoaffinity column followed by quantification using HPLC with reverse phase column and fluorescence detection. The limit of detection...... and quantification were 0.05 and 0.17 mu g/kg for total aflatoxins, respectively. Four species of Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated: A. caelatus (11), A. flavus (515), A. parasiticus (17) and A. tamarii (13). All isolates of A. parasiticus were able to produce aflatoxin B and G whereas aflatoxin B was produced...... by 50% of A. flavus isolates. Aflatoxins were found in 12 samples at concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 100 mu g/kg. The data reported in this study add information on the occurrence and biodiversity of fungi in peanuts at several stages of the production chain. The occurrence of aflatoxins is also...

  5. RNAi-mediated Control of Aflatoxins in Peanut: Method to Analyze Mycotoxin Production and Transgene Expression in the Peanut/Aspergillus Pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Renée S; Dang, Phat M; Sobolev, Victor S

    2015-12-21

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 25% of the food crops in the world are contaminated with aflatoxins. That represents 100 million tons of food being destroyed or diverted to non-human consumption each year. Aflatoxins are powerful carcinogens normally accumulated by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus in cereals, nuts, root crops and other agricultural products. Silencing of five aflatoxin-synthesis genes by RNA interference (RNAi) in peanut plants was used to control aflatoxin accumulation following inoculation with A. flavus. Previously, no method existed to analyze the effectiveness of RNAi in individual peanut transgenic events, as these usually produce few seeds, and traditional methods of large field experiments under aflatoxin-conducive conditions were not an option. In the field, the probability of finding naturally contaminated seeds is often 1/100 to 1/1,000. In addition, aflatoxin contamination is not uniformly distributed. Our method uses few seeds per transgenic event, with small pieces processed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR) or small RNA sequencing, and for analysis of aflatoxin accumulation by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). RNAi-expressing peanut lines 288-72 and 288-74, showed up to 100% reduction (p ≤ 0.01) in aflatoxin B1 and B2 compared to the control that accumulated up to 14,000 ng · g(-1) of aflatoxin B1 when inoculated with aflatoxigenic A. flavus. As reference, the maximum total of aflatoxins allowable for human consumption in the United States is 20 ng · g(-1). This protocol describes the application of RNAi-mediated control of aflatoxins in transgenic peanut seeds and methods for its evaluation. We believe that its application in breeding of peanut and other crops will bring rapid advancement in this important area of science, medicine and human nutrition, and will significantly contribute to the international effort to control aflatoxins, and potentially other

  6. Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have em...

  7. Uniform peanut performance test 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 14 entries were evaluated at 8 locations....

  8. Productivity, utilization efficiency and sward targets for mixed pastures of marandugrass, forage peanut and tropical kudzu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the productivity and utilization efficiency of a mixed marandugrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Mandobi and tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides pasture, rotationally stocked at four daily forage allowance levels (6.6, 10.3, 14.3 and 17.9% of live weight, in order to define sward management targets for these mixtures. In each stocking cycle, dry matter (DM accumulation rates, defoliation intensity (%, grazing depth (% and grazed horizon (cm were evaluated. Sward targets were defined according to the sward condition that best conciliated the grass-legume balance and the equilibrium between forage production and utilization. Pastures submitted to higher forage allowance levels showed higher productivity, but were less efficiently utilized. It was not possible to establish sward management targets for marandugrass-tropical kudzu pastures. For marandugrass-forage peanut pastures the best sward state was set with forage allowance of 10.3% of live weight. Under rotational stocking, the following sward targets were suggested for these pastures in the Western Amazon: pre-grazing height of 30-35 cm (June to September or 45-50 cm (October to May and post-grazing sward height of 20-25 cm (June to September or 25-30 cm (October to May.

  9. Improving Peanut Productivity and Resistance to Aspergillus flavus L Through mutation Induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragab, A.I; Korani, W.A.A.; Rashed, M.A.; Salam, M.A

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to improve peanut productivity and resistance to Aspergillus flavus that caused aflatoxin formation in peanut seeds . To achieve these goals , dry seeds of the two local varieties (Giza 4 and Giza5) were irradiated with gamma ray doses of 0 , 50 , 100 , 150 , 200 , 250 , 300 Gy. The irradiated seeds were sown to get the M1 and M2 generations. Six high yielding mutants were selected in M2 from irradiated populations of 150 Gy and 200 Gy for Giza 4 and Giza 5 respectively. These mutants were evaluated in M3 generation for yield and yield components , quality traits (protein and oil content) and the resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection. The obtained results revealed that analysis of variance for Giza 4 selected mutants showed significant differences between genotypes for different studied characters except for plant height and no. of branches /plant .However, for Giza5 selected mutants, significant differences between genotypes were only obtained for plant height , no of pods/plant, weight of pods/plant, weight of seeds/plant, and weight of 100 seeds. Different M3 mutants that selected from irradiated populations of both two peanut cultivars Giza4 and Giza5 shod marked improvement for yield and yield components, and quality traits in comparison with their mother varieties.The results of M3 progeny test indicated that most selected mutants retained the features of their M2 selectors, suggesting that they were considered true breeding materials. For Giza 4 selected mutants, aflatoxin concentrations ranged from 31.11 μg for mutant 1 to 188.46 μ g for mutant3 in comparison with 42.76 μg for the mother variety Giza 4. The lowest yielding progenies of mutant1 (1 ) showed the lowest aflatoxin concentrations as compared with the mother variety Giza 4 and other mutants, therefore the use of induced mutations for peanut improvement may be led to the development of improved varieties .However, for Giza 5 selected mutants aflatoxin

  10. Evaluation of Alternatives to an Organophosphate Insecticide with Selected Cultural Practices: Effects on Thrips, Frankliniella fusca, and Incidence of Spotted Wilt in Peanut Farmscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasigan, K; Toews, M; Kemerait, R; Abney, M R; Culbreath, A; Srinivasan, R

    2018-04-07

    Peanut growers use a combination of tactics to manage spotted wilt disease caused by thrips-transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). They include planting TSWV-resistant cultivars, application of insecticides, and various cultural practices. Two commonly used insecticides against thrips are aldicarb and phorate. Both insecticides exhibit broad-spectrum toxicity. Recent research has led to the identification of potential alternatives to aldicarb and phorate. In this study, along with reduced-risk, alternative insecticides, we evaluated the effect of conventional versus strip tillage; single versus twin row seeding pattern; and 13 seed/m versus 20 seed/m on thips density, feeding injury, and spotted wilt incidence. Three field trials were conducted in Georgia in 2012 and 2013. Thrips counts, thrips feeding injuriy, and incidence of spotted wilt were less under strip tillage than under conventional tillage. Reduced feeding injury from thrips was observed on twin-row plots compared with single-row plots. Thrips counts, thrips feeding injury, and incidence of spotted wilt did not vary by seeding rate. Yield from twin-row plots was greater than yield from single-row plots only in 2012. Yield was not affected by other cultural practices. Alternative insecticides, including imidacloprid and spinetoram, were as effective as phorate in suppressing thrips and reducing incidence of spotted wilt in conjunction with cultural practices. Results suggest that cultural practices and reduced-risk insecticides (alternatives to aldicarb and phorate) can effectively suppress thrips and incidence of spotted wilt in peanut.

  11. Peanut allergy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2011-04-01

    Peanut allergy may affect up to 2% of children in some countries, making it one of the most common conditions of childhood. Peanut allergy is a marker of a broad and possibly severe atopic phenotype. Nearly all children with peanut allergy have other allergic conditions. Peanut accounts for a disproportionate number of fatal and near fatal food-related allergies. Families with a child or children with peanut allergy can struggle to adapt to the stringent avoidance measures required. Although oral induction of tolerance represents the cutting edge of peanut allergy management, it is not yet ready for routine practice.

  12. Production of Recombinant Peanut Allergen Ara h 2 using Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frøkiær Hanne

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural allergen sources can supply large quantities of authentic allergen mixtures for use as immunotherapeutics. However, such extracts are complex, difficult to define, vary from batch to batch, which may lead to unpredictable efficacy and/or unacceptable levels of side effects. The use of recombinant expression systems for allergen production can alleviate some of these issues. Several allergens have been tested in high-level expression systems and in most cases show immunereactivity comparable to their natural counterparts. The gram positive lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is an attractive microorganism for use in the production of protein therapeutics. L. lactis is considered food grade, free of endotoxins, and is able to secrete the heterologous product together with few other native proteins. Hypersensitivity to peanut represents a serious allergic problem. Some of the major allergens in peanut have been described. However, for therapeutic usage more information about the individual allergenic components is needed. In this paper we report recombinant production of the Ara h 2 peanut allergen using L. lactis. Results A synthetic ara h 2 gene was cloned into an L. lactis expression plasmid containing the P170 promoter and the SP310mut2 signal sequence. Flask cultures grown overnight showed secretion of the 17 kDa Ara h 2 protein. A batch fermentation resulted in 40 mg/L recombinant Ara h 2. Purification of Ara h 2 from the culture supernatant was done by hydrophobic exclusion and size separation. Mass spectrometry and N-terminal analysis showed a recombinant Ara h 2 of full length and correctly processed by the signal peptidase. The immunological activity of recombinant Ara h 2 was analysed by ELISA using antibodies specific for native Ara h 2. The recombinant Ara h 2 showed comparable immunereactivity to that of native Ara h 2. Conclusion Recombinant production of Ara h 2 using L. lactis can offer high yields

  13. Foliar fertilization of peanuts with cobalt and molybdenum: agronomic characteristics of production and physiological potential of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Marani Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a crop, the peanut is becoming increasingly important in Brazil because it is used to renew areas where sugarcane is cultivated. The peanuts are mainly used by the candy industry and their importance has also grown because of the exploitation of oil crops to produce biodiesel. This study aimed to determine the effect of applying different levels Co and Mo foliar fertilizer to two peanut cultivars. The experiment was conducted in cerrado, during the rainy season, and the treatments consisted of applying Mo and Co fertilizer at zero, 400 and 800g.ha–1 to the Runner IAC 886 and IAC Tatu ST cultivars. The study found that there were differences in the parameters of the cultivars but there were no changes when the rates of cobalt and molybdenum were increased. The foliar application of cobalt and molybdenum in doses up to 800g.ha–1, during the initial stage of seed formation, does not change the agronomic characteristics of peanuts; Runner IAC 886 is more productive than the IAC Tatu ST cultivar, and seeds with higher molybdenum content do not have more physiological potential.

  14. The Black Aspergillus Species of Maize and Peanuts and Their Potential for Mycotoxin Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Edwin R.; Hinton, Dorothy M.; Bacon, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as potential mycotoxin producers. Others are defined as benign relative to their ability to produce mycotoxins. However, these characterizations are based on in vitro culture and toxins production. Several can produce the ochratoxins that are toxic to livestock, poultry, and humans. The black aspergilli produce rots of grapes, maize, and numerous other fruits and grain and they are generally viewed as post-harvest pathogens. Data are review to suggest that black aspergilli, as so many others, are symptomless endophytes. These fungi and their mycotoxins contaminate several major grains, foodstuffs, and products made from them such as wine, and coffee. Evidence is presented that the black aspergilli are producers of other classes of mycotoxins such as the fumonisins, which are known carcinogenic and known prior investigations as being produced by the Fusarium species. Three species are identified in U.S. maize and peanuts as symptomless endophytes, which suggests the potential for concern as pathogens and as food safety hazards. PMID:22069592

  15. Development of a Drinkable, Peanut-Based Dietary Supplement and Comparison of Its Nutritional and Microbiological Qualities with Commercial Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2016-05-01

    This study was undertaken to formulate, using peanuts as a major ingredient, a beverage which will benefit older adults who are at a high risk of protein-energy malnutrition and other health complications, and to compare its nutritional and microbiological qualities to commercial products. Peanuts, rice flour, and flaxseed meal in a ratio of 48.0:49.8:2.2 were mixed with water (20% solids) and cooked into gruel which was sequentially treated with BAN(®) , (480 KNU-B/g, 75 °C 1 h), Alcalase(®) (2.4 AU-A/g, 60 °C 1 h), and Flavourzyme(®) (1000 LAPU/g, 55 °C 1 h) to predigest starch and protein, respectively. The degree of hydrolysis and product viscosity during hydrolysis was measured. The nutritional and microbiological qualities of the product were compared to 10 commercial products. Results indicate that 60% of starch was hydrolyzed while a total of 1.62% protein hydrolysis was observed. Product viscosity reduced from 228.55 to 3.60 cP at the end of hydrolysis. The formulation had no cholesterol and low sodium which was a functional property that was absent in the commercial products. Results of this study suggest that the formulation can be further optimized into a unique product that could cater for the protein needs and other nutritional requirements of older adults. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Energy budgeting and carbon footprint of transgenic cotton-wheat production system through peanut intercropping and FYM addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Ahlawat, I P S

    2015-05-01

    Two of the most pressing sustainability issues are the depletion of fossil energy resources and the emission of atmospheric green house gases like carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to assess energy budgeting and carbon footprint in transgenic cotton-wheat cropping system through peanut intercropping with using 25-50% substitution of recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) of cotton through farmyard manure (FYM) along with 100% RDN through urea and control (0 N). To quantify the residual effects of previous crops and their fertility levels, a succeeding crop of wheat was grown with varying rates of nitrogen, viz. 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha(-1). Cotton + peanut-wheat cropping system recorded 21% higher system productivity which ultimately helped to maintain higher net energy return (22%), energy use efficiency (12%), human energy profitability (3%), energy productivity (7%), carbon outputs (20%), carbon efficiency (17%), and 11% lower carbon footprint over sole cotton-wheat cropping system. Peanut addition in cotton-wheat system increased the share of renewable energy inputs from 18 to 21%. With substitution of 25% RDN of cotton through FYM, share of renewable energy resources increased in the range of 21% which resulted into higher system productivity (4%), net energy return (5%), energy ratio (6%), human energy profitability (74%), energy productivity (6%), energy profitability (5%), and 5% lower carbon footprint over no substitution. The highest carbon footprint (0.201) was recorded under control followed by 50 % substitution of RDN through FYM (0.189). With each successive increase in N dose up to 150 kg N ha(-1) to wheat, energy productivity significantly reduced and share of renewable energy inputs decreased from 25 to 13%. Application of 100 kg N ha(-1) to wheat maintained the highest grain yield (3.71 t ha(-1)), net energy return (105,516 MJ ha(-1)), and human energy profitability (223.4) over other N doses applied to wheat

  17. Applications of peanut skins as a functional food ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut skins are a low-value byproduct of the peanut industry, with hundreds of thousands of tons being produced annually. Following their removal during the preparation of common peanut products, peanut skins are either discarded or used as a minor component of animal feed. Recent studies have fo...

  18. Commercial lateral flow devices for rapid detection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and hazelnut (Corylus avellana) cross-contamination in the industrial production of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    Lateral flow devices (LFDs) are qualitative immunochromatographic tests for the rapid and specific detection of target analytes. We investigated commercially available LFDs for their ability to detect potentially allergenic peanut and hazelnut in raw cookie dough and chocolate, two important food matrices in the industrial production of cookies. Each three commercial LFDs for the detection of hazelnut and peanut were performed according to the manufacturers' instructions. All LFDs had comparably satisfactory specificity that was investigated with a variety of characteristic foods and food ingredients used in the production of cookies. In concordance with hazelnut-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), walnut was the most cross-reactive food for hazelnut-specific LFD. The sensitivity was verified in raw cookie doughs and chocolates that were either spiked with peanut or hazelnut between 1 and 25 mg/kg, respectively. Two hazelnut-specific LFDs detected hazelnut at a level of 3.5 mg/kg in both matrices, whereas the third LFD detected hazelnut at a level of 3.9 mg/kg in dough and 12.5 mg/kg in chocolate. Two peanut-specific LFDs detected peanut at a level of 1 mg/kg in both matrices. The third LFD detected peanut at a level of 14.2 mg/kg in chocolate and 4 mg/kg in dough. In conclusion, specific and sensitive LFD were identified for each hazelnut and peanut, having a level of sensitivity that is comparable to commercial ELISA for the investigated matrices. Such sensitive, specific, and rapid tests are useful analytical tools for allergen screening and sanitation in the industrial manufacture of foods.

  19. Effect of Farm Size on Energy Consumption and Input Costs of Peanut Production in Guilan Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Emadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the energy and economic analysis of peanut production in Guilan province of Iran was studied. Data were collected from questionnaires of 75 farmers. The data were collected from three farm size categories namely: 0.1–0.5 ha, 0.5-1 ha and larger than 1 ha. The results revealed that 19407.36 MJ ha-1 energy input was totally consumed. The highest share of energy consumption belonged to diesel fuel (50.05% followed by chemical fertilizers (19.14%. The mean difference of energy inputs including machinery, diesel fuel and electricity among different sizes of farms was significant at the 5% level. The average energy efficiency in different farm size categories including less than 0.5 ha, 0.5-1 ha and more than 1 ha were 3.67, 4.02 and 4.12, respectively. The energy productivity of these sizes was calculated as 0.155, 0.169 and 0.174 kg MJ-1, respectively. The Cobb-Douglas model results showed that the effects of inputs including human labor, machinery, chemical fertilizers and electricity on the yield were positive, while the effect of inputs including seed, diesel fuel and chemicals on peanut yield were negative. The benefit-cost ratio was calculated as 1.82. Farmers with a farm larger than 1 ha used the least amount of energy and input costs.

  20. Production of activated carbon from peanut hill using phosphoric acid and microwave activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawat Clowutimon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from peanut hulls by phosphoric acid and microwave activation were studied. Factors investigated in this study were temperature of carbonization at 300, 350, 400 and 450๐ C, and time of carbonization at 30, 60 and 90 minutes. The optimum yield was observed that carbonization temperature of 400๐ C and time at 60 minutes, respectively. The yield of charcoal was 39% and the f ix carbon was 69%. Then the charcoal was activated by phosphoric acid and microwave irradiation, respectively. The effect of the weight per volume ratios of charcoal to activating acid (1:1, 1:2 and 2:1(W/V, microwave power at (activated 300, 500 and 700 watts, and activated time (30, 60 and 90 seconds were studied. The results showed that the optimum conditions for activating peanut charcoal were 1:2 (W/V charcoal per activating acid, microwave power 700 watts for 90 seconds. The results yielding maximum surface area by BET method was 303.1 m2 /g and pore volume was 0.140 cm3 /g. An efficiency of maximum iodine adsorption was 418 mg iodine/g activated carbon. Comparing the adsorption efficiency of non- irradiated and irradiated activated carbon, the efficiency of irradiated activated carbon improved up to 31%, due to its larger surface area and pore volume.

  1. Intercropping peanut with traditional Chinese medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many environmental issues affect peanut production in continuous monocropping system. Deterioration of soil microbial communities, especially for decrease in fungal diversity and increase in fungal pathogens, is widely hypothesized as a key factor for decreasing peanut production. In this study, a pot experiment was ...

  2. Production of aromatic green gasoline additives via catalytic pyrolysis of acidulated peanut oil soap stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilten, R; Speir, R; Kastner, J; Das, K C

    2011-09-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis was used to generate gasoline-compatible fuel from peanut oil soap stock (PSS), a high free fatty acid feedstock, using a fixed-bed reactor at temperatures between 450 and 550°C with a zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5). PSS fed at 81 gh(-1) along with 100 mL min(-1) inert gas was passed across a 15 g catalyst bed (WHSV=5.4h(-1), gas phase residence time=34s). Results indicate that fuel properties of PSS including viscosity, heating value, and O:C ratio were improved significantly. For PSS processed at 500°C, viscosity was reduced from 59.6 to 0.9 mm(2)s(-1), heating value was increased from 35.8 to 39.3 MJL(-1), and the O:C ratio was reduced from 0.07 to 0.02. Aromatic gasoline components (e.g., BTEX), were formed in concentrations as high as 94% (v/v) in catalytically-cracked PSS with yields ranging from 22% to 35% (v/v of PSS feed). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The antisense expression of AhPEPC1 increases seed oil production in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCs are reported to be involved in fatty acid accumulation, nitrogen assimilation, and salt and drought stresses, knowledge regarding PEPC gene functions is still limited, particularly in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.. In this study, the antisense expression of the peanut PEPC isoform 1 (AhPEPC1 gene increased the lipid content by 5.7%–10.3%. This indicated that AhPEPC1 might be related to plant lipid accumulation. The transgenic plants underwent more root elongation than the wild-type under salinity stress. Additionally, the specific down regulation of the AhPEPC1 gene improved the salt tolerance in peanuts. This is the first report on the role of PEPC in lipid accumulation and salt tolerance in peanuts.

  4. The antisense expression of AhPEPC1 increases seed oil production in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.; Zhang, J.; Chi, X.; Chen, N.; Chen, M.; Wang, M.; Wang, T.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Wan, Y.; Yu, S.; Liu, F.

    2016-07-01

    Although phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCs) are reported to be involved in fatty acid accumulation, nitrogen assimilation, and salt and drought stresses, knowledge regarding PEPC gene functions is still limited, particularly in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). In this study, the antisense expression of the peanut PEPC isoform 1 (AhPEPC1) gene increased the lipid content by 5.7%–10.3%. This indicated that AhPEPC1 might be related to plant lipid accumulation. The transgenic plants underwent more root elongation than the wild-type under salinity stress. Additionally, the specific down regulation of the AhPEPC1 gene improved the salt tolerance in peanuts. This is the first report on the role of PEPC in lipid accumulation and salt tolerance in peanuts.

  5. Effect of storage on chemical and sensory profiles of peanut pastes prepared with high-oleic and normal peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Cecilia G; Mestrallet, Marta G; Gayol, Maria F; Quiroga, Patricia R; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2010-12-01

    Peanut paste and peanut butter have high oil contents and are thus susceptible to developing rancidity and off-flavours through lipid oxidation. Preservation of the chemical and sensory quality of these products is one of the main problems in the peanut industry. The purpose of this study was to compare the chemical and sensory stability of peanut paste prepared with high-oleic peanuts (cv. Granoleico, GO-P) with that of peanut paste prepared with normal peanuts (cv. Tegua, T-P) from Argentina. Chemical (peroxide and p-anisidine values and conjugated dienes) and sensory (roasted peanutty, oxidised and cardboard flavours) indicators of lipid oxidation were measured in peanut pastes stored at 4, 23 and 40 °C. Chemical indicator values and oxidised and cardboard flavours showed lower increments in GO-P than in T-P during storage. T-P had significantly higher peroxide value than GO-P. Roasted peanutty flavour showed a lower decrease in GO-P. Peanut paste prepared with high-oleic peanuts had four (at 4 °C), two (at 23 °C) and three (at 40 °C) times longer shelf-life than peanut paste prepared with normal peanuts. These results indicate that high-oleic Granoleico kernels provide peanut paste with higher protection against lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Assessing food allergy risks from residual peanut protein in highly refined vegetable oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.M.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Rubingh, C.M.; Remington, B.C.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Houben, G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Refined vegetable oils including refined peanut oil are widely used in foods. Due to shared production processes, refined non-peanut vegetable oils can contain residual peanut proteins. We estimated the predicted number of allergic reactions to residual peanut proteins using probabilistic risk

  7. Overexpression of a pea DNA helicase (PDH45) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) confers improvement of cellular level tolerance and productivity under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjulatha, M; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Kumar, A Manoj; Sudhakar, Chinta; Prasad, T G; Tuteja, Narendra; Udayakumar, M

    2014-02-01

    Peanut, a major edible oil seed crop globally is predominantly grown under rainfed conditions and suffers yield losses due to drought. Development of drought-tolerant varieties through transgenic technology is a valid approach. Besides superior water relation traits like water mining, intrinsic cellular level tolerance mechanisms are important to sustain the growth under stress. To achieve this objective, the focus of this study was to pyramid drought adaptive traits by overexpressing a stress responsive helicase, PDH45 in the background of a genotype with superior water relations. PCR, Southern, and RT-PCR analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of the PDH45 gene in peanut transgenics. At the end of T₃ generation, eight transgenic events were identified as promising based on stress tolerance and improvement in productivity. Several transgenic lines showed stay-green phenotype and increased chlorophyll stability under stress and reduced chlorophyll retardation under etherel-induced simulated stress conditions. Stress-induced root growth was also substantially higher in the case of transformants. This was reflected in increased WUE (low Δ¹³C) and improved growth rates and productivity. The transgenics showed 17.2 and 26.75 % increase in yield under non-stress and stress conditions over wild type ascertaining the feasibility of trait pyramiding strategy for the development of drought-tolerant peanut.

  8. Ridascreen® fast peanut, a rapid and safe tool to determine peanut contamination in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immer, U.; Reck, B.; Lindeke, S.; Koppelman, S.

    2004-01-01

    During the last years allergenic substances in food have gained more and more attention. Stricter rules for a peanut free food labelling demand a peanut contamination less than 5 ppm. The maintenance of a high quality of food products with regards to allergenic exposure is preferable warranted with

  9. Comparative study of thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. in peanut butter and peanut butter spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut butter has been implicated in multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis in recent years. Studies have shown that Salmonella exhibited increased thermal resistance in peanut butter. However, little is known about the effect of product formulation on the kinetics of survival of Salmonella during...

  10. Hydrolytic enzymes production by Aspergillus section Nigri in presence of butylated hydroxyanisole and propyl paraben on peanut meal extract agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, Carla L; Landa, María F; Barberis, Mauricio G; Giaj-Merlera, Guillermo; Dalcero, Ana M; Magnoli, Carina E

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, food grade antioxidants are used safely as an alternative to traditional fungicides to control fungal growth in several food and agricultural products. In this work, the effect of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and propyl paraben (PP) on two hydrolytic enzyme activity (β-d-glucosidase and α-d-galactosidase) by Aspergillus section Nigri species under different water activity conditions (aW; 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93) and incubation time intervals (24, 48, 72 and 96h) was evaluated on peanut-based medium. The activity of two glycosidases, β-d-glucosidase and α-d-galactosidase, was assayed using as substrates 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranosido and 4-nitrophenyl-α-d-galactopyranosido, respectively. The enzyme activity was determined by the increase in optical density at 405nm caused by the liberation of p-nitrophenol by enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate. Enzyme activity was expressed as micromoles of p-nitrophenol released per minute. The major inhibition in β-d-glucosidase activity of A. carbonarius and A. niger was found with 20mmoll(-1) of BHA or PP at 0.98 and 0.95 aW, respectively, whereas for α-d-galactosidase activity a significant decrease in enzyme activity with respect to control was observed in A. carbonarius among 5 to 20mmoll(-1) of BHA or PP in all conditions assayed. Regarding A. niger, the highest percentages of enzyme inhibition activity were found with 20mmoll(-1) of BHA or PP at 0.95 aW and 96h. The results of this work provide information about the capacity of BHA and PP to inhibit in vitro conditions two of the most important hydrolytic enzymes produced by A. carbonarius and A. niger species. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Aflatoxin and nutrient contents of peanut collected from local market and their processed foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, E.; Rahmianna, A. A.; Yusnawan, E.

    2018-01-01

    Peanut is succeptable to aflatoxin contamination and the sources of peanut as well as processing methods considerably affect aflatoxin content of the products. Therefore, the study on aflatoxin and nutrient contents of peanut collected from local market and their processed foods were performed. Good kernels of peanut were prepared into fried peanut, pressed-fried peanut, peanut sauce, peanut press cake, fermented peanut press cake (tempe) and fried tempe, while blended kernels (good and poor kernels) were processed into peanut sauce and tempe and poor kernels were only processed into tempe. The results showed that good and blended kernels which had high number of sound/intact kernels (82,46% and 62,09%), contained 9.8-9.9 ppb of aflatoxin B1, while slightly higher level was seen in poor kernels (12.1 ppb). However, the moisture, ash, protein, and fat contents of the kernels were similar as well as the products. Peanut tempe and fried tempe showed the highest increase in protein content, while decreased fat contents were seen in all products. The increase in aflatoxin B1 of peanut tempe prepared from poor kernels > blended kernels > good kernels. However, it averagely decreased by 61.2% after deep-fried. Excluding peanut tempe and fried tempe, aflatoxin B1 levels in all products derived from good kernels were below the permitted level (15 ppb). This suggests that sorting peanut kernels as ingredients and followed by heat processing would decrease the aflatoxin content in the products.

  12. GRANTING MYCORRHIZAL AND SLUDGE TO INCREASE PRODUCTION PLANT OF PEANUT (Arachis hypogaea L)

    OpenAIRE

    Hariani, Farida; ,, Erlita

    2016-01-01

    Giving mycorrhiza can improve nutrient uptake P plant, while Sludge can fertilize the soil. The use of organic fertilizer such as sludge has many benefits when applied in fertilizing agricultural crop land. The emphasis on the use of organic fertilizers continuously and sustainably will provide advantages and benefits in the long-term use. This study aimed to evaluate the response of groundnut crop production due to the provision of mycorrhizal and sludge as well as their interactions.The res...

  13. RNAi-mediated Control of Aflatoxins in Peanut: Method to Analyze Mycotoxin Production and Transgene Expression in the Peanut/Aspergillus Pathosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Ren?e S.; Dang, Phat M.; Sobolev, Victor S.

    2015-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 25% of the food crops in the world are contaminated with aflatoxins. That represents 100 million tons of food being destroyed or diverted to non-human consumption each year. Aflatoxins are powerful carcinogens normally accumulated by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus in cereals, nuts, root crops and other agricultural products. Silencing of five aflatoxin-synthesis genes by RNA interference (RNAi) in pean...

  14. Fatty acid profiling of four different peanut Fatty Acid Desaturase (FAD) 2 genotypes at five seed development stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut is one of the most important edible oilseed crops. The level of oleic acid in peanut seeds can significantly affect the oil quality. Consuming peanut product from high oleic acid seeds may positively contribute to improving human health. The level of oleic acid in peanut seeds is mainly contr...

  15. Reduction and alkylation of peanut allergen isoforms Ara h 2 and Ara h 6; characterization of intermediate- and end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolovic, Danijela; Luykx, Dion; Warmenhoven, Hans; Verbart, Dennis; Stanic-Vucinic, Dragana; de Jong, Govardus A H; Velickovic, Tanja Cirkovic; Koppelman, Stef J

    2013-12-01

    Conglutins, the major peanut allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, are highly structured proteins stabilized by multiple disulfide bridges and are stable towards heat-denaturation and digestion. We sought a way to reduce their potent allergenicity in view of the development of immunotherapy for peanut allergy. Isoforms of conglutin were purified, reduced with dithiothreitol and subsequently alkylated with iodoacetamide. The effect of this modification was assessed on protein folding and IgE-binding. We found that all disulfide bridges were reduced and alkylated. As a result, the secondary structure lost α-helix and gained some β-structure content, and the tertiary structure stability was reduced. On a functional level, the modification led to a strongly decreased IgE-binding. Using conditions for limited reduction and alkylation, partially reduced and alkylated proteins were found with rearranged disulfide bridges and, in some cases, intermolecular cross-links were found. Peptide mass finger printing was applied to control progress of the modification reaction and to map novel disulfide bonds. There was no preference for the order in which disulfides were reduced, and disulfide rearrangement occurred in a non-specific way. Only minor differences in kinetics of reduction and alkylation were found between the different conglutin isoforms. We conclude that the peanut conglutins Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 can be chemically modified by reduction and alkylation, such that they substantially unfold and that their allergenic potency decreases. © 2013.

  16. Peanut Allergy: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ahmed Nasser

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Peanut allergies have been increasing in prevalence in most industrialized countries. Onset is typically in early childhood, with a trend towards earlier ages of presentation. The allergy is lifelong in most affected children, although 15-22% will outgrow their peanut allergy, usually before their teenage years. Manifestations of peanut allergy range from mild to severe, and risk factors predisposing to severe reactions are discussed. However, even in the absence of risk factors, peanut allergic individuals may still experience life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Approaches to investigation and treatment, patterns of cross-reactivity and possible causes of rising prevalence are discussed.

  17. Antenatal risk factors for peanut allergy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binkley Karen E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal factors may contribute to the development of peanut allergy. We evaluated the risk of childhood peanut allergy in association with pregnancy exposure to Rh immune globulin, folic acid and ingestion of peanut-containing foods. Methods We conducted a web-based case-control survey using the Anaphylaxis Canada Registry, a pre-existing database of persons with a history of anaphylaxis. A total of 1300 case children with reported peanut allergy were compared to 113 control children with shellfish allergy. All were evaluated for maternal exposure in pregnancy to Rh immune globulin and folic acid tablet supplements, as well as maternal avoidance of dietary peanut intake in pregnancy. Results Receipt of Rh immune globulin in pregnancy was not associated with a higher risk of peanut allergy (odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51 to 1.45, nor was initiation of folic acid tablet supplements before or after conception (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.48. Complete avoidance of peanut-containing products in pregnancy was associated with a non-significantly lower risk of peanut allergy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.03. Conclusion The risk of childhood peanut allergy was not modified by the following common maternal exposures in pregnancy: Rh immune globulin, folic acid or peanut-containing foods. Clinical implications Rh immune globulin, folic acid supplement use and peanut avoidance in pregnancy have yet to be proven to modulate the risk of childhood anaphylaxis to peanuts. Capsule Summary Identification of prenatal factors that contribute to peanut allergy might allow for prevention of this life-threatening condition. This article explores the role of three such factors.

  18. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their way into things you wouldn't imagine. Take chili, for example: It may be thickened with ground peanuts. Peanuts ... the past, manufacturers sometimes change their processes — for example, ... precautions you can take: Be on the watch for cross-contamination that ...

  19. Production of succinic acid from sugarcane molasses supplemented with a mixture of corn steep liquor powder and peanut meal as nitrogen sources by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, N; Qin, Y; Wang, Q; Liao, S; Zhu, J; Zhu, Q; Mi, H; Adhikari, B; Wei, Y; Huang, R

    2015-06-01

    The potential of using corn steep liquor powder (CSLP), peanut meal (PM), soybean meal (SM), cotton meal (CM) and urea as the substitute of yeast extract (YE) as the nitrogen source was investigated for producing succinic acid (SA). Actinobacillus succinogenes GXAS137 was used as the fermenting bacterium and sugarcane molasses was used as the main substrate. None of these materials were able to produce SA as high as YE did. The CSLP could still be considered as a feasible and inexpensive alternate for YE as the yield of SA produced using CSLP was second only to the yield of SA obtained by YE. The use of CSLP-PM mixed formulation (CSLP to PM ratio = 2·6) as nitrogen source produced SA up to 59·2 g l(-1) with a productivity of 1·2 g l(-1) h(-1). A batch fermentation using a stirred bioreactor produced up to 60·7 g l(-1) of SA at the same formulation. Fed-batch fermentation that minimized the substrate inhibition produced 64·7 g l(-1) SA. These results suggest that sugarcane molasses supplemented with a mixture of CSLP and PM as the nitrogen source could be used to produce SA more economically using A. succinogenes. Significance and impact of the study: Succinic acid (SA) is commonly used as a platform chemical to produce a number of high value derivatives. Yeast extract (YE) is used as a nitrogen source to produce SA. The high cost of YE is currently the limiting factor for industrial production of SA. This study reports the use of a mixture of corn steep liquor powder (CSLP) and peanut meal (PM) as an inexpensive nitrogen source to substitute YE. The results showed that this CSLP-PM mixed formulation can be used as an effective and economic nitrogen source for the production of SA. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Microbiological contamination in peanut confectionery processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminati, J de A; Amorim Neto, D P; Morishita, K N; Takano, L V; Olivier Bernardi, A; Copetti, M V; do Nascimento, M da S

    2016-10-01

    In order to investigate Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella contamination, a survey was conducted at three peanut confectionery processing companies (A, B and C) in Brazil. Samples of different peanut confectionery products (n = 59), peanut raw material (n = 30), manufacturing environment (n = 116) and workers' hand surfaces (n = 12) were analysed. Salmonella and E. coli were not detected in any final product or raw material analysed. Enterobacteriaceae was isolated from 15% of final products. Coliforms were detected in only one sample. Referring to the raw material, six samples showed contamination by Enterobacteriaceae and three samples by coliforms. For the process environment, 19% and 11% of samples presented Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms. Escherichia coli was detected in 5% of samples, and one of these samples tested positive for Salmonella; this strain was serotyping as S. Heidelberg. All food handlers surveyed in Company C showed Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms on their hands. Escherichia coli was isolated from one food worker's hand. The results showed that the manufacturing environment, including food handlers were considered the main sources for possible contamination of peanut confectionery products. This has been the first study to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella and other Enterobacteriaceae throughout peanut confectionery processing lines. The results might be used to assist risk assessment studies and to establish more effective control measures. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut products consumed in the State of São Paulo/Brazil from 1995 to 1997 Ocorrência de aflatoxinas em amendoim e produtos contendo amendoim consumidos no Estado de São Paulo/Brasil no período 1995-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Sabino

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and thirty seven samples of peanuts and peanut containing foods were collected in markets in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, between January 1995 an December 1997. Most of the samples were collected by the Inspection Service of São Paulo Secretary of Health. The foods included raw peanuts, peanut candies ("paçoca" and "pé de moleque", peanut butter, fried/roasted salted peanuts, "torrone", chocolate coated peanuts and salt-coated peanuts. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins using a thin-layer chromatographic method. About 45% of the samples were positive for aflatoxins and 27% exceeded the limits of the Brazilian legislation (30.0 µg.kg-1 for aflatoxins B1+G1. The aflatoxins were confirmed by derivatization with trifluoroacetic acid. The 90th percentile was 110.0 in 1995, 60.0 in 1996 and 118.0 µg.kg-1 in 1997. The aflatoxins concentration in the raw peanut samples ranged from 5.0 to 382.0 µg.kg-1 and 27.1% were above the legal limits. Contamination in peanut candies was above the limit in 32.8% of the samples and the aflatoxins levels ranged from 6.0 to 494.0 µg.kg-1. Contamination of salty peanuts was less frequent, around 10% of the samples and the toxin levels were usually below 10 µg.kg-1. The maximum level of contamination, 536.0 µg.kg-1, was found in a sample of peanut with a salty coat ("amendoim japonês". Results of previous studies in peanuts and peanut products in the city of São Paulo from 1980-1987 had 68.75% of the samples with levels greater than the limit 30.0 µg.kg-1 and the 90th percentile ranged from 42.0 to 333.0 µg.kg-1. In 1994, 36.0% of the samples showed results above the limit and the 90th percentile was 489 µg.kg-1. The results show that aflatoxins contamination in peanuts is decreasing but it is still a serious problem in Brazil, a country where the climate, the agricultural practices and storage conditions favour fungal growth.Cento e trinta e sete amostras de amendoim e produtos

  2. Elevated [CO2] modified the drought acclimation response in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut agroecosystems play a key role in food production and are a major source of protein in many arid and semi-arid regions where extreme weather events are expected to increase in frequency. We are taking a systems-level approach to investigate the response of peanut to elevated [CO2], water defi...

  3. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  4. Production of isoprene, one of the high-density fuel precursors, from peanut hull using the high-efficient lignin-removal pretreatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sumeng; Wang, Zhaobao; Wang, Yongchao; Nie, Qingjuan; Yi, Xiaohua; Ge, Wei; Yang, Jianming; Xian, Mo

    2017-01-01

    Isoprene as the feedstock can be used to produce renewable energy fuels, providing an alternative to replace the rapidly depleting fossil fuels. However, traditional method for isoprene production could not meet the demands for low-energy consumption and environment-friendliness. Moreover, most of the previous studies focused on biofuel production out of lignocellulosic materials such as wood, rice straw, corn cob, while few studies concentrated on biofuel production using peanut hull (PH). As is known, China is the largest peanut producer in the globe with an extremely considerable amount of PH to be produced each year. Therefore, a novel, renewable, and environment-friendly pretreatment strategy to increase the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of cellulose and reduce the inhibitors generation was developed to convert PH into isoprene. The optimal pretreatment conditions were 100 °C, 60 min, 10% (w/v) solid loading with a 2:8 volume ratio of phosphoric acid and of hydrogen peroxide. In comparison with the raw PH, the hemicellulose and lignin were reduced to 85.0 and 98.0%, respectively. The cellulose-glucose conversion of pretreated PH reached up to 95.0% in contrast to that of the raw PH (19.1%). Only three kinds of inhibitors including formic acid, levulinic acid, and a little furfural were formed during the pretreatment process, whose concentrations were too low to inhibit the isoprene yield for Escherichia coli fermentation. Moreover, compared with the isoprene yield of pure glucose fermentation (298 ± 9 mg/L), 249 ± 6.7 and 294 ± 8.3 mg/L of isoprene were produced using the pretreated PH as the carbon source by the engineered strain via separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) methods, respectively. The isoprene production via SSF had a 9.8% glucose-isoprene conversion which was equivalent to 98.8% of isoprene production via the pure glucose fermentation. The optimized phosphoric acid

  5. Prevalence of peanut allergy in children of peanut farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    High levels of environmental exposure to peanut during infancy appear to promote sensitization by the epicutaneous route. Children of peanut farmers are likely exposed to relatively high levels of peanut protein in their environment, increasing their risk of cutaneous sensitization. The purpose of...

  6. Effect of Antioxidant Mixtures on Growth and Ochratoxin A Production of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species under Different Water Activity Conditions on Peanut Meal Extract Agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Barberis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixtures of antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA and propyl paraben (PP on lag phase, growth rate and ochratoxin A (OTA production by four Aspergillus section Nigri strains was evaluated on peanut meal extract agar (PMEA under different water activities (aw. The antioxidant mixtures used were: BHA + PP (mM, M1 (0.5 + 0.5, M2 (1.0 + 0.5, M3 (2.5 + 0.5, M4 (0.5 + 1.0, M5 (1.0 + 1.0, M6 (2.5 + 1.0, M7 (5.0 + 2.5 and M8 (10 + 2.5. The mixture M8 completely suppressed mycelial growth for all strains. A significant stimulation in OTA production was observed with mixtures M1 to M5 mainly at the highest aw; whereas M6, M7 and M8 completely inhibited OTA production in all strains assayed; except M6 in A. carbonarius strain (RCP G. These results could enable a future intervention strategy to minimize OTA contamination.

  7. Structural biology of peanut allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts are a cause of one of the most common food allergies. Allergy to peanuts not only affects a significant fraction of the population, but it is relatively often associated with strong reactions in sensitized individuals. Peanut and tree nut allergies, which start in childhood, are often persi...

  8. Ecophysiological responses of peanut ( Arachis hypogea ) to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate, in an experimental station, the quantitative impact of shading on the productivity of peanuts, by intercropping with three varieties of maize. Sufficient water and fertilizers were provided and several levels of shading were induced. During the 2003 growing season, shading was induced ...

  9. CONSUMPTION OF REDUCED-FAT PEANUT BUTTER IN ADDITION TO THE CONSUMPTION OF REGULAR PEANUT BUTTER

    OpenAIRE

    He, Senhui; Fletcher, Stanley M.; Rimal, Arbindra

    2004-01-01

    A set of factors has been identified to affect consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter in addition to regular peanut butter. We found that consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter, which is an imperfect substitute for regular peanut butter, may expand total demand for peanut butter. Interestingly, for those who usually buy the same brand of peanut butter, their consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter is more likely in addition to consumption of regular peanut butter, implying promotion of a...

  10. Nitrogen credits after peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperative Extension throughout the Southeast currently recommends 22-67 kg N/ha credit to subsequent crops following peanut. However, these values are not supported in the peer-reviewed literature. Most of the peer-reviewed literature has shown that N credits to subsequent crops are negligible. Da...

  11. Value Added Processing of Peanut Meal: Enzymatic Hydrolysis to Improve Functional and Nutritional Properties of Water Soluble Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Value added applications are needed for peanut meal, which is the high protein byproduct of commercial peanut oil production. Peanut meal dispersions were hydrolyzed with alcalase, flavourzyme and pepsin in an effort to improve functional and nutritional properties of the resulting water soluble ex...

  12. A recirculating hydroponic system for studying peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants were grown hydroponically, using continuously recirculating nutrient solution. Two culture tray designs were tested; one tray design used only nutrient solution, while the other used a sphagnum-filled pod development compartment just beneath the cover and above the nutrient solution. Both trays were fitted with slotted covers to allow developing gynophores to reach the root zone. Peanut seed yields averaged 350 gm-2 dry mass, regardless of tray design, suggesting that substrate is not required for hydroponic peanut production.

  13. Detection and Antigenic Profiling of Undeclared Peanut in Imported Garlic Using an xMAP Multiplex Immunoassay for Food Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ronnie O; Peters, Tim; Panda, Rakhi; Wehling, Paul; Garber, Eric A E

    2017-07-01

    A shipment of imported garlic powder was suspected of containing peanut. Samples (subs) collected from the shipment displayed considerable variability in peanut antigenicity when analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This raised questions regarding whether peanut was actually present, the amount present, and the basis for the variability in antigenic content. Analyses that used an xMAP multiplex assay for the detection of peanut and additional food allergens generated responses that were characteristic of peanut. Specifically, the relative intensities of two different peanut-specific antibodies coupled to beads (peanut-37 and -38) and the antigen profiles were identical to garlic controls spiked with peanut. In addition, the xMAP data did not indicate the presence of other allergens. Quantitative analyses indicated an approximately fivefold variation in peanut concentration among different subs. In contrast, within a sub, the apparent peanut concentration appeared constant. Particle size analyses of the garlic powder subs indicated a single distribution profile, with a peak at 380 μm. ELISA analysis of sieve-fractionated garlic powder from one of the subs indicated that slightly less than half of the detectable peanut was smaller than 212 μm, with the remainder almost evenly split between 212 and 300 μm and >300 μm. Modeling to predict possible oral exposure levels of peanut other than those directly measured requires additional research on the physicochemical properties of peanut and garlic, along with information on the production of the garlic powder.

  14. Production of a bioflocculant from Pseudomonas veronii L918 using the hydrolyzate of peanut hull and its application in the treatment of ash-flushing wastewater generated from coal fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijie; Hao, Yan; Jiang, Jihong; Zhu, Aihua; Zhu, Jingrong; Dong, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    In this study, bioflocculant produced by Pseudomonas veronii L918 was applied to treat ash-flushing wastewater. The strain L918 could convert the hydrolyzate of peanut hull into bioflocculant, which can effectively reduce the production cost of bioflocculant. The yield of 3.39g/L bioflocculant MBF-L918 was achieved when 300mL/L peanut hull hydrolyzate was used as carbon source. The bioflocculant MBF-L918 contains 77.14% polysaccharides and 4.84% proteins, and the molecular weight (MW) of MBF-L918 is 24.77kDa. Furthermore, MBF-L918 showed good flocculating efficiency of 92.51% to ash-flushing wastewater when 2.83mg/L MBF-L918 was added, and thus achieved the recycling of ash-flushing wastewater. This study reported for the first time that the bioflocculant was produced using peanut hull hydrolyzate and effectively applied in the treatment of coal ash-flushing wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extended boiling of peanut progressively reduces IgE allergenicity while retaining T cell reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, B; Bernardo, K; Eldi, P; Chegeni, N; Wiese, M; Colella, A; Kral, A; Hayball, J; Smith, W; Forsyth, K; Chataway, T

    2016-07-01

    Current peanut oral immunotherapy is hampered by frequent adverse events. It has been shown that boiling can reduce peanut allergenicity. Hypoallergenic peanut products have the potential to reduce treatment-related reactions during desensitization. To show that extended boiling (for up to 12 h) can progressively reduce peanut allergenicity while retaining T cell reactivity. Raw peanuts were boiled for half, 1, 2, 4 and 12 h in deionized water. After dehydration, boiled and raw peanuts were ground, defatted and soluble proteins extracted in PBS and cooking water (leachate) retained. SDS-PAGE, Western blot, inhibition ELISA, mass spectrometry and skin prick test were used to characterize changes to peanut allergens and human IgE reactivity. T cell responses to raw and boiled peanut extracts were determined by proliferation of CD4+/CD25+/CD134+ T cells in peanut-allergic and non-allergic individuals. Extended boiling progressively reduced peanut allergenicity through a combination of leaching of allergens into cooking water, fragmentation of allergens and denaturation of conformational epitopes. Two-hour boiling led to an eightfold reduction in IgE binding capacity of boiled peanuts as determined by inhibition ELISA, while 12-h boiling led to a 19-fold reduction. Mass spectrometry revealed an increasing number of unique allergen peptides with longer boiling times. Raw, 2- and 12-h boiled peanut extracts were equivalent in their ability to stimulate T cell activation and proliferation. Progressive reduction in peanut allergenicity with extended boiling does not affect T cell reactivity. Boiled peanuts may be a candidate for oral immunotherapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the rapid detection of allergic peanut in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Shyang-Chwen; Tsou, Po-Chuan; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou

    2018-08-15

    Peanut is a widely and common used in many cuisines around the world. However, peanut is also one of the most important food allergen for causing anaphylactic reaction. To prevent allergic reaction, the best way is to avoid the food allergen or food containing allergic ingredient such as peanut before food consuming. Thus, to efficient and precisely detect the allergic ingredient, peanut or related product, is essential and required for maintain consumer's health or their interest. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of allergic peanut using specifically designed primer sets. Two sets of the specific LAMP primers respectively targeted the internal transcribed sequence 1 (ITS1) of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence regions and the ara h1 gene sequence of Arachia hypogeae (peanut) were used to address the application of LAMP for detecting peanut in processed food or diet. The results demonstrated that the identification of peanut using the newly designed primers for ITS 1 sequence is more sensitive rather than primers for sequence of Ara h1 gene when performing LAMP assay. Besides, the sensitivity of LAMP for detecting peanut is also higher than the traditional PCR method. These LAMP primers sets showed high specificity for the identification of the peanut and had no cross-reaction to other species of nut including walnut, hazelnut, almonds, cashew and macadamia nut. Moreover, when minimal 0.1% peanuts were mixed with other nuts ingredients at different ratios, no any cross-reactivity was evident during performing LAMP. Finally, genomic DNAs extracted from boiled and steamed peanut were used as templates; the detection of peanut by LAMP was not affected and reproducible. As to this established LAMP herein, not only can peanut ingredients be detected but commercial foods containing peanut can also be identified. This assay will be useful and potential for the rapid detection of peanut in practical food

  17. PeanutBase and other bioinformatic resources for peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large-scale genomic data for peanut have only become available in the last few years, with the advent of low-cost sequencing technologies. To make the data accessible to researchers and to integrate across diverse types of data, the International Peanut Genomics Consortium funded the development of ...

  18. Produtividade de sistemas forrageiros consorciados com amendoim forrageiro ou trevo vermelho Productivity of pastures-based systems mixed to forage peanut or red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lima de Azevedo Junior

    2012-11-01

    each one of them. Ryegrass was sowed between rows of EG during the cool-season; red clover was sowed and the forage peanut was preserved on respectively treatments. Holstein cows receiving 5.5kg daily-1 complementary concentrate feed were used. The dry matter daily accumulation rate (DMA,disappearance of forage mass (DFM,dry matter disappeared based on 100kg of live weight (DMD,total dry matter production (TDM, botanical composition and structural component of EG were evaluated. The experimental design used was completely randomized with tree treatments (SF and two replicates (paddocks in incomplete split-plot time (grazing cycles. Nine grazing cycle were performed during the experimental period (341 days. The average values of DMA, DFM, DMD and TDM were 53.16kg ha-1, 36.13%, 2.77kg of dry matter per100kg of liveweight and 17.80t ha-1, respectively. SGS parameter increased significantly over in the PS1. Considering the stocking rate the PS3 showed a better performance.

  19. Application of Serratia marcescens RZ-21 significantly enhances peanut yield and remediates continuously cropped peanut soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hai-Yan; Yang, Bo; Wang, Hong-Wei; Yang, Qi-Yin; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-15

    Continuous cropping practices cause a severe decline in peanut yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the remediation effect of Serratia marcescens on continuously cropped peanut soil. A pot experiment was conducted under natural conditions to determine peanut agronomic indices, soil microorganism characteristics, soil enzyme activities and antagonism ability to typical pathogens at different growth stages. Four treatments were applied to red soil as follows: an active fermentation liquor of S. marcescens (RZ-21), an equivalent sterilized fermentation liquor (M), an equivalent fermentation medium (P) and distilled water (CK). S. marcescens significantly inhibited the two typical plant pathogens Fusarium oxysporum A1 and Ralstonia solanacearum B1 and reduced their populations in rhizosphere soil. The RZ-21 treatment significantly increased peanut yield, vine dry weight, root nodules and taproot length by 62.3, 33, 72 and 61.4% respectively, followed by the M treatment. The P treatment also increased root nodules and root length slightly. RZ-21 also enhanced the activities of soil urease, sucrase and hydrogen peroxidase at various stages. In addition, RZ-21 and M treatments increased the average population of soil bacteria and decreased the average population of fungi in the three critical peanut growth stages, except for M in the case of the fungal population at flowering, thus balancing the structure of the soil microorganism community. This is the first report of S. marcescens being applied to continuously cropped peanut soil. The results suggest that S. marcescens RZ-21 has the potential to improve the soil environment and agricultural products and thus allow the development of sustainable management practices. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Recent applications of peanut phytoalexins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Kevin W; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2010-11-01

    The search for natural alternatives to synthetic antioxidants and antimicrobials is growing tremendously as consumers become concerned with currently used compounds. Peanut phytoalexins may become a viable source of these compounds. Recent developments have shown compounds derived from peanuts possess both high antioxidant activity and antimicrobial capabilities. Some of these compounds have been identified as stilbenes and other low molecular weight phenolic compounds. Patents have been awarded for increasing the amounts of these compounds in peanut plants and in the peanut seeds. Increasing phytoalexins in peanut seeds may provide a method to increase dietary consumption of these compounds. In addition to their use as antioxidants and antimicrobials, peanut phytoalexins may possess beneficial health effects. Studies have shown these compounds to have anti-diabetic, anticancer, and vasodilatory effects. Many of the recent patents concerning peanut phytoalexins focus on this area with patents being submitted for synergistic effects with chemotherapy drugs and treatment of diabetes and hepatitis B. Peanut phytoalexins may not only be able to replace synthetic food ingredients, but may also treat diseases that currently plague the human population.

