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Sample records for strip pulse forming

  1. An improved rolled strip pulse forming line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Qian, Bao-Liang; Yang, Han-Wu; Gao, Jing-Ming; Liu, Zhao-Xi

    2013-06-01

    The rolled strip pulse forming line (RSPFL) has advantages of compactness, portability, and long pulse achievability which could well meet the requirements of industrial application of the pulse power technology. In this paper, an improved RSPFL with an additional insulator between the grounded conductors is investigated numerically and experimentally. Results demonstrate that the jitter on the flat-top of the output voltage waveform is reduced to 3.8% due to the improved structure. Theoretical analysis shows that the electromagnetic coupling between the conductors of the RSPFL strongly influences the output voltage waveform. Therefore, the new structure was designed to minimize the detrimental effect of the electromagnetic coupling. Simulation results show that the electromagnetic coupling can be efficiently reduced in the improved RSPFL. Experimental results illustrate that the improved RSPFL, with dimensions and weight of Φ 290 × 250 mm and 16 kg, when used as a simple pulse forming line, could generate a well shaped quasi-square pulse with output power of hundreds of MW and pulse duration of 250 ns. Importantly, the improved RSPFL was successfully used as a Blumlein pulse forming line, and a 10.8 kV, 260 ns quasi-square pulse was obtained on a 2 Ω dummy load. Experiments show reasonable agreement with numerical analysis.

  2. Preliminary experimental investigation on induction voltage adder based on rolled strip pulse forming line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Zhipeng; Qian Baoliang; Yang Hanwu; Yang Shi; Li Song

    2011-01-01

    A technical solution for high power pulse generator which is based on both induction voltage adder (IVA) and rolled strip line is introduced. The induction cell is designed for a 10-stage IVA, its equivalent circuit is obtained and corresponding simulation research is carried out. To study the response characteristics of the induction cell, a rolled strip pulse forming line with an impedance of 3 Ω and pulse duration of 230 ns is fabricated as the voltage drive source. Experimental investigations on both the single induction cell and 4-stage IVA are carried out. The results show that the cell has good response characteristics. The current efficiency of the 4-stage IVA can reach about 80%, and the output voltage is about 4 times the magnitude of the input. In the repetitive condition, the sequence of 87 pulses at the frequency of about 5 Hz is obtained, which are well repeatable. (authors)

  3. Nanosecond-pulse power thyratron generator with a strip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizir', V.A.; Larina, N.P.; Lashuk, N.A.; Meshcherov, R.A.; Rybalko, V.S.; Shcherbinin, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    Pulse generator for excitation of experimental specimen of shock magnet section for extraction of protons from a storage-buncher of meson factory is described. Basic diagram of generator and oscillograms of pulses are given. Generator parameters are the following: 40 kV pulse voltage at 20 Ohm load, 10 ns front duration, 180 ns duration of a flat part, 100 Hz pulse repetition frequency. TGI1-2500/50 thyratron serves as generator commutator. Double shaping line serves as energy accumulator. Pulse front is formed with an artificial nonlinear line with ferrite. Double shaping line is constructively fabricated in the form of two symmetrical strip lines and corrugated. The nonlinear line consists of two halves of 10 cells each. Condensors of the nonlinear line are fabricated similar to the stripe line. The generator steadily operated during 200 h in the following regime: charging voltage - 43 kV, cathode heat voltage and voltage of hydrogen generator - 6.5 V; additional feeding current of the nonlinear line - 2A; triggering pulse voltage - 5 kV [ru

  4. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  5. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A [Pleasanton, CA

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  6. Strip velocity measurements for gated x-ray imagers using short pulse lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P. W.; Cardenas, M.; Griffin, M.; Mead, A.; Silbernagel, C. T.; Bell, P.; Haque, S.

    2013-09-01

    Strip velocity measurements of gated X-ray imagers are presented using an ultra-short pulse laser. Obtaining time- resolved X-ray images of inertial confinement fusion shots presents a difficult challenge. One diagnostic developed to address this challenge is the gated X-ray imagers. The gated X-ray detectors (GXDs) developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory use a microchannel plate (MCP) coated with a gold strip line, which serves as a photocathode. GXDs are used with an array of pinholes, which image onto various parts of the GXD image plane. As the pulse sweeps over the strip lines, it creates a time history of the event with consecutive images. In order to accurately interpret the timing of the images obtained using the GXDs, it is necessary to measure the propagation of the pulse over the strip line. The strip velocity was measured using a short pulse laser with a pulse duration of approximately 1-2 ps. The 200nm light from the laser is used to illuminate the GXD MCP. The laser pulse is split and a retroreflective mirror is used to delay one of the legs. By adjusting the distance to the mirror, one leg is temporally delayed compared to the reference leg. The retroreflective setup is calibrated using a streak camera with a 1 ns full sweep. Resolution of 0.5 mm is accomplished to achieve a temporal resolution of ~5 ps on the GXD strip line.

  7. Precise ion optical description of strip-line pulsed magnetic lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varentsov, D.; Spiller, P.; Eickhoff, H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.

    2002-01-01

    A specific computer code has been developed to investigate ion optical properties of a new generation of pulsed strip-line high current magnets. The code is based on a modern 'Differential Algebra' computational technique and it is able to calculate transfer matrices of pulsed strip-line magnets up to arbitrary order. The realistic three-dimensional distribution of the magnetic field in pulsed lenses as well as all the fringing field effects are taken into account in the simulations. We have demonstrated, that for precise description of such magnets one cannot use the existing ion optical codes where ideal multipole field distributions and fringing fields, typical for conventional iron-dominated magnets are assumed. The transfer matrix elements of pulsed strip-line lenses differ significantly from those of conventional magnets, especially in higher orders

  8. <3> OMEGA pulse-forming network

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Adjustement of the 3 W pulse-forming network of the SPS beam dumping system. When charged at 60 kV, this PFN gives 10 kA, 25 ms current pulses, with oscillations, superimposed on the pulse flat top, of an amplitude of +/- 1 Ka.

  9. Determination of mobile form contents of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in soil extracts by combined stripping voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedeltcheva, T. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridsi Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: nedel@uctm.edu; Atanassova, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridsi Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrov, J. [N. Pushkarov Institute of Soil Science and Agroecology, 7 Shosse Bankya St., 1080 Sofia (Bulgaria); Stanislavova, L. [N. Pushkarov Institute of Soil Science and Agroecology, 7 Shosse Bankya St., 1080 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-01-10

    The amount of mobile forms of Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in extracts obtained by treating soil samples with ammonium nitrate were determined by an appropriate combination of anodic and cathodic stripping voltammetry with hanging mercury drop electrode. Every analysis required three mercury drops: on the first one, zinc was determined; on the second, cadmium and lead; on the third, copper was determined. Zinc, lead and cadmium were determined by conventional differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. For copper determination, adsorptive differential-pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry with amalgamation using chloride ions as a complexing agent was applied. The standard deviation of the results was from 1 to 10% depending on the metal content in the sample. Voltammetric results were in good agreement with the AAS analysis. No microwave digestion of soil extracts was necessary.

  10. Practical measurement of silicon in low alloy steels by differential pulse stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahier, A.; Lunardi, S.; Triki, C.

    2005-01-01

    A sensitive differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry has been adapted to allow the determination of Si in low-alloy steels using a hanging mercury drop electrode. The method has been qualified using certified ASTM standards and is now running in routine. The present report describes the experimental details, thereby allowing the reader to carry out the measurements precisely. (author)

  11. Pulse processing CMOS ASIC for Si-strip/PIN detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandratre, V.B.; Sardesai, S.V.; Kataria, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the design of an 8-channel front-end signal processing ASIC for Si-strip detectors with capacitance from 1 to 40 pf. Each channel consists of a charge amplifier, a shaper amplifier (CR-RC 3 ) and a track-hold stage. The channel outputs are connected to an analog multiplexer which is controlled by an external clock for serial readout. The peaking time is adjustable over 500 ns-1.2us in steps by external control. There is provision for changing gain and polarity. The circuit has a power dissipation of 16 mw per channel and is designed to fabricate in 1.2 um CMOS technology. The 0pf noise is ∼400e. The chip has an area of 5 by 5 mm with target package 48 pin CLCC. (author)

  12. Determination of nanogram quantities of osmium-labeled single stranded DNA by differential pulse stripping voltammetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kizek, René; Havran, Luděk; Fojta, Miroslav; Paleček, Emil

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 55, 1/2 (2002), s. 199-121 ISSN 1567-5394 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV204/97/K084; GA ČR GA204/00/D049; GA AV ČR IAA4004108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : differential pulse stripping voltammetry * microdetermination of DNA * chemical modification of DNA Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.463, year: 2002

  13. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry for ultratrace determination of cadmium and lead in Antarctic snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarponi, G.; Barbante, C.; Cescon, P.

    1994-01-01

    Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry has sufficient sensitivity to be used for direct determination of heavy metals in Antarctic snow, thus avoiding long and contamination-prone enrichment procedures. A result of particular concern to global change studies can be drawn from these preliminary data: lead concentration in Antarctic snow decreased rapidly during the 1980s from about 10-15 pg/g to 2-4 pg/g in 1991. (authors). 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Determination of copper in whole blood by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Attar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A selective and sensitive method for determination of copper in blood by adsorptive differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry is presented. The method is based on adsorptive accumulation of the complexes of Cu (II ions with benzenesulfonyl hydrazide onto hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE, followed by the reduction of the adsorbed species by differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry. The effect of various parameters such as supporting electrolyte, concentration of benzenesulfonyl hydrazide, accumulation potential, accumulation time and stirring rate on the selectivity and sensitivity were studied. The optimum conditions for determination of copper include perchloric acid 0.03 M, concentration of benzenesulfonyl hydrazide 7.5×10-5 M, the accumulation potential of -350 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl, the accumulation time of 50 s, and the scan rate of 50 mV s-1. Under optimized conditions, linear calibration curves were established for the concentration of Cu (II in the range of 0.62-275 ng mL-1, with detection limit of 0.186 ng mL-1 for Cu (II. The procedure was successfully applied to the determination of copper ion in whole blood samples.

  15. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY FOR DETERMINATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN URANIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saryati Saryati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The direct determination of some metals impurity in uranium by using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV method at a hanging mercury drop electrode and in a carbonate buffer media was developed. It was found that the carbonate buffer show the strongest affinity for uranium and gives the best separation between the DPASV peaks of heavy metals impurities. The carbonate concentration markedly affects the oxidation and reduction the major and the minor constituents of the uranium samples. In 0.1 M carbonate buffer solution pH 10, copper, bismuth, thalium, lead, cadmium, zinc, could be determined without the removal of the uranium matrix. Recovery and relative standard deviation (RSD of this method was in the range of 174% - 85.2% for recovery and 36.8% - 1.2% for RSD. The larger error of analytical result was obtained for Zn at low concentration. In general, the analytic results error and RSD decreased with increasing metals concentration.   Keywords: heavy metal determination, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, uranium

  16. Determination of Selenium in infant formula by differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Oveisi MR

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Selenium as a nonmetallic chemical element has received high attention of biologists because of its dual role as an essential trace nutrient and a toxic element. This interest has created a need for reliable analytical methods for determination of selenium. In this investigation determination of selenium by differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry and the influence of various parameters such as deposition potentials, deposition time. Cu concentration pH, etc. on selenium peak in voltammogram are described. Determination of selenium was accomplished in mixture of acetic acid, hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride buffer (pH=1 with a scan rate of 60 mv/s and a pulse height of 100 my by hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE as working electrode. The solution was stirred during pre-electrolysis at - 350 mv (vs SCE for 30 s and the potential was scanned between - 350 mv and - 800 mv. The determination limit of the method was 0.005 mg/kg for the sample. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0-30 μg/L (R2=0.996, p<0.001. Repeatability of the method at concentrations of 30 and 0.5 μg/L were 2.5 and 10.5% respectively.

  17. Non-invasive characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip detectors using pulsed infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of roughly 1300 double sided silicon micro-strip detectors of 3 different dimensions. For the quality assurance of prototype micro-strip detectors a non-invasive detector charaterization is developed. The test system is using a pulsed infrared laser for charge injection and characterization, called Laser Test System (LTS). The system is aimed to develop a set of characterization procedures which are non-invasive (non-destructive) in nature and could be used for quality assurances of several silicon micro-strip detectors in an efficient, reliable and reproducible way. The procedures developed (as reported here) uses the LTS to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype detector modules which are tested with the LTS so far have 1024 strips with a pitch of 58 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with a duration of ≈ 10 ns and power ≈ 5 mW of the laser pulse is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensor produces ≈ 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. The laser scans different prototype sensors and various non-invasive techniques to determine characteristics of the detector modules for the quality assurance is reported.

  18. Trace analysis of lead and cadmium in seafoods by differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumera, F.C.; Verceluz, F.P.; Kapauan, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead in seafoods is described. The sample is dry ashed in a muffle furnace elevating the temperature gradually up to 500 0 C. The ashed sample is treated with concentrated nitric acid, dried on a heating plate and returned to the muffle furnace for further heating. The treated ash is then dissolved in 1 N HCL acetate buffer and citric acid are added and the pH adjusted to 3.6-4. The resulting solution is analyzed for lead and cadmium by differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry (DPASV) using a wax-impregnated graphite thin film electrode. The average recoveries of 0.4 of cadmium and lead added to 5 fish samples were 97% and 99% respectively. The standard deviations, on a homogenized shark sample for lead and cadmium analysis were 6.7 ppb and 12.3 ppb, respectively, and the relative standard deviations were 21.0% and 15.5% respectively. Studies on instrumental parameters involved in the DPASV step of analysis and methods of measuring peak current signals were also made. (author)

  19. Development of an x-ray klystron modulator with a pulse-forming line and magnetic switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemoto, M.; Takeda, S.

    1992-01-01

    A new type of klystron modulator has been developed for the Japan Linear Collider. It consists of a pulse-forming line (PFL), a pulse transformer and a magnetic switch. In order to realize a compact modulator, a triplate strip transmission line using deionized water as a dielectric was adapted. An Fe amorphous core was used for the magnetic switch and the pulse transformer to reduce the size and cost. A preliminary test has shown that an output pulse with a peak voltage of 550 kV, a pulse length (flat-top) of 440 ns and a rise time of 165 ns can be generated for a dummy load with an impedance of 412Ω. It was also experimentally confirmed that the power efficiency of the modulator is approximately 83%. (Author) 7 figs., 3 tabs., 2 refs

  20. Long-pulse applications of pulse-forming lines for high-power linac application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeberling, R.F.; Tallerico, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The ever present demands for high efficiency in the RF power stations for particle accelerators have caused increased interest in longer RF pulses (ten's of microseconds) for linacs such as the Pion Generator for Medical Irradiation (PIGMI) and Free Electron Laser (FEL). For either RF power station, a fundamental decision is whether to use a modulating anode/hard-tube driver or pulsed cathode/line-type pulser configuration. The choices in the extremes of low power for very long pulses or for very-high-power, short pulses are, respectively, a modulated anode/hard tube modulator and pulsed cathode/pulse forming line. However, the demarcation between these two extremes is not clearcut. The criteria (cost, flexibility performance, reliability, efficiency) that resulted in the RF station definition of these two specific systems will be described

  1. Trace analysis of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in various materials using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.; Viqar-un-Nisa; Tanwir, R.

    1988-09-01

    Sampling and sample preparation methods have been described. Digestion methods for different types of materials and acid purification systems have been developed. For trace analysis purposes cleaning methods for glassware etc. have been described. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametric (DPASV) method has been worked out for the trace analysis of zn, cd, pb and Cu in different types of materials. Linearity of the method has been checked by drawing concentration versus currents (peak height) curves. Precision of the method has been checked by analysing a number of actual samples. of the method has been verified by analysing standards of U.S.A. Comparative studies have been done between Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric method and Atomic Absorption spectroscopic method. Problems of contamination and systematic errors during trace and ultra-trace analysis have been discussed. A variety of samples including soil, spinach, wheat flour, rice flour, dry milk, coriander, kidney stones, bladder stones etc. have been analysed and preliminary results have been reported. (author)

  2. Zinc (Zn Analysis in Milk by Microwave Oven Digestion and Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltametry (DPASV Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohineesh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Milk is very important component of human diet. The presence of over limit of heavy metal in milk may create significant health problems. In the present study, the direct determination of Zinc (Zn heavy metal in milk samples of different brands was carried out by differential pulse anodic stripping Voltammetric technique at Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode (HMDE. Milk samples were processed by microwave oven digestion using HP/VHP Vessels and TFM Liners and nitric acid (HNO3.Determination of Zn was made in acetate buffer (pH 4.6 with a sweep rate (scan rate of 59.5 mV/s and pulse amplitude 50mV by HMDE by standard addition method. The solution was stirred during pre-electrolysis at -1150mV (vs. Ag/AgCl for 90 seconds and the potential was scanned from -1150V to +100V (vs. Ag/AgCl. The zinc ions were deposited by reduction at -1150 mV on HMDE. The stripping current arising from the oxidation of metal was correlated with the concentration the metal in the sample. .As a result the minimum level of Zn observed in the milk sample of different brands was determined as 2.28 mgL−1.

  3. A Tesla-pulse forming line-plasma opening switch pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novac, B. M.; Kumar, R.; Smith, I. R.

    2010-10-01

    A pulsed power generator based on a high-voltage Tesla transformer which charges a 3.85 Ω/55 ns water-filled pulse forming line to 300 kV has been developed at Loughborough University as a training tool for pulsed power students. The generator uses all forms of insulation specific to pulsed power technology, liquid (oil and water), gas (SF6), and magnetic insulation in vacuum, and a number of fast voltage and current sensors are implemented for diagnostic purposes. A miniature (centimeter-size) plasma opening switch has recently been coupled to the output of the pulse forming line, with the overall system comprising the first phase of a program aimed at the development of a novel repetitive, table-top generator capable of producing 15 GW pulses for high power microwave loads. Technical details of all the generator components and the main experimental results obtained during the program and demonstrations of their performance are presented in the paper, together with a description of the various diagnostic tools involved. In particular, it is shown that the miniature plasma opening switch is capable of reducing the rise time of the input current while significantly increasing the load power. Future plans are outlined in the conclusions.

  4. A compact bipolar pulse-forming network-Marx generator based on pulse transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huibo; Yang, Jianhua; Lin, Jiajin; Yang, Xiao

    2013-11-01

    A compact bipolar pulse-forming network (PFN)-Marx generator based on pulse transformers is presented in this paper. The high-voltage generator consisted of two sets of pulse transformers, 6 stages of PFNs with ceramic capacitors, a switch unit, and a matched load. The design is characterized by the bipolar pulse charging scheme and the compact structure of the PFN-Marx. The scheme of bipolar charging by pulse transformers increased the withstand voltage of the ceramic capacitors in the PFNs and decreased the number of the gas gap switches. The compact structure of the PFN-Marx was aimed at reducing the parasitic inductance in the generator. When the charging voltage on the PFNs was 35 kV, the matched resistive load of 48 Ω could deliver a high-voltage pulse with an amplitude of 100 kV. The full width at half maximum of the load pulse was 173 ns, and its rise time was less than 15 ns.

  5. Electrochemical Performances of Diamond Like Carbon Films for Pb(II) Detection in Tap Water Using Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sbartai, A.; Namour, F.; Barbier, F.; Krejčí, J.; Kučerová, R.; Krejčí, T.; Neděla, Vilém; Sobota, Jaroslav; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 8 (2013), s. 1524-1529 ISSN 1546-198X Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Diamond Like Carbon DLC * Lead Detection * Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping * Voltammetry * Tap Water Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2013

  6. Compact pulse forming line using barium titanate ceramic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Sharma, Surender; Deb, P; Shukla, R; Prabaharan, T; Shyam, A

    2011-11-01

    Ceramic material has very high relative permittivity, so compact pulse forming line can be made using these materials. Barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) has a relative permittivity of 1200 so it is used for making compact pulse forming line (PFL). Barium titanate also has piezoelectric effects so it cracks during high voltages discharges due to stresses developed in it. Barium titanate is mixed with rubber which absorbs the piezoelectric stresses when the PFL is charged and regain its original shape after the discharge. A composite mixture of barium titanate with the neoprene rubber is prepared. The relative permittivity of the composite mixture is measured to be 85. A coaxial pulse forming line of inner diameter 120 mm, outer diameter 240 mm, and length 350 mm is made and the composite mixture of barium titanate and neoprene rubber is filled between the inner and outer cylinders. The PFL is charged up to 120 kV and discharged into 5 Ω load. The voltage pulse of 70 kV, 21 ns is measured across the load. The conventional PFL is made up of oil or plastics dielectrics with the relative permittivity of 2-10 [D. R. Linde, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed. (CRC, 2009); Xia et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 086113 (2008); Yang et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 43303 (2010)], which increases the length of PFL. We have reported the compactness in length achieved due to increase in relative permittivity of composite mixture by adding barium titanate in neoprene rubber. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  7. Application of neural networks to digital pulse shape analysis for an array of silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J.L. [Dpto de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Térmica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Martel, I. [Dpto de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); CERN, ISOLDE, CH 1211 Geneva, 23 (Switzerland); Jiménez, R. [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Galán, J., E-mail: jgalan@diesia.uhu.es [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Salmerón, P. [Dpto de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Térmica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain)

    2016-09-11

    The new generation of nuclear physics detectors that used to study nuclear reactions is considering the use of digital pulse shape analysis techniques (DPSA) to obtain the (A,Z) values of the reaction products impinging in solid state detectors. This technique can be an important tool for selecting the relevant reaction channels at the HYDE (HYbrid DEtector ball array) silicon array foreseen for the Low Energy Branch of the FAIR facility (Darmstadt, Germany). In this work we study the feasibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for particle identification with silicon detectors. Multilayer Perceptron networks were trained and tested with recent experimental data, showing excellent identification capabilities with signals of several isotopes ranging from {sup 12}C up to {sup 84}Kr, yielding higher discrimination rates than any other previously reported.

  8. The Graphene/l-Cysteine/Gold-Modified Electrode for the Differential Pulse Stripping Voltammetry Detection of Trace Levels of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium(II is a common water pollutant with high toxicity. It is of significant importance for detecting aqueous contaminants accurately, as these contaminants are harmful to human health and environment. This paper describes the fabrication, characterization, and application of an environment-friendly graphene (Gr/l-cysteine/gold electrode to detect trace levels of cadmium (Cd by differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV. The influence of hydrogen overflow was decreased and the current response was enhanced because the modified graphene extended the potential range of the electrode. The Gr/l-cysteine/gold electrode showed high electrochemical conductivity, producing a marked increase in anodic peak currents (vs. the glass carbon electrode (GCE and boron-doped diamond (BDD electrode. The calculated detection limits are 1.15, 0.30, and 1.42 µg/L, and the sensitivities go up to 0.18, 21.69, and 152.0 nA·mm−2·µg−1·L for, respectively, the BDD electrode, the GCE, and the Gr/l-cysteine/gold electrode. It was shown that the Gr/l-cysteine/gold-modified electrode is an effective means for obtaining highly selective and sensitive electrodes to detect trace levels of cadmium.

  9. Frictional interactions in forming processes: New studies with transparent sapphire strip-drawing dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R. S.; Lu, C. Y.; Wright, P. K.; Devenpeck, M. L.; Richmond, O.; Appleby, E. J.

    1982-05-01

    This research is concerned with the frictional interactions at the toolwork interfaces in the machining and strip-drawing processes. A novel feature is that transparent sapphire (single crystal Al2O3) is being used as the tool and die material. This allows the tribological features of the interface to be directly observed and recorded on movie-film. These qualitative studies provide information on the role of lubricants. In addition, techniques are being developed to quantify the velocity gradient along the interface. For example, in the drawing work it has been found that tracer markings (e.g. dye-spots), applied to the undrawn strip, remain intact during drawing and can be tracked along the sapphire/strip interface. Such data will be used as input to a finite-element, elasto-plastic-workhardening model of the deformation process. The latter can compute strip deformation characteristics, drawing forces and local coefficients of friction at the interface. Introductory results will be presented in this paper, obtained from drawing tin-plated mild steel with sapphire and cemented carbide dies. Drawing loads and die-separating forces will be presented and movie-films of the action of tracer markings at the interface shown. In order to demonstrate how this data can be used in an analysis of a large strain deformation process with friction, initial results from running the FIPDEF elasto-plastic code will be discussed. From a commercial viewpoint research on strip-drawing is of special interest to the can-making industry. From a physical viewpoint stripdrawing is of particular interest because it is a symmetrical, plane strain deformation and, in comparison with other metal processing operations, it is more readily modeled. However, until now the elasto-plastic codes that have been developed to predictively model drawing have had limitations: the most notable being that of quantifying the friction conditions at the die-work interface. Hence the specification of the

  10. Determination of Cd, Pb and Cu in Mandovi estuary by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, M.D.; Sawkar, K.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Dissolved labile and non-labile (organically associated) concentration of Cd, Pb and Cu in Mandovi Estuary, Goa, India have been measured for 1 y (February 1980 to January 1981). Percentage non-labile form varies from 0-50% of the total for Cd, from...