  1. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  2. PRICE RISK MANAGEMENT FOR PEANUT MEAL

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ecio de Farias; Turner, Steven C.

    2001-01-01

    Peanut meal is cross-hedged with soybean meal using peanut meal cash prices and soybean meal futures prices. Hedge rations are obtained for short- vs. long-term data sets. Evaluation indicates positive gains for cross-hedged poultry/peanut producers, and that soybean meal futures can be used as a cross-hedging vehicle for peanut meal.

  3. Características morfológicas, estruturais e produtividade do capim-braquiária e do amendoim forrageiro submetidos ao sombreamento Morphological and structural characteristics and productivity of Brachiaria grass and forage peanut submitted to shading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Fernanda Gobbi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As características morfológicas, estruturais e a produção de matéria seca (PMS do capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, cv. Basilisk e do amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, cv. Amarillo foram avaliadas em resposta a três níveis de sombreamento artificial (0, 50 e 70%. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram realizados três e dois cortes, respectivamente, para avaliação do capim-braquiária e do amendoim forrageiro. O amendoim forrageiro apresentou redução significativa na produção de matéria seca com o sombreamento apenas no segundo corte. A produção de matéria seca no capim-braquiária diminuiu linearmente nos dois primeiros cortes. O sombreamento crescente estimulou o aumento da altura média do dossel e do comprimento de pecíolos, colmos e lâminas foliares em todos os cortes das espécies avaliadas. O sombreamento promoveu diminuição linear da densidade populacional de perfilhos no dossel de braquiária em todos os cortes. O peso médio dos perfilhos, no entanto, só foi afetado no terceiro corte, quando aumentou de forma linear de acordo com os níveis de sombreamento. A relação folha:caule da gramínea e da leguminosa não foi afetada pelo sombreamento. A área foliar específica, a área foliar por folíolo e a área foliar por perfilho aumentaram significativamente com o aumento dos níveis de sombreamento. O índice de área foliar (IAF reduziu de forma linear no segundo corte com o sombreamento do amendoim forrageiro e do capim-braquiária. O amendoim forrageiro e o capim-braquiária são forrageiras com bom potencial para avaliação e uso em sistemas silvipastoris com transmissão luminosa em torno de 50% da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa.The morphological and structural characteristics and dry matter production of signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens, cv. Basilisk and forage peanut (Arachis pintoi, cv. Amarillo were evaluated in response to different shading

  4. Microsatellites as DNA markers in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Guoqing

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic research of cultivated peanut has lagged behind other crop species because of the paucity of polymorphic DNA markers found in this crop. It is necessary to identify additional DNA markers for further genetic research in peanut. Results Microsatellite markers in cultivated peanut were developed using the SSR enrichment procedure. The results showed that the GA/CT repeat was the most frequently dispersed microsatellite in peanut. The primer pairs were designed for fifty-six different microsatellites, 19 of which showed a polymorphism among the genotypes studied. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.25, and up to 14 alleles were found at one locus. This suggests that microsatellite DNA markers produce a higher level of DNA polymorphism than other DNA markers in cultivated peanut. Conclusions It is desirable to isolate and characterize more DNA markers in cultivated peanut for more productive genomic studies, such as genetic mapping, marker-assisted selection, and gene discovery. The development of microsatellite markers holds a promise for such studies.

  5. Assessment of the sensitizing potential of processed peanut proteins in Brown Norway rats: roasting does not enhance allergenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Kroghsbo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. METHODS: Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-, heated (H- or heat glycated (G-Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL cell assay. RESULTS: In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. CONCLUSIONS: Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose.

  6. Detoxification and safety evaluation of aflatoxin B1 in peanut oil using alkali refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ning; Diao, Enjie; Li, Xiangyang; Zhang, Zheng; Dong, Haizhou

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) is often detected in peanut oil, which comes from contaminated peanuts. AFB1 in peanut oil seriously threatens the health of consumers. However, there are few methods to effectively remove AFB1 in peanut oil. This study aimed to use an alkali-refining method to degrade AFB1 in peanut oil efficiently without increasing the equipment of oil and fat refining. The optimum detoxifying conditions of AFB1 in peanut oil with alkali refining were established using response surface methodology (RSM), and the safety of peanut oil after being refined with alkali was evaluated based on the Ames tests and HepG2 cell viability. The results showed that AFB1 in peanut oil was decreased from 34.78 to 0.37 µg kg(-1) (98.94% reduction) under the optimum detoxifying conditions, i.e. when the initial temperature of alkali refining was 43.51 °C, the amount of excess alkali was 0.30%, the content of alkali solution was 23.42% and the end temperature of alkali refining was 77.07 °C. The acid value and color of peanut oil refined by alkali were improved significantly, while the peroxide value was increased within an acceptable level. The safety of peanut oil contaminated by AFB1 was improved significantly after being refined with alkali. These results indicate that alkali refining is an effective method for removing AFB1 in peanut oil. The optimum detoxifying conditions of AFB1 in peanut oil with alkali refining could be used to guide the production of oil companies for ensuring food safety. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Removal of heavy metal contamination from peanut skin extracts by waste biomass adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenols are a rapidly increasing portion of the nutraceutical and functional food marketplace. Peanut skins are a waste product which have potential as a low-cost source of polyphenols. Extraction and concentration of peanut skin extracts can cause normally innocuous levels of the heavy metal co...

  8. Testing of gastric contents for peanut proteins in a 13-year old anaphylaxis victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Charles; Stauble, M Elaine; Jortani, Saeed A

    2014-02-15

    We report the case of a 13-y female who went into anaphylactic shock following the ingestion of a meal suspected to be contaminated by peanuts. The teenager had a known sensitivity to peanuts, however, the restaurant claimed that no peanut products were used in the preparation of her meal. The gastric contents of the decedent were retained and tested for peanut proteins due to the possible legal liability of the proprietor. Using antibodies against peanut proteins (roasted and unroasted), we optimized a method to detect total soluble peanut proteins by Western-blot analysis in gastric contents. In addition, we validated two commercially available tests which were originally intended for detection of peanut proteins in food matrices to examine the same gastric sample. One was an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that utilized polyclonal antibodies against Ara h 1 (Tepnel Life Sciences). The other was a laminar-flow assay directed against Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 (R-Biopharm). A positive food-based control was created by reducing bread and peanuts (1:1, w/w) with water (1:1, w/v) using a mortar and pestle. A food-based negative food control was created similar to the positive control, except the peanuts were omitted and the amount of bread was doubled. The Western-blot assay was sensitive down to 2.5ng/ml of total peanut protein. The laminar flow was the most rapid and least complex. The ELISA was the most analytically sensitive with a cut-off of 1ng/ml of Ara h 1 protein compared to the laminar flow which had a cut-off of 4ng/ml Ara h 1 equivalent. Both ELISA and laminar flow assays were able to detect peanut proteins in the food matrices and positive controls, and not in negative controls. No peanut related proteins were detected in the decedent's gastric sample. The gastric sample spiked with peanuts was reliably detectable. The anaphylaxis patient had no peanut allergens detected in her gastric contents by any of the three methods employed. Both

  9. Analysis of Peanut Leaf Proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, R.; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Pechan, T.

    2010-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most important sources of plant protein. Current selection of genotypes requires molecular characterization of available populations. Peanut genome database has several EST cDNAs which can be used to analyze gene expression. Analysis of proteins is a direct...... approach to define function of their associated genes. Proteome analysis linked to genome sequence information is critical for functional genomics. However, the available protein expression data is extremely inadequate. Proteome analysis of peanut leaf was conducted using two-dimensional gel...... electrophoresis in combination with sequence identification using MALDI/TOF to determine their identity and function related to growth, development and responses to stresses. Peanut leaf proteins were resolved into 300 polypeptides with pI values between 3.5 and 8.0 and relative molecular masses from 12 to 100 k...

  10. Airway exposure initiates peanut allergy by involving the IL-1 pathway and T follicular helper cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolence, Joseph J; Kobayashi, Takao; Iijima, Koji; Krempski, James; Drake, Li Y; Dent, Alexander L; Kita, Hirohito

    2017-12-14

    Little is currently known regarding the immunologic mechanism(s) that initiate peanut allergy. Notably, peanut proteins have been detected in house dust, and their levels correlate with peanut allergy prevalence. This study aimed to develop a new mouse model for peanut allergy and to investigate the immunologic mechanisms involved in peanut allergen sensitization. To mimic environmental exposure, naive mice were exposed to peanut flour by inhalation for up to 4 weeks. We then analyzed serum levels of IgE antibody and challenged mice with peanut proteins. Immunological mechanisms involved in sensitization were analyzed using cytokine reporter mice, an adoptive cell transfer model, and gene knockout mice. When exposed to peanut flour by inhalation, both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice developed peanut allergy, as demonstrated by the presence of peanut-specific IgE antibodies and manifestation of acute anaphylaxis on challenge. A large number of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells were also detected in draining lymph nodes of allergic mice. These cells produced IL-4 and IL-21, and they more robustly promoted peanut-specific IgE production than T h 2 cells did. Genetic depletion of Tfh cells decreased IgE antibody levels and protected mice from anaphylaxis, without affecting T h 2 cells. Furthermore, peanut flour exposure increased lung levels of IL-1α and IL-1β, and mice deficient in the receptor for these cytokines showed a significant decrease in Tfh cells compared with in wild-type mice. Tfh cells play a key role in peanut allergy, and the IL-1 pathway is involved in the Tfh response to peanut allergen exposure. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation and Analysis of Peanut Flour Used in Oral Immunotherapy Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Jelena P; Szczepanski, Nicole; Penumarti, Anusha; Beavers, Ayeshia; Kesselring, Janelle; Orgel, Kelly; Burnett, Bruce; Burks, A Wesley; Kulis, Michael

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an investigational therapeutic approach for the treatment of food allergies. Characterization of the drug product used in oral immunotherapy trials for peanut allergy has not been reported. To quantify relative amounts of the major peanut allergens and microbial load present in peanut flour used in OIT trials and assess whether these parameters change over a 12-month period. We also anticipate that this report will serve as a guide for investigators seeking to conduct OIT trials under Food and Drug Administration-approved Investigational New Drug applications. Densitometric scanning of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 resolved on SDS-PAGE gels was used to assess allergen content in peanut flour extracts. Microbial testing was conducted on peanut flour under US Pharmacopeia guidelines for the presence of Escherichia coli, salmonella, yeast, mold, and total aerobic bacteria. In addition, aflatoxin was quantified in peanut flour. Reported results were obtained from 4 unique lots of peanut flour. Relative amounts of the major peanut allergens were similar between different lots of peanut flour and remained stable over a 12-month period. E coli and salmonella were absent from all lots of flour. Yeast, mold, total aerobic bacteria, and aflatoxin were within established US Pharmacopeia guidelines on all lots tested and remained within the criteria over a 12-month period. Peanut flour used as a drug product contains the major peanut allergens and has low levels of potentially harmful microbes. Both these parameters remain stable over a 12-month period. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid reverse the inhibitory effect of insulin production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α both in vitro and in vivo systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, Evros K; Gonzalez, Andres; Garcia, Carlos; Tadros, James H; Chakraborty, Goutam; Toney, Jeffrey H

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is a key player in pathogenesis. The inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a well known inflammatory protein, and has been a therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Crohn's Disease. Obesity is a well known risk factor for developing non-insulin dependent diabetes melitus. Adipose tissue has been shown to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which has the ability to reduce insulin secretion and induce insulin resistance. Based on these observations, we sought to investigate the impact of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid in the presence of TNF-α in terms of insulin production, the molecular mechanisms involved and the in vivo effect of a diet high in oleic acid on a mouse model of type II diabetes, KKAy. Methods The rat pancreatic beta cell line INS-1 was used as a cell biological model since it exhibits glucose dependent insulin secretion. Insulin production assessment was carried out using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and cAMP quantification with competitive ELISA. Viability of TNF-α and oleic acid treated cells was evaluated using flow cytometry. PPAR-γ translocation was assessed using a PPRE based ELISA system. In vivo studies were carried out on adult male KKAy mice and glucose levels were measured with a glucometer. Results Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid were able to enhance insulin production in INS-1. TNF-α inhibited insulin production but pre-treatment with oleic acid reversed this inhibitory effect. The viability status of INS-1 cells treated with TNF-α and oleic acid was not affected. Translocation of the peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor transcription factor to the nucleus was elevated in oleic acid treated cells. Finally, type II diabetic mice that were administered a high oleic acid diet derived from peanut oil, had decreased glucose levels compared to animals administered a high fat diet with no oleic acid. Conclusion

  13. Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid reverse the inhibitory effect of insulin production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha both in vitro and in vivo systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, Evros K; Gonzalez, Andres; Garcia, Carlos; Tadros, James H; Chakraborty, Goutam; Toney, Jeffrey H

    2009-06-26

    Chronic inflammation is a key player in pathogenesis. The inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a well known inflammatory protein, and has been a therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Crohn's Disease. Obesity is a well known risk factor for developing non-insulin dependent diabetes melitus. Adipose tissue has been shown to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which has the ability to reduce insulin secretion and induce insulin resistance. Based on these observations, we sought to investigate the impact of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid in the presence of TNF-alpha in terms of insulin production, the molecular mechanisms involved and the in vivo effect of a diet high in oleic acid on a mouse model of type II diabetes, KKAy. The rat pancreatic beta cell line INS-1 was used as a cell biological model since it exhibits glucose dependent insulin secretion. Insulin production assessment was carried out using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and cAMP quantification with competitive ELISA. Viability of TNF-alpha and oleic acid treated cells was evaluated using flow cytometry. PPAR-gamma translocation was assessed using a PPRE based ELISA system. In vivo studies were carried out on adult male KKAy mice and glucose levels were measured with a glucometer. Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid were able to enhance insulin production in INS-1. TNF-alpha inhibited insulin production but pre-treatment with oleic acid reversed this inhibitory effect. The viability status of INS-1 cells treated with TNF-alpha and oleic acid was not affected. Translocation of the peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor transcription factor to the nucleus was elevated in oleic acid treated cells. Finally, type II diabetic mice that were administered a high oleic acid diet derived from peanut oil, had decreased glucose levels compared to animals administered a high fat diet with no oleic acid. Oleic acid was found to

  14. Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae in the peanut supply chain: From farm to table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, M S; Carminati, J A; Silva, I C R N; Silva, D L; Bernardi, A O; Copetti, M V

    2018-03-01

    Due to recent foodborne outbreaks, peanuts have been considered a potential risk for Salmonella transmission. For this reason, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and contamination load of Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae throughout the peanut supply chain in Brazil. Samples of peanuts and peanut-containing processed products from post-harvest (n=129), secondary processing (n=185) and retail market (n=100) were analyzed. The results showed high Enterobacteriaceae counts in the post-harvest samples. At the end of the secondary processing, 16% of the samples remained contaminated by this group of microorganisms. Six peanut samples from primary production and one sample of peanut butter were tested positive for E. coli while Salmonella was detected in nine samples (2.2%): six from post-harvest, two from the initial stage of the secondary processing and one from retail. The Salmonella counts ranged between 0.004 and 0.092MPN/g and five serotypes were identified (Muenster, Miami, Javiana, Oranienburg, Glostrup). The results demonstrated a high prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and low prevalence of E. coli throughout the peanut supply chain. Furthermore, it was verified that peanuts may become contaminated by Salmonella during different stages of the supply chain, especially at post-harvest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum as a potent elicitor in production of t-resveratrol and t-piceatannol in peanut calluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Hua; Lin, Yi-Ju; Kuo, Chang-Hsin; Ku, Kuo-Lung

    2010-09-08

    Phytoalexins t-resveratrol and t-piceatannol, the well-known health-promoting active components in plants, are secondary metabolites generated upon biotic or abiotic stresses. We have reported UV-irradiated peanut callus is a potent means to produce these compounds (J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005, 53, 3877). In this work, the effects of fungi and chemical elicitors on induction of t-resveratrol and t-piceatannol were examined. Results showed the investigated fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Reishi Ganoderma lucidum were generally more effective than chemical stress methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and sucrose. As high as 15.46+/-9.85 microg of t-resveratrol and 6.93+/-2.03 microg of t-piceatannol could be elicited in each gram of callus by sterilized G. lucidum mycelium (80 mg). Although much more sterilized G. ludicum mycelia was required to induce similar level of t-resveratrol and t-piceatannol in comparison to the sterilized B. theobromae mycelia (1 mg), uptake of the G. ludicum mycelium may provide a variety of health-promoting effects. Our findings suggest G. ludicum mycelium-treated peanut callus is a good source of bioactive components.

  16. Physicochemical effects of gamma radiation in peanuts and the utilization of their peanut skins as natural antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de

    2012-01-01

    Peanuts are among the most popular oilseed in the world, their lipid content is about 50%, on average. Their fatty acid composition is characterized by high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids. Peanuts are a source of dietary tocopherol and polyphenols, antioxidants that play benefits to human health. However, the presence of potential mycotoxic fungi is a concern of this oilseed production chain. Gamma radiation, in addition to good agricultural practices, has been identified as an effective treatment for disinfecting peanuts of fungi and has been identified as a potential tool for reducing their allergenicity. However, the physicochemical quality of the peanuts deserves attention due to its high lipid percentage. The irradiation process can promote the formation of free radicals, increase lipid oxidation and induce molecular changes that may reflect changes in the antioxidant properties. In the present study samples of peanut from IAC Runner 886 cultivar, peeled, in shell and blanched as well as their peanut skins were subjected to gamma radiation in doses of 0.0, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 kGy with dose rate of 7.5 kGy.h -1 using a cobalt-60 source. The samples were stored for six months at room temperature and analysis were performed at the beginning of the study and after each three month storage on peanuts and just at the beginning of the study on peanut skins. Few changes noticed in the physical parameters of color seem to be more related to storage than the irradiation process Chemical parameters related to the antioxidant properties showed moderate change due to the irradiation process, while storage was determinant on the reduction of bioactive compounds as well as the antioxidant activity in the samples. No correlation was found between gamma radiation and fatty acid changes of peanuts. Tocopherol content and the induction period of the crude peanut oil were negatively correlated with gamma radiation doses. Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching

  17. Irradiation controlpathogens in mixture of blanched peanut and celery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shurong; Gao Meixu; Li Chunhong

    2007-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on microbiological, nutrient and sensory qualities of blanched peanut and celery mixture stored at commercial condition and D 10 values of pathogens of Listeria innocua and Salmonella enteritidis were investigated. Results showed that D 10 values of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria innocua inoculated mixture of blanched celery and peanut were 0.284 and 0.296 kGy, respectively. Irradiation at dose lower than 2.0kGy have no significant effects on sensory qualities, content of crude protein and amino acid (p>0.05), and decrease 2-3 log of microbial in the mixture blanched peanut and celery and above 6 log of pathogens of Listeria innocua and Salmonella enteritidis inoculated. 2.0 kGy might be the optimum dose to ensure the hygienic quality of products. (authors)

  18. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry.

  19. Atopic dermatitis increases the effect of exposure to peanut antigen in dust on peanut sensitization and likely peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, Helen A; Liu, Andrew H; Sicherer, Scott; Makinson, Kerry; Douiri, Abdel; Brown, Sara J; Stephens, Alick C; Irwin McLean, W H; Turcanu, Victor; Wood, Robert A; Jones, Stacie M; Burks, Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Stablein, Donald; Sampson, Hugh; Lack, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    History and severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) are risk factors for peanut allergy. Recent evidence suggests that children can become sensitized to food allergens through an impaired skin barrier. Household peanut consumption, which correlates strongly with peanut protein levels in household dust, is a risk factor for peanut allergy. We sought to assess whether environmental peanut exposure (EPE) is a risk for peanut sensitization and allergy and whether markers of an impaired skin barrier modify this risk. Peanut protein in household dust (in micrograms per gram) was assessed in highly atopic children (age, 3-15 months) recruited to the Consortium of Food Allergy Research Observational Study. History and severity of AD, peanut sensitization, and likely allergy (peanut-specific IgE, ≥5 kUA/mL) were assessed at recruitment into the Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. There was an exposure-response relationship between peanut protein levels in household dust and peanut skin prick test (SPT) sensitization and likely allergy. In the final multivariate model an increase in 4 log2 EPE units increased the odds of peanut SPT sensitization (1.71-fold; 95% CI, 1.13- to 2.59-fold; P = .01) and likely peanut allergy (PA; 2.10-fold; 95% CI, 1.20- to 3.67-fold; P history of AD (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.26-3.09; P history of severe AD (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.30-4.47; P history of AD (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.31-4.18; P < .01). Exposure to peanut antigen in dust through an impaired skin barrier in atopically inflamed skin is a plausible route for peanut SPT sensitization and PA. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Breeding versus bioengineering of hypoallergenic peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major allergen proteins in the peanut seed are storage proteins Ara h1, Ara h2, and Ara h3. While these proteins serve a vital function of nutrient reservoir activity in the peanut seed, it may be possible to eliminate some or to alter others to mitigate peanut allergic responses, but with little c...

  1. Carbon-Temperature-Water Change Analysis for Peanut Production Under Climate Change: A Prototype for the AgMIP Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex C.; McDermid, Sonali; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Baigorria, Guillermo A.; Jones, James W.; Romero, Consuelo C.; Cecil, L. DeWayne

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is projected to push the limits of cropping systems and has the potential to disrupt the agricultural sector from local to global scales. This article introduces the Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP), an initiative of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) to engage a global network of crop modelers to explore the impacts of climate change via an investigation of crop responses to changes in carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), temperature, and water. As a demonstration of the C3MP protocols and enabled analyses, we apply the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) CROPGRO-Peanut crop model for Henry County, Alabama, to evaluate responses to the range of plausible [CO2], temperature changes, and precipitation changes projected by climate models out to the end of the 21st century. These sensitivity tests are used to derive crop model emulators that estimate changes in mean yield and the coefficient of variation for seasonal yields across a broad range of climate conditions, reproducing mean yields from sensitivity test simulations with deviations of ca. 2% for rain-fed conditions. We apply these statistical emulators to investigate how peanuts respond to projections from various global climate models, time periods, and emissions scenarios, finding a robust projection of modest (20%) losses and larger uncertainty at the end of the century under the more severe representative concentration pathway (RCP8.5). This projection is not substantially altered by the selection of the AgMERRA global gridded climate dataset rather than the local historical observations, differences between the Third and Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5), or the use of the delta method of climate impacts analysis rather than the C3MP impacts response surface and emulator approach.

  2. Utilization of Peanut Skin Extracts as Functional Food Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut skins are a by-product of the blanching industry that have not been utilized to their full potential. They have been found to contain significant quantities of compounds containing phenolic moieties such as catechins, procyanidins, and other polyphenols that have positive associations with h...

  3. Occurrence of mycotoxins and associated mycoflora in peanut cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteria isolated from peanut cake product were Eschericha coli, Klebsiella spp. and Clostridium spp. The fungal isolates include Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp. being the dominant microflora in decreasing frequency of occurrence. High concentrations of ...

  4. Investigation of peanut oral immunotherapy with CpG/peanut nanoparticles in a murine model of peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Kamal D; Siefert, Alyssa; Fahmy, Tarek M; Caplan, Michael J; Li, Xiu-Min; Sampson, Hugh A

    2016-08-01

    Treatments to reverse peanut allergy remain elusive. Current clinical approaches using peanut oral/sublingual immunotherapy are promising, but concerns about safety and long-term benefit remain a barrier to wide use. Improved methods of delivering peanut-specific immunotherapy are needed. We sought to investigate the efficacy and safety of peanut oral immunotherapy using CpG-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles containing peanut extract (CpG/PN-NPs) in a murine model of peanut allergy. C3H/HeJ mice were rendered peanut allergic by means of oral sensitization with peanut and cholera toxin. Mice were then subjected to 4 weekly gavages with CpG/PN-NPs, vehicle (PBS), nanoparticles alone, peanut alone, CpG nanoparticles, or peanut nanoparticles. Untreated mice served as naive controls. After completing therapy, mice underwent 5 monthly oral peanut challenges. Anaphylaxis was evaluated by means of visual assessment of symptom scores and measurement of body temperature and plasma histamine levels. Peanut-specific serum IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a levels were measured by using ELISA, as were cytokine recall responses in splenocyte cultures. Mice with peanut allergy treated with CpG/PN-NPs but not vehicle or other treatment components were significantly protected from anaphylaxis to all 5 oral peanut challenges, as indicated by lower symptom scores, less change in body temperature, and a lower increase of plasma histamine levels. Importantly, CpG/PN-NP treatment did not cause anaphylactic reactions. Treatment was associated with a sustained and significant decrease in peanut-specific IgE/IgG1 levels and an increase in peanut-specific IgG2a levels. Compared with vehicle control animals, peanut recall responses in splenocyte cultures from nanoparticle-treated mice showed significantly decreased levels of TH2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) but increased IFN-γ levels in cell supernatants. Preclinical findings indicate that peanut oral immunotherapy with Cp

  5. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock peanuts. Farmers stock peanuts means picked or threshed peanuts produced in the United States which have not been...

  6. Peanut allergen Ara h 3: Isolation from peanuts and biochemical characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Knol, E.F.; Vlooswijk, R.A.A.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Gruppen, H.; Piersma, S.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Peanut allergen Ara h 3 has been the subject of investigation for the last few years. The reported data strongly depend on recombinant Ara h 3, since a purification protocol for Ara h 3 from peanuts was not available. Methods: Peanut allergen Ara h 3 (glycinin), was purified and its

  7. TOLERANCE OF PEANUT GENOTYPES TO ACIDIC SOIL CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astanto Kasno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The acidic soil is generally less productive due to soil pH ranging from 3.1 to 5.0. However, it could be solved through soil amelioration, planting tolerant varieties to acidic soil condition, and a combination of both. Twenty peanut genotypes including two check varieties (Jerapah and Talam 1 were evaluated on dolomite-ameliorated and non ameliorated soil. In the greenhouse, the treatments were laid out in factorial design with four replications, while in the field using strip plot design with three replications. Assessment of tolerance was using Stressed Tolerance Index (STI according to Fernandez (1992. Results showed that dolomite application at dose equivalent to 0.5 x exchangeable Al was optimal in improving peanut growth, and peanut yield on acidic soil. Lines of GH3 (G/92088/92088-02-B-2-8-1 and GH 4 (G/92088/ 92088-02-B-2-8-2 genotypes had high STI with average yield of 2.47 tha-1 and 2.62 t ha-1 of dry pods and potential yield of 4.05 t ha-1 and 3.73 t ha-1 of dry pods, respectively as well as check varieties (Jerapah and Talam-1. It is concluded that peanut genotype of G/92088//92088-02-B-2-8-1 and G/92088//920 88- 02-B-2-8-2 were adaptable and tolerance to acidic, and tolerance of peanuts on acidic soil condition were probably controlled by the buffering mechanisms.

  8. Immunochemical and biological quantification of peanut extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Pedersen, Mona H; Platzer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Biological standardization of allergen extracts is one of the steps in the characterization of an extract. The gold standard for determination of biological potency is the skin prick test, but histamine release (HR) has been used as a convenient ex vivo method for analyzing a large number...... of samples. We describe the use of rabbit basophils as a tool in biological standardization. Using peanut as a model allergen, it is described how rabbits immunized for production of antiserum may become sensitized and their basophils used for histamine release experiments. It is also possible to use rabbit...... antiserum to passively sensitize basophils derived from naive rabbits, but the sensitivity of this method is so far 100-1000 times lower than the direct histamine release. The rabbit histamine release results are compared to an ELISA developed by means of the same antisera and by passive sensitization...

  9. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip L F

    2014-01-01

    Background IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts...... the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1...... but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. Conclusions Peanut...

  10. Proximate composition and mycological characterization of peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: The aim of this work was to contribute to the food safety of Ivorian consumers by investigating the proximate composition and the toxic fungal contamination of peanut butters offered for retail sale on the different markets of Abidjan. Methodology and results: Peanut butter samples (45) ...

  11. The molecular basis of peanut allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures, and discusses how modif...

  12. Proximate composition and mycological characterization of peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this work was to contribute to the food safety of Ivorian consumers by investigating the proximate composition and the toxic fungal contamination of peanut butters offered for retail sale on the different markets of Abidjan. Methodology and results: Peanut butter samples (45) were collected from the main ...

  13. 77 FR 56178 - Peanut Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... to Jennie M. Varela, Marketing Order and Agreement Division, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS, USDA... Mexico); and Virginia/Carolina (Virginia and North Carolina). The term ``peanut industry representatives...

  14. 78 FR 37200 - Peanut Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION.... ADDRESSES: Nominations should be sent to Jennie M. Varela, Marketing Order and Agreement Division, Fruit and... (Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico); and Virginia/Carolina (Virginia and North Carolina). The term ``peanut...

  15. Nutritional chemistry of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, are one of the most widely consumed legume globally due to its nutrition, taste and affordability. Peanuts are protein and energy-rich and has been utilized worldwide to address the nutritional needs in developing countries. Currently, its role in a heart-healthy diet ha...

  16. SURVEY OF PEANUT FUNGAL CONTAMINATION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH AMBIENT CONDITIONS IN THE BAZAR OF ZANJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rostami ، K. Naddafi ، A. Aghamohamadi ، H. Najafi saleh ، M. Fazlzadeh davil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Different food products such as corn, wheat and peanut have shown high potential to be contaminated in suitableenvironmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity. Some fungi can produce toxins, like Aflatoxin,and some of them are carcinogen. The purpose of this research was to study fungal contamination in peanutsbeing sold in the BAZAR of the city of Zanjan. 20 samples of 50g roasted and salted peanuts and 16 samplesof 50g unsalted peanuts (pure were collected from Zanjan BAZAR. Ambient conditions such as light intensity,temperature and air flow of the BAZAR and also the relative humidity of peanuts were measured. Samples wereanalyzed for fungal colony and were identified using slide culture technique. Results showed that Mold fungiwere dominant among the colonies as. Aspergillus flavus (39.1%, Penicillium (9.2%, Rhizopus (7.2%, Mucor(2.5%, Alternaria (1.03% and Nigrospora (0.5%. Temperature and the samples relative humidity were higherthan the standard range. The results indicated a significant relation between relative humidity, light intensity,temperature and peanuts’ type (pure or salted with level of fungal contamination. Also, roasting and processingreduced the relative humidity of peanuts and the level of contamination. Hence roasting, salting and provision ofappropriate ambient conditions can be useful to peanut storage

  17. Atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus isolated from peanuts collected from northern Philippines as potential biocon agents against pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut and corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination of food products causes liver cancer and weakened immunity in humans, and stunted growth and reduced productivity in animals (CAST, 2003). Effective control of pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut and corn due to AflaGuard and Aflasafe in the United States and Africa...

  18. Impacts of climate change on peanut yield in China simulated by CMIP5 multi-model ensemble projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanqing; Tian, Zhan; Zhong, Honglin; Fan, Dongli; Shi, Runhe; Niu, Yilong; He, Xiaogang; Chen, Maosi

    2017-09-01

    Peanut is one of the major edible vegetable oil crops in China, whose growth and yield are very sensitive to climate change. In addition, agriculture climate resources are expected to be redistributed under climate change, which will further influence the growth, development, cropping patterns, distribution and production of peanut. In this study, we used the DSSAT-Peanut model to examine the climate change impacts on peanut production, oil industry and oil food security in China. This model is first calibrated using site observations including 31 years' (1981-2011) climate, soil and agronomy data. This calibrated model is then employed to simulate the future peanut yield based on 20 climate scenarios from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) developed by the InterSectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) driven by 4 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results indicate that the irrigated peanut yield will decrease 2.6% under the RCP 2.6 scenario, 9.9% under the RCP 4.5 scenario and 29% under the RCP 8.5 scenario, respectively. Similarly, the rain-fed peanut yield will also decrease, with a 2.5% reduction under the RCP 2.6 scenario, 11.5% reduction under the RCP 4.5 scenario and 30% reduction under the RCP 8.5 scenario, respectively.

  19. A Limited Survey of Dark Chocolate Bars Obtained in the United States for Undeclared Milk and Peanut Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Binaifer; Yu, Ye; Wang, Xue; Garber, Eric A E; Jackson, Lauren S

    2017-04-01

    Undeclared allergens in chocolate products have been responsible for numerous allergen-related recalls in the United States. A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of undeclared milk and peanut in 88 and 78 dark chocolate bars, respectively. Concentrations of milk (as nonfat dry milk) or peanut in three samples of each chocolate product were determined with two milk- or peanut-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. In 75% of the chocolate bar products with a milk advisory statement, milk concentrations were above the limit of quantitation (2.5 μg/g [ppm]), with the majority having concentrations >1,000 ppm. An additional 67% of chocolate bars with a "traces of milk" statement contained 3 to 6,700 ppm of milk. Fifteen percent of chocolates labeled dairy free or lactose free and 25% labeled vegan were positive for milk, all with concentrations >1,000 ppm. Even for chocolates with no reference to milk on the label, 33% of these products contained 60 to 3,400 ppm of milk. The survey of chocolate products for peanuts revealed that 8% of products with an advisory statement contained peanut, with the highest concentration of 550 ppm. All nine chocolates bearing the peanut-free or allergen-free statement were negative for peanut, but 17% of chocolates with no label statement for peanut were positive for peanut at concentrations of 9 to 170 ppm. Evaluation of multiple lots of four chocolate products revealed that milk was consistently present or absent for the products investigated, but mixed results were obtained when multiple lots were tested for peanut. This study indicates that a large proportion of dark chocolate bars contain undeclared milk. The type of advisory statement or the absence of a milk advisory statement on products did not predict the amount or absence of milk protein. In contrast, a lower proportion of chocolates containing undeclared peanut was found. Consumers with food allergies should be cautious when purchasing dark chocolate

  20. Effects of drought on cadmium accumulation in peanuts grown in a contaminated calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shenglan; Wang, Xvming; Su, Genqiang; Shi, Gangrong

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of drought stress on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in contaminated calcareous soils. Five peanut cultivars were grown in a calcareous soil spiked with 4 mg Cd kg(-1) soil (dry weight) under well-watered, mild drought, and severe drought conditions. The biomass production, gas exchange, spectral reflectance, and Cd accumulation in plant tissues were determined. The five cultivars significantly differed from each other in biomass production, gas exchange, spectral reflectance, and Cd accumulation. The effect of drought on Cd accumulation in peanuts varies with plant tissues, cultivars, and developmental stages. Drought decreased root Cd concentrations in seedlings of the two high Cd-accumulating cultivars (Haihua 1 and Zhenghong 3), which is associated with increasing leaf active Fe content. However, for the mature plants, drought stress caused an increase in Cd accumulation in roots, pod walls, and seeds depending on peanut cultivars. Negative correlations were found between seed Cd concentration and biomasses in both preflowering seedlings and mature plants. The seed Cd concentration in mature plants was also observed to be positively correlated with the shoot Cd concentration in preflowering seedlings. The increased Cd concentration in seeds of drought-stressed peanut plants grown in Cd-contaminated calcareous soils might be attributed to the drought-induced decrease of biomass production.

  1. Potential phytoextraction and phytostabilization of perennial peanut on copper-contaminated vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Bortolon, Leandro; Pieniz, Simone; Giacometti, Marcelo; Roehrs, Dione D; Lambais, Mácio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2011-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the potential of perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) for copper phytoremediation in vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) contaminated with copper and copper mining waste. Our results showed high phytomass production of perennial peanut in both vineyard soils. Macronutrient uptakes were not negatively affected by perennial peanut cultivated in all contaminated soils. Plants cultivated in Mollisol showed high copper concentrations in the roots and shoots of 475 and 52 mg kg(-1), respectively. Perennial peanut plants showed low translocation factor values for Cu, although these plants showed high bioaccumulation factor (BCF) for both vineyard soils, Inceptisol and Mollisol, with BCF values of 3.83 and 3.24, respectively, being characterized as a copper hyperaccumulator plant in these soils. Copper phytoextraction from Inceptisol soil was the highest for both roots and entire plant biomass, with more than 800 mg kg(-1) of copper in whole plant. The highest potential copper phytoextraction by perennial peanut was in Inceptisol soil with copper removal of 2,500 g ha(-1). Also, perennial peanut showed high potential for copper phytoremoval in copper mining waste and Mollisol with 1,700 and 1,500 g of copper per hectare, respectively. In addition, perennial peanuts characterized high potential for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of copper in vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

  2. 76 FR 31574 - Peanut Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... sent to Dawana J. Clark, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS, USDA... regions: Southeast (Alabama, Georgia, and Florida); Southwest (Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico); and...

  3. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia

    2011-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a 60 Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  4. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d' Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia, E-mail: sgcbraza@usp.b, E-mail: tvieira@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: mabra@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: macdomin@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2011-07-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a {sup 60}Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  5. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  6. Survival of four commercial probiotic mixtures in full fat and reduced fat peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2014-12-01

    A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus and Lactococcus were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Resulting products were stored at 4, 25 or 37 °C for 12 months. Populations of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus/Lactococcus were determined periodically. The average viable cell counts of N and S were significantly lower than those of B and U (p probiotic products stored at different temperatures, Bifidobacterium had the greatest survivability, followed by Lactobacillus and Streptococcus/Lactococcus. The probiotics used in the study had different surviving patterns, and their survival was influenced by storage conditions. Fat content of peanut butter had no significant impacts on probiotic viability. Results suggest that peanut butter can be a vehicle to deliver probiotics for preventing diarrhea among malnourished children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of tillage, cover crop, and herbicide effects on weed control, yield, and grade in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut production plays a large role in agriculture in the Southeastern United States. Weeds are detrimental to their production because of the competition that they create; weeds will compete with crops for resources such as nutrients and sunlight, among others. Therefore, it is important to reduce...

  8. Assessment of Potential Yield andClimate Change Sensitivity of Peanut Crop in Cagayan Valley, Philippines using DSSAT Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderama, O. F.

    2013-12-01

    Peanut is a major upland crop in Cagayan Valley and a leguminous crop that requires less water and therefore, considered an important crop in improving productivity of upland and rainfed areas. However, little information is available on the potential productivity of the crop and analysis on the production constraints including climate change sensitivity. This study was aimed to determine yield potential and production constraints of peanut crop in Cagayan Valley through the use of Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) simulation modeling; analyze yield gaps between simulated and actual yield levels and to provide decision support to further optimize peanut production under climate change condition. Site of experiment for model calibration and validation was located on-station at Isabela State University, Echague, Isabela. Rainfall and other climatic variables were monitored using a HOBO weather station (Automatic Weather Station) which is strategically installed inside experimental zone.The inputs required to run the CSM model include information on soil and weather conditions, crop management practices and cultivar specific genetic coefficients. In the first step,a model calibration was conducted to determine the cultivar coefficients for certain peanut cultivar that are normally grown in Cagayan Valley. Crop growth and yield simulation modeling was undertaken using the Decision Support System for Agro-Technology Transfer (DSSAT) for small seeded peanut (Pn9). An evaluation of the CSM-CROPGRO-peanut model was performed with data sets from peanut experiment conducted from December 2011 to April 2012. The model was evaluated in the estimation of potential yield of peanut under rainfed condition and low-nitrogen application. Yield potential for peanut limited only by temperature and solar radiation and no-water and nutrient stress, ranged from 3274 to 4805 kg per hectare for six planting dates (October 1, October 15, November 1, November 15

  9. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ting Hung; Chi-Te Liu; I-Chen Peng; Chin Hsu; Roch-Chui Yu; Kuan-Chen Cheng

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and doc...

  10. Association mapping of SSR markers to sweet, bitter and roasted peanut sensory attributes in cultivated peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain roasted peanut quality sensory attributes are very important breeding objectives for peanut manufactory and consumers. Currently the only means of measuring these traits is the use of a trained sensory panel. This is a costly and time-consuming process. It is desirable, from a cost, time an...

  11. Stress inducible overexpression of AtHDG11 leads to improved drought and salt stress tolerance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banavath, Jayanna N.; Chakradhar, Thammineni; Pandit, Varakumar; Konduru, Sravani; Guduru, Krishna K.; Akila, Chandra S.; Podha, Sudhakar; Puli, Chandra O. R.

    2018-03-01

    Peanut is an important oilseed and food legume cultivated as a rain-fed crop in semi-arid tropics. Drought and high salinity are the major abiotic stresses limiting the peanut productivity in this region. Development of drought and salt tolerant peanut varieties with improved yield potential using biotechnological approach is highly desirable to improve the peanut productivity in marginal geographies. As abiotic stress tolerance and yield represent complex traits, engineering of regulatory genes to produce abiotic stress-resilient transgenic crops appears to be a viable approach. In the present study, we developed transgenic peanut plants expressing an Arabidopsis homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor (AtHDG11) under stress inducible rd29Apromoter. A stress-inducible expression of AtHDG11 in three independent homozygous transgenic peanut lines resulted in improved drought and salt tolerance through up-regulation of known stress responsive genes(LEA, HSP70, Cu/Zn SOD, APX, P5CS, NCED1, RRS5, ERF1, NAC4, MIPS, Aquaporin, TIP, ELIP ) in the stress gene network , antioxidative enzymes, free proline along with improved water use efficiency traits such as longer root system, reduced stomatal density, higher chlorophyll content, increased specific leaf area, improved photosynthetic rates and increased intrinsic instantaneous WUE. Transgenic peanut plants displayed high yield compared to non-transgenic plants under both drought and salt stress conditions. Holistically, our study demonstrates the potentiality of stress-induced expression of AtHDG11 to improve the drought, salt tolerance in peanut.

  12. An outbreak due to peanuts in their shell caused by Salmonella enterica serotypes Stanley and Newport--sharing molecular information to solve international outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, M D; Little, C L; Lem, M; Fyfe, M; Genobile, D; Tan, A; Threlfall, J; Paccagnella, A; Lightfoot, D; Lyi, H; McIntyre, L; Ward, L; Brown, D J; Surnam, S; Fisher, I S T

    2004-08-01

    Salmonellosis is a global problem caused by the international movement of foods and high incidence in exporting countries. In September 2001, in an outbreak investigation Australia isolated Salmonella Stanley from imported peanuts, which resulted in a wider investigation in Canada, England & Wales and Scotland. Patients infected with Salmonella serotypes known to be isolated from peanuts and reported to surveillance systems were interviewed to determine exposure histories. Tagged image file format (TIFF) images of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of Salmonella isolates were shared electronically amongst laboratories. Laboratories tested packets of 'Brand X' peanuts from various lots and product lines. In total, 97 cases of S. Stanley and 12 cases of S. Newport infection were found. Seventy-three per cent (71/97) of S. Stanley cases were in persons of Asian ethnicity. Twenty-eight per cent of cases recalled eating Brand X peanuts and a further 13% had peanuts in their house in the previous month or had eaten Asian-style peanuts. Laboratories isolated S. Stanley, S. Newport, S. Kottbus, S. Lexington and S. Unnamed from Brand X peanuts. Isolates of S. Stanley from peanuts and human patients were indistinguishable by PFGE. This international outbreak resulted from a product originating from one country affecting several others. Rapid sharing of electronic DNA images was a crucial factor in delineating the outbreak; multinational investigations would benefit from a harmonized approach.

  13. Peanut sensitization in a group of allergic Egyptian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossny Elham

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published data on peanut sensitization in Egypt and the problem of peanut allergy seems underestimated. We sought to screen for peanut sensitization in a group of atopic Egyptian children in relation to their phenotypic manifestations. Methods We consecutively enrolled 100 allergic children; 2-10 years old (mean 6.5 yr. The study measurements included clinical evaluation for site of allergy, possible precipitating factors, consumption of peanuts (starting age and last consumption, duration of breast feeding, current treatment, and family history of allergy as well as skin prick testing with a commercial peanut extract, and serum peanut specific and total IgE estimation. Children who were found sensitized to peanuts were subjected to an open oral peanut challenge test taking all necessary precautions. Results Seven subjects (7% were sensitized and three out of six of them had positive oral challenge denoting allergy to peanuts. The sensitization rates did not vary significantly with gender, age, family history of allergy, breast feeding duration, clinical form of allergy, serum total IgE, or absolute eosinophil count. All peanut sensitive subjects had skin with or without respiratory allergy. Conclusions Peanut allergy does not seem to be rare in atopic children in Egypt. Skin prick and specific IgE testing are effective screening tools to determine candidates for peanut oral challenging. Wider scale multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the prevalence of peanut allergy and its clinical correlates in our country.

  14. Frequency and significance of immediate contact reactions to peanut in peanut-sensitive children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstein, B K; Kashef, S; Ziegler, M; Jelley, D; Ziegler, J B

    2007-06-01

    Parents of atopic children frequently report, and are alarmed by, contact reactions to foods. Some schools restrict foods due to concerns regarding possible systemic reactions following contact in allergic children. We aimed to determine the frequency with which peanut-sensitive children exhibited contact sensitivity to peanut butter and to assess the significance of such reactions. One gram of peanut butter was applied directly to the skin of 281 children who were skin prick test (SPT) positive to peanut (immediate skin application food test; I-SAFT). The test was considered positive if one or more weals were present when the patch was removed after 15 min. A subset of children then underwent an open-label oral challenge with graded amounts of peanut protein. During 3515 clinic visits, 330 I-SAFT tests for peanut contact sensitivity were performed; 136 (41%) were positive. The mean SPT diameter was 10 mm in the I-SAFT-positive children and 8.5 mm in the I-SAFT-negative children (t-test, PSAFT testing. Challenge was positive in 26/32 of those with a positive I-SAFT and negative in only 6/32. Challenge was also positive in 26/53 but negative in 27/53 of those with a negative I-SAFT (sensitivity 50%, specificity 82%, chi2, P=0.003). A minority of children sensitized to peanut (positive SPT) develop localized urticaria from prolonged skin contact with peanut butter. No tested subjects, including ones with systemic reactions upon oral challenge, developed a systemic reaction to prolonged skin exposure to peanut. Therefore, systemic reactions resulting from this mode of contact with peanut butter appear highly unlikely.

  15. Issues to consider when setting intervention targets with limited data for low-moisture food commodities: a peanut case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W; Buchanan, Robert L; Calhoun, Stephen; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Djordjevic, Darinka; Whiting, Richard C; Kottapalli, Bala; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Peanuts and peanut-containing products have been linked to at least seven salmonellosis outbreaks worldwide in the past two decades. In response, the Technical Committee on Food Microbiology of the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute collaborated with the American Peanut Council to convene a workshop to develop a framework for managing risk in low-moisture food commodities where large data sets are unavailable (using peanuts as the example). Workshop attendees were charged with answering questions regarding the appropriate statistical and scientific methods for setting log reduction targets with limited pathogen prevalence and concentration data, suitable quantities of data needed for determining appropriate log reduction targets, whether the requirement of a 5-log reduction in the absence of data to establish a target log reduction is appropriate, and what targeted log reduction would protect public health. This report concludes that the judgment about sufficient data is not solely scientific, but is instead a science-informed policy decision that must weigh additional societal issues. The participants noted that modeling efforts should proceed with sampling efforts, allowing one to compare various assumptions about prevalence and concentration and how they are combined. The discussions made clear that data and risk models developed for other low-moisture foods like almonds and pistachios may be applicable to peanuts. Workshop participants were comfortable with the use of a 5-log reduction for controlling risk in products like peanuts when the level of contamination of the raw ingredients is low (food safety community may eventually conclude that as additional data, assumptions, and models are developed, alternatives to a 5-log reduction might also result in the desired level of protection for peanuts and peanut products.

  16. The effect of monoculture peanut and cassava/peanut intercropping on physical and chemical properties in peanut rhizosphere soil under the biochar application and straw mulching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Tian, Y.; Guo, X. F.; Chen, G. K.; He, H. Z.; Li, H. S.

    2017-03-01

    Cassava/peanut intercropping is a popular cultivation method in the south China, with the advantage of apparent yield increase. In order to analyze the effect of cassava/peanut intercropping on physical and chemical properties in peanut rhizosphere soil, the physical and chemical properties were investigated under the biochar application and straw mulching. The result showed that the Ph, organic materials content, available phosphorus content, available potassium content in peanut rhizosphere under the biochar application increased by 7.06%, 94.52%, 17.53%, 25.08% (monoculture peanut) and 8.47%, 89.94%, 17.93%, 22.87% (cassava/peanut intercropping) compared with Ck in the same planting patterns. In addition, the available nitrogen content, organic materials content, available phosphorus content, and available potassium content in peanut rhizosphere under the straw mulching increased by 89.80%, 60.92%, 5.95%, 9.98% (monoculture peanut) and 67.09%, 52.34%, 6.96%, 11.94% (cassava/peanut intercropping) compared with Ck in the same planting patterns. In the same treatment conditions, bulk density in peanut rhizosphere soil decreased and porosity and saturated permeability coefficient increased slightly. But there was no significant difference between the two. At the same time, cassava/peanut intercropping could increase soil nutrients. Therefore, it is beneficial to apply biochar and straw mulching, and the suitable intercropping row spacing is more beneficial to increase soil nutrient contents.

  17. Effects of potassium application on the accumulated nitrogen source and yield of peanut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuefu; Kang Yujie; Wang Minglun; Zhao Changxing

    2013-01-01

    Pot experiments and were carried out respectively to study the effects of different potassium application on soil nitrogen uptake, fertilizer nitrogen uptake, nodule nitrogen fixation and their proportion and yield of peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) by 15 N tracer technique, and explore the reasons, which may provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for peanut production in the scientific fertilizer application. Results showed that nitrogen in peanut all mainly accumulated in the kernel for different treatments of potassium fertilizer application. However, with increasing of potassium application, the increasing extent of nitrogen content of stems was the biggest during all the peanut organs, with nut shells the smallest. Properly increasing the amount of potassium can improve nitrogen content, 15 N abundance, nitrogen and 15 N accumulation of every organ, and promote absorption and utilization three nitrogen-source especially with the most effect for the kernel biomass (economic output). The ratio of fertilizer nitrogen, soil nitrogen and atmospheric nitrogen absorbed by peanut was respectively between 12.37%-13.10%, 38.29%-45.10%, and 42.53%-48.31% respectively. Properly increasing potassium fertilizer application improved the absorption ratio of fertilizer nitrogen and nodule nitrogen fixation, reduced the proportion of soil uptake and enhanced fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency. However, the influences of excessive application of potassium fertilizer decreased. (authors)

  18. Should Younger Siblings of Peanut-Allergic Children Be Assessed by an Allergist before Being Fed Peanut?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Joel J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the risk of peanut allergy in siblings of peanut-allergic children. In 2005-2006, 560 households of children born in 1995 in the province of Manitoba, Canada, were surveyed. The index children (8-to 10-year-olds were assessed by a pediatric allergist and had skin-prick testing and/or capRAST for peanut allergy. Surveys were completed by parents for siblings to determine the presence of peanut allergy. Of 560 surveys, 514 (92% were completed. Twenty-nine (5.6% index children were peanut allergic. Fifteen of 900 (1.7% siblings had peanut allergy. Four of 47 (8.5% were siblings of peanut-allergic children and 11 of 853 (1.3% were siblings of non-peanut-allergic children. The risk of peanut allergy was markedly increased in siblings of a peanut-allergic child (odds ratio 6.72, 95% confidence interval 2.04-22.12. Siblings of peanut-allergic children are much more likely to be allergic to peanut. An allergy assessment by a qualified allergist should be routinely recommended before feeding peanut to these children.

  19. Understanding Food Allergies: How to Prevent Peanut Allergy and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe March 2017 Print this issue Understanding Food Allergies How to Prevent Peanut Allergy and More En ... Peanut Allergy Therapy Seeking Allergy Relief Wise Choices Food Allergy Symptoms Pay attention to how you feel after ...

  20. Reduction of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in peanut sauce processing by oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farawahida, A H; Jinap, S; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Samsudin, N I P

    2017-12-01

    Among the many roles played by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the food industry is the production of heritage foods such as peanut sauce. Unfortunately, the safety of peanut sauce is not always assured as the processing line is not controlled. Peanut sauce is usually made of peanuts and chilli, and these commodities are normally contaminated with Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins (AFs). Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the practices related to reduction of AF hazard and the effect of interventions in peanut sauce processing. Peanut samples were collected from each step of peanut sauce processing from a small peanut sauce company according to four designs: (1) control; (2) oil-less frying of chilli powder; (3) addition of retort processing; and (4) combination of oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing. Oil-less frying of chilli powder (Design 2) reduced total AFs by 33-41%, retort processing (Design 3) reduced total AFs by 49%, while combination of these two thermal processes (Design 4) significantly reduced total AFs, by 57%. The present work demonstrated that Design 4 yielded the highest reduction of total AFs and is therefore recommended to be employed by SME companies.

  1. Allergen immunotherapy with heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes alleviates peanut and food-induced anaphylaxis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, O L; Teuber, S S; Buchanan, B B; Morigasaki, S; Umetsu, D T

    2005-02-01

    Heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKL) potently stimulates interferon (IFN)-gamma production in CD4 T-lymphocytes, and when used as adjuvant for immunotherapy, reduces immunoglobulin (Ig)E production and reverses established allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in a murine model of asthma. We asked if such treatment could decrease established peanut-induced anaphylaxis or cow's milk-induced food allergy in highly food-allergic dogs. We therefore studied four 4-year-old atopic colony dogs extremely allergic to peanut (Group I), as well as five 7-year-old dogs very allergic to wheat, milk and other foods (Group II). All dogs experienced marked allergic symptoms, including vomiting and diarrhea on oral challenge with the relevant foods. The dogs were then vaccinated once subcutaneously with peanut or milk and wheat with HKL emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Following vaccination of the allergic dogs with HKL and allergen, oral challenges with peanut (Group I) or milk (Group II) elicited only minor or no symptoms. In addition, skin test end-point titrations showed marked reductions for >10 weeks after treatment, and levels of Ara h 1-specific IgE in serum of peanut sensitive dogs, as demonstrated by immunoblotting, were greatly reduced by treatment with HKL plus peanut allergen. Thus, HKL plus allergen treatment markedly improved established food allergic responses in dogs, suggesting that such an immunotherapy strategy in humans might greatly improve individuals with food allergy and anaphylaxis.

  2. Characterization of genotypic variability associated to the phosphorus bioavailability in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kraimat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess genotypic variability in some peanut genotypes depending on phosphorus availability, both effects of tri-calcium phosphate (TCP and inoculation by Bradyrhizobium strain (BR on morphological and physiological parameters were studied in five peanut genotypes (Arachis hypogaea L., originated from two Algerian areas (Northern and Southern. The results obtained during the flowering stage of crop development, confirmed the positive effect of the contribution of tri-calcium phosphate (TCP with Bradyrhizobium strains on the morphological characters (shoot biomass, root biomass, nodular biomass and leaf and the physiological (nitrogenase activity, phosphorus absorption efficiency by roots (RPAE and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE for the peanut genotypes cultivated in this experiment. Among five genotypes tested, it was noted that the Southern genotypes were more efficient to use TCP in the presence of Bradyrhizobium strain after a screening of these local genotypes, in particular, with phosphorus use efficiency (PUE and shoot biomass production.

  3. Aflatoxins in Brazilian Peanut Confection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    The study's objectives were to evaluate a method for the determination of aflatoxins (AFs) in the Brazilian peanut confection "Paçoca" and to apply the method in investigating AF concentrations in Paçoca marketed in São Paulo State throughout 2013. Results of another survey conducted between 1994 and 2002 with another method were also reported. The current method consists of immunoaffinity column cleanup, LC with postcolumn derivatization for AF fluorescence enhancement, and fluorescence determination for the toxins. The mean recovery and mean RSD r values were 88.6 and 7.9%, respectively. The LODs for aflatoxin B 1 , aflatoxin B 2 , aflatoxin G 1 , and aflatoxin G 2 were 0.04, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.01 ng/g; and the LOQs were 0.15, 0.04, 0.07, and 0.04 ng/g, respectively. Results of the two survey studies indicate that the contamination of AFs in Paçoca remains a public health problem. In the 2013 survey, 71 of 100 samples (71%) had AFs contamination ranging from 0.3 to 41.8 ng/g, with 12 samples (12%) containing >20 ng/g of the toxins, whereas in the 1994-2002 survey, 73 of 150 samples (51%) had AFs contamination ranging from 9 to 1439 ng/g with 65 samples (45%) containing levels >20 ng/g.

  4. In vitro regeneration of Pakistani peanut ( Arachis hypogea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) belongs to the family leguminosae and is one of the world's largest oilseed crops. This study is the first report on peanut regeneration from Pakistan using four commercially released peanut varieties, that is, Golden, BARI-2000, BARD-479 and BARD-92. Longitudinally, halved cotyledons with ...

  5. Working Towards Disease Resistance in Peanuts Through Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant cultivars are the most desirable approach to disease control in agriculture. Early and late leaf spot are the most important foliar diseases of peanut worldwide. Significant progress for leaf spot resistance in peanut can be achieved through biotechnology. The National Peanut Research ...

  6. Genetic analysis of yield in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... only should the two major genes' effects be considered but also the polygene's effect should be considered in breeding to increase peanut yield. Key words: Peanut, yield, major gene plus polygene inheritance model, genetic analysis. INTRODUCTION. Peanut consists of diploid (2n = 2x = 20), tetraploid ...

  7. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Young [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jsjs87@ajou.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-{gamma} and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-{gamma} cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  8. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Soo-Young

    2009-01-01

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-γ cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  9. Assessment of the tolerance to lupine-enriched pasta in peanut-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, A; Sarratud, P; Terracciano, L; Vacca, E; Bernardini, R; Fuggetta, D; Ballabio, C; Duranti, M; Magni, C; Restani, P

    2009-07-01

    Reports of allergy to lupine derivatives (as de novo sensitization or cross-reactivity in subjects allergic to peanut) are increasing as their use in food products increases. The aim of this study was to assess: (1) lupine tolerance in a group of children allergic to peanut, using lupine enriched-pasta instead of raw flour as has been done in previous clinical studies; (2) whether technological treatments of lupine modify its cross-reactivity or co-sensitization with peanut; (3) the role of lupine seed proteins in sensitization, and (4) to identify the eliciting doses (EDs) by using double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC). Twelve patients with a history of clinical allergic reactions to peanut were evaluated by skin prick tests (SPTs), the ImmunoCAP test, immunoblotting, and DBPCFC. The 12 selected subjects were included in a trial where lupine-enriched pasta and placebo pasta were administered in a DBPCFC protocol. Positive clinical reactions were observed in two children, the EDs being 0.2 and 6.4 g of pasta, corresponding to 50 mg and 1.6 g of lupine proteins, respectively. Beta-conglutin was the protein most involved in SPT positivity. Lupine-enriched pasta can be tolerated by most subjects suffering from peanut allergy, but a sizeable minority (2/12 of them in this case) can develop potentially dangerous clinical reactions. Information about possible reactions to lupine derivatives by those allergic to peanuts must be included in the labelling of lupine-enriched products to protect consumers at risk.

  10. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination.

  11. Peanut allergy as a family project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, A; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Nielsen, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    appeared to affect all family members and required knowledge and understanding, especially in the social network. Siblings took responsibility and had concerns for the well-being of the adolescent with allergy, while parents expressed difficulties with their child's transition to independence......AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: to explore and better understand the impact that peanut allergy can have on family experiences in everyday life through interviews with individual family members. BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy affects adolescents' quality of life through the need to avoid eating peanut......-containing food and the risk of anaphylaxis. Adolescence is a period of increasing separation from parents and has the highest risk of food fatalities. DESIGN: A qualitative interview study taking a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. METHODS: Data were generated through semi-structured individual interviews...

  12. Diallel analysis of pod yield and 100 seeds weight in peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The lack of information on yield and yield components are an obstacle in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) breeding for productivity improvement in BURKINA FASO. This work is to elucidate the mode of heritability of genes that govern 100 seed weight and pod yield, and identify the best parents for ...

  13. Peanut residue carbon and nitrogen mineralization under simulated conventional and conservation tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residue management is an important aspect of crop production systems. Availability of plant residue nitrogen (N) to succeeding crops is dependent on N mineralization rates during decomposition. Cooperative Extension currently recommends 22-67 kg N ha-1 credit to subsequent crops following peanut (Ar...

  14. Inheritance of fresh seed dormancy in Spanish-type peanut ( Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and seed quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) can be reduced substantially by in situ germination under unpredictable rainfed environments. Inheritance of fresh seed dormancy in Spanish x Spanish crosses was studied with two sets of segregating populations, an F2 population derived from true F1 hybrids ...

  15. Lupine allergy: Not simply cross-reactivity with peanut or soy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, K.A.B.M.; Nordlee, J.A.; Penninks, A.H.; Chen, L.; Goodman, R.E.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C.A.F.M.; Hefle, S.L.; Taylor, S.L.; Knulst, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Reports of lupine allergy are increasing as its use in food products increases. Lupine allergy might be the consequence of cross-reactivity after sensitization to peanut or other legumes or de novo sensitization. Lupine allergens have not been completely characterized. Objectives: We

  16. Effect of roasting on the aflatoxin contents of Nigerian peanut seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peanut seeds were prepared with variations in roasting conditions. Positive correlations were obtained between loss of aflatoxins in the products and the roasting conditions. Seeds dry- roasted at 140OC for 40 min resulted in 58.8% and 64.5% reductions in AFB1 and AFG1, those roasted at 1500C for 25 minutes resulted ...

  17. The ten years (2004-2014): Progress in peanut genetics and genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant breeding, genetics, and genomics play a critical role in sustainable agriculture specifically in improving crop productivity, quality, and resistance to pests and diseases. The germplasm collections have been treasures of crop genetic resources. Utilization of the collections of wild peanut sp...

  18. Moving from peanut extract to peanut components: towards validation of component-resolved IgE tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, J. A.; Meijer, Y.; Derksen, N.; van der Palen-Merkus, T.; Knol, E.; Aalberse, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of peanut extracts by recombinant peanut components is an important step in allergy serologic testing. Criteria are needed for the unbiased inclusion of patients into a study to validate such a replacement. Plasma samples from 64 peanut-positive children (42 reactors, 22 nonreactors in a

  19. Evaluation of Forage Yield and Important Agronomic Indices of Corn Affected by Intercropping Systems with Peanut and Nitrogen Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nabati nasaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Multiple cropping such as intercropping plays an important role in agriculture because of maximizing beneficial interactions. Intercropping of legumes and cereals is an old practice in tropical agriculture that dates back to ancient civilization. Maize-legume intercrops could substantially increase forage quantity and quality and decrease requirement for protein supplements (Ahmad et al., 2008. Intercropping of cereals and legumes is important for development of sustainable food production systems. This may be due to some of the potential benefits in intercropping systems such as high productivity and profitability, improvement of soil fertility through the additional supply of N by fixation and excretion from the component legume, efficient use of resources, reducing damage caused by pests, diseases and weeds and improvement of forage quality (Ahmad et al., 2008; Fernandez-Aparicio et al., 2007; Lithourgidis et al., 2006. The main advantage of intercropping is more efficient utilization of the available resources and the increased productivity compared with each sole crop of the mixture. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate agronomic characteristics of corn and Land equivalent ratio (LER under intercropping with peanut and different rates of nitrogen. Materials and methods In order to evaluate the forage yield and important agronomic indices of corn (Zea mays L. affected by intercropping systems with peanut and different nitrogen rates, this experiment was performed in the experimental field of agricultural and natural resource research center of Guilan province, Rasht, Iran, during 2013-14 cropping season as a split plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. Nitrogen rates, including of zero, 100, 200 and 300 kg per hectare as main plot and sole cropping of corn and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., intercropping systems including of intercropping corn and peanut at ratio of 1:1, 2

  20. Prenylated stilbenes from peanut root mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Victor S; Potter, Thomas L; Horn, Bruce W

    2006-01-01

    Seven prenylated stilbenes were identified by combined HPLC-PAD-APCI/MSn analysis of an extract of mucilage isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) root tips. The principal constituent was assigned the structure 4-(3-methyl-but-1-enyl)-3, 5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy-trans-stilbene. The common name mucilagin A is proposed for this novel compound. Its concentration in the mucilage was estimated at 250 microg/g (wet weight basis). The large body of literature on the anti-microbial properties of plant-derived stilbenes suggests that compounds detected in peanut mucilage may play a role in regulating root-soil pathogen interactions.

  1. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein hydrolysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    Full Text Available Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2-12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2-5 g/100 ml than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

  2. Hyperspectral to multispectral imaging for detection of tree nuts and peanut traces in wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Mishra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In current industrial environments there is an increasing need for practical and inexpensive quality control systems to detect the foreign food materials in powder food processing lines. This demand is especially important for the detection of product adulteration with traces of highly allergenic products, such as peanuts and tree nuts. Manufacturing industries dealing with the processing of multiple powder food products present a substantial risk for the contamination of powder foods with traces of tree nuts and other adulterants, which might result in unintentional ingestion of nuts by the sensitised population. Hence, the need for an in-line system to detect nut traces at the early stages of food manufacturing is of crucial importance. In this present work, a feasibility study of a spectral index for revealing adulteration of tree nut and peanut traces in wheat flour samples with hyperspectral images is reported. The main nuts responsible for allergenic reactions considered in this work were peanut, hazelnut and walnut. Enhanced contrast between nuts and wheat flour was obtained after the application of the index. Furthermore, the segmentation of these images by selecting different thresholds for different nut and flour mixtures allowed the identification of nut traces in the samples. Pixels identified as nuts were counted and compared with the actual percentage of peanut adulteration. As a result, the multispectral system was able to detect and provide good visualisation of tree nut and peanut trace levels down to 0.01% by weight. In this context, multispectral imaging could operate in conjuction with chemical procedures, such as Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to save time, money and skilled labour on product quality control. This approach could enable not only a few selected samples to be assessed but also to extensively incorporate quality control surveyance on product processing lines.

  3. Impact of school peanut-free policies on epinephrine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnikas, Lisa M; Huffaker, Michelle F; Sheehan, William J; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Petty, Carter R; Leibowitz, Robert; Hauptman, Marissa; Young, Michael C; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2017-08-01

    Children with food allergies spend a large proportion of time in school but characteristics of allergic reactions in schools are not well studied. Some schools self-designate as peanut-free or have peanut-free areas, but the impact of policies on clinical outcomes has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effect of peanut-free policies on rates of epinephrine administration for allergic reactions in Massachusetts public schools. In this retrospective study, we analyzed (1) rates of epinephrine administration in all Massachusetts public schools and (2) Massachusetts public school nurse survey reports of school peanut-free policies from 2006 to 2011 and whether schools self-designated as "peanut-free" based on policies. Rates of epinephrine administration were compared for schools with or without peanut-restrictive policies. The percentage of schools with peanut-restrictive policies did not change significantly in the study time frame. There was variability in policies used by schools self-designated as peanut-free. No policy was associated with complete absence of allergic reactions. Both self-designated peanut-free schools and schools banning peanuts from being served in school or brought from home reported allergic reactions to nuts. Policies restricting peanuts from home, served in schools, or having peanut-free classrooms did not affect epinephrine administration rates. Schools with peanut-free tables, compared to without, had lower rates of epinephrine administration (incidence rate per 10,000 students 0.2 and 0.6, respectively, P = .009). These data provide a basis for evidence-based school policies for children with food allergies. Further studies are required before decisions can be made regarding peanut-free policies in schools. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genotypic Regulation of Aflatoxin Accumulation but Not Aspergillus Fungal Growth upon Post-Harvest Infection of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korani, Walid Ahmed; Chu, Ye; Holbrook, Corley; Clevenger, Josh; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2017-07-12

    Aflatoxin contamination is a major economic and food safety concern for the peanut industry that largely could be mitigated by genetic resistance. To screen peanut for aflatoxin resistance, ten genotypes were infected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Aspergillus flavus strain. Percentages of fungal infected area and fungal GFP signal intensity were documented by visual ratings every 8 h for 72 h after inoculation. Significant genotypic differences in fungal growth rates were documented by repeated measures and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) analyses. SICIA (Seed Infection Coverage and Intensity Analyzer), an image processing software, was developed to digitize fungal GFP signals. Data from SICIA image analysis confirmed visual rating results validating its utility for quantifying fungal growth. Among the tested peanut genotypes, NC 3033 and GT-C20 supported the lowest and highest fungal growth on the surface of peanut seeds, respectively. Although differential fungal growth was observed on the surface of peanut seeds, total fungal growth in the seeds was not significantly different across genotypes based on a fluorometric GFP assay. Significant differences in aflatoxin B levels were detected across peanut genotypes. ICG 1471 had the lowest aflatoxin level whereas Florida-07 had the highest. Two-year aflatoxin tests under simulated late-season drought also showed that ICG 1471 had reduced aflatoxin production under pre-harvest field conditions. These results suggest that all peanut genotypes support A. flavus fungal growth yet differentially influence aflatoxin production.

  5. Genotypic Regulation of Aflatoxin Accumulation but Not Aspergillus Fungal Growth upon Post-Harvest Infection of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Ahmed Korani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination is a major economic and food safety concern for the peanut industry that largely could be mitigated by genetic resistance. To screen peanut for aflatoxin resistance, ten genotypes were infected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP—expressing Aspergillus flavus strain. Percentages of fungal infected area and fungal GFP signal intensity were documented by visual ratings every 8 h for 72 h after inoculation. Significant genotypic differences in fungal growth rates were documented by repeated measures and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC analyses. SICIA (Seed Infection Coverage and Intensity Analyzer, an image processing software, was developed to digitize fungal GFP signals. Data from SICIA image analysis confirmed visual rating results validating its utility for quantifying fungal growth. Among the tested peanut genotypes, NC 3033 and GT-C20 supported the lowest and highest fungal growth on the surface of peanut seeds, respectively. Although differential fungal growth was observed on the surface of peanut seeds, total fungal growth in the seeds was not significantly different across genotypes based on a fluorometric GFP assay. Significant differences in aflatoxin B levels were detected across peanut genotypes. ICG 1471 had the lowest aflatoxin level whereas Florida-07 had the highest. Two-year aflatoxin tests under simulated late-season drought also showed that ICG 1471 had reduced aflatoxin production under pre-harvest field conditions. These results suggest that all peanut genotypes support A. flavus fungal growth yet differentially influence aflatoxin production.

  6. TILLING for allergen reduction and improvement of quality traits in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sixue

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic reactions to peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L. can cause severe symptoms and in some cases can be fatal, but avoidance is difficult due to the prevalence of peanut-derived products in processed foods. One strategy of reducing the allergenicity of peanuts is to alter or eliminate the allergenic proteins through mutagenesis. Other seed quality traits could be improved by altering biosynthetic enzyme activities. Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING, a reverse-genetics approach, was used to identify mutations affecting seed traits in peanut. Results Two similar copies of a major allergen gene, Ara h 1, have been identified in tetraploid peanut, one in each subgenome. The same situation has been shown for major allergen Ara h 2. Due to the challenge of discriminating between homeologous genes in allotetraploid peanut, nested PCR was employed, in which both gene copies were amplified using unlabeled primers. This was followed by a second PCR using gene-specific labeled primers, heteroduplex formation, CEL1 nuclease digestion, and electrophoretic detection of labeled fragments. Using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS as a mutagen, a mutation frequency of 1 SNP/967 kb (3,420 M2 individuals screened was observed. The most significant mutations identified were a disrupted start codon in Ara h 2.02 and a premature stop codon in Ara h 1.02. Homozygous individuals were recovered in succeeding generations for each of these mutations, and elimination of Ara h 2.02 protein was confirmed. Several Ara h 1 protein isoforms were eliminated or reduced according to 2D gel analyses. TILLING also was used to identify mutations in fatty acid desaturase AhFAD2 (also present in two copies, a gene which controls the ratio of oleic to linoleic acid in the seed. A frameshift mutation was identified, resulting in truncation and inactivation of AhFAD2B protein. A mutation in AhFAD2A was predicted to restore function to the normally inactive

  7. Peanut lectin crystallography and macromolecular structural studies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 32; Issue 6. Peanut lectin crystallography and macromolecular structural studies in India. M Vijayan. Perspectives Volume 32 Issue 6 September 2007 pp 1059-1066. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Peanuts as a functional food ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seeds of the peanut plant have long been prized for their pleasant roasted flavor and well as their significant contents of high quality protein and favorable lipid profiles. They are widely grown in the US from Virginia, across the south and as far west as California. At present, they represe...

  9. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind of traditional Chinese food—to detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB1 through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB1 in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB1. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB1 may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB1, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB1.

  10. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B₁ by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guanghui; Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Ma, Yunxiao; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-20

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste-one kind of traditional Chinese food-to detoxify aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii , and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii ) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB₁ through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB₁ in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB₁. Additionally, m / s statistics demonstrated that AFB₁ may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB₁, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB₁.

  11. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guanghui; Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Ma, Yunxiao; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind of traditional Chinese food—to detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB1 through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB1 in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB1. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB1 may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB1, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB1. PMID:28117705

  12. Oil and fatty acid composition of peanut cultivars grown in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, F.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-01-01

    Quality and flavor of edible peanuts and its products are affected by fatty acid composition of oil. The information related to chemical composition of Peanut grown in the country are scarce, therefore, the present investigation was designed to determine the oil and fatty acid composition of some commonly grown peanut cultivars in Pakistan. Seven Peanut cultivars were grown during 2008 in randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The tested cultivars differed significantly for oil content which ranged from 49.83 to 53.06% on dry weight basis, thus showing differences of 7% among cultivars. The saturated fatty acids (Palmetic and Stearic acid) in different cultivars ranged between 9.95 to 10.79% and 1.63 to 2.19%, respectively. Differences among cultivars for oleic acid exhibited significance which ranged between 49.34 to 54.83%. Similarly, cultivars differed statistically for linoleic ac id which showed a range of 28.99 to 34.23%, thus depicted difference of 7%. Significant differences among tested cultivars may be attributed to the place of origin of particular cultivar. An inverse relationship was exhibited between oleic and linoleic acid, similar to other edible oils. (author)

  13. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Fungicides and Application Timing for Control of Early Leafspot, Southern Blight, and Sclerotinia Blight of Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. James Grichar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in south Texas near Yoakum and from 2008 to 2011 in central Texas near Stephenville to evaluate various fungicides for foliar and soilborne disease control as well as peanut yield response under irrigation. Control of Sclerotinia blight caused by Sclerotinia minor Jagger with penthiopyrad at 1.78 L/ha was comparable to fluazinam or boscalid; however, the 1.2 L/ha dose of penthiopyrad did not provide consistent control. Peanut yield was reduced with the lower penthiopyrad dose when compared with boscalid, fluazinam, or the high dose of penthiopyrad. Control of early leaf spot, caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori or southern blight, caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., with penthiopyrad in a systems approach was comparable with propiconazole, prothioconazole, or pyraclostrobin systems and resulted in disease control that was higher than the nontreated control. Peanut yield was also comparable with the penthiopyrad, propiconazole, prothioconazole, or pyraclostrobin systems and reflects the ability of the newer fungicides to control multiple diseases found in Texas peanut production.

  15. Oil migration in chocolate-peanut butter paste confectionery as a function of chocolate formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K L; McCarthy, M J

    2008-08-01

    Migration of oil from high oil content filling to the chocolate coating can result in undesirable quality changes in filled chocolate confectionery products. The objective of this study was to monitor and model peanut oil migration in a 2-layer chocolate-peanut butter paste model confectionery. Spatial and temporal oil content changes were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. Five formulations of chocolate, which varied in chocolate particle size, milk fat content, and emulsifier level, were assessed at 2 temperatures, 20 and 30 degrees C. The spatial and temporal experimental data were modeled using a Fickian-based diffusion model, fitting for the diffusion coefficient, D, over a time frame of 17 d. Values of the diffusion coefficient ranged from 1.82 to 3.23 x 10(-11) m2/s for the chocolate formulations stored at 30 degrees C. No significant mass transfer took place in the 20 degrees C samples over the experimental time frame. This study describes the dynamic nature of the interface between the chocolate and peanut butter paste layers, quantifies the mass transfer from the peanut butter paste to the chocolate, and reinforces the importance of temperature control.

  16. Boiling and frying peanuts decreases soluble peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 but does not generate hypoallergenic peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergy continues to be a problem in most developed countries of the world. We sought a processing method that would alter allergenic peanut proteins, such that allergen recognition by IgE from allergic individuals would be significantly reduced or eliminated. Such a method would render accid...

  17. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Hung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management.

  18. Produção de híbridos de amendoim forrageiro por meio de hibridação artificial Production of forage peanut hybrids through artificial hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Augusta Peres Oliveira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi a obtenção de híbridos de amendoim forrageiro por meio da hibridação artificial. O experimento foi realizado na Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, durante a época de florescimento dos acessos de Arachis pintoi Krap. & W. C. Gregory e de A. repens Handro. Cerca de 700 polinizações produziram 27 segmentos de frutos, com taxas de fecundação que variaram entre 1,1 e 12,9%, considerando-se todas as combinações híbridas. Os híbridos intra-específicos de A. pintoi produziram sementes F2, e os interespecíficos não produziram semente. A técnica de hibridação utilizada nas espécies forrageiras necessitou de ajustes, devido a diferenças observadas em relação ao amendoim cultivado, entre elas o hábito de crescimento.The purpose of this work was to obtain forage peanut hybrids through artificial hybridization. The experiment was conducted in a screenhouse at Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia during the flowering period of Arachis pintoi Krap. & W. C. Gregory and A. repens Handro accessions. About 700 pollinations produced 27 fruit segments and the fertilization rates ranged from 1.1 to 12.9% for all cross combinations. The intraspecific hybrids produced F2 seeds, which did not occur to the interspecific hybrids. To effect the hybridization technique, adjustments were necessary to forage Arachis species, in relation to cultivated peanut, since differences in the growth habit were verified.

  19. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE MYCOFLORA AND PROCESSING EFFECTS ON THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGEA L. VAR. TS 32-1)

    OpenAIRE

    Euloge S. Adjou; Edwige Dahouenon-Ahoussi; Mohamed M. Soumanou

    2012-01-01

    The microbiological and nutritional characterization of peanut (Arachis hypogea L var. TS 32-1) was investigated. Bacteria and fungi were isolated from this product. The fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus Speare, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm and Fusarium poae. The respective mean moisture content and total acidity in samples were 8.19 ± 0.01% and 1.2 ± 0.02%. Nutritional analysis showed that peanut (Arachis hypogea L var. TS 32-1) has interest...

  20. Resistance to leaf spot disease in peanut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: Leaf spot disease causes defoliation of peanut plants during pod development thereby reducing yield. To induce mutations for resistance to the disease, dormant seeds of peanut were irradiated with 10-40 kR gamma rays with pre- and post-irradiation treatments to minimize radiation damage. Spores of the causal fungi, Cercospora arachidicola Hori and Cercosporidium personatum (B and C) Deigh., were cultured under asceptic conditions in PDA medium with 2-3 drops of 10% table salt solution to enhance development of spores. The first two leaves of M 2 seedlings were hand-inoculated two or three times in the field at one week intervals. Out of a total of 2,453 M 2 seedlings inoculated thrice, 9 plants showed complete resistance based on degree of infection. However, after recurrent selection, only 3 M 5 lines gave complete resistance, the rest exhibiting only intermediate resistance. The disease resistant lines yielded almost twice as much as several commercial varieties due to extensive leaf defoliation in the latter. One of the mutant lines is being crossed with some popular susceptible varieties. Inheritance studies showed that leaf spot resistance is governed by two recessive mutant genes acting complementary. The F 2 ratio was close to 15:1. The mutant lines are presently evaluated through the Bureau of Plant Industry before seeds are distributed to peanut growers. (author)

  1. Current Challenges in Detecting Food Allergens by Shotgun and Targeted Proteomic Approaches: A Case Study on Traces of Peanut Allergens in Baked Cookies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreschi, Romina; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Maquet, Alain

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for selective and sensitive methods to detect the presence of food allergens at trace levels in highly processed food products. In this work, a combination of non-targeted and targeted proteomics approaches are used to illustrate the difficulties encountered in the detection of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 from a representative processed food matrix. Shotgun proteomics was employed for selection of the proteotypic peptides for targeted approaches via selective reaction monitoring. Peanut presence through detection of the proteotypic Ara h 3/4 peptides AHVQVVDSNGNR (m/z 432.5, 3+) and SPDIYNPQAGSLK (m/z 695.4, 2+) was confirmed and the developed method was able to detect peanut presence at trace levels (≥10 μg peanut g−1 matrix) in baked cookies. PMID:22413066

  2. Produção animal e valor nutritivo da forragem de pastagem de coastcross consorciada com amendoim forrageiro Animal production and nutritive value of a coastcross pasture mixed with forage peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Barbero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram utilizados os tratamentos: coastcross + amendoim forrageiro + 200kg/ha de N; coastcross + amendoim forrageiro + 100kg/ha de N; coastcross + 200kg/ha de N e coastcross + amendoim forrageiro (parcelas no inverno, primavera, verão e outono (sub parcelas, delineados em blocos ao acaso. Novilhas foram manejadas sob lotação contínua e taxa de lotação variável em pastagem mantida a 17cm de altura. Amostras foram coletadas a cada 28 dias para determinar o valor nutritivo da forragem. Foram avaliados: ganho médio diário (GMD, ganho de peso vivo (GPV, taxa de lotação (TL e número de animais dia (NAD. Quanto ao valor nutritivo da forragem, os piores resultados ocorreram nas pastagens sem adubação, 16,9% e 6,0% de PB de folha e colmo, respectivamente, e 70,1 % de FDN de folha. Na primavera e no verão, o GMD foi mais alto, 0,518 e 0,515kg/animal do que no inverno e outono, 0,396 e 0,293kg/animal, respectivamente. A TL foi superior nas pastagens que receberam a maior dose de nitrogênio, 5,38UA/ha em média, e no verão, 6,81UA/ha. O GPV foi mais elevado nas áreas com adubação, 1341kg de PV/ha, em relação aos pastos não adubados, 735kg/ha.In this study, the following treatments were used: coastcross + forage peanut + 200kg/ha of N; coastcross + forage peanut + 100kg/ha of N; coastcross + 200kg/ha of N and coastcross + forage peanut (plots in the winter, spring, summer, and autumn (subplots, designed in randomized blocks. Heifers were managed under continuous stocking and variable stocking rate on pasture maintained at 17cm height. Samples were collected every 28 days determining the nutritional value of forage. Average daily gain (ADG, weight gain (WG, stocking rate (SR, and number of animals/day (NAD were evaluated. As for forage nutritional value, the worst results were found in pasture without fertilization, 16.9% and 6.0% CP of leaf and stem, respectively, and 70.1% NDF in leaves. In the spring and summer, animals

  3. Modification of Prenylated Stilbenoids in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seedlings by the Same Fungi That Elicited Them: The Fungus Strikes Back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Slager, Mathijs; Helmink, Bianca; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2015-10-28

    Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae were compared for inducing the production of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings. The fungus was applied at two different time points: directly after soaking (day 1) or after 2 days of germination (day 3). Aspergillus- and Rhizopus-elicited peanut seedlings accumulated an array of prenylated stilbenoids, with overlap in compounds induced, but also with compounds specific to the fungal treatment. The differences were confirmed to be due to modification of prenylated stilbenoids by the fungus itself. Each fungus appeared to deploy different strategies for modification. The content of prenylated stilbenoids modified by fungi accounted for around 8% to 49% (w/w) of total stilbenoids. The contents of modified prenylated stilbenoids were higher when the fungus was applied on day 1 instead of day 3. Altogether, type of fungus and time point of inoculation appeared to be crucial parameters for optimizing accumulation of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings.

  4. Influence of gamma radiation on the nutrition composition and contamination by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus on peanuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Laury Francis; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Oliveira, Idjane Santana de

    2011-01-01

    Care in food storage, such as temperature and humidity control, assist in the prevention of fungal diseases in peanuts. The development of filamentous fungi in food and feed can result in the production of toxins known as mycotoxins. Ionizing radiation can be used as a preventive method against food security, promoting the inhibition of sprouting, delayed maturation, reduced microbial load, elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, sterilization, disinfection in grains, cereals, fruits and spices. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on the nutritional composition and growth inhibition of Aspergillus aflatoxigenic in samples of peanuts. Samples were collected directly of a small producer (Petrolandia-PE) and Pernambuco Central of Supply (CEASA) and then packed within / without pods and subjected to irradiation by cobalt-60 pump at doses of 0, 6, 9, 12 and 15 kGy, in triplicate. The material was divided into two parts: a) to conduct a nutritional analysis of non-irradiated and irradiated material, and b) for fungal analysis, before and after irradiation. The results showed that the samples originated from the CEASA-PE had the highest rates of contamination with peanut, not only subjected to irradiation, but also for those samples subjected to doses of 6, 9 and 12 kGy. The dose of 15 kGy was the most efficient in controlling Aspergillus aflatoxigenic for both origins because it failed to eliminate the action of fungi, regardless of treatments. Only one non-irradiated sample, originated from CEASA-PE, showed positive production of aflatoxins in LCA. There weren't differences in the values of the nutritional composition, with increasing radiation dose. Irradiation combined with good storage conditions, was a reliable process for conservation of peanuts, because it prevents the growth of fungi, particularly Aspergillus aflatoxigenic, also avoiding the production and subsequent presence of aflatoxin in food, making it safer for consumption. The

  5. Influence of gamma radiation on the nutrition composition and contamination by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus on peanuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Laury Francis; Silva, Edvane Borges da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, Idjane Santana de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria

    2011-07-01

    Care in food storage, such as temperature and humidity control, assist in the prevention of fungal diseases in peanuts. The development of filamentous fungi in food and feed can result in the production of toxins known as mycotoxins. Ionizing radiation can be used as a preventive method against food security, promoting the inhibition of sprouting, delayed maturation, reduced microbial load, elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, sterilization, disinfection in grains, cereals, fruits and spices. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on the nutritional composition and growth inhibition of Aspergillus aflatoxigenic in samples of peanuts. Samples were collected directly of a small producer (Petrolandia-PE) and Pernambuco Central of Supply (CEASA) and then packed within / without pods and subjected to irradiation by cobalt-60 pump at doses of 0, 6, 9, 12 and 15 kGy, in triplicate. The material was divided into two parts: a) to conduct a nutritional analysis of non-irradiated and irradiated material, and b) for fungal analysis, before and after irradiation. The results showed that the samples originated from the CEASA-PE had the highest rates of contamination with peanut, not only subjected to irradiation, but also for those samples subjected to doses of 6, 9 and 12 kGy. The dose of 15 kGy was the most efficient in controlling Aspergillus aflatoxigenic for both origins because it failed to eliminate the action of fungi, regardless of treatments. Only one non-irradiated sample, originated from CEASA-PE, showed positive production of aflatoxins in LCA. There weren't differences in the values of the nutritional composition, with increasing radiation dose. Irradiation combined with good storage conditions, was a reliable process for conservation of peanuts, because it prevents the growth of fungi, particularly Aspergillus aflatoxigenic, also avoiding the production and subsequent presence of aflatoxin in food, making it safer for consumption

  6. Peanut canopy temperature and NDVI response to varying irrigation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. In this study, peanut was grown under a VRI system to evaluate the impact of differential irrigation rates on peanut yield. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of differenti...

  7. SILAGE QUALITY OF CORN AND SORGHUM ADDED WITH FORAGE PEANUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALKÍRIA GUIMARÃES CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn and sorghum are standard silage crops because of their fermentative characteristics. While corn and sorghum silages have lower crude protein (CP contents than other crops, intercropping with legumes can increase CP content. Furthermore, one way to increase CP content is the addition of legumes to silage. Consequently, the research objective was to evaluate the fermentative and bromatological characteristics of corn (Zea mays and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor silages added with forage peanuts (Arachis pintoi. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The treatments consisted of corn silage, sorghum silage, forage peanut silage, corn silage with 30% forage peanut, and sorghum silage with 30% forage peanut. The results showed that the corn and sorghum added with peanut helped to improve the silage fermentative and bromatological characteristics, proving to be an efficient technique for silage quality. The forage peanut silage had lower fermentative characteristics than the corn and sorghum silages. However, the forage peanut silage had a greater CP content, which increased the protein contents of the corn and sorghum silages when intercropped with forage peanuts.

  8. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  9. Genetic transformation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    trance to tissue culture regeneration. Among them, peanut is an important cash crop for farmers particularly in the semi- arid tropics. Asian land races of peanut have a narrow genet- ic base and low genetic diversity because of which they lack resistance to many pests and diseases. These can cause major losses in terms of ...

  10. Evaluation of luteolin from shells of Korean peanut cultivars for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of luteolin from shells of Korean peanut cultivars for industrial utilization. Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Suk-Bok Pae, Byoung-Kyu Lee, In-Youl Baek. Abstract. Luteolin is a medicinally valuable phyto-chemical, which was indentified in plants. This study was aimed to analyse the luteolin content in peanut waste ...

  11. In vitro regeneration of Pakistani peanut (Arachis hypogea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) belongs to the family leguminosae and is one of the world's largest oilseed crops. This study is the first report on peanut ... recorded after two weeks of culture. The regenerated shoots were excised and .... Meeting of Asian Reg. Res. on grain legumes ICRISAT., pp. 32-35.

  12. Genetic analysis of yield in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yield had significant major gene effect and the results implied that not only should the two major genes' effects be considered but also the polygene's effect should be considered in breeding to increase peanut yield. Key words: Peanut, yield, major gene plus polygene inheritance model, genetic analysis.

  13. Salmonella surrogate reduction using industrial peanut dry roasting parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of industrial peanut dry roasting parameters in Salmonella reduction using a Salmonella surrogate, Enterococcus faecium, which is slightly more heat tolerant than Salmonella. Runner-type peanuts were inoculated with E. faecium and roasted in a lab...

  14. Field performance of three peanut entries in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut entries (Tamrun 96, Tamrun OL02, and TX 994313) were among peanut lines included in four tests in 2006 and 2007. Plots were planted during May and harvested in late September to mid October to attain a growing season of 155 days. Plots were arranged in a complete randomized block design wit...

  15. Oral peanut challenge identifies an allergy but the peanut allergen threshold sensitivity is not reproducible.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Glaumann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge, DBPCFC, the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy, is time-consuming and potentially dangerous. A basophil allergen threshold sensitivity test, CD-sens, has shown promising results as a diagnostic tool in food allergy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the reproducibility of oral peanut challenge and compare the outcome to CD-sens in peanut-sensitized children. METHODS: Twenty-seven children (4-19 years underwent a DBPCFC followed by a single-blind oral food-challenge. The peanut challenges (1 mg to 5 g were evaluated by severity scoring. Blood samples were drawn for CD-sens before the two first challenges. RESULTS: Thirteen children (48% did not react at any of the challenges. Fourteen reacted at both peanut challenges but not to placebo. Only two of these children reacted at the same threshold dose and with the same severity score. All other children scored differently or reacted at different doses. For children with a positive challenge the geometric mean of the ratio of the doses was 1.834 (p = 0.307 and the arithmetic mean of the difference between the severity scores was 0.143 (p = 0.952. No association was obtained between the two peanut challenges regarding severity score (r(s = 0.11, p = 0.71 or threshold dose (r(s = 0.35, p = 0.22. Among the children positive in peanut challenge, 12 were positive in CD-sens. Two were low-responders and could not be evaluated. Geometric mean of the ratio of CD-sens values in children with a positive challenge was 1.035 (p = 0.505 but unlike for the severity score and the threshold dose the association between the two CD-sens values was strong (r(s = 0.94, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: For a positive/negative test the reproducibility is 100% for both peanut challenge and CD-sens. However, a comparison of the degree of allergen threshold sensitivity between the two tests is not possible since the threshold dose and severity

  16. Effect of pre-roast moisture content and post roast cooling parameters on oil migration during oil roasting of peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil migration affects the quality and shelf-life of food products and consequently has an impact on overall consumer acceptance. Exchange of oil may occur during or after oil roasting of peanuts but little is known about the factors contributing to this exchange. This study examines the effect of p...

  17. Influence of preplant applications of 2,4-D, dicamba, tribenuron, and tribenuron plus thifensulfuron on peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trials were conducted in Georgia, North Carolina, and Texas to evaluate the effects of preplant applications of 2,4-D, dicamba, tribenuron, and tribenuron plus thifensulfuron on peanut yield. Herbicides were applied 30, 15, 7, or 0 days before planting (DBP) in conventional production systems ...

  18. Drivers of Preference and Perception of Freshness in Roasted Peanuts (Arachis spp.) for European Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2018-04-01

    Roasted peanuts are a popular snack in Europe, but their drivers of liking and perceived freshness have not been previously studied with European consumers. Consumer research to date has been focused on U.S. consumers, and only on specific peanut cultivars. In this study, 26 unique samples were produced from peanuts of different types, cultivars, origins, and with different process technologies (including baking, frying, and maceration). The peanut samples were subjected to sensory (expert panel, Spectrum TM ) and instrumental analysis (color, headspace volatiles, sugar profile, large deformation compression tests, and graded by size) and were hedonically rated by consumers in The Netherlands, Spain, and Turkey (n > 200 each). Preference Mapping (PREFMAP) on mean liking models revealed that the drivers of liking are similar across the three countries. Sweet taste, roasted peanut, dark roast, and sweet aromas and the color b * value were related to increased liking, and raw bean aroma and bitter taste with decreased liking. Further partial least square regression (PLSR) modeling of liking and perceived freshness against instrumental attributes showed that the color coordinates in combination with sucrose content and a select few headspace volatiles were strong predictors of both preference and perceived freshness. Finally, additional PLSR models focusing on the headspace volatiles only showed that liking and ''fresh'' attributes were correlated with the presence of several pyrroles in the volatile fraction, and inversely related to ''stale'' and to hexanal and 2-heptanone. This study provides insight into which flavor, taste, and appearance attributes drive liking and disliking of roasted peanuts for European consumers. The drivers are linked back to analytical attributes that can be measured instrumentally, thereby reducing the reliance on costly sensory panels. Particular emphasis is placed on color as a predictor of preference, because of the low cost of the

  19. Peanut protein structure, polyphenol content and immune response to peanut proteins in vivo are modulated by laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajlovic, L; Radosavljevic, J; Nordlund, E; Krstic, M; Bohn, T; Smit, J; Buchert, J; Cirkovic Velickovic, T

    2016-05-18

    Food texture can be improved by enzyme-mediated covalent cross-linking of different food components, such as proteins and carbohydrates. Cross-linking changes the biological and immunological properties of proteins and may change the sensitizing potential of food allergens. In this study we applied a microbial polyphenol oxidase, laccase, to cross-link peanut proteins. The size and morphology of the obtained cross-linked proteins were analyzed by electrophoresis and electron microscopy. Structural changes in proteins were analyzed by CD spectroscopy and by using specific antibodies to major peanut allergens. The bioavailability of peanut proteins was analyzed using a Caco-2 epithelial cell model. The in vivo sensitizing potential of laccase-treated peanut proteins was analyzed using a mouse model of food allergy. Finally, peanut polyphenols were analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS, before and after the enzymatic reaction with laccase. Laccase treatment of peanut proteins yielded a covalently cross-linked material, with the modified tertiary structure of peanut proteins, improved bioavailability of Ara h 2 (by 70 fold, p polyphenol content and profile by HPLC-MS/MS revealed that laccase treatment depleted the peanut extract of polyphenol compounds leaving mostly isorhamnetin derivatives and procyanidin dimer B-type in detectable amounts. Treatment of complex food extracts rich in polyphenols with laccase results in both protein cross-linking and modification of polyphenol compounds. These extensively cross-linked proteins have unchanged potency to induce allergic sensitization in vivo, but certain immunomodulatory changes were observed.

  20. Automation of peanut drying with a sensor network including an in-shell kernel moisture sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut drying is an essential task in the processing and handling of peanuts. Peanuts leave the fields with kernel moisture contents > 20% wet basis and need to be dried to < 10.5% w.b. for grading and storage purposes. Current peanut drying processes utilize decision support software based on model...

  1. Novel Strategy to Create Hypoallergenic Peanut Protein-Polyphenol Edible Matrices for Oral Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Upon peanut consumption by an allergic individual, epitopes on peanut proteins bind and cross-link peanut-specific IgE on mast cell and basophil surfaces triggering the cells to release inflammatory mediators responsible for allergic reactions. P...

  2. Recombinants from the crosses between amphidiploid and cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea for pest-resistance breeding programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Ferreira de Paula

    Full Text Available Peanut is a major oilseed crop worldwide. In the Brazilian peanut production, silvering thrips and red necked peanut worm are the most threatening pests. Resistant varieties are considered an alternative to pest control. Many wild diploid Arachis species have shown resistance to these pests, and these can be used in peanut breeding by obtaining hybrid of A and B genomes and subsequent polyploidization with colchicine, resulting in an AABB amphidiploid. This amphidiploid can be crossed with cultivated peanut (AABB to provide genes of interest to the cultivar. In this study, the sterile diploid hybrids from A. magna V 13751 and A. kempff-mercadoi V 13250 were treated with colchicine for polyploidization, and the amphidiploids were crossed with A. hypogaea cv. IAC OL 4 to initiate the introgression of the wild genes into the cultivated peanut. The confirmation of the hybridity of the progenies was obtained by: (1 reproductive characterization through viability of pollen, (2 molecular characterization using microsatellite markers and (3 morphological characterization using 61 morphological traits with principal component analysis. The diploid hybrid individual was polyploidized, generating the amphidiploid An 13 (A. magna V 13751 x A. kempff-mercadoi V 132504x. Four F1 hybrid plants were obtained from IAC OL 4 × An 13, and 51 F2 seeds were obtained from these F1 plants. Using reproductive, molecular and morphological characterizations, it was possible to distinguish hybrid plants from selfed plants. In the cross between A. hypogaea and the amphidiploid, as the two parents are polyploid, the hybrid progeny and selves had the viability of the pollen grains as high as the parents. This fact turns the use of reproductive characteristics impossible for discriminating, in this case, the hybrid individuals from selfing. The hybrids between A. hypogaea and An 13 will be used in breeding programs seeking pest resistance, being subjected to successive

  3. Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatinwo, Rabiu O; Prabha, Thara V; Paz, Joel O; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2012-03-01

    Early leaf spot of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

  4. Omalizumab facilitates rapid oral desensitization for peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGinnitie, Andrew J; Rachid, Rima; Gragg, Hana; Little, Sara V; Lakin, Paul; Cianferoni, Antonella; Heimall, Jennifer; Makhija, Melanie; Robison, Rachel; Chinthrajah, R Sharon; Lee, John; Lebovidge, Jennifer; Dominguez, Tina; Rooney, Courtney; Lewis, Megan Ott; Koss, Jennifer; Burke-Roberts, Elizabeth; Chin, Kimberly; Logvinenko, Tanya; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Umetsu, Dale T; Spergel, Jonathan; Nadeau, Kari C; Schneider, Lynda C

    2017-03-01

    Peanut oral immunotherapy is a promising approach to peanut allergy, but reactions are frequent, and some patients cannot be desensitized. The anti-IgE medication omalizumab (Xolair; Genentech, South San Francisco, Calif) might allow more rapid peanut updosing and decrease reactions. We sought to evaluate whether omalizumab facilitated rapid peanut desensitization in highly allergic patients. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to omalizumab (n = 29) or placebo (n = 8). After 12 weeks of treatment, subjects underwent a rapid 1-day desensitization of up to 250 mg of peanut protein, followed by weekly increases up to 2000 mg. Omalizumab was then discontinued, and subjects continued on 2000 mg of peanut protein. Subjects underwent an open challenge to 4000 mg of peanut protein 12 weeks after stopping study drug. If tolerated, subjects continued on 4000 mg of peanut protein daily. The median peanut dose tolerated on the initial desensitization day was 250 mg for omalizumab-treated subjects versus 22.5 mg for placebo-treated subject. Subsequently, 23 (79%) of 29 subjects randomized to omalizumab tolerated 2000 mg of peanut protein 6 weeks after stopping omalizumab versus 1 (12%) of 8 receiving placebo (P omalizumab versus 1 subject receiving placebo passed the 4000-mg food challenge. Overall reaction rates were not significantly lower in omalizumab-treated versus placebo-treated subjects (odds ratio, 0.57; P = .15), although omalizumab-treated subjects were exposed to much higher peanut doses. Omalizumab allows subjects with peanut allergy to be rapidly desensitized over as little as 8 weeks of peanut oral immunotherapy. In the majority of subjects, this desensitization is sustained after omalizumab is discontinued. Additional studies will help clarify which patients would benefit most from this approach. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Houska, Milan; Reed, Shawndrika

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens. Since high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts containing caffeic acid were treated with each of the following: (1) HP; (2) HP+PPO; (3) PPO; and (4) none. HP was conducted at 300 and 500 MPa, each for 3 and 10 min, 37 °C. After treatment, SDS-PAGE was performed and allergenic capacity (IgE binding) was determined colorimetrically in inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots, using a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic patients. Data showed that HP alone had no effect on major peanut allergens. However, HP at 500 MPa combined with PPO (HP500/PPO) induced a higher (approximately twofold) reduction of major peanut allergens and IgE binding than PPO alone or HP300/PPO. There was no difference between treatment times. We concluded that HP500/PPO at 3-min enhanced a twofold reduction of the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts, as compared to PPO itself.

  6. Effects of packaging materials on storage quality of peanut kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoji; Xing, Shengping; Xiong, Huiwei; Min, Hua; Zhu, Xuejing; He, Jialin; Mu, Honglei

    2018-01-01

    In order to obtain optimum packaging materials for peanut kernels, the effects of four types of packaging materials on peanut storage quality (coat color, acid value, germination rate, relative damage, and prevention of aflatoxin contamination) were examined. The results showed that packaging materials had a major influence on peanut storage quality indexes. The color of the peanut seed coat packaged in the polyester/aluminum/polyamide/polyethylene (PET/AL/PA/PE) composite film bag did not change significantly during the storage period. Color deterioration was slower with polyamide/polyethylene (PA/PE) packaging materials than with polyethylene (PE) film bags and was slower in PE bags than in the woven bags. The use of PET/AL/PA/PE and PA/PE bags maintained peanut quality and freshness for more than one year and both package types resulted in better germination rates. There were significant differences between the four types of packaging materials in terms of controlling insect pests. The peanuts packaged in the highly permeable woven bags suffered serious invasion from insect pests, while both PET/AL/PA/PE and PA/PE bags effectively prevented insect infection. Peanuts stored in PET/AL/PA/PE and PA/PE bags were also better at preventing and controlling aflatoxin contamination. PMID:29518085

  7. Individually dosed omalizumab: an effective treatment for severe peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandström, J; Vetander, M; Lilja, G; Johansson, S G O; Sundqvist, A-C; Kalm, F; Nilsson, C; Nopp, A

    2017-04-01

    Treatment with omalizumab has shown a positive effect on food allergies, but no dosages are established. Basophil allergen threshold sensitivity (CD-sens) can be used to objectively measure omalizumab treatment efficacy and correlates with the outcome of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge to peanut. To evaluate whether individualized omalizumab treatment monitored by CD-sens could be an effective intervention for suppression of allergic reactions to peanut. Severely peanut allergic adolescents (n = 23) were treated with omalizumab for 8 weeks, and CD-sens was analysed before and after. Based on whether CD-sens was suppressed after 8 weeks, the patients either were subject to a peanut challenge or received eight more weeks with increased dose of omalizumab, followed by peanut challenge or another 8-week cycle of omalizumab. IgE and IgE-antibodies to peanut and its components were analysed before treatment. After individualized omalizumab treatment (8-24 weeks), all patients continued with an open peanut challenge with no (n = 18) or mild (n = 5) objective allergic symptoms. Patients (n = 15) needing an elevated omalizumab dose (ED) to suppress CD-sens had significantly higher CD-sens values at baseline 1.49 (0.44-20.5) compared to those (n = 8) who managed with normal dose (ND) 0.32 (0.24-5.5) (P omalizumab, monitored by CD-sens, is an effective and safe treatment for severe peanut allergy. The ratio of IgE-ab to storage protein Ara h 2/IgE as well as CD-sens to peanut may predict the need of a higher omalizumab dose. Clinical trials numbers: EudraCT; 2012-005625-78, ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT02402231. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement of iron nutrition of peanut in peanut/maize intercropping system by 14C tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Yuanmei; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo

    2004-01-01

    The related mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement iron nutrition of peanut intercropped with maize was investigated by 14 C tracer technique. Neighboring roots between maize and peanut were separated by a 30 μm nylon net, the iron nutrition of peanut was also improved just like normal intercropping of maize and peanut. The results proved that root exudates of maize played an important role in improvement iron nutrition of peanut. The photosynthesis carbohydrate of maize could exuded into the rhizosphere of peanut and transfer into shoot and root of peanut in intercropping system. Root exudates of maize could increased efficiency of iron in soil and improved iron utilization of peanut

  9. Honey roasted peanuts and roasted peanuts from Argentina. Sensorial and chemical analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosso, Nelson R.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the chemical and sensory aspects of Honey Roasted (HRP and Roasted Peanuts (RP. These products were evaluated for sensory analysis: overall acceptance using a consumer test and a descriptive analysis using a trained panel. Percentages of protein, oil, carbohydrate and ash was analyzed in HRP and RP. The contents of carbohydrate, oil and protein in HRP were 28.22%, 45.56% and 21.06%, respectively. RP showed higher percentages of lipids and protein and lower percentages of carbohydrate content than HRP. The total energetic value was lower in HRP. Values of 8 (like very much were chosen by a higher number of consumer panelist for HRP while values of 6 (like slightly were found in a higher proportion for RP. The trained panel described 11 attributes: brown color, roughness, roasted peanutty, oxidized, cardboard, sweet, salty, bitter, sour, hardness and crunchiness. The roasted peanutty intensity in RP was higher than in HRP. The intensities of roughness, sweet and salty in HRP were higher than in RP.El objetivo del trabajo fue caracterizar química y sensorialmente al Maní Tostado con Miel (MTM y Maní Tostado (MT. Estos dos productos fueron evaluados sensorialmente analizando su aceptabilidad por parte de consumidores (test de aceptabilidad y sus atributos sensoriales por el uso de un panel de jueces entrenados (prueba descriptiva. Por otra parte se describió la composición química porcentual: porcentajes de proteínas, aceites, hidratos de carbonos y cenizas. Los contenidos de hidratos de carbonos, aceites y proteínas en MTM fueron de 28,22%, 45.56% y 21,06%. MT presentó mayores porcentajes de lípidos y proteínas y menor contenido de hidratos de carbono que MTM. El valor energético total de MTM es levemente menor que en MT. La aceptabilidad de los productos mostró mayor número de consumidores que le asignaron un valor de 8 ( me gusta mucho dentro de una escala hedónica de 9 puntos a MTM y

  10. Agroclimatic zoning of peanut plants for the Bacia do Alto Paraguai, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Danilo Barbieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agroclimatic zoning of peanut plants for the Bacia do Alto Paraguai, Mato Grosso State, Brazil The success of a technified, productive and sustainable agriculture is achieved through the knowledge on climate and soil of a place, combined with their appropriate management. This study aimed to determine the agroclimatic zoning of peanut plants for the Bacia do Alto Paraguai, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, by identifying the cities with aptitude for exploring this crop and establishing the times for its sowing. Soil and climate conditions were evaluated for the region, respecting the cycle (90-120 days and water demands (400-600 mm of the crop. The water storage capacity (WSC and water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI were determined for the types of soil classified according to the clay content. It was possible to conclude that all cities that cultivate peanut plants have more than 50 % of WSC 75 soil type with more than 35 % of clay (Arenápolis, Barra do Bugres, Indiavaí, Lambarí D’Oeste, Nova Olímpia, Rondonópolis, São José dos Quatro Marcos and Tangará da Serra. Such soil favors a late cultivation, which can be performed up to the 7th ten-days period. For the WSC 30 soil type, with less than 15 % of clay, the cultivation should only start from the 6th ten-days period, due to its low water absorption capacity.