  11. Engineering design for the PBFA-II pulse forming section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyes, J.D.; Cap, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the conceptual and detailed mechanical design of the PBFA-II Pulse Forming Section. The design goals were configuration specification, modularity for ease of installation and maintenance, durability and low cost. The design process began by determining the basic configuration. As was true throughout the design, access for ease of maintenance was a major driving factor. Initial assembly requirements dictated a design of separate, modular units for the intermediate store, line one, and line two/three. Integration with the laser system used to trigger the main gas switch put location, stability and adjustment requirements on both the intermediate store and line one. Cost forced the hardware to be fabricated of aluminum. Design for ease of fabrication further held these costs down. Survival in the water shock environment was addressed through specific design and weld techniques

  12. Computer simulation of the Blumlein pulse forming network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.B.

    1981-03-01

    A computer simulation of the Blumlein pulse-forming network is described. The model is able to treat the case of time varying loads, non-zero conductor resistance, and switch closure effects as exhibited by real systems employing non-ohmic loads such as field-emission vacuum diodes in which the impedance is strongly time and voltage dependent. The application of the code to various experimental arrangements is discussed, with particular reference to the prediction of the behaviour of the output circuit of 'ELF', the electron beam generator in operation at the Rutherford Laboratory. The output from the code is compared directly with experimentally obtained voltage waveforms applied to the 'ELF' diode. (author)

  13. Wet digestion and differential pulse stripping voltammetry determination of total chromium in the millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin LIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The chromium content of millet is measured by HNO3-H2O2 digestion and electrochemical method. In the DTPA-HAc-NaAc system, the oxidation peak current of amalgam formed by hexavalent chrome ion is obtained in the plating mercury electrode, and the pre-treatment technology of wet digestion can meet the electrochemical determination. The optimized detection condition of electrochemical method for hexavalent chrome ion is 130 ℃ of digestion solution, 10 mL hydrogen peroxide, 38 mL nitric acid, and neutral of pH. The linear correlation coefficient of electrochemical method is 0.99, and the recovery of standard addition is 90%~110%. This method can be used to trace chromium (Ⅵ determination in millet.

  14. Correlation functions formed by a femtosecond pulse interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, M.; Bhattacharya, N.; Urbach, H.P.; Van den berg, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that a stabilized femtosecond frequency comb can be applied as a tool for distance measurement. The scheme is based on optical interference between individual pulses in a Michelson type interferometer. The cross-correlation functions between individual pulses with a

  15. Pre-pulse phenomena in pulse forming line charging-up by long pulse energy sources through a transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianhua; Yang Hanwu; Li Zhiqiang; Shu Ting; Zhang Jiande; Feng Jiahuai; Xu Liurong

    2004-01-01

    The pre-pulse phenomena are studied by the simple theoretical analysis and the method of electro-circuit simulation in a PFL charging-up by MFCG or capacitors. It is show that what affect the amplitude of pre-pulse voltage are the grounding inductance and the frequency of the charging loop circuit, which is determined by the secondary coil inductance of transformer and the capacitance of PFL. The parasitical oscillation with high frequency introduced by the grounding inductance does not change the peak value of pre-pulse voltage. The frequency of the charging loop circuit is low enough that the peak pre-pulse voltage is only on kV level as PFL is charged through a transformer. The experiments are carried out when the PFL is charged by capacitors through a pulse transformer in two cases that the pulse power modulator is with or without pre-pulse switch. (author)

  16. Low voltage electrolytic capacitor pulse forming inductive network for electric weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Mays, Thomas Allen.

    2006-01-01

    Electric weapons, such as the railgun, require a pulse power supply capable of providing reliable highcurrent, high-energy pulses of many megawatts. Pulsed alternators potentially have the same maintenance issues as other motor-generator sets, so a solid-state system would be desirable, but high voltage capacitor systems are not robust enough for the field. We propose here a Low Voltage Electrolytic Capacitor Pulse Forming Inductive Network (LVEC PFIN) which stores power in a relatively low v...

  17. Application of Box-Behnken designs in parameters optimization of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for lead(II) determination in two electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Lan; He, Yong

    2017-06-05

    Box-Behnken design was advantageous to parameters optimization of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) for the analysis of lead(II) with its high efficiency and accuracy. Five Box-Behnken designs were designed and conducted in the electrolyte of 0.1 mol/L acetate buffer and 0.1 mol/L HCl without the removal of oxygen. Significant parameters and interactions in each electrolyte were found (P-value Box-Behnken designs in parameters optimization of DPASV for lead(II) determination regardless of the electrolyte kinds.

  18. Effect of laser pulse parameters on the size and fluorescence of nanodiamonds formed upon pulsed-laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Peikang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Hu, Shengliang, E-mail: hsliang@yeah.net [Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science and Dynamic Measurement (North University of China), Ministry of Education, National Key Laboratory Science and Technology on Electronic Test and Measurement, Taiyuan 030051 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhang, Taiping; Sun, Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Cao, Shirui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The size of nanodiamonds formed upon laser irradiation could be easily controlled over simply adjusting laser pulse parameters. The stable size and structure of nanodiamonds were mostly determined by laser power density and pulse width. Both large nanodiamonds with multiply twinning structure (MTS) and small nanodiamonds with single crystalline structure (SCS) emitted strong visible light after surface passivation, and their fluorescence quantum yield (QY) was 4.6% and 7.1%, respectively.

  19. Effect of laser pulse parameters on the size and fluorescence of nanodiamonds formed upon pulsed-laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Peikang; Hu, Shengliang; Zhang, Taiping; Sun, Jing; Cao, Shirui

    2010-01-01

    The size of nanodiamonds formed upon laser irradiation could be easily controlled over simply adjusting laser pulse parameters. The stable size and structure of nanodiamonds were mostly determined by laser power density and pulse width. Both large nanodiamonds with multiply twinning structure (MTS) and small nanodiamonds with single crystalline structure (SCS) emitted strong visible light after surface passivation, and their fluorescence quantum yield (QY) was 4.6% and 7.1%, respectively.

  20. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  1. A coaxial-output capacitor-loaded annular pulse forming line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Li, Yongdong; Su, Jiancang; Yu, Binxiong; Xu, Xiudong; Zhao, Liang; Cheng, Jie; Zeng, Bo

    2018-04-01

    A coaxial-output capacitor-loaded annular pulse forming line (PFL) is developed in order to reduce the flat top fluctuation amplitude of the forming quasi-square pulse and improve the quality of the pulse waveform produced by a Tesla-pulse forming network (PFN) type pulse generator. A single module composed of three involute dual-plate PFNs is designed, with a characteristic impedance of 2.44 Ω, an electrical length of 15 ns, and a sustaining voltage of 60 kV. The three involute dual-plate PFNs connected in parallel have the same impedance and electrical length. Due to the existed small inductance and capacitance per unit length in each involute dual-plate PFN, the upper cut-off frequency of the PFN is increased. As a result, the entire annular PFL has better high-frequency response capability. Meanwhile, the three dual-plate PFNs discharge in parallel, which is much closer to the coaxial output. The series connecting inductance between adjacent two modules is significantly reduced when the annular PFL modules are connected in series. The pulse waveform distortion is reduced when the pulse transfers along the modules. Finally, the shielding electrode structure is applied on both sides of the module. The electromagnetic field is restricted in the module when a single module discharges, and the electromagnetic coupling between the multi-stage annular PFLs is eliminated. Based on the principle of impedance matching between the multi-stage annular PFL and the coaxial PFL, the structural optimization design of a mixed PFL in a Tesla type pulse generator is completed with the transient field-circuit co-simulation method. The multi-stage annular PFL consists of 18 stage annular PFL modules in series, with the characteristic impedance of 44 Ω, the electrical length of 15 ns, and the sustaining voltage of 1 MV. The mixed PFL can generate quasi-square electrical pulses with a pulse width of 43 ns, and the fluctuation ratio of the pulse flat top is less than 8% when the

  2. High-current pulse electron accelerators based on stepped forming lines

    CERN Document Server

    Gordeev, V S; Filipov, V O; Petrov, A N; Gridasov, A P

    2001-01-01

    There presented is a brief review of I-3000, STRAUS, STRAUS-2 and LIA-10M accelerators produced in VNIEF over the period from 1981 to 1994. All the installations function in the mode of single pulses. Their distinction consists in using the systems of forming high-voltage pulses on the basis of stepped forming lines. Such installations formed of line sections of a similar electrical length with a stepped character of impedance variance provide a high efficiency and as a result of wave processes increase for a several time the output voltage as compared to the charge voltage of lines. The limiting energy of accelerated electrons for the created accelerators lies within the range from 2.3 to 25 MeV, beam current amplitude - from 20 to 50 kA, current pulse width at half-height - from 16 to 40 ns. The basic characteristics of each accelerator are presented.

  3. Application of different methodologies in the preparation of organic matrices for determination of trace elements by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisti, Cristina

    2001-01-01

    The determination of trace elements in food samples is of great importance for the human health, considering the factors of essentiality and toxicity. On the other hand, the chemical analysis is largely affected for the steps of sample preparation; laboratory contamination of the sample and the reagents or still volatilization and losses of the elements. If these parameters are not controlled the achieved precision and accuracy could be low. In this work, the content of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper was determined in adults diet samples collected by duplicate portion technique and bovine liver, applying the differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry - (DP-ASV) technique. In the digestion of the matrices in acid medium, conventional methodologies were used, conductive heating in open recipients and equipment with microwaves source in open and closed vessels. The best procedure was the sample digestion by microwaves, in closed vessels and the other treatments made in controlled atmosphere with hood laminar-airflow class 100. The established methodology was validated with the use of a certified sample as reference (NIST - bovine liver 1577b). (author)

  4. Differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of nanomolar levels of atorvastatin calcium in pharmaceutical and biological samples using a vertically aligned carbon nanotube/graphene oxide electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tiago Almeida; Zanin, Hudson; Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã; Corat, Evaldo José; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2014-06-07

    A novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube/graphene oxide (VACNT-GO) electrode is proposed, and its ability to determine atorvastatin calcium (ATOR) in pharmaceutical and biological samples by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPAdSV) is evaluated. VACNT films were prepared on a Ti substrate by a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition method and then treated with oxygen plasma to produce the VACNT-GO electrode. The oxygen plasma treatment exfoliates the carbon nanotube tips exposing graphene foils and inserting oxygen functional groups, these effects improved the VACNT wettability (super-hydrophobic) which is crucial for its electrochemical application. The electrochemical behaviour of ATOR on the VACNT-GO electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry, which showed that it underwent an irreversible oxidation process at a potential of +1.08 V in pHcond 2.0 (0.2 mol L(-1) buffer phosphate solution). By applying DPAdSV under optimized experimental conditions the analytical curve was found to be linear in the ATOR concentration range of 90 to 3.81 × 10(3) nmol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 9.4 nmol L(-1). The proposed DPAdSV method was successfully applied in the determination of ATOR in pharmaceutical and biological samples, and the results were in close agreement with those obtained by a comparative spectrophotometric method at a confidence level of 95%.

  5. Soliton quenching NLTL impulse circuit with a pulse forming network at the output

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.; Dallum, Gregory E.

    1998-01-01

    An impulse forming circuit is disclosed which produces a clean impulse from a nonlinear transmission line compressed step function without customary soliton ringing by means of a localized pulse shaping and differentiating network which shunts the nonlinear transmission line output to ground.

  6. Elastic strips

    OpenAIRE

    Chubelaschwili, David; Pinkall, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of finding an explicit description of a developable narrow Moebius strip of minimal bending energy, which was first formulated by M. Sadowsky in 1930, we will develop the theory of elastic strips. Recently E.L. Starostin and G.H.M. van der Heijden found a numerical description for an elastic Moebius strip, but did not give an integrable solution. We derive two conservation laws, which describe the equilibrium equations of elastic strips. In applying these laws we find...

  7. CdS thin films formed on flexible plastic substrates by pulsed-laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, K P; Skuza, J R; Lukaszew, R A; Liyanage, C; Ullrich, B

    2007-01-01

    The merger of a transparent plastic foil substrate with a semiconductor CdS film for a photonic application was realized using pulsed-laser deposition. Although plastic is not considered to be a favoured substrate material for semiconductor thin-film formation, the deposited CdS film possesses good adhesion, with a polycrystalline texture, flat surface (roughness/thickness = 0.003), and room-temperature photosensitivity with a blue-shifted peak at 2.54 eV. This work demonstrates the capability of pulsed-laser deposition to form novel heterostructures with appealing and useful technological properties such as plasticity and low weight

  8. Determination of trace amounts of indium in some sediments by means of coprecipitation with zirconium hydroxide and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Wataru; Uzawa, Atushi; Hong Luxin.

    1994-01-01

    Indium in some sediments was determined by means of coprecipitation and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The analytical procedure was as follows. Fifty milliliters of distilled water is added to 10 ml of sample solution containing 0.04 g of sediment. Then, constant amounts of indium standard solution and 1 ml of zirconium oxychloride solution are added and the pH adjusted to 8.8 with ammonia water (1:2). The precipitate is separated by filtration and then dissolved in 25 ml of 4 M hydrochloric acid. After 1 ml of 5% KCNS solution is added, this solution is diluted to 50 ml with distilled water. A portion of this solution is employed for the determination of indium. After bubbling nitrogen gas through the sample solution for 100 s it was pre-electrolyzed for 100 s. The potential was scanned from -0.9 V to -0.3 Vυs. SCE for dissolution of indium ion. Indium ion was determined from the peak current of the voltammogram. The results are as follows: (1) Zirconium hydroxide was the most effective collector of indium when the pH was adjusted to 8.8 with ammonia water (1:2). (2) Iron (III) and cadmium ions were found to interfere with the determination of indium. (3) The analytical procedure took about 90 min and 0.01 ppm of indium in sample solution could be determined. (4) This method is applicable to the determination of indium in river bottom and sea floor sediment. (author)

  9. Part I. Application of pulse polarography and pulse anodic stripping to the determination of selected heavy metals in natural waters. Part II. Application of controlled potential coulometric techniques to the determination of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosmun, S.T.

    1977-06-01

    The use of a thin mercury film wax-impregnated graphite electrode for the simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead and zinc in an acetate buffer by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry is described. Optimal instrumental parameters for maximum resolution and sensitivity for simultaneous analysis of these three elements in natural waters are discussed. The interference of copper with the determination of zinc is investigated in detail. An optimal mercury film thickness for this electrode is suggested. A method utilizing differential pulse polarography for the determination of chromium (VI) in natural water is described. Additions of 0.62 μg Cu(II) ml -1 and 0.55 μg Fe(III) ml -1 did not interfere with the determination of 0.050 μg Cr(VI) ml -1 . The natural water samples containing Cr(VI) were buffered to approximately pH 7 with 0.1 M ammonium acetate and 0.005 M ethylenediamine and analyzed. Natural water samples of chromium from 0.035 μg to 2.0 μg.ml -1 may be analyzed directly without further preparation. The detection limit is 0.010 μg.ml -1 . A novel, highly efficient cell with integral stirrer for controlled potential coulometry is described. This cell was used to demonstrate the feasibility of determining uranium (VI) by predictive coulometry. A PDP 8/I minicomputer was used to predict the coulometric endpoint with high accuracy within 2.5 minutes in a titration which normally takes about 10 minutes. This technique was shown to yield acceptable results even in the presence of an interfering phosphate matrix

  10. Triplet excited states and radical intermediates formed in electron pulse radiolysis of amino-substituted fluorenones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samant, Vaishali; Singh, A.K.; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Palit, D.K. E-mail: dkpalit@apsara.barc.ernet.in

    2005-04-01

    Electron pulse radiolysis of four differently substituted amino derivatives of fluorenone, namely, 1-amino-, 2-amino- 3-amino-, and 4-aminofluorenone, has been carried out to study the effect of structure on the spectroscopic and kinetic characteristics of the triplet excited states as well as the transient free radical intermediates formed under reducing and oxidizing conditions. The triplet states of these compounds have been generated in benzene by pulse radiolysis and in other solvents by flash photolysis technique and their spectral and kinetic properties have been investigated. Hydrated electron (e{sub aq}{sup -}) has been found to react with these fluorenone derivatives to form the anion radical species with a diffusion-controlled rate constant. The spectral and kinetic properties of the transient ketyl and anion radicals have been studied by generating them in aqueous solutions of suitable pH. The pK{sub a} values of ketyl[rlhar2]anion radical equilibria are in the range of 6.8-7.7 for these derivatives. The oxidized species have been generated by reaction with the azide radical. Hydrogen atom adducts as well as the cation radicals of these derivatives have also been generated by pulse radiolysis and characterized.

  11. Operation of a load current multiplier on a nanosecond mega-ampere pulse forming line generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Chuvatin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the operation of a load current multiplier (LCM on a pulse-forming-line nanosecond pulse-power generator. Potential benefits of using the LCM technique on such generators are studied analytically for a simplified case. A concrete LCM design on the Zebra accelerator (1.9 Ohm, ∼1  MA, 100 ns is described. This design is demonstrated experimentally with high-voltage power pulses having a rise time of dozens of nanoseconds. Higher currents and magnetic energies were observed in constant-inductance solid-state loads when a better generator-to-load energy coupling was achieved. The load current on Zebra was increased from the nominal 0.8–0.9 MA up to about 1.6 MA. This result was obtained without modifying the generator energetics or architecture and it is in good agreement with the presented numerical simulations. Validation of the LCM technique at a nanosecond time scale is of importance for the high-energy-density physics research.

  12. Studies on the transient species formed in the pulse radiolysis of benzotriazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, D.B.; Moorthy, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    Rate constants for the reaction of benzotriazole (BTZ) with the primary species of water radiolysis (e.g. e aq - , OH, H and O - ) have been determined at different pHs using the pulse radiolysis technique. Absorption spectra of the transient intermediates formed have been recorded in the region 220-650 nm. Semireduced radicals formed by e aq - reaction with benzotriazole are found to be strongly reducing in nature and they transfer electrons to various acceptors such as thionine, methylene blue, paraquat with diffusion controlled rate constants. Only SO 4 - radicals were found to oxidize benzotriazole. Reactivity of BTZ towards e aq - and specific oxidants has been compared with that of indole. Evidence for characterization of both semireduced and semioxidized benzotriazole as three electron bonded species are given. (author)

  13. K-α emission form medium and high-Z materials irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.; Zhavoronkov, N.; Andreev, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Fast electrons are created at the target surface during the interaction of high intensity ultra short laser pulses with solids. Fast electrons penetrate deep into the target where they generate K-α and Bremsstrahlung radiation. Generated high brightness K-α pulses offer the prospect of creating a cheap and compact X-ray source, posing a promising alternative to synchrotron radiation, e.g. in medical application and in material science. With an increase in laser intensity, efficient X-ray emission in the multi-keV range with pulse duration shorter than few picoseconds is expected. This short incoherent but monochromatic X-ray emission synchronized with laser pulses may be used for time-resolved measurements. Acceleration of fast electrons, their transport and K-α photon generation and emission from the target surface in both forward and backward directions are studied here numerically. The results are compared to recent experiments studying K-α emission from the front and rear surface of copper foil targets of various thicknesses and for various parameters of the laser plasma interaction. One-dimensional PIC simulations coupled with 3D time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations show that account of ionization processes and of density profile formed by laser ASE emission is essential for reliable explanation of experimental data. While sub-relativistic intensities are optimum for laser energy transformation into K-α emission for medium-Z targets, relativistic laser intensities have to be used for hard X-ray generation in high-Z materials. The cross-section for K-α shell ionization of high-Z elements by electrons increases or remains approximately constant within a factor of two at relativistic electron energies up to electron energies in the 100-MeV range. Moreover, the splitting ratio of K-α photon emission to Auger electron emission is favorable for high-Z materials, and thus efficient K-α emission is possible. In our

  14. "Determination of domperidone in tablet dosage form by anodic differential pulse voltammetry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahdan, Tarek; El-Ghany, Nadia Abd

    2005-10-01

    A differential pulse voltammetric method was described for the determination of domperidone. The method was based on the anodic oxidation of domperidone on a glassy carbon electrode at +0.64 V vs. SCE in Britton-Robinson buffer solution of pH 2.3. The reversibility of the oxidation was tested by cyclic voltammetry; the electrode process is irreversible and diffusion-adsorption controlled. Calibrations are linear over the range 1.0 x 10(-6)-2.0 x 10(-5) M of domperidone with a detection limit of 4.0 x 10(-7) M. The method was applied, without any interference from the excipients, to the determination of the drug in a tablet dosage form.

  15. Selective chemical stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    At the end of the 80's, some of the large European airlines expressed a wish for paint systems with improved strippability on their aircraft, allowing the possibility to strip down to the primer without altering it, using 'mild' chemical strippers based on methylene chloride. These improvements were initially intended to reduce costs and stripping cycle times while facilitating rapid repainting, and this without the need to change the conventionally used industrial facilities. The level of in-service performance of these paint systems was to be the same as the previous ones. Requirements related to hygiene safety and the environment were added to these initial requirements. To meet customers' expectations, Aerospatiale, within the Airbus Industry GIE, formed a work group. This group was given the task of specifying, following up the elaboration and qualifying the paint systems allowing requirements to be met, in relation with the paint suppliers and the airlines. The analysis made in this report showed the interest of transferring as far upstream as possible (to paint conception level) most of the technical constraints related to stripping. Thus, the concept retained for the paint system, allowing selective chemical stripping, is a 3-coat system with characteristics as near as possible to the previously used paints.

  16. Nonlinear Charge and Current Neutralization of an Ion Beam Pulse in a Pre-formed Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Shvets, Gennady; Startsev, Edward; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of a high-current finite-length ion beam in a cold pre-formed plasma is investigated. The outcome of the calculation is the quantitative prediction of the degree of charge and current neutralization of the ion beam pulse by the background plasma. The electric magnetic fields generated by the ion beam are studied analytically for the nonlinear case where the plasma density is comparable in size with the beam density. Particle-in-cell simulations and fluid calculations of current and charge neutralization have been performed for parameters relevant to heavy ion fusion assuming long, dense beams with el >> V(subscript b)/omega(subscript b), where V(subscript b) is the beam velocity and omega subscript b is the electron plasma frequency evaluated with the ion beam density. An important conclusion is that for long, nonrelativistic ion beams, charge neutralization is, for all practical purposes, complete even for very tenuous background plasmas. As a result, the self-magnetic force dominates the electric force and the beam ions are always pinched during beam propagation in a background plasma

  17. Improving the output voltage waveform of an intense electron-beam accelerator based on helical type Blumlein pulse forming line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Bing Cheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Blumlein pulse forming line (BPFL consisting of an inner coaxial pulse forming line (PFL and an outer coaxial PFL is widely used in the field of pulsed power, especially for intense electron-beam accelerators (IEBA. The output voltage waveform determines the quality and characteristics of the output beam current of the IEBA. Comparing with the conventional BPFL, an IEBA based on a helical type BPFL can increase the duration of the output voltage in the same geometrical volume. However, for the helical type BPFL, the voltage waveform on a matched load may be distorted which influences the electron-beam quality. In this paper, an IEBA based on helical type BPFL is studied theoretically. Based on telegrapher equations of the BPFL, a formula for the output voltage of IEBA is obtained when the transition section is taken into account, where the transition section is between the middle cylinder of BPFL and the load. From the theoretical analysis, it is found that the wave impedance and transit time of the transition section influence considerably the main pulse voltage waveform at the load, a step is formed in front of the main pulse, and a sharp spike is also formed at the end of the main pulse. In order to get a well-shaped square waveform at the load and to improve the electron-beam quality of such an accelerator, the wave impedance of the transition section should be equal to that of the inner PFL of helical type BPFL and the transit time of the transition section should be designed as short as possible. Experiments performed on an IEBA with the helical type BPFL show reasonable agreement with theoretical analysis.

  18. 20 kA PFN capacitor bank with solid-state switching. [pulse forming network for plasma studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posta, S. J.; Michels, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    A compact high-current pulse-forming network capacitor bank using paralleled silicon controlled rectifiers as switches is described. The maximum charging voltage of the bank is 1kV and maximum load current is 20 kA. The necessary switch equalization criteria and performance with dummy load and an arc plasma generator are described.

  19. The determination, by differential pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry at the thin mercury-film electrode, of cadmium and thallium in six NIMROC reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    A previously reported procedure has been extended to include the determination of thallium. In samples where thallium occurred in the presence of relatively high concentrations of cadmium, the stripping peak for cadmium was first suppressed with non-ionic surface-active agent, Triton X-100. Cadmium and thallium were determined directly in six NIMROC reference materials without interference from iron(III), in a reducing electrolyte, which is also a complexing agent, consisting of 1 M ammonium chloride, 0,1 M citric acid, and 0,025 M ascorbic acid. Interelement interferences were eliminated by the use of a mercury-film electrode of adequate thickness. The limits of detection for cadmium were 10ng/g and those for thallium 20ng/g

  20. Development and application of resistive pulse spectroscopy: studies on the size, form and deformability of red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The following studies were conducted using the resistive pulse spectroscopy (RPS) technique: cumulative spectra and individual pulse forms for rigid latex polymer spheres; acquisition and analysis of RPS spectral data by means of special computer program; interaction of red blood cells with glutaraldehyde; membrane properties of erythrocytes undergoing abrupt osmotic hemolysis; reversible effects of the binding of chlorpromazine HCl at the red cell membrane surface; effects of high cholesterol diet on erythrocytes of guinea pigs; and multi-population analysis for a mixture of fetal and maternal red cells. (HLW)

  1. Low Voltage Electrolytic Capacitor Pulse Forming Inductive Network for Electric Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mays, Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    .... Pulsed alternators potentially have the same maintenance issues as other motor-generator sets, so a solid-state system would be desirable, but high voltage capacitor systems are not robust enough for the field...

  2. Emission of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses from electron bunches formed and accelerated by laser beams with tilted amplitude fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galkin, A.L.; Korobkin, V.V.; Romanovsky, M.Yu.; Shiryaev, O.B.; Trofimov, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of an electron in a standing wave generated by a pair of counterpropagating linearly polarized relativistically intense laser pulses and the emission of electromagnetic radiation by the electron are analyzed. The pulses are assumed to have tilted amplitude fronts and asymmetric focal spots. The analysis of the dynamics is performed by solving numerically the Newton equation with the corresponding Lorentz force, and the emission of radiation is simulated based on the Lienard-Wiechert potentials. The electrons are accelerated by the direct action of the standing wave field and are shown to form a small short bunch. For relativistic intensities, the energies gained by the electrons reach several GeV. It is demonstrated that the radiation emitted by the electrons in the bunch is a single electromagnetic pulse confined to a narrow solid angle and having an attosecond duration. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  4. Langmuir probe measurement of the bismuth plasma plume formed by an extreme-ultraviolet pulsed laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pira, P.; Burian, T.; Kolpaková, A.; Tichý, M.; Kudrna, P.; Daniš, S.; Juha, Libor; Lančok, Ján; Vyšín, Luděk; Civiš, Svatopluk; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Kubát, Pavel; Wild, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 40 (2014), 1-6 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : XUV laser * pulsed laser deposition * Langmuir probe * plasma plume Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2014

  5. Calculation of heat sink around cracks formed under pulsed heat load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareva, G. G.; Arakcheev, A. S.; Kandaurov, I. V.; Kasatov, A. A.; Kurkuchekov, V. V.; Maksimova, A. G.; Popov, V. A.; Shoshin, A. A.; Snytnikov, A. V.; Trunev, Yu A.; Vasilyev, A. A.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.

    2017-10-01

    The experimental and numerical simulations of the conditions causing the intensive erosion and expected to be realized infusion reactor were carried out. The influence of relevant pulsed heat loads to tungsten was simulated using a powerful electron beam source in BINP. The mechanical destruction, melting and splashing of the material were observed. The laboratory experiments are accompanied by computational ones. Computational experiment allowed to quantitatively describe the overheating near the cracks, caused by parallel to surface cracks.

  6. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos

    2002-01-01

    Many conjugated polymers show an appreciable difference in volume between their oxidized and reduced forms. This property can be utilized in soft electrochemically driven actuators, "artificial muscles". Several geometries have been proposed for the conversion of the volume expansion into useful...... mechanical work. In a particularly simple geometry, the length change of polymer strips is exploited. The polymer strips are connected to the driving circuit at the end of the strip that is attached to the support of the device. The other end of the strip is connected to the load. The advantage of this set...

  7. Application of different methodologies in the preparation of organic matrices for determination of trace elements by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry; Aplicacao de diferentes metodologias na preparacao de matrizes organicas para a determinacao voltametrica de elementos traco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisti, Cristina

    2001-07-01

    The determination of trace elements in food samples is of great importance for the human health, considering the factors of essentiality and toxicity. On the other hand, the chemical analysis is largely affected for the steps of sample preparation; laboratory contamination of the sample and the reagents or still volatilization and losses of the elements. If these parameters are not controlled the achieved precision and accuracy could be low. In this work, the content of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper was determined in adults diet samples collected by duplicate portion technique and bovine liver, applying the differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry - (DP-ASV) technique. In the digestion of the matrices in acid medium, conventional methodologies were used, conductive heating in open recipients and equipment with microwaves source in open and closed vessels. The best procedure was the sample digestion by microwaves, in closed vessels and the other treatments made in controlled atmosphere with hood laminar-airflow class 100. The established methodology was validated with the use of a certified sample as reference (NIST - bovine liver 1577b). (author)

  8. Parallel superconducting strip-line detectors: reset behaviour in the single-strip switch regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaburi, A; Heath, R M; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Nappi, C

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting strip-line detectors (SSLDs) are an important emerging technology for the detection of single molecules in time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). We present an experimental investigation of a SSLD laid out in a parallel configuration, designed to address selected single strip-lines operating in the single-strip switch regime. Fast laser pulses were tightly focused onto the device, allowing controllable nucleation of a resistive region at a specific location and study of the subsequent device response dynamics. We observed that in this regime, although the strip-line returns to the superconducting state after triggering, no effective recovery of the bias current occurs, in qualitative agreement with a phenomenological circuit simulation that we performed. Moreover, from theoretical considerations and by looking at the experimental pulse amplitude distribution histogram, we have the first confirmation of the fact that the phenomenological London model governs the current redistribution in these large area devices also after detection events. (paper)

  9. Parallel superconducting strip-line detectors: reset behaviour in the single-strip switch regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaburi, A.; Heath, R. M.; Tanner, M. G.; Cristiano, R.; Ejrnaes, M.; Nappi, C.; Hadfield, R. H.

    2014-04-01

    Superconducting strip-line detectors (SSLDs) are an important emerging technology for the detection of single molecules in time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). We present an experimental investigation of a SSLD laid out in a parallel configuration, designed to address selected single strip-lines operating in the single-strip switch regime. Fast laser pulses were tightly focused onto the device, allowing controllable nucleation of a resistive region at a specific location and study of the subsequent device response dynamics. We observed that in this regime, although the strip-line returns to the superconducting state after triggering, no effective recovery of the bias current occurs, in qualitative agreement with a phenomenological circuit simulation that we performed. Moreover, from theoretical considerations and by looking at the experimental pulse amplitude distribution histogram, we have the first confirmation of the fact that the phenomenological London model governs the current redistribution in these large area devices also after detection events.

  10. A Pulse Forming Network Design for Electrothermal-Chemical Combustion Characterization of Solid Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-01

    load tests at 5 kV Vin. Figure 2a. 1.2 ms Pulser 2b. ETC Firing,5kV,1.2ms pulse 279 1. 8E+4 ?see. e : v 0 y seeu . e t o r 1 s ’ 2588.8...response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and... reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including

  11. Varicose vein stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stripping; Venous reflux - vein stripping; Venous ulcer - veins Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor Images Circulatory system References American Family Physician. Management of varicose veins. www.aafp.org/afp/2008/ ...

  12. A solid paraffin-based carbon paste electrode modified with 2-aminothiazole organofunctionalized silica for differential pulse adsorptive stripping analysis of nickel in ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Regina M.; Santos, Andre L.; Padilha, Pedro M.; Stradiotto, Nelson R.

    2007-01-01

    A solid paraffin-based carbon paste electrode modified with 2-aminothiazole organofunctionalized silica (SiAt-SPCPE) was applied to Ni 2+ determination in commercial ethanol fuel samples. The proposed method comprised four steps: (1) Ni 2+ preconcentration at open circuit potential directly in the ethanol fuel sample, (2) transference of the electrode to an electrochemical cell containing DMG, (3) differential pulse voltammogram registering and (4) surface regeneration by polishing the electrode. The proposed method combines the high Ni 2+ adsorption capacity presented by 2-aminothiazole organofunctionalized silica with the electrochemical properties of the Ni(DMG) 2 complex, whose electrochemical reduction provides the analytical signal. All experimental parameters involved in the proposed method were optimized. Using a preconcentration time of 20 min, it was obtained a linear range from 7.5 x 10 -9 to 1.0 x 10 -6 mol L -1 with detection limit of 2.0 x 10 -9 mol L -1 . Recovery values between 96.5 and 102.4% were obtained for commercial samples spiked with 1.0 μmol L -1 Ni 2+ and the developed electrode was totally stable in ethanolic solutions. The contents of Ni 2+ found in the commercial samples using the proposed method were compared to those obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy by using the F- and t-test. Neither the F- nor t-values exceeded the critical values at 95% confidence level, confirming that there are not statistical differences between the results obtained by both methods. These results indicate that the developed electrode can be successfully employed to reliable Ni 2+ determination in commercial ethanol fuel samples without any sample pretreatment or dilution step

  13. Characterization of Temperature Induced Phase Transitions in the Five Polymorphic Forms of Sulfathia-zole by Terahertz Pulsed Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitler, J. Axel; Newnham, David A.; Taday, Philip F.

    2006-01-01

    The far-infrared properties of all five described polymorphic forms of the drug sulfathiazole have been studied by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and low frequency Raman spectroscopy. The spectra of the different polymorphs are distinctly different. Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy proves to be a rapid...

  14. Ammonia stripping of biologically treated liquid manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitalo, Anni; Kyrö, Aleksis; Aura, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for efficient ammonia removal in air stripping is that the pH of the liquid to be stripped is sufficiently high. Swine manure pH is usually around 7. At pH 7 (at 20°C), only 0.4% of ammonium is in ammonia form, and it is necessary to raise the pH of swine slurry to achieve efficient ammonia removal. Because manure has a very high buffering capacity, large amounts of chemicals are needed to change the slurry pH. The present study showed that efficient air stripping of manure can be achieved with a small amount of chemicals and without strong bases like NaOH. Slurry was subjected to aerobic biological treatment to raise pH before stripping. This facilitated 8 to 32% ammonia removal without chemical treatment. The slurry was further subjected to repeated cycles of stripping with MgO and Ca(OH)(2) additions after the first and second strippings, respectively, to raise slurry pH in between the stripping cycles. After three consecutive stripping cycles, 59 to 86% of the original ammonium had been removed. It was shown that the reduction in buffer capacity of the slurry was due to ammonia and carbonate removal during the stripping cycles. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Characteristic impedance and capacitance analysis of Blumlein type pulse forming line of accelerator based on tape helix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu; Liu Jinliang; Fan Xuliang; Zhang Hongbo; Wang Shiwen; Feng Jiahuai

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic dispersion theory and the classic telegraph equations were combined to calculate the important parameters of the helical Blumlein pulse forming line (BPFL) of accelerator based on tape helix. In the work band of the BPFL at several hundred ns range, electromagnetic dispersion characteristics were almost determined by the zeroth harmonic. In order to testify the dispersion theory of BPFL in this paper, filling dielectrics, such as de-ionized water, transformer oil, and air were employed in the helical BPFL, respectively. Parameters such as capacitance, inductance, characteristic impedance, and pulse duration of the BPFL were calculated. Effects of dispersion on these parameters were analyzed. Circuit simulation and electromagnetic simulation were carried out to prove these parameters of BPFL filled with these three kinds of dielectrics, respectively. The accelerator system was set up, and experimental results also corresponded to the theoretical calculations. The average theoretical errors of impedances and pulse durations were 3.5% and 3.4%, respectively, which proved the electromagnetic dispersion analyses in this paper.

  16. Metal surface coloration by oxide periodic structures formed with nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiko, Vadim; Karlagina, Yulia; Moskvin, Mikhail; Mikhailovskii, Vladimir; Odintsova, Galina; Olshin, Pavel; Pankin, Dmitry; Romanov, Valery; Yatsuk, Roman

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we studied a method of laser-induced coloration of metals, where small-scale spatially periodic structures play a key role in the process of color formation. The formation of such structures on a surface of AISI 304 stainless steel was demonstrated for the 1.06 μm fiber laser with nanosecond duration of pulses and random (elliptical) polarization. The color of the surface depends on the period, height and orientation of periodic surface structures. Adjustment of the polarization of the laser radiation or change of laser incidence angle can be used to control the orientation of the structures. The formation of markings that change their color under the different viewing angles becomes possible. The potential application of the method is metal product protection against falsification.

  17. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  18. Conveyorized Photoresist Stripping Replacement for Flex Circuit Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megan Donahue

    2009-02-24

    A replacement conveyorized photoresist stripping system was characterized to replace the ASI photoresist stripping system. This system uses the qualified ADF-25c chemistry for the fabrication of flex circuits, while the ASI uses the qualified potassium hydroxide chemistry. The stripping process removes photoresist, which is used to protect the copper traces being formed during the etch process.

  19. The Strip Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    1996-01-01

    When the behaviour of a ship in waves is to be predicted it is convenient to have a tool which includes different approaches to the problem.The aim of this project is to develop such a tool named the strip theory module. The strip theory module will consist of submodules dependent on the I....... At last a postprocessor will be included with facilities for statistical calculations and for plots and prints of the results.The project is divided into 7 tasks where the third is to be completed.This report has two aims. To give an introduction to the project of developing a strip theory module......-ship code available at the department. It will be structured as a general preprocessor mainly to determine the hydrodynamic mass and damping. A strip processor including three different theories: A linear frequency domain strip theory, a quadratic strip theory and a nonlinear time domain strip theory...

  20. Differential pulse anodic voltammetric determination of pantoprazole in pharmaceutical dosage forms and human plasma using glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Nevin

    2003-12-01

    Pantoprazole is used as an anti-ulcer drug through inhibition of H(+), K(+)-adenosine 5(')-triphosphatase in gastric parietal cells. It reduces the gastric acid secretion regardless of the nature of stimulation. The use of differential pulse voltammetry for the determination of pantoprazole in pharmaceutical dosage forms and human plasma using a glassy carbon electrode has been examined. The best voltammetric response was reached for a glassy carbon electrode in Britton-Robinson buffer solution of pH 5.0 submitted to a scan rate of 20.0 mVs(-1) and a pulse amplitude of 50.0 mV. This electroanalytical procedure was able to determine pantoprazole in the concentration range 6.0 x 10(-6)-8.0 x 10(-4)M. Precision and accuracy of the developed method was checked with recovery studies. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 4.0 x 10(-7) and 9.0 x 10(-7)M, respectively. Rapidity, precision, and good selectivity were also found for the determination of pantoprazole in pharmaceutical dosage forms and human plasma. For comparative purposes high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array and UV/VIS detection at 290.0 nm determination also was developed.

  1. Characterization of galvannealed strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreas, G.; Hardy, Y.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of enhancing coating quality control during galvannealing process, an online microscopic image acquisition sensor has been developed at CRM. In galvannealing process, the ζ phase surface density is a coating quality characteristic, and the on-line microscope, equipped with optics placed at 20 mm from the surface, grabs 250 μm x 190 μm images on which ζ crystals (approximate dimensions: 1 μm x 10 μm) can be clearly identified. On-line, the sensor is mounted in front of a roll where the strip has a stable position. The coating surface to sensor optics distance is continuously measured by an accurate triangulation sensor (1 μm repeatability) and is adjusted in such a way that, due to roll eccentricity, the image is focused at least twice per revolution. When focused, image of moving product is frozen by a short (10 ns) laser light pulse and is grabbed. The obtained image is then processed to extract ζ phase percentage and allows adjustment of process parameters to reach the desired coating characteristics. (author)

  2. Antenna with distributed strip and integrated electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T [Albuquerque, NM; Payne, Jason A [Albuquerque, NM; Ottesen, Cory W [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-08-05

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element can be in proximity to a ground conductor and/or arranged as a dipole. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. An antenna can comprise a distributed strip patterned on a printed wiring board, integrated with electronic components mounted on top of or below the distributed strip, and substantially within the extents of the distributed strip. Mounting of electronic components on top of or below the distributed strip has little effect on the performance of the antenna, and allows for realizing the combination of the antenna and integrated components in a compact form. An embodiment of the invention comprises an antenna including a distributed strip, integrated with a battery mounted on the distributed strip.

  3. From single-pulsed field gradient to double-pulsed field gradient MR: gleaning new microstructural information and developing new forms of contrast in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Noam; Ozarslan, Evren; Komlosh, Michal E; Basser, Peter J; Cohen, Yoram

    2010-08-01

    One of the hallmarks of diffusion NMR and MRI is its ability to utilize restricted diffusion to probe compartments much smaller than the excited volume or the MRI voxel, respectively, and to extract microstructural information from them. Single-pulsed field gradient (s-PFG) MR methodologies have been employed with great success to probe microstructures in various disciplines, ranging from chemistry to neuroscience. However, s-PFG MR also suffers from inherent shortcomings, especially when specimens are characterized by orientation or size distributions: in such cases, the microstructural information available from s-PFG experiments is limited or lost. Double-pulsed field gradient (d-PFG) MR methodology, an extension of s-PFG MR, has attracted attention owing to recent theoretical studies predicting that it can overcome certain inherent limitations of s-PFG MR. In this review, we survey the microstructural features that can be obtained from conventional s-PFG methods in the different q regimes, and highlight its limitations. The experimental aspects of d-PFG methodology are then presented, together with an overview of its theoretical underpinnings and a general framework for relating the MR signal decay and material microstructure, affording new microstructural parameters. We then discuss recent studies that have validated the theory using phantoms in which the ground truth is well known a priori, a crucial step prior to the application of d-PFG methodology in neuronal tissue. The experimental findings are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions and reveal, inter alia, zero-crossings of the signal decay, robustness towards size distributions and angular dependences of the signal decay from which accurate microstructural parameters, such as compartment size and even shape, can be extracted. Finally, we show some initial findings in d-PFG MR imaging. This review lays the foundation for future studies, in which accurate and novel microstructural

  4. Extensional flow of low-viscosity fluids in capillary bridges formed by pulsed surface acoustic wave jetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, P K; McDonnell, A G; Prabhakar, R; Yeo, L Y; Friend, J, E-mail: james.friend@monash.edu.au [MicroNanophysics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia); Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Forming capillary bridges of low-viscosity ({approx}<10 mPa s) fluids is difficult, making the study of their capillary-thinning behavior and the measurement of the fluid's extensional viscosity difficult as well. Current techniques require some time to form a liquid bridge from the stretching of a droplet. Rapidly stretching a liquid bridge using these methods can cause its breakup if the viscosity is too low. Stretching more slowly allows the bridge to thin and break up before a suitable bridge geometry can be established to provide reliable and accurate rheological data. Using a pulsed surface acoustic wave to eject a jet from a sessile droplet, a capillary bridge may be formed in about 7.5 ms, about seven times quicker than current methods. With this approach, capillary bridges may be formed from Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids having much lower viscosities-water, 0.04% by weight solution of high-molecular-weight (7 MDa) polystyrene in dioctyl phthalate and 0.25% fibrinogen solution in demineralized water, for example. Details of the relatively simple system used to achieve these results are provided, as are experimental results indicating deviations from a Newtonian response by the low-viscosity non-Newtonian fluids used in our study.

  5. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  6. Science Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  7. ALICE silicon strip module

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    This small silicon detector strip will be inserted into the inner tracking system (ITS) on the ALICE detector at CERN. This detector relies on state-of-the-art particle tracking techniques. These double-sided silicon strip modules have been designed to be as lightweight and delicate as possible as the ITS will eventually contain five square metres of these devices.

  8. Properties isotropy of magnesium alloy strip workpieces

    OpenAIRE

    Р. Кавалла; В. Ю. Бажин

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the issue of obtaining high quality cast workpieces of magnesium alloys produced by strip roll-casting. Producing strips of magnesium alloys by combining the processes of casting and rolling when liquid melt is fed continuously to fast rolls is quite promising and economic. In the process of sheet stamping considerable losses of metal occur on festoons formed due to anisotropy of properties of foil workpiece, as defined by the macro- and microstructure and modes of rolling...

  9. Strip type radiation detector and method of making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantsch, O.; Feigt, I.; Willig, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    An improved strip detector and a method for making such a detector in which a high resistivity N conduction semiconductor body has electrode strips formed thereon by diffusion is described. The strips are formed so as to be covered by an oxide layer at the surface point of the PN junction and in which the opposite side of the semiconductor body then has a substantial amount of material etched away to form a thin semiconductor upon which strip electrodes which are perpendicular to the electrodes on the first side are then placed

  10. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-04-28

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the

  11. An investigation of the primary species formed in pulse irradiated nitro-aromatic compounds in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, H.J.; Schulte-Frohlinde, D.; Schworer, F.

    1976-12-01

    The ring-structured compounds containing nitrogen are of considerable importance in radiation chemistry and radiation biology, inasmuch as they form the basis of many nucleic acids, proteins and other biological molecules. The pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of nitrobenzene, nitrophenol and nitroaniline was investigated in order to obtain more information of the primary processes which occur in these systems. By making use of various scavengers, and by changing the pH of the solutions, it was possible to study the reactions of electrons, hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals with the compounds mentioned. The spectra were analysed kinetically, and reaction-rate constants were determined for the formation and decay of the intermediates. The in situ radiolysis and photolysis ESR techniques were used in an effort to detect the primarily formed intermediates. With the possible exception of nitrobenzene, no cyclohexadienyl-type radical was observed, but it was found that semiquinone radicals are formed in nitrobenzene in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. A reaction scheme to explain this finding is proposed. The formation of HNO 2 was studied by means of the electrical-conductivity method. It was found that the group NO 2 -group is eliminated not only in the case of nitrophenol, but also in the cases of nitrobenzene and nitroaniline. The reaction-rate constants for the NO 2 -elimination step was determined in the various cases and, by making use of the mobilities of the different ions, the HNO 2 yield was calculated. The values obtained were in good agreement with results obtained by determining the yield of the NO 2 -ion by means of an analytical method [af

  12. The 'KATOD-1' strip readout ASIC for cathode strip chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Gorbunov, N.V.; Karzhavin, V.Yu.; Khabarov, V.S.; Movchan, S.A.; Smolin, D.A.; Dvornikov, O.V.; Shumejko, N.M.; Chekhovskij, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The 'KATOD-1', a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2 : +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology

  13. Optimal properties for coated titanium implants with the hydroxyapatite layer formed by the pulsed laser deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmlova, Lucia; Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinek, Miroslav; Bartova, Jirina; Pesakova, V.; Adam, M.

    1999-02-01

    Pulsed laser deposition technique allow to 'tailor' bioceramic coat for metal implants by the change of deposition conditions. Each attribute is influenced by the several deposition parameters and each parameter change several various properties. Problem caused that many parameters has an opposite function and improvement of one property is followed by deterioration of other attribute. This study monitor influence of each single deposition parameter and evaluate its importance form the point of view of coat properties. For deposition KrF excimer laser in stainless-steel deposition chamber was used. Deposition conditions (ambient composition and pressures, metallic substrate temperature, energy density and target-substrate distance) were changed according to the film properties. A non-coated titanium implant was used as a control. Films with promising mechanical quality underwent an in vitro biological tests -- measurement of proliferation activity, observing cell interactions with macrophages, fibroblasts, testing toxicity of percolates, observing a solubility of hydroxyapatite (HA) coat. Deposition conditions corresponding with the optimal mechanical and biochemical properties are: metal temperature 490 degrees Celsius, ambient-mixture of argon and water vapor, energy density 3 Jcm-2, target-substrate distance 7.5 cm.

  14. Superconducting strip detectors as position sensitive particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherschel, M. (Lab. fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH-Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland) Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Finkbeiner, F. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Zhao, S.P. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Jaggi, A. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Maier, T. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Lerch, P. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Zehnder, A. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Ott, H.R. (Lab. fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH-Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland) Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland))

    1994-02-01

    The feasibility of using of current-biased superconducting strips for radiation detection is investigated. Narrow Ta strips are exposed to 5.5 MeV [alpha]-particle radiation and the rise-time of the induced voltage pulses is measured as function of temperature and bias current. The rise-time of the voltage signal strongly depends on the site on the strip which is hit by the [alpha]-particle. In order to determine the spatial resolution of a superconducting strip detector, position-sensitive measurements were performed. The maximum lateral resolution estimated so far is 25[mu]m in a 7[mu]m wide, 340 nm thick and 0.6 mm long Ta-strip. (orig.)

  15. Quantum strips on surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Krejcirik, David

    2002-01-01

    Motivated by the theory of quantum waveguides, we investigate the spectrum of the Laplacian, subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions, in a curved strip of constant width that is defined as a tubular neighbourhood of an infinite curve in a two-dimensional Riemannian manifold. Under the assumption that the strip is asymptotically straight in a suitable sense, we localise the essential spectrum and find sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of geometrically induced bound states. I...

  16. Six-frame picosecond radiation camera based on hydrated electron photoabsorption phenomena. [Laser opacity pattern in acidic aqueous cell formed by pulsed irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, G.W.; Olk, L.B.; Gates, H.A.; St. Leger-Barter, G.

    1977-01-15

    To obtain picosecond photographs of nanosecond radiation sources, a six-frame ultra-high speed radiation camera based on hydrated electron absorption phenomena has been developed. A time-dependent opacity pattern is formed in an acidic aqueous cell by a pulsed radiation source. Six time-resolved picosecond images of this changing opacity pattern are transferred to photographic film with the use of a mode-locked dye laser and six electronically gated microchannel plate image intensifiers. Because the lifetime of the hydrated electron absorption centers can be reduced to picoseconds, the opacity patterns represent time-space pulse profile images.

  17. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  18. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  19. Coiled sheet metal strip opens into tubular configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. J.

    1966-01-01

    Copper alloy is converted into a spring material that can be rolled into a compact coil which will spontaneously open to form a tube in the long direction of the strip. The copper alloy is passed through a furnace at a prescribed temperature while restraining the strip in the desired tubular configuration.

  20. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  1. Properties isotropy of magnesium alloy strip workpieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. Кавалла

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of obtaining high quality cast workpieces of magnesium alloys produced by strip roll-casting. Producing strips of magnesium alloys by combining the processes of casting and rolling when liquid melt is fed continuously to fast rolls is quite promising and economic. In the process of sheet stamping considerable losses of metal occur on festoons formed due to anisotropy of properties of foil workpiece, as defined by the macro- and microstructure and modes of rolling and annealing. The principal causes of anisotropic mechanical properties of metal strips produced by the combined casting and rolling technique are the character of distribution of intermetallic compounds in the strip, orientation of phases of metal defects and the residual tensions. One of the tasks in increasing the output of fit products during stamping operations consists in minimizing the amount of defects. To lower the level of anisotropy in mechanical properties various ways of treating the melt during casting are suggested. Designing the technology of producing strips of magnesium alloys opens a possibility of using them in automobile industry to manufacture light-weight body elements instead of those made of steel.

  2. High energy X-ray photon counting imaging using linear accelerator and silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Y., E-mail: cycjty@sophie.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Bioengineering, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimazoe, K.; Yan, X. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ueda, O.; Ishikura, T. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Fuji, Hino, Tokyo 191-8502 (Japan); Fujiwara, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Uesaka, M.; Ohno, M. [Nuclear Professional School, the University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Tomita, H. [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yoshihara, Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Bioengineering, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-09-11

    A photon counting imaging detector system for high energy X-rays is developed for on-site non-destructive testing of thick objects. One-dimensional silicon strip (1 mm pitch) detectors are stacked to form a two-dimensional edge-on module. Each detector is connected to a 48-channel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The threshold-triggered events are recorded by a field programmable gate array based counter in each channel. The detector prototype is tested using 950 kV linear accelerator X-rays. The fast CR shaper (300 ns pulse width) of the ASIC makes it possible to deal with the high instant count rate during the 2 μs beam pulse. The preliminary imaging results of several metal and concrete samples are demonstrated.