  11. Characterization of small RNA populations in non-transgenic and aflatoxin-reducing-transformed peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Imana L; Dang, Phat M; Sobolev, Victor S; Orner, Valerie A; Powell, Joseph L; Lamb, Marshall C; Arias, Renee S

    2017-04-01

    Aflatoxin contamination is a major constraint in food production worldwide. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), these toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins are mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus Link and A. parasiticus Speare. The use of RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising method to reduce or prevent the accumulation of aflatoxin in peanut seed. In this study, we performed high-throughput sequencing of small RNA populations in a control line and in two transformed peanut lines that expressed an inverted repeat targeting five genes involved in the aflatoxin-biosynthesis pathway and that showed up to 100% less aflatoxin B 1 than the controls. The objective was to determine the putative involvement of the small RNA populations in aflatoxin reduction. In total, 41 known microRNA (miRNA) families and many novel miRNAs were identified. Among those, 89 known and 10 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed in the transformed lines. We furthermore found two small interfering RNAs derived from the inverted repeat, and 39 sRNAs that mapped without mismatches to the genome of A. flavus and were present only in the transformed lines. This information will increase our understanding of the effectiveness of RNAi and enable the possible improvement of the RNAi technology for the control of aflatoxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adsorption of aqueous copper on peanut hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kanika Octavia

    A method was established for measuring the adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution to unmodified and modified peanut hulls at constant temperature and pH. Modification of the hulls was performed by oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. During the modification process, the hydrogen peroxide solubilizes the lignin component, making the surface more porous which increases the availability of binding sites, while simultaneously oxidizing the cellulose. The oxidation of alcohol groups creates more binding sites by creating functional groups such as COO-, which increases chelation to metal ions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms delignification of the peanut hulls by the disappearance of carboxyl peaks of the modified hulls, which were originally produced from the lignin content. Although, oxidation is not fully confirmed, it is not ruled out because the expected carboxylate peak (1680 cm-1) maybe overshadowed by a broad peak due to OH bending of water adsorbed to the hulls. Hulls adsorbed copper from solutions in the concentration range of 50-1000 ppm of CuCl2. Concentrations of pre- and post-adsorption solutions were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms were fit to known two and three-parameter models, evaluated and the binding mechanism was inferred. Maximum surface coverage was 3.5 +/- 0.6 mg Cu2+ /g hull for unmodified hulls and 11 +/- 1 mg Cu2+/g hull for modified hulls. The adsorption for the hulls is best described by the Langmuir model, suggesting monolayer, homogeneous adsorption. With a free energy of adsorption of 10.5 +/- 0.9 kJ/mol for unmodified hulls and 14.5 +/-0.4 kJ/mol for modified hulls, the process is categorized as chemisorption for both types of hulls. The adsorption for both hulls is also described by the Redlich-Peterson model, giving beta nearer to 1 than 0, which further suggests homogeneous adsorption described by the Langmuir model. After rinsing the hulls

  13. Evaluation of Forage Yield and Important Agronomic Indices of Corn Affected by Intercropping Systems with Peanut and Nitrogen Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nabati nasaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Multiple cropping such as intercropping plays an important role in agriculture because of maximizing beneficial interactions. Intercropping of legumes and cereals is an old practice in tropical agriculture that dates back to ancient civilization. Maize-legume intercrops could substantially increase forage quantity and quality and decrease requirement for protein supplements (Ahmad et al., 2008. Intercropping of cereals and legumes is important for development of sustainable food production systems. This may be due to some of the potential benefits in intercropping systems such as high productivity and profitability, improvement of soil fertility through the additional supply of N by fixation and excretion from the component legume, efficient use of resources, reducing damage caused by pests, diseases and weeds and improvement of forage quality (Ahmad et al., 2008; Fernandez-Aparicio et al., 2007; Lithourgidis et al., 2006. The main advantage of intercropping is more efficient utilization of the available resources and the increased productivity compared with each sole crop of the mixture. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate agronomic characteristics of corn and Land equivalent ratio (LER under intercropping with peanut and different rates of nitrogen. Materials and methods In order to evaluate the forage yield and important agronomic indices of corn (Zea mays L. affected by intercropping systems with peanut and different nitrogen rates, this experiment was performed in the experimental field of agricultural and natural resource research center of Guilan province, Rasht, Iran, during 2013-14 cropping season as a split plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. Nitrogen rates, including of zero, 100, 200 and 300 kg per hectare as main plot and sole cropping of corn and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., intercropping systems including of intercropping corn and peanut at ratio of 1:1, 2

  14. Molecular marker screening of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular marker screening of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) germplasm for Meloidogyne arenaria resistance. V Carpentieri-Pipolo, M Gallo-Meagher, DW Dickson, DW Gorbet, M de Lurdes Mendes, SG Hulse de Souza ...

  15. ( Amaranthus retroflexus ) density and biomass on peanut ( Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted in 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the effect of redroot pigweed on peanut. Redroot pigweed aboveground dry weight was 44, 42, 40, 38, 35 and 30 g plant-1 at density of 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.2, 2.3, or 4.7 plants m-1 of crop row. Peanut yield decreased as weed density increased. Yield reduction under redroot ...

  16. Allergenicity of Peanut Proteins is Retained Following Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Hydrolysis of peanut proteins by food-grade enzymes may reduce allergenicity and could lead to safer forms of immunotherapy. Methods: Light roasted peanut flour extracts were digested with pepsin (37°C, pH 2), Alcalase (60°C pH 8), or Flavourzyme (50°C, pH 7) up to 1 hr, or sequentially w...

  17. Molecular detection of toxigenic potential of fungi in peanut samples collected in retail shops in Maringá/PR, Brazil

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    Alessandra Valéria de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many foods are susceptible to fungal contamination. Grains, such as peanuts, are commonly affected, with consequences including compromised integrity and infeasibility for human and animal consumption. Furthermore, some fungi may pose a health risk, largely due the production of mycotoxins. Among these, aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus produce various carcinogenic, teratogenic, immunosuppressive, hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Molecular techniques have been used to identify and distinguish fungal species in foods. The objective of this study was molecular detection of Aspergillus species in peanut samples collected in stores in Maringá-PR, by amplification of fungal genetic material with specific primers for the intergenic spacer aflR-aflJ and later cutting with restriction enzymes. Of the 50 peanut samples analyzed, 27 were positive for the intergenic spacer aflR-aflJ, seven of which were identified as Aspergillus flavus. Our results demonstrate that peanuts sold in retail stores in this region have potential for contamination with toxigenic fungi.

  18. Detection, Characterization, and Biological Effect of Quorum-Sensing Signaling Molecules in Peanut-Nodulating Bradyrhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Giordano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Bradyrhizobium are able to establish a symbiotic relationship with peanut (Arachis hypogaea root cells and to fix atmospheric nitrogen by converting it to nitrogenous compounds. Quorum sensing (QS is a cell-cell communication mechanism employed by a variety of bacterial species to coordinate behavior at a community level through regulation of gene expression. The QS process depends on bacterial production of various signaling molecules, among which the N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs are most commonly used by Gram-negative bacteria. Some previous reports have shown the production of QS signaling molecules by various rhizobia, but little is known regarding mechanisms of communication among peanut-nodulating strains. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize QS signals produced by peanut-nodulating bradyrhizobial strains and to evaluate their effects on processes related to cell interaction. Detection of AHLs in 53 rhizobial strains was performed using the biosensor strains Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4 (pZLR4 and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 for AHLs with long and short acyl chains, respectively. None of the strains screened were found to produce AHLs with short acyl chains, but 14 strains produced AHLs with long acyl chains. These 14 AHL-producing strains were further studied by quantification of β-galactosidase activity levels (AHL-like inducer activity in NTL4 (pZLR4. Strains displaying moderate to high levels of AHL-like inducer activity were subjected to chemical identification of signaling molecules by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. For each AHL-producing strain, we found at least four different AHLs, corresponding to N-hexanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone (C6, N-(3-oxodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3OC10, N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3OC12, and N-(3-oxotetradecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3OC14. Biological roles of 3OC10, 3OC12, and 3OC14 AHLs

  19. The manufacture of particleboards using mixture of peanut hull (Arachis hypoqaea L.) and European Black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Cengiz; Copur, Yalcin; Tascioglu, Cihat

    2008-05-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the suitability of peanut hull to produce general purpose particleboards. A series of panels were produced using peanut hull and mixture of peanut hull and European Black pine wood chips. Particleboards were manufactured using various hull ratios in the mixture (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). Urea formaldehyde adhesive was utilized in board production and boards were produced to target panel's density of 0.7 g/cm3. Panels were tested for some physical (water absorption and thickness swelling), chemical (holocellulose content, lignin content, alcohol-benzene solubility, 1% NaOH solubility, hot water solubility and cold water solubility) and mechanical (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and internal bond) properties. The main observation was that increase in peanut hull in the mixture resulted in a decrease in mechanical and physical properties of produced panels and panel including 25% hull in the mixture solely met the standard required by TS-EN 312 standard. Conclusively, a valuable renewable natural resource, peanut hull could be utilized in panel production while it has been mixed to the wood chips.

  20. Peanut allergy in Mexican children: what is the effect of age at first consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedolla Barajas, Martín; Alcala-Padilla, Guadalupe; Morales Romero, Jaime; Camacho Fregoso, Jupiter; Rivera Mejía, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    Studies suggest that children who start solid foods early are at risk for developing food allergies. Herein, we evaluated the effects of the introduction of peanuts to the diets of children on emerging peanut allergies. Children with allergic rhinitis and asthma were enrolled in the present study and evaluated in four stages. In the first stage, a clinical history was completed for all participants. In the second stage, skin tests were conducted to detect the sensitization to peanuts. In the third stage, the parents were interviewed about the peanut-eating habits of their children. In the fourth stage, children with a convincing history of allergy or a positive peanut skin test result were subjected to an open oral food challenge (OOFC). Three hundred children in four groups were included, 58.2% of the subjects were male, and the mean age was 7.3±3.9 years. The median age of first exposure to peanuts in patients with peanut allergies was greater than that in children without peanut allergies (2 years versus 1 year; p=0.009). The multivariate analysis, including only those children subjected to the OOFC, revealed that the consumption of peanuts after the age of ≥2 years is a risk factor for developing a peanut allergy (odds ratio=8.0, 95% confidence interval 1.3-50.0, p=0.026). The results of the present study showed that the late introduction of peanuts to children increases the risk of developing a peanut allergy.

  1. KINETIKA PERUBAHAN KETENGIKAN (RANCIDITY KACANG GORENG SELAMA PROSES PENYIMPANAN Kinetics of Rancidity Changes of Fried Peanuts During Storage Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Maya Maharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rancidity is a damage or change in odor and flavor in the fat or fatty food. As one of the fatty food products, peanut is susceptible to rancidity during storage.The duration of heating oil resulting in changes of peroxide value of oil as a medium frying pan provides quality changes in fried ingredients. Besides that, availability of oxygen in the package would also affect on the rate of the rancidity process. The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model of rancidity changes of fried peanuts during storage expressed by increasing the numerical value of its peroxide. The variation of heating oil used were 0, 1, 2 and 3 hours. While the variation of ratio of peanut volume with the packaging material used were 1:6, 5:13 and 10:17. The results showed that the longer the heating oil, the greater the number peroxide as well as the number of results of frying beans. The smaller the volume ratio of peanuts to the packaging used, the greater the rate constant changes in peroxide value fried peanuts or the faster the rancidity of the peanut. The equation of constant rate of change of peroxide value fried peanuts (rancidity during storage could be expressed by P(t P0.e (0.17RS-0.10 Xt   ABSTRAK Ketengikan (rancidity merupakan kerusakan atau perubahan bau dan flavor dalam lemak atau bahan pangan berlemak. Sebagai salah satu produk  pangan  berlemak  kacang  rentan  terhadap  ketengikan  selama  penyimpanan.  Lama pemanasan minyak dapat mengakibatkan perubahan nilai angka peroksidanya, sehingga akan mempengaruhi kualitas pada bahan yang digoreng. Disamping itu ketersediaan oksigen dalam kemasan ditengarai juga akan mempengaruhi terjadinya proses ketengikan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengembangkan model matematis perubahan ketengikan kacang goreng selama penyimpanan yang dinyatakan dengan peningkatan nilai angka peroksidanya. Variasi lama pemanasan minyak yang digunakan adalah 0, 1, 2 dan 3 jam. Sedangkan variasi rasio volume

  2. Potential involvement of Aspergillus flavus laccases in peanut invasion at low water potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus (Link) accumulates aflatoxins in peanuts, mainly affecting immature kernels during drought. Peanut invasion by A. flavus induces synthesis of phytoalexins, mostly stilbenoids, as a plant defense mechanism. Fungal laccases are often related to pathogenicity, and among other subst...

  3. Isolation and characterization of drought-responsive genes from peanut roots by suppression subtractive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ding

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: We successfully constructed an SSH cDNA library in peanut roots and identified several drought-related genes. Our results serve as a foundation for future studies into the elucidation of the drought stress response mechanisms of peanut.

  4. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Ting; Liu, Chi-Te; Peng, I-Chen; Hsu, Chin; Yu, Roch-Chui; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2015-09-01

    To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Introduction of peanuts in younger siblings of children with peanut allergy: a prospective, double-blinded assessment of risk, of diagnostic tests, and an analysis of patient preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégin, P; Graham, F; Killer, K; Paradis, J; Paradis, L; Des Roches, A

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of peanut allergy in younger siblings of children with peanut allergy has been reported between 7% and 8.5%, but the anaphylactic risk at the time of introduction is currently unknown, which limits our ability to best counsel parents on this issue. To determine the risk of anaphylaxis and working parameters of allergy testing in this context. One hundred and fifty-four peanut-naïve younger siblings of peanut-allergic children underwent double-blinded skin testing, followed by parent-led peanut introduction. Questionnaires were dispensed to parents to investigate preferences with regard to peanut introduction in this subgroup. Eight participants (5.2%) presented unequivocal IgE-mediated reactions to peanut upon introduction, including five anaphylaxes. These participants were significantly older compared to the rest of the cohort (median 4.0 vs 1.9 years, P = 0.04). The negative predictive value of skin prick test with peanut extract and peanut butter and of specific IgE was 99%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Six peanut-tolerant participants had positive peanut allergy tests. The option of introducing at home without prior skin testing was associated with high levels of anxiety (median 8.4 on 10-point Likert scale) when compared to supervised introduction (median 3.8, P < 0.0001) or home introduction after negative skin test (median 4.3, P < 0.0001). There is an increased risk of anaphylaxis upon peanut introduction in siblings of children with peanut allergy, and parents are reluctant to introduce at home without testing. Allergy testing prior to introduction is negative in over 90% of cases and carries a high negative predictive value. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Pterocarpenes elicited by Aspergillus caelatus in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Victor S; Neff, Scott A; Gloer, James B; Khan, Shabana I; Tabanca, Nurhayat; De Lucca, Anthony J; Wedge, David E

    2010-12-01

    The substituted pterocarpenes named aracarpene-1 (1) and aracarpene-2 (2) were isolated from wounded peanut seeds challenged by a strain of Aspergillus caelatus. The structures of these putative phytoalexins were determined by interpretation of NMR and MS data. The aracarpenes were investigated for their antifungal and antibacterial activities as well as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities in mammalian cells. Aracarpene-2 demonstrated high antibacterial properties against tested gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, whereas aracarpene-1 displayed low antibacterial properties against the same bacteria. Both compounds had no antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus. Together with peanut stilbenoids that are also produced in the challenged seeds, these compounds may represent a class of low-molecular weight peanut metabolites with a defensive role(s) against pathogenic microorganisms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. CD4+ cells proliferate after peanut-extract-specific and CD8+ cells proliferate after polyclonal stimulation of PBMC of children with atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, M.P.; Tibbe, G.J.M.; Oranje, A.P.; Bosmans, E.P.E.; Neijens, H.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    1998-01-01

    Background Few studies describe in vitro food-allergen induced proliferative responses and cytokine production of PBMC of children with atopic dermatitis. This is especially true for peanut-allergen. Objectives To analyse the specificity of the T cell in proliferative responses, in children with

  8. Diversity of culturable root-associated/endophytic bacteria and their chitinolytic and aflatoxin inhibition activity of peanut plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Yan, Pei-Sheng; Ding, Qing-Long; Wu, Qin-Xi; Wang, Zhong-Bo; Peng, Jie

    2013-01-01

    A total of 72 isolates of root-associated/endophytic (RAE) bacteria were isolated from peanut plants grown in the main producing areas of 6 provinces in China. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates were determined and phylogenetic analyses revealed that 72 isolates belonged to the classes Bacilli (49 isolates) and Gammaproteobacteria (23 isolates). The majority of RAE bacteria in Bacilli belonged to 2 genera, Bacillus and Lysinibacillus (48 and 1) while those in Gammaproteobacteria belonged to the genera Enterobacter, Serratia, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas (7, 11, 3 and 2 isolates, respectively). This is the first report of Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus isolate as biocontrol agent against AFs. All of the selected RAE bacteria showed inhibitory activities against Aspergillus parasiticus (A. parasiticus) growth and/or aflatoxins (AFs) production by visual agar plate assay and tip culture method. Most of the RAE bacteria strains (96 % strains) were determined to have decreased mycelia growth or AFs production levels by >50 % (p chitinolytic activity and 22 strains (30 % strains) of identified RAE bacteria degraded colloidal chitin on the chitin medium plate. Ten selected chitinolytic RAE bacteria were tested for antifungal activity on peanuts and most of them significantly decreased mycelial growth and AFs production levels by >90 %. These results showed a wide distribution of biological control bacteria against AFs in Chinese peanut main producing areas and the selected RAE bacteria could potentially be utilized for the biocontrol of toxicogenic fungi.

  9. Bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO) decreases the food allergic response against peanut and ovalbumin in Brown Norway rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonge, Jonathan D. de; Ezendam, Janine; Knippels, Leon M.J.; Odink, Jennie; Pourier, Milanthy S.; Penninks, Andre H.; Pieters, Raymond; Loveren, Henk van

    2007-01-01

    Other factors than the allergen itself may be of importance in the development of food allergy. This report describes the influence of the immunosuppressive compound bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO), present in the food chain, on the development of food allergy to peanut or ovalbumin in Brown Norway (BN) rats. To study these effects BN rats were sensitized to either 1 or 10 mg peanut or ovalbumin by daily oral gavage and the TBTO-groups were fed a diet containing 80 mg TBTO per kg diet. Co-exposure to TBTO not only resulted in decreased general immunologic parameters such as weights of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, lymphocyte proliferation rates in splenocytes, but also on allergic parameters. In the peanut allergen-model TBTO decreased allergen-specific Th2 cytokine production by spleen cells, number of eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes in the blood and production of mast cell protease II after oral food challenge. In the ovalbumin allergen-model TBTO decreased the number of eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes, allergen-specific IgE and production of mast cell protease II after oral food challenge. The data imply that in the process of risk assessment of food allergy attention should be given to immunomodulating compounds present in the diet

  10. Evaluation effect of density and weeds control in corn (Zea mays L and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L intercropping by competition indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Rajaii

    2016-03-01

    treatments and increasing sowing ratio with bush density change (the distance change between two bushes on a row and variable distance between two rows (40 and 50 cm were carried out. In monoculture and alternative intercropping systems, the distance between bushes for both plants was identical, but alternative intercropping, a row of corn and a row peanut were planted and there were 30 plants of corn and 40 plants of peanut per unit area on each row. To intensify the intercropping, the distance between plants on the rows decreased and due to variable spacing between rows, number of plants per unit area increased and there were 60 corn plants and 80 peanuts plants per unit area on each row. Results and discussion The highest yield for corn (3.18 t.ha-1 was obtained in a intercropping of 100% corn+100% peanut and peanut (9.43 t.ha-1 in 50% corn+50% intercropping of peanut respectively. This means that the proximity of the legumes and grasses can be more productive in terms of intercropping than mono cropping system. The reason could be due to biological nitrogen fixation and increases in light absorption by roots of peanuts. Results indicated that various factors had significant effects on valuated index. The highest and least LER was in 100% corn + 100% peanut and 50% corn + 50% peanut. The highest RCC was for peanut, treatment non-weedy at higher population (7.41 and least was in the corn, treatment once-weedy at lower population (0.4. Corn competitive ratio on peanut in all treatments was less than one, which indicated peanut had advantage over corn. Based on this scale treatment with less density and twice-weedy was more dominate. The Aggressivity index for corn in all the treatments were negative but increased. Therefore in the all indices peanut was the dominant species, this was referred to better use of resources and weed control. Conclusion The results showed that both morphology and structure of the components of a intercropping, in dominant and recessive forms are

  11. Assessment of Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize, Peanut Meal and Poultry Feed Mixtures from Different Agroecological Zones in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Raphaël Kana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1% was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than all other commodities (10.0%–12.7%. Approximately 9% of maize samples were positive for aflatoxin, with concentrations overall ranging from <2 to 42 µg/kg. Most of the samples of peanut meal (100%, broiler (93.3% and layer feeds (83.0% were positive with concentrations of positive samples ranging from 39 to 950 µg/kg for peanut meal, 2 to 52 µg/kg for broiler feed and 2 to 23 µg/kg for layer feed. The aflatoxin content of layer feed did not vary by AEZ, while the highest (16.8 µg/kg and the lowest (8.2 µg/kg aflatoxin content of broiler feed were respectively recorded in Western High Plateau and in Rainforest agroecological zones. These results suggest that peanut meal is likely to be a high risk feed, and further investigation is needed to guide promotion of safe feeds for poultry in Cameroon.

  12. The Development of an Edible Peanut Protein Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, N.; Jones, G.; Aglan, H.; Lu, J.

    1998-01-01

    The peanut is one of the crops chosen for use in NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALS). The peanut is a source of both oil and protein. After oil is extracted from the peanut, a protein rich flour remains. An edible peanut protein film is one use for this flour. Two types of film are developed for this study, one set of film contains 10% fat while the other set contains no fat. For film without fat the defatting of the peanut by the Soxhlet method is the first step in the manufacturing process of the film. Secondly, the protein is precipitated at its isoelectric point (pH 4.5) and centrifuged to separate the protein from the non-protein. After freeze-drying the protein it is milled in a ceramic ball mill to decrease particle size and sifted through a series of sieves to determine particle size distribution. Those particles retained on the 100 mesh sieves are utilized for film formation. Larger particles are re-ground and sifted. Five grams of protein is mixed with 50 mL of distilled water, 70 mL of 80% ethanol, 15 mL of 6N ammonium hydroxide and a plasticizer. This mixture is heated for 30 minutes until the temperature reaches 70 C. The mixture is then poured onto a level Teflon coated glass surface. After allowing the film to form overnight under a ventilation hood, it is manually removed from the plate. The processes and methods adopted have created flexible films of uniform thickness that are free of air bubbles. Thickness of films made from defatted peanut protein and partially defatted peanut protein were 0.10 Lm and 0.13 Lm respectively. Films with natural peanut fat are approximately three times as flexible and almost four times as strong as the films made without fat. Further research will be performed to evaluate its mechanical properties. This paper will greatly contribute to food preservation and waste management. Potential applications of this film are edible/biodegradable containers, wrapping for food preservation (against water, oxygen and oil

  13. Peanut cross-reacting allergens in seeds and sprouts of a range of legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bjerreman; Pedersen, Mona H; Skov, Per Stahl

    2008-01-01

    protein extracts of seeds and sprouts (comprising cotelydons and hypocotyls/epicotyls) of peanut, soybean, green pea, blue lupine, mung bean, alfalfa, broad bean, and azuki bean were prepared. The reactivity of sera from 10 peanut-allergic patients to these extracts was analysed by indirect histamine......BACKGROUND: Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to identify immunoreactivity to seeds and sprouts of legumes other than peanut in sera from peanut-allergic patients. METHODS: Crude...

  14. Mechanism of the discrepancy in the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency between defatted peanut flour and peanut protein isolate by Flavorzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lin; Zhao, Yijun; Xiao, Chuqiao; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming; Su, Guowan

    2015-02-01

    Both defatted peanut flour (DPF) and peanut protein isolate (PPI) are widely used to prepare peanut protein hydrolysates. To compare their enzymatic hydrolysis efficiencies, DPF and PPI were hydrolysed by Alcalase, Neutrase, Papain, Protamex and Flavorzyme. Alcalase and Flavorzyme were found to be the most efficient proteases to hydrolyse both DPF and PPI. The efficiency was comparable to each other when using Alcalase, while PPI was hydrolysed less efficiently than DPF when using Flavorzyme. Analysis of changes in the protein solubility, subunit and conformation, and amino acid composition of DPF, PPI and their Flavorzyme hydrolysis residues indicated that the PPI preparation process had minimal effect on it, but peptide aggregation via non-covalent bonding (including hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds) during hydrolysis and/or thermal treatment after hydrolysis were likely responsible for the reduced hydrolysis efficiency of PPI by Flavorzyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of chemical ingredients of peanut stems and leaves extracts using UPLC-QTOF-MS coupled with novel informatics UNIFI platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Shi, Ai-Min; Liu, Hong-Zhi; Meruva, Naren; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Yang, Ying; Huang, Chun; Li, Peng; Wang, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    Peanut stems and leaves have been used traditionally as both herbal medicines and special food in Asia. In this study, the main functional compounds of peanut stems and leaves extracts were identified using UPLC separation coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS), and a traditional medicine library. Three different extraction solvents (ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and n-butanol) were evaluated to prepare the extracts of peanut stems and leaves. A total of 283 chemical compounds were identified in peanut stems and leaves extracts, of which 207 compounds are tentatively new identifications in Genus Arachis. The integration of data acquisition and processing with the traditional medicine library provides a simple, efficient process to effectively facilitate the identification of chemical ingredients in complex natural product extracts. The integrated workflow for separation, detection and identification of functional compounds in natural products using UPLC/QTOF-MS greatly improves productivity for development of traditional herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Novel and Stress Relevant EST Derived SSR Markers Developed and Validated in Peanut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas C Bosamia

    Full Text Available With the aim to increase the number of functional markers in resource poor crop like cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea, large numbers of available expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the public databases, were employed for the development of novel EST derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. From 16424 unigenes, 2784 (16.95% SSRs containing unigenes having 3373 SSR motifs were identified. Of these, 2027 (72.81% sequences were annotated and 4124 gene ontology terms were assigned. Among different SSR motif-classes, tri-nucleotide repeats (33.86% were the most abundant followed by di-nucleotide repeats (27.51% while AG/CT (20.7% and AAG/CTT (13.25% were the most abundant repeat-motifs. A total of 2456 EST-SSR novel primer pairs were designed, of which 366 unigenes having relevance to various stresses and other functions, were PCR validated using a set of 11 diverse peanut genotypes. Of these, 340 (92.62% primer pairs yielded clear and scorable PCR products and 39 (10.66% primer pairs exhibited polymorphisms. Overall, the number of alleles per marker ranged from 1-12 with an average of 3.77 and the PIC ranged from 0.028 to 0.375 with an average of 0.325. The identified EST-SSRs not only enriched the existing molecular markers kitty, but would also facilitate the targeted research in marker-trait association for various stresses, inter-specific studies and genetic diversity analysis in peanut.

  17. Transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing peanut BTF3 exhibit increased growth and tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthvi, V; Rama, N; Parvathi, M S; Nataraja, K N

    2017-05-01

    Abiotic stresses limit crop growth and productivity worldwide. Cellular tolerance, an important abiotic stress adaptive trait, involves coordinated activities of multiple proteins linked to signalling cascades, transcriptional regulation and other diverse processes. Basal transcriptional machinery is considered to be critical for maintaining transcription under stressful conditions. From this context, discovery of novel basal transcription regulators from stress adapted crops like peanut would be useful for improving tolerance of sensitive plant types. In this study, we prospected a basal transcription factor, BTF3 from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) and studied its relevance in stress acclimation by over expression in tobacco. AhBTF3 was induced under PEG-, NaCl-, and methyl viologen-induced stresses in peanut. The constitutive expression of AhBTF3 in tobacco increased plant growth under non stress condition. The transgenic plants exhibited superior phenotype compared to wild type under mannitol- and NaCl-induced stresses at seedling level. The enhanced cellular tolerance of transgenic plants was evidenced by higher cell membrane stability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity, seedling survival and vigour than wild type. The transgenic lines showed better in vitro regeneration capacity on growth media supplemented with NaCl than wild type. Superior phenotype of transgenic plants under osmotic and salinity stresses seems to be due to constitutive activation of genes of multiple pathways linked to growth and stress adaptation. The study demonstrated that AhBTF3 is a positive regulator of growth and stress acclimation and hence can be considered as a potential candidate gene for crop improvement towards stress adaptation. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Herbage intake, methane emissions and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass v. dwarf elephant grass and peanut pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E A; Almeida, E X; Raupp, G T; Miguel, M F; de Liz, D M; Carvalho, P C F; Bayer, C; Ribeiro-Filho, H M N

    2016-10-01

    Management strategies for increasing ruminant legume consumption and mitigating methane emissions from tropical livestock production systems require further study. The aim of this work was to evaluate the herbage intake, animal performance and enteric methane emissions of cattle grazing dwarf elephant grass (DEG) (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) alone or DEG with peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo). The experimental treatments were the following: DEG pastures receiving nitrogen fertilization (150 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate) and DEG intercropped with peanut plus an adjacent area of peanut that was accessible to grazing animals for 5 h/day (from 0700 to 1200 h). The animals grazing legume pastures showed greater average daily gain and herbage intake, and shorter morning and total grazing times. Daily methane emissions were greater from the animals grazing legume pastures, whereas methane emissions per unit of herbage intake did not differ between treatments. Allowing animals access to an exclusive area of legumes in a tropical grass-pasture-based system can improve animal performance without increasing methane production per kg of dry matter intake.

  19. Optimisation of chocolate formulation using dehydrated peanut-cowpea milk to replace dairy milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Herta; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Abbey, Lawrence; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

    2012-01-30

    The rheological properties of chocolate, based upon its acceptability by consumers, are determined largely by the ingredients and their proportions used in the formulations. Milk chocolates are very popular because milk provides flavour and smooth texture to the product. This study aimed to determine the optimal ingredient formulation for vegetable milk chocolate using peanut-cowpea milk as a substitute for dairy milk. The study followed a four-component constrained mixture design, with cocoa liquor, vegetable milk, cocoa butter and sugar as the components. Lecithin and vanillin were added at a constant amount to all formulations. Critical attributes of the chocolates were evaluated using descriptive sensory tests and instrumental techniques. Regression models were fitted to the data, and the optimum ingredient formulation for acceptable vegetable milk chocolate was determined. The vegetable milk had significant (P = 0.05) influence on flavour, mouth feel, hardness and after taste of chocolates. The optimum ingredient formulation for acceptable vegetable milk chocolates was determined to be cocoa liquor (18.00%), sugar (30.75%), peanut-cowpea milk (28.93%), and cocoa butter (22.32%). The results demonstrate that it is feasible to use vegetable source milk for chocolate. The findings also provide clues for scale-up criteria for large-scale production of vegetable milk chocolate. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Allergy or tolerance in children sensitized to peanut: prevalence and differentiation using component-resolved diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, Nicolaos; Poorafshar, Maryam; Murray, Clare; Simpson, Angela; Winell, Henric; Kerry, Gina; Härlin, Annika; Woodcock, Ashley; Ahlstedt, Staffan; Custovic, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    Not all peanut-sensitized children develop allergic reactions on exposure. To establish by oral food challenge the proportion of children with clinical peanut allergy among those considered peanut-sensitized by using skin prick tests and/or IgE measurement, and to investigate whether component-resolved diagnostics using microarray could differentiate peanut allergy from tolerance. Within a population-based birth cohort, we ascertained peanut sensitization by skin tests and IgE measurement at age 8 years. Among sensitized children, we determined peanut allergy versus tolerance by oral food challenges. We used open challenge among children consuming peanuts (n = 45); others underwent double-blind placebo-controlled challenge (n = 34). We compared sensitization profiles between children with peanut allergy and peanut-tolerant children by using a microarray with 12 pure components (major peanut and potentially cross-reactive components, including grass allergens). Of 933 children, 110 (11.8%) were peanut-sensitized. Nineteen were not challenged (17 no consent). Twelve with a convincing history of reactions on exposure, IgE > or =15 kUa/L and/or skin test > or =8mm were considered allergic without challenge. Of the remaining 79 children who underwent challenge, 7 had > or =2 objective signs and were designated as having peanut allergy. We estimated the prevalence of clinical peanut allergy among sensitized subjects as 22.4% (95% CI, 14.8% to 32.3%). By using component-resolved diagnostics, we detected marked differences in the pattern of component recognition between children with peanut allergy (n = 29; group enriched with 12 children with allergy) and peanut-tolerant children (n = 52). The peanut component Ara h 2 was the most important predictor of clinical allergy. The majority of children considered peanut-sensitized on the basis of standard tests do not have peanut allergy. Component-resolved diagnostics may facilitate the diagnosis of peanut allergy. Copyright

  1. Seleção de genótipos de amendoim forrageiro para cobertura do solo e produção de biomassa aérea no período de estabelecimento utilizando-se metodologia de modelos mistos Selection of forage peanut genotypes for ground cover and aerial biomass production during establishment period using mixed model methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Mariano Lessa de Assis

    2008-11-01

    greater ground cover and aerial biomass production during establishment period in the environmental conditions of Acre. The experiment was planted in December/2005, in a randomized block with four repetitions. Twenty one genotypes of forage peanut were evaluated, including three cultivars: Amarillo, Alqueire 1, and Belmonte. Genotype selection was based on ground cover and dry matter production. The ground cover evaluations took place between January and October 2006, at intervals of approximately four weeks. The dry matter production was measured 304 days after planting. The variance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method (REML and genotypic values were predicted by Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP, according the methodology of mixed models. Presence of genetic variability was verified for both traits. Individual heritabilities in the wide sense were of medium magnitude, presenting values of 0.36 to 0.58 for the traits ground cover and dry matter production, respectively. The largest variability among genotypes for ground cover occurred between the 12th and 16th week after planting, indicating that this interval is the most appropriate to select genotypes that cover the ground more quickly. Genotypic values for dry matter production ranged from 1,609 to 4,132 kg/ha for genotypes BRA 015083 and BRA 040550, respectively. The genotypes selected for greater ground cover and aerial biomass production during establishment period were Belmonte, Amarillo, BRA 040550, BRA 039187, Alqueire 1, BRA 039799 and BRA 035033.

  2. Physical and chemical analysis and fatty acid composition of peanut, peanut oil and peanut butter from ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seven, Serap

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In the samples of two different peanuts and peanut butters which were obtained from different locations of the same region, moisture, protein, oil, cellulose, ash and energy have been determined. Furthermore, the weight of 1000 seeds peanuts and their sizes have been measured. In the samples, Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se and V amounts have been established by using Inductivelly Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES. In the kernels and peanut butter, acidity, iodine and peroxide value, relative density, refractive index, tocopherol, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter have been determined. In the seed and butter oils of ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars, respectively; myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic, gadoleic and behenic acids were identified mainly by gas chromatography. The major fatty acids of peanut seeds and butter of both cultivar were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. Both variety exhibited higher concentrations of oleic acid. Consequently, peanut seeds and butters of ÇOM and NC-7 were found rich in oil, protein, oleic and linoleic acids and mineral compositions. Increasing of high oleic / linoleic ratio and tocopherol contents are very important due to stability of oil. Also, the peanut butter are nutritionally equivalent to peanut kernel.En las muestras de dos diferentes tipos de cacahuete y manteca de cacahuete, obtenidas de localidades diferentes de la misma región, se han determinado: humedad, proteína, grasa, celulosa, ceniza y energía. Por otro lado, se ha medido el peso de 1000 semillas y sus tamaños. En las muestras se han estudiado mediante un Espectrofotómetro de Emisión Atómica - Plasma con Acoplamiento Inductivo (ICP-AES el contenido en Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se y V. En los granos y en la manteca de cacahuete se ha determinado la acidez, el índice de iodo, el índice de per

  3. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor suppresses sensitization in a mouse peanut allergy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, V J; Smit, J J; Willemsen, K J; Fiechter, D; Hassing, I; Bleumink, R; Boon, L; van den Berg, M; van Duursen, M B M; Pieters, R H H

    2011-10-01

    Food allergy is an increasing health problem in Western countries. Previously, it has been shown that the intensity of food allergic reactions can be regulated by regulatory T (T(reg)) cells. In addition, it has been shown that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates T-cell responses by induction of T(reg) cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that activation of the AhR pathway can suppress development of food allergic responses through the induction of T(reg) cells. This was investigated by using a mouse model for peanut allergy. C3H/HeOuJ mice (AhR(b)(-2)) were sensitized to peanut by administering peanut extract (PE) by gavage in the presence of cholera toxin and were treated with the prototypical AhR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (0.6, 1.7, 5, and 15 μg/kg body weight) on days 3 and 11 orally. The functional role of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells was investigated by depleting these cells with anti-CD25 mAb during sensitization to PE. TCDD treatment dose dependently suppressed sensitization to peanut (PE-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a and PE-induced IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13, respectively). The percentage, but not the number, of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells dose dependently increased by AhR activation in both spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells markedly reversed the suppressive effect of TCDD on PE-specific antibody levels and PE-induced IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 cytokine production. Present data demonstrate for the first time that activation of the AhR by TCDD suppressed the development of Th2-mediated food allergic responses. A functional shift within the CD4(+) cell population toward CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells appeared to underlie this effect. This suggests that the AhR pathway might provide potential therapeutic targets to treat food allergic diseases.

  4. Sensory and chemical stability in coated peanuts with the addition of essential oils and synthetic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmedo, R. H.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of essential oils on the oxidative stability of coated peanuts. Untreated coated peanuts (CP and treated coated peanuts with the addition of rosemary (CP-R, oregano (CP-O and laurel (CP-L essential oils and BHT (CPBHT were prepared. Peroxide values (PV and p-anisidine values (AV and the intensity ratings of sensory attributes by descriptive analysis were measured during 112 days of storage at room temperature (23°C. CP-BHT exhibited the lowest PV and AV increase. CP-R, CP-O and CP-L showed lower rates of increase in PV and AV than CP. The oxidized and cardboard flavor intensity ratings increased much more in CP during storage than the other studied products. CPBHT also showed the lowest increase in the intensity ratings of these sensory attributes. Three essential oils, namely, laurel, oregano and rosemary showed antioxidant activity and increased the shelf life of coated peanuts.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto antioxidante de aceites esenciales sobre la estabilidad oxidativa en maní recubiertos. Se prepararon maníes recubiertos sin agregados (CP, y con el agregado de aceites esenciales de romero (CP-R, orégano (CP-O y laurel (CP-L y BHT (CPBHT. Se midieron, durante 112 días de almacenamiento, los valores de peróxidos (PV y p-anisidina (AV, y las intensidades de atributos sensoriales mediante análisis descriptivo. CP-BHT presentó el menor valor de PV y AV. CP-R, CP-O y CP-L tuvieron mayor PV y AV respecto a CP. Los valores de intensidad del sabor oxidado y cartón tuvieron un mayor incremento en CP durante el almacenamiento con respecto a los otros productos estudiados. La muestra CP-BHT también mostró los menores valores de intensidad de estos atributos sensoriales. Los aceites esenciales de laurel, orégano y romero presentaron actividad antioxidante e incrementaron la vida útil del maní recubierto.

  5. Acceleration of peanut breeding programs by molecular marker assisted selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut breeding has played a significant role in yield increases and disease control. Conventional breeding focuses on field selection and phenotypic analysis and it typically takes 12-15 years before a new cultivar can be released. Molecular markers developed from sequencing data can be of great ...

  6. High-efficiency regeneration of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... A high-efficiency regeneration system for peanut plants was established. The regeneration frequency of leaf discs reached 40.9% on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 naphthylacetic acid and 0.5 mg l-1 thidiazuron. The regenerated shoots elongated, developed roots and ...

  7. Some engineering properties of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea ) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, selected engineering properties (shape, size, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, colour, seed mass, volume, particle density, bulk density, porosity, surface area, angle of repose, and compressive strength) of three improved varieties of peanut; SAMNUT 10, SAMNUT 11, and SAMNUT 22 of both the whole ...

  8. Growing degree day and sunshine radiation effects on peanut pod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and development of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are affected by different uncontrollable environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of different planting dates, thermal temperatures (growing degree days, GDD) and daily sunshine duration on morphological and agronomic traits ...

  9. High-efficiency regeneration of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high-efficiency regeneration system for peanut plants was established. The regeneration frequency of leaf discs reached 40.9% on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 naphthylacetic acid and 0.5 mg l-1 thidiazuron. The regenerated shoots elongated, developed roots and produced seeds.

  10. Molecular marker screening of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker linked to a locus for resistance to. Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood race 1, along with visual evaluation following root staining were used to screen four breeding populations and three lines of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in a root-knot.

  11. The impact of application of biocar on peanuts growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Li, Na; Luo, Peiyu; Han, Xiaori; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-12-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the impact of application biocar on peanuts growing. It was based on a long-term fertilization experiment which researched the effect of applying different amounts of biochar and BBF when continuously cropping peanuts for 5 years. There were five treatments: no fertilizer, low level of biochar (C15), high level of biochar (C50), chemical nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) fertilizer and biochar-based fertilization (BBF).We determined peanuts stem and leaf weight, root weight, plant and the relative content of chlorophyll at every growth stages in 2016. The results showed that all fertilization can increase these indexes and in application of NPK improve them the most which close to BBF. The peanuts stem and leaf weight, root weight, plant and the relative content of chlorophyll was higher than the same level carbon treatment (C15) 62.85%, 6.67%, 18.73% and 25.58%, respectively. Expect stem and leaf weight, plant height, root weight and chlorophyll were higher when high level biochar (C50) applied than the low one (C15).

  12. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.): Origin and botanical descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the first description of the cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. by Linneaus in 1753, to the recent monograph on the taxonomy of genus Arachis (Krapovickas and Gregory 1994 and 2007), our knowledge of the genetic structure of the genus including its origin, variability, and geographical dis...

  13. Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination of peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under certain conditions Aspergillus plants and produce aflatoxin, one of the most highly carcinogenic natural substances known. An ongoing project seeks to reduce aflatoxin contamination of peanut (Arachis hypogae L.). This paper describes new research tools, which have been developed to reach this goal.

  14. SSR Markers Assessed for Peanut Smut Disease Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut smut disease, caused by Thecaphora frezii (Carranza & Lindquist), can result in yield losses higher than 50%. Several strategies have been developed for disease management but they are still insufficient. The smut genetic resistance found in wild species and Bolivian landraces is currently th...

  15. Particle shape anisotropy in pickering emulsions: cubes and peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Folter, Julius W J; Hutter, Eline M; Castillo, Sonja I R; Klop, Kira E; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K

    2014-02-04

    We have investigated the effect of particle shape in Pickering emulsions by employing, for the first time, cubic and peanut-shaped particles. The interfacial packing and orientation of anisotropic microparticles are revealed at the single-particle level by direct microscopy observations. The uniform anisotropic hematite microparticles adsorb irreversibly at the oil-water interface in monolayers and form solid-stabilized o/w emulsions via the process of limited coalescence. Emulsions were stable against further coalescence for at least 1 year. We found that cubes assembled at the interface in monolayers with a packing intermediate between hexagonal and cubic and average packing densities of up to 90%. Local domains displayed densities even higher than theoretically achievable for spheres. Cubes exclusively orient parallel with one of their flat sides at the oil-water interface, whereas peanuts preferentially attach parallel with their long side. Those peanut-shaped microparticles assemble in locally ordered, interfacial particle stacks that may interlock. Indications for long-range capillary interactions were not found, and we hypothesize that this is related to the observed stable orientations of cubes and peanuts that marginalize deformations of the interface.

  16. Cross-reactivity between peanut and lupin proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirtori, E.; Resta, D.; Arnoldi, A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wichers, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Peanut-allergic individuals may also react to lupin, which, for this reason, has been included in the EU list of food allergens. Since there is not yet any general consensus on the major allergen/s in lupin, the objective of this investigation was to compare the reactivity of the main lupin proteins

  17. Genetic transformation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    tissue culture response and plant regeneration has driven researchers to develop alternate transformation systems that target axillary meristem in the cotyledonary nodes (Somers et al 2003). We report here for the first time the mode of genetic transformation using cotyledonary node (CN) as an explant in peanut mediated ...

  18. Effect of Pyrasulfotole Carryover to Peanut and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southeastern United States, growers often double-crop soft red winter wheat with peanut. In some areas, tobacco is also grown as a rotational crop. Pyrasulfotole is a residual post-emergence applied herbicide used in winter wheat, but information about its effects on rotational crops is limi...

  19. Antioxidant capacity, nutritional and phytochemical content of peanut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While total phenolic, total saponins and phytic acid per 100 g dry weight samples ranged from 175 to 431 mg tannic acid equivalent, 10.8 to 23.4 mg and 108 to 159 mg, respectively. Peanut roots exhibited the highest total dietary fiber, phytochemical content and the highest α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical ...

  20. Genetic transformation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 2. Genetic transformation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using cotyledonary node as explant and a promoterless gus::nptII fusion gene based vector. T Swathi Anuradha S K Jami R S Datla P B Kirti. Articles Volume 31 Issue 2 June 2006 pp 235-246 ...

  1. Observational constraints to boxy/peanut bulge formation time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez, I.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Florido, E.; González Delgado, R. M.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; van de Ven, G.; Zurita, A.

    2017-01-01

    Boxy/peanut bulges are considered to be part of the same stellar structure as bars and both could be linked through the buckling instability. The Milky Way is our closest example. The goal of this Letter is to determine if the mass assembly of the different components leaves an imprint in their

  2. Sensory evaluation ratings and moisture contents show that soy is acceptable as a partial replacement for all-purpose wheat flour in peanut butter graham crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchik-Cerpovicz, Joelle E; Abbott, Amy E; Dent, Laura A

    2011-12-01

    Fortification can help individuals achieve adequate nutritional intake. Foods may be fortified with soy flour as a source of protein for individuals limiting their intake of animal products, either due to personal dietary preference or to reduce their intake of saturated fat, a known risk factor for heart disease. This study determined the feasibility of fortifying peanut butter graham crackers by substituting soy flour for all-purpose wheat flour at 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% weight/weight. Graham crackers fortified with soy flour were compared to similarly prepared nonfortified peanut butter graham crackers. Moisture contents of all graham crackers were similar. Consumers (n=102) evaluated each graham cracker using a hedonic scale and reported liking the color, smell, and texture of all products. However, unlike peanut butter graham crackers fortified with lower levels of soy, graham crackers fortified with 100% weight/weight soy flour had less than desirable flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability. Overall, this study shows that fortification of peanut butter graham crackers up to 75% weight/weight with soy flour for all-purpose wheat flour is acceptable. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro antithrombotic activities of peanut protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao Bing

    2016-07-01

    The antithrombotic activities of peanut protein hydrolysates were investigated using a microplates assay. When peanut proteins were hydrolyzed to a limited extent by various enzymes, their thrombin inhibitory abilities were significantly enhanced. However, the resultant hydrolysates showed significantly different activities even at the same degrees of hydrolysis. The hydrolysates generated by Alcalase 2.4L displayed the best antithrombotic activities and the hydrolysis process was further optimized by response surface methodology. The antithrombotic activities were increased to 86% based on a protein concentration of 50mg/ml under the optimal conditions: pH 8.5, enzyme concentration of 5000IU/g of peanut proteins, and 2h hydrolysis time at 50°C. The Alcalase 2.4L crude hydrolysates were then fractionated successively by preparative and semi-preparative reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The peptide fraction collected inhibited thrombin-catalyzed coagulation of fibrinogen completely at a concentration of 0.4mg/ml, with an antithrombotic activity close to that of heparin at quite a low concentration (0.2mg/ml). This peptide fraction was further analyzed by online reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and three new peptides were identified as Ser-Trp-Ala-Gln-Leu, Gly-Asn-His-Glu-Ala-Gly-Glu and Cys-Phe-Asn-Glu-Tyr-Glu, respectively. This research provided an effective way to produce antithrombotic peptides from peanut proteins, and also helped to elucidate the structure-function relationships of peanut peptides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim...

  5. Consensus Communication on Early Peanut Introduction and the Prevention of Peanut Allergy in High-risk Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleischer, David M.; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew; Campbell, Dianne; Chan, Edmond; Muraro, Antonella; Halken, Susanne; Katz, Yitzhak; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Eichenfield, Lawrence; Sampson, Hugh; Lack, Gideon; Du Toit, George; Roberts, Graham; Bahnson, Henry; Feeney, Mary; Hourihane, Jonathan; Spergel, Jonathan; Young, Michael; As'aad, Amal; Allen, Katrina; Prescott, Susan; Kapur, Sandeep; Saito, Hirohisa; Agache, Ioana; Akdis, Cezmi A.; Arshad, Hasan; Beyer, Kirsten; Dubois, Anthony; Eigenmann, Philippe; Fernandez-Rivas, Monserrat; Grimshaw, Kate; Hoffman-Sommergruber, Karin; Host, Arne; Lau, Susanne; O'Mahony, Liam; Mills, Clare; Papadopoulos, Nikolaus; Venter, Carina; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Kessel, Aaron; Antaya, Richard; Drolet, Beth; Rosenwasser, Lanny

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim

  6. Edible peanut worm ( Sipunculus nudus) in the Beibu Gulf: Resource, aquaculture, ecological impact and counterplan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Xie, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Changbo; Guo, Yongjian; Chen, Suwen

    2017-10-01

    Sipunculus nudus is an important economic species because of its high nutritional and medicinal values. The exploitation and utilization of S. nudus primarily occur in the coastal regions of the Beibu Gulf. However, wild resource of S. nudus is rapidly decreasing because of the overexploitation, which has led to considerable developments of artificial breeding techniques. The cultivation scale of S. nudus has increased in response to successful artificial breeding; however, methods for culturing S. nudus in tidal flats or ponds require further study. Most studies have focused on the breeding, nutrition, medical value and ecological impact of these worms. Studies on the distribution, sediment requirements, nutrition characteristics, breeding techniques and aquaculture ecology of this species are summarized in this paper to promote the development of the aquaculture industry for S. nudus. The high biomass of S. nudus in the Beibu Gulf is positively correlated with the sediment characteristics and water quality of the region. The production of peanut worm has improved to some extent through culturing; however, the nutrient value and ecological environment problems have been observed, which reflect the over exploitation of trace elements and the sediment. These problems will worsen unless they are resolved, and the release of organic materials, nitrogen and phosphorus during harvesting impacts the coastal environment. Moreover, genetic erosion is a potential risk for larvae in artificial breeding programs in tidal flats. Therefore, culturing and collecting methods should be improved and the wild resource conservation should be implemented to promote the sustainable development of the peanut worm.

  7. CROWDED HYBRID PANEL MANUFACTURED WITH PEANUT HULLS REINFORCED WITH ITAÚBA WOOD PARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Barbirato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815726In this paper, it was considered the study of the potential use of peanut hulls and wood particles of itaúba (Mezilaurus itauba species in order to add value to these materials through the manufacture of hybrid particle board in order to compare the physical and mechanical performances as well as durability. For these procedures, it was used the bi-component polyurethane resin based on castor beans (mammon oil and urea-formaldehyde. The product quality was evaluated based on the requirements of the standards NBR 14.810:2006 APA PRP and 108, through physico-mechanical and microstructural durability. The results indicate that the incorporation of wood particles warrants an increase in physical-mechanical properties of the particleboard manufactured with peanut hulls, the polyurethane resin based on castor oil was effective as a particle adhesive binder and the durability assay indicated that the material should be used under conditions of low exposure to moisture.