  3. Flexible Faraday Cage with a Twist: Surface Charge on a Mobius Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Once an intriguing topological novelty known only to mathematicians, the Mobius strip has become a source of fascination and inspiration to the layperson and artist alike. Principal among its features are the two strange properties that the Mobius strip is a surface with only one side and one edge. A Mobius strip is readily formed by taking a long…

  4. Improving the technology of deposition using strip electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Володимирович Гулаков

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the arc at the strip electrode tip is studied. It is shown that the arc is moving along the electrode tip due to periodic short-circuits of the arc gap. Thus, a new arc is excited at the point where short circuit occurred after a conductive bridge formed by molten metal is vanished due to a high welding current. This leads to an increase in the probability of defect formation in the deposited layer of workpiece under treatment. To improve deposited layer quality, it is suggested to identify the moments of short-circuits of the electrode to the base metal and to discharge the pre-charged capacitorat these instants, connecting it between the electrode and the product. High discharge current pulse speeds up the destruction of the molten metal bridge between electrode tip and workpiece, thus lowering the time needed for arc re-ignition and improving depostion process stability. A special automated equipment has been developed to implement this process. Capacitor discharge is done using power thyristor with series-connected inductance for limiting discharging current rate of rise and for limiting discharge current peak value such that it is not impairing thyristor reliability. The pre-charging of the capacitor is done by an auxiliary power supply. Several thyristor-capacitor networks can be used in parallel to allow for multiple current pulses mode and to reduce RMS currents in capacitors

  5. Structure and Composition of Scales Formed on AISI 316 L Steel Alloyed with Ce/La Using High Intensity Plasma Pulses after Oxidation in 1000o

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartowska, B.; Walis, L.; Starosta, W.; Piekoszewski, J.; Barlak, M.; Pochrybniak, C.; Bochenska, K.

    2011-01-01

    It is well documented that the high oxygen affinity elements such as Y, Ce, La, Er and other rare earth elements added to steel in small amounts can improve their high temperature oxidation resistance. Rare earth elements can be either alloyed during the steel making process or introduced through surface treatment techniques. Improvement of high temperature oxidation resistance of AISI 316 L steel by incorporation Ce and La elements into its near surface region using high intensity pulsed plasma beams in so-called deposition by the pulse erosion mode was investigated in the present work. The samples were irradiated with 3 short (μs scale) intense (energy density 3 J/cm 2 ) plasma pulses. Heating and cooling processes occur under non-equilibrium conditions. In all samples the near surface layer of the thickness in μm range was melted and simultaneously doped with cerium and lanthanum. The modified samples were oxidized at 1000 o C for 100 h in air. The obtained effects were: oxide scales formed on the treated samples were more fine-grained, compact and adhering better that those formed on the un-treated samples. (author)

  6. Photosensitive Strip RETHGEM

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir; Nappi, E.; Oliveira, R.; Paic, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Picchi, P.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative photosensitive gaseous detector, consisting of a GEM like amplification structure with double layered electrodes (instead of commonly used metallic ones) coated with a CsI reflective photocathode, is described. In one of our latest designs, the inner electrode consists of a metallic grid and the outer one is made of resistive strips; the latter are manufactured by a screen printing technology on the top of the metallic strips grid The inner metallic grid is used for 2D position measurements whereas the resistive layer provides an efficient spark protected operation at high gains - close to the breakdown limit. Detectors with active areas of 10cm x10cm and 10cm x20cm were tested under various conditions including the operation in photosensitive gas mixtures containing ethylferrocene or TMAE vapors. The new technique could have many applications requiring robust and reliable large area detectors for UV visualization, as for example, in Cherenkov imaging devices.

  7. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  8. Enhanced oxygen dissociation in a propagating constricted discharge formed in a self-pulsing atmospheric pressure microplasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Daniel; Burhenn, Sebastian; Kirchheim, Dennis; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker

    2013-11-01

    We report on the propagation of a constricted discharge feature in a repetitively self-pulsing microplasma jet operated in helium with a 0.075 vol% molecular oxygen admixture in ambient air environment. The constricted discharge is about 1 mm in width and repetitively ignites at the point of smallest electrode distance in a wedge-shaped electrode configuration, propagates through the discharge channel towards the nozzle, extinguishes, and re-ignites at the inlet at frequencies in the kHz range. It co-exists with a homogeneous, volume-dominated low temperature (T ⋍ 300 K) α-mode glow. Time-resolved measurements of nitrogen molecule C-state and nitrogen molecule ion B-state emission bands reveal an increase of the rotational temperature within the constricted discharge to about 600 K within 50 µs. Its propagation velocity was determined by phase-resolved diagnostics to be similar to the gas velocity, in the order of 40 m s-1. Two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy synchronized to the self-pulsing reveals spatial regions of increased oxygen atom densities co-propagating with the constricted discharge feature. The generated oxygen pulse density is about ten times higher than in the co-existing homogeneous α-mode. Densities reach about 1.5 × 1016 cm-3 at average temperatures of 450 K at the nozzle. This enhanced dissociation of about 80% is attributed to the continuous interaction of the constricted discharge to the co-propagating gas volume.

  9. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  10. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  11. Noise analysis due to strip resistance in the ATLAS SCT silicon strip module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipnis, I.

    1996-08-01

    The module is made out of four 6 cm x 6 cm single sided Si microstrip detectors. Two detectors are butt glued to form a 12 cm long mechanical unit and strips of the two detectors are electrically connected to form 12 cm long strips. The butt gluing is followed by a back to back attachment. The module in this note is the Rφ module where the electronics is oriented parallel to the strip direction and bonded directly to the strips. This module concept provides the maximum signal-to-noise ratio, particularly when the front-end electronics is placed near the middle rather than at the end. From the noise analysis, it is concluded that the worst-case ΔENC (far-end injection) between end- and center-tapped modules will be 120 to 210 el. rms (9 to 15%) for a non-irradiated detector and 75 to 130 el. rms (5 to 9%) for an irradiated detector, for a metal strip resistance of 10 to 20 Ω/cm

  12. Transmission electron microscopy studying of structural features of NiTi B2 phase formed under pulsed electron-beam impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisner, Ludmila L.; Semin, Viktor O.; Gudimova, Ekaterina Y. [Institute of Strength Physicists and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Neiman, Alexey A., E-mail: nasa@ispms.tsc.ru; Lotkov, Alexander I.; Ostapenko, Marina G. [Institute of Strength Physicists and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Koval, Nikolai N.; Teresov, Anton D. [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    By transmission electron microscopy method the evolution of structural-phase states on a depth of close to equiatomic NiTi modified layer has been studied. Modification performed by pulse impact on its surface low-energy high-current electron beam (beam energy density 10 J/sm{sup 2}, 10 pulses, pulse duration 50mks). It is established that during the treatment in the layer thickness of 8–10 μm, the melting of primary B2 phase and contained therein as Ti2Ni phase particles occurs. The result is change in the concentration ratio of titanium and nickel in the direction of increasing titanium content, which was confirmed by X-ray analysis in the form of increased unit cell parameter B2 phase. Analysis of the electron diffraction pattern showed that the modified layer is characterized as a highly distorted structure on the basis of bcc lattice. Lattice distortions are maximal near the surface and extends to a depth of melt. In subjacent layer there is gradual decline lattice distortions is observed.

  13. Pulse pile-up. II: Tailed pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1990-07-01

    The considerations of the preceding paper are extended to the case of pulses having infinite (exponential) tails. Exact solutions are presented for pure exponential pulses all of the same height; ruin theory is applied for pulses of more realistic form. (Author) (2 refs., 9 figs.)

  14. The effect of venous pulsation on the forehead pulse oximeter wave form as a possible source of error in Spo2 calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Kirk H; Tamai, Doris; Jablonka, Denis; Gesquiere, Michael; Stout, Robert G; Silverman, David G

    2005-03-01

    Reflective forehead pulse oximeter sensors have recently been introduced into clinical practice. They reportedly have the advantage of faster response times and immunity to the effects of vasoconstriction. Of concern are reports of signal instability and erroneously low Spo(2) values with some of these new sensors. During a study of the plethysmographic wave forms from various sites (finger, ear, and forehead) it was noted that in some cases the forehead wave form became unexpectedly complex in configuration. The plethysmographic signals from 25 general anesthetic cases were obtained, which revealed the complex forehead wave form during 5 cases. We hypothesized that the complex wave form was attributable to an underlying venous signal. It was determined that the use of a pressure dressing over the sensor resulted in a return of a normal plethysmographic wave form. Further examination of the complex forehead wave form reveal a morphology consistent with a central venous trace with atrial, cuspidal, and venous waves. It is speculated that the presence of the venous signal is the source of the problems reported with the forehead sensors. It is believed that the venous wave form is a result of the method of attachment rather than the use of reflective plethysmographic sensors.

  15. Parametric study of self-forming ZnO Nanowall network with honeycomb structure by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    El Zein, B.

    2014-02-01

    The successful synthesis of catalyst free zinc oxide (ZnO) Nanowall networks with honeycomb like structure by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is demonstrated in this paper. The synthesis was conducted directly on Silicon (Si) (1 0 0) and Glass-ITO substrates without the intermediate of metal catalyst, template or chemical etching. Kinetic of growth and effects of gas pressure and substrate temperature were studied by depositing ZnO films on P type Si (1 0 0) substrates with different deposition parameters. The optimized growth parameters were found as: 10 mTorr oxygen pressure, 600 C substrate temperature, and deposition duration equal or higher than 10 min. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were used to investigate structural, microstructural and optical properties of ZnO Nanowall networks produced. They exhibit a non-uniform size high quality honeycomb structure with low deep level defects. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Structural and electrical properties of different vanadium oxide phases in thin film form synthesized using pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, S. S.; Shukla, D. K.; Rahman, F.; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.

    2015-06-01

    We present here the structural and electrical properties of the thin films of V2O3 (Vanadium sesquioxide) and V5O9. Both these oxide phases, V2O3 and V5O9, have beenachieved on (001) orientedSi substrate using the V2O5 target by optimizing the deposition parameters using pulsed laser deposition technique (PLD).Deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD)and four probe temperature dependent resistivity measurements. XRD studies reveal the V2O3 and V5O9 phases and the amount of strain present in both these films. The temperature dependency of electrical resistivity confirmed the characteristic metal-insulator transitions (MIT) for both the films, V2O3 and V5O9.

  17. Droplet size characteristics and energy input requirements of emulsions formed using high-intensity-pulsed electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, T.C.; Sisson, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental methods have been developed to measure droplet size characteristics and energy inputs associated with the rupture of aqueous droplets by high-intensity-pulsed electric fields. The combination of in situ microscope optics and high-speed video cameras allows reliable observation of liquid droplets down to 0.5 μm in size. Videotapes of electric-field-created emulsions reveal that average droplet sizes of less than 5 μm are easily obtained in such systems. Analysis of the energy inputs into the fluids indicates that the electric field method requires less than 1% of the energy required from mechanical agitation to create comparable droplet sizes. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  19. Electronic rumble strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Donald R.; Lenz, James

    1997-02-01

    Single vehicle run-off-road accidents are responsible for significant numbers of injuries and fatalities, and significant property damage. This fact spurs interest in warning systems to alert drivers that vehicles are drifting towards the edge of the road, and that a run-off road accident is imminent. An early attempt at such a warning system is the use of machined grooves on the shoulder to create a rumble strip. Such a system only provides warning, however, as the vehicle actually leaves the traffic lane. More desirable is a system that warns in anticipation of such departure. Honeywell has under development a magnetic lateral guidance system that couples a sensitive magnetoresistive transducer with a magnetic traffic marking tape being developed by 3M. While this development was initially undertaken for use in automated highways, or for special tasks such as guiding snowplow owners, the system can provide an effective, all-weather warning system to provide alert of impending departure from the roadway. This electronic rumble strip is actually a simpler system than the baseline guidance system, and can monitor both distance from the traffic lane edge and the speed of approach to the edge with a low cost sensor.

  20. Structural and electrical properties of different vanadium oxide phases in thin film form synthesized using pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, S. S., E-mail: suhailphy276@gmail.com; Rahman, F. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India); Shukla, D. K.; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore-452001 (India)

    2015-06-24

    We present here the structural and electrical properties of the thin films of V{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Vanadium sesquioxide) and V{sub 5}O{sub 9}. Both these oxide phases, V{sub 2}O{sub 3} and V{sub 5}O{sub 9}, have beenachieved on (001) orientedSi substrate using the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} target by optimizing the deposition parameters using pulsed laser deposition technique (PLD).Deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD)and four probe temperature dependent resistivity measurements. XRD studies reveal the V{sub 2}O{sub 3} and V{sub 5}O{sub 9} phases and the amount of strain present in both these films. The temperature dependency of electrical resistivity confirmed the characteristic metal-insulator transitions (MIT) for both the films, V{sub 2}O{sub 3} and V{sub 5}O{sub 9}.

  1. New technology for the production of magnesium strips and sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawalla

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new production technology for magnesium strip, based on twin-roll-casting and strip rolling was developed in Freiberg Germany. By means of this economic method it is possible to produce strips in deep drawing quality with good forming properties in order to satisfy the request for low cost Mg sheets in the automotive and electronic industry. Both, coils as single sheets, were manufactured and rolled to a thickness of 1mm(0,5 mm. The technology of the new process and the properties of the twin-roll-casted material and the final sheets are presented.

  2. Stability of flow over axisymmetric bodies with porous suction strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Reed, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    Linear triple deck, closed form solutions for mean-flow quantities are developed for axisymmetric incompressible flow past a body with porous strips. The solutions account for upstream influence and are linear superpositions of the flow past the body without suction plus the perturbations due to the suction strips. Flow past the suctionless body is calculated using the Transition Analysis Program System, and a simple linear optimization scheme to determine number, spacing, and mass flow rate through the strips on an axisymmetric body is developed using the linear, triple-deck, closed-form solutions. The theory is demonstrated by predicting optimal strip distributions, and the effect of various adverse pressure-gradient situations on stability is studied.

  3. Readout of silicon strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, W

    2003-01-01

    Various architectural and technological options of readout electronics for silicon strip detectors in vertex and tracking applications are discussed briefly. The ABCD3T ASIC for the readout of silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker is presented. The architecture of the chip, some design issues and radiation effects are discussed.

  4. The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Azzurri, P

    2005-01-01

    With over 200 square meters of sensitive Silicon and almost 10 million readout channels, the Silicon Strip Tracker of the CMS experiment at the LHC will be the largest Silicon strip detector ever built. The design, construction and expected performance of the CMS Tracker is reviewed in the following.

  5. An analysis of stripping to isolated analog resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, E.F.; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.

    1983-04-01

    The Feshbach projection formalism is used to calculate the form factors for the (d,n) stripping process to isolated analog resonances. These are used in a standard DWBA stripping calculation in which the radial integration over all space is accomplished by including outerspace contributions evaluated along the complex contours of Vincent and Fortune. It turns out that the shape and magnitude of the predicted cross section is quite insensitive to the continuum proton wave emanating from the resonant residual state. (Author) [pt

  6. Bismuth-based electrochemical stripping analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Method and apparatus for trace metal detection and analysis using bismuth-coated electrodes and electrochemical stripping analysis. Both anodic stripping voltammetry and adsorptive stripping analysis may be employed.

  7. Laser pulse stacking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  8. ATLAS Strips Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Miñano, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the LHC at CERN around 2020 by about an order of magnitude (SLHC). The ATLAS experiment will require a new particle tracking system for SLHC operation in order to cope with the increase in background events by about one order of magnitude at the higher luminosity. , an all silicon detector with enhanced radiation hardness is being designed. A massive R&D programme, involving many particles physics groups and several leadings manufacturers of silicon detectors for particle physics, is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In this framework new sensor materials like p-type silicon and the 3D technology are investigated. In parallel, the SCT commissioning experience has taught us to look into alternative module concepts, in which higher levels of integration are combined with the modularity of the SCT approach. We will report on the status of the R&D projects on radiation hard silicon strip detectors for particle physics, link...

  9. ATLAS Strip Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A phased upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is planned. The last upgrade phase (HL-LHC) is currently foreseen in 2022-2023. It aims to increase the integrated luminosity to about ten times the original LHC design luminosity. To cope with the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation dose expected during HL-LHC operation, the ATLAS collaboration is developing technologies for a complete tracker replacement. This new detector will need to provide extreme radiation hardness and a high granularity, within the tight constraints imposed by the existing detectors and their services. An all-silicon high-granularity tracking detector is proposed. An international R&D collaboration is working on the strip layers for this new tracker. A number of large area prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers have been designed and fabricated for use at HL-LHC. These prototype detectors and miniature test detectors have been irradiated to a set of fluences matched to HL-LHC expectatio...

  10. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  11. Anodic stripping voltammetry of antimony using gold nanoparticle-modified carbon screen-printed electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Renedo, Olga; Arcos Martinez, M. Julia

    2007-01-01

    Carbon screen-printed electrodes (CSPE) modified with gold nanoparticles present an interesting alternative in the determination of antimony using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Metallic gold nanoparticles deposits have been obtained by direct electrochemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy measurements show that the electrochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles are deposited in aggregated form. Any undue effects caused by the presence of foreign ions in the solution were also analyzed to ensure that common interferents in the determination of antimony by ASV. The detection limit for Sb(III) obtained was 9.44 x 10 -10 M. In terms of reproducibility, the precision of the above mentioned method in %R.S.D. values was calculated at 2.69% (n = 10). The method was applied to determine levels of antimony in seawater samples and pharmaceutical preparations

  12. PULSE COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  13. Nuclear fuel element containing strips of an alloyed Zr, Ti, and Ni getter material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Packard, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an alloy having the essential components of nickel, titanium and zirconium, and the alloy reacts with water, water vapor and reactive gases at reactor ambient temperatures. The alloy is disposed in the plenum of the fuel element in the form of strips and preferably the strips are positioned inside a helical member in the plenum. The position of the alloy strips permits gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact and react with the alloy strips. (U.S.)

  14. Optical strip waveguide: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogusu, K; Kawakami, S; Nishida, S

    1979-03-15

    An analysis of the strip waveguide is presented with special emphasis on reflection and transmission of a wave obliquely incident on the side of a strip. Mode conversion and the contribution of radiation modes are taken into account in the formulation. The numerical results of the mode conversion and attenuation constant of the fundamental leaky mode are presented and compared with the results of other authors. The numerical accuracy of our analysis is also checked by two different procedures. It is found that the radiation modes have considerable effects on the waveguide characteristics.

  15. Comic Strips: A Study on the Teaching of Writing Narrative Texts to Indonesian EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, Fika; Anugerahwati, Mirjam

    2012-01-01

    Comic strips are proposed in the teaching of writing not only because of their appealing forms, but also due to their salient features as media to present content, organization and grammatical aspects of narrative texts. This study investigates the implementation of comic strips in teaching writing through a collaborative classroom action research…

  16. Coherent control of atoms and diatomic molecules with shaped ultrashort pulses; Manipulation coherente d'atomes et de molecules diatomiques avec des impulsions mises en forme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degert, J

    2002-12-15

    This thesis deals with the theoretical and experimental study of coherent control of atomic and molecular systems with shaped pulses. At first, we present several experiments of control of coherent transients in rubidium. These transients appear when a two-level system is excited by a perturbative chirped pulse, and are characterized by oscillations in the excited state population. For a strong chirp, we show that a phase step in the spectrum modifies the phase of the oscillations. Then, by direct analogy with Fresnel zone lens, we conceive a chirped pulse with a highly modulated amplitude, allowing to suppress destructive contributions to the population transfer. In a second set of experiments, we focus on quantum path interferences in two-photon transitions excited by linearly chirped pulses. Owing to the broad bandwidth of ultrashort pulses, sequential and direct excitation paths contribute to the excited state population. Oscillations resulting from interferences between these two paths are observed in atomic sodium. Moreover, we show that they are observable whatever the sign of chirp. Theoretically, we study the control of the predissociation of a benchmark diatomic molecule: NaI. Predissociation leads to matter wave interferences in the fragments distribution. First, we show that a suitably chosen probe pulse allows the observation of theses interferences. Next, using a sequence of control pulse inducing electronic transition, we demonstrate the possibility to manipulate fragment energy distribution. (author)

  17. Suppression of dark current radiation in step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy by the initial pulse-forming network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.-W.; Das, Indra J.; Ndlovu, Alois M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the initial pulse forming network (IPFN) on the suppression of dark current is investigated for a Siemens Primus accelerator. The dark current produces a spurious radiation, which is referred to as dark current radiation (DCR) in this study. In the step-and-shoot delivery of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the DCR could be of some concern for whole body dose along with leakage radiation through collimator jaws or multileaf collimator. By adjusting the IPFN-to-PFN ratio to >0.8, the DCR can be measured with an ion chamber during the 'PAUSE' state of the accelerator in the IMRT mode. For 15 MV x rays, the magnitude of the DCR is approximately equal to 0.7% of the dose at d max for a 10x10 cm 2 field. The DCR has a similar central axis depth dose as a 15 MV beam as determined from a water phantom scan. When the IPFN-to-PFN ratio is lowered to <0.8, no DCR is detected. For low energy x rays (6 MV), no DCR is detected regardless of the IPFN-to-PFN ratio. Although the DCR is studied only for the Siemens Primus model accelerator, the same precaution applies to other models of modern accelerators from other vendors. Due to the large number of field segments used in a step-and-shoot IMRT, it is imperative therefore, that dark current evaluation be part of machine commissioning and annual calibration for high-energy photon beams. Should DCR be detected, the medical physicist should work with a service engineer to rectify the problem. In view of DCR and whole body dose, low-energy photon beams are advisable for IMRT

  18. Influence of nanosized carbon forms on the properties and susceptibility of energy-saturated cobalt salt to a pulsed electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenkov, G. G.; Morozov, V. A.; Ilyushin, M. A.; Os'kin, I. A.; Bragin, V. A.; Kozlov, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of fullerenes and detonation nanodiamonds on the initiation of complex cobalt perchlorate by a nanosecond pulsed electron beam has been studied. The results on the thermal compatibility of experimental compositions in nonisothermal conditions have been presented.

  19. Buttock Lifting with Polypropylene Strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballivian Rico, José; Esteche, Atilio; Hanke, Carlos José Ramírez; Ribeiro, Ricardo Cavalcanti

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of gluteal suspension with polypropylene strips. Ninety healthy female patients between the ages of 20 and 50 years (mean, 26 years), who wished to remodel their buttocks from December 2004 to February 2013 were studied retrospectively. All 90 patients were treated with 2 strips of polypropylene on each buttock using the following procedures: 27 (30 %) patients were suspended with polypropylene strips; 63 (70 %) patients were treated with tumescent liposuction in the sacral "V", lower back, supragluteal regions, and flanks to improve buttocks contour (aspirated volume of fat from 350 to 800 cc); 16 (18 %) patients underwent fat grafting in the subcutaneous and intramuscular layers (up to 300 cc in each buttock to increase volume); 5 (6 %) patients received implants to increase volume; and 4 (4.4 %) patients underwent removal and relocation of intramuscular gluteal implants to improve esthetics. Over an 8-year period, 90 female patients underwent gluteal suspension surgeries. Good esthetic results without complications were obtained in 75 of 90 (84 %) cases. Complications occurred in 15 of 90 (16.6 %) patients, including strip removal due to postoperative pain in 1 (1.1 %) patient, and seroma in both subgluteal sulci in 3 (3.3 %) patients. The results of this study performed in 90 patients over 8 years showed that the suspension with polypropylene strips performed as a single procedure or in combination with other cosmetic methods helps to enhance and lift ptosed gluteal and paragluteal areas. This journal requires that the authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  20. Stability of flow over plates with porous suction strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, H. L.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper addresses the stability of two-dimensional, incompressible boundary-layer flow over plates with suction through porous strips. The mean flow is calculated using linearized triple-deck, closed-form solutions. The stability results of the triple-deck theory are shown to be in good agreement with those of the interacting boundary layers. Then different configurations of number, spacing, and mass flow rate through such porous strips are analyzed and compared with nonsimilar uniform-suction stability results from the point of view of applicability to laminar flow control.

  1. Pulse Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lawrence (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus and a computer-implemented method for generating pulses synchronized to a rising edge of a tachometer signal from rotating machinery are disclosed. For example, in one embodiment, a pulse state machine may be configured to generate a plurality of pulses, and a period state machine may be configured to determine a period for each of the plurality of pulses.

  2. Extraction of uranium: comparison of stripping with ammonia vs. strong acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldovan, B.; Grinbaum, B.; Efraim, A.

    2008-01-01

    Following extraction of uranium in the first stage of solvent extraction using a tertiary amine, typically Alamine 336, the stripping of the extracted uranium is accomplished either by use of an aqueous solution of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 /NH 4 OH or by strong-acid stripping using 400-500 g/L H 2 SO 4 . Both processes have their merits and determine the downstream processing. The classical stripping with ammonia is followed by addition of strong base, to precipitate ammonium uranyl sulfate (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (SO 4 ) 2 , which yields finally the yellow cake. Conversely, stripping with H 2 SO 4 , followed by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yields uranyl oxide as product. At the Cameco Key Lake operation, both processes were tested on a pilot scale, using a Bateman Pulsed Column (BPC). The BPC proved to be applicable to both processes. It met the process criteria both for extraction and stripping, leaving less than 1 mg/L of U 3 O 8 in the raffinate, and product solution had the required concentration of U 3 O 8 at high flux and reasonable height of transfer unit. In the Key Lake mill, each operation can be carried out in a single column. The main advantages of the strong-acid stripping over ammonia stripping are: (1) 60% higher flux in the extraction, (2) tenfold higher concentration of the uranium in the product solution, and (3) far more robust process, with no need of pH control in the stripping and no need to add acid to the extraction in order to keep the pH above the point of precipitation of iron compounds. The advantages of the ammoniacal process are easier stripping, that is, less stages needed to reach equilibrium and lower concentration of modifier needed to prevent the creation of a third phase. (authors)

  3. Beryllium and boron decoration form planar tetracoordinate carbon strips at the edge of BCN nanoribbons result in energy gap opposite variation and third-order nonlinear optical response improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minyi; Song, Jinshuai; Lu, Qianqian; Wei, Jing; Wu, Peng; Li, Chunsen

    2017-10-01

    Planar tetracoordinate carbon (ptC) with intriguing planar bond structure has triggered great attentions. In this work, B/Be-terminated decoration form armchair hybridized boron nitride and graphene nanoribbons with ptC structure (ptC-aBCNNRs) are investigated theoretically for third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) response by employing time-dependent density functional theory combined with sum-over-states method. Our calculations reveal Be and B decorated on ptC-aBCNNRs would result in opposite variation of energy gaps, and strongly enhance the NLO response in different third-order NLO processes. The strong third-order NLO response predicted for ptC-aBCNNRs is originated from the charge redistribution induced by ptC structure and hexagonal-BN ribbon insertion.