  8. Ara h 8, a Bet v 1-homologous allergen from peanut, is a major allergen in patients with combined birch pollen and peanut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittag, D.; Akkerdaas, J.; Ballmer-Weber, B.K.; Vogel, L.; Wensing, M.; Becker, W.M.; Koppelman, S.J.; Knulst, A.C.; Helbling, A.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, R. van; Vieths, S.

    2004-01-01

    We recently described patients with soybean allergy mainly mediated by cross-reactivity to birch pollen allergens. A majority of those patients were reported to have peanut allergy. We sought to study the occurrence of peanut allergy in patients allergic to birch pollen and characterized the Bet v

  9. Ara h 8, a Bet v 1-homologous allergen from peanut, is a major allergen in patients with combined birch pollen and peanut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittag, Diana; Akkerdaas, Jaap; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K.; Vogel, Lothar; Wensing, Marjolein; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Koppelman, Stef J.; Knulst, André C.; Helbling, Arthur; Hefle, Susan L.; van Ree, Ronald; Vieths, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently described patients with soybean allergy mainly mediated by cross-reactivity to birch pollen allergens. A majority of those patients were reported to have peanut allergy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the occurrence of peanut allergy in patients allergic to birch pollen and

  10. The prevalence of peanut sensitization and the association to pollen sensitization in a cohort of unselected adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade an increased occurrence of peanut hypersensitivity and severe anaphylactic reactions to peanut have been reported. However, few prevalence studies have been performed in unselected populations. This study evaluated the point prevalence of peanut hypersensitivity in Danish...... adolescents. The point prevalence of peanut allergy confirmed by oral challenge was estimated to 0.5%. The number of adolescents sensitized to peanut by specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (CAP FEIA) and skin prick test (SPT) were higher (5.8% resp. 3.4%). In adolescents without clinically relevant peanut...... sensitization most cases were sensitized to grass pollen and the IgE class for grass was higher than for peanut. A correlation between peanut and pollen (grass) sensitization is therefore plausible. Before a positive SPT or specific IgE measurement to peanut is considered clinically relevant in a patient...

  11. Highly Sensitive Matrix-Independent Quantification of Major Food Allergens Peanut and Soy by Competitive Real-Time PCR Targeting Mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladenburger, Eva-Maria; Dehmer, Markus; Grünberg, Ruben; Waiblinger, Hans-Ulrich; Stoll, Dieter; Bergemann, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    The development of two competitive real-time PCR assays for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of two major food allergens, peanut and soybean, is reported. In order to achieve very low detection levels for both allergens, we established PCR primers and probes targeting mitochondrial DNA sequences. We were able to demonstrate that this approach led to an increase in detection sensitivity in the range of at least 1 order of magnitude compared with published assays targeting nuclear DNA. Furthermore, we generated corresponding competitor molecules, which were used as internal standards to compete with matrix effects that are evident during DNA extraction and PCR amplification in heterogeneous analytical matrixes like food. According to the recently described competitive quantitative PCR method published by Holzhauser et al. (2014), we performed threshold calibration against milk powder spiked with 10 ppm peanut and soy. Matrix-independent quantitative determination of peanut and soy could be demonstrated for three different calibrated food matrix standards in a range between 1 and 100 ppm. The data presented indicate that both assay concepts are powerful analytical tools for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of peanut and soy in commercial food products.

  12. Evaluation of productive performance of 51 different peanut cocoon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Rice straw was used as cocoon mountage for cocoon spinning in each replication separately. After cocoon spinning development. (seven days after starting of cocoon spinning), produced cocoons are harvested and sorted based on form, thickness and clarity to four classes including, good, middle, double ...

  13. Using rating to evaluate quality of peanut products | Ogunsanwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality.

  14. Characterization of gamma irradiated peanut kernels stored one year under ambient and frozen conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, R.Y.Y.; Shyu, S.L.; Tsai, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Peanut kernels were gamma irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, and 20 KGy, and stored 1 yr at ambient and frozen (-14 degrees C) conditions. Irradiated peanuts lost germination capabilities during storage. Molds were detected only on peanuts irradiated with 2.5 KGy and stored at ambient temperature. Peanut oil in kernels stored at -14 degrees C was comparatively more stable than that in peanuts stored at ambient temperature. Oxidation of oil was not significantly changed by irradiation. Changes in fatty acid content varied slightly with exception of linoleic and linolenic acids which decreased with increased radiation depending on storage temperature. The SDS-PAGE protein patterns of peanuts revealed no noticeable variation of protein subunits resulting from irradiation and storage

  15. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rozalli, N. H.; Chin, N. L.; Yusof, Y. A.; Mahyudin, N.

    2015-01-01

    The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectiv...

  16. Seed germination of peanuts irradiated with cobalt (60CO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Niedja Marrize C.; Almeida, Francisco de Assis C.; Gomes, Josivanda P.; Pessoa, Elvira B.; Leal, Artur S. Cavalcanti

    2010-01-01

    This work was realized to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation ( 60 Co) at doses 0, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 2.50, 3.00 and 4.00 kGy, on germination of seeds of peanut, cultivar BR1. Irradiation Department of Nuclear, UFPE, where he received after the irradiation, they were stored in packing of PET and polyethylene braided with a time of 90 days. Through the results, obtained monthly, concluded that the dose of 0.5 kGy was effective in the germination of seeds of peanut, not affecting its power of germination and overcoming the witness within 30 to 60 days. (author)

  17. A study on the stomata mutation of peanut leaves and its relationship with drought resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Qingshu; Li Zhengchao; Hu Wenguang; Wu Lanrong

    1999-12-01

    Stomata mutation of leaves and its relationship with drought resistance were studied with four peanut mutants as well as original variety Baisha 1016. Results showed that irradiation was able to cause peanut leaf stoma to mutate. By comparing with original variety Baisha 1016, some of the mutants have more stomas, and some have less ones; some mutants have bigger stomas, some have smaller ones. The stomata numbers of peanut leaf have close relation to the drought resistance, while the stomata size seems to have no relation to it. It's possible that more drought-resistant variety or line could be elected among peanut mutants

  18. Diversity in Drought Traits among Commercial Southeastern US Peanut Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Devi, Mura Jyostna; Sinclair, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial peanut cultivars in the USA are often grown under soil and environmental conditions resulting in intermittent periods of water deficit. Two plant traits have been identified that result in conservative use of water and allow sustained growth during drought: (1) restricted transpiration rate under high atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and (2) earlier closure of stomata in the soil-drying cycle resulting in decreased daily transpiration rate. The objective of this study was t...

  19. Peanut allergy diagnoses among children residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Maria; Harnack, Lisa; Oberg, Charles; Schreiner, Pamela; St Sauver, Jennifer; Travis, Lori L

    2012-10-01

    Peanut allergy is a major health concern, particularly in developed countries. Research indicates that as many as 2% of children are allergic to peanuts, which represents a 3-fold increase in diagnoses over the past 2 decades. This population-based descriptive study used the Rochester Epidemiology Project to estimate the prevalence in 2007 and annual incidence rates of peanut allergy diagnoses from 1999 to 2007 among children residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Residents of Olmsted County from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2007, who received medical care at a Rochester Epidemiology Project facility and provided research authorization were eligible for the study. A medical chart review of 547 potential diagnoses resulted in 244 prevalent and 170 incident cases. Annual rates, crude and adjusted for age and sex, were standardized with the use of the indirect method to the Olmsted County population data in 1999. Incidence rate ratios were estimated with Poisson regression. The prevalence in 2007 was 0.65%. Female children were less likely to be diagnosed than male children (incidence rate ratio = 0.18; 95% CI, 0.07-0.48). Children aged birth to 2 years were significantly more likely to be diagnosed than older children aged 3-17 years (incidence rate ratio = 0.001; 95% CI, 0.0004-0.004). A significant 3-fold increasing trend was observed in diagnoses over time from 2.05 cases per 10,000 children in 1999 to 6.88 cases per 10,000 in 2007. Peanut allergies are an increasing concern in Olmsted County, Minnesota, as indicated by a 3-fold increase in diagnoses from 2.05 per 10,000 children in 1999 to 6.88 per 10,000 children in 2007. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A case of isocyanate-induced asthma possibly complicated by food allergy after peanut consumption: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhixha Fatmira

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isocyanates are extensively used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams, plastics, coatings or adhesives. They are a major cause of occupational asthma in a proportion of exposed workers. Recent findings in animal models have demonstrated that isocyanate-induced asthma does not always represent an IgE-mediated sensitization, but still a mixed profile of CD4+ Th1 and TH2, as well as a CD8+ immune response. Despite immunologic similarities between this pathology and IgE-mediated food allergies, this co-morbidity is rarely reported. Case presentation A 50-year old man employed as vehicle body painter, for 8 years complained about breathlessness, wheezing, sneezing, nasal obstruction and excessive production of mucus during the use of DuPont Refinish Centari Tintings – an acrylic enamel tint. Symptoms occurred 15–20 minutes after workplace exposure and usually persisted until evening, or at times, up to two consecutive days. The above mentioned symptoms were associated with a decrease of lung functions parameters. The use of inhaled adrenergic bronchio-dilatators and steroids relived the symptoms. In addition, three years ago he developed an anaphylactic reaction due to peanut consumption, experiencing urticaria, angioedema and airway obstruction. He was successfully treated in the hospital. Later, the subject exhibited labial itching, as well as orbital and perioral angioedema, 20 minutes after stationary performance of challenge test with peanuts. Evaluating the reported data, this process might be developed rather due to induction of a TH2 profile, because in both cases have occurred IgE-mediated symptoms. A less plausible mechanism could be the presence of isocyanates in peanuts due to a probable contamination by pesticides resulting in an allergic reaction after "consumption" of di-isocyanate as long as the isocyanate contamination of peanuts has not been proven. Conclusion Despite the lack of relevant laboratory

  1. Chemical composition of some wild peanut species (Arachis L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, N R; Nepote, V; Guzmán, C A

    2000-03-01

    Oil, protein, ash, and carbohydrate contents, iodine value, and fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seeds of Arachis trinitensis, A. chiquitana, A. kempff-mercadoi, A. diogoi, A. benensis, A. appressipila, A. valida, A. kretschmeri, A. helodes, A. kuhlmannii, A. williamsii, A. sylvestris, A. matiensis, A. pintoi, A. hoehnei, A. villosa, and A. stenosperma. Oil content was greatest in A.stenosperma (mean value = 51.8%). The protein level was higher in A. sylvestris (30.1%) and A. villosa (29.5%). Mean value of oleic acid varied between 30.6% (A. matiensis) and 46.8% (Arachis villosa), and linoleic acid oscillated between 34.1% (A. villosa) and 47.4% (A. appressipila). The better oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio was exhibited by A. villosa (1.38). Some species showed higher concentration of behenic acid. The greatest level of this fatty acid was found in A. matiensis (6.2%). Iodine value was lower in A. valida (99.2). The sterol composition in the different peanut species showed higher concentration of beta-sitosterol (mean values oscillated between 55.7 and 60.2%) followed by campesterol (12.4-16. 5%), stigmasterol (9.7-13.3%), and Delta(5)-avenasterol (9.7-13.4%). The chemical quality and stability of oils (iodine value and O/L ratio) from wild peanut studied in this work are not better than those of cultivated peanut.

  2. Pyrolysis Processing of Waste Peanuts Crisps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grycová Barbora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes are the most frequent "by-product" of human society. The Czech Republic still has a considerable room for energy reduction and material intensiveness of production in connection with the application of scientific and technical expertise in the context of innovation cycles. Pyrolysis waste treatment is a promising alternative to the production of renewable hydrogen as a clean fuel. It can also reduce the environmental burden and the amount of waste in the environment at the same time.

  3. IL-7Rα and L-selectin, but not CD103 or CD34, are required for murine peanut-induced anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltby Steven

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergy to peanuts results in severe anaphylactic responses in affected individuals, and has dramatic effects on society and public policy. Despite the health impacts of peanut-induced anaphylaxis (PIA, relatively little is known about immune mechanisms underlying the disease. Using a mouse model of PIA, we evaluated mice with deletions in four distinct immune molecules (IL7Rα, L-selectin, CD34, CD103, for perturbed responses. Methods PIA was induced by intragastric sensitization with peanut antigen and cholera toxin adjuvant, followed by intraperitoneal challenge with crude peanut extract (CPE. Disease outcome was assessed by monitoring body temperature, clinical symptoms, and serum histamine levels. Resistant mice were evaluated for total and antigen specific serum IgE, as well as susceptibility to passive systemic anaphylaxis. Results PIA responses were dramatically reduced in IL7Rα−/− and L-selectin−/− mice, despite normal peanut-specific IgE production and susceptibility to passive systemic anaphylaxis. In contrast, CD34−/− and CD103−/− mice exhibited robust PIA responses, indistinguishable from wild type controls. Conclusions Loss of L-selectin or IL7Rα function is sufficient to impair PIA, while CD34 or CD103 ablation has no effect on disease severity. More broadly, our findings suggest that future food allergy interventions should focus on disrupting sensitization to food allergens and limiting antigen-specific late-phase responses. Conversely, therapies targeting immune cell migration following antigen challenge are unlikely to have significant benefits, particularly considering the rapid kinetics of PIA.

  4. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim...... guidance based on consensus among the following organizations: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology...

  5. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim...... guidance based on consensus among the following organizations: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; American Academy of Pediatrics; American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy; Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology...

  6. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food ntroduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim...... guidance based on consensus among the following organizations: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; American Academy of Pediatrics; American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy; Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology...

  7. Tillage as a tool to manage crop residue: impact on sugar beet production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Chélin, Marie; Degrune, Florine; Parvin, Nargish; Bodson, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Crop residues and plant cover represent a pool of organic matter that can be used either to restore organic matter in soils, and therefore maintain soil fertility, or that can be valorized outside of the field (e.g. energy production). However, it is crucial that the exportation of residues is not done to the detriment of the system sustainability. Three long term experiments have been settled in the loamy region in Belgium. All of them are designed to study the effect of residues management by several tillage systems (conventional plowing versus reduced tillage) on the whole soil-water-plant system. SOLRESIDUS is a field experiment where we study the impact of crop residue management while in SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS, we study the impact of cover crop management. SOLRESIDUS was started in 2008. In this field, four contrasted crop residues managements are tested in order to contrast as much as possible the responses from the soil-water plant system. Two practices characterize the four modalities: soil tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth or reduce tillage at 10 cm max) and residue management (exportation or restitution). SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS were started in 2012 and 2013 respectively. In those fields cover crop management is also diverse: destruction of the cover crop by winter ploughing, spring ploughing, strip tillage (with a chemical destruction if needed) or shallow tillage (with a decompaction before cover crop sowing). Although although the overall project aims at studying the impact of management on the whole soil-water-plant system, here we will only present the results concerning crop production (sugar beet) in SOLCOUVERT experiments. The presented data will include germination rate, crop development (biomass quantification and BBCH stages) weeds population, disease occurrence, pest occurrences, nitrogen uptake by plants, quality and quantity of harvested products.

  8. UAV remote sensing for phenotyping drought tolerance in peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balota, Maria; Oakes, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Farmers can benefit from growing drought tolerant peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars with improved yield when rainfall is sporadic. In the Virginia-Carolina (VC) region, drought is magnified by hot summers and usually occurs in July and Aug when pod and seed growth are intense. At these growth stages, weekly supply of 50 to 75 mm of water is needed to ensure profitability. Irrigation can supplement crop water needs, but only 10% of the peanut farms are irrigated. In this frame, drought tolerant varieties can be profitable, but breeding for cultivars with improved drought tolerance requires fast yet accurate phenotyping. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of UAV remote sensing technologies for drought tolerance selection in peanut. In this study, we examined the effect of drought on leaf wilting, pod yield, grading characteristics, and crop value of 23 peanut cultivars (Virginia, Runner, and Valencia type). These varieties were arranged in a factorial design, with four replications drought stressed and two replications well-watered. Drought was imposed by covering the drought stressed plots with rainout shelters on July 19; they remained covered until August 29 and only received 38 mm irrigation in mid Aug. The well-watered plots continued to receive rain and supplemental irrigation as needed. During this time, Canopy Temperature Depression (CT) and Normalized Differential Vegetative Index (NDVI) were collected from the ground on all plots at weekly intervals. After the shelters were removed, these measurements were collected daily for approximately 2 weeks. At the same time, Red-Green-Blue (RGB), near-infrared (NIR), and infrared (IR) images taken from an UAV platform were also collected. Vegetation indices derived from the ground and aerial data were compared with leaf wilting, pod yield and crop value. Wilting, which is a common water stress symptom, was best estimated by NDVI and RGB, and least by CT; but CT was best in estimating yield, SMK and

  9. Biocompatibility of sweetpotato and peanut in a hydroponic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortley, D. G.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Morris, C. E.; Hall, R.; Sullen, D.

    1998-01-01

    'Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and TU-82-155 sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were grown in monocultured or intercropped recirculating hydroponic systems in a greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The objective was to determine whether growth and subsequent yield would be affected by intercropping. Treatments were sweetpotato monoculture (SP), peanut monoculture (PN), and sweetpotato and peanut grown in separate NFT channels but sharing a common nutrient solution (SP-PN). Greenhouse conditions ranged from 24 to 33 degrees C, 60% to 90% relative humidity (RH), and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of 200 to 1700 micromoles m-2 s-1. Sweetpotato cuttings (15 cm long) and 14-day-old seedlings of peanuts were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart within and 25 cm apart between growing channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with a 1 N: 2.4 K ratio was used. Solution pH was maintained between 5.5 and 6.0 for treatments involving SP and 6.4 and 6.7 for PN. Electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. The number of storage roots per sweetpotato plant was similar for both SP and SP-PN. Storage root fresh and dry mass were 29% and 36% greater, respectively, for plants in the SP-PN treatment than for plants in the SP treatment. The percent dry mass of the storage roots, dry mass of fibrous and pencil roots, and the length-to-diameter ratio of storage roots were similar for SP and SP-PN sweetpotato plants. Likewise, foliage fresh and dry mass and harvest index were not significantly influenced by treatment. Total dry mass was 37% greater for PN than for SP-PN peanut plants, and pod dry mass was 82% higher. Mature and total seed dry mass and fibrous root dry mass were significantly greater for PN than for SP-PN plants. Harvest index (HI) was similar for both treatments. Root length tended to be lower for seedlings grown in the nutrient solution from the SP-PN treatment.

  10. Mixed antibody and T cell responses to peanut and the peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6 in an oral sensitization model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, F. van; Hartgring, S.; Koppelman, S.J.; Pieters, R.; Knippels, L.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Peanut allergy is known for its severity and persistence through life. Several peanut proteins have been identified as allergenic and are indicated as Ara h 1-7. Very little is known about the mechanisms that underlie sensitization to peanut proteins. Objective: The purpose of the

  11. Relevance of Ara h1, Ara h2 and Ara h3 in peanut-allergic patients, as determined by immunoglobulin E Western blotting, basophil-histamine release and intracutaneous testing: Ara h2 is the most important peanut allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Wensing, M.; Ertmann, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Knol, E.F.

    2004-01-01

    Background: A number of allergenic proteins in peanut has been described and the relative importance of these allergens is yet to be determined. Objectives: We have investigated the relevance of previously identified peanut allergens in well-characterized peanut-allergic patients by in vitro, ex

  12. Effect of heating and glycation on the allergenicity of 2S albumins (Ara h 2/6) from peanut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Yvonne M.; Blanc, Fany; Skov, Per Stahl; Johnson, Phil E.; Rigby, Neil M.; Przybylski-Nicaise, Laetitia; Bernard, Hervé; Wal, Jean-Michel; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke; Jansen, Ad P. H.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wichers, Harry J.; Mackie, Alan R.; Mills, Clare E. N.; Adel-Patient, Karine

    2011-01-01

    Peanut allergy is one of the most common and severe food allergies, and processing is known to influence the allergenicity of peanut proteins. We aimed to establish the effect of heating and glycation on the IgE-binding properties and biological activity of 2S albumins (Ara h 2/6) from peanut.

  13. Duttonite, a new quadrivalent vanadium oxide from the Peanut mine, Montrose County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mary Eleanor; Roach, Carl Houston; Meyrowitz, Robert

    1956-01-01

    Duttonite, a new quadrivalent vanadium oxide from the Peanut mine, Montrose County, Colo., has the formula VO(OH)2. The mineral occurs as crusts and coatings of pale-brown transparent platy crystals, as one of the first oxidation products of montroseite ore. It is associated with melanovanadite and abundant crystals of hexagonal native selenium. Duttonite is biaxial positive, 2V is about 60°, dispersion is r v, moderate; X = a, pale pinkish brown; Y = c, pale yellow-brown; Z = b, pale brown; α = 1.810 ± 0.003, β = 1.900 ± 0.003, γ > 2.01. The hardness is about 2.5; the calculated specific gravity is 3.24. The chemical analysis shows, in percent: V2o3 2.6, V2O4 75.3, FeO 0.4, H2O 18.1, insoluble 4.2, total 100.6. Duttonite is monoclinic, ao = 8.80 ± 0.02A, bo - 3.95 ± 0.01A, co - 5.96 ± 0.02A, β = 90°401 ± 51. The space group is I2/c, (C62h); the cell contents are 4[VO(OH)2]. The crystals are strongly pseudo-orthorhombic, and the structure departs only slightly from the space group Imcm. Duttonite is named for Captain Clarence Edward Dutton (1841-1912). A detailed study of the geology, geochemistry, and mineralogy of the vanadium-uranium ore at the Peanut mine, Montrose County, Colo., was begun early in 1954 by Carl H. Roach of the U. S. Geological Survey. A number of rare and new minerals were found in the ore and the study of these samples was undertaken by Mary E. Thompson. Duttonite is the first new vanadium mineral to be described from the Peanut mine. It is named for Captain Clarence Edward Dutton (1841-1912), who was one of the first geologists to work in the Colorado Plateau region and who was a member of the U. s. Geological Survey from 1879-91. We are indebted to the following members of the Geological Surbey: K. E. Valentine for spectrographic analyses of duttonite, and M. E. Mrose and H. T. Evans, Jr., for measurement of the unit cell constants. This work is part of a program being conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey on behalf of the

  14. Contributions of plant introductions to the ancestry of current U.S. peanut cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant introductions (PIs) have been used in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) improvement in the U.S.A. since the inception of peanut breeding there in the 1930s. One might think that the era of screening collections of PIs for pest resistances or other economically important traits then crossing selecte...

  15. Recovery and Purification of Spanish High Oleate Peanut ‘AT-9899’

    Science.gov (United States)

    “AT-9899” developed in Golden Peanut Company in 2002 is a Spanish market type peanut. It has spreading growth habit and mid maturity. Due to high level of oleate and small seed size, it is grown specifically for confectionery market in the USA and Mexico. However, from the time of development and ...

  16. Randomized Controlled Trial of Use of the Peanut Ball During Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Cheryl; Dent, Sarah A; Parfitt, Sheryl E; Hering, Sandra L; Bay, R Curtis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of peanut ball use on duration of first stage labor and pushing time in women who were scheduled for elective induction of labor at ≥39 weeks gestation and planning an epidural. In this randomized controlled trial, women having labor induction and planning a labor epidural were assigned (1:1) to one of two groups: one group used a peanut ball and one group did not. Outcome variables were time spent in first stage labor and time spent pushing. Factors included group assignment (peanut ball, no peanut ball), parity (primiparous, multiparous), and race. Age and maximum oxytocin dose served as covariates. Among women having elective induction with epidural analgesia, use of a peanut ball reduced first stage labor duration for primiparous patients significantly more than multiparous patients, p = 0.018. There was no significant difference in the reduction of length of first stage labor for multiparous women, p = 0.057 with use of the peanut ball. Peanut ball use did not alter length of pushing time for either group, p > 0.05. Use of peanut balls may reduce total labor time to a greater degree in primiparous patients than multiparous patients having elective induction at ≥39 weeks with epidural analgesia.

  17. Which test is best for diagnosing peanut allergy in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [8] with a positive result (>0.35 kU/L) to Ara h 2 having a high predictive value for peanut allergy. In Medi terranean countries, the lipid transfer factor Ara h 9 is an important peanut allergen.[9] Ara h 8, in the PR10 protein group of labile food.

  18. Identification and partial characterization of multiple major allergens in peanut proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E.C. de; Zijverden, M. van; Spanhaak, S.; Koppelman, S.J.; Pellegrom, H.; Penninks, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Peanuts are a major cause of food allergies both in children as in adults which can induce an anaphylactic shock. The identification and characterization of peanut allergens could lead to more insight into the mechanism and contribute to the improvement of diagnostic tests and treatment

  19. Minimising the effects of drought stress on growth of two peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major cash crop in the semi-arid tropics, where it is mainly grown under rainfed conditions. Inadequate soil fertility (especially N and P), drought and diseases are important factors causing low yields. Peanut forms two types of symbiotic associations with micro-organisms, one with ...

  20. Functional properties of peanut fractions on the growth of probiotics and foodborne bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mengfei; Bitsko, Elizabeth; Biswas, Debabrata

    2015-03-01

    Various compounds found in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) have been shown to provide multiple benefits to human health and may influence the growth of a broad range of gut bacteria. In this study, we investigated the effects of peanut white kernel and peanut skin on 3 strains of Lactobacillus and 3 major foodborne enteric bacterial pathogens. Significant (P growth stimulation of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus was observed in the presence of 0.5% peanut flour (PF) made from peanut white kernel, whereas 0.5% peanut skin extract (PSE) exerted the inhibitory effect on the growth of these beneficial microbes. We also found that within 72 h, PF inhibited growth of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), while PSE significantly (P growth of both EHEC and Salmonella Typhimurium. The cell adhesion and invasion abilities of 3 pathogens to the host cells were also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by 0.5% PF and 0.5% PSE. These results suggest that peanut white kernel might assist in improving human gut flora as well as reducing EHEC, whereas the beneficial effects of peanut skins require further research and investigation. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Safety Assessment of Donkwa – An Indigenous Maize-Peanut Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Donkwa is a maize-peanut based street-vended snack commonly consumed in Nigeria and other West African countries. Donkwa is produced from the mixture of roasted-ground peanut and maize with or without addition of pepper, which is then moulded into small shapes. The safety of the street-vended donkwa, which ...

  2. Quality characteristics of oil extracted from gamma irradiated peanut (Arachis hypogea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation and storage on the characteristics of oil extracted from peanut seeds has been investigated in this study. Peanut seeds were undergone gamma irradiation process with the doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy. The changes in chemical and physical attributes were observed immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of storage. The data obtained from the experiments showed that irradiation process had no effect on the chemical and physical qualities such as, fatty acid composition, peroxide value, iodine value specification number, TBA value and color of oil extracted from peanut seeds. On the contrary, the peroxide, acidity and TBA values of the peanut oil were decreased due to storage time. - Highlights: • Peanut seeds were undergone gamma irradiation (1, 2 and 3 kGy). • The change in physicochemical properties of peanut oil was determined. • Gamma irradiation process had no effect on physicochemical properties of peanut oil. • The peroxide, acidity and TBA values of the peanut oil were decreased due to storage time

  3. Drivers of Preference and Perception of Freshness in Roasted Peanuts (Arachis spp.) for European Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    Roasted peanuts are a popular snack in Europe, but their drivers of liking and perceived freshness have not been previously studied with European consumers. Consumer research to date has been focused on U.S. consumers, and only on specific peanut cultivars. In this study, 26 unique samples were

  4. Immunotherapy using algal-produced Ara h1 core domain suppresses peanut allergy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated adverse reaction to a subset of proteins found in peanuts. Immunotherapy aims to desensitize allergic patients through repeated and escalating exposures for several months to years using extracts or flours. The complex mix of proteins and variability between prepara...

  5. Hypoallergenic Edible Peanut Protein Matrix to Enable Novel Functional Food & Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergies can present life-threatening consequences; therefore, there is an intense interest in developing therapeutic strategies that could reduce the danger and severity of the allergic reaction in peanut sensitive patients. We have developed a unique technology to modify or mask allergenic...

  6. Novel strategy to create a hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol edible matrices for oral immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergy affects approximately 1% of infants and children and 0.6% of adults in the U.S., and is responsible for the majority of fatal allergic reactions. Generally, immunoglobulin E (IgE) binds to epitopes on peanut proteins, triggering the cascades responsible for the allergic response. Poly...

  7. Compositional and Mechanical Properties of Peanuts Roasted to Equivalent Colors using Different Time/Temperature Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts in North America and Europe are primarily consumed after dry roasting. Standard industry practice is to roast peanuts to a specific surface color (Hunter L-value) for a given application; however, equivalent surface colors can be attained using different roast temperature/time combinations,...

  8. Which test is best for diagnosing peanut allergy in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred participants (59 Xhosa (black Africans) and 41 of mixed race, median age 42 months) were enrolled. Overall, 44% of patients were peanut sensitised and 25% had a true peanut allergy. SPTs and ImmunoCAP Ara h 2 produced the highest areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for predicting ...

  9. Evaluation of Peanut Meal as an Alternative Dietary Protein Source for Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of peanut meal as an alternative protein source in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in a 9-week study under controlled laboratory conditions. Five practical diets (28% crude protein and 6% crude lipid) were formulated to contain 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25% peanut meal as a ...

  10. Analysis of ingredient functionality and formulation optimization of an instant peanut beverage mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Brandy M; Hung, Yen-Con; McWatters, S Kay

    2010-01-01

    Powder for an instant shake-style beverage was created using partially defatted peanut flour (12% fat), granulated sugar, and nonfat dry milk (NFDM). The 3 main components, along with constant amounts of stabilizing gums and anti-caking silica, were mixed together and finely milled in a Super Wing Mill to further reduce the particle sizes. Drinks from each formula variation were prepared and analyzed for viscosity (digital viscometer), color (colorimeter), and separation rate. Each beverage was also analyzed by consumers to determine acceptability of flavor, mouth-feel, and color. Physical test results show that viscosity increased with increasing proportion of peanut flour in the formula, and viscosity decreased with increasing levels of sugar and NFDM. For each formula, the samples at refrigerated temperature (4 degrees C) were less viscous than those at ambient temperatures (23 to 25 degrees C). Color values show that the beverage powder color was mostly influenced by peanut flour percentage, becoming darker with increasing levels of peanut flour. Prepared beverage color was influenced by both NFDM and peanut flour percentage; lightness increased with increasing NFDM percentage and decreased with increasing peanut flour percentage. Separation rates were most affected by the proportion of NFDM in the formula; higher levels decreased the rate of separation. Refrigeration slowed the rate of separation in all samples. Response surface analysis of consumer test data showed that the most acceptable formulation for the peanut beverage included approximately equal amounts of peanut flour, sugar, and NFDM.

  11. Nondestructive analysis of in-shell peanuts for moisture content using a custom built NIR Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Custom made NIR spectroscope was used to determine the moisture content of in-shell peanuts of two different market types namely Virginia and Valencia. Peanuts were conditioned to different moisture levels between 6 and 26 % (wet basis). Samples from the different moisture levels were separated i...

  12. Allergen Ara h 1 occurs in peanuts as a large oligomer rather than as a trimer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, E.L. van; Beers, M.M.C. van; Koppelman, S.J.; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Gruppen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Ara h 1, a major peanut allergen, is known as a stable trimeric protein. Nevertheless, upon purification of native Ara h 1 from peanuts using only size exclusion chromatography, the allergen appeared to exist in an oligomeric structure, rather than as a trimeric structure. The oligomeric structure

  13. Laboratory, Environmental, and Epidemiologic Investigation and Regulatory Enforcement Actions in Response to an Outbreak of Salmonella Bredeney Infections Linked to Peanut Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Viazis, Stelios; Beal, Jennifer K.; Monahan, Caitlin; Lanier, William A.; Kreil, Katherine R.; Melka, David C.; Boden, William D.; Dion, Jamie L.; Miller, Zachary A.; Nguyen, Thai-An; Gieraltowski, Laura B.; Zink, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Background.  In September 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state and local partners investigated an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Bredeney linked to peanut butter (PB). Methods.  A case was defined as infection with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney between June 1, 2012 and October 31, 2012. Food exposure questionnaires were analyzed by the CDC to determine the food vehicle. The FDA reviewed production ...

  14. Which test is best for diagnosing peanut allergy in South African children with atopic dermatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Claudia Liesel; Levin, Michael E; Du Toit, George

    2016-01-06

    Diagnosing peanut allergy based on sensitisation alone leads to an unacceptable rate of overdiagnosis. To define parameters that may help differentiate peanut allergy from asymptomatic sensitisation in a cohort of South African (SA) children with atopic dermatitis (AD). It is the first study in SA to utilise oral food challenge tests and analyse peanut component patterns. This was a prospective, observational study at a paediatric university hospital in Cape Town, SA. Children with AD, aged 6 months - 10 years, were recruited randomly. They were assessed for sensitisation and allergy to peanut by questionnaire, skin-prick tests (SPTs), immuno solid-phase allergen chip (ISAC) tests, ImmunoCAP component tests to Ara h 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9, and incremental food challenges. One hundred participants (59 Xhosa (black Africans) and 41 of mixed race, median age 42 months) were enrolled. Overall, 44% of patients were peanut sensitised and 25% had a true peanut allergy. SPTs and ImmunoCAP Ara h 2 produced the highest areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for predicting peanut allergy in peanut-sensitised patients. The ISAC test was less sensitive, more specific and produced significantly lower median values than ImmunoCAP tests. Ara h 2 was the most useful component in differentiating allergy from tolerance in both ethnic groups, being positive in 92% of allergic and 40% of sensitised but tolerant children (p<0.001). There was little additional contribution from Ara h 1 and 3. Ara h 8 and 9 were associated with tolerance. Commonly used 95% positive predictive values (PPVs) for SPTs, peanut-specific IgE and Ara h 2 levels fared suboptimally in our population. Maximum PPVs for this study population were found at SPT 11 mm, peanut IgE 15 kU/L and ImmunoCAP Ara h 2 of 8 kU/L, but these adjusted levels still had suboptimal PPVs in Xhosa subjects. Severe peanut allergy was associated with increased median peanut IgE and Ara h 2. The component Ara h 2 was useful for

  15. Caregiver and expecting caregiver support for early peanut introduction guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhawt, Matthew; Chan, Edmond S; Fleischer, David M; Hicks, Allison; Wilson, Rachel; Shaker, Marcus; Venter, Carina; Stukus, David

    2018-03-07

    Recent guidelines recommend early peanut introduction (EPI) beginning around 4-6 months in infants with either severe eczema and/or egg allergy, and around 6 months for all other infants. Caregiver preferences for such practices are unkown. We explored preferences for EPI and in-office allergy risk assessment (IRA) through a nationally-representative survey of expecting (n=1000) and new caregivers of infants < 1 year (n=1000). Among a primarily female (99.7%), married (80.3%), and white (74.4%) sample, 29% had no/vague awareness of the new guidelines, 61% had no/minimal concern for their child developing food allergy, but 54% felt timing of introduction has moderate/strong importance for developing food allergy. Only 31% expressed willingness for EPI before/around 6 months of life, with 40% reporting willingness to introduce peanut after 11 months of life, similar to tree nuts and seafood. However, 60% reported willingness to introduce egg before 8 months. 51% and 56.8% were unwilling to allow IRA methods such as skin testing and oral challenge before 11 months of life, respectively. Odds of willingness to both delay peanut introduction and undergo challenge after 6 months of life were lower among expecting caregivers (OR 0.79, CI 0.65-0.96; OR 0.67, CI 0.54-0.82, respectively). Among new and expecting caregivers, there is poor current willingness and questionable support for early allergenic solid food recommendations, including IRA before introduction. Willingness was better among expecting versus current caregivers. These trends underscore a need for broader formal implementation planning to facilitate early allergen introduction and maximize its preventive benefits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Effect of gamma radiation in peanuts for inhibition of Aspergillus flavus and nutritional composition; Irradiacao gama em amendoim para controle de Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L.F.; Silva, E.B. da, E-mail: lauryfrancis@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, I.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CAV/UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria

    2013-08-15

    Care in food storage, controlling humidity and temperature, prevents fungal diseases in peanuts and the development of filamentous fungi in food and feed, which can result in the production of toxins known as mycotoxins. Ionizing radiation is a preventive method of food security, promoting inhibition of buds, delayed maturation, reduction of microbial load, elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, sterilization and disinfection in grains, cereals, fruits and spices. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on the growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic fungi and on nutritional composition in peanut. Samples were collected directly from the producer (Petrolandia) and Supply Central of Pernambuco (CEASA-PE), and then grains inside / outside pods were packed and subjected to irradiation at doses of 6, 9, 12 and 15 kGy. Fungal growth and nutritional composition of the samples before and after irradiation were analyzed and statistical analysis using the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon. The results showed that the samples originated from CEASA-PE had the highest rates of contamination. The radiation was effective in the inhibition of aflatoxigenic fungi, achieving to eliminate the action of fungi, regardless of dose. Only one non-irradiated sample, originated from CEASA-PE, showed positive production of aflatoxins in the middle LCA. No significant difference in the values of the nutritional composition, with increasing radiation dose. The irradiation was shown to be an effective process for preserving peanuts, because it prevents the growth of fungi, particularly aflatoxin producer, making it safer for consumption, without changing its nutritional composition. (author)

  17. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li Wang

    Full Text Available Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0, stearic acid (C18:0, arachidic acid (C20:0, gadoleic acid (C20:1, behenic acid (C22:0, and lignoceric acid (C24:0 are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL populations namely S-population (high oleic line 'SunOleic 97R' × low oleic line 'NC94022' and T-population (normal oleic line 'Tifrunner' × low oleic line 'GT-C20' were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE. Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition.

  18. Mycological and toxicological analysis of peanuts and derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson de Lima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nomius produce toxins, which are secondary metabolites called aflatoxins. These toxin-producing species grow rapidly on peanuts and cereals in favorable conditions of temperature and humidity. Their toxins can either cause acute effects, and even be lethal or accumulate in the organism, resulting in liver cancer in the long term. Based on the health risks of aflatoxins in food, a research was conducted on peanuts and derivatives sold in Alfenas, MG, Brazil, to evaluate the presence of Aspergillus sp. and aflatoxins. The samples were randomly collected at “popular stores”, from November 2008 to May 2009, to assess the occurrence of aflatoxins B1 , B2, G1 and G2by thin layer chromatography (TLC. The mycological analysis revealed the presence of fungi in 50% of the samples: Penicillium sp. (53.85%, A. flavus (19.23%, A. niger (15.38% and A. fumigatus (11.54%, and 63.64% of these showed the presence of aflatoxins : B1 (43.14%, B2 (25.49%, G1 (23.53% and G2 (7.84%. Itis concluded that the results reported here are a cause for concern, given the harmfulness of these cumulative and carcinogenic toxins.

  19. Interaction of propiconazole in the peanut leafspot disease complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    (/sup 14/C)-Propiconazole exhibited characteristics of an apoplastic xenobiotic being acropetally translocated via the transpiration stream to the foliage following root exposure in peanut (Arachis hypogeaea). When applied to leaves, radioactivity was detected distal to the point of application and accumulated along the margins of treated leaves. Redistribution to untreated plant parts was not observed. (/sup 14/C)-propiconazole rapidly penetrated the cuticle of leaves. However, leaves treated with a mixture of (/sup 14/C)-propiconazole and Penetrator 3 exhibited significantly greater foliar uptake of radioactivity than leaves treated with (/sup 14/C)-propiconazole alone. In replicated experiments, leafspot infection (caused by Cercospora arachidicola or Cercosporidium personatum) decreased quadratically with increasing application rate of Tilt 3.6EC (propiconazole) or Vangard 1.0EC (etaconazole). Combinations of fungicide and penetrator 3 gave slightly greater reductions of infection relative to fungicide alone but had no effect on yield. Propiconazole had no effect on the uptake or incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-acetate into the total lipid (TL) of peanut leaf tissue. (/sup 14/C) in the total fatty acids and non-saponifiable lipids was 10 to 20% greater, respectively, in treated tissue relative to the untreated control. Radioactivity of 4-demethyl sterols was up to 57% lower in treated leaves but no differences in radioactivity were detected in 4-methyl and 4,14-dimethyl sterols.

  20. Morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus irradiated on peanut grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Valeria B.; Maia, Maria C.A.; Couto, Maria A.P.G.; Vital, Helio C.; Souza, Mauro C.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus inoculated on peanuts and irradiated. The effects of radiation on the morphology of the fungus were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The experiments were performed with samples of peanuts in natura (raw and peeled) purchased in supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were inoculated with the fungal strain Aspergillus ochraceus (CMT 00145) in petri plates that were kept incubated in a BOD germination chamber at 25 degree C for 5 days. They were then exposed to gamma radiation from a cesium-137 source to doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 kGy at an average dose rate of approximately 1.6 kGy/h. Radiosensitivity as well as morphological and microscopic changes induced by irradiation were investigated for colonies kept for 7 days in MEA medium at 25 degree C. Inactivation was found to occur for all colonies irradiated with 5 kGy and for none irradiated with 2.0 kGy or less. Also investigated was the time needed for irradiated colonies to resume growth. The impact of irradiation on the morphological and microscopic characteristics of the fungus were found to become significant at doses above 1 kGy, causing some structures to gradually shrink or even vanish with increasing dose. (author)

  1. Peanut Seed Vigor Evaluation Using a Thermal Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Grey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments conducted from 2007 to 2009 evaluated germination of 11 peanut runner-type cultivars. Germination was evaluated in Petridishes incubated over a thermal gradient ranging from 14 to 30°C at 1.0 C increments. Beginning 24 hr after seeding, peanut was counted as germinated when radicles were greater than 5 mm long, with removal each day. Germination was counted daily for seven days after seeding. Growing-degree day (GDD accumulation for each temperature increment was calculated based on daily mean temperature for that Petri dish. Two indices were obtained from a logistic growth curve used to elucidate seed germination by cultivar: (1 maximum indices of germination and (2 GDD value at 80% germination (Germ80, an indication of seed vigor the lower the Germ80 value, the greater the seed lot vigor. Based on the two indices, seed lots “AT 3081R”, “AP-3”, “GA-06G”, and “Carver” had the strongest seed vigor (Germ80 26 to 47 GDD and a high maximum incidence of germination rate (80 to 94%. Seed lots of “C99-R”, “Georgia-01R”, “Georgia-02C”, and “Georgia-03L” had inconsistent seed performance, failing to achieve 80% germination in at least two of three years.

  2. Food grade fungal stress on germinating peanut seeds induced phytoalexins and enhanced polyphenolic antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Huang, Dejian

    2011-06-08

    The effects of food grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus stress on phytochemicals and phytoalexins of germinating peanut seeds were investigated by comparing the metabolic profiles of ungerminated (UG), germinated (G), and germinated seeds under fungal stress (GS). Three types of peanut seeds with different skin color (red, reddish brown, and black) were compared in the process. The polyphenolic contents were analyzed and correlated with antioxidant capacity for specific free radicals including peroxyl radical ROO(•) (ORAC), hydroxyl radical HO(•) (HORAC), superoxide radical O(2)(•-) (SORAC), and DPPH radical. The polyphenolic fingerprints analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS(n) showed that phenolic acids (coumaric, sinapinic, and ferulic acids derivatives) were the major group of phenolic compounds in ungerminated seeds. G or GS increased the level of phenolic acids, phytoalexins, and antioxidant capacity values in reddish and red peanuts but not in black peanuts. From the LC-MS(n) spectral data, 45 compounds were identified tentatively in the germinated peanuts, including 14 coumaric acids, 3 ferulic acids, 4 sinapinic acids, 2 hydroxybenzoic acids, 1 caffeic acid, 2 flavonoids, and 19 stilbenoids derivatives. Reddish brown germinated peanuts produced the highest amount of phytoalexins after GS with 55 compounds detected. Forty-five of these compounds were suggested as stilbenoid phytoalexins derivatives. The high content of phytoalexins may enhance the bioactivity of peanut seeds as functional food ingredients.

  3. Peanut allergy as a family project: social relations and transitions in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensgaard, Anette; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Nielsen, Dorthe

    2017-11-01

    To explore and better understand the impact that peanut allergy can have on family experiences in everyday life through interviews with individual family members. Peanut allergy affects adolescents' quality of life through the need to avoid eating peanut-containing food and the risk of anaphylaxis. Adolescence is a period of increasing separation from parents and has the highest risk of food fatalities. A qualitative interview study taking a phenomenological-hermeneutical approach. Data were generated through semi-structured individual interviews with the adolescent with peanut allergy, and both parents and a sibling. Five families were interviewed, with 20 participants in total. The theoretical foundation was the family as an interactive system, and data were analysed with Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. The consequences of peanut allergy appeared to affect all family members and required knowledge and understanding, especially in the social network. Siblings took responsibility and had concerns for the well-being of the adolescent with allergy, while parents expressed difficulties with their child's transition to independence and their subsequent loss of control. Social relations with new family members or friends were challenged by lack of knowledge about the potential seriousness of peanut allergy. Risk and uncertainty were permanent companions for the adolescents with peanut allergy and their families. It takes time to acquire the necessary understanding about peanut allergy and the risk of anaphylaxis. The adolescent's social network also needs this knowledge during the transition to independent living. In the management of peanut allergy in adolescence, it is important to consider not only the smaller biological family unit (mothers, fathers and siblings) but to also take a wider perspective to include others such as stepfamily and friends. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Analysis of Phenotypic Manifestation of peanut Gene Expression Suppression by RNAi in Drosophila Oogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetova, K A; Dorogova, C N; Chesnokov, I N; Fedorova, S A

    2015-09-01

    The peanut gene functions in Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis were studied. It was demonstrated that the suppression of peanut expression by RNA interference in the ovary follicular cells results in the violation of oocyte polarization, anomalous cytokinesis in the chorion cells, and violation of the chromatin condensation in follicular cells. No oogenesis violations were observed in females with decreased peanut gene expression or an absence of the Pnut protein in the ovary generative cells. However, embryos produced by such females had a decreased survival rate caused by two death peaks.

  5. Supplementation with a new trypsin inhibitor from peanut is associated with reduced fasting glucose, weight control, and increased plasma CCK secretion in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serquiz, Alexandre C; Machado, Richele J A; Serquiz, Raphael P; Lima, Vanessa C O; de Carvalho, Fabiana Maria C; Carneiro, Marcella A A; Maciel, Bruna L L; Uchôa, Adriana F; Santos, Elizeu A; Morais, Ana H A

    2016-12-01

    Ingestion of peanuts may have a beneficial effect on weight control, possibly due to the satietogenic action of trypsin inhibitors. The aim of this study was to isolate a new trypsin inhibitor in a typical Brazilian peanut sweet (paçoca) and evaluate its effect in biochemical parameters, weight gain and food intake in male Wistar rats. The trypsin inhibitor in peanut paçoca (AHTI) was isolated. Experimental diets were prepared with AIN-93G supplemented with AHTI. Animals had their weight and food intake monitored. Animals were anesthetized, euthanized, and their bloods collected by cardiac puncture for dosage of cholecystokinin (CCK) and other biochemical parameters. Supplementation with AHTI significantly decreased fasting glucose, body weight gain, and food intake. These effects may be attributed to increased satiety, once supplemented animals showed no evidence of impaired nutritional status and also because AHTI increased CCK production. Thus, our results indicate that AHTI, besides reducing fasting glucose, can reduce weight gain via food intake reduction.

  6. Effect of industrial, municipal and agricultural wastes on peanut in lateritic sandy loam soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.; Khan, A.R.

    2002-06-01

    Modern agriculture, worldwide, depends upon the external application of plant nutrients supplied mostly through chemical fertilizer to meet the crop needs. The natural recycling cannot provide the very large amount of nutrients needed year after year in an intensive cropping system and nutrients being a major constraint harvesting the nutrient energy from biological and industrial waste are of prime importance for maximizing the food grain production in the world. A number of industrial wastes like fly ash from thermal power plants, paper factory sludge from paper factory, sewage sludge from municipal source and farmyard manure from livestock farming are the important waste resources, having potentiality in recycling in agricultural land. When these wastes are recycled through soil for crop production, due to the degradative and assimilative capacity of soil, the pollution hazards of these wastes can be minimized to a greater extent as compared to direct disposing of at the site. Fly ash is a waste product residue resulting from the combustion of pulverised coal in coal-fired power generating station. Physico - chemical analysis of fly ash has revealed the presence of both macro-micro nutrients, which can sustain plant growth. Its application in the agricultural land acts as a liming material and improves crop growth by neutralizing the soil acidity, increasing the water availability for the plants and supplement of nutrients (Adriano et al, 1980, Molliner and Street, 1982, Schnappinger et al, 1975). Application of paper factory sludge has been reported to increase the organic carbon content in soil and nutrient content like P, K, Ca, Mg and micronutrients (Guerini et al, 1994, Muse and Mitchell, 1995). Sludge application also improves the organic carbon content of the soil and availability of nutrients like Ca, K and Mg besides improvement of physical properties (Pitchel and Hayes, 1990). Much is known regarding crop performance and changes in physical and

  7. Peanut plant growth and yield as influenced by co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium and some rhizo-microorganisms under sandy loam soil conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Sh.F. Badawi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of tested rhizomicrobial isolates (Serratia marcescens and Trichoderma harzianum along with a strain of root nodule bacteria (Bradyrhizobium spp. to exhibit some PGP-properties was evaluated in vitro conditions. The main PGP-properties, namely the ability to solubilize-P and production of IAA, as well as production of siderophores and HCN were examined. Additionally, field trials were conducted on sandy loam soil at El-Tahrir Province during two successive summer seasons to study the effect of co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium either individually or together with S. marcescens and/or T. harzianum on nodulation, some plant growth characters, peanut yield and its yield components. The in vitro experiment revealed that all of the tested microorganisms were apparently able to trigger PGP-properties. Phosphate solubilization was the common feature of the employed microorganisms. However, T. harzianum appeared to be superior to other microorganisms, and Bradyrhizobium displayed the lowest capacity. The ability of the microorganisms to produce indole compounds showed that S. marcescens was more effective in IAA production and followed by Bradyrhizobium. Capacity of S. marcescens and T. harzianum to excrete ferric-specific ligands (siderophores and HCN was detected, while Bradyrhizobium failed to produce such compounds. Results of field trials showed that the uninoculated peanut had the least nodulation status, N2-ase activity and all vegetative growth characters in both studied seasons. Bacterization of peanut seeds with bradyrhizobia exerted considerable improvement in number and mass of root nodules, increased the rate of acetylene reduction and all growth characters in comparison to the uninoculated control. The synergy inoculation between bradyrhizobia and any of the tested microorganisms led to further increases of all mentioned characters and strengthened the stimulating effect of the bacterial inoculation. However, the promotive

  8. Effects of soil moisture and temperature on preharvest invasion of peanuts by the Aspergillus flavus group and subsequent aflatoxin development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R A; Blankenship, P D; Cole, R J; Sanders, T H

    1983-02-01

    Four soil temperature and moisture treatment regimens were imposed on Florunner peanuts 94 days after planting in experimental plots in 1980. At harvest (145 days after planting), the incidence of the Aspergillus flavus group and the aflatoxin concentration were greatest in damaged kernels. Extensive colonization of sound mature kernels (SMK) by the A. flavus group occurred with the drought stress treatment (56% kernels colonized); colonization was less in the irrigated plot (7%) and the drought stress plot with cooled soil (11%) and was intermediate in the irrigated plot with heated soil (26%). Aflatoxin was virtually absent from SMK with the last three treatments, but it was found at an average concentration of 244 ppb (ng/g) in drought-stressed SMK. Colonization of SMK by the A. flavus group and aflatoxin production were greater with hot dry conditions. Neither elevated temperature alone nor drought stress alone caused aflatoxin contamination in SMK. When the ratio of SMK colonized by A. flavus compared with A. niger was greater than 19:1, there was aflatoxin contamination, but there was none if this ratio was less than 9:1. Irrigation caused a higher incidence of A. niger than drought did. This may have prevented the aflatoxin contamination of undamaged peanuts.

  9. Genetic Mapping of Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in Arachis stenosperma: A New Source of Nematode Resistance for Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya C. M. Leal-Bertioli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne sp. are a major threat to crops in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The use of resistant crop varieties is the preferred method of control because nematicides are expensive, and hazardous to humans and the environment. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea is infected by four species of RKN, the most damaging being M. arenaria, and commercial cultivars rely on a single source of resistance. In this study, we genetically characterize RKN resistance of the wild Arachis species A. stenosperma using a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between A. duranensis and A. stenosperma. Four quantitative trait loci (QTL located on linkage groups 02, 04, and 09 strongly influenced nematode root galling and egg production. Drought-related, domestication and agronomically relevant traits were also evaluated, revealing several QTL. Using the newly available Arachis genome sequence, easy-to-use KASP (kompetitive allele specific PCR markers linked to the newly identified RKN resistance loci were developed and validated in a tetraploid context. Therefore, we consider that A. stenosperma has high potential as a new source of RKN resistance in peanut breeding programs.