  4. The Las Vegas Strip as a Genuinely Invented Global Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortega

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Vegas, Nevada, is typically recognised as a place via a single urban gesture, that gesture being Las Vegas Boulevard, which is more commonly referred to as "The Strip". In constructing a thesis around the theme, "Here or There? Interconnections between the Global and the Local", one cannot ignore the invitation to discuss globalisation and its effects on a particular local fabric. For the purpose of this text, globalisation can be thought of as what Carmona et al describe as an intricate series of events leading to the world "becoming increasingly interconnected, with centralised decision making exploiting economies of scale and standardisation" (2003: 101. The centralised decision-making process for The Strip is evident in the strategy to develop individually themed casino resorts along Las Vegas Boulevard that respond to a competitive economy, thus creating a newly standardised landscape. If we also understand that globalisation can be thought of as the development of an interconnected world where economic, political and cultural boundaries can be easily crossed, this work can begin to define how the Las Vegas Strip is a genuinely invented global landscape. This paper addresses the "here-ness" as well as the "there-ness" of The Strip, while offering a dialectical framework for establishing a meaning of place by having 'there' placed 'here'. By employing semiological interpretations of real landscapes from around the globe (for example, Venturi et al, 1972, The Strip becomes a newly invented landscape of "simulations" (Baudrillard, 1988. As such, The Strip acts as a narrative that forms a unique place, opening the door to questions of authenticity and identity. This paper concludes by focusing on the question of "Here or There?" as an appropriate deviation from the assumed role that the post-modern landscape of the Las Vegas Strip plays. This work is intended to be a point of departure from the frequent criticism of the Las Vegas Strip as

  5. AIS/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Strip Casting: Anticipating New Routes To Steel Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Alan W. Camb; Prof. Anthony Rollett

    2001-08-31

    To determine the potential for strip casting in the steel industry and to develop the fundamental knowledge necessary to allow the role of strip casting in the modern steel industry to be understood. Based upon a study of carbon steel strip castings that were either produced for the program at British Steel or were received from a pre-commercial production machine, the following conclusions were made. Strip casting of carbon steels is technically feasible for sheet material from slightly less than 1 mm thick to 3 mm thick, and, assuming that it is economically viable, it will be first applied in carbon steel markets that do not require stringent surface quality or extensive forming. The potential of strip casting as a casting process to be developed for steel castings is very high as the cast strip has some very novel characteristics. Direct cast carbon strip has better surface quality, shape and profile than any other casting process currently available. The more rapidly solidified structure of direct cast strip tends to be strong with low ductility; however, with adequate thermal treatment, it is possible to develop a variety of properties from the same grade. The process is more amenable at this time to production tonnages per year of the order of 500,000 tons and as such will first find niche type applications. This technology is an additional technology for steel production and will be in addition to, rather than a replacement for, current casting machines.

  6. Photocurrent spectroscopy of cadmium sulfide/plastic, cadmium sulfide/glass, and zinc telluride/gallium arsenide hetero-pairs formed with pulsed-laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Krishna Prasad

    This dissertation presents photocurrent (PC) spectroscopy of thin-film cadmium sulfide (CdS) on plastic, CdS on glass, and zinc telluride (ZnTe) on gallium arsenide (GaAs) hetero-pairs. All samples have been prepared with pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) and the thesis is organized into three principal sections. The first section presents the PLD essentials and characterization of CdS thin films on transparent plastic substrates. The second part focuses on the exploitation of CdS films on glass to quench or modulate alternating photocurrent (APC) by additional constant blue light illumination. Finally, PC spectra modification of n-GaAs due to ZnTe PLD will be investigated. First, the merger of a transparent plastic substrate with thin-film CdS for photonic application was realized using low-temperature PLD, where low-temperature PLD means the substrates were not externally heated. Although plastic is not considered to be a favored substrate material for semiconductor thin-film formation, the deposited CdS film possessed good adhesion to the plastic substrates and showed a blue-shifted photosensitivity with peak at 2.54 eV. The CdS deposition rate was monitored at different laser fluences and the maximum rate was found at 2.68 J/cm2. The visualization of the surface using an atomic force microscope (AFM) revealed its mosaic structure and electron probe microanalysis showed that target composition was maintained in the film. The study of thickness distribution revealed that the film deposition area is significantly increased with increase in laser fluence. The achieved results demonstrate the capability of PLD to form novel heterostructures with appealing and useful technological properties such as plasticity and low weight. In the second part, APC control via blue light illumination employing thin-film PLD CdS on a glass is introduced. In fact, the APC driven through the CdS film in conjunction with bias was quenched when the sample was additionally illuminated with a

  7. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  8. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  9. Diffraction by a finite strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    A new approach is presented to diffraction problems involving plane strip barriers or slit apertures. These are problems that display the effects of multiple interacting edges. The approach taken here provides exact, compact solutions. The theory is introduced through a series of examples that are, in fact, the 'standard' problems of the subject, diffraction of a plane oblique wave by a slit, for example. In each case, the solutions are found to depend explicitly on a single 'special' function and its Fourier transform. These fundamental functions are described, with the emphasis placed on practical computational methods. The example problems are all couched in the language of acoustics.

  10. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Auger, F.; Sauvestre, J.E.; Marechal, F.; Ottini, S.; Alamanos, N.; Barbier, A.; Beaumel, D.; Bonnereau, B.; Charlet, D.; Clavelin, J.F.; Courtat, P.; Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Douet, R.; Engrand, M.; Ethvignot, T.; Gillibert, A.; Khan, E.; Lapoux, V.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lavergne, L.; Lebon, S.; Lelong, P.; Lesage, A.; Le Ven, V.; Lhenry, I.; Martin, J.M.; Musumarra, A.; Pita, S.; Petizon, L.; Pollacco, E.; Pouthas, J.; Richard, A.; Rougier, D.; Santonocito, D.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Sida, J.L.; Soulet, C.; Stutzmann, J.S.; Suomijaervi, T.; Szmigiel, M.; Volkov, P.; Voltolini, G.

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and analog channels of the array in one crate placed adjacent to the reaction chamber and fully remote controlled, including pulse visualization on oscilloscopes. A stand alone data acquisition system devoted to the MUST array has been developed. Isotope identification of light charged particles over the full energy range has been achieved, and the capability of the system to measure angular distributions of states populated in inverse kinematics reactions has been demonstrated

  11. Mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jie; Xu, Shanqing; Wen, Guilin; Xie, Yi Min

    2018-01-01

    In this study the mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip under opposite-sense bending was investigated. It was found that a simple crease, which led to the increase of the second moment of area, could significantly alter the overall mechanical behaviour of a thin strip, for example the peak moment could be increased by 100 times. The crease was treated as a cylindrical segment of a small radius. Parametric studies demonstrated that the geometry of the strip could stron...

  12. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  13. Optimizing the Stripping Procedure for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment faces a major challenge from the large amounts of data received while the LHC is running. The ability to sort this information in a useful manner is important for working groups to perform physics analyses. Both hardware and software triggers are used to decrease the data rate and then the stripping process is used to sort the data into streams and further into stripping lines. This project studies the hundreds of stripping lines to look for overlaps between them in order to make the stripping process more efficient.

  14. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric methods for determination of aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Aşangil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anodic behavior of aripiprazole (ARP was studied using electrochemical methods. Charge transfer, diffusion and surface coverage coefficients of adsorbed molecules and the number of electrons transferred in electrode mechanisms were calculated for quasi-reversible and adsorption-controlled electrochemical oxidation of ARP at 1.15 V versus Ag/AgCl at pH 4.0 in Britton–Robinson buffer (BR on glassy carbon electrode. Voltammetric methods for direct determination of ARP in pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological samples were developed. Linearity range is found as from 11.4 μM (5.11 mg/L to 157 μM (70.41 mg/L without stripping mode and it is found as from 0.221 μM (0.10 mg/L to 13.6 μM (6.10 mg/L with stripping mode. Limit of detection (LOD was found to be 0.11 μM (0.05 mg/L in stripping voltammetry. Methods were successfully applied to assay the drug in tablets, human serum and human urine with good recoveries between 95.0% and 104.6% with relative standard deviation less than 10%. Keywords: Adsorptive stripping voltammetry, Aripiprazole, Electrochemical behavior, Human serum and urine, Pharmaceuticals

  15. Efficient CH3 NH3 PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells Employing Nanostructured p-Type NiO Electrode Formed by a Pulsed Laser Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Seo, Jangwon; Park, Sangman; Shin, Seong Sik; Kim, Young Chan; Jeon, Nam Joong; Shin, Hee-Won; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Noh, Jun Hong; Yoon, Sung Cheol; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Seok, Sang Il

    2015-07-15

    Highly transparent and nanostructured nickel oxide (NiO) films through pulsed laser deposition are introduced for efficient CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite solar cells. The (111)-oriented nanostructured NiO film plays a key role in extracting holes and preventing electron leakage as hole transporting material. The champion device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 17.3% with a very high fill factor of 0.813. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. COMIC STRIPS:A STUDY ON THE TEACHING OF WRITING NARRATIVE TEXTS TO INDONESIAN EFL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fika Megawati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Comic strips are proposed in the teaching of writing not only because of their appealing forms, but also due to their salient features as media to present content, organization and grammatical aspects of narrative texts. This study investigates the implementation of comic strips in teaching writing through a collaborative classroom action research at MAN Bangil. The procedures included planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The results show that teaching writing using comic strips through Process-Genre Based Approach (PGBA could successfully improve students’ ability in writing. The findings also reveal that comic strips’ effective implementation requires proper stories as well as sufficient teacher’s guidance during the writing process.

  17. PULSE GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeschke, C.W.

    1957-09-24

    An improvement in pulse generators is described by which there are produced pulses of a duration from about 1 to 10 microseconds with a truly flat top and extremely rapid rise and fall. The pulses are produced by triggering from a separate input or by modifying the current to operate as a free-running pulse generator. In its broad aspect, the disclosed pulse generator comprises a first tube with an anode capacitor and grid circuit which controls the firing; a second tube series connected in the cathode circuit of the first tube such that discharge of the first tube places a voltage across it as the leading edge of the desired pulse; and an integrator circuit from the plate across the grid of the second tube to control the discharge time of the second tube, determining the pulse length.

  18. New strips of convergence for Dirichlet series

    OpenAIRE

    Defant, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this article we study the interplay of the theory of classical Dirichlet series in one complex variable with recent development on monomial expansions of holomorphic functions in infinitely many variables. For a given Dirichlet series we obtain new strips of convergence in the complex plane related to Bohr’s classical strips of uniform but non absolute convergence.

  19. Hardness of approximation for strip packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Kociumaka, Tomasz; Pilipczuk, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Strip packing is a classical packing problem, where the goal is to pack a set of rectangular objects into a strip of a given width, while minimizing the total height of the packing. The problem has multiple applications, for example, in scheduling and stock-cutting, and has been studied extensive...

  20. Mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip under opposite-sense bending was investigated. It was found that a simple crease, which led to the increase of the second moment of area, could significantly alter the overall mechanical behaviour of a thin strip, for example the peak moment could be increased by 100 times. The crease was treated as a cylindrical segment of a small radius. Parametric studies demonstrated that the geometry of the strip could strongly influence its flexural behaviour. We showed that the uniform thickness and the radius of the creased segment had the greatest and the least influence on the mechanical behaviour, respectively. We further revealed that material properties could dramatically affect the overall mechanical behaviour of the creased strip by gradually changing the material from being linear elastic to elastic-perfect plastic. After the formation of the fold, the moment of the two ends of the strip differed considerably when the elasto-plastic materials were used, especially for materials with smaller tangent modulus in the plastic range. The deformation patterns of the thin strips from the finite element simulations were verified by physical models made of thin metal strips. The findings from this study provide useful information for designing origami structures for engineering applications using creased thin strips.

  1. A compact nanosecond pulse modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jizhang; Xue, Jianchao; Qiang, Bohan

    Two circuits of nanosecond pulse modulator which generate two different width rectangular pulses respectively are described. The basic configuration of the modulator is the Marx circuit, in which avalanche transistors are used as switching devices. In order to obtain the rectangular pulses a pulse-forming network (PFN) is introduced and fitted into the Marx. A multi-parallel arrangement of the Marx is used to satisfy the broad pulse requirement. Experiments have shown that the two different width rectangular pulses which have 130 V amplitudes and 30 and 200 ns widths respectively can be obtained at a 50 ohms load. The two pulses have steep front edges (3.6 ns and 10 ns respectively) and flat tops with less than + or - 5 percent ripples. Therefore, the modulator can meet the requirements of the nanosecond pulse radar.

  2. DogPulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christoffer; Thomsen, Josephine Raun; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DogPulse, an ambient awareness system to support the coordination of dog walking among family members at home. DogPulse augments a dog collar and leash set to activate an ambient shape-changing lamp and visualize the last time the dog was taken for a walk. The lamp gradually...... changes its form and pulsates its lights in order to keep the family members aware of the dog walking activity. We report the iterative prototyping of DogPulse, its implementation and its preliminary evaluation. Based on our initial findings, we present the limitations and lessons learned as well...

  3. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Agram, Jean-Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), consisting of 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules and covering an area of 198 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly reconstruct the events recorded. Calibration constants are derived from different workflows, from promptly reconstructed events with particles as well as from commissioning events gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. The performance of the SST has been carefully studied since the beginning of data taking: the noise of the detector, data integrity, signal-over-noise ratio, hit reconstruction efficiency and resolution have been all investigated with time and for different conditions. In this paper we describe the reconstruction strategies, the calibration procedures and the detector performance results from the latest CMS operation.

  4. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Lewis, J.C.; McClung, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material [1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)], feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches [0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)] were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests

  5. Double peak electric field distortion in heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Vladimir; Roe, Shaun; Ruggiero, G; Verbitskaya, E

    2004-01-01

    Non-uniform distribution of the electric field outlined as double peak distortion (DPD) is considered for heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors, which were developed for the CERN-ATLAS semiconductor tracker. DPD originates from the non-uniform accumulation of electrons and holes from the bulk generated current that are captured by radiation induced defects: deep acceptors and donors with mid-gap energy levels. This corresponds to the formation of the low electric field region in the detector central part that consequently will delay charge collection. The electric field distributions at different reverse biases, fluences and detector operational temperatures are calculated using a one-dimensional Poisson equation as it was done earlier for pad detectors. It has been shown that due to the electric field focusing at the strips the DPD effect is more pronounced for strip detectors as compared to that in pad detectors. The double peak electric field distribution is evinced experimentally in current pulse res...

  6. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  7. Prototype Strip Barrel Modules for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The module design for the Phase II Upgrade of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC employs integrated low mass assembly using single-sided flexible circuits with readout ASICs and a powering circuit incorporating control and monitoring of HV, LV and temperature on the module. Both readout and powering circuits are glued directly onto the silicon sensor surface resulting in a fully integrated, extremely low radiation length module which simultaneously reduces the material requirements of the local support structure by allowing a reduced width stave structure to be employed. Such a module concept has now been fully demonstrated using so-called ABC130 and HCC130 ASICs fabricated in 130nm CMOS technology to readout ATLAS12 n+-in-p silicon strip sensors. Low voltage powering for these demonstrator modules has been realised by utilising a DCDC powerboard based around the CERN FEAST ASIC. This powerboard incorporates an HV multiplexing switch based on a Panasonic GaN transistor. Control and monitori...

  8. Aeroelastic deformation of a perforated strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttag, M.; Karimi, H. H.; Falcón, C.; Reis, P. M.

    2018-01-01

    We perform a combined experimental and numerical investigation into the static deformation of perforated elastic strips under uniform aerodynamic loading at high-Reynolds-number conditions. The static shape of the porous strips, clamped either horizontally or vertically, is quantified as they are deformed by wind loading, induced by a horizontal flow. The experimental profiles are compared to numerical simulations using a reduced model that takes into account the normal drag force on the deformed surface. For both configurations (vertical and horizontal clamping), we compute the drag coefficient of the strip, by fitting the experimental data to the model, and find that it decreases as a function of porosity. Surprisingly, we find that, for every value of porosity, the drag coefficients for the horizontal configuration are larger than those of the vertical configuration. For all data in both configurations, with the exception of the continuous strip clamped vertically, a linear relation is found between the porosity and drag. Making use of this linearity, we can rescale the drag coefficient in a way that it becomes constant as a function of the Cauchy number, which relates the force due to fluid loading on the elastic strip to its bending rigidity, independently of the material properties and porosity of the strip and the flow speed. Our findings on flexible strips are contrasted to previous work on rigid perforated plates. These results highlight some open questions regarding the usage of reduced models to describe the deformation of flexible structures subjected to aerodynamic loading.

  9. OPTIMAL ELECTROPORATION CONDITION FOR SPERM MEDIATED GENE TRANSFER IN STRIPPED CATFISH (Pangasionodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Roro Sri Pudji Sinarni Dewi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of transgenic fish production has been achieved through eggs fertilization using electroporated sperms carrying exogenous DNA. This study was conducted in order to obtain the optimal electroporation condition for stripped catfish sperm. A plasmid containing green fluorescent protein (GFP gene driven by carp β-actin promoter was transferred into sperm using electrophoresis method towards transgenic stripped catfish (Pangasionodon hypophthalmus production. Electroporation was carried out using square wave shock with pulse length of 30 ms and pulse interval of 0.1 sec. Treatments are combination between voltage (50 V, 75 V, and 100 V and pulse number (1 and 3. Exogenous DNA concentration used was 10 μg/mL of Tris-EDTA. Results showed that increasing the voltage from 50 to 100 decreased sperm motility, while pulse number did not affect sperm motility. Voltage of 50 gave the best motility of sperm, although sperm viability relatively similar between treatments and control except at 100 V with 3 pulses number. Further, electroporation-treated sperms were able to fertilize eggs. Higher hatching rate of eggs was obtained in electroporation treatment at 50 V with pulse number of 1 and 3. The persistence of transferred GFP was detected in electroporated and incubated sperms (control. However, GFP was only detected in larvae from eggs that were fertilized by electroporated sperm. Thus, electroporation could be applied to produce transgenic stripped catfish.

  10. The Strip Silicon Photo-Multiplier: An innovation for enhanced time and position measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroud, K., E-mail: Katayoun.Doroud@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Williams, M.C.S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Yamamoto, K. [Solid State Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2017-05-01

    There is considerable R&D concerning precise time measurement from a variety of detectors, and in particular for the Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM). In this paper we discuss a new geometry for the SiPM in the form of a strip. A strip can be read out at both end, with each end coupled to an individual TDC (time to digital converter). The time difference is related to the position of the firing SPAD along the length of the strip, while the average of the two times gives the time of the hit. Results from the testing of the first prototype Strip SiPMs are presented in this paper.

  11. Strip intercropping strategy for biomass to energy production while on the same time maintaining soil fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Erik Steen; Carter, Mette Sustmann

    2009-01-01

    ICROFS (www.icrofs.org) project titled “BioConcens” www.bioconcens.elr.dk/uk/) one objective is to design and test a strip intercropping concept. Strip intercropping (IC) is based upon general IC principles focusing on the management of plant interactions to maximize productivity and resource......In contrast to energy technologies like solar and wind, energy in the form of biomass can be stored and bioenergy produced when needed using a wide range of technologies. However, a substantial rise in the use of biomass for energy is expected, which means additional pressure on farmland...... crop biomass production during the two years will be presented together with initial conclusion on the interspecific competitive interactions between strips. Is it possible at this stage to identify advantages and possible drawbacks? And is the inclusion of a perennial grass-clover strip sufficient...

  12. Pulse Oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Thoracic Society www. thoracic. org American Thoracic Society PATIENT EDUCATION | INFORMATION SERIES How accurate is the pulse oximeter? The ... patient. co. uk/ doctor/ Pulse- Oximetry. htm This ... service of the American Thoracic Society. The content is for educational purposes only. It ...

  13. Electrochemical behavior of folic acid at calixarene based chemically modified electrodes and its determination by adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaze, Vishwanath D.; Srivastava, Ashwini K.

    2007-01-01

    Voltammetric behavior of folic acid at plain carbon paste electrode and electrode modified with calixarenes has been studied. Two peaks for irreversible oxidation were observed. Out of the three calixarenes chosen for modification of the electrodes, p-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene modified electrode (CME-6) was found to have better sensitivity for folic acid. Chronocoulometric and differential pulse voltammetric studies reveal that folic acid can assemble at CME-6 to form a monolayer whose electron transfer rate is 0.00273 s -1 with 2-electron/2-proton transfer for the peak at +0.71 V against SCE. An adsorption equilibrium constant of 5 x 10 3 l/mol for maximum surface coverage of 2.89 x 10 -10 mol/cm 2 was obtained. The current is found to be rectilinear with concentration by differential pulse voltammetry. However, linearity in the lower range of concentration 8.79 x 10 -12 M to 1.93 x 10 -9 M with correlation coefficient of 0.9920 was achieved by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The limit of detection obtained was found to be 1.24 x 10 -12 M. This method was used for the determination of folic acid in a variety of samples, viz. serum, asparagus, spinach, oranges and multivitamin preparations

  14. Electrochemical behavior of folic acid at calixarene based chemically modified electrodes and its determination by adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaze, Vishwanath D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India); Srivastava, Ashwini K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India)], E-mail: aksrivastava@chem.mu.ac.in

    2007-12-31

    Voltammetric behavior of folic acid at plain carbon paste electrode and electrode modified with calixarenes has been studied. Two peaks for irreversible oxidation were observed. Out of the three calixarenes chosen for modification of the electrodes, p-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene modified electrode (CME-6) was found to have better sensitivity for folic acid. Chronocoulometric and differential pulse voltammetric studies reveal that folic acid can assemble at CME-6 to form a monolayer whose electron transfer rate is 0.00273 s{sup -1} with 2-electron/2-proton transfer for the peak at +0.71 V against SCE. An adsorption equilibrium constant of 5 x 10{sup 3} l/mol for maximum surface coverage of 2.89 x 10{sup -10} mol/cm{sup 2} was obtained. The current is found to be rectilinear with concentration by differential pulse voltammetry. However, linearity in the lower range of concentration 8.79 x 10{sup -12} M to 1.93 x 10{sup -9} M with correlation coefficient of 0.9920 was achieved by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The limit of detection obtained was found to be 1.24 x 10{sup -12} M. This method was used for the determination of folic acid in a variety of samples, viz. serum, asparagus, spinach, oranges and multivitamin preparations.

  15. IAE pulsed electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, V.P.; Ganzhelyuk, M.L.; Kozlov, L.D.; Koltypin, E.A.; Molchanov, Yu.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    The modernized pulse electrostatic accelerator using the klystron ion grouping and the beam interruption system prior to acceleration is described. The accelerator is modernized in order to improve parameters of a current pulse and to decrease the background in the measurement room. The ion beam of needed dimensions is obtained with the help of a high-frequency source and a beam grouping and deflection system. The general view of the beam grouping and deflection system is shown. The ion beam forming process is considered in detail. The modernized electrostatic accelerator permits to obtain a pulse current with a pulse length of 1.5 ns and an amplitude of 1.5 - 2 μA. With the repetition frequency of 2 MHz, the average target current is about 6 μA

  16. A video strip chart program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    A strip chart recorder has been utilized for trend analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory EN tandem since 1987. At the EN, the author could not afford the nice eight channel thermal pen recorder that was used at the 25 URC. He had to suffice with two channel fiber tip or capillary pen type recorders retrieved from salvage and maintained with parts from other salvaged recorders. After cycling through several machines that eventually became completely unserviceable, a search for a new thermal recorder was begun. As much as he hates to write computer code, he decided to try his hand at getting an old data acquisition unit, that had been retrieved several years ago from salvage, to meet his needs. A BASIC language compiler was used because time was not available to learn a more advanced language. While attempting to increase acquisition and scroll speed on the 6 MHz 80286 that the code was first developed on, it became apparent that scrolling only the first small portion of the screen at high speed and then averaging that region and histogramming the average provided both the speed necessary for capturing fairly short duration events, and a trend record without use of back scrolling and disk storage routines. This turned out to be quite sufficient

  17. The Panda Strip Asic: Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, A.

    2018-01-01

    PASTA is the 64 channel front-end chip, designed in a 110 nm CMOS technology to read out the strip sensors of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. This chip provides high resolution timestamp and deposited charge information by means of the time-over-threshold technique. Its working principle is based on a predecessor, the TOFPET ASIC, that was designed for medical applications. A general restructuring of the architecture was needed, in order to meet the specific requirements imposed by the physics programme of PANDA, especially in terms of radiation tolerance, spatial constraints, and readout in absence of a first level hardware trigger. The first revision of PASTA is currently under evaluation at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, where a data acquisition system dedicated to the MVD prototypes has been developed. This paper describes the main aspect of the chip design, gives an overview of the data acquisition system used for the verification, and shows the first results regarding the performance of PASTA.

  18. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  19. Foundations of pulsed power technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lehr, Janet

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed power technologies could be an answer to many cutting-edge applications. The challenge is in how to develop this high-power/high-energy technology to fit current market demands of low-energy consuming applications. This book provides a comprehensive look at pulsed power technology and shows how it can be improved upon for the world of today and tomorrow. Foundations of Pulsed Power Technology focuses on the design and construction of the building blocks as well as their optimum assembly for synergetic high performance of the overall pulsed power system. Filled with numerous design examples throughout, the book offers chapter coverage on various subjects such as: Marx generators and Marx-like circuits; pulse transformers; pulse-forming lines; closing switches; opening switches; multi-gigawatt to multi-terawatt systems; energy storage in capacitor banks; electrical breakdown in gases; electrical breakdown in solids, liquids and vacuum; pulsed voltage and current measurements; electromagnetic interferen...

  20. Prevention of Stripping under Chip Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Eighteen chip-sealed roadways in eight cities and counties in Minnesota were evaluated both in the field (for condition surveys and density tests) and in the laboratory (for permeability, stripping, tensile-strength ratio, asphalt film thickness, and...

  1. Buffer Strips for Riparian Zone Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This study provides a review of technical literature concerning the width of riparian buffer strips needed to protect water quality and maintain other important values provided by riparian ecosystem...

  2. Temperature Profile of the Duracell Test Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viiri, Jouni; Kettunen, Lasse

    1996-01-01

    Presents the temperature profile of the Duracell Test Strip obtained using a Inframetrics 740 thermal imaging radiometer and ThermaGRAM95 software and compares this to the theoretical profile derived by Clark and Bonicamp. (JRH)

  3. Treatment Pulse Application for Magnetic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Seob Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment and diagnosis can be made in difficult areas simply by changing the output pulse form of the magnetic stimulation device. However, there is a limitation in the range of treatments and diagnoses of a conventional sinusoidal stimulation treatment pulse because the intensity, width, and form of the pulse must be changed according to the lesion type. This paper reports a multidischarge method, where the stimulation coils were driven in sequence via multiple switching control. The limitation of the existing simple sinusoidal pulse form could be overcome by changing the intensity, width, and form of the pulse. In this study, a new sequential discharge method was proposed to freely alter the pulse width. The output characteristics of the stimulation treatment pulse were examined according to the trigger signal delay applied to the switch at each stage by applying a range of superposition pulses to the magnetic simulation device, which is widely used in industry and medicine.

  4. Deuteron stripping reactions using dirac phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, E. A.; McNeil, J. A.

    2001-04-01

    In this work deuteron stripping reactions are studied using the distorted wave born approximation employing dirac phenomenological potentials. In 1982 Shepard and Rost performed zero-range dirac phenomenological stripping calculations and found a dramatic reduction in the predicted cross sections when compared with similar nonrelativistic calculations. We extend the earlier work by including full finite range effects as well as the deuteron's internal D-state. Results will be compared with traditional nonrelativistic approaches and experimental data at low energy.

  5. The charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, T.; Hubbeling, L.; Weilhammer, P.; Kemmer, J.; Koetz, U.; Riebesell, M.; Belau, E.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.; Neugebauer, E.; Seebrunner, H.J.; Wylie, A.

    1983-02-01

    The charge collection in silicon detectors has been studied, by measuring the response to high-energy particles of a 20μm pitch strip detector as a function of applied voltage and magnetic field. The results are well described by a simple model. The model is used to predict the spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors and to propose a detector with optimized spatial resolution. (orig.)

  6. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stripping system. 157.128 Section... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping system. (a) Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or § 157.10c(b)(2...

  7. Quantitative comparison of 3 enamel-stripping devices in vitro: how precisely can we strip teeth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, Alexander Marc; Pandis, Nikolaos; Dudic, Alexander; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2013-04-01

    In this in-vitro study, we aimed to investigate the predictability of the expected amount of stripping using 3 common stripping devices on premolars. One hundred eighty extracted premolars were mounted and aligned in silicone. Tooth mobility was tested with Periotest (Medizintechnik Gulden, Modautal, Germany) (8.3 ± 2.8 units). The selected methods for interproximal enamel reduction were hand-pulled strips (Horico, Hapf Ringleb & Company, Berlin, Germany), oscillating segmental disks (O-drive-OD 30; KaVo Dental, Biberach, Germany), and motor-driven abrasive strips (Orthofile; SDC Switzerland, Lugano-Grancia, Switzerland). With each device, the operator intended to strip 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mm on the mesial side of 15 teeth. The teeth were scanned before and after stripping with a 3-dimensional laser scanner. Superposition and measurement of stripped enamel on the most mesial point of the tooth were conducted with Viewbox software (dHal Software, Kifissia, Greece). The Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were applied; statistical significance was set at alpha ≤ 0.05. Large variations between the intended and the actual amounts of stripped enamel, and between stripping procedures, were observed. Significant differences were found at 0.1 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.05) for the hand-pulled method and at 0.4 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.001 to P = 0.05) for all methods. For all scenarios of enamel reduction, the actual amount of stripping was less than the predetermined and expected amount of stripping. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed no significant differences between the 3 methods. There were variations in the stripped amounts of enamel, and the stripping technique did not appear to be a significant predictor of the actual amount of enamel reduction. In most cases, actual stripping was less than the intended amount of enamel reduction. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  8. Snap-buckling in asymmetrically constrained elastic strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Tomohiko G.; Wada, Hirofumi

    2018-01-01

    When a flat elastic strip is compressed along its axis, it is bent in one of two possible directions via spontaneous symmetry breaking, forming a cylindrical arc. This is a phenomenon well known as Euler buckling. When this cylindrical section is pushed in the other direction, the bending direction can suddenly reverse. This instability is called "snap-through buckling" and is one of the elementary shape transitions in a prestressed thin structure. Combining experiments and theory, we study snap-buckling of an elastic strip with one end hinged and the other end clamped. These asymmetric boundary constraints break the intrinsic symmetry of the strip, generating mechanical behaviors, including largely hysteretic but reproducible force responses and switchlike discontinuous shape changes. We establish the set of exact analytical solutions to fully explain all our major experimental and numerical findings. Asymmetric boundary conditions arise naturally in diverse situations when a thin object is in contact with a solid surface at one end. The introduction of asymmetry through boundary conditions yields new insight into complex and programmable functionalities in material and industrial design.

  9. HST IMAGING OF DUST STRUCTURES AND STARS IN THE RAM PRESSURE STRIPPED VIRGO SPIRALS NGC 4402 AND NGC 4522: STRIPPED FROM THE OUTSIDE IN WITH DENSE CLOUD DECOUPLING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, A.; Kenney, J.; Crowl, H.; Tal, T.

    2016-01-01

    magnetic fields could bind together gas of different densities, causing nearby gas of different densities to be stripped at the same rate and creating the large, coherent dust ridges and upturns. A number of factors likely play roles in determining what types of structures form as a result of ram pressure, including ram pressure strength and history, the location within the galaxy relative to the leading side, and pre-existing substructure in the ISM that may be bound together by magnetic fields during stripping.

  10. Electromagnetic pulses, localized and causal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekner, John

    2018-01-01

    We show that pulse solutions of the wave equation can be expressed as time Fourier superpositions of scalar monochromatic beam wave functions (solutions of the Helmholtz equation). This formulation is shown to be equivalent to Bateman's integral expression for solutions of the wave equation, for axially symmetric solutions. A closed-form one-parameter solution of the wave equation, containing no backward-propagating parts, is constructed from a beam which is the tight-focus limit of two families of beams. Application is made to transverse electric and transverse magnetic pulses, with evaluation of the energy, momentum and angular momentum for a pulse based on the general localized and causal form. Such pulses can be represented as superpositions of photons. Explicit total energy and total momentum values are given for the one-parameter closed-form pulse.

  11. Dynamic Characterizations of an 8-frame Half-Strip High-speed X-ray Microchannel Plate Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Moy, Ming Wu, Craig Kruschwitz, Aric Tibbits, Matt Griffin, Greg Rochau

    2008-09-05

    High-speed microchannel plate (MCP)–based imagers are critical detectors for x-ray diagnostics employed on Z-experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to measure time-resolved x-ray spectra and to image dynamic hohlraums. A multiframe design using eight half strips in one imager permits recordings of radiation events in discrete temporal snapshots to yield a time-evolved movie. We present data using various facilities to characterize the performance of this design. These characterization studies include DC and pulsed-voltage biased measurements in both saturated and linear operational regimes using an intense, short-pulsed UV laser. Electrical probe measurements taken to characterize the shape of the HV pulse propagating across the strips help to corroborate the spatial gain dependence.

  12. Dynamic Characterizations of an 8-frame, Half-Strip, High-speed X-ray Microchannel Plate Imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken Moy; Ming Wu; Craig Kruschwitz; Aric Tibbits; Matt Griffin; Greg Rochau

    2008-01-01

    High-speed microchannel plate (MCP)-based imagers are critical detectors for x-ray diagnostics employed on Z-experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to measure time-resolved x-ray spectra and to image dynamic hohlraums. A multiframe design using eight half strips in one imager permits recordings of radiation events in discrete temporal snapshots to yield a time-evolved movie. We present data using various facilities to characterize the performance of this design. These characterization studies include DC and pulsed-voltage biased measurements in both saturated and linear operational regimes using an intense, short-pulsed UV laser. Electrical probe measurements taken to characterize the shape of the HV pulse propagating across the strips help to corroborate the spatial gain dependence

  13. GENERATION OF THE AUSTRALIAN GEOGRAPHIC REFERENCE IMAGE THROUGH LONG-STRIP ALOS PRISM ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ravanbakhsh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Geographic Reference Image (AGRI is a national satellite image mosaic that covers the vast Australian continent. Formed from 9560 ALOS PRISM images, AGRI provides a spatially correct reference image at 2.5 m resolution, with 1-pixel accuracy. The production of AGRI was made feasible by the development and implementation of a long-strip adjustment technique that facilitated a refinement in the georeferencing process of orbit and attitude parameters for orbital segments comprising 50 or more images. The strip of images is effectively treated as a single image. The ground control requirements for such full-pass georeferencing, which does not require the measurement of tie or pass points, amount to only 4–8 GCPs for the complete strip rather than 4 or more per image within the strip. Once the adjusted orbit parameters are obtained, the georeferencing and orthorectification process can revert to a fully automatic image-by-image computation. This paper first overviews AGRI and then describes the longstrip adjustment technique that made its production possible. Testing and validation are then discussed via the example of the georeferencing of a 1527 km single strip of 55 PRISM images. The testing phase verified that 1-pixel accuracy georeferencing could be achieved with the long-strip adjustment approach, and in the production of AGRI accuracy checks against 2460 checkpoints yielded an RMS discrepancy of close to 2.5 m and a 90% Circular Error (CEP90 of 5.5 m.

  14. FAST DISSOLVING THIN STRIPS: AN EMERGING WAY FOR ORAL DRUG DELIVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali Joshi* and Ganesh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Various pharmaceutical dosage form are present in the market but all of the dosage forms possess some drawback most common is patient incompliance which is seen in all age groups. So from last few years focus is done on developing such dosage form which enhances safety, efficacy and patient compliance. In this manner, in late 1970 fast-dissolving drug delivery system came in existence which includes Fast dissolving tablets and fast dissolving thin strips means those dosage form which dissolve...

  15. A digital X-ray imaging system based on silicon strip detectors working in edge-on configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolanos, L. [CEADEN, Calle 30 502 e/ 5ta y 7ma Avenida, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Boscardin, M. [IRST, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, Povo, 38100 Trento (Italy); Cabal, A.E. [CEADEN, Calle 30 502 e/ 5ta y 7ma Avenida, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Diaz, M. [InSTEC, Ave. Salvador Allende esq. Luaces, Quinta de los Molinos, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Grybos, P.; Maj, P. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Prino, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Ramello, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via T. Michel 11, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: luciano.ramello@mfn.unipmn.it; Szczygiel, R. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2009-09-21

    We present the energy resolution and imaging performance of a digital X-ray imaging system based on a 512-strip silicon strip detector (SSD) working in the edge-on configuration. The SSDs tested in the system are 300 {mu}m thick with 1 or 2-cm-long strips and 100 {mu}m pitch. To ensure a very small dead area of the SSD working in edge-on configuration, the detector is cut perpendicular to the strips at a distance of only 20 {mu}m from the end of the strips. The 512-strip silicon detector is read out by eight 64-channel integrated circuits called DEDIX [Grybos et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-54 (2007) 1207]. The DEDIX IC operates in a single photon counting mode with two independent amplitude discriminators per channel. The readout electronic channel connected to a detector with effective input capacitance of about 2 pF has an average equivalent noise charge (ENC) of about 163 el. rms and is able to count 1 Mcps of average rate of input pulses. The system consisting of 512 channels has an excellent channel-to-channel uniformity-the effective threshold spread calculated to the charge-sensitive amplifier inputs is 12 el. rms (at one sigma level). With this system a few test images of a phantom have been taken in the 10-30 keV energy range.

  16. Prediction of limits of lubrication in strip reduction testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2004-01-01

    Pick-up and galling due to lubricant film breakdown is a severe limitation in cold forming of tribologically difficult metals like stainless steel and aluminium. The present paper describes a method of combined experimental and numerical analysis to quantify the limits of lubrication in a dedicated...... simulative strip reduction test. The limit of lubrication is quantified as the threshold drawing length before galling occurs. A numerical model of the test is established calculating tool/work piece interface temperatures and normal pressures. Identifying a critical maximum value of the interface...

  17. Container lid gasket protective strip for double door transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jr., Burgess M

    2013-02-19

    An apparatus and a process for forming a protective barrier seal along a "ring of concern" of a transfer container used with double door systems is provided. A protective substrate is supplied between a "ring of concern" and a safety cover in which an adhesive layer of the substrate engages the "ring of concern". A compressive foam strip along an opposite side of the substrate engages a safety cover such that a compressive force is maintained between the "ring of concern" and the adhesive layer of the substrate.

  18. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Casaburi, A; Zen, N; Ohkubo, M

    2015-01-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2–5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications. (paper)

  19. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U.

    2006-04-01

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  20. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  1. Initial solidification phenomena: Factors affecting heat transfer in strip casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolli, Paolo

    In the last few years a few companies have announced the final stage of the commercial development of strip casting of steels. In strip casting heat extraction and productivity are limited by the thermal resistance at the interface between processed material and moving mold (rolls for twin-roll strip casters). Among many factors influencing interfacial heat transfer, films of various composition, either formed during casting or deposited before casting on the surface of the rolls, melt superheat and gas atmosphere composition can have a significantly positive or negative effect on the achieved heat transfer rate. From an industrial point view, methods to improve interfacial heat transfer rates must be found, in order to increase productivity. The objective of this research project is to assess if it is feasible to improve heat transfer rates during solidification of steel in direct contact with a copper mold: (1) by the application of thin coatings on the mold surface; (2) by adding a reactive gas species containing sulfur in the gas shrouding where casting is performed. To address the former, solidification experiments were performed with the mold surface either kept uncoated or coated with coatings of different compositions. To address the latter, the experiments were performed in gas shrouding atmospheres with or without sulphydric acid. It was observed that the resulting heat extraction rates were improved by the application of certain coatings and by the addition of H2S to the gas atmosphere. These findings prove that the application of coatings and the use of small amounts of reactive gaseous species containing sulfur may be methods to increase productivity in strip casting. The effect of superheat and the effect of naturally deposited oxides (Mn-oxide) were also evaluated experimentally. A numerical study of the effect of the critical undercooling on the productivity of a twin-roll strip caster showed that the maximum allowable casting speed can be increased

  2. Tandem strip mill's multi-parameter coupling dynamic modeling based on the thickness control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Jianliang; Zang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    The rolling process is determined by the interaction of a number of different movements, during which the relative movement occurs between the vibrating roll system and the rolled piece, and the roll system's vibration interacts with the strip's deformation and rigid movement. So many parameters being involved leads to a complex mechanism of this coupling effect. Through testing and analyzing the vibration signals of the mill in the rolling process, the rolling mill's coupled model is established with comprehensive consideration of the coupling interaction between the mill's vertical vibration, its torsional vibration and the working roll's horizontal vibration, and vibration characteristics of different forms of rolling mill's vibration are analyzed under the coupling effect. With comprehensive attention to the relationship between the roll system, the moving strip and the rolling parameters' dynamic properties, and also from the strip thickness control point of view, further research is done on the coupling mechanism between the roll system's movement and the moving strip's characteristics in the rolling process. As a result, the law of inertial coupling and the stiffness coupling effect caused by different forms of the roll system's vibration is determined and the existence of nonlinear characteristics caused by the elastic deformation of moving strip is also found. Furthermore, a multi-parameter coupling-dynamic model is established which takes the tandem strip mill as its research object by making a detailed kinematics analysis of the roll system and using the principle of virtual work. The coupling-dynamic model proposes the instruction to describe the roll system's movement, and analyzes its dynamic response and working stability, and provides a theoretical basis for the realization of the strip thickness' dynamic control.

  3. Analysis of 'Coma strip' galaxy redshift catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klypin, A.A.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Lebedev, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    We present results of the analysis of a galaxy redshift catalog made at the 6-m telescope by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1990. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 243, 390). The catalog covers a long narrow strip on the sky (10 arcmin by 63 0 ) and lists 283 galaxies up to limiting blue magnitude m B = 17.6. The strip goes through the core of Coma cluster and this is called the 'Coma strip' catalog. The catalog is almost two times deeper than the CfA redshift survey and creates the possibility of studying the galaxy distribution on scales of 100-250 Mpc. Due to the small number of galaxies in the catalog, we were able to estimate only very general and stable parameters of the distribution. (author)

  4. Pulse plating

    CERN Document Server

    Hansal, Wolfgang E G; Green, Todd; Leisner, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The electrodeposition of metals using pulsed current has achieved practical importance in recent years. Although it has long been known that changes in potential, with or without polarity reversal, can significantly affect the deposition process, the practical application of this has been slow to be adopted. This can largely be explained in terms of the complex relationship between the current regime and its effect on the electrodeposition process. In order to harness these effects, an understanding of the anodic and cathodic electrochemical processes is necessary, together with the effects of polarity reversal and the rate of such reversals. In this new monograph, the basics of metal electrodeposition from solution are laid out in great detail in seven distinct chapters. With this knowledge, the reader is able to predict how a given pulse train profile can be adopted to achieve a desired outcome. Equally important is the choice of a suitable rectifier and the ancillary control circuits to enable pulse platin...

  5. Investigation of HV/HR-CMOS technology for the ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Grillo, A. A.; Liang, Z.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Seiden, A.; Volk, J.; Affolder, A.; Buckland, M.; Meng, L.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; McMahon, S.; Nickerson, R.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.; Vigani, L.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Kanisauskas, K.; Maneuski, D.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Grenier, P.; Kenney, C.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Turchetta, R.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Ehrler, F.; Peric, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Stanitzki, M.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Seidel, S.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Wang, R.; Zhang, J.; Warren, M.; Song, W.; Xiu, Q.; Zhu, H.

    2016-09-01

    ATLAS has formed strip CMOS project to study the use of CMOS MAPS devices as silicon strip sensors for the Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade. This choice of sensors promises several advantages over the conventional baseline design, such as better resolution, less material in the tracking volume, and faster construction speed. At the same time, many design features of the sensors are driven by the requirement of minimizing the impact on the rest of the detector. Hence the target devices feature long pixels which are grouped to form a virtual strip with binary-encoded z position. The key performance aspects are radiation hardness compatibility with HL-LHC environment, as well as extraction of the full hit position with full-reticle readout architecture. To date, several test chips have been submitted using two different CMOS technologies. The AMS 350 nm is a high voltage CMOS process (HV-CMOS), that features the sensor bias of up to 120 V. The TowerJazz 180 nm high resistivity CMOS process (HR-CMOS) uses a high resistivity epitaxial layer to provide the depletion region on top of the substrate. We have evaluated passive pixel performance, and charge collection projections. The results strongly support the radiation tolerance of these devices to radiation dose of the HL-LHC in the strip tracker region. We also describe design features for the next chip submission that are motivated by our technology evaluation.

  6. Wokker. Notes on a Surrealist comic strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sabin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the creation and development of a British comic strip, Wokker (1971-1999, and its connections with the surrealist movement. Although the strip is remarkable for its content and formalist properties, it remains obscure both because of its publishing circumstances, and because it does not fit easily into a history of comics. Rather it can be argued that its conceptual roots can be traced to the artistic ferment that happened in Paris in the 1920s (with Breton as a key reference point, and that it represents a very English, and late-flowering, example of the surrealist idea.

  7. slice of LEP beamtube with getter strip

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    A section of the LEP beam pipe. This is the chamber in which LEP's counter-rotating electron and positron beams travel. It is made of lead-clad aluminium. The beams circulate in the oval cross-section part of the chamber. In the rectangular cross-section part, LEP's innovative getter-strip vacuum pump is installed. After heating to purify the surface of the getter, the strip acts like molecular sticky tape, trapping any stray molecules left behind after the accelerator's traditional vacuum pumps have done their job.

  8. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  9. Silicon strip detectors for the LHCb experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Steinkamp, O

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a single-arm magnetic spectrometer. Silicon micro-strip detectors are employed in a significant fraction of the tracking system. The Vertex Locator consists of 21 detector stations that operate inside the LHC beam pipe and are separated from the beam vacuum by a thin aluminium foil. The Silicon Tracker is a large-surface silicon micro-strip detector that covers the full acceptance of the experiment in a single tracking station upstream of the spectrometer magnet and the...

  10. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Boudoul, Gaelle

    2011-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) of the CMS experiment is, with 9.6 million readout channels, the largest strip tracker ever built. In order to correctly interpret and reconstruct the events recorded it needs to be precisely calibrated, thus ensuring that it fully contributes to the physics research program of the CMS experiment. In 2009 and 2010, the performance of the SST has been carefully studied using cosmic muons and tracks from proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 900 GeV, 2.36 TeV and 7 TeV. In this paper, we present some results of the detector performance.

  11. Test strip and method for its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test strip device is described which is useful in performing binding assays involving antigens, antibodies, hormones, vitamins, metabolites or pharmacological agents. The device is capable of application to analytical methods in which a set of sequential test reactions is involved and in which a minute sample size may be used. This test strip is particularly useful in radioimmunoassays. The use of the device is illustrated in radioimmunoassays for 1) thyroxine in serum, 2) the triiodothyronine binding capacity of serum and 3) folic acid and its analogues in serum. (U.K.)

  12. Determining the dynamic range of MCPs based on pore size and strip current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C.; Adrian, M. L.; Herrero, F.; James, P.; Jones, H. H.; Rodriguez, M.; Roman, P.; Shappirio, M.

    2010-12-01

    Micro-Channel Plates (MCPs) are used as detectors for almost all detectors measuring particles (both ions, electrons and neutrals) below 30 keV. Recent advances in the manufacturing technology of the MCPs have increased the number of options one has when selecting plates for an instrument. But it is not clear how many of these options affect the performance of the MCPs. In particular the dynamic range is not a clear cut calculation to make from the strip current. There is also some evidence that pore size and coating play a role. We measured the dynamic range and pulse height distribution of MCPs detector chevron stacks with a wide variety of strip currents from the low “normal” range in the EDR range. We also looked at the effects of varying the pore size from 25 microns to 10 microns, partial plating of the MCP surface and coating one surface on each MCP with gold rather than the standard zinc chromium. We will show how the dynamic range and pulse height distributions vary vs. strip current, pore size, and surface plating configurations.

  13. Flow over plates with suction through porous strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Reed, H. L.; Ragab, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper addresses the steady, incompressible, two-dimensional flow past a flat plate with suction through porous strips. Closed-form solutions for each flow quantity are developed in the context of linearized triple-deck theory using Fourier transforms. To demonstrate the validity of these closed-form solutions, we compare the wall shear stress and pressure coefficients and the streamwise velocity profiles from the linearized theory with those obtained by the numerical integration of both interacting and nonsimilar boundary-layer equations. The agreement between the linearized triple-deck and interacting boundary-layer equations is good; however, the nonsimilar boundary layers, which fail to account for upstream influence, are shown to be in poor agreement with both interacting boundary layers and the linearized triple deck. The linearized closed-form solutions will therefore be very useful in future stability calculations.

  14. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  15. Theoretical model and computacional procedure to evaluate the NSM FRP strips shear strength contribution to a RC beam

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Joaquim A. O.; Bianco, V.; Monti, G.

    2011-01-01

    Documento submetido para revisão pelos pares. A publicar em Journal of Structural Engineering. ISSN 0733-9445 This paper presents a closed-form procedure to evaluate the shear strength contribution provided to a Reinforced Concrete (RC) beam by a system of Near Surface Mounted (NSM) Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) strips. This procedure is based on the evaluation of: a) the constitutive law of the average-available-bond-length NSM FRP strip effectively crossing the shear crack and ...

  16. The CMS silicon strip tracker and its electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, CH) will be the world's biggest accelerator machine when operation starts in 2006. One of its four detector experiments is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), consisting of a large-scale silicon tracker and electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters, all embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field of 4 T, and a muon system surrounding the magnet coil. The Silicon Strip Tracker has a sensitive area of 206m 2 with 10 million analog channels which are read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. The building blocks of the CMS Tracker are the silicon sensors, APV amplifier ASICs, supporting front-end ASICs, analog and digital optical links as well as data processors and control units in the back-end. Radiation tolerance, readout speed and the huge data volume are challenging requirements. The charge collection in silicon detectors was modeled, which is discussed as well as the concepts of readout amplifiers with respect to the LHC requirements, including the deconvolution method of fast pulse shaping, electronic noise constraints and radiation effects. Moreover, extensive measurements on prototype components of the CMS Tracker and different versions of the APV chip in particular were performed. There was a significant contribution to the construction of several detector modules, characterized them in particle beam tests and quantified radiation induced effects on the APV chip and on silicon detectors. In addition, a prototype of the analog optical link and the analog performance of the back-end digitization unit were evaluated. The results are very encouraging, demonstrating the feasibility of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker system and motivating progress towards the construction phase. (author)

  17. KRITIK SOSIAL DALAM KOMIK STRIP PAK BEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhi Novriansyah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to do interpret the marking which flange social criticism and know laboring ideology in story of Comic Strip Pak Bei. Research based on theory of structural semiotic according to Ferdinand De Saussure. Using analysis of Syntagmatic as first level of meaning to the text network and also picture, and analysis of Paradigmatic as second level of meaning or implicit meaning (connota-tion, myth, ideology Analysis done to six Comic choice edition of Strip Pak Bei period of November 2004 - Februari 2005 which tend to flange social criticism. At band of syntagmatic, result of research indicate that story theme lifted from social problems that happened in major society. The fact clear progressively when connected by Intertextual with information and texts which have preexisted. At band of Paradigmatic, social criticism tend to emerge dimly, is not transparent. Because of Comic Strip Pak Bei expand in the middle of Java cultural domination that developing myth of criticize as action menacing compatibility and orderliness of society. Story of Comic Strip Pak Bei also confirm dominant ideology in Java society culture, namely ideology of Patriarkhi and Feudalism which still go into effect until now. This prove ideology idea according to Louis Althusser which not again opposition between class, but have been owned and practiced by all social class.

  18. Trees for strip-mined lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Hart; William R. Byrnes

    1960-01-01

    Open-pit or strip mining has become an important method of mining bituminous coal in Pennsylvania. In 1958 some 19.5 million tons of soft coal - 29 percent of the total bituminous production in the State - were produced by this method.

  19. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose is...... the social supervisory system of a mature market economy. Originality/value – The paper contributes to the knowledge about asset stripping by documenting and analysing the phenomenon in a mature market economy context.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose...... is to analyse why the asset-stripping schemes occurred in a mature market economy with a strong corporate governance system and a low level of corruption. Design/methodology/approach – The research is conducted as a longitudinal single case study based on documentary research. Findings – The Danish case...

  20. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry: Determination of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 6. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry: Determination of Chromium (VI) using synthesized gold nanoparticles modified screen-printed electrode. Salamatu Aliyu Tukur Nor Azah Yusof Reza Hajian. Regular Articles Volume 127 Issue 6 June 2015 pp ...

  1. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  2. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  3. Ductility of reinforced concrete columns confined with stapled strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.F.; Khan, Q.U.Z.; Shabbir, F.; Sharif, M.B.; Ijaz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Response of three 150x150x450mm short reinforced concrete (RC) columns confined with different types of confining steel was investigated. Standard stirrups, strips and stapled strips, each having same cross-sectional area, were employed as confining steel around four comer column bars. Experimental work was aimed at probing into the affect of stapled strip confinement on post elastic behavior and ductility level under cyclic axial load. Ductility ratios, strength enhancement factor and core concrete strengths were compared to study the affect of confinement. Results indicate that strength enhancement in RC columns due to strip and stapled strip confinement was not remarkable as compared to stirrup confined column. It was found that as compared to stirrup confined column, stapled strip confinement enhanced the ductility of RC column by 183% and observed axial capacity of stapled strip confined columns was 41 % higher than the strip confined columns. (author)

  4. Laboratory testing of Alcoscan saliva-alcohol test strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This report describes a laboratory evaluation of Alcoscan saliva-alcohol test strips. The objectives of this work were: (1) to determine the precision and accuracy of the Alcoscan strips; and (2) to determine what effect extreme ambient temperatures ...

  5. Imaging of Low Compressibility Strips in the Quantum Hall Liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelstein, G.; Glicofridis, P. I.; Tessmer, S. H.; Ashoori, R. C.; Melloch, M. R.

    1999-01-01

    Using Subsurface Charge Accumulation scanning microscopy we image strips of low compressibility corresponding to several integer Quantum Hall filling factors. We study in detail the strips at Landau level filling factors $\

  6. Analysis and Synthesis of Coupled Microstrip Circuits with More Than Two Coupled Strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the y-parameters for the 2N-port network, N coupled strips form, may be found using almost arbitrary quasi-propagation modes if the relative bandwith of interest is small. Chosing a special set of propagation modes leads to simple expressions for the y-parameters, which are easy...

  7. Stripping chronopotentiometry at scanned deposition potential (SSCP). Part 2. Determination of metal ion speciation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.P.; Town, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Stripping chronopotentiometry at scanned deposition potential (SSCP) generates curves that are fundamentally different in form from classical polarographic waves. Still, despite their steeper slope and non-linear log plot, the shift in the SSCP half-wave deposition potential can be interpreted in a

  8. Dual Strip-Excited Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Parasitic Strips for Radiation Pattern Reconfigurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamran Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel pattern reconfigurable antenna concept utilizing rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (DRA placed over dielectric substrate backed by a ground plane is presented. A dual strip excitation scheme is utilized and both excitation strips are connected together by means of a 50 Ω microstrip feed network placed over the substrate. The four vertical metallic parasitic strips are placed at corner of DRA each having a corresponding ground pad to provide a short/open circuit between the parasitic strip and antenna ground plane, through which a shift of 90° in antenna radiation pattern in elevation plane is achieved. A fractional bandwidth of approximately 40% at center frequency of 1.6 GHz is achieved. The DRA peak realized gain in whole frequency band of operation is found to be above 4 dB. The antenna configuration along with simulation and measured results are presented.

  9. Processing of data from innovative parabolic strip telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosejk, Vladislav; Novy, J.; Chadzitaskos, Goce

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative telescope design based on the usage of a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Isaac Newton was the first to solve the problem of chromatic aberration, which is caused by a difference in the refractive index of lenses. This problem was solved by a new kind of telescope with a mirror used as an objective. There are many different kinds of telescopes. The most basic one is the lens telescope. This type of a telescope uses a set of lenses. Another type is the mirror telescope, which employs the concave mirror, spherical parabolic mirror or hyperbolically shaped mirror as its objective. The lens speed depends directly on the surface of a mirror. Both types can be combined to form a telescope composed of at least two mirrors and a set of lenses. The light is reflected from the primary mirror to the secondary one and then to the lens system. This type is smaller-sized, with a respectively reduced lens speed. The telescope design presented in this paper uses a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Observed objects are projected as lines in a picture plane. Each of the lines of a size equal to the size of the strip corresponds to the sum of intensities of the light coming perpendicular to the objective from an observed object. A series of pictures taken with a different rotation and processed by a special reconstruction algorithm is needed to get 2D pictures. The telescope can also be used for fast detection of objects. In this mode, the rotation and multiple pictures are not needed, just one picture in the focus of a mirror is required to be taken.

  10. Electrical results of double-sided silicon strip modules for the ATLAS Upgrade Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Cadoux, F; Clark, A; Ferrere, D; Ikegami, Y; Hara, K; La Marra, D; Pelleriti, G; Pohl, M; Takubo, Y; Terada, S; Unno, Y; Weber, M

    2012-01-01

    A double-sided silicon strip module has been designed for the short-strip barrel region of the future ATLAS inner tracker for the High Luminosity LHC. University of Geneva and KEK have produced first module prototypes with common components and similar assembly procedures and jigs. This note reports on the electrical performance of the modules tested. The data acquisition system is described. Results from individual and combined module readout are shown.

  11. Testbeam evaluation of silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase - II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration; Ai, Xiaocong; Allport, Phillip; Arling, Jan-Hendrik; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Carli, Ina; Casse, Gianluigi; Chen, Liejian; Chisholm, Andrew; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cunningham, William Reilly; Dervan, Paul; Diez Cornell, Sergio; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dopke, Jens; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan Linus Roderik; Escobar, Carlos; Fabiani, Veronica; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fernandez Tejero, Javier; Fleta Corral, Maria Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Garcia-Argos, Carlos; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Greig, Graham George; Guescini, Francesco; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hauser, Marc Manuel; Huang, Yanping; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Keller, John; Klein, Christoph; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Kotek, Zdenek; Kroll, Jiri; Kuehn, Susanne; Lee, Steven Juhyung; Liu, Yi; Lohwasser, Kristin; Meszarosova, Lucia; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mi\\~nano Moya, Mercedes; Mori, Riccardo; Moser, Brian; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschke, Richard; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, Peter William; Poley, Anne-luise; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Ravotti, Federico; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of \\mbox{$7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$}. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over $1x10^{15}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per $cm^{2}$ in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II test beam facility to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before irradiation. The DURANTA telescope was used to obtain a pointing...

  12. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists of..., and tolerances X1 Fine Quality Straight Stripped. Heavy, ripe, firm, semielastic, normal strength and...

  13. 21 CFR 880.2200 - Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. 880... Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2200 Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal forehead temperature strip is a device applied to the forehead that is used to indicate...

  14. Bimetallic strip for low temperature use. [4-300/sup 0/K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussiee, J.F.; Welch, D.O.; Suenaga, M.

    A class of mechanically pre-stressed structures is provided suitably bi-layer strips, consisting of a layer of group 5 transition metals in intimate contact with a layer of an intermetallic compound of transition metals with certain group 3A, 4A or 5A metals or metalloids such as Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn, As or Sb. The changes of Young's modulus of these bi-layered combinations at temperatures in the region of somewhat above absolute zero provides a useful means of sensing temperature changes. Such bi-metallic strips may be used as control strips in thermostats, or in direct dial reading instruments. The structures are made by preparing a sandwich of a group 5B transition metal strip between the substantially thicker strips of an alloy between copper and a predetermined group 3A, 4A or 5A metal or metalloid, holding the three layers are heated, cooled the copper alloys and is removed. Removing one of the two formed interlayer alloys between the transition metal and the metal previously alloyed with copper remain.

  15. Pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The key element of our pulsed power program is concentration of power in time and space by suppression of breakdown in dielectrics and in vacuum. Magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines and magnetic suppression of insulator flashover have continued as the main reserch directions. Vacuum insulated line studies at Physics International have been expanded and a test bed at Sandia, called MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment), is under development. The choice for the baseline EBFA design will depend on the outcome of these studies and should be made in July 1977. The slow and intermediate speed pulsed power approaches to EBFA will be based on Proto I and Proto II results and several of the projected EBFA subsystems are presently being tested in Proto II. A further stage of power concentration, within the vacuum diode itself, would considerably ease the burden on dielectrics; methods of power multiplication involving magnetically imploded plasmas are being considered and tests have begun using the Ripple III apparatus

  16. Analysis of spironolactone residues in industrial wastewater and in drug formulations by cathodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahawi, M S; Bashammakh, A S; Al-Sibaai, A A; Bahaidarah, E A

    2013-04-01

    The redox behavior of spironolactone (SP) drug in Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer of pH 2-11 was investigated by differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry (DPCSV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) at hanging mercury dropping electrode (HMDE). At pH 9-10.5, the DPCSV of SP drug showed two cathodic peaks at -1.15 and -1.38 V at the HMDE vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode. In the CV, at pH 9-10, the dependence of the cathodic peak current, I p , c and peak potential, E p , c of the second peak ( E p , c 2 ) on the scan rate ( ν ) and on the depolizer (SP) concentrations was typical of an electrode coupled (EC) chemical reaction type mechanism. The plot of I p , c at -1.380 V of the DPCSV vs. SP concentration at pH 9 was linear over the concentration range of 1.2×10 -10 -9.6×10 -7  M. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the drug were 1.1×10 -11 and 4.14×10 -11  M, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of SP residues in industrial wastewater, in pure form (98.2±3.1%) and in drug formulations e.g. Aldactone® tablet (98.35±2.9%).The method was validated by comparison with HPLC and the official data methods.

  17. Bird community response to filter strips in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, P.J.; Dively, G.P.; Gill, D.E.; Rewa, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Filter strips are strips of herbaceous vegetation planted along agricultural field margins adjacent to streams or wetlands and are designed to intercept sediment, nutrients, and agrichemicals. Roughly 16,000 ha of filter strips have been established in Maryland through the United States Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program. Filter strips often represent the only uncultivated herbaceous areas on farmland in Maryland and therefore may be important habitat for early-successional bird species. Most filter strips in Maryland are planted to either native warm-season grasses or cool-season grasses and range in width from 10.7 m to 91.4 m. From 2004 to 2007 we studied the breeding and wintering bird communities in filter strips adjacent to wooded edges and non-buffered field edges and the effect that grass type and width of filter strips had on bird community composition. We used 5 bird community metrics (total bird density, species richness, scrub-shrub bird density, grassland bird density, and total avian conservation value), species-specific densities, nest densities, and nest survival estimates to assess the habitat value of filter strips for birds. Breeding and wintering bird community metrics were greater in filter strips than in non-buffered field edges but did not differ between cool-season and warm-season grass filter strips. Most breeding bird community metrics were negatively related to the percent cover of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) in ???1 yr. Breeding bird density was greater in narrow (60 m) filter strips. Our results suggest that narrow filter strips adjacent to wooded edges can provide habitat for many bird species but that wide filter strips provide better habitat for grassland birds, particularly obligate grassland species. If bird conservation is an objective, avoid planting orchardgrass in filter strips and reduce or eliminate orchardgrass from filter strips through management practices. Copyright ?? 2011 The

  18. USE OF MEMBRANE EMULSION SPAN 80 AND TOPO IN URANIUM EXTRACTION AND STRIPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Tri Basuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT USE OF MEMBRANE EMULSION SPAN 80 AND TOPO IN URANIUM EXTRACTION AND STRIPPING. Membrane emulsion span 80 and TOPO used in uranium extraction and stripping has been done. The extraction was carried outby emulsion membrane H3PO4 in TOPO-Kerosene. The feed or external aqueous phase was uranium in  HNO3. The emulgator span-80 was used to obtain a stable emulsion membrane system. The influence factors were percentage of TOPO-Kerosene, time extraction,  molarity of external aqueous phase and  molarity of internal aqueous. After the emulsion membrane was formed, the extractionand stripping process was performed. The ratio volume feed : volume membrane phase equal to 1 : 1 and volume of 5 % TOPO-Kerosene : Volume 3 M H3PO4 equal 1 : 1 were used. The relative good yield were obtained at concentration of TOPO in Kerosene and 3 M H3PO4 was 5 %, molarity of internal aqueous phase equal to 1 M, molarity of external aqueous phase 3 M H3PO4 and time extraction equalto 10 minutes with the speed of emulsification was 8000 rpm. At this condition the extraction efficiency of uranium obtained was 97.8 %, the stripping efficiency 52.56 %, and the total efficiency was 53.80 %. Keywords: membrane emulsion, extraction, stripping, span 80, kerosene, uranium. ABSTRAK PENGGUNAAN MEMBRAN EMULSI SPAN 80 DAN TOPO UNTUK EKSTRASI DAN STRIPPING URANIUM. Telah dilakukan penelitian membran emulsi span 80 dan TOPO yang digunakan untuk ekstraksi uranium. Extraksi dengan membran emulsi H3PO4 dalam TOPO-Kerosen. Larutan umpan untuk fasa air eksternal adalah uranium dalam asam nitrat. Untuk memperoleh sistem emulsi yang stabil dipakai emulgator Span 80. Parameter yang berpengaruh adalah persen TOPO-Kerosene, molaritas fasa air internal H3PO4, molaritas fasa air eksternal HNO3 dan waktu ekstraksi. Setelah diperoleh membran emulsi, kemudian dilakukan proses ekstraksi dan stripping, dengan rasio volume umpan : volume membran sebesar 1 : 1; volume 5% TOPO-Kerose : volume 3M

  19. Ammonia recovery from anaerobically digested cattle manure by steam stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L; Mangan, C; Li, X

    2006-01-01

    Ammonia recovery from anaerobically digested cattle manure effluents through steam stripping was studied at a stripping tower temperature of 98-99 degrees C and a steam-water ratio approximately 56-72 g/L. The digested manure effluents were first treated by microfiltration and then the permeate was used as feed in steam stripping. The stripping performance was evaluated under different feed pH values, ammonia concentrations and temperatures. The increase of the initial feed pH does not significantly improve ammonia stripping efficiency due to the fact that the stripped effluent pH is increased during steam stripping. This suggests that steam stripping of anaerobically digested manure effluents for ammonia recovery may not need pre-raised pH. In contrast, the pH value of the synthetic ammonia wastewater containing NH4Cl dramatically decreases after steam stripping. Increasing the feed temperature slightly improves ammonia stripping efficiency, but reduces the concentration of the recovered ammonia in the condensate due to an increased condensate volume at a higher feed temperature. Therefore, the feed temperature should be controlled at an optimum point that can compromise the condensate ammonia concentration and the ammonia stripping efficiency. Experimental results indicate that recovery of ammonia from anaerobically digested cattle manure effluents as NH4OH is technically feasible.

  20. Dual deflectable beam strip engine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Zuccaro, D. E.; Kami, S.; Schnelker, D. E.; Ward, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes a dual beam thruster that has been designed, constructed, and tested. The system is suitable for two-axes attitude control and is comprised of two orthogonal strips, each capable of producing 0.30 mlb thrust and beam deflections of more than plus or minus 20 deg. The nominal specific impulse for the thruster is 5000 sec, and the thrust level from each strip can be varied from 0 to 100%. Neutralizer filaments that were developed and life tested over 2000 hours producing more than 40 mA of electron emission per watt of input power are also discussed. The system power required for clean ionizers is approximately 200 W.

  1. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer was developed for use in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. It is comprised of a series of intersecting support strips and a peripheral support band attached to the ends of the support strips. Each of the openings into which the fuel element is inserted has a number of protruding dimples and springs extending in different directions. The dimples coact with the springs to secure the fuel rods in the openings. Compared with previous designs, this design gives more positive alignment of the support stips while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of thermal expansion. The springs are arranged in alternating directions so that the reaction forces tend to counterbalance each other, which in turn minimizes the reaction loads on the supporting structure. (D.N.)

  2. L-strip proximity fed ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the analysis of dualband L-strip fed compact semi-circular disk microstrip patch antenna has been presented using circuit theory concept. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR and radiation pattern are calculated. The effect of geometric dimensions of the proposed antenna such as length of vertical and horizontal portion of L-strip is investigated. It is found that antenna resonate at two distinct modes i.e. 1.3 GHz and 6.13 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower resonance frequency is 6.61% (simulated and 10.64% (theoretical whereas at upper resonance frequency, it is 6.02% (simulated and 9.06 % (theoretical. The theoretical results are compared with IE3D simulation results as well as experimental results and they are in close agreement.

  3. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  4. Continuous liquid sheet generator for ion stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, B.; Batson, P.; Leemann, B.; Rude, B.

    1984-10-01

    Many of the technical problems of generating a large thin liquid sheet from 0.02 to 0.20 μm thick (3 to 40 μgm/cm 2 ) have been solved. It is shown that this perennial sheet is stable and consonant in dimension. Several ion beam species from the SuperHILAC have been used for evaluation; at 0.11 MeV/n. In one of three modes this sheet serves as an equivalent substitute for a carbon foil. The second mode is characterized by a solid-like charge state distribution but with a varying fraction of unstripped ions. The third mode gives stripping performance akin to a vapor stripping medium. 9 references, 7 figures

  5. Strengthening Bridges with Prestressed CFRP Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwowski, Tomasz; Żółtowski, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    Limitation of bridge's carrying bearing capacity due to aging and deterioration is a common problem faced by road administration and drivers. Rehabilitation of bridges including strengthening may be applied in order to maintain or upgrade existing bridge parameters. The case studies of strengthening of two small bridges with high modulus prestressed CFRP strips have been presented in the paper. The first one - reinforced concrete slab bridge - and the other - composite steel-concrete girder bridge - have been successfully upgraded with quite new technology. In both cases the additional CFRP reinforcement let increasing of bridge carrying capacity from 15 till 40 metric tons. The CFRP strip prestressing system named Neoxe Prestressing System (NPS), developed by multi-disciplinary team and tested at full scale in Rzeszow University of Technology, has been also described in the paper.

  6. The extent of the stop coannihilation strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zheng, Jiaming [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Many supersymmetric models such as the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino χ is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle, the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic χ cold darkmatter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and we explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the t{sub 1} may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper. (orig.)

  7. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Shafranov, M.D.; Zhiltsov, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented. (orig.)

  8. Neutralization of H- beams by magnetic stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jason, A.J.; Hudgings, D.W.; van Dyck, O.B.

    1981-01-01

    The stability of H - beams passing through strong magnetic fields has been relevant to accelerator transport problems and, recently, to neutral beam preparation techniques. The H - electron detachment rate was measured as a function of rest-frame electric field and provides parameters for a theoretical lifetime expression. The limitations imposed on H - transport by magnetic stripping, and neutral-beam preparation in emittance growth, magnetic fields, and beam energies are discussed. Application techniques are also briefly discussed

  9. Ram pressure stripping of tilted galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jáchym, Pavel; Köppen, J.; Palouš, Jan; Combes, F.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 500, č. 2 (2009), s. 693-703 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014; GA ČR GP205/08/P556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : interstellar medium * clusters of galaxies * gas stripping Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.179, year: 2009

  10. Pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenshields, H.; Seddon, W.A.

    1982-03-01

    This supplement to two bibliographies published in 1970 and 1972 lists 734 references to the literature of pulse radiolysis, arranged under eight broad subject headings. The references were compiled by searching Biological Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts and the Weekly List of Papers in Radiation Chemistry issued by the Radiation Chemistry Data Center of Notre Dame University. Full bibliographic data is given for papers published in the period 1971 to 1974. A personal author index listing more than 600 authors and a similar number of co-authors is included

  11. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic musk compounds have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-upprocedures A simple method for the deterrnination of these compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge-and-trap vessel is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap sequentially with polar and nonpolar solvents, concentrated, and directly analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. In this paper, we analyzed two homogenized samples of whole fish tissues with spiked synthetic musk compounds using closed-loop stripping analysis (CLSA) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The analytes were not recovered quantitatively but the extraction yield was sufficiently reproducible for at least semi-quantitative purposes (screening). The method was less expensive to implement and required significantly less sample preparation than the PLE technique. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water,

  12. Deuteron stripping reactions with Tabakin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1976-05-01

    Deuteron stripping reactions are considered. Due to the strong repulsion between nucleons at very short distances, we have investigated the nuclear short-range correlations. The neutron proton nuclear potential in the deuteron is taken as a short-range repulsive core surrounded by a long-range attractive potential. The neutron-proton potential is taken as the Tabakin separable potential to take into account the short-range correlations. The differential cross-sections for deuteron stripping reactions have been calculated in two different cases by taking Yamaguchi or Breit et al type parameters for the Tabakin potential used. The angular distributions for different (d,p) stripping reactions on the different target nuclei 28 Si, 32 , 34 S, 36 Ar, 40 , 48 Ca, 50 , 52 , 54 Cr have been calculated using the DWBA calculations. Our present theoretical calculations for the angular distributions of the different reactions cosidered have been fitted to the experimental data, where good agreement is obtained. The extracted spectroscopic factors from the present work are found to be more reliable

  13. Does the Pi strip method allow assessment of the available soil P?: Comparison against the reference isotope method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigner, M.; Fardeau, J.-C.; Zapata, F.

    2002-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out in acid soils developed under tropical climates with and without phosphate rock (PR) addition to assess the ability of the Pi strip method to extract available soil P compared with the Isotopic Exchange Kinetics method (IEK). In the Pi strip method strips of filter paper, previously impregnated with iron hydroxide acting as a sink for phosphate ions from soil components, are added to an aqueous soil suspension. The extracted phosphate ions are eluted in diluted sulfuric acid and quantified by a colorimetric method. Available soil P, defined as the amount of phosphate ions that can move from the soil particles to soil solution, is described by three factors: an intensity factor, a quantity factor and a capacity factor. These three factors were determined by the IEK-method. Following the addition of carrier-free 32 PO 4 -ions to soil, the ability of the Pi strip to extract available soil P was assessed: (i) by comparing the quantity of instantaneously exchangeable P (E 1 ) to the quantity extracted with the Pi strip; (ii) by determining the fraction of 32 P extracted with the Pi strip, and (iii) by comparing the specific activity (SA) of P present as phosphate ions extracted by the Pi strip to the specific activity of P in the soil solution. It was observed that (i) E 1 and the amount extracted with the Pi strip are highly correlated, (ii) the recovery of 32 P extracted by the Pi strip varies between 17 and 66%, and (iii) the specific activity of P extracted by the Pi strip is of the same order of magnitude as that of P in the soil solution. In acid soils low in available P, part of the P in aqueous KCl-extracts is presumably not only present as free phosphate ions but also occluded in the form of a soluble complex, whose isotopic exchangeability is significantly lower than that of phosphate ions transferred to the Pi strip. It is concluded from the results that the Pi strip method can be recommended in routine analysis for the

  14. Thermal Insulation Strips Conserve Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    hydrophobic, and can withstand extremely hot temperatures (from 1,100 F to 3,000 F depending on the type of aerogel) down to cryogenic levels, making this "frozen smoke" ideal for use in space. Because of its low weight and ability to withstand temperature extremes, an aerogel was even used as the space-based catcher s mitt to trap comet particles and space dust for NASA s Stardust mission, launched in 1999. All of this remarkable technology s characteristics were ideal for NASA s purposes except one: The aerogels were extremely brittle. Through a long-term partnership between Kennedy Space Center and Aspen Aerogels Inc., of Northborough, Massachusetts, researchers developed a flexible, durable form of aerogel that NASA has since used as cryogenic insulation for space shuttle launch systems. Through Aspen Aerogels, the technology has made oil pipeline insulation, extreme weather clothing, and infrared shielding for combat helicopters.

  15. Square pulse linear transformer driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A. A.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.; Volkov, S. N.; Kondratiev, S. S.; Alexeenko, V. M.; Bayol, F.; Demol, G.; Stygar, W. A.

    2012-04-01

    The linear transformer driver (LTD) technological approach can result in relatively compact devices that can deliver fast, high current, and high-voltage pulses straight out of the LTD cavity without any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The usual LTD architecture [A. A. Kim, M. G. Mazarakis, V. A. Sinebryukhov, B. M. Kovalchuk, V. A. Vizir, S. N Volkov, F. Bayol, A. N. Bastrikov, V. G. Durakov, S. V. Frolov, V. M. Alexeenko, D. H. McDaniel, W. E. Fowler, K. LeCheen, C. Olson, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, J. Porter, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402; M. G. Mazarakis, W. E. Fowler, A. A. Kim, V. A. Sinebryukhov, S. T. Rogowski, R. A. Sharpe, D. H. McDaniel, C. L. Olson, J. L. Porter, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, and J. R. Woodworth, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050401 (2009)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050401] provides sine shaped output pulses that may not be well suited for some applications like z-pinch drivers, flash radiography, high power microwaves, etc. A more suitable power pulse would have a flat or trapezoidal (rising or falling) top. In this paper, we present the design and first test results of an LTD cavity that generates such a type of output pulse by including within its circular array a number of third harmonic bricks in addition to the main bricks. A voltage adder made out of a square pulse cavity linear array will produce the same shape output pulses provided that the timing of each cavity is synchronized with the propagation of the electromagnetic pulse.