  10. Fortification of cookies with peanut skins: effects on the composition, polyphenols, antioxidant properties, and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Vidal, Carolina Maldonado Martins; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2014-11-19

    Food fortification may be carried out to improve the health status of consumers. In this study, peanut skins were added at 1.3, 1.8, and 2.5% to cookies to increase their polyphenol content. Insoluble fiber was increased by up to 52%. In addition, total phenolic content and the corresponding antioxidant capacities also increased as evidenced by increases of epicatechin and procyanidin dimers A and B. In addition, trimers and tetramers of procyanidins were identified only in peanut skin-fortified cookies. Addition of 2.5% peanut skins rendered an increase of up to 30% in the total polyphenols as evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)). Sensory evaluation results demonstrated that peanut skin-fortified cookies were well accepted, which suggests that the present formulation may lend itself for commercial exploitation.

  11. Co-pelletizing characteristics of torrefied wheat straw with peanut shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaopeng; Wang, Guanghui; Gong, Chunxiao; Yu, Yong; Liu, Weinan; Wang, Decheng

    2017-06-01

    The co-pelletizing characteristics of torrefied wheat straw and peanut shell with adding water were investigated. The physicochemical and friction characteristics of biochar were determined to investigate the mechanism of biochar inter-particle cohesive bonding. Results showed that optimized process conditions were obtained with 15% peanut shell and 10% water content. The volume density, maximum breaking force of pellets initially decreased and then increased, while energy consumption increased with increasing temperature. The main factors contributing to the cohesion of mixing pellet were the peanut shell content, water content and friction characteristics of biochar. The moisture absorption of the pellet was improved significantly, while the water absorption of pellets did not always decrease with increased temperature. Peanut shell is an effective and inexpensive binder in the preparation of good-quality biochar pellets. Biochar pellets derived from torrefaction temperature of 275-300°C showed superior qualities for application as renewable biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cross-reactive Carbohydrate Determinant Contributes to the False Positive IgE Antibody to Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komei Ito

    2005-01-01

    Conclusions: Social education about the features of peanut allergy is needed in Japan. Anti-CCD IgE antibody was suggested to be one of the mechanisms contributing to the false positive detection of peanut IgE. Detection of anti-HRP or anti-bromelain IgE can be a useful tool to recognize the presence of anti-CCD antibodies.

  13. Biological Activity of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Phytoalexins and Selected Natural and Synthetic Stilbenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    moiety within a group of otherwise structurally similar compounds.8,10,13 Similar results were later reported for the inhibition of Botrytis cinerea ...to evaluate the antifungal activity of test compounds toward Botrytis cinerea , Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, C. gloeos- porioides, Phomopsis...economically important worldwide25 for many crops, includ- ing peanut. Botrytis blight of peanuts is caused by Botrytis cinerea . Phomopsis spp. frequently

  14. Two weeks of overfeeding with candy, but not peanuts, increases insulin levels and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Anna-Lena; Holm, Gunilla; Ernersson, Asa; Lindström, Torbjörn; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2009-01-01

    To study the effects of snacking based on fast acting carbohydrates (candy) or fat and protein (peanuts) in a prospective randomized, parallel intervention study. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and cardiovascular risk factors were measured before and after hyper-alimentation by addition of 20 kcal/kg (84 kJ/kg) body weight of either candy or roasted peanuts, to the regular caloric intake, for two weeks in healthy subjects. Eleven men and 14 women completed the randomized study. Energy-intake increased similarly in the groups (candy: +46.1+/-35%, peanuts: +46.8+/-28% p=0.96). Body-weight (candy: from 67.3+/-7.6 kg to 68.1+/-7.3 kg, p=0.01, nuts: from 68.7+/-6.1 kg to 69.0+/-5.7 kg p=0.3) and waist circumference increased significantly only in the candy group. At the end of the study LDL cholesterol (candy: 2.6+/-0.4 mmol/l peanuts: 2.1+/-0.4 mmol/l, p=0.005) and ApoB/ApoA-1-ratio (candy: 0.68+/-0.16 peanuts 0.53+/-0.11, p=0.01) were higher in the candy group than in the peanut group. On the other hand, BMR increased only in the peanut group (candy: from 6.657+/-1.1 MJ/24 h to 6.762+/-1.1 MJ/24 h, p=0.3 nuts: from 6.896+/-0.98 MJ/24 h to 7.256+/-1.1 MJ/24 h, p=0.02). Two weeks of snacking based on peanuts does not cause the same negative metabolic effects as an isocaloric diet in which the snacking is based on short acting carbohydrates in the form of candy in non-obese healthy subjects.

  15. Release of soluble protein from peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Leguminosae) and its adsorption by activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopper, Randall; Van, Trang; Kim, Ara; Helm, Ricki

    2011-01-12

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Leguminosae) allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. The potential use of activated charcoal (AC) to adsorb and reduce the bioavailability of peanut protein allergens for use in the moderation of hypersensitivity reactions was investigated. The rate and extent of protein release from peanut and the adsorption of the solubilized protein by AC was determined under physiological pH values and confirmed in vivo using a porcine animal model system. Peanut proteins were adsorbed with equal efficiency at pH 2 and 7 and are completely removed from solution by an AC/protein ratio of approximately 80:1. This suggests that AC can bind protein under gastric (pH 2) or intestinal (pH 7) conditions. The rapid adsorption of soluble peanut allergens and the continuous binding of allergens released from peanut particulate material suggest the potential efficacy of using AC for gastric decontamination and possible elimination of a biphasic allergic reaction.

  16. THE ROLE OF POSTHARVEST MACHINERIES AND PACKAGING IN MINIMIZING AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION IN PEANUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Paramawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a tropical country with relatively high humidity and temperature, Indonesia is struggling with aflatoxin which frequently contaminates peanut. Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic toxic substance that could cause liver cancer. Due to the increasing concern on food safety, the Indonesian Drugs and Foods Agency specifies the maximum aflatoxin allowed in peanut as much as 20 ppb. However, researches showed that aflatoxin contamination in peanut in Indonesia is much higher than the threshold. The study was carried out to observe the effect of using postharvest machineries and packaging  treatments on aflatoxin contamination in peanut. Reduction of postharvest processes was conducted by using series of machineries, e.g. thresher, dryer, and sheller. Packaging treatments, e.g. vacuum plastic pack, hermetic glass chamber, and polyethylene (PE plastic wrap were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (25-27°C. The results showed that using machineries in postharvest handling produced peanut free from aflatoxin contamination. However, without effective packaging, the aflatoxin level would increase during storage. Hermetic packaging could protect peanut from the mold as indicated by low level of aflatoxin contamination.

  17. Comparative proteomics of peanut gynophore development under dark and mechanical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Wang, Qingguo; Li, Zhen; Hou, Lei; Dai, Shaojun; Liu, Wei

    2013-12-06

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea. L) is an important leguminous crop and source of proteins and lipids. It has attracted widespread attention of researchers due to its unique growth habit of geocarpy, which is regulated by geotropism, negative phototropism, and haptotropism. However, the protein expression pattern and molecular regulatory mechanism underlying the physiological processes of peanut remain unknown. In this study, the peanut gynophores under five treatment conditions were used for proteomic analysis, including aerial growth of the gynophores, the gynophores penetrated into the soil, as well as aerial growth of the gynophores under mechanical stimulation, dark, and mechanical stimulation combined with dark. The analysis of protein abundances in peanut gynophores under these conditions were conducted using comparative proteomic approaches. A total of 27 differentially expressed proteins were identified and further classified into nine biological functional groups of stress and defense, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, metabolism, photosynthesis, cell structure, signaling, transcription, protein folding and degradation, and function unknown. By searching gene functions against peanut database, 10 genes with similar annotations were selected as corresponding changed proteins, and their variation trends in gynophores under such growth conditions were further verified using quantitative real-time PCR. Overall, the investigation will benefit to enrich our understanding of the internal mechanisms of peanut gynophore development and lay a foundation for breeding and improving crop varieties and qualities.

  18. Beneficial Influence of Short-Term Germination on Decreasing Allergenicity of Peanut Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchao; Sun, Xiulan; Ma, Zhezhe; Cui, Yan; Du, Chao; Xia, Xiuhua; Qian, He

    2016-01-01

    Most allergenic storage proteins in peanuts are degraded during seed germination. By altering this natural physiological process, it might be possible to reduce peanut protein allergenicity. However, little is known about the change in allergenic proteins and their corresponding immunocreactivity, and the effects of major environmental conditions on their allergenicity during germination. In this study, the influence of different germination conditions (temperature and light) on the degradation of Ara h1 and allergenicity changes of peanut seeds was evaluated by ELISA and Western blotting. The results showed that the 40- and 65-kDa proteins in peanut seeds degraded rapidly during the time course, beginning at 60 (at 25 °C) and 108 h (at 20 °C), and the corresponding immunocreactivity of Ara h1 decreased approximately one-third after 5 to 7 d of germination. Compared with the cotyledons, the embryonic axes had a higher proportion of Ara h1, which was then degraded relatively faster during germination, resulting in a significant reduction in its allergenicity. Although a higher temperature improved the seed germination rate, it affected sprout quality (as did light); therefore, 25 °C and dark surroundings were suitable conditions under which peanut sprouts were processed; neither factor significantly affected the allergenicity of Ara h1. These results provided a theoretical basis for studies using biological methods to reduce peanut allergenicity. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Chemical composition and sensory analysis of peanut pastes elaborated with high-oleic and regular peanuts from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepote, V.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition, sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of peanut pastes prepared with the high-oleic cultivar, Granoleico (GO-P, in comparison with the regular cultivar, Tegua (T-P, of peanuts grown in Argentina. GO-P had higher oil contents (50.91% than T-P (48.95%. GO-P and T-P did not show differences in ash and carbohydrate contents. T-P exhibit higher protein content (27.49% than GO-P (26.68%. GO-P had significantly higher oleic and lower linoleic contents (78.50% and 4.60%, respectively than T-P (45.80% and 33.30%, respectively. In addition, GO-P showed higher eicosenoic acid and lower palmitic acid percentages than TP. The consumer acceptance analysis did not show significant differences between samples of GO-P and T-P. In the descriptive analysis, GO-P showed a higher intensity rating in the oiliness texture attribute than in T-P. The other sensory attributes did not show significant variations between the peanut paste samples. GO-P and T-P have a significant difference in fatty acid composition. However, there were no differences in consumer acceptance and descriptive analysis between samples of peanut pastes except for the oiliness attribute.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la composición química, atributos sensoriales y la aceptabilidad de pastas de cacahuete elaboradas a partir del cultivar alto oleico, Granoleico (GO-P, en comparación con el cultivar convencional, Tegua (T-P, de cacahuetes desarrollados en Argentina. GOP presentó mayor contenido de aceite (50.91% que T-P (48.95%. GO-P y T-P no mostraron diferencias en los contenidos de cenizas y carbohidratos. T-P presentó mayor contenido de proteínas (27.49% que GO-P (26.68%. GO-P mostró contenidos significativamente mayores de ácido oleico y menores de ácido linoleico (78.50% y 4.60%, respectivamente que T-P (45.80% y 33.30%, respectivamente. Además, GO-P mostró mayor porcentaje de ácido eicosenoico y

  20. Physicochemical characterization and quality of cold-pressed peanut oil obtained from organically produced peanuts from Macedonian Virginia” variety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadinovic Velickovska, S.; Mitrev, S.; Mihajlov, L.

    2016-07-01

    The physicochemical characterization and quality of cold pressed peanut edible oil from the “Virginia” variety, organically produced from the region of Macedonia, were examined in this work for the first time. The fatty acid composition of the oil showed almost equal levels of oleic and linoleic acids with an abundance of 34.19±0.01 and 36.13±0.01%, respectively. The most dominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid with a level of 10.06±0.00%. The level of tocopherols and other vitamin-E-related compounds was in strong agreement with the antioxidant activity of the oils measured by the DPPH assay. Almost equal amounts of α and γ tocopherols indicated an antioxidant potential of 288.63±59.78 mg·L−1 α-tocopherol. Phytosterols, as minor compounds present in the oils, can be additional antioxidants responsible for the health benefits of this oil in human nutrition. The four major pytosterols were β-sitosterol (1812.21±22.17 mg·kg−1 oil), champesterol (320.55±17.07 mg·kg−1 oil), Δ5-avenasterol (236.16±14.18 mg·kg−1) and stigmasterol (133.12±12.51 mg·kg−1 oil). Induction time, Peroxide number, FFA and specific extinction (K232 and K270, values 1.82 and 0.22) gave us an indication of the oxidative stability of cold pressed peanut oil. (Author)

  1. Nutrient uptakes and their contributions to yield in peanut genotypes with different levels of terminal drought resistance

    OpenAIRE

    HTOON, Wunna; JOGLOY, Sanun; VORASOOT, Nimitr; TOOMSAN, Banyong

    2014-01-01

    Different peanut yields under terminal drought might be due to the different nutrient uptakes among peanut genotypes. Nutrient uptake was presumed to be a drought-resistant trait and might involve drought tolerance mechanisms. The aims of this study, therefore, were to characterize the effect of terminal drought on peanut nutrient uptake and to investigate the genotypic variability of nutrient uptake and its interactions with terminal drought. Field experiments were conducted at the Field Cro...

  2. Sensitizing potential of enzymatically cross-linked peanut proteins in a mouse model of peanut allergy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Joost

    2014-01-01

    SCOPE: The cross-linking of proteins by enzymes to form high-molecular-weight protein, aggregates can be used to tailor the technological or physiological functionality of food products. Aggregation of dietary proteins by food processing may promote allergic sensitization, but the effects of

  3. Isolation and expression analysis of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase genes from peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi, X.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available sn-Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT catalyzes the committed step in the production of glycerolipids. The functions of GPAT genes have been intensively studied in Arabidopsis, but not in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.. In this study, six AhGPAT genes were isolated from peanuts. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that the AhGPAT9 transcript was more abundant in the stems, flowers, and seeds, whereas the transcript abundances of five other genes were higher in the leaves or flowers than in the other tissues examined. During seed development, the transcript levels of AhGPAT9 gradually increased, whereas the transcript levels of the other five genes decreased. In addition, the levels of AhGPAT2 transcript were distinctly enhanced after exposure to all four kinds of stress treatments except for ABA-treated leaves. The transcripts of AhGPAT1, AhGPAT6, AhGPAT8 and AhATS1 increased substantially in roots exposed to salt, drought, and ABA stress. The expressions of AhGPAT6, AhGPAT8, AhGPAT9 and AhATS1 were slightly higher in leaves under certain stress conditions than under normal conditions. The present study provides significant information for modifying oil deposition and improving the abiotic stress resistance of peanuts through molecular breeding.La aciltransferasa sn-glicerol-3-fosfato (ATGP cataliza el comprometido paso de la producción de glicerolípidos. Las funciones de los genes AhATGP se han estudiado intensivamente en Arabidopsis, pero no en cacahuete (Arachis hypogaea L.. En este estudio, seis genes AhATGP se aislaron a partir de cacahuetes. El análisis a tiempo real RT-PCR cuantitativa indicó que la transcripción AhATGP9 fue más abundante en tallos, flores y semillas, mientras que la abundancia de la transcripción de los otros cinco genes fueron mayores en hojas o flores que en los otros tejidos examinados. Durante el desarrollo de la semilla, los niveles de transcripción de AhATGP9 aumentaron gradualmente

  4. Induced systemic resistance and symbiotic performance of peanut plants challenged with fungal pathogens and co-inoculated with the biocontrol agent Bacillus sp. CHEP5 and Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, María Soledad; Tonelli, María Laura; Ibáñez, Fernando; Morla, Federico; Cerioni, Guillermo; Del Carmen Tordable, María; Fabra, Adriana

    2017-04-01

    Synergism between beneficial rhizobacteria and fungal pathogens is poorly understood. Therefore, evaluation of co-inoculation of bacteria that promote plant growth by different mechanisms in pathogen challenged plants would contribute to increase the knowledge about how plants manage interactions with different microorganisms. The goals of this work were a) to elucidate, in greenhouse experiments, the effect of co-inoculation of peanut with Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144 and the biocontrol agent Bacillus sp. CHEP5 on growth and symbiotic performance of Sclerotium rolfsii challenged plants, and b) to evaluate field performance of these bacteria in co-inoculated peanut plants. The capacity of Bacillus sp. CHEP5 to induce systemic resistance against S. rolfsii was not affected by the inoculation of Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144. This microsymbiont, protected peanut plants from the S. rolfsii detrimental effect, reducing the stem wilt incidence. However, disease incidence in plants inoculated with the isogenic mutant Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144 V2 (unable to produce Nod factors) was as high as in pathogen challenged plants. Therefore, Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144 Nod factors play a role in the systemic resistance against S. rolfsii. Bacillus sp. CHEP5 enhanced Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144 root surface colonization and improved its symbiotic behavior, even in S. rolfsii challenged plants. Results of field trials confirmed the Bacillus sp. CHEP5 ability to protect against fungal pathogens and to improve the yield of extra-large peanut seeds from 2.15% (in Río Cuarto) to 16.69% (in Las Vertientes), indicating that co-inoculation of beneficial rhizobacteria could be a useful strategy for the peanut production under sustainable agriculture system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Omissão de macronutrientes em plantas de amendoim Deficiency of macronutrients in peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Solano de Oliveira Rodrigues Filho

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de amendoim Arachis hypogaea L. 'Tatu' foram cultivadas em condições de casa de vegetação, em vasos de Mitscherlich contendo areia lavada e irrigados com solução nutritiva completa e com soluções nutritivas com a omissão de cada macronutriente (N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. As plantas mostraram sintomas de deficiência de macronutrientes, com exceção do fósforo, na ausência de cada elemento, relacionados com os seus baixos teores e redução no crescimento, desenvolvimento e produção de matéria seca.Peanut plants (Arachis hypogaea L. were cultivated in washed sand, under greenhouse conditions, irrigated with a complete nutrient solution and nutrient solutions with absence of each macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S. Typical symptoms of macronutrient deficiencies were observed, except for phosphorus, related to the content of the element in the plant. The absence of macronutrients also influenced the plant dry matter production, development and height.

  6. In vivo volatile emissions from peanut plants induced by simultaneous fungal infection and insect damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, Yasmin J; Alborn, Hans T; Tumlinson, James H

    2002-01-01

    Peanut plants, Arachis hypogaea, infected with white mold. Sclerotium rolfsii, emit a blend of organic compounds that differs both quantitatively and qualitatively from the blend emitted from plants damaged by beet armyworm (BAW; Spodoptera exigua) larvae or from uninfected, undamaged plants. Attackby BAW induced release of lipoxygenase products (hexenols, hexenals, and hexenyl esters), terpenoids, and indole. The plant-derived compound methyl salicylate and the fungal-derived compound 3-octanone were found only in headspace samples from white mold infected plants. White mold-infected plants exposed to BAW damage released all the volatiles emitted by healthy plants fed on by BAW in addition to those emitted in response to white mold infection alone. When BAW larvae were given a choice of feeding on leaves from healthy or white mold-infected plants, they consumed larger quantities of the leaves from infected plants. Exposure to commercially available (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate, linalool, and methyl salicylate, compounds emitted by white mold-infected plants, significantly reduced the growth of the white mold in solid-media cultures. Thus, emission of these compounds by infected plants may constitute a direct defense against this pathogen.

  7. The major peanut allergen Ara h 1 and its cleaved-off N-terminal peptide; possible implications for peanut allergen detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, H.J.; Beijer, de T.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Amerongen, van A.

    2004-01-01

    Ara h 1 was purified from raw peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors. N-Terminal amino acid sequences were determined after western blotting. Both purification procedures proved to be very consistent and resulted in identical chromatographic and

  8. Plants Regeneration Derived From Various on Peanut on Mutant Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewi, Kumala; Masrizal; Mugiono

    1998-01-01

    The study of calli, greenspot formation and shoot regeneration on peanut mutant lines has ben conducted by MS media. Three explants derived from shoot tips, embryo and seeding root of two mutant lines a/20/3 and D/25/3/2 were used in this experiment. the explants were cultured on modified MS media enriched by vitamins, growth regulation, amino acids for fourth teen calli were transferred on regeneration media. The ability of calli formation and plant regeneration of each explant and genotypes of plants was varied. Greenspot and shoot formation were observed seventh days after the calli transferred on regeneration media. It is shown that the ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation of each explants and genotypes was varied. the high ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation were found in explant derived from shoot tip and embryo. Seedling root explant has lower ability in calli formation, while greenspot and shoot was formatted. The ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation on A/20/3 mutant line was better than D/25/3/2 mutant line. (author)

  9. Nutritional composition of new peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Mondragon, M. G.; Calderon de la Barca, A. M.; Duran-Prado, A.; Campos-Reyes, L. C.; Oliart-Ros, R. M.; Ortega-Garcia, J.; Medina-Juarez, L. A.; Angulo, O.

    2009-07-01

    Six peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars (Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81-B, Ranferi Diaz, NC-2 and Florunner) were studied for agricultural yield, chemical composition (protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and ash), amino acid profile, digestibility, fatty acid profile, tocopherol and sterol contents. Results indicated that Ranferi Diaz and Col-61-Gto presented the highest yield (6.3 Ton/ha). Protein content was from 23.5 to 26.6% and fat content ranged from 49.8-53.4%. Mean digestibility was 86%. Lysine and threonine levels in all cultivars were sufficient to meet human requirements. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 15-18%. The oleic/linoleic ratio was estimated 1.3-1.4. Tocopherol levels varied from 390 to 706 ppm. The highest tocopherol levels corresponded to the cultivars with the lowest yield. The alpha tocopherol content was estimated at 90-150 ppm, while gamma tocopherol was 270-570 ppm. The main sterol present was A- sitosterol (approx. 65%). Ranferi Diaz variety presented the highest agronomic yield and the highest protein content but low oleic acid, low sterols and low total tocopherols. The differences among cultivars suggest differences in their applications. (Author) 40 refs.

  10. Genetics of Dothistromin Biosynthesis in the Peanut Pathogen Passalora arachidicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie E. Bradshaw

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The peanut leaf spot pathogen Passalora arachidicola (Mycosphaerella arachidis is known to produce dothistromin, a mycotoxin related to aflatoxin. This is a feature shared with the pine needle pathogen Dothistroma septosporum (Mycosphaerella pini. Dothistromin biosynthesis in D. septosporum commences at an unusually early stage of growth in culture compared to most other fungal secondary metabolites, and the biosynthetic genes are arranged in fragmented groups, in contrast to aflatoxin gene clusters. Dothistromin biosynthetic genes were identified and studied in P. arachidicola to determine if the attributes described in D. septosporum are shared by another dothistromin-producing species within the Class Dothideomycetes. It was shown that dothistromin biosynthesis is very similar in the two species with regard to gene sequence and gene synteny. Functional complementation of D. septosporum mutants with P. arachidicola dothistromin genes was also possible. These similarities support a vertical mode of dothistromin gene transmission. P. arachidicola also produced dothistromin at an early growth stage in culture, suggesting that this type of regulation pattern may be relevant to the biological role of dothistromin.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study of Major Agronomic Traits Related to Domestication in Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingguo; Zhang, Jianhang; He, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yun; Ma, Xingli; Yin, Dongmei

    2017-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) consists of two subspecies, hypogaea and fastigiata, and has been cultivated worldwide for hundreds of years. Here, 158 peanut accessions were selected to dissect the molecular footprint of agronomic traits related to domestication using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq method). Then, a total of 17,338 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the whole peanut genome were revealed. Eleven agronomic traits in 158 peanut accessions were subsequently analyzed using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Candidate genes responsible for corresponding traits were then analyzed in genomic regions surrounding the peak SNPs, and 1,429 genes were found within 200 kb windows centerd on GWAS-identified peak SNPs related to domestication. Highly differentiated genomic regions were observed between hypogaea and fastigiata accessions using FST values and sequence diversity (π) ratios. Among the 1,429 genes, 662 were located on chromosome A3, suggesting the presence of major selective sweeps caused by artificial selection during long domestication. These findings provide a promising insight into the complicated genetic architecture of domestication-related traits in peanut, and reveal whole-genome SNP markers of beneficial candidate genes for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in future breeding programs. PMID:29018458

  12. Oxidative Burst, Peroxidase Activity, and Lignin Content of Sclerotium rolfsii Infected Peanut Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENDANG PUDJIHARTATI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment were to analyse physiological responses, such as oxidative burst reaction, peroxidase activity, and lignin content of healthy and S. rolfsii-infected peanut tissues. Differences in physiological responses among 24 peanut genotypes were determined, the disease severity was calculated and used to group resistance of tested genotypes. The regressions among observed peroxidase activity, lignin content and disease severity were used to determine the possible mechanisms of S. rolfsii resistance in peanut. Peanut seeds were grown in polybag and the growing plants were inoculated at the crown, stem, and leaf tissues. Results of the experiment indicated that infection of S. rolfsii in peanut did not induce oxidative burst. However, infection of the pathogen resulted in increased peroxidase activity and lignin content in the infected tissues. Regression analysis between peroxidase activity and disease severity showed negative slopes, indicating the more resistance the genotype, the more peroxidase activity in the tissue. Regression analysis between lignin content and disease severity was not significant.

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study of Major Agronomic Traits Related to Domestication in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Peanut (Arachis hypogaea consists of two subspecies, hypogaea and fastigiata, and has been cultivated worldwide for hundreds of years. Here, 158 peanut accessions were selected to dissect the molecular footprint of agronomic traits related to domestication using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq method. Then, a total of 17,338 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the whole peanut genome were revealed. Eleven agronomic traits in 158 peanut accessions were subsequently analyzed using genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Candidate genes responsible for corresponding traits were then analyzed in genomic regions surrounding the peak SNPs, and 1,429 genes were found within 200 kb windows centerd on GWAS-identified peak SNPs related to domestication. Highly differentiated genomic regions were observed between hypogaea and fastigiata accessions using FST values and sequence diversity (π ratios. Among the 1,429 genes, 662 were located on chromosome A3, suggesting the presence of major selective sweeps caused by artificial selection during long domestication. These findings provide a promising insight into the complicated genetic architecture of domestication-related traits in peanut, and reveal whole-genome SNP markers of beneficial candidate genes for marker-assisted selection (MAS in future breeding programs.

  14. Peanuts, Aflatoxins and Undernutrition in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Mupunga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea is an important and affordable source of protein in most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and a popular commodity and raw material for peanut butter, paste and cooking oil. It is a popular ingredient for foods used at the point of weaning infants from mother’s milk. It is at this critical point that childhood undernutrition occurs and the condition manifests as stunting, wasting and growth restriction and accounts for nearly half of all deaths in children under five years of age in SSA. Undernutrition is multi-factorial but weaning foods contaminated with microbiological agents (bacteria and fungi and natural toxins have been shown to play a big part. While peanuts may provide good nutrition, they are also highly prone to contamination with mycotoxigenic fungi. The high nutritive value of peanuts makes them a perfect substrate for fungal growth and potential aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic and mutagenic mycotoxins. This article reviews the nutritional value and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts, the role they play in the development of childhood malnutrition (including the different theories of aetiology and immunological problems in children. We also discuss the control strategies that have been explored and advocacy work currently taking shape in Africa to create more awareness of aflatoxins and thus combat their occurrence with the goal of reducing exposure and enhancing trade and food safety.

  15. Boiling peanut Ara h 1 results in the formation of aggregates with reduced allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Fany; Vissers, Yvonne M; Adel-Patient, Karine; Rigby, Neil M; Mackie, Alan R; Gunning, A Patrick; Wellner, Nikolaus K; Skov, Per S; Przybylski-Nicaise, Laetitia; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke; Jansen, Ad P H; Bernard, Hervé; Wal, Jean-Michel; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wichers, Harry J; Mills, E N Clare

    2011-12-01

    Roasting rather than boiling and Maillard modifications may modulate peanut allergenicity. We investigated how these factors affect the allergenic properties of a major peanut allergen, Ara h 1. Ara h 1 was purified from either raw (N-Ara h 1) or roasted (R-Ara h 1) peanuts. Boiling (100°C 15 min; H-Ara h 1) resulted in a partial loss of Ara h 1 secondary structure and formation of rod-like branched aggregates with reduced IgE-binding capacity and impaired ability to induce mediator release. Glycated Ara h 1 (G-Ara h 1) formed by boiling in the presence of glucose behaved similarly. However, H- and G-Ara h1 retained the T-cell reactivity of N-Ara h 1. R-Ara h 1 was denatured, comprised compact, globular aggregates, and showed no evidence of glycation but retained the IgE-binding capacity of the native protein. Ara h 1 aggregates formed by boiling were morphologically distinct from those formed by roasting and had lower allergenic activity. Glycation had no additional effect on Ara h 1 allergenicity compared with heating alone. Taken together with published data on the loss of Ara h 2/6 from boiled peanuts, this supports the hypothesis that boiling reduces the allergenicity of peanuts. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of aflatoxins in peanut butter and other commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, E J; Hanchay, J P; Scott, P M

    1984-01-01

    A combination of the extraction and cleanup procedures of Pons and Franz with the liquid chromatographic (LC) derivatization technique of Beebe is proposed as an accurate, precise, and sensitive method for determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in various foodstuffs. Mean recoveries of total aflatoxins added in the range 15-34 ng/g to peanut butter were 86-94% in 2 laboratories. Recovery of total aflatoxins (30 ng/g) from shelled peanuts, shelled Brazil nuts, pistachios, cashews, walnuts, and filberts exceeded 86% and from pumpkin seeds was 80%. Coefficients of variation for total aflatoxins were less than 7% for spiked samples and 15% for peanuts naturally contaminated with 16.7 ng/g of total aflatoxin (B1 + B2). Analyses of peanut meal, yellow corn meal, and peanut butter check samples (AOCS Smalley Series 1980/81 and 1981/82, IARC Series 1982/83) by this method compared favorably with reported averages. The detection limit is about 0.3 ng/g for each aflatoxin.

  17. Gamma irradiation of peanut kernels to control mold growth and to diminish aflatoxin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, R.Y.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Peanut kernels inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus conidia and uninoculated kernels were gamma irradiated. Levels higher than 2.5 kGy were effective in retarding the outgrowth of A. parasiticus and reducing the population of natural mold contaminants. However, complete elimination of the inoculated mold was not achieved even at the dose of 10 kGy. After 4 weeks incubation of the inoculated kernels in a humidified condition, aflatoxins produced by the surviving A. parasiticus were 69.12, 2.42, 57.36 and 22.28 μg/g, corresponding to the original irradiation levels as 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. When uninoculated peanut kernels were irradiated and stored for 1 year at ambient and frozen conditions, molds were detected only on peanuts irradiated with 2.5 kGy and stored at ambient temperature. Peroxide content of peanut oils prepared from the irradiated peanuts increased with increased irradiation dosage. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  18. Specific IgE to peanut 2S albumin Ara h 7 has a discriminative ability comparable to Ara h 2 and 6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankestijn, Mark A; Otten, Henry G.; Suer, Waltraud; Weimann, Alf; Knol, Edward F; Knulst, André C

    BACKGROUND: Little is known on the clinical relevance of peanut 2S albumin Ara h 7. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the discriminative ability of Ara h 7 in peanut allergy and assess the role of cross-reactivity between Ara h 2, 6 and Ara h 7 isoforms. METHODS: Sensitization to recombinant peanut storage

  19. Effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on mycoflora during storage of peanuts in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjou, Euloge S; Kouton, Sandrine; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum) on mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in stored peanuts. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor spp. were the most common genera identified from peanuts at post-harvest in Benin by using a taxonomic schemes primarily based on morphological characters of mycelium and conidia. The isolated fungi include Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Mucor spp. The most prevalent fungi recorded were A. niger (94.18 %), A. flavus (83.72 %), A. parasiticus (77.90 %), A. ochraceus (72.09 %), F. graminearum (59.30 %) and F. oxysporum (51.16 %). Antifungal assay, performed by the agar medium assay, indicated that essential oil exhibited high antifungal activity against the growth of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was found to be 7.5 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus and 5.5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) was recorded to be 8.0 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 6,5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and 6.0 μl/ml for F. oxysporium. The essential oil was found to be strongly fungicidal and inhibitory to aflatoxin production. Chemical analysis by GC/MS of the components of the oil led to the identification of 31 components characterized by myrcene (6.4 %), α-thujene (8.2 %), p-cymene (17.6 %), γ-terpinene (20.0 %), and thymol (26.9 %) as major components. The essential oil of Sweet Fennel, with fungal growth and mycotoxin inhibitory properties, offers a novel approach to the management of storage, thus opening up the possibility to prevent mold contamination in stored peanuts.

  20. IgE recognition patterns in peanut allergy are age dependent: perspectives of the EuroPrevall study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballmer-Weber, B. K.; Lidholm, J.; Fernández-Rivas, M.; Seneviratne, S.; Hanschmann, K. M.; Vogel, L.; Bures, P.; Fritsche, P.; Summers, C.; Knulst, A. C.; Le, T. M.; Reig, I.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Sinaniotis, A.; Belohlavkova, S.; Popov, T.; Kralimarkova, T.; de Blay, F.; Purohit, A.; Clausen, M.; Jedrzejczak-Czechowcz, M.; Kowalski, M. L.; Asero, R.; Dubakiene, R.; Barreales, L.; Clare Mills, E. N.; van Ree, R.; Vieths, S.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that specific molecular sensitization patterns correlate with the clinical data/manifestation in a European peanut-allergic population characterized under a common protocol. Sixty-eight peanut-allergic subjects and 82 tolerant controls from 11 European countries were

  1. Effect of Heating and Glycation on the Allergenicity of 2S Albumins (Ara h 2/6) from Peanut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Y.M.; Blanc, F.; Stahl Skov, P.; Johnson, P.E.; Rigby, N.M.; Przybylski-Nicaise, L.; Bernhard, H.; Wal, J.M.; Ballmer-Weber, B.; Zuidmeer-Jongejan, L.; Szepfalusi, Z.; Ruinemans-Koerts, J.; Jansen, A.P.H.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wichers, H.J.; Mackie, A.R.; Mills, E.N.C.; Adel-Patient, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is one of the most common and severe food allergies, and processing is known to influence the allergenicity of peanut proteins. We aimed to establish the effect of heating and glycation on the IgE-binding properties and biological activity of 2S albumins (Ara h 2/6) from

  2. No evidence for contraindications to the use of propofol in adults allergic to egg, soy or peanut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asserhøj, L L; Mosbech, H; Krøigaard, M

    2016-01-01

    IgE to egg, soy or peanut. RESULTS: Four of the 153 propofol-exposed patients (2.6%) investigated in study A were diagnosed with propofol allergy. Of these, three tested positive only on intravenous provocation. None of the four had allergic symptoms when eating egg, soy or peanut and none had...

  3. Clinical value of component-resolved diagnostics in peanut-allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, E; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2013-01-01

    As replacement for the oral food challenge, decision-points for sensitization test have been established, but suboptimal sensitivity and/or specificity, as well as regional differences, have reduced the clinical usability. IgE toward specific peanut protein components has been reported to be of v......As replacement for the oral food challenge, decision-points for sensitization test have been established, but suboptimal sensitivity and/or specificity, as well as regional differences, have reduced the clinical usability. IgE toward specific peanut protein components has been reported...... to be of value, but data on correlation with clinical data are sparse. Our aim was to correlate IgE values with the outcome of peanut challenges....

  4. Enhancement of Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Peanut Meal by Bio-modification with Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinjian; Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Guan, Qingfeng; Mao, Ruoyu; Hao, Ya; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    Peanut meal (PM) is limited in practical use (feed or food) from imbalance of amino acid profile and denaturation of protein. Fermentation was used to promote its nutritional and functional properties by single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments. Results showed that the nutritional properties of fermented peanut meal (crude protein content, dry matter content, ash content, acid soluble oligopeptides content, in vitro digestibility, and content of organic acids) had a significant increase (P implied that the nutritional and antioxidant properties of peanut meal were improved effectively by biological modification, which could be valuable in terms of nutrition and protein resources. It is great of importance to meet requirement of raw materials for husbandry in China when facing a huge lacking of feedstuff, especially for protein feed with an over 80 % import amount depending from other countries yearly.

  5. Risk assessment of clinical reactions to legumes in peanut-allergic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bjerremann; Andersen, Milene; Skov, Per Stahl

    2008-01-01

    Peanut-allergic children might be at risk for reactions to other legumes. However, it is not always possible to perform multiple oral food challenges in children. On the basis of patient case history, in vitro diagnostic tests, and eventually food challenges, we aimed at developing an algorithm...... for risk assessment of possible clinical reactions to other legumes (soybean, lupine, fresh, and blanched green pea). Seventy-five consecutive patients with a positive oral food challenge to peanut were included in the study. All tests were run as part of the routine allergy examination. A high proportion...... of patients and/or caretakers refused the administered legume oral food challenges. Obtained diagnoses from histamine release did not correlate significantly to the outcome of the algorithm. Interestingly, threshold from peanut challenges did not correlate with the risk assessment.The algorithm presented...

  6. Letter to the Editor ‘‘Analyses of Black Aspergillus Species of Peanut and Maize for Ochratoxins and Fumonisins,’’ A Comment on: J. Food Prot. 77(5):805–813 (2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Logrieco, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in Journal of Food Protection, Palencia and co-workers (34) published a survey on black Aspergillus species isolated from maize and peanuts reporting the production of some mycotoxins. An important claim in the article is their strains of Aspergillus niger produce fumonisins B1...

  7. Incidence, prevalence, and trends of general practitioner-recorded diagnosis of peanut allergy in England, 2001 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Daniel; Simpson, Colin R; Sheikh, Aziz

    2011-03-01

    Previous descriptions of the epidemiology of peanut allergy have mainly been derived from small cross-sectional studies. To interrogate a large national research database to provide estimates for the incidence, prevalence, and trends of general practitioner (GP)-recorded diagnosis of peanut allergy in the English population. Version 10 of the QRESEARCH database was used with data from 2,958,366 patients who were registered with 422 United Kingdom general practices in the years 2001 to 2005. The primary outcome was a recording of clinician-diagnosed peanut allergy. The age-sex standardized incidence rate of peanut allergy in 2005 was 0.08 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 0.07-0.08), and the prevalence rate was 0.51 per 1000 patients (95% CI, 0.49-0.54). This translated into an estimated 4000 incident cases (95% CI, 3500-4600) and 25,700 prevalent cases (95% CI, 24,400-27,100) of GP-recorded diagnosis of peanut allergy in England in 2005. During the study period, the incidence rate of peanut allergy remained fairly stable, whereas the prevalence rate doubled. In those under 18 years of age, the crude lifetime prevalence rate was higher in males than females. A significant inverse relationship between prevalence and socioeconomic status was found. These data on GP-recorded diagnosis of peanut allergy from a large general practice database suggest a much lower prevalence in peanut allergy than has hitherto been found. This difference may in part be explained by underrecording of peanut allergy in general practice. Further research is needed to assess the true frequency of peanut allergy in the population and whether there has been a true increase in recent years. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of heating and glycation on the allergenicity of 2S albumins (Ara h 2/6 from peanut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne M Vissers

    Full Text Available Peanut allergy is one of the most common and severe food allergies, and processing is known to influence the allergenicity of peanut proteins. We aimed to establish the effect of heating and glycation on the IgE-binding properties and biological activity of 2S albumins (Ara h 2/6 from peanut.Native Ara h 2/6 was purified from raw peanuts and heated in solution (15 min, 110°C in the presence or absence of glucose. Ara h 2 and 6 were also purified from roasted peanut. Using PBMC and sera from peanut-allergic patients, the cellular proliferative potency and IgE reactivity (reverse EAST inhibition and functionality (basophil degranulation capacity of allergens were assessed. Heating Ara h 2/6 at 110°C resulted in extensive denaturation, hydrolysis and aggregation of the protein, whilst Ara h 2 and 6 isolated from roasted peanut retained its native conformation. Allergen stimulation of PBMC induced proliferation and Th2 cytokine secretion which was unaffected by thermal processing. Conversely, IgE reactivity and functionality of Ara h 2/6 was decreased by heating. Whilst heating-glycation further reduced the IgE binding capacity of the proteins, it moderated their loss of histamine releasing capacity. Ara h 2 and 6 purified from roasted peanut demonstrated the same IgE reactivity as unheated, native Ara h 2/6.Although no effect of processing on T-cell reactivity was observed, heat induced denaturation reduced the IgE reactivity and subsequent functionality of Ara h 2/6. Conversely, Ara h 2 and 6 purified from roasted peanut retained the structure and IgE reactivity/functionality of the native protein which may explain the allergenic potency of this protein. Through detailed molecular study and allergenicity assessment approaches, this work then gives new insights into the effect of thermal processing on structure/allergenicity of peanut proteins.

  9. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silong Chen

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT, which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA to phosphatidic acid (PA, catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2 and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1 were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts.

  10. 75 FR 76463 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS..., Arlington, VA 22209-2510. Active ingredient: Flutriafol. Proposed uses: Corn, grapes, peanuts, pome fruit.... Proposed use: Sweet corn. Contact: Jennifer Gaines, (703) 305-5967, [email protected] . 9...

  11. Effects of partial fertilizer substitution by organic fertilizer on growth of peanut at seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Li, Na; Luo, Peiyu; Wang, Yue; Dai, Jian; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-12-01

    In response to the Ministry of agriculture’s action plan for chemical fertilizer reductions and organic fertilizers instead of fertilizersand discuss the optimum consumption and proportion of peanut biochar-based fertilization.Six different fertilization treatments were set up:C40, C50(standard consumption), C60, C40+M, C30+M and C20+M. Seelding height, chlorophyll content and total biomass were also measured on 6th, 2017. The results showed that C20+M treatment had the highest plant height and the highest biomass in Peanut Seedlings, while the content of chlorophyll increased with the amount of biochar applied.

  12. Fusarium spp. recovered from waste peanuts associated with sandhill crane mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.E.; Cole, R.J.; Tousson, T.A.; Dorner, J.W.; Windingstad, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Approximately 5000 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis ) died from undetermined causes in Gains County, Texas, 1985, and an additional 200 died in 1986. Prominent clinical signs were the inability of many sick cranes to hold their necks horizontal and the neck, head, and legs sometimes drooped perpendicularly during flight. Approximately 95% of the dead cranes' gizzards contained peanuts. Culturing of peanuts, shells, soil and soil debris from fields in which sandhill cranes died showed that Fusarium species were the fungi most frequently isolated and eight species were recovered from these substrates. Fusarium compactum, F. solani , and F. equiseti were the only species recovered from all substrates cultured from both fields.

  13. Economic evaluation of epinephrine auto-injectors for peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Marcus; Bean, Katherine; Verdi, Marylee

    2017-08-01

    Three commercial epinephrine auto-injectors were available in the United States in the summer of 2016: EpiPen, Adrenaclick, and epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. To describe the variation in pharmacy costs among epinephrine auto-injector devices in New England and evaluate the additional expense associated with incremental auto-injector costs. Decision analysis software was used to evaluate costs of the most and least expensive epinephrine auto-injector devices for children with peanut allergy. To evaluate regional variation in epinephrine auto-injector costs, a random sample of New England national and corporate pharmacies was compared with a convenience sample of pharmacies from 10 Canadian provinces. Assuming prescriptions written for 2 double epinephrine packs each year (home and school), the mean costs of food allergy over the 20-year model horizon totaled $58,667 (95% confidence interval [CI] $57,745-$59,588) when EpiPen was prescribed and $45,588 (95% CI $44,873-$46,304) when epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector was prescribed. No effectiveness differences were evident between groups, with 17.19 (95% CI 17.11-17.27) quality-adjusted life years accruing for each subject. The incremental cost per episode of anaphylaxis treated with epinephrine over the model horizon was $12,576 for EpiPen vs epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. EpiPen costs were lowest at Canadian pharmacies ($96, 95% CI $85-$107). There was price consistency between corporate and independent pharmacies throughout New England by device brand, with the epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector being the most affordable device. Cost differences among epinephrine auto-injectors were significant. More expensive auto-injector brands did not appear to provide incremental benefit. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  15. Protein-bound Vaccinium fruit polyphenols decrease IgE binding to peanut allergens and RBL-2H3 mast cell degranulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plundrich, Nathalie J; Bansode, Rishipal R; Foegeding, E Allen; Williams, Leonard L; Lila, Mary Ann

    2017-04-19

    Peanut allergy is a worldwide health concern. In this study, the natural binding properties of plant-derived polyphenols to proteins was leveraged to produce stable protein-polyphenol complexes comprised of peanut proteins and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) or lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) pomace polyphenols. Protein-bound and free polyphenols were characterized and quantified by multistep extraction of polyphenols from protein-polyphenol complexes. Immunoblotting was performed with peanut-allergic plasma to determine peanut protein-specific IgE binding to unmodified peanut protein, or to peanut protein-polyphenol complexes. In an allergen model system, RBL-2H3 mast cells were exposed to peanut protein-polyphenol complexes and evaluated for their inhibitory activity on ionomycin-induced degranulation (β-hexosaminidase and histamine). Among the evaluated polyphenolic compounds from protein-polyphenol complex eluates, quercetin, - in aglycone or glycosidic form - was the main phytochemical identified to be covalently bound to peanut proteins. Peanut protein-bound cranberry and blueberry polyphenols significantly decreased IgE binding to peanut proteins at p polyphenol complexes showed a significant (p polyphenols led to the formation of peanut protein-polyphenol complexes with significantly reduced allergenic potential. Future trials are warranted to investigate the immunomodulatory mechanisms of these protein-polyphenol complexes and the role of quercetin in their hypoallergenic potential.

  16. Peanut gene expression profiling in developing seeds at different reproduction stages during Aspergillus parasiticus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xuanqiang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is an important crop economically and nutritionally, and is one of the most susceptible host crops to colonization of Aspergillus parasiticus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Knowledge from molecular genetic studies could help to devise strategies in alleviating this problem; however, few peanut DNA sequences are available in the public database. In order to understand the molecular basis of host resistance to aflatoxin contamination, a large-scale project was conducted to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs from developing seeds to identify resistance-related genes involved in defense response against Aspergillus infection and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Results We constructed six different cDNA libraries derived from developing peanut seeds at three reproduction stages (R5, R6 and R7 from a resistant and a susceptible cultivated peanut genotypes, 'Tifrunner' (susceptible to Aspergillus infection with higher aflatoxin contamination and resistant to TSWV and 'GT-C20' (resistant to Aspergillus with reduced aflatoxin contamination and susceptible to TSWV. The developing peanut seed tissues were challenged by A. parasiticus and drought stress in the field. A total of 24,192 randomly selected cDNA clones from six libraries were sequenced. After removing vector sequences and quality trimming, 21,777 high-quality EST sequences were generated. Sequence clustering and assembling resulted in 8,689 unique EST sequences with 1,741 tentative consensus EST sequences (TCs and 6,948 singleton ESTs. Functional classification was performed according to MIPS functional catalogue criteria. The unique EST sequences were divided into twenty-two categories. A similarity search against the non-redundant protein database available from NCBI indicated that 84.78% of total ESTs showed significant similarity to known proteins, of which 165 genes had been previously reported in peanuts. There were

  17. Cor a 14 is the superior serological marker for hazelnut allergy in children, independent of concomitant peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, E; Mortz, C G; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2016-04-01

    Hazelnut is the most frequent cause of tree nut allergy, but up to half of all children with hazelnut allergy additionally suffer from peanut allergy. Our aim was to identify diagnostic values of the most promising serological markers (Cor a 9 and Cor a 14) and to address the influence of concomitant peanut allergy and PR10 sensitization. We included 155 children suspected of hazelnut allergy and challenged according to the guidelines. Concomitant allergy to peanuts was verified or ruled out by challenge. Skin prick test, s-IgE and CRD to hazelnut, peanut, PR10 and LPT protein families were measured using ImmunoCAP. Sixty-five children had a positive hazelnut challenge, and 60% of these also had a concomitant peanut allergy. Children allergic to hazelnut were sensitized to Cor a 9 and Cor a 14; peanut-allergic children were sensitized to Ara h 2. Sensitization to PR10 protein components was seen in 45% of all included children, irrelevant to allergy to peanut or hazelnut. A cut-off >0.72 kU/L of IgE towards Cor a 14 diagnosed 87% correctly, making Cor a 14 the superior serology marker. However, nine hazelnut-allergic children were primarily sensitized to Cor a 9. Concomitant peanut allergy is common in hazelnut-allergic children, but decision points as well as diagnostic values for Cor a 14 are not affected. We found three independent and well-characterized serotypes; hazelnut-allergic children were sensitized to Cor a 14, peanut-allergic children were sensitized to Ara h 2, and independently of this were children sensitized to birch pollen (Bet v 1). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. In Vitro Selection of Peanut Somatic Embryos on Medium Containing Culture Filtrate of Sclerotium rolfsii and Plantlet Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUSNITA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to identify somaclonal variants of peanut with resistance to Sclerotium stem rot disease due to infection of S. rolfsii were conducted. The objectives of this study were to develop in vitro selection method using culture filtrates of S. rolfsii, identify culture filtrate-insensitive somatic embryo (SE of peanut after in vitro selection and regenerate peanut R0 lines originated from culture filtrate-insensitive SE. To achieve these objectives, peanut embryogenic tissues were cultured on selective medium containing various concentrations of S. rolfsii culture filtrates and sublethal concentration of the filtrates. Medium containing sublethal level of S. rolfsii culture filtrates was used to identify culture filtrate-insensitive SE of peanut. Subsequently, the selected SEs were germinated, plantlets were regenerated and preliminary tested against S. rolfsii. Results of the experiments showed that addition of S. rolfsii culture filtrates into medium for inducing peanut somatic embryos drastically reduced their growth and proliferation. S. rolfsii culture filtrates at 10% concentration has significantly reduced the number of proliferated SE per explant. However, sublethal level was achieved at 30% of culture filtrates concentration. Responses of five peanut cultivars against 30% of culture filtrates were similar, indicating they were similar in their susceptibility against S. rolfsii. A number of culture filtrate-insensitive SE were identified after culturing 1500 clumps of embryogenic tissue of peanut cv. Kelinci for three consecutive passages on medium containing 30% of culture filtrates. Germination of selected SE and regeneration of plantlet from culture filtrate-insensitive SE resulted in 50 peanut R0 lines. These lines have been grown in the plastic house and produced normal seeds for further evaluation. Results of S. rolfsii inoculation indicated the existence of chimera for insensitivity against S. rolfsii.

  19. CO2 and chamber effects on epidermal development in field grown peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut, (Arachis hypogaea L.) cvar. C76–16, was grown either in the field, or in open gas exchange chambers under elevated or ambient CO2 concentrations. Stomatal density and other selected epidermal parameters associated with leaf development and gas exchange were measured on recently fully expande...

  20. Magnetically modified peanut husks as an effective sorbent of heavy metals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozumová, L.; Životský, O.; Seidlerová, J.; Motyka, O.; Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2016), s. 549-555 ISSN 2213-3437 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13709S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cadmium * Ions sorption * Lead * Magnetic modification * Peanut husks * Waste water Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  1. Influence of Peanut oil on the Flow Characteristics of Cowpea Slurry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hot mix cowpea slurries at 30% cowpea solids and various concentrations of peanut oil were prepared by mixing measured amounts of cowpea flour with adequate amounts of oil and hot water at 70 oC. Slurries were held with intermittent agitation in a water bath maintained at 70 oC for 15 minutes before shearing in a ...

  2. Peanut allergen Ara h 1 interacts with proanthocyanidins into higher molecular weight complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, E.L. van; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Koppelman, S.J.; Vincken, J.-P.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Mildly extracted peanut allergen Ara h 1 was previously reported to occur as an oligomeric complex. In this paper we describe how the protein in this oligomeric complex interacts noncovalently with phenolic compounds of the proanthocyanidin type. These interactions are being disrupted during anion

  3. Peanut Allergen Ara h 1 Interacts with Proanthocyanidins into Higher Molecular Weight Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van E.L.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Koppelman, S.J.; Vincken, J.P.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Mildly extracted peanut allergen Ara h 1 was previously reported to occur as an oligomeric complex. In this paper we describe how the protein in this oligomeric complex interacts noncovalently with phenolic compounds of the proanthocyanidin type. These interactions are being disrupted during anion

  4. Legumin allergens from peanuts and soybeans: Effects of denaturation and aggregation on allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, E.L. van; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Koppelman, S.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Legumin proteins Ara h 3 from peanuts and glycinin from soybeans are increasingly described as important allergens. The stability of an allergen's IgE binding capacity towards heating and digestion is considered an important characteristic for food allergens. We investigated the effects of heating

  5. Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds at high concentrations are known to form insoluble complexes with proteins. We hypothesized that this complex formation could interfere with Western blot and ELISA assays for peanut allergens. To verify this, three simple phenolic compounds (ferulic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids...

  6. A technique to study Meloidogyne arenaria resistance in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    A reliable peanut root transformation system would be useful to study the functions of genes involved in root biology and disease resistance. The objective of this study was to establish an effective protocol to produce composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation. More tha...

  7. Magnetic fluid modified peanut husks as an adsorbent for organic dyes removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarik, Ivo; Safarikova, Mirka

    Magnetically responsive nanocomposite materials, prepared by modification of diamagnetic materials by magnetic fluids (ferrofluids), have already found many important applications in various areas of biosciences, medicine, biotechnology, environmental technology etc. Ferrofluid modified biological waste (peanut husks) has been successfully used for the separation and removal of water soluble organic dyes and thus this low cost adsorbent could be potentially used for waste water treatment.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation of peanut in low-fertile tropical soil : I. Host-fungus compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quilambo, OA; Weissenhorn, I.; Kuiper, P.J C; Stulen, I.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of inoculation with an indigenous Mozambican and a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculant on two peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars, a traditional, low-yielding Mozambican landrace (Local) and a modern, high-yielding cultivar (Falcon), were tested in a non-sterile and

  9. Non-dioxin-like AhR ligands in a mouse peanut allergy model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, V.J.; Smit, J.J.; Huijgen, V.C.; Bol-Schoenmakers, M.; van Roest, M.; Kruijssen, L.W.J.; Fiechter, D.; Hassing, I.; Bleumink, A.R.J.; Safe, S.; van Duursen, M.B.M.; van den Berg, M.; Pieters, R.H.H.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that AhR activation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) suppresses sensitization to peanut at least in part by inducing a functional shift toward CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells. Next to TCDD, numerous other AhR ligands have been described. In this study, we

  10. Effect of extrusion conditions on aflatoxin content of corn–peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn-peanut extrudates and flakes were then produced at various combinations of feed moisture contents (17% and 21%,) barrel temperatures (140°C, 160°C and 180°C) and screw speeds (150 rpm,200 rpm and 250 rpm)in a double screw extruder under factorial design. The process parameters were recorded during the ...

  11. Tracking of wild allele introgressions in a peanut chromosome segment substitution line population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated peanut arose from the hybridization of the diploids Arachis duranensis (A genome progenitor) and Arachis ipaensis (B genome progenitor), followed by spontaneous chromosome doubling to yield the current allotetraploid state (AABB; 2n=4x=40). This genetic heritage, short period since polyp...

  12. Temperature/Humidity Conditions in Stacked Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers for Shelled Peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelled peanuts are loaded into flexible intermediate bulk containers, or totes. After loading, the 1000-kg totes are placed directly into cold storage at 3ºC and 65% relative humidity until shipment to the customer domestically in the United States or internationally requiring transport overseas. ...

  13. IgE-mediated cross-reactivity among leguminous seed proteins in peanut allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabio, Cinzia; Magni, Chiara; Restani, Patrizia; Mottini, Maria; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Duranti, Marcello

    2010-12-01

    The immunological cross-reactivity among major protein- and oil-crops, including lupin, lentil, pea, peanut, kidney bean and soybean, has been studied by a combination of in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches: SDS-PAGE separations of legume protein extracts and immuno-blot revelations with 12 peanut-sensitive subjects' sera, Immuno-CAP and Skin Prick tests on the same subjects. The immuno-blotting data showed a wide range of IgE-binding responses both displayed by one subject towards different plant extracts and among subjects. Differences were both quantitative and qualitative. The prevalent responses of most subjects' sera were seen with peanut polypeptides, as expected, as well as with various polypeptides of the other legumes, the most recurrent of which were the basic subunits of the 11S globulins. The distribution of in vivo responses generally paralleled those obtained by in vitro approaches with strong responses elicited by peanut, lentil and pea protein extracts, especially by most sensitive subjects, thus providing a consistent overall set of results. In this work, the comparison of various approaches has allowed us to get an overall broad picture of the immunological cross-reactivities among proteins of widely used different seed species and to hypothesize the role of most conserved specific polypeptides.

  14. Statistical process control applied to mechanized peanut sowing as a function of soil texture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Zerbato

    Full Text Available The successful establishment of agricultural crops depends on sowing quality, machinery performance, soil type and conditions, among other factors. This study evaluates the operational quality of mechanized peanut sowing in three soil types (sand, silt, and clay with variable moisture contents. The experiment was conducted in three locations in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The track-sampling scheme was used for 80 sampling locations of each soil type. Descriptive statistics and statistical process control (SPC were used to evaluate the quality indicators of mechanized peanut sowing. The variables had normal distributions and were stable from the viewpoint of SPC. The best performance for peanut sowing density, normal spacing, and the initial seedling growing stand was found for clayey soil followed by sandy soil and then silty soil. Sandy or clayey soils displayed similar results regarding sowing depth, which was deeper than in the silty soil. Overall, the texture and the moisture of clayey soil provided the best operational performance for mechanized peanut sowing.

  15. Disease evaluations and agronomic traits of advanced peanut breeding lines in 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease evaluations of advanced peanut breeding lines are conducted annually to compare the agronomic traits (crop value, yield, seed grade and characteristics) and disease resistance in cultivars that are currently available or close to being released for the Southwest. In 2017, a total of 19 comm...

  16. Mutagenesis of FAD2 genes in peanut with CRISPR/Cas9

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is known for its precise and efficient gene-editing of a targeted region in a variety of organisms including plants. We targeted FAD2 gene region to perform CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing in peanut. The FAD2 gene encodes fatty acid desaturase which catalyzes the conversion of oleic ...

  17. Tebuconazole and Azoxystrobin Residue Behaviors and Distribution in Field and Cooked Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fan; Teng, Peipei; Liu, Fengmao; Wang, Wenzhuo

    2017-06-07

    Residue behaviors of tebuconazole and azoxystrobin in field condition and the variation of their residue levels during the boiling process were evaluated. The terminal residues of peanut kernels were determined by using a modified QuEChERS method (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) by means of the optimization of the novel purification procedure with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe 3 O 4 -magnetic nanoparticle (Fe 3 O 4 -MNP) in the presence of an external magnetic field, and the terminal residues were all at trace level at harvest time. The residues in shells were detected as well to investigate the distribution in peanuts. Tebuconazole and azoxystrobin residue levels varied before/after boiling in kernels and shells to different degrees due to various factors, such as the modes of action and physicochemical properties of pesticides. The residues have been transferred from peanut into the infusion during boiling with the higher percentage of azoxystrobin as its lower logK ow . The processing factors (PFs) for tebuconazole and azoxystrobin after processing were <1, indicating that home cooking in this study could reduce the residue levels in peanut. Risk assessment showed there was no health risk for consumers.

  18. Investigation of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 3JW1 on preventing and reducing aflatoxin contaminations in peanuts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Yang

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 3JW1, which has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, was studied to investigate whether it affects the amounts of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 produced by Aspergillus flavus. It was found that the bacterium reduced the amounts of AFB1 in potato dextrose broth (PDB and peanut medium by 97.8% and 99.4%, respectively. It also reduced AFB1 by ~183 μg/kg (55.8% when applied onto peanut kernels. This strain reduced AFB1 via three mechanisms. First, it significantly inhibited A. flavus growth; second, our data showed that strain 3JW1 inhibits aflatoxin biosynthesis by A. flavus; and third, P. fluorescens strain 3JW1 is capable of degrading AFB1 at a rate as high as 88.3% in 96 hours. This is the first report demonstrating that Pseudomonas fluorescens can reduce toxin contamination caused by A. flavus on peanut kernels. Our findings indicate that P. fluorescens strain 3JW1 had multiple effects including reducing A. flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination. And the results also highlight the potential applications of the strain 3JW1 for the biological control of aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and other susceptible crops.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation of peanut in low-fertile tropical soil. II. Alleviation of drought stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quilambo, OA; Weissenhorn, I.; Doddema, H; Kuiper, PJC; Stulen, I.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of drought stress and inoculation with an indigenous Mozambican and a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculant on root colonization and plant growth and yield was studied in two peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars-a traditional, low-yielding Mozambican landrace (Local) and a

  20. Removal of Heavy Metal Contamination from Peanut Skin Extracts by Waste Biomass Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year, 3.6 million pounds of peanuts are harvested in the United States. Consequent processing, however, generates large amounts of waste biomass as only the seed portion of the fruit is consumed. The under-utilization of waste biomass is a lost economic opportunity to the industry. In particula...

  1. 75 FR 62096 - Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting Seeds, and Grains, Feed and Oilseeds; Re- structure... concerning agricultural trade policy. The committees are intended to ensure that representative elements of... system to ensure that U.S. trade policy and negotiating objectives adequately reflect U.S. commercial and...

  2. Resistance to Aspergillus flavus in maize and peanut: Molecular biology, breeding, environmental stress and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    The colonization of maize (Zea mays L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus results in the contamination with carcinogenic mycotoxins known as aflatoxins leading to economic losses as well as a potential health threat to human. The interactio...

  3. Weed Control and Peanut Tolerance with Ethalfluralin-Based Herbicide Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Grichar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted from 2007 through 2009 to determine weed efficacy and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. response to herbicide systems that included ethalfluralin applied preplant incorporated. Control of devil's claw (Proboscidea louisianica (Mill. Thellung, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L., Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats., and puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris L. was most consistent with ethalfluralin followed by either imazapic or imazethapyr applied postemergence. Peanut stunting was 19% when paraquat alone was applied early-postemergence. Stunting increased to greater than 30% when ethalfluralin applied preplant incorporated was followed by S-metolachlor applied preemergence and paraquat applied early-postemergence. Stunting (7% was also observed when ethalfluralin was followed by flumioxazin plus S-metolachlor applied preemergence with lactofen applied mid-postemergence. Ethalfluralin followed by paraquat applied early-postemergence reduced peanut yield when compared to the nontreated check. Ethalfluralin applied preplant incorporated followed by imazapic applied mid-postemergence provided the greatest yield (6220 kg/ha. None of the herbicide treatments reduced peanut grade (sound mature kernels plus sound splits when compared with the nontreated check.

  4. Antifungal activity of essential oils on Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooussef Mina M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus parasiticus is one of the most common fungi which contaminates peanuts by destroying peanut shells before they are harvested and the fungus produces aflatoxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activities of seventeen essential oils on the growth of the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus in contaminated peanuts from commercial outlets in Georgia. The agar dilution method was used to test the antifungal activity of essential oils against this form of A. parasiticus at various concentrations: 500; 1,000; 1,500; 2,000; 2,500 ppm. Among the seventeen essential oils tested, the antifungal effect of cinnamon, lemongrass, clove and thyme resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth. Cinnamon oil inhibited mycelial growth at ≥ 1,000 ppm, lemongrass and clove oils at ≥ 1,500 ppm and thyme at 2,500 ppm. However, cedar wood, citronella, cumin and peppermint oils showed partial inhibition of mycelial growth. Eucalyptus oil, on the other hand, had less antifungal properties against growth of A. parasiticus, irrespective of its concentration. Our results indicate that the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus is sensitive to selected essential oils, especially cinnamon. These findings clearly indicate that essential oils may find a practical application in controlling the growth of A. parasiticus in stored peanuts.

  5. Effect of kernel characteristics on color and flavor development during peanut roasting: two years of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with Crop Year (CY) 2014 samples from the Uniform Peanut Performance Trials (UPPT) revealed that color and flavor profile development were related to kernel moisture content (MC) during dry roasting. That work was repeated with CY 2015 UPPT samples with additional replication. Raw MC, ...

  6. Characterization of high-oleic peanut natural mutants derived from an intersectional cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang, X. Z.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As compared with its normal oleate counterpart, high oleate peanuts have better storage quality and several health benefits, and are therefore preferred by peanut shellers and consumers. High oleate has now become one of the main breeding objectives of peanuts. Thus far, over 50 high oleate peanut cultivars have been registered. Yet high oleate peanut breeding relies heavily on a limited number of high oleate genotypes. In this paper, we reported, for the first time, high peanut oleate natural mutants with large seeds derived from an intersectional cross, which were identified with near infra-red spectroscopy and confirmed by gas chromatography. Sequencing of FAD2 from the high-oleic hybrids along with their normal oleate parents indicated that a 448G >A mutation in FAD2A coupled with a 441_442ins A or G in FAD2B together caused high oleate phenotypes in these peanut hybrids.En comparación con su homólogo con contenido normal de oleico, el maní alto oleato mantiene una mejor calidad durante la conservación y tiene beneficios para la salud, y de ahí que sea preferido por desgranadoras de maní y por los consumidores. El alto oleato se ha convertido actualmente en uno de los principales objetivos para la mejora del maní. Hasta el momento, más de 50 cultivares de maní alto oleato han sido registrados. Sin embargo, la reproducción de maní alto oleato se basa principalmente en un número limitado de genotipos alto oleato. En este trabajo se presentan por primera vez mutantes naturales de maní alto oleato con semillas derivadas de un cruce de intersecciones, que fue identificado mediante espectroscopia de infrarrojo cercano y se confirma me diante cromatografía de gases. La secuenciación de FAD2 de los híbridos de alto oleico junto con sus progenitores oleato normal, indicó que la mutación 448G >A en FAD2A unido a un 441_442ins A o G en FAD2B juntos da lugar a fenotipos alto oleato en estos híbridos de maní.

  7. Labelling of 14C-M-ISP and its absorption, translocation and distribution in peanut and soybean seedling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shuren; Chen Pinsan; Cao Guoyin; Ji Guijun; Dong Yaqi

    1990-01-01

    Labelling of 14 C-M-ISP and its absorption, translocation and distribution in peanut and soybean seedling were studied. The results of experiments showed that the radioactive substance could be translocated in xylem and phloem of two kinds of plants. The root of peanut seedling absorbed 14 C-M-ISP from the nutrient solution more strong than the root of soybean seedling did. After leaf treatment with 14 C-M-ISP, the soybean seedling absorbed more radioactive substance than peanut seedling did. But the translocation's speed of radioactive substance in pnloem of two kinds of plants were similar

  8. Influence of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of roasted peanut protein extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Rodríguez, Julia; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Maleki, Soheila J; Cuadrado, Carmen; Burbano, Carmen; Crespo, Jesús F

    2012-01-01

    Peanut allergy is recognized as one of the most severe food allergies. Some studies have investigated the effects of enzymatic treatments on the in vitro immunological reactivity of members of the Leguminosae family, such as the soybean, chickpea and lentil. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies carried out with sera from patients with a well-documented allergy. Roasted peanut protein extract was hydrolyzed by the sequential and individual action of 2 food-grade enzymes, an endoprotease (Alcalase) and an exoprotease (Flavourzyme). Immunoreactivity to roasted peanut extract and hydrolyzed samples was evaluated by means of IgE immunoblot, ELISA and 2-dimensional electrophoresis using sera from 5 patients with a clinical allergy to peanuts and anti-Ara h 1, anti-Ara h 2 and anti-Ara h 3 immunoblots. Immunoblot and ELISA assays showed an important decrease of IgE reactivity and Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 levels in the first 30 min of hydrolyzation with Alcalase. In contrast, individual treatment with Flavourzyme caused an increase in IgE reactivity detected by ELISA at 30 min and led to a 65% inhibition of IgE reactivity at the end of the assay (300 min). Ara h 1 and the basic subunit of Ara h 3 were still recognized after treatment with Flavourzyme for 300 min. Hydrolysis with the endoprotease Alcalase decreases IgE reactivity in the soluble protein fraction of roasted peanut better than hydrolysis with the exoprotease Flavourzyme. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Characterization and compilation of polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR markers of peanut from public database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yongli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several reports describing thousands of SSR markers in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. genome. There is a need to integrate various research reports of peanut DNA polymorphism into a single platform. Further, because of lack of uniformity in the labeling of these markers across the publications, there is some confusion on the identities of many markers. We describe below an effort to develop a central comprehensive database of polymorphic SSR markers in peanut. Findings We compiled 1,343 SSR markers as detecting polymorphism (14.5% within a total of 9,274 markers. Amongst all polymorphic SSRs examined, we found that AG motif (36.5% was the most abundant followed by AAG (12.1%, AAT (10.9%, and AT (10.3%.The mean length of SSR repeats in dinucleotide SSRs was significantly longer than that in trinucleotide SSRs. Dinucleotide SSRs showed higher polymorphism frequency for genomic SSRs when compared to trinucleotide SSRs, while for EST-SSRs, the frequency of polymorphic SSRs was higher in trinucleotide SSRs than in dinucleotide SSRs. The correlation of the length of SSR and the frequency of polymorphism revealed that the frequency of polymorphism was decreased as motif repeat number increased. Conclusions The assembled polymorphic SSRs would enhance the density of the existing genetic maps of peanut, which could also be a useful source of DNA markers suitable for high-throughput QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection in peanut improvement and thus would be of value to breeders.

  10. Produção de forragem e carga animal em pastagens de capim-elefante consorciadas com azevém, espécies de crescimento espontâneo e trevo-branco ou amendoim forrageiro Forage production an stocking rate on elephantgrass pastures mixed with ryegrass, spontaneous growth species and white clover or forage peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a dinâmica e o desempenho de uma pastagem em dois sistemas forrageiros: SF1 - capim-elefante (CE + azevém (AZ + trevo-branco (TB + espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE; e SF2 - capim-elefante + azevém + amendoim forrageiro (AF + ECE. Utilizaram-se quatro piquetes de 0,25 ha com o capim-elefante estabelecido em linhas afastadas a cada 4 m, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com dois sistemas forrageiros e duas repetições (piquetes. As pastagens foram adubadas com N-P2O5-K2O (50-40-40 kg/ha/ano, respectivamente. Durante o período experimental, foram realizados nove pastejos (326 dias no SF1 e 336 dias no SF2. Foram usadas para avaliação vacas em lactação da raça Holandesa recebendo suplementação com concentrado (3,5 kg/dia. Foram colhidas no pré-pastejo amostras representativas da massa de forragem da pastagem nos piquetes. Os valores médios de matéria seca da massa de forragem da pastagem, de lâminas foliares do capim-elefante, do azevém e de leguminosas foram de 3,76; 0,85 e 0,26 t/ha no SF1 e 4,60; 0,99 e 0,19 t/ha no SF2, respectivamente. Considerando os períodos hibernal e estival, os valores médios da carga animal foram de 2,22 e 2,29 e de 3,14 e 3,01 UA/ha, respectivamente, para o SF1 e o SF2. Os resultados foram similares entre os sistemas forrageiros. Como o capim-elefante predomina nesses sistemas, a utilização do azevém, das leguminosas e das espécies de crescimento espontâneo permitiu manter a massa de forragem uniforme no decorrer dos pastejos. Os resultados sugerem que o capim-elefante pode ser utilizado segundo as misturas forrageiras propostas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the dynamic and animal performance in two pasture-based systems (PS, with elephantgrass (EG + ryegrass (RG + white clover (WC + spontaneous growing species (SGS for PS1; and EG + RG + forage peanut (FP + SGS for PS2. Four paddocks, each one with 0.25 ha, were used in the evaluation. EG was established in

  11. Genomewide Association Studies for 50 Agronomic Traits in Peanut Using the ‘Reference Set’ Comprising 300 Genotypes from 48 Countries of the Semi-Arid Tropics of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manish K.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Rathore, Abhishek; Vadez, Vincent; Sheshshayee, M. S.; Sriswathi, Manda; Govil, Mansee; Kumar, Ashish; Gowda, M. V. C.; Sharma, Shivali; Hamidou, Falalou; Kumar, V. Anil; Khera, Pawan; Bhat, Ramesh S.; Khan, Aamir W.; Singh, Sube; Li, Hongjie; Monyo, Emmanuel; Nadaf, H. L.; Mukri, Ganapati; Jackson, Scott A.; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Peanut is an important and nutritious agricultural commodity and a livelihood of many small-holder farmers in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) of world which are facing serious production threats. Integration of genomics tools with on-going genetic improvement approaches is expected to facilitate accelerated development of improved cultivars. Therefore, high-resolution genotyping and multiple season phenotyping data for 50 important agronomic, disease and quality traits were generated on the ‘reference set’ of peanut. This study reports comprehensive analyses of allelic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay and marker-trait association (MTA) in peanut. Distinctness of all the genotypes can be established by using either an unique allele detected by a single SSR or a combination of unique alleles by two or more than two SSR markers. As expected, DArT features (2.0 alleles/locus, 0.125 PIC) showed lower allele frequency and polymorphic information content (PIC) than SSRs (22.21 alleles /locus, 0.715 PIC). Both marker types clearly differentiated the genotypes of diploids from tetraploids. Multi-allelic SSRs identified three sub-groups (K = 3) while the LD simulation trend line based on squared-allele frequency correlations (r2) predicted LD decay of 15–20 cM in peanut genome. Detailed analysis identified a total of 524 highly significant MTAs (pvalue >2.1×10–6) with wide phenotypic variance (PV) range (5.81–90.09%) for 36 traits. These MTAs after validation may be deployed in improving biotic resistance, oil/ seed/ nutritional quality, drought tolerance related traits, and yield/ yield components. PMID:25140620

  12. A novel process for preparing low-fat peanuts: Optimization of the oil extraction yield with limited structural and organoleptic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Joelle; Fawaz, Nada; Afif, Charbel; Louka, Nicolas

    2016-04-15

    The main purpose of this study was to extract the maximum amount of oil from peanuts without causing major damage and preserving their organoleptic quality after defatting. Accordingly, a successful, healthy, eco-friendly and economic defatting process for peanuts was implemented using mechanical oil expression, which was optimized by means of Response Surface Methodology. The results demonstrated that maximum extraction yields were obtained at a low initial moisture content (5-7% d.b.). Defatting and deformation ratios were mostly affected by the pressure and water content with high correlation coefficients (98.4% and 97.5%, respectively), and overall acceptability decreased following higher oil extraction yields. It was concluded that the optimum values for the product moisture content, pressure, and pressing duration were 5% d.b., 9.7 MPa and 4 min, respectively, with a defatting ratio of 70.6%. This resulted in an insignificant irreversible deformation ratio (<1%) and an overall acceptability of 7.6 over 10. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE MYCOFLORA AND PROCESSING EFFECTS ON THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGEA L. VAR. TS 32-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euloge S. Adjou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological and nutritional characterization of peanut (Arachis hypogea L var. TS 32-1 was investigated. Bacteria and fungi were isolated from this product. The fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus Speare, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm and Fusarium poae. The respective mean moisture content and total acidity in samples were 8.19 ± 0.01% and 1.2 ± 0.02%. Nutritional analysis showed that peanut (Arachis hypogea L var. TS 32-1 has interesting nutritional potential. Carbohydrate content (7.84 ± 0.3%, protein content (33.88 ± 0.1%, fat (47.48 ± 0.01% and the presence of minerals such as calcium (0.25 ± 0.05g/kg, potassium (5.21 ± 0.02g/kg and magnesium (1.92 ± 0.03% allowed its application as supplement in infant feeding in rural areas. Anti-nutritional factors such as oxalate and phytate were also detected in samples. This nutritional potential is significantly affect by thermal processes which can reduce essentially protein and carbohydrate contents and also anti-nutritional factor levels. However, values were lower than established toxic level. Finally, more attention should be made to its microbial quality in order to preserve children’s health.

  14. Biological control as a strategy to reduce the impact of mycotoxins in peanuts, grapes and cereals in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chulze, S.N.; Palazzini, J.M.; Torres, A.M.; Barros, G.; Ponsone, M.L.; Geisen, R.; Schmidt-Heydt, M.; Köhl, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins including aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins and ochratoxin A are among the main fungal secondary metabolites detected as natural contaminants in South America in different commodities such as peanuts (aflatoxins), cereals (deoxynivalenol and fumonisins) or grapes (ochratoxin A).

  15. Survival and Heat Resistance of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Peanut Butter ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingshu; Guo, Dongjing; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Significant differences (P butter with different formulations and water activity. High carbohydrate content in peanut butter and low incubation temperature resulted in higher levels of bacterial survival during storage but lower levels of bacterial resistance to heat treatment. PMID:21965404

  16. Survival and heat resistance of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingshu; Guo, Dongjing; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Significant differences (P butter with different formulations and water activity. High carbohydrate content in peanut butter and low incubation temperature resulted in higher levels of bacterial survival during storage but lower levels of bacterial resistance to heat treatment.

  17. Systemic and oral immunogenicity of hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus expressed by transgenic peanut plants in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandelwal, Abha; Renukaradhya, G.J.; Rajasekhar, M.; Sita, G. Lakshmi; Shaila, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Rinderpest causes a devastating disease, often fatal, in wild and domestic ruminants. It has been eradicated successfully using a live, attenuated vaccine from most part of the world leaving a few foci of disease in parts of Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. We have developed transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants expressing hemagglutinin (H) protein of rinderpest virus (RPV), which is antigenically authentic. In this work, we have evaluated the immunogenicity of peanut-expressed H protein using mouse model, administered parenterally as well as orally. Intraperitoneal immunization of mice with the transgenic peanut extract elicited antibody response specific to H. These antibodies neutralized virus infectivity in vitro. Oral immunization of mice with transgenic peanut induced H-specific serum IgG and IgA antibodies. The systemic and oral immunogenicity of plant-derived H in absence of any adjuvant indicates the potential of edible vaccine for rinderpest

  18. Nutritional composition of new Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Six peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cultivars (Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81-B, Ranferi Díaz, NC-2 and Florunner were studied for agricultural yield, chemical composition (protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and ash, amino acid profile, digestibility, fatty acid profile, tocopherol and sterol contents. Results indicated that Ranferi Díaz and Col-61-Gto presented the highest yield (6.3 Ton/ha. Protein content was from 23.5 to 26.6% and fat content ranged from 49.8-53.4%. Mean digestibility was 86%. Lysine and threonine levels in all cultivars were sufficient to meet human requirements. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 15-18%. The oleic/linoleic ratio was estimated 1.3-1.4. Tocopherol levels varied from 390 to 706 ppm. The highest tocopherol levels corresponded to the cultivars with the lowest yield. The alpha tocopherol content was estimated at 90-150 ppm, while gamma tocopherol was 270-570 ppm.The main sterol present was βsitosterol (approx. 65%. Ranferi Diaz variety presented the highest agronomic yield and the highest protein content but low oleic acid, low sterols and low total tocopherols. The differences among cultivars suggest differences in their applications.

    Se estudio el rendimiento agrícola y composición química (proteína, grasa, carbohidratos, fibra y cenizas, perfil de amino ácidos, digestibilidad, perfil de ácidos grasos, contenido de tocoferol y de esteroles de seis variedades de cacahuate (Arachis hypogaea L. Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81B, Ranferi Díaz, NC-2 y Florunner. Los resultados mostraron que el mayor rendimiento se logró en las variedades Ranferi Díaz y Col-61-Gto (6.3 Ton/ha. El contenido de proteína fue de 23.5 a 26.6% y el contenido de grasa en un intervalo de 49.8 a 53.4%. La digestibilidad promedio de las seis variedades fue de 86%. El contenido de lisina y treonina en la proteína de todas las variedades fue suficiente para satisfacer los requerimientos del humano. La composición del aceite

  19. Perennial Grass Based Crop Rotations in Virginia: Effects on Soil Quality, Disease Incidence, and Cotton and Peanut Growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, Jr., James Michael

    2008-01-01

    In 2003 eight peanut and cotton crop rotations were established in southeastern Virginia, 4 of which included 2 or 3 years of tall fescue or orchardgrass grown as high-value hay crops. Each crop rotation was evaluated for changes in soil quality indicators including soil carbon and nitrogen, water stable soil aggregates, plant available water content, bulk density, cone index values, and soil moisture. Cotton and peanut growth and yield were also observed to evaluate ch...

  20. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases and demethylase families in wild and cultivated peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDNA methylation plays important roles in genome protection, regulation of gene expression and was associated with plants development. Plant DNA methylation pattern was mediated by cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases and demethylase. Although the genomes of AA and BB wild peanuts have been fully sequence, these two gene families have not been studied. In this study we report the identification and analysis of putative cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases (C5-MTases and demethylase in AA and BB wild peanuts. Cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases in AA and BB wild peanuts could be classified in known MET, CMT and DRM2 groups based on their domain organization. This result was supported by the gene and protein structural characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. We found that some wild peanut DRM2 numbers didn’t contain UBA domain which was different from other plants such as Arabidopsis, maize, soybean. Five DNA demethylase were found in AA genome and five in BB genome. The selective pressure analysis showed that wild peanut C5-MTases gene mainly underwent purifying selection but many positive selection sites can be detected. Conversely, DNA demethylase genes mainly underwent positive selection during evolution. Additionally, the expression dynamic of cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases and demethylase genes in different cultivated peanut tissues were analyzed. Expression result showed that cold, heat or drought stress could influence the expression level of C5-MTases and DNA demethylase genes in cultivated peanut. These results are useful for better understanding the complexity of these two gene families, and will facilitate epigenetic studies in peanut.

  1. Carbon and nitrogen stocks and forms of N in a red dysthropic argisol grown or not with peanut forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinei Tadeu Paulino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The low availability of nitrogen (N is considered one of the most limiting factors for the productivity of pastures, often responsible for their degradation. Overall, due to the high cost of nitrogen fertilizers, it is not applied in sufficient quantities. In this context, the cultivation of legumes is an option for adding nitrogen in the soil and simultaneously is into high-protein food. Forage legume may reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, changing nutrient cycling (C and N and can improve productivity and sustainability of agricultural systems. Most of the N in the soil is in the organic form compounds, that is converted into inorganic fraction, the predominant mineral forms of nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3-, available to plants by mineralization process. The C:N ratios from soil and plant residues affect the decomposition rate and the balance between N mineralization and N immobilization by microbes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the improvements in soil quality by comparing the forage legume Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte, cultivated for eight years and a bare soil - an adjacent area (AA in a soil Ultissol (Red Dysthrophic argisol. We evaluated the levels and stocks of C, total N and C:N, NH4+ and NO3- in soil from a depth of 0-20 cm. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with ten replications. Variance analysis (ANOVA was used to detect significant differences between the study areas, averages were compared using test for multiple comparisons Student Newman-Keuls - SNK test (p < 0.05. Analyses were performed using SAS (2010. The availability of mineral N in uncultivated area was low, with mean values below 10 mg kg-1 for both nitrate and ammonium, possibly due to the low organic matter content (17.8 g kg-1. However, under the cultivation of the peanut forage there were increases (p < 0.05 of the contents and stocks of C and N, and the levels of ammonium and nitrate. Increases in total N and inorganic N forms are the

  2. A high-density genetic map of Arachis duranensis, a diploid ancestor of cultivated peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Ervin D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea is an allotetraploid species whose ancestral genomes are most likely derived from the A-genome species, A. duranensis, and the B-genome species, A. ipaensis. The very recent (several millennia evolutionary origin of A. hypogaea has imposed a bottleneck for allelic and phenotypic diversity within the cultigen. However, wild diploid relatives are a rich source of alleles that could be used for crop improvement and their simpler genomes can be more easily analyzed while providing insight into the structure of the allotetraploid peanut genome. The objective of this research was to establish a high-density genetic map of the diploid species A. duranensis based on de novo generated EST databases. Arachis duranensis was chosen for mapping because it is the A-genome progenitor of cultivated peanut and also in order to circumvent the confounding effects of gene duplication associated with allopolyploidy in A. hypogaea. Results More than one million expressed sequence tag (EST sequences generated from normalized cDNA libraries of A. duranensis were assembled into 81,116 unique transcripts. Mining this dataset, 1236 EST-SNP markers were developed between two A. duranensis accessions, PI 475887 and Grif 15036. An additional 300 SNP markers also were developed from genomic sequences representing conserved legume orthologs. Of the 1536 SNP markers, 1054 were placed on a genetic map. In addition, 598 EST-SSR markers identified in A. hypogaea assemblies were included in the map along with 37 disease resistance gene candidate (RGC and 35 other previously published markers. In total, 1724 markers spanning 1081.3 cM over 10 linkage groups were mapped. Gene sequences that provided mapped markers were annotated using similarity searches in three different databases, and gene ontology descriptions were determined using the Medicago Gene Atlas and TAIR databases. Synteny analysis between A. duranensis, Medicago

  3. Nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Maryam; Murphy, Gwen; Etemadi, Arash; Dawsey, Sanford M; Liao, Linda M; Abnet, Christian C

    2017-09-01

    Background: Nut consumption has been associated with decreased risk of colorectal, endometrial, lung, and pancreatic cancers. Polyphenols, fiber, vitamins, and minerals in nuts may confer this observed protective effect. To our knowledge, no prospective study has evaluated the effect of nut consumption on esophageal and gastric cancers. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the associations between nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancers and their different subtypes. Design: In this study we used data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, which enrolled 566,407 persons who were 50-71 y old at baseline (1995-1996). The median follow-up time was 15.5 y. Intakes of nuts and peanut butter were assessed through the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for esophageal and gastric cancers and their subtypes. Results: We identified 966 incident cases of esophageal adenocarcinomas, 323 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 698 cases of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and 732 cases of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma. Compared with those who did not consume nuts or peanut butter [lowest category of consumption (C0)], participants in the highest category of nut consumption (C3) had a lower risk of developing gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma [C3 compared with C0, HR: 0.73 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.94)]. This inverse association was also seen for peanut butter consumption [C3 compared with C0, HR: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.94)]. We observed no significant associations between the highest and lowest intakes of nuts or peanut butter and the risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusions: Among older American adults, both nut and peanut butter consumption were inversely associated with the risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015.

  4. Non-dioxin-like AhR ligands in a mouse peanut allergy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Veronica J; Smit, Joost J; Huijgen, Veerle; Bol-Schoenmakers, Marianne; van Roest, Manon; Kruijssen, Laura J W; Fiechter, Daniëlle; Hassing, Ine; Bleumink, Rob; Safe, Stephen; van Duursen, Majorie B M; van den Berg, Martin; Pieters, Raymond H H

    2012-07-01

    Recently, we have shown that AhR activation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) suppresses sensitization to peanut at least in part by inducing a functional shift toward CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells. Next to TCDD, numerous other AhR ligands have been described. In this study, we investigated the effect of three structurally different non-dioxin-like AhR ligands, e.g., 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), β-naphthoflavone (β-NF), and 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (6-MCDF), on peanut sensitization. Female C57BL/6 mice were sensitized by administering peanut extract (PE) by gavage in the presence of cholera toxin. Before and during peanut sensitization, mice were treated with FICZ, β-NF, or 6-MCDF. AhR gene transcription in duodenum and liver was investigated on day 5, even as the effect of these AhR ligands on CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). Mice treated with TCDD were included as a positive control. Furthermore, the murine reporter cell line H1G1.1c3 (CAFLUX) was used to investigate the possible role of metabolism of TCDD, FICZ, β-NF, and 6-MCDF on AhR activation in vitro. TCDD, but not FICZ, β-NF, and 6-MCDF, suppressed sensitization to peanut (measured by PE-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG2a and PE-induced interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17a, IL-22, and interferon-γ). In addition, FICZ, β-NF, and 6-MCDF treatments less effectively induced AhR gene transcription (measured by gene expression of AhR, AhRR, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1) compared with TCDD-treated mice. Furthermore, FICZ, β-NF and 6-MCDF did not increase the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes compared with PE-sensitized mice, in contrast to TCDD. Inhibition of metabolism in vitro increased AhR activation. Together, these data shows that TCDD, but not FICZ, β-NF, and 6-MCDF suppresses sensitization to peanut. Differences in metabolism, AhR binding and subsequent gene transcription might

  5. Modification of cassava starch using combination process lactic acid hydrolysis and micro wave heating to increase coated peanut expansion quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumardiono, Siswo; Pudjihastuti, Isti; Jos, Bakti; Taufani, Muhammad; Yahya, Faad

    2017-05-01

    Modified cassava starch is very prospective products in the food industry. The main consideration of this study is the increasing volume of imported wheat and the demand for modified cassava starch industry. The purpose of this study is the assessing of lactic acid hydrolysis and microwave heating impact to the physicochemical and rheological properties of modified cassava starch, and test applications of modified cassava starch to coated peanut expansion quality. Experimental variables include the concentration of lactic acid (0.5% w/w, 1% w/w; 2% w/w), a time of hydrolysis (15, 30, 45 minutes), a time of microwave heating (1, 2, 3 hours). The research step is by dissolving lactic acid using aquadest in the stirred tank reactor, then added cassava starch. Hydrolysed cassava starch was then heated by microwave. Physicochemical properties and rheology of the modified cassava starch is determined by the solubility, swelling power, and test congestion. The optimum obtained results indicate that solubility, swelling power, congestion test, respectively for 19.75%; 24.25% and 826.10% in the hydrolysis treatment for 15 minutes, 1% w lactic acid and microwave heating 3 hours. The physicochemical and rheological properties of modified cassava starch have changed significantly when compared to the native cassava starch. Furthermore, these modified cassava starch are expected to be used for the substitution of food products.

  6. Comparison of Frankliniella fusca and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as Vectors for a Peanut Strain of Tomato Spotted Wilt Orthotospovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Steven P; Heinz, Kevin M; Mitchell, Forrest L

    2018-03-27

    Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (TSWV) is a major disease in peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., across peanut producing regions of the United States and elsewhere. Two thrips, Frankliniella fusca Hinds and Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), are considered important vectors of TSWV in peanut in the Southeast. We compared the efficiency of acquisition (by larvae) and transmission (adults) of both thrips species for TSWV (Texas peanut-strain) to leaf disks of peanut (Florunner), as well as to Impatiens walleriana Hook. f. (Dwarf White Baby) and Petunia hybrida Juss. 'Fire Chief' using double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Both species were competent TSWV vectors in peanut and Impatiens, although F. fusca was the more efficient vector overall, i.e., virus acquisition and transmission rates for F. fusca averaged over several bioassays were 51.7 and 26.6%, respectively, compared with 20.0 and 15.3% for F. occidentalis. Neither species effectively transmitted this TSWV strain to Petunia (i.e., ≤3.6% transmission). We found statistically similar virus acquisition and transmission rates between both sexes for each species. We also detected no differences in TSWV-acquisition and transmission frequency between macropterous and brachypterous (short-wing) forms of F. fusca collected from a field population in south Texas. DAS-ELISA failed to detect low levels of TSWV in a few thrips that subsequently proved to be competent vectors.

  7. Resistensi 10 Galur Kacang Tanah Hasil Silangan antara Arachis cardenassii dan A. hypogaea terhadap Infeksi Peanut stripe virus (PStV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Riduan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the pathogen infecting peanut in Indonesia is Peanut stripe virus (PStV,, causing stripe and blotch symptoms on infected peanut leaves. The objectives of this research were to evaluate effects of PStV infection on yield of 10 introgression lines of peanut derived from crossing of Arachis cardenasii and A. hypogaea, and to determine the tolerance of these lines against PStV infection. Peanut plants were grown in polybag containing 10 kg of potting soils and were grown under glasshouse conditions. The experimental unit consisted of four plants grown separately in four containers and for each treatment was replicated four times. Peanut plants were inoculated mechanically with Bogor isolate of PStV at 15 days after planting (dap and harvested at 95-100 dap. Results of the experiment indicated peanut cv. Gajah belonged to moderate tolerance while Kelinci was sensitive against PStV infection. Introgression line NC-CS11, CS30 and WS4 were grouped as tolerance while NC-CS51, WSl, and WS3 were moderate tolerance. The tolerance lines showed mild mosaic symptoms, did not show reduction of plant height and peanut yield upon inoculation with PStV. Introgresion line NC-CS15, CS20,CS22, and CS50 were sensitive against PStV infection, showed moderate to severe mosaic/blotch symptoms, reduction of plant height and peanut yield due to PStV infection. Among the tolerance and moderate tolerance lines, only NC-CS30 showed higher yield as compared to peanut cv. Gajah or Kelinci. Therefore, this line may be developed further as commercial peanut cultivar or be use as donor germplasm for PStV tolerance mechanisms in peanut breeding.

  8. 77 FR 75155 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... distributing products listed in Table 1a, except for export in accordance with FIFRA section 17, or proper... potatoes for export consistent with the requirements of FIFRA section 17 or for purposes of proper disposal. Bayer may only sell or distribute Temik 15G end-use products permitting use on cotton, dry beans, peanut...

  9. Heat tolerance of Salmonella enterica serovars Agona, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium in peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar, Dina; Yaron, Sima

    2006-11-01

    Recent large foodborne outbreaks caused by Salmonella enterica serovars have been associated with consumption of foods with high fat content and reduced water activity, even though their ingredients usually undergo pasteurization. The present study was focused on the heat tolerance of Salmonella enterica serovars Agona, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium in peanut butter. The Salmonella serovars in the peanut butter were resistant to heat, and even at a temperature as high as 90 degrees C only 3.2-log reduction in CFU was observed. The obtained thermal inactivation curves were upwardly concave, indicating rapid death at the beginning (10 min) followed by lower death rates and an asymptotic tail. The curves fitted the nonlinear Weibull model with beta parameters pasteurization process cannot be improved significantly by longer treatment or higher temperatures.

  10. Quality of life in families with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Quality of life in families with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy Anette Stensgaard, Audrey DunnGalvin, Dorthe Nielsen, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen (Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre, ORCA (Odense Research Centre for Anaphylaxis), Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark) Aim...... and for their family members. Methods: The cohort comprises an existing database with 394 Danish children, teenagers and adults diagnosed with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy in accordance with EAACI guidelines. We use the validated Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaires (FAQLQ). The questionnaires have been......). The siblings receive an age-adjusted questionnaire. The parents to children from 8 years and above also receive a Parent Form. Mothers and fathers receive separate questionnaires. The patients and their relatives are invited by letter with a link to the homepage www.datafabrikken.dk and a code for each family...

  11. The addition of peanuts to habitual diets is associated with lower consumption of savory non-core snacks by men and sweet non-core snacks by women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Jayne A; Stojanovski, Emilija; Moran, Lisa J; Howe, Peter R C; Coates, Alison M

    2017-05-01

    Snacking is associated with intakes of non-core foods which may predispose to obesity. Peanuts have potential satiety benefits and may assist with weight management; we hypothesized that peanut consumption would reduce intake of non-core snack foods due to compensation. We investigated the effects of adding peanuts to a habitual diet on snacking habits and energy intake. Sixty-one healthy participants (65±7years, body mass index 31±4kg/m 2 ) consumed their habitual diet with or without peanuts (56g/d for 32 women, 84g/d for 29 men) for 12weeks each in a randomized crossover design. Food diaries were analyzed at baseline and after each 12-week period for meal and snack content and timing. Total energy intake was higher (17% for men [PSnacking occasions increased during the peanut phase (53% for men [P=.001], 14% for women [P=.01]). Servings of other snack foods did not change during the peanut phase (P=.6) compared with control. However, sex-specific analysis revealed that men and women consumed less savory (Psnacks, respectively, during the peanut phase. Despite increased energy intake and snacking frequency, peanuts may improve the diet through sex-specific reductions of non-core foods; for optimal energy balance, peanuts should be substituted rather than added to the diet. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and characterization of highly polymorphic long TC repeat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macedo Selma E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is a crop of economic and social importance, mainly in tropical areas, and developing countries. Its molecular breeding has been hindered by a shortage of polymorphic genetic markers due to a very narrow genetic base. Microsatellites (SSRs are markers of choice in peanut because they are co-dominant, highly transferrable between species and easily applicable in the allotetraploid genome. In spite of substantial effort over the last few years by a number of research groups, the number of SSRs that are polymorphic for A. hypogaea is still limiting for routine application, creating the demand for the discovery of more markers polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Findings A plasmid genomic library enriched for TC/AG repeats was constructed and 1401 clones sequenced. From the sequences obtained 146 primer pairs flanking mostly TC microsatellites were developed. The average number of repeat motifs amplified was 23. These 146 markers were characterized on 22 genotypes of cultivated peanut. In total 78 of the markers were polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Most of those 78 markers were highly informative with an average of 5.4 alleles per locus being amplified. Average gene diversity index (GD was 0.6, and 66 markers showed a GD of more than 0.5. Genetic relationship analysis was performed and corroborated the current taxonomical classification of A. hypogaea subspecies and varieties. Conclusions The microsatellite markers described here are a useful resource for genetics and genomics in Arachis. In particular, the 66 markers that are highly polymorphic in cultivated peanut are a significant step towards routine genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection for the crop.

  13. Peanut yield response to micro and macronutrients of a Ferric Lixisol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted on a Ferric Lixisol at the Savanna Agriculture Research Institute, Wa (10° 3I N, 20° 50I W) in the Guinea savannah zone of Ghana in 2010 and 2011, to study the effect of Cu, Mn, Zn, Ca, P and K on elemental uptake, peanut yield and yield components. Nine treatments were arranged in a ...

  14. Magnetic fluid modified peanut husks as an adsorbent for organic dyes removal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 9 (2010), s. 274-278 ISSN 1875-3892. [12th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids. Sendai, 01.08.2010-05.08.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09052; GA MPO(CZ) 2A-1TP1/094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : magnetic fluid * peanut husks * dyes adsorption Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  15. Induced plasmon mutations affecting the growth habit of peanuts, A. hypogaea L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, A.; Ashri, A.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of the acridines ethidium bromide (EB) and acriflavine in inducing plasmon mutations was compared with the alkylating agents ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) and diethyl sulphate and to γ-rays. The growth habit (trailing versus bunch) of peanuts (A. hypogaea), controlled by genic-cytoplasmic interactions, was utilized. Breeding tests distinguishing nuclear from plasmon mutations were developed and are described in detail. Plasmon mutations were induced, but there were differences in mutation yields between the cultivars and the mutagens. (Auth.)

  16. Application of peanut butter to improve fatty acid composition of biscuits

    OpenAIRE

    Gajera, H. P.; Kapopara, M. B.; Patel, V. H.

    2010-01-01

    Biscuits prepared with different levels of hydrogenated fat (vanaspati) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) butter (PB) (100:00, 75:25, 50;50, 25;75, 00:100) were evaluated for their fatty acid composition and textural property. Saturated fatty acids like myristic, palmitic, stearic acids were higher in control biscuits (100% vanaspati), which decreased with increasing proportion of PB in the experimental biscuits. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were lowest in control biscuits and it gradually inc...

  17. Retrospectively Estimating Prevalence of Peanut Allergy Genetic Markers in an Air Force Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-25

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2018-0002 Retrospectively Estimating Prevalence of Peanut Allergy Genetic Markers in an Air Force Population ...an Air Force Population 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Katherine Kohnen, Summer Hughes... population of children were over- or under-represented in a U.S. Air Force population . Our results showed that for a single polymorphism, there was a

  18. Sensory preferences among general Japanese consumers and physicochemical evaluation of deep-fried peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Atsushi; Ogaki, Yoshihiro

    2014-08-01

    The development of food that satisfies consumer preferences is very important for producing commodities. In the present study, 132 Japanese consumers carried out sensory evaluation of deep-fried peanuts with varying frying times (2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 15 min) at 150 °C, and the relationships among sensory elements and physicochemical properties were investigated. The sensory scores for colour, bitterness, and deep-fried peanut aroma increased (darker or stronger) with frying time, whereas the sweetness score was relatively high (strong) for frying times of 2, 4, 6 and 9 min, and then decreased (weaker) with increasing frying time. Frying times of 4, 6 and 9 min scored higher in overall liking than other times. Multiple-regression analysis indicated that the overall liking score was positively correlated with sweetness (standardised regression coefficient, β = +0.51) and deep-fried peanut aroma (β = +0.26) scores but negatively correlated with bitterness score (β = -0.25). Multiple-regression analysis also indicated a difference in sensory preference by gender. Sensory elements were closely related to the physicochemical properties, including the colour indexes (CIELAB colour space) and the sucrose and water contents. When L(*) (CIELAB colour space, lightness index) was 53-64 and water content was 10-30 g kg(-1), the mean overall liking score was relatively high implying acceptable fried peanut quality. Relationships among individual sensory elements were confirmed. Multiple-regression analysis indicated a strong positive correlation between sweetness and overall liking and a small difference in sensory preference by gender. Sensory evaluations can thus be expressed by physicochemical properties. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Nutritive value of pastures of Cynodon mixed with forage peanut in southwestern Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnos Fernando Ziech

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the nutritive value of pastures of Coastcross-1 and Tifton 85 mixed with increasing inclusion of forage peanut (0, 25, 50, 75% occupancy area, subjected to cuts, over two study years in Southwestern Paraná State. The experimental design was factorial (three factors distributed in randomized block. The factors were cultivars (2, the occupancy area of forage peanut (4 and seasons of cuts (5, with three replications. It was evaluated the percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and in vitro digestibility of dry matter of leaf blades, stem + sheath of grasses and available forage mass of pastures. Values of crude protein ranged from 17.0 to 20.4% and from 16.8 to 19.3% for the forage mass available of Coastcross-1 and Tifton 85, respectively. Higher digestibility values were found at the beginning of evaluations. On average, the Coastcross-1 showed better nutritive value compared to Tifton 85, and, the inclusion of forage peanut increased crude protein content in leaf blades of grasses studied, in the second year after planted.

  20. High relative humidity increases yield, harvest index, flowering, and gynophore growth of hydroponically grown peanut plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortley, D. G.; Bonsi, C. K.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Morris, C. E.

    2000-01-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to study the physiological and growth response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to 50% and 85% relative humidity (RH). The objective was to determine the effects of RH on pod and seed yield, harvest index, and flowering of peanut grown by the nutrient film technique (NFT). 'Georgia Red' peanut plants (14 days old) were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart with 15 cm between channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with an additional 2 mM Ca was used. Solution pH was maintained between 6.4 and 6.7, and electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. Temperature regimes of 28/22 degrees C were maintained during the light/dark periods (12 hours each) with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at canopy level of 500 micromoles-m-2s-1. Foliage and pod fresh and dry weights, total seed yield, harvest index (HI), and seed maturity were greater at high than at low RH. Plants grown at 85% RH had greater total and individual leaflet area and stomatal conductance, flowered 3 days earlier and had a greater number of flowers reaching anthesis. Gynophores grew more rapidly at 85% than at 50% RH.

  1. Overexpression of Bacterial mtlD Gene in Peanut Improves Drought Tolerance through Accumulation of Mannitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengale Dipak Bhauso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the changing global environmental scenarios, water scarcity and recurrent drought impose huge reductions to the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. crop yield. In plants, osmotic adjustments associated with efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms. Mannitol, a compatible solute, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses, thereby conferring tolerance to water-deficit stress in many plant species. However, peanut plant is not known to synthesize mannitol. Therefore, bacterial mtlD gene coding for mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase under the control of constitutive promoter CaMV35S was introduced and overexpressed in the peanut cv. GG 20 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. A total of eight independent transgenic events were confirmed at molecular level by PCR, Southern blotting, and RT-PCR. Transgenic lines had increased amount of mannitol and exhibited enhanced tolerance in response to water-deficit stress. Improved performance of the mtlD transgenics was indicated by excised-leaf water loss assay and relative water content under water-deficit stress. Better performance of transgenics was due to the ability of the plants to synthesize mannitol. However, regulation of mtlD gene expression in transgenic plants remains to be elucidated.

  2. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  3. Simultaneous detection of peanut and hazelnut allergens in food matrices using multiplex PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Renčová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiplex PCR analysis for the detection of two targeting segments of genes coding major food protein allergens as peanut (Arachis hypogaea Ara h 1 gene and hazelnut (Corylus avellana Cor a 1 gene was developed. Two sets of primers were designed and tested to their specificity on a broad range of ingredients. The identity of amplicons (Ara h 1- 180 bp, Cor a 1 – 258 bp by sequencing and alignment of sequences with sequences deposited in Genbank was confirmed. When testing the specificity of designed primer pairs on a spectrum of food ingredients, no cross reactions were detected. A potential inhibition of PCR reaction was eliminated using the universal plant primers of chloroplast gene 124 bp for the plant matrices confirmation. The intrinsic detection limit was 10 pg·ml-1 and the practical detection limit was 0.001% w/w (10 mg·kg-1 for both peanuts and hazelnuts. The method was applied to the investigation of 60 commercial food samples. The developed multiplex PCR method is cheap, specific and sensitive enough and can be used as a simple, one day procedure for the checking of undeclared peanut and hazelnut major allergens in food.

  4. Quantifying Aflatoxin B1 in peanut oil using fabricating fluorescence probes based on upconversion nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cuicui; Li, Huanhuan; Koidis, Anastasios; Chen, Quansheng

    2016-08-01

    Rare earth doped upconversion nanoparticles convert near-infrared excitation light into visible emission light. Compared to organic fluorophores and semiconducting nanoparticles, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) offer high photochemical stability, sharp emission bandwidths, and large anti-Stokes shifts. Along with the significant light penetration depth and the absence of autofluorescence in biological samples under infrared excitation, these UCNPs have attracted more and more attention on toxin detection and biological labelling. Herein, the fluorescence probe based on UCNPs was developed for quantifying Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in peanut oil. Based on a specific immunity format, the detection limit for AFB1 under optimal conditions was obtained as low as 0.2 ng·ml- 1, and in the effective detection range 0.2 to 100 ng·ml- 1, good relationship between fluorescence intensity and AFB1 concentration was achieved under the linear ratios up to 0.90. Moreover, to check the feasibility of these probes on AFB1 measurements in peanut oil, recovery tests have been carried out. A good accuracy rating (93.8%) was obtained in this study. Results showed that the nanoparticles can be successfully applied for sensing AFB1 in peanut oil.

  5. Molecular Detection of Aflatoxin Producing Strains of Aspergillus Flavus from Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeela Hussain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are the potential carcinogens produced as secondary metabolites by Aspergillus flavus. They have the ability to contaminate large number of food which ultimately affect the human population. Malt extract agar was selected for the growth of control stains of fungus. The aim of the study was to develop a reliable and quick method for the detection of aflatoxin producing strains in peanuts by using molecular approaches. Total 80 samples of infected peanuts were collected from four different cities of Punjab and checked for their aflatoxin contamination. For aflatoxin detection, three target genes nor1, ver1 and aflR were selected which was involved in the aflatoxin biosynthesis. In all examined cases, 24 out of 80 (30% samples successfully amplified all three genes indicating aflatoxigenic activity. Discrimination between aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains were also determined on the basis of amplification of these three target DNA fragments. In this study, it was also demonstrated that only specific strains were able to produce the aflatoxin contamination in peanuts.