  16. Development of a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip for rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-de, Wu; Min, Li; Ming, Chen; Li-Ping, Li; Rui, Wang; Hai-Lan, Chen; Fu-Yan, Chen; Qiang, Mi; Wan-Wen, Liang; Han-Zhong, Chen

    2017-05-15

    A colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip was developed for rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) infection in tilapia. The monoclonal antibodies (mAb) 4C12 and 3A9 were used to target S. agalactiae as colloidal gold-mAb conjugate and captured antibody, respectively. The colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip was assembled via routine procedures. Optimal pH and minimum antibody levels in the reaction system for gold colloidal-mAb 4C12 conjugation were pH 7.4 and 18μg/mL, respectively. Optimal concentrations of the captured antibody 3A9 and goat anti-mouse antibody were 0.6mg/mL and 2mg/mL, respectively. The sensitivity of the strip for detecting S. agalactiae was 1.5×10 5 colony forming units (CFU). No cross-reaction was observed with other commonly encountered bacteria, including Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum and Streptococcus iniae. The assay time for S. agalactiae was less than 15min. Tilapia samples artificially infected with S. agalactiae were tested using the newly developed strip. The results indicated that blood, brain, kidney, spleen, metanephros and intestine specimens of infected fish can be used for S. agalactiae detection. The validity of the strip was maintained for 6 months at 4°C. These findings suggested that the immunochromatographic strip was effective for spot and rapid detection of S. agalactiae infected tilapia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Anodic stripping voltammetry of mercury, zinc, cadmium, and lead in a rice farm ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mundo, F.R.; Vicente-Beckett, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical procedures based on differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry were developed and applied to the analysis of some trace metals in a rice farm ecosystem. A gold wire served as working electrode for the analysis of mercury in 0.1M HNO 3 ; a hanging mercury drop electrode was used for the simultaneous analyses of zinc, cadmium, and lead in 0.1M sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.5). Mercury was pre-concentrated for five minutes at + 0.20 V vs SCE. The area of the anodic stripping peaks varied linearly over the concentration range 3x10 -10 -2x10 -8 M Hg(II); the limit of detection was 0.06 ppb or 3x10 -10 M Hg(II). The simultaneous analytical method involved pre-electrolysis at -1.2 V vs SCE for ten minutes. The heights of the individual anodic stripping peaks varied linearly with concentration in a mixture of the ions over the concentration range 0.020-0.10 ppm for each ion; the limits of detection were 0.004 ppm, 0.01 ppm, and 0.01 ppm for Cd, Pb, Zn, respectively. The developed procedures were used to determine the baseline levels of these metals in soil, water, and rice plant samples from a one-hectare traditional rice farm in San Pedro, Laguna. (auth.). 26 refs.; 4 tabs.; 6 figs

  18. Effect of processing parameters on scale formation during hot steel strip rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Oliveira Lima Júnior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of processing parameters (slab thickness, water flow of interstand cooling and oil flow in roll gap lubrication system on the thickness and composition of the tertiary scale formed during hot strip rolling, was studied in a low carbon steel in factory. The scale formed on the rolled surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was observed that the combined effect of a greater rolling oil volume applied, larger bar thickness, and smaller amount of water flow during interstand cooling reduces the tertiary scale thickness. Besides, a smaller crack density in the samples is associated with greater rolling oil volume and smaller oxide scale thickness. The principal phase of the scale formed in hot-rolled steel strips is stoichiometric magnetite, without isomorphic substitutions.

  19. A Study of New Pulse Auscultation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yun Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new type of pulse auscultation system, which uses a condenser microphone to measure pulse sound waves on the wrist, captures the microphone signal for filtering, amplifies the useful signal and outputs it to an oscilloscope in analog form for waveform display and storage and delivers it to a computer to perform a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT and convert the pulse sound waveform into a heartbeat frequency. Furthermore, it also uses an audio signal amplifier to deliver the pulse sound by speaker. The study observed the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine’s pulsing techniques, where pulse signals at places called “cun”, “guan” and “chi” of the left hand were measured during lifting (100 g, searching (125 g and pressing (150 g actions. Because the system collects the vibration sound caused by the pulse, the sensor itself is not affected by the applied pressure, unlike current pulse piezoelectric sensing instruments, therefore, under any kind of pulsing pressure, it displays pulse changes and waveforms with the same accuracy. We provide an acquired pulse and waveform signal suitable for Chinese Medicine practitioners’ objective pulse diagnosis, thus providing a scientific basis for this Traditional Chinese Medicine practice. This study also presents a novel circuit design using an active filtering method. An operational amplifier with its differential features eliminates the interference from external signals, including the instant high-frequency noise. In addition, the system has the advantages of simple circuitry, cheap cost and high precision.

  20. A study of new pulse auscultation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yun; Chang, Rong-Seng

    2015-04-14

    This study presents a new type of pulse auscultation system, which uses a condenser microphone to measure pulse sound waves on the wrist, captures the microphone signal for filtering, amplifies the useful signal and outputs it to an oscilloscope in analog form for waveform display and storage and delivers it to a computer to perform a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and convert the pulse sound waveform into a heartbeat frequency. Furthermore, it also uses an audio signal amplifier to deliver the pulse sound by speaker. The study observed the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine's pulsing techniques, where pulse signals at places called "cun", "guan" and "chi" of the left hand were measured during lifting (100 g), searching (125 g) and pressing (150 g) actions. Because the system collects the vibration sound caused by the pulse, the sensor itself is not affected by the applied pressure, unlike current pulse piezoelectric sensing instruments, therefore, under any kind of pulsing pressure, it displays pulse changes and waveforms with the same accuracy. We provide an acquired pulse and waveform signal suitable for Chinese Medicine practitioners' objective pulse diagnosis, thus providing a scientific basis for this Traditional Chinese Medicine practice. This study also presents a novel circuit design using an active filtering method. An operational amplifier with its differential features eliminates the interference from external signals, including the instant high-frequency noise. In addition, the system has the advantages of simple circuitry, cheap cost and high precision.

  1. Cloud Point Extraction for Electroanalysis: Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek, Cory A; Bange, Adam; Papautsky, Ian; Heineman, William R

    2015-06-16

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is a well-established technique for the preconcentration of hydrophobic species from water without the use of organic solvents. Subsequent analysis is then typically performed via atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), UV-vis spectroscopy, or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, the suitability of CPE for electroanalytical methods such as stripping voltammetry has not been reported. We demonstrate the use of CPE for electroanalysis using the determination of cadmium (Cd(2+)) by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Rather than using the chelating agents which are commonly used in CPE to form a hydrophobic, extractable metal complex, we used iodide and sulfuric acid to neutralize the charge on Cd(2+) to form an extractable ion pair. This offers good selectivity for Cd(2+) as no interferences were observed from other heavy metal ions. Triton X-114 was chosen as the surfactant for the extraction because its cloud point temperature is near room temperature (22-25 °C). Bare glassy carbon (GC), bismuth-coated glassy carbon (Bi-GC), and mercury-coated glassy carbon (Hg-GC) electrodes were compared for the CPE-ASV. A detection limit for Cd(2+) of 1.7 nM (0.2 ppb) was obtained with the Hg-GC electrode. ASV with CPE gave a 20x decrease (4.0 ppb) in the detection limit compared to ASV without CPE. The suitability of this procedure for the analysis of tap and river water samples was demonstrated. This simple, versatile, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective extraction method is potentially applicable to a wide variety of transition metals and organic compounds that are amenable to detection by electroanalytical methods.

  2. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... and concepts from real designs by studying form in abstract contexts. The challenge for the first approach is how to support students in decoupling form from the work as a whole. The challenge for the second approach is how to translate general form into real design. Hence, choosing between the two approaches...

  3. Developing a vacuum thermal stripping - acid absorption process for ammonia recovery from anaerobic digester effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwuani, Anayo T; Tao, Wendong

    2016-12-01

    To prevent acetoclastic methanogens from ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion of protein-rich substrates, ammonia needs to be removed or recovered from digestate. This paper presents an innovative ammonia recovery process that couples vacuum thermal stripping with acid absorption. Ammonia is stripped out of digestate boiling at a temperature below the normal boiling point due to vacuum. Stripped ammonia is absorbed to a sulfuric acid solution, forming ammonium sulfate crystals as a marketable product. Three common types of digestate were found to have boiling point temperature-vacuum curves similar to water. Seven combinations of boiling temperature and vacuum (50 °C 16.6 kPa, 58 °C 20.0 kPa, 65 °C 25.1 kPa, 70 °C 33.6 kPa, 80 °C 54.0 kPa, 90 °C 74.2 kPa, and 100 °C 101.3 kPa) were tested for batch stripping of ammonia in dairy manure digestate. 93.3-99.9% of ammonia was stripped in 3 h. The Lewis-Whitman model fitted ammonia stripping process well. Ammonia mass transfer coefficient was significantly higher at boiling temperature 65-100 °C and vacuum pressure 25.1-101.3 kPa than 50-58 °C and 16.6-20.0 kPa. The low ammonia saturation concentrations (0-24 mg N/L) suggested a large driving force to strip ammonia. The optimum boiling point temperature - vacuum pressure for ammonia recovery in a recirculation line of a mesophilic digester was 65 °C and 25.1 kPa, at which the ammonia mass transfer coefficient was as high as 37.3 mm/h. Installation of a demister and liquid trap could avoid negative effects of higher stripping temperature and stronger vacuum on formation of ammonium sulfate crystals. Pilot tests demonstrated that high-purity ammonium sulfate crystals could be produced by controlling sulfuric acid content and maintaining acid solution saturated with ammonium sulfate. Although volatile organic compounds such as cyclohexene were found in the final acid solutions, no volatile organic compounds were found in the recovered

  4. The vertical correction of point cloud strips performed over the coastal zone of changing sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasińska-Kolyszko, Ewa; Furmańczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-10-01

    The main principle of LIDAR is to measure the accurate time of the laser pulses sent from the system to the target surface. In the operation, laser pulses gradually scan the water surface and in combination with aircraft speed they should perform almost simultaneous soundings of each strip. Vectors sent from aircraft to the Sea are linked to the position of the aircraft. Coordinates of the points - X, Y, Z, are calculated at the time of each measurement. LIDAR crosses the surface of the sea while other impulses pass through the water column and, depending on the depth of the water, reflect from the seabed. Optical receiver on board of the aircraft detects pulse reflections from the seabed and sea surface. On the tidal water basins lidar strips must be adjusted by the changes in sea level. The operation should be reduced to a few hours during low water level. Typically, a surface of 20 to 30 km2 should be covered in an hour. The Baltic Sea is an inland sea, and the surveyed area is located in its South - western part, where meteorological and hydrological conditions affect the sea level changes in a short period of time. A lidar measurement of sea surface, that was done within 2 days, in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea and the sea level measured 6 times a day at 8, 12, 16, 20, 00, 04 by a water gauge located in the port of Dziwnów (Poland) were used for this study. On the basis of the lidar data, strips were compared with each other. Calculation of time measurement was made for each single line separately. Profiles showing the variability of sea level for each neighboring and overlapping strips were generated. Differences were calculated changes in sea level were identified and on such basis, an adjustment was possible to perform. Microstation software and terrasolid application were used during the research. The latter allowed automatically and manual classification of the point cloud. A sea surface class was distinguished that way. Point cloud was adjusted to

  5. Detection of the onset of galling in strip reduction testing using acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghadam, Marcel; Christiansen, Peter; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    to detect, since it is either based on the operator's personal judgement or indirect measuring techniques. The application of acoustic emission measuring technique for characterization of onset of galling in sheet metal forming is discussed in the presented paper. The strip reduction test, which emulates......Galling is an important issue in metal forming of tribologically severe materials such as high strength steel, stainless steel, Al- or Ti-alloys, since it leads to poor surface quality of the formed components, production stops and possibly deterioration of tools. The onset of galling is difficult...... of galling in metal forming processes....

  6. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  7. The CMS Si-Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Sguazzoni, Giacomo

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at LHC features the largest Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) ever build. This device is immersed in a 4T magnetic field and, in conjunction with a Pixel system, it allows the momentum of the charged particles to be measured and the heavy-flavour final states to be tagged despite the hostile radiation environment. The impact of operating conditions and physics requirements on the SST layout and design choices is discussed and the expected performances are reviewed. The SST collaboration is now facing the production of the ~15000 modules and their assembly into the SST substructures. A status is given.

  8. The CMS Si-strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Sguazzoni, Giacomo

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at LHC features the largest Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) ever build. This device is immersed in a 4T magnetic field and, in conjunction with a Pixel system, it allows the momentum of the charged particles to be measured and the heavy-flavour final states to be tagged despite the hostile radiation environment. The impact of operating conditions and physics requirements on the SST layout and design choices is discussed and the expected performances are reviewed. The SST collaboration is now facing the production of the ~15000 modules and their assembly into the SST substructures. A status is given.

  9. Tritium stripping by a catalytic exchange stripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L.K.; Gibson, G.W.; Ortman, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    A catalytic exchange process for stripping elemental tritium from gas streams has been demonstrated. The process uses a catalyzed isotopic exchange reaction between tritium in the gas phase and protium or deuterium in the solid phase on alumina. The reaction is catalyzed by platinum deposited on the alumina. The process has been tested with both tritium and deuterium. Decontamination factors (ration of inlet and outlet tritium concentrations) as high as 1000 have been achieved, depending on inlet concentration. The test results and some demonstrated applications are presented

  10. Impact of geo-chemical environment of subsurface water on the measurement of ultra trace level of uranium in ground water by adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Preetha, J.; Karpe, Rupali; Ajay Kumar; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    During the present work, impacts of cations (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + ,), anions (Cl -1 , F -1 , and PO 4 3- ) and DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon) on the measurement of ultra trace level of uranium (VI) in subsurface water by adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) is studied. The concentrations of these anions, cations and DOC in subsurface water changes due to change in the geo-chemical environment at different locations. In AdSV, concentration of U was determined by forming an uranium-chloranilic acid complex (2,5-dichloro- 3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone). AdSV measurements were carried out in the differential pulse (DP) mode using a pulse amplitude of -50 mV, a pulse time of 30 ms and a potential step of 4 mV. The detection limit, was calculated to 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + ) and anions (Cl -1 , F -1 , and PO 4 3- ) was carried out by using Ion Chromatography. Ground water samples were spiked with varying degree of cations, anions and DOC (dissolved organic carbon). DOC in ground waters were measured by Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyzer. Various experiments show that analysis of uranium in the concentration range of 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Cl -1 , F -1 , and PO 4 3- . In case of DOC there is no interference observed in the concentration range of 0.02-15 ppm but beyond 15 ppm the concentration of uranium decrease sharply. Further, if DOC exceeded 16 ppm it was not possible to do the analysis of uranium by AdSV without destruction of DOC, as DOC is surface active organic compound and accumulates on Hg electrode preferentially over uranium-chloroanailic complex. (author)

  11. Comparative study of corneal strip extensometry and inflation tests

    OpenAIRE

    Elsheikh, Ahmed; Anderson, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Strip extensometry tests are usually considered less reliable than trephinate inflation tests in studying corneal biomechanics. In spite of the evident simplicity of strip extensometry tests, several earlier studies preferred inflation tests in determining the constitutive relationship of the cornea and its other material properties, such as Young's modulus and the hysteresis behaviour. In this research, the deficiencies of the strip tests are discussed and a mathematical procedure presented ...

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF DEFORMATION STRIPS WHILE STRETCHING OF CYLINDRICAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Vasilevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation strips have been experimentally revealed and described while stretching of cylindrical samples by means of computer thermography. It has been established that temperature of shift strip surface grows smoothly up to the stage of crack origin in material defect. Sharp growth of surface temperature occurs when tensile stresses reach tensile strength. Change in surface temperature occurs wavy after destruction (while cooling the sample. Processes of material destruction origin and development  characterize temperature changes in deformation strips.

  13. Effect of laser pulse energies in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, P.A.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Pardini, L.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of laser pulse energy on double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal is studied. In particular, the energy of the first pulse has been changed, while the second pulse energy is held fixed. A systematic study of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal dependence on the interpulse delay is performed, and the results are compared with the ones obtained with a single laser pulse of energy corresponding to the sum of the two pulses. At the same time, the crater formed at the target surface is studied by video-confocal microscopy, and the variation in crater dimensions is correlated to the enhancement of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal. The results obtained are consistent with the interpretation of the double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement in terms of the changes in ambient gas pressure produced by the shock wave induced by the first laser pulse

  14. Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.

  15. Strip defect recognition in electrical tests of silicon microstrip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentan, Manfred, E-mail: valentan@mpp.mpg.de

    2017-02-11

    This contribution describes the measurement procedure and data analysis of AC-coupled double-sided silicon microstrip sensors with polysilicon resistor biasing. The most thorough test of a strip sensor is an electrical measurement of all strips of the sensor; the measured observables include e.g. the strip's current and the coupling capacitance. These measurements are performed to find defective strips, e.g. broken capacitors (pinholes) or implant shorts between two adjacent strips. When a strip has a defect, its observables will show a deviation from the “typical value”. To recognize and quantify certain defects, it is necessary to determine these typical values, i.e. the values the observables would have without the defect. As a novel approach, local least-median-of-squares linear fits are applied to determine these “would-be” values of the observables. A least-median-of-squares fit is robust against outliers, i.e. it ignores the observable values of defective strips. Knowing the typical values allows to recognize, distinguish and quantify a whole range of strip defects. This contribution explains how the various defects appear in the data and in which order the defects can be recognized. The method has been used to find strip defects on 30 double-sided trapezoidal microstrip sensors for the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, which have been measured at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna (Austria).

  16. Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.

  17. Pavement Stripping in Saudi Arabia: Prediction and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavement weathering or stripping is a major distress in highway networks in arid regions. Using the Saudi Arabian road network as a case study area, seventeen road test sections were selected, out of which eight were stripped and nine were non-stripped. Aggregates from quarries used to build these sections were also collected and subjected to detailed physical and chemical tests to evaluate the ability of these tests to distinguish between stripped and non-stripped sections. The modified Lottman test was used to distinguish between compacted mixes. In addition, the Swedish Rolling Bottle test, was also found to be effective in being able to distinguish between different asphalt-aggregates for stripping potential. Eleven anti-stripping liquid additives, lime and cement, in addition to two polymers, were evaluated for their ability to reduce/eliminate stripping potential of stripping-prone aggregates. It was found that EE-2 Polymer, Portland cement, and their combination were effective with all aggregate sources.

  18. Development of colloidal gold immunochromatographic strips for detection of Riemerella anatipestifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwan Hou

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer is one of the most important bacterial pathogen of ducks and causes a contagious septicemia. R. anatipestifer infection causes serositis syndromes similar to other bacterial infections in ducks, including infection by Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Pasteurella multocida. Clinically differentiating R. anatipestifer infections from other bacterial pathogen infections is usually difficult. In this study, MAb 1G2F10, a monoclonal antibody against R. anatipestifer GroEL, was used to develop a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip. Colloidal gold particles were prepared by chemical synthesis to an average diameter of 20 ± 5.26 nm by transmission electron microscope imaging. MAb 1G2F10 was conjugated to colloidal gold particles and the formation of antibody-colloidal gold conjugates was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. Immunochromatographic strips were assembled in regular sequence through different accessories sticked on PVC plate. Strips specifically detected R. anatipestifer within 10 min, but did not detect E. coli, S. enterica and P. multocida. The detection limit for R. anatipestifer was 1 × 10(6 colony forming units, which was 500 times higher than a conventional agglutination test. Accuracy was 100% match to multiplex PCR. Assay stability and reproducibility were excellent after storage at 4°C for 6 months. The immunochromatographic strips prepared in this study offer a specific, sensitive, and rapid detection method for R. anatipestifer, which is of great importance for the prevention and control of R. anatipestifer infections.

  19. Beam test measurements on GaAs strip and pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertz, D.; Braunschweig, W.; Breibach, J.; Graessel, D.; Kubicki, T.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Rente, C.; Roeper, C.; Siedling, R.; Syben, O.; Tenbusch, F.; Toporowski, M.; Xiao, W.J. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). I. Physikalisches Institut

    1998-06-01

    GaAs strip and pixel detectors constructed in Aachen have been tested in a 1.4 GeV electron beam in Bonn and in a 5 GeV electron beam at DESY in February and May 1997. The strip detectors had a pitch of 50 {mu}m with a strip width of 25 {mu}m and were made of a 250 {mu}m thick Freiberger SI-GaAs wafer. The strip detectors included a punch-through bias structure and an integrated coupling capacitor. Additionally, an improved backside contact was formed, allowing a safe operation of the detector in a soft breakdown regime. Using the fast PreMux128 preamplifier multiplexer chip ({tau}{sub p}=50 ns) a signal-to-noise ratio of 13 was obtained at normal beam incidence for a bias voltage of 200 V, leading to a spatial resolution of 11 {mu}m with a simple COG algorithm. The 8 x 16 pixel array with a pixel size of 125 x 125 {mu}m{sup 2} was read out with the PreMux128 as well. With a double-metal technique, it was possible to bond the single-pixels linearly to the amplifier chip. The obtained signal-to-noise ratio of 30 in combination with a COG algorithm lead to the digital resolution value of 36 {mu}m for both pixel coordinates. (orig.) 10 refs.

  20. Solute diffusion through stripped mouse duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Ham, M; Mizumori, M; Guth, P H; Engel, E; Kaunitz, J D; Akiba, Y

    2007-12-01

    We measured villous cell intracellular pH (pH(i)) and solute diffusion between the bathing media and the epithelial cells in stripped, chambered mouse duodenum. Apical perfusion of a high CO2 solution rapidly acidified the upper villous cells with recovery after its removal. Apical zoniporide (ZP) enhanced CO(2)-induced acidification. Serosal ZP, dimethylamiloride (DMA) or stilbene anion transport inhibitors failed to alter CO(2)-induced acidification, whereas serosal high CO(2) buffer acidified the upper villous cells. Serosal 5-hydroxytryptamine rapidly acidified the upper villous cells. All serosally-perfused fluorescent compounds stained the crypt area, but not the villi or villous cells. In contrast, intravenous carboxyfluorescein quickly diffused into the interstitial space of the entire mucosa, and mucosally perfused fluorescent compound rapidly penetrated the epithelial cell layer. In muscle-stripped duodenum mounted in a small-aperture perfusion chamber, serosal solutes can readily diffuse only to the crypt cell region, whereas access to the villous epithelial cells is diffusion-limited. In contrast, rapid villous cell responses to serosally applied solutes are best explained by neural reflexes. Limited viability of the villous cells and impaired structural stability of the villi further limit long-term, villous cell functional studies of mucosal preparations mounted in small aperture diffusion chambers.

  1. Pulsed power accelerator for material physics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Reisman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed the design of Thor: a pulsed power accelerator that delivers a precisely shaped current pulse with a peak value as high as 7 MA to a strip-line load. The peak magnetic pressure achieved within a 1-cm-wide load is as high as 100 GPa. Thor is powered by as many as 288 decoupled and transit-time isolated bricks. Each brick consists of a single switch and two capacitors connected electrically in series. The bricks can be individually triggered to achieve a high degree of current pulse tailoring. Because the accelerator is impedance matched throughout, capacitor energy is delivered to the strip-line load with an efficiency as high as 50%. We used an iterative finite element method (FEM, circuit, and magnetohydrodynamic simulations to develop an optimized accelerator design. When powered by 96 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 4.1 MA to a load, and achieves peak magnetic pressures as high as 65 GPa. When powered by 288 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 6.9 MA to a load, and achieves magnetic pressures as high as 170 GPa. We have developed an algebraic calculational procedure that uses the single brick basis function to determine the brick-triggering sequence necessary to generate a highly tailored current pulse time history for shockless loading of samples. Thor will drive a wide variety of magnetically driven shockless ramp compression, shockless flyer plate, shock-ramp, equation of state, material strength, phase transition, and other advanced material physics experiments.

  2. Effect of Casting Parameters on the Microstructural and Mechanical Behavior of Magnesium AZ31-B Alloy Strips Cast on a Single Belt Casting Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Changizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strips of magnesium alloy AZ31-B were cast on a simulator of a horizontal single belt caster incorporating a moving mold system. Mixtures of CO2 and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 gases were used as protective atmosphere during melting and casting. The castability of the AZ31-B strips was investigated for a smooth, low carbon steel substrate, and six copper substrates with various textures and roughnesses. Graphite powder was used to coat the substrates. The correlation between strip thickness and heat flux was investigated. It was found that the heat flux from the forming strip to the copper substrate was higher than that to the steel substrate, while coated substrates registered lower heat fluxes than uncoated substrates. The highest heat flux from the strip was recorded for casting on macrotextured copper substrates with 0.15 mm grooves. As the thickness of the strip decreased, the net heat flux decreased. As the heat flux increased, the grain sizes of the strips were reduced, and the SDAS decreased. The mechanical properties were improved when the heat flux increased. The black layers which formed on the strips’ surfaces were analyzed and identified as nanoscale MgO particles. Nano-Scale particles act as light traps and appeared black.

  3. Evaluation of silicon micro strip detectors with large read-out pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyo, K.; Yamamura, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Asano, Y.; Bozek, A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Palka, H.; Rozanska, M.; Rybicki, K.

    1996-01-01

    For the development of the silicon micro-strip detector with the pitch of the readout strips as large as 250 μm on the ohmic side, we made samples with different structures. Charge collection was evaluated to optimize the width of implant strips, aluminum read-out strips, and/or the read-out scheme among strips. (orig.)

  4. Generation of dark and bright pulses in an SOA-based Q-switched fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Honggang; Zhang, Ailing; Tong, Zhengrong

    2017-08-01

    Bright and dark pulses in a Q-switched optical fiber laser based on a semiconductor optical amplifier were demonstrated. By changing the setting of the polarization controllers, bright or dark pulses with differing pulse widths and frequency repetition rates can be obtained. The bright pulse and dark pulse are formed mainly by the effect of gain dispersion of the semiconductor optical amplifier.

  5. Transverse Crack