  6. Ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of goats fed diets containing peanut cake from biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thadeu Mariniello; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; do Nascimento Júnior, Nilton Guedes; de Pellegrini, Caius Barcellos; Trajano, Jaqueline da Silva; Rocha, Tiago Cunha; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Borja, Máikal Souza

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of confined goats fed peanut cake instead of soybean meal in their feed. We used 40 goats that were ¾ Boer, uncastrated, and 5 months of age on average, with an average initial weight of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. The treatments consisted of diets with different levels of peanut cake replacing soybean meal in the concentrate (0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%). The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and ten repetitions. For the evaluation of feeding behavior, single animals were observed every 5 min for 24 h on 3 days. The physiological responses (respiratory rate; heart rate; rectal temperature, obtained with a rectal thermometer; and surface temperature) of the animals were evaluated at 09:00 and 15:00 h. The replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake did not change (P > 0.05) feeding behavior. The physiological parameters of the animals (P behavior or physiological parameters of confined ¾ Boer goats.

  7. Rapid, non-destructive selection of peanuts for high aflatoxin content by soaking and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzki, Thomas F; Haddon, William F

    2002-05-08

    Peanut lots are subject to aflatoxin levels high enough to cause concern to health agencies and trade channels. A possible solution would be to mechanically sort out high aflatoxin nuts from the process stream. Only highly contaminated nuts would need to be removed. However, there exists at present no sorting mechanism which meets commercial needs of adequate reduction and product preservation. To build such a sorter requires knowledge of the properties that can be used for sorting. The first step in the design is to select on the order of one hundred undamaged contaminated nuts which can be compared with noncontaminated ones. Because contaminated nuts are rare, a very large number of nuts needs to be examined nondestructively. We present a method to rapidly carry out such a selection. The method is based on dipping nuts into extraction fluid and examining the resulting fluid by tandem MS without preliminary cleanup. This method has been applied to examine over 65,000 nuts, yielding approximately 120 nuts, each containing more than 250-43000 ng/g aflatoxin (depending on process stream).

  8. Soybean milk residue ensiled with peanut hulls: fermentation acids, cell wall composition, and silage utilization by mixed ruminal microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C-M J

    2005-08-01

    Preservation of soybean milk residue (SMR) by ensiling with peanut hulls (PEH) and subsequent utilization of silage by mixed ruminal microorganisms were investigated. Treatments were combinations of SMR with PEH at the following ratios: 100:0, 78:22, 71:29, and 60:40 (fresh weight basis). After eight weeks of ensiling, silage lactic acid, crude protein, ether extract, and non-fiber carbohydrates were highest when SMR was ensiled alone and reduced as amounts of SMR decreased. Similar trends were observed for silage in vitro dry matter digestibility, and gas and volatile fatty acid production by ruminal microorganisms. Conversely, silage pH, dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose, and lignin increased accordingly. The ensiling treatment appeared to alter silage cell wall composition. In particular, silage treated with PEH at the low level (78:22) resulted in reduced fiber contents and lignification. The silage (SMR:PEH=78:22) had enhanced efficiency of both silage fermentation and in vitro ruminal fermentation pattern.

  9. Regulation of AhFRO1, an Fe(III)-chelate reductase of peanut, during iron deficiency stress and intercropping with maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong; Duan, Lihong; Wu, Huilan; Yang, Rongxin; Ling, Hongqing; Li, Wen-Xue; Zhang, Fusuo

    2009-07-01

    Iron deficiency-induced chlorosis in peanut during anthesis was alleviated when peanut was intercropped with maize in field and pot experiments. Iron acquisition of graminaceous plants is characterized by the synthesis and secretion of the iron-chelating phytosiderophores. Compared to the roots of monocropped maize, the roots of maize intercropped with peanut always secreted higher amounts of phytosiderophores during peanut anthesis. For non-graminaceous plants, reduction of ferric to ferrous iron on the root surface is the rate-limiting step for mobilizing iron from soil. The full-length cDNA, AhFRO1, which is encoding an Fe(III)-chelate reductase, was isolated from peanut. AhFRO1 expression in yeast conferred Fe(III)-chelate reductase activity to the cells. Consistent with its function in iron uptake, AhFRO1 was determined to be a membrane protein by transient expression analysis. AhFRO1 mRNA accumulated under iron deficiency conditions. During pre-anthesis, the Fe(III)-chelate reductase activity and the transcript levels of AhFRO1 were similar in monocropped and intercropped peanut. When the iron deficiency-induced chlorosis developed in the monocropped peanuts, both the Fe(III)-chelate reductase activity of peanut and the transcript levels of AhFRO1 were higher in intercropped than in monocropped peanuts, which is consistent with the secretion of phytosiderophores by maize roots. We conclude that AhFRO1 in peanut and phytosiderophores from maize co-operate to improve the iron nutrition of peanut when intercropped with maize.

  10. Influence of Japanese consumer gender and age on sensory attributes and preference (a case study on deep-fried peanuts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Detailed exploration of sensory perception as well as preference across gender and age for a certain food is very useful for developing a vendible food commodity related to physiological and psychological motivation for food preference. Sensory tests including color, sweetness, bitterness, fried peanut aroma, textural preference and overall liking of deep-fried peanuts with varying frying time (2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 15 min) at 150 °C were carried out using 417 healthy Japanese consumers. To determine the influence of gender and age on sensory evaluation, systematic statistical analysis including one-way analysis of variance, polynomial regression analysis and multiple regression analysis was conducted using the collected data. The results indicated that females were more sensitive to bitterness than males. This may affect sensory preference; female subjects favored peanuts prepared with a shorter frying time more than male subjects did. With advancing age, textural preference played a more important role in overall preference. Older subjects liked deeper-fried peanuts, which are more brittle, more than younger subjects did. In the present study, systematic statistical analysis based on collected sensory evaluation data using deep-fried peanuts was conducted and the tendency of sensory perception and preference across gender and age was clarified. These results may be useful for engineering optimal strategies to target specific segments to gain greater acceptance in the market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effect of 12 Weeks High Oleic Peanut Consumption on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors and Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne A. Barbour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI 31 ± 4 kg/m2 alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%–20% of energy or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP, lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05, following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001, predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05. Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation.

  12. Appetitive and Dietary Effects of Consuming an Energy-Dense Food (Peanuts with or between Meals by Snackers and Nonsnackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Devitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Energy-dense foods are inconsistently implicated in elevated energy intake (EI. This may stem from other food properties and/or differences in dietary incorporation, that is, as snacks or with meals. Objective. Assess intake pattern and food properties on acute appetitive ratings (AR and EI. Design. 201 normal and overweight adults consuming a standard lunch. Test loads of 1255.2 kJ (300 kcal were added to the lunch or provided as snack. Loads (peanuts, snack mix, and snack mix with peanuts were energy, macronutrient, and volumetrically matched with a lunch portion as control. Participants completed meal and snack sessions of their randomly assigned load. Results. No differences were observed in daily EI or AR for meal versus snack or treatment versus control. Consumption of peanuts as a snack tended to strengthen dietary compensation compared to peanuts or other loads with a meal. Conclusions. Inclusion of an energy-dense food as a snack or meal component had comparable influence on AR and EI. Peanuts tended to elicit stronger dietary compensation when consumed as a snack versus with a meal. If substantiated, this latter observation suggests that properties other than those controlled here (energy, macronutrient content, and volume modify AR and EI.

  13. Digestion of peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6: A comparative in vitro study and partial characterization of digestion-resistant peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Hefle, S.L.; Taylor, S.L.; Jong, G.A.H.de

    2010-01-01

    Scope: There are differences in stability to pepsin between the major allergens in peanut; however, data are from different reports using different digestion models. This study provides a comprehensive comparison of the digestibility of the major peanut allergens.Methods and results: Peanut

  14. Relative performance evaluation of a custom-made near infrared reflectance instrument and two commercial instruments (Foss and ASD) in the nondestructive moisture content measurement of in-shell peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A custom made Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) spectroscope was used to determine the moisture content of in-shell peanuts of Virginia type peanuts. Peanuts were conditioned to different moisture levels between 6 and 26 % (wet basis) and samples from different moisture levels were separated into two...

  15. ชื่อเรื่อง: Rapid assessment of root and shoot growth of peanut in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPAQ

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... The objective of this study was to compare if simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers could correctly identify peanut genotypes with difference in specific leaf weight (SLW) and relative water content (RWC). Four peanut genotypes and two water regimes (FC and 1/3 available water; 1/3 AW) were arranged ...

  16. Resolution and identification of major peanut allergens using a combination of fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis, western blotting and Q-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergy is triggered by several proteins known as allergens. The matching resolution and identification of major peanut allergens in 2D protein maps, was accomplished by the use of fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE), Western blotting and quadrupole time-of...

  17. Análise de crescimento em amendoinzeiro (Arachis hypogaea L. submetido à matocompetição Analysis of peanut growth under a weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mauro Barbosa

    1995-07-01

    initial period of weed control decreased the density of the weed community, as well as the number of species and modified the relative importance of populations. After 42 days the weed competition had affected the peanut development by reducing plant growth, leaf area, leaf area index and epigeal storage of dry matter. The number of twigs and of leaflets per plant, and the quality and vigour of seeds were not affected. The peanut pod productivity decreased 31,5% in the presence of weeds. The total period avoiding interference in the production was 14 days and the period before the interference was 70 days.

  18. Data in support of proteome analysis of gynophores and early swelling pods of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different from most of other plants, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is a typical geocarpic species which flowering and forming pegs (gynophores above the ground. Pegs penetrate into soil for embryo and pod development. To investigate the molecular mechanism of geocarpy feature of peanut, the proteome profiles of aerial grown gynophores (S1, subterranean unswollen gynophores (S2, and gynophores that had just started to swell into pods (S3 were analyzed by combining 1 DE with nano LC–MS/MS approaches. The proteomic data provided valuable information for understanding pod development of peanut. The data described here can be found in the PRIDE Archive using the reference number PXD002579-81. A more comprehensive analysis of this data may be obtained from the article in BMC Plant Biology (Zhao et al., 2015 [1].

  19. Simultaneous expression of regulatory genes associated with specific drought-adaptive traits improves drought adaptation in peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Vemanna S; Swetha, Thavarekere N; Sheela, Shekarappa H; Babitha, Chandrashekar K; Rohini, Sreevathsa; Reddy, Malireddy K; Tuteja, Narendra; Reddy, Chandrashekar P; Prasad, Trichi Ganesh; Udayakumar, Makarla

    2016-03-01

    Adaptation of crops to drought-prone rain-fed conditions can be achieved by improving plant traits such as efficient water mining (by superior root characters) and cellular-level tolerance mechanisms. Pyramiding these drought-adaptive traits by simultaneous expression of genes regulating drought-adaptive mechanisms has phenomenal relevance in improving stress tolerance. In this study, we provide evidence that peanut transgenic plants expressing Alfalfa zinc finger 1 (Alfin1), a root growth-associated transcription factor gene, Pennisetum glaucum heat-shock factor (PgHSF4) and Pea DNA helicase (PDH45) involved in protein turnover and protection showed improved tolerance, higher growth and productivity under drought stress conditions. Stable integration of all the transgenes was noticed in transgenic lines. The transgenic lines showed higher root growth, cooler crop canopy air temperature difference (less CCATD) and higher relative water content (RWC) under drought stress. Low proline levels in transgenic lines substantiate the maintenance of higher water status. The survival and recovery of transgenic lines was significantly higher under gradual moisture stress conditions with higher biomass. Transgenic lines also showed significant tolerance to ethrel-induced senescence and methyl viologen-induced oxidative stress. Several stress-responsive genes such as heat-shock proteins (HSPs), RING box protein-1 (RBX1), Aldose reductase, late embryogenesis abundant-5 (LEA5) and proline-rich protein-2 (PRP2), a gene involved in root growth, showed enhanced expression under stress in transgenic lines. Thus, the simultaneous expression of regulatory genes contributing for drought-adaptive traits can improve crop adaptation and productivity under water-limited conditions. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Peanut allergy is common among hazelnut-sensitized subjects but is not primarily the result of IgE cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masthoff, L J; van Hoffen, E; Mattsson, L; Lidholm, J; Andersson, K; Zuidmeer-Jongejan, L; Versteeg, S A; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A; Knulst, A C; Pasmans, S G; van Ree, R

    2015-03-01

    Hazelnut and peanut are botanically unrelated foods, but patients are often sensitized and allergic to both, for reasons that are not well understood. To investigate molecular cosensitization and cross-reactivity to peanut in hazelnut-sensitized individuals, children (n = 81) and adults (n = 80) were retrospectively selected based on sensitization to hazelnut. IgE to hazelnut extract, Cor a 1, 8, 9 and 14, to peanut extract, Ara h 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9, and to Bet v 1 was determined by ImmunoCAP. Allergy to hazelnut and peanut was established by DBPCFC and/or detailed clinical history. Patients were either tolerant or displayed subjective or objective symptoms to either food. IgE cross-reactivity between hazelnut and peanut storage proteins was assessed by reciprocal ImmunoCAP inhibition experiments. Of the 161 hazelnut-sensitized subjects, 109 (68%) were also sensitized to peanut, and 73 (45%) had clinical expression of allergy to peanut that was not associated with the presence or severity of hazelnut allergy. Instead, it was associated with IgE reactivity to peanut storage proteins, in particular Ara h 2. No cross-reactivity could be detected between Ara h 2 and Cor a 14, and 2 of 13 subjects displayed extensive cross-reactivity between 11S globulins; in plasma of both individuals, Ara h 3 almost completely inhibited IgE binding to Cor a 9. Peanut allergy is not primarily the result of IgE cross-reactivity to hazelnut storage proteins. IgE to Cor a 14 and Ara h 2 may serve as useful markers of primary sensitization to hazelnut and peanut, respectively. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Identification and characterization of microRNAs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. by high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Chi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are noncoding RNAs of approximately 21 nt that regulate gene expression in plants post-transcriptionally by endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs play essential roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes and many of them are conserved across species. Extensive studies of miRNAs have been done in a few model plants; however, less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., one of the most important oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. RESULTS: A library of small RNA from peanut was constructed for deep sequencing. In addition to 126 known miRNAs from 33 families, 25 novel peanut miRNAs were identified. The miRNA* sequences of four novel miRNAs were discovered, providing additional evidence for the existence of miRNAs. Twenty of the novel miRNAs were considered to be species-specific because no homolog has been found for other plant species. qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of seven miRNAs in different tissues and in seed at different developmental stages and some showed tissue- and/or growth stage-specific expression. Furthermore, potential targets of these putative miRNAs were predicted on the basis of the sequence homology search. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified large numbers of miRNAs and their related target genes through deep sequencing of a small RNA library. This study of the identification and characterization of miRNAs in peanut can initiate further study on peanut miRNA regulation mechanisms, and help toward a greater understanding of the important roles of miRNAs in peanut.

  2. Soil eukaryotic microorganism succession as affected by continuous cropping of peanut--pathogenic and beneficial fungi were selected.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingna Chen

    Full Text Available Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping.

  3. Response of Photosynthesis and Yield of Sweetpotato and Peanut to Super-optimal CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsi, C.; Bullard, J.; Hileman, D.; Mortley, D.; Hill, J.; Hill, W.; Morrris, C.

    The fate of persons involved in long-term space travel and habitation will depend greatly on the ability to provide food and a livable environment for them In the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Advanced Life Support ALS program photosynthesis of higher plants will be utilized to provide food and oxygen while removing carbon dioxide produced by humans and other heterotrophs as well as transpiring water that can be recycled for drinking This plant-mediated process is collectively referred to as Bioregenerative Life Support Carbon dioxide concentrations on board a space shuttle cabin atmosphere range between 4000 and 6000 mu mol mol -1 CO 2 but with large crews may exceed 10 000- mu mol mol -1 CO 2 Thus it is critical to evaluate the responses of candidate crops to super optimal levels of CO 2 Soybean and potato have been exposed to CO 2 concentrations up to 5000 and 10 000- mu mol mol -1 Very little research has been published about the effects of super-optimal CO 2 levels on sweetpotato and peanut growth and physiology thus indicating a need for extensive research on these plants The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of super-optimal CO 2 enrichment on growth of TU-82-155 sweetpotato and Georgia Red peanut in a Microporous Tube Membrane MPT using Turface Media and Nutrient Film Technique NFT nutrient delivery systems Sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas L Lam and peanut Arachis hypogaea L were exposed to three CO 2 levels of 400

  4. BSACI guideline for the diagnosis and management of peanut and tree nut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, G; Anagnostou, K; Boyle, R J; Brathwaite, N; Ewan, P; Fox, A T; Huber, P; Luyt, D; Till, S J; Venter, C; Clark, A T

    2017-06-01

    Peanut nut and tree nut allergy are characterised by IgE mediated reactions to nut proteins. Nut allergy is a global disease. Limited epidemiological data suggest varying prevalence in different geographical areas. Primary nut allergy affects over 2% of children and 0.5% of adults in the UK. Infants with severe eczema and/or egg allergy have a higher risk of peanut allergy. Primary nut allergy presents most commonly in the first five years of life, often after the first known ingestion with typical rapid onset IgE-mediated symptoms. The clinical diagnosis of primary nut allergy can be made by the combination of a typical clinical presentation and evidence of nut specifc IgE shown by a positive skin prick test (SPT) or specific IgE (sIgE) test. Pollen food syndrome is a distinct disorder, usually mild, with oral/pharyngeal symptoms, in the context of hay fever or pollen sensitisation, which can be triggered by nuts. It can usually be distinguish clinically from primary nut allergy. The magnitude of a SPT or sIgE relates to the probability of clinical allergy, but does not relate to clinical severity. SPT of ≥ 8 mm or sIgE ≥ 15 KU/L to peanut is highly predictive of clinical allergy. Cut off values are not available for tree nuts. Test results must be interpreted in the context of the clinical history. Diagnostic food challenges are usually not necessary but may be used to confirm or refute a conflicting history and test result. As nut allergy is likely to be a long-lived disease, nut avoidance advice is the cornerstone of management. Patients should be provided with a comprehensive management plan including avoidance advice, patient specific emergency medication and an emergency treatment plan and training in administration of emergency medication. Regular re-training is required. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Phenotypic effects of allotetraploidization of wild Arachis and their implications for peanut domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Moretzsohn, Márcio C; Santos, Silvio P; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Guimarães, Patrícia M; Bertioli, David J; Araujo, Ana Claudia G

    2017-03-01

    Several species of Arachis have been cultivated for their edible seeds, historically and to the present day. The diploid species that have a history of cultivation show relatively small signatures of domestication. In contrast, the tetraploid species A. hypogaea evolved into highly domesticated forms and became a major world crop, the cultivated peanut. It seems likely that allotetraploidization (hybridity and/or tetraploidization) in some way enhanced attractiveness for cultivation. Here we investigate this using six different hybridization and tetraploidization events, from distinct Arachis diploid species, including one event derived from the same wild species that originated peanut. Twenty-six anatomical, morphological, and physiological traits were examined in the induced allotetraploid plants and compared with their wild diploid parents. Nineteen traits were transgressive (showed strong response to hybridization and chromosome duplication): allotetraploids had larger leaves, stomata and epidermal cells than did their diploid parents. In addition, allotetraploids produced more photosynthetic pigments. These traits have the same trend across the different hybrid combinations, suggesting that the changes are more likely due to ploidy rather than hybridity. In contrast, seed dimensions and seed mass did not significantly change in response to hybridization or tetraploidization. We suggest that the original allotetraploid that gave rise to cultivated peanut may have been attractive because of an increase in plant size, different transpiration characteristics, higher photosynthetic capacity, or other characteristics, but contrary to accepted knowledge, increased seed size was unlikely to have been important in the initial domestication. © 2017 Leal-Bertoli et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC).

  6. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    lactose based media, namely 276 mg/l and 236 mg/l, respectively. Five various types of bran have been tested as solid substrates for production of lovastatin in SSF - wheat bran, oat bran, maize bran, rice bran and mix of wheat and peanut bran. It has been observed that fermentation of A. terreus 4 on wheat and A. terreus ...

  7. Development and characterization of green composites from bio-based polyethylene and peanut shell

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Daniel; Carbonell Verdú, Alfredo; Jorda-Vilaplana, Amparo; Balart Gimeno, Rafael Antonio; García Sanoguera, David

    2016-01-01

    This is the accepted version of the following article: Garcia-Garcia, D., Carbonell-Verdu, A., Jordá-Vilaplana, A., Balart, R. and Garcia-Sanoguera, D. (2016), Development and characterization of green composites from bio-based polyethylene and peanut shell. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 43940 doi: 10.1002/app.43940, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.43940 In the present work, different compatibilizers, namely polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA), poly...

  8. QTL mapping for bacterial wilt resistance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Chong; Chen, Hua; Yuan, Mei; Nipper, Rick; Prakash, C S; Zhuang, Weijian; He, Guohao

    Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a serious, global, disease of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.), but it is especially destructive in China. Identification of DNA markers linked to the resistance to this disease will help peanut breeders efficiently develop resistant cultivars through molecular breeding. A F 2 population, from a cross between disease-resistant and disease-susceptible cultivars, was used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the resistance to this disease in the cultivated peanut. Genome-wide SNPs were identified from restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing tags using next-generation DNA sequencing technology. SNPs linked to disease resistance were determined in two bulks of 30 resistant and 30 susceptible plants along with two parental plants using bulk segregant analysis. Polymorphic SSR and SNP markers were utilized for construction of a linkage map and for performing the QTL analysis, and a moderately dense linkage map was constructed in the F 2 population. Two QTL ( qBW -1 and qBW -2) detected for resistance to BW disease were located in the linkage groups LG1 and LG10 and account for 21 and 12 % of the bacterial wilt phenotypic variance. To confirm these QTL, the F 8 RIL population with 223 plants was utilized for genotyping and phenotyping plants by year and location as compared to the F 2 population. The QTL qBW -1 was consistent in the location of LG1 in the F 8 population though the QTL qBW -2 could not be clarified due to fewer markers used and mapped in LG10. The QTL qBW -1, including four linked SNP markers and one SSR marker within 14.4-cM interval in the F 8 , was closely related to a disease resistance gene homolog and was considered as a candidate gene for resistance to BW. QTL identified in this study would be useful to conduct marker-assisted selection and may permit cloning of resistance genes. Our study shows that bulk segregant analysis of genome-wide SNPs is a useful approach to

  9. Chemical similarity among domesticated and wild genotypes of peanut based on n-alkanes profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Janaína Carvalho de Souza

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the epicuticular n-alkane profile of domesticated and wild peanut genotypes. Foliar epicuticular n-alkanes of four Arachis hypogaea genotypes and two wild species - A. monticola and A. stenosperma - were analyzed by gas chromatography. Chemical relationships between them were evaluated using the Dice coefficient and UPGMA method. Two clusters were formed: one with four A. hypogaea genotypes and the other with the two wild species. There is more similarity between the BR1 and LIGO-PE06 genotypes and between the BRS 151 L-7 and BRS Havana genotypes.

  10. Next generation sequence analysis of the forage peanut (Arachis pintoi virome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés Gutiérrez Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    resulted in the complete genome assembly of Peanut mottle virus (9707 nt, Turnip yellows virus (5578 nt and two variants of a virus with phylogenetic affinity to the genus Allexivirus. These two variants lack ORF6 present in Allexivirus and probably belong to an uncharacterized genus within the family Alphaflexiviridae. The presence of at least three viruses infecting A. pintoi in Colombia highlights the importance of starting a germplasm clean-up program of the plant material used as seed in this crop.

  11. Variant Amino Acid Residues Alter the Enzyme Activity of Peanut Type 2 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis via the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of diacylglycerol. This reaction is a major control point in the Kennedy pathway for biosynthesis of TAG, which is the most important form of stored metabolic energy in most oil-producing plants. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2 genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar ‘Luhua 14.’ Sequence analysis of 11 different peanut cultivars revealed a gene family of 8 peanut DGAT2 genes (designated AhDGAT2a-h. Sequence alignments revealed 21 nucleotide differences between the eight ORFs, but only six differences result in changes to the predicted amino acid (AA sequences. A representative full-length cDNA clone (AhDGAT2a was characterized in detail. The biochemical effects of altering the AhDGAT2a sequence to include single variable AA residues were tested by mutagenesis and functional complementation assays in transgenic yeast systems. All six mutant variants retained enzyme activity and produced lipid droplets in vivo. The N6D and A26P mutants also displayed increased enzyme activity and/or total cellular fatty acid (FA content. N6D mutant mainly increased the content of palmitoleic acid, and A26P mutant mainly increased the content of palmitic acid. The A26P mutant grew well both in the presence of oleic and C18:2, but the other mutants grew better in the presence of C18:2. AhDGAT2 is expressed in all peanut organs analyzed, with high transcript levels in leaves and flowers. These levels are comparable to that found in immature seeds, where DGAT2 expression is most abundant in other plants. Over-expression of AhDGAT2a in tobacco substantially increased the FA content of transformed tobacco seeds. Expression of AhDGAT2a also altered transcription levels of endogenous tobacco lipid metabolic genes in transgenic tobacco, apparently creating a larger carbon ‘sink’ that supports increased FA

  12. Parallelism error in peanut sowing operation with auto-steer guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adão F. dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT GNSS positioning errors are certain, regardless of the adopted positioning method. In agriculture, these errors may represent higher or lower overlapping rates between passes of a mechanical assembly, affecting operation quality. Therefore, this study evaluated the main errors arising from peanut sowing operation performed with an auto-steer guidance system by an RTX signal, using the Statistical Process Control techniques. The errors evaluated were: in tractor lateral displacement, project execution, and parallelism between passes of tractor-seeder set. The average errors of project execution in all passes were within the range specified by the manufacturer, i.e. lower than 3.8 cm. The average error of tractor-seeder set was also within the accepted range. However, as shown in control charts, lateral tractor displacement had interference of terrain slope, causing average errors higher than the accepted range. Based on the control charts, project execution accuracy was satisfactory, and it is possible to use the RTX signal in agricultural operations that require accuracy lower than 3.8 cm, such as peanut sowing.

  13. Effects of Fungicides, Time of Application, and Application Method on Control of Sclerotinia Blight in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Woodward

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to evaluate the response of peanut cultivars to different fungicides, application timings, and methods. Overall, fungicides reduced Sclerotinia blight incidence and increased pod yields when applied to susceptible and partially resistant cultivars. Disease suppression was greater when full fungicide rates were applied preventatively; however, yields between fungicide treated plots were similar. Lower levels of disease and higher yields were achieved with the partially resistant cultivar Tamrun OL07 compared to the susceptible cultivars Flavor Runner 458 and Tamrun OL 02. Despite possessing improved resistance Tamrun OL07 responded to all fungicide applications. While similar levels of disease control were achieved with broadcast or banded applications made during the day or at night, the yield response for the different application methods was inconsistent among years. A negative relationship (slope = −73.8; R2=0.73; P<0.01 was observed between final disease incidence ratings and yield data from studies where a fungicide response was observed. These studies suggest that both boscalid and fluazinam are effective at controlling Sclerotinia blight in peanuts. Alternative management strategies such as nighttime and banded applications could allow for lower fungicide rates to be used; however, additional studies are warranted.

  14. Combustion of peanut and tamarind shells in a conical fluidized-bed combustor: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprianov, Vladimir I; Arromdee, Porametr

    2013-07-01

    Combustion of peanut and tamarind shells was studied in the conical fluidized-bed combustor using alumina sand as the bed material to prevent bed agglomeration. Morphological, thermogravimetric and kinetic characteristics were investigated to compare thermal and combustion reactivity between the biomass fuels. The thermogravimetric kinetics of the biomasses was fitted using the Coats-Redfern method. Experimental tests on the combustor were performed at 60 and 45 kg/h fuel feed rates, with excess air within 20-80%. Temperature and gas concentrations were measured along radial and axial directions in the reactor and at stack. The axial temperature and gas concentration profiles inside the combustor exhibited sensible effects of fuel properties and operating conditions on combustion and emission performance. High (≈ 99%) combustion efficiency and acceptable levels of CO, CxHy, and NO emissions are achievable when firing peanut shells at excess air of about 40%, whereas 60% is more preferable for burning tamarind shells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biological Control of Late Leaf Spot of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) with Chitinolytic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, G Krishna; Pande, Suresh; Podile, A R

    2005-10-01

    ABSTRACT Late leaf spot (LLS), caused by Phaeoisariopsis personata, is a foliar disease of groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea) with high economic and global importance. Antifungal and chitinolytic Bacillus circulans GRS 243 and Serratia marcescens GPS 5, selected among a collection of 393 peanut-associated bacteria, were applied as a prophylactic foliar spray and tested for control of LLS. Chitin-supplemented application of B. circulans GRS 243 and S. marcescens GPS 5 resulted in improved biological control of LLS disease. Supplementation of bacterial cells with 1% (wt/vol) colloidal chitin reduced lesion frequency by 60% compared with application of bacterial cells alone, in the greenhouse. Chitinsupplemented application of GRS 243 and GPS 5 also resulted in improved and stable control of LLS in a repeated field experiment and increased the pod yields by 62 and 75%, respectively, compared with the control. Chitin-supplemented application of GPS 5 was tested in six onfarm trials, and the increase in pod yields was up to 48% in kharif (rainy season). A 55-kDa chitinase was purified from the cell-free culture filtrate of GPS 5 by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. Purified chitinase of S. marcescens GPS 5 (specific activity 120 units) inhibited the in vitro germination of P. personata conidia, lysed the conidia, and effectively controlled LLS in greenhouse tests, indicating the importance of chitinolysis in biological control of LLS disease by GPS 5.

  16. Biopolymers composites with peanut hull waste biomass and application for Crystal Violet adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Noor; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Iqbal, Munawar; Noreen, Saima

    2017-01-01

    Composites of polyaniline, starch, polypyrrole, chitosan aniline and chitosan pyrrole using peanut waste were prepared and employed for the adsorption of Crystal Violet (CV) dye from aqueous media. The process variables i.e., composite doses, pH, contact time, CV initial concentration and temperature were optimized. Thermodynamic, equilibrium modelling and kinetics models were fitted to the CV adsorption data in order to understand the mechanism and nature of CV adsorption onto native and composite adsorbents. Maximum CV adsorption of 100.6mg/g was achieved (onto chitosan aniline composite) using 150mg/L dye initial concentration, 50°C temperature, 60min contact time, 0.05g adsorbent dose and>7pH. Effect of composites pre-treatments with salts, surfactants and co-metals ions were also studied. The CV adsorption efficiencies of adsorbents were found in following order; chitosan aniline composite>starch composite>chitosan pyrrole composite>polyaniline composite>polypyrrole composite>native peanut biomass. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm fitted well to the CV equilibrium adsorption data and intraparticle diffusion was the rate limiting step. Composites showed endothermic and energetically stable nature for CV adsorption. Composites also showed good desorption properties, which revealed the recycling ability of prepared composites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prediction of peanut protein solubility based on the evaluation model established by supervised principal component regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Liu, Hongzhi; Liu, Li; Wang, Qiang; Li, Shurong; Li, Qizhai

    2017-03-01

    Supervised principal component regression (SPCR) analysis was adopted to establish the evaluation model of peanut protein solubility. Sixty-six peanut varieties were analysed in the present study. Results showed there was intimate correlation between protein solubility and other indexes. At 0.05 level, these 11 indexes, namely crude fat, crude protein, total sugar, cystine, arginine, conarachin I, 37.5kDa, 23.5kDa, 15.5kDa, protein extraction rate, and kernel ratio, were correlated with protein solubility and were extracted to for establishing the SPCR model. At 0.01 level, a simper model was built between the four indexes (crude protein, cystine, conarachin I, and 15.5kDa) and protein solubility. Verification results showed that the coefficients between theoretical and experimental values were 0.815 (psolubility effectively. The application of models was more convenient and efficient than traditional determination method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Immunoproteomics of non water-soluble allergens from 4 legumes flours: peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouakkadia, Hayette; Boutebba, Aissa; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joëlle; Guilloux, Laurence; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil are members of legumes worldwide consumed by human that can induce food allergy in genetically predisposed individuals. Several protein allergens, mainly water-soluble, have been described. We studied the non water-soluble fraction from these 4 food sources using immunoproteomics tools and techniques. Flour extracts were solubilized in detergent and chaotropes and analysed in 1 and 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D). Results showed numerous proteins exhibiting wide ranges of isoelectric points and relative molecular masses. When IgE immunoreactivities of 18 food allergy patients were individually tested in 1 and 2D western-blots, a very diversified IgE repertoire was observed, reflecting extensive cross-reactivities but also co-sensitizations. Besides already well known and characterized allergens, mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 22 allergens undescribed until now: 10 in peanut, 2 in soybean, 3 in sesame and 7 in lentil. Three allergens are legume storage proteins and the others belong to transport proteins, nucleotide binding proteins and proteins involved in the regulation of metabolism. Seven proteins are potentially similar to allergens described in plants and fungi and 11 are not related to any known allergen. Our results contribute to increase the repertoire of legume allergens that may improve the diagnosis, categorize patients and thus provide a better treatment of patients.

  19. Adsorption of light green anionic dye using cationic surfactant-modified peanut husk in batch mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binglu Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Peanut husk was modified using a cationic surfactant hexadecylpyridinium bromide (CPB and used as an adsorbent (MPH to remove light green dye (LG, anionic dye from aqueous solution in batch mode. Analysis of FTIR and XRF showed that CPB was adsorbed onto the surface of peanut husk. LG was analyzed using a UV spectrophotometer at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (660 nm. The results showed that it was in favor of adsorption at pH 2–4 while the presence of NaCl and CaCl2 in solution was not beneficial to LG dye adsorption. Pseudo-first-order kinetic equation and Elovich equation can describe the adsorption kinetics. The equilibrium data were better described by Langmuir isotherm and adsorption capacity of qm from Langmuir model was 146.2 ± 2.4 mg/g at 303 K. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the adsorption was spontaneous and an exothermic process. Exhausted MPH was regenerated by 0.01 mol/L NaOH solution and MPH can be reused. The results implied that MPH can be used as an effective adsorbent material to remove LG from aqueous solution.

  20. Comparison of Neuroprotective and Cognition-Enhancing Properties of Hydrolysates from Soybean, Walnut, and Peanut Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysates were prepared from soybean, walnut, and peanut protein by papain, respectively. Their amino acid compositions and molecular weight distributions, the effects of various hydrolysates on H2O2-induced injury PC12 cells, and cognition of mice were investigated, respectively. Results showed that the three hydrolysates were dominated by the peptides with 1–3 KDa with large amount of neurotrophic amino acids. All the hydrolysates exhibited much stronger inhibitory activity against H2O2-induced toxicity than cerebrolysin, and soy protein hydrolysate showed the highest activity. Moreover, the hydrolysates also could reduce the rate of nonviable apoptotic cells at the concentration of 2 mg/mL. The test of animal’s cognition indicated that three hydrolysates could present partly better effect of improving recurred memory ability of normal mice and consolidated memory ability of anisodine-treated mice than piracetam. Therefore, soybean, walnut, and peanut protein hydrolysates were recommended as a potential food raw material for prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  1. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies on the thermal properties of peanut proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Andrés; Ribotta, Pablo Daniel; León, Alberto Edel

    2010-04-14

    Studies related to the functional and thermal properties of peanut proteins are limited if compared with other vegetable protein sources. The aim of this work was to study the thermal denaturation of peanut protein isolates (PPI) by DSC. The thermal profile of PPI showed two endothermic peaks (assigned to denaturation of arachin and conarachin fractions). The thermal stability of arachin and conarachin increased when water content decreased, and a critical water level was found for both fractions. The effect of protein denaturants was studied. Low contents of urea stabilized protein fractions, but lower T(d) values were found with increasing concentrations. DeltaH values of arachin were affected by urea. SDS affected DeltaH values and thermal stability of conarachin; the arachin fraction showed higher resistance to SDS-induced denaturation. DTT addition did not affect conarachin stability, although enthalpy values decreased significantly. On the other hand, arachin was greatly affected by DTT. In summary, thermal denaturation parameters of PPI were sensitive to water content, indicating that polar groups of arachin and conarachin contribute to structure stabilization. Urea addition mainly affected the structure of the arachin fraction, which was attributed to its higher surface hydrophobicity. Results obtained from SDS and DTT suggest that hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bonds play an important role in structure maintenance of arachin and conarachin.

  2. Addendum Guidelines for the Prevention of Peanut Allergy in the United States: Report of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-Sponsored Expert Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togias, Alkis; Cooper, Susan F; Acebal, Maria L; Assa'ad, Amal; Baker, James R; Beck, Lisa A; Block, Julie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Chan, Edmond S; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Fleischer, David M; Fuchs, George J; Furuta, Glenn T; Greenhawt, Matthew J; Gupta, Ruchi S; Habich, Michele; Jones, Stacie M; Keaton, Kari; Muraro, Antonella; Plaut, Marshall; Rosenwasser, Lanny J; Rotrosen, Daniel; Sampson, Hugh A; Schneider, Lynda C; Sicherer, Scott H; Sidbury, Robert; Spergel, Jonathan; Stukus, David R; Venter, Carina; Boyce, Joshua A

    Food allergy is an important public health problem because it affects children and adults, can be severe and even life-threatening, and may be increasing in prevalence. Beginning in 2008, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, working with other organizations and advocacy groups, led the development of the first clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. A recent landmark clinical trial and other emerging data suggest that peanut allergy can be prevented through introduction of peanut-containing foods beginning in infancy. Prompted by these findings, along with 25 professional organizations, federal agencies, and patient advocacy groups, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases facilitated development of addendum guidelines to specifically address the prevention of peanut allergy. The addendum provides 3 separate guidelines for infants at various risk levels for the development of peanut allergy and is intended for use by a wide variety of health care providers. Topics addressed include the definition of risk categories, appropriate use of testing (specific IgE measurement, skin prick tests, and oral food challenges), and the timing and approaches for introduction of peanut-containing foods in the health care provider's office or at home. The addendum guidelines provide the background, rationale, and strength of evidence for each recommendation. Guidelines have been developed for early introduction of peanut-containing foods into the diets of infants at various risk levels for peanut allergy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Biotransformation of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin G1 in peanut meal by anaerobic solid fermentation of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Chi, Chen; Shan, Shihua; Guan, Bin

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of anaerobic solid fermentation of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus to biotransform aflatoxins in peanut meal. The pH of the peanut meal was adjusted above 10, and then heated for 10 min at 100 °C, 115 °C and 121 °C. The S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were precultured together in MRS broth for 48 h at 37 °C. The heated peanut meal was mixed with precultured MRS broth containing 7.0×10(8) CFU/mL of S. thermophilus and 3.0×10(3) CFU/mL of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with the ratio of 1 to 1 (weight to volume) and incubated in anaerobic jars at 37 °C for 3 days. The aflatoxin content in the peanut meal samples was determined by HPLC. The results showed that the peanut meal contained mainly aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (10.5±0.64 μg/kg) and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) (18.7±0.55 μg/kg). When heat treatment was combined with anaerobic solid fermentation, the biotransformation rate of aflatoxins in peanut meal could attain 100%. The cytotoxicity of fermented peanut meal to L929 mouse connective tissue fibroblast cells was determined by MTT assay and no significant toxicity was observed in the fermented peanut meal. Furthermore, heat treatment and anaerobic solid fermentation did not change the amino acid concentrations and profile in peanut meal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gamma Irradiation of in-Shell and Blanched Peanuts Protects against Mycotoxic Fungi and Retains Their Nutraceutical Components during Long-Term Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Guidolin Canniatti-Brazaca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Peanut samples were irradiated (0.0, 5.2, 7.2 or 10.0 kGy, stored for a year (room temperature and examined every three months. Mycotoxic fungi (MF were detected in non-irradiated blanched peanuts. A dose of 5.2 kGy was found suitable to prevent MF growth in blanched samples. No MF was detected in in-shell peanuts, with or without irradiation. The colors of the control in-shell and blanched samples were, respectively, 44.72 and 60.21 (L *; 25.20 and 20.38 (Chroma; 53.05 and 86.46 (°Hue. The water activities (Aw were 0.673 and 0.425. The corresponding fatty acids were 13.33% and 12.14% (C16:0, 44.94% and 44.92% (C18:1, ω9 and 37.10% and 37.63% (C18:2, ω6. The total phenolics (TP were 4.62 and 2.52 mg GAE/g, with antioxidant activities (AA of 16.97 and 10.36 μmol TEAC/g. Storage time negatively correlated with Aw (in-shell peanuts or L *, linoleic acid, TP and AA (in-shell and blanched peanuts but positively correlated with Aw (blanched peanuts, and with oleic acid (in-shell and blanched peanuts. Irradiation positively correlated with antioxidant activity (blanched peanuts. No correlation was found between irradiation and AA (in-shell samples or fatty acids and TP (in-shell and blanched peanuts. Irradiation protected against MF and retained both the polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols in the samples.

  5. Dynamics of sward condition and botanical composition in mixed pastures of marandugrass, forage peanut and tropical kudzu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the dynamics of sward condition and botanical composition of a mixed pasture of marandugrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Mandobi and tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides, rotationally stocked at four daily forage allowance levels (6.6, 10.3, 14.3 and 17.9% of live weight. Sward condition was characterized in each stocking cycle by measuring pre- and post-grazing sward height, forage mass and percentage of bare ground. Botanical composition (grass, forage peanut, tropical kudzu and weeds was evaluated before each stocking period. Swards under smaller forage allowances presented lower height, forage mass and ground cover. This condition favored the growth of forage peanut, which constituted 21.1, 15.2, 8.4 and 3.8% of forage mass in the last quarter of the experimental period, from the lowest to the highest forage allowance, respectively. Tropical kudzu was sensitive to all forage allowance levels and its percentage in the botanical composition was strongly reduced along the experimental period, especially during the dry season (July to September. Forage peanut cv. Mandobi and marandugrass form a more balanced mixture when pre-grazing sward height is maintained shorter than 45 cm. Tropical kudzu is intolerant to intensive grazing management systems when associated to marandugrass.

  6. Differences detected in vivo between samples of aflatoxin-contaminated peanut meal, following decontamination by two ammonia-based processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neal, G.E.; Judah, D.J.; Garthew, P.; Verma, A.; Latour, I.; Weir, L.; Coker, R.D.; Nagler, M.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2001-01-01

    A sample of peanut meal, highly contaminated with aflatoxins, has been subjected to decontamination by two commercial ammonia-based processes. The original contaminated and the two decontaminated meals were fed to rats for 90 days. No lesions associated with aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis

  7. Cultivar variation in morphological response of peanut roots to cadmium stress and its relation to cadmium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ziwei; Zhang, Zheng; Su, Ying; Liu, Caifeng; Shi, Gangrong

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that root morphology may play a crucial role in the variation in Cd accumulation among peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars. The biomass, Cd accumulation and root morphology of five peanut cultivars were determined under 2 and 20μM CdCl2 in a hydroponic experiment. Excess Cd considerably decreased the root lengths (RL), surface area (SA), specific root length (SRL) and number of root tips, but increased the root diameters (RD). Cd-induced decreases in RL and SA were significant in the 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4mm diameter classes. Peanut cultivars differ in Cd accumulation and root morphological parameters. A positive correlation was observed between RL and Cd amount in shoots. RD negatively correlated to Cd concentrations in roots and shoots. Positive correlations were also found between RL vs. shoot Cd concentration, SA vs. Cd amount in shoots, SRL vs. root Cd concentration, SRL vs. shoot Cd concentration, and SRL vs. Cd amount in shoots. The fine roots play a crucial role in determining Cd accumulation in peanut plants. Cultivars with more fine roots in their root system (i.e. Haihua 1 and Zhenghong 3) have high capability of Cd accumulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Loss-of-function variants in the filaggrin gene are a significant risk factor for peanut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Sara J.; Asai, Yuka; Cordell, Heather J.; Campbell, Linda E.; Zhao, Yiwei; Liao, Haihui; Northstone, Kate; Henderson, John; Alizadehfar, Reza; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Morgan, Kenneth; Roberts, Graham; Masthoff, Laury J. N.; Pasmans, Suzanne G. M. A.; van den Akker, Peter C.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Lack, Gideon; Clarke, Ann; Hull, Peter R.; Irvine, Alan D.; McLean, W. H. Irwin

    Background: IgE-mediated peanut allergy is a complex trait with strong heritability, but its genetic basis is currently unknown. Loss-of-function mutations within the filaggrin gene are associated with atopic dermatitis and other atopic diseases; therefore, filaggrin is a candidate gene in the

  9. Cor a 14 is the superior serological marker for hazelnut allergy in children, independent of concomitant peanut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Esben; Mortz, Charlotte G; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hazelnut is the most frequent cause of tree-nut allergy, but up to half of all children with hazelnut allergy additionally suffers from peanut allergy. Our aim was to identify diagnostic values of the most promising serological markers (Cor a 9 and Cor a 14) and to address the influen...

  10. Influence of probiotics, included in peanut butter, on the fate of selected Salmonella and Listeria strains under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Y A K; Chen, J

    2016-04-01

    This study observed the behaviour of probiotics and selected bacterial pathogens co-inoculated into peanut butter during gastrointestinal simulation. Peanut butter homogenates co-inoculated with Salmonella/Listeria strains (5 log CFU ml(-1) ) and lyophilized or cultured probiotics (9 log CFU ml(-1) ) were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions for 24 h at 37°C. Sample pH, titratable acidity and pathogen populations were determined. Agar diffusion assay was performed to assess the inhibitory effect of probiotic culture supernatants with either natural (3·80 (Lactobacillus), 3·78 (Bifidobacteirum) and 5·17 (Streptococcus/Lactococcus)) or neutralized (6·0) pH. Antibacterial effect of crude bacteriocin extracts were also evaluated against the pathogens. After 24 h, samples with probiotics had lower pH and higher titratable acidity than those without probiotics. The presence of probiotics caused a significant reduction (P pH diminished their antibacterial activities. Crude bacteriocin extracts had a strain-specific inhibitory effect only towards Listeria monocytogenes. Probiotics in 'peanut butter' survived simulated gastrointestinal conditions and inhibited the growth of Salmonella/Listeria. Peanut butter is a plausible carrier to deliver probiotics to improve the gastrointestinal health of children in developing countries. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. High throughput phenotyping of tomato spotted wilt disease in peanuts using unmanned aerial systems and multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amount of visible and near infrared light reflected by plants varies depending on their health. In this study, multispectral images were acquired by quadcopter for detecting tomato spot wilt virus amongst twenty genetic varieties of peanuts. The plants were visually assessed to acquire ground ...

  12. The effects of transglutaminase catalysis on the functional and immunoglobulin binding properties of peanut flour dispersions containing casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The functionality of light roasted peanut flour (PF) dispersions containing supplemental casein (CN), was altered after polymerization with microbial transglutaminase (TGase). The formation of high molecular weight covalent cross-links was observed with potential formation of PF-PF, PF-CN, and CN-CN...

  13. Determination of some quality characteristics of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Reis AKKAYA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine protein, oil and moisture contents of peanut using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS. Foss NIRSystem XDS rapid content analyzer was used to determine XDS spectra of the samples which were taken from breeding lines and commercial cultivars. Reference values used to obtain calibration equations in NIRS were obtained by analyzing protein, oil and moisture contents of the samples. Protein, oil and moisture contents of the samples were analyzed by kjeldahl, soxhlet extraction and oven methods, respectively. Protein contents of peanuts were found to range between 19.90 and 30.1% whereas oil contents were found as 44.03-53.70%. Moisture contents of peanuts varied between 5.03 and 6.16%. Coefficient of determination (RSQ=R2 values between the results of classical analytical methods and NIRS were 0.925, 0.857 and 0.821 for protein, oil and moisture contents, respectively. The results of this study showed that NIRS can be used quick and accurate method to determine important quality characteristics of peanut.

  14. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus as potential biocontrol agents to reduce aflatoxin contamination in peanuts harvested in Northern Argentina.

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    Alaniz Zanon, María Silvina; Barros, Germán Gustavo; Chulze, Sofía Noemí

    2016-08-16

    Biological control is one of the most promising strategies for preventing aflatoxin contamination in peanuts at field stage. A population of 46 native Aspergillus flavus nonaflatoxin producers were analysed based on phenotypic, physiological and genetic characteristics. Thirty-three isolates were characterized as L strain morphotype, 3 isolates as S strain morphotype, and 10 isolates did not produce sclerotia. Only 11 of 46 non-aflatoxigenic isolates did not produce cyclopiazonic acid. The vegetative compatibility group (VCG) diversity index for the population was 0.37. For field trials we selected the non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus AR27, AR100G and AFCHG2 strains. The efficacy of single and mixed inocula as potential biocontrol agents in Northern Argentina was evaluated through a 2-year study (2014-2015). During the 2014 peanut growing season, most of the treatments reduced the incidence of aflatoxigenic strains in both soil and peanut kernel samples, and no aflatoxin was detected in kernels. During the 2015 growing season, there was a reduction of aflatoxigenic strains in kernel samples from the plots treated with the potential biocontrol agents. Reductions of aflatoxin contamination between 78.36% and 89.55% were observed in treated plots in comparison with the un-inoculated control plots. This study provides the first data on aflatoxin biocontrol based on competitive exclusion in the peanut growing region of Northern Argentina, and proposes bioproducts with potential use as biocontrol agents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. ITRAQ-Based Proteomic Analysis of the Metabolic Mechanisms Behind Lipid Accumulation and Degradation during Peanut Seed Development and Postgermination.

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    Wang, Yun; Ma, Xingli; Zhang, Xingguo; He, Xiaoyan; Li, Hemin; Cui, Dangqun; Yin, Dongmei

    2016-12-02

    Peanut seeds have a high oil content making them an important oil crop. During development and germination, seeds undergo complex dynamic and physiological changes. Changes in lipid metabolism and underlying mechanisms during seed development have been studied extensively by DNA and RNA sequencing; however, there are few studies on dynamic changes of proteomics during peanut seed development and germination. In this study, proteomic analyses were carried out 20, 40, 60, and 80 days after pollination and 5, 10, 20, and 30 days after germination using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology to determine the protein profiles of lipid dynamics during peanut seed development and postgermination. A total of 5712 of 8505 proteins were identified, quantified, and divided into 23 functional groups, the largest of which was metabolism-related. Further analyses of the proteins and their pathways revealed initiation of fatty acid accumulation at early stages after flowering, while lipid degradation occurred largely through the lipoxygenase-dependent pathway. Protein expression patterns related to lipid accumulation and degradation were also verified at transcript levels using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The proteome profiles determined here will significantly enrich our understanding of the process of lipid accumulation and degradation and the dynamic changes in metabolic networks during peanut development.

  16. IgE binding to peanut allergens is inhibited by combined D-aspartic and D-glutamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if D-amino acids (D-aas) bind and inhibit immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to peanut allergens. D-aas such as D-Asp (aspartic acid), D-Glu (glutamic acid), combined D-[Asp/Glu] and others were each prepared in a cocktail of 9 other D-aas, along with L-amino acids (L-aas) and controls. Each sample was mixed with a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic donors, and tested by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and Western blots for IgE binding to peanut allergens. Results showed that D-[Asp/Glu] (4 mg/ml) inhibited IgE binding (75%) while D-Glu, D-Asp and other D-aas had no inhibitory effect. A higher inhibition was seen with D-[Asp/Glu] than with L-[Asp/Glu]. We concluded that IgE was specific for D-[Asp/Glu], not D-Asp or D-Glu, and that D-[Asp/Glu] was more reactive than was L-[Asp/Glu] in IgE inhibition. The finding indicates that D-[Asp/Glu] may have the potential for removing IgE or reducing IgE binding to peanut allergens in vitro. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Effect of oil and dry roasting of peanuts at various temperatures and times on survival of Salmonella and Enterococcus faecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of outbreaks of salmonellosis since 2006 associated with the consumption of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter have increased concerns about this food and the associated processing methods. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the level of Salmonella reduction associated with o...

  18. The effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acid (2,4-D) on peanut when applied during vegetative growth stages

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    The development of 2,4-D-resistant cotton and soybean cultivars has created great concern about the potential off-target movement of 2,4-D onto sensitive broadleaf crops. Peanut is often grown in close proximity to cotton and soybean. Therefore, field studies were conducted during 2012 and 2013 at...

  19. Control Efficacy of an Endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain BZ6-1 against Peanut Bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum

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    Xiaobing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria that might have efficacy against peanut bacterial wilt (BW caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Thirty-seven endophytic strains were isolated from healthy peanut plants in R. solanacearum-infested fields and eight showed antagonistic effects against R. solanacearum. Strain BZ6-1 with the highest antimicrobial activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on morphology, biochemistry, and 16S rRNA analysis. Culture conditions of BZ6-1 were optimized using orthogonal test method and inhibitory zone diameter in dual culture plate assay reached 34.2 mm. Furthermore, main antimicrobial substances of surfactin and fengycin A homologues produced by BZ6-1 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, pot experiments were adopted to test the control efficiency of BZ6-1 against peanut BW. Disease incidence decreased significantly from 84.5% in the control to 12.1% with addition of 15 mL (108 cfu mL−1 culture broth for each seedling, suggesting the feasibility of strain BZ6-1 in the biological control of peanut plants BW.

  20. Evaluating Concentrations of Heavy Metals in the U.S. Peanut Crop in the Presence of Detection Limits

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    The concentration of mercury, cadmium, lead, and arsenic along with glyphosate and an extensive array of pesticides in the U.S. peanut crop was assessed for crop years 2013-2015. Samples were randomly selected from various buying points during the grading process. Samples were selected from the thre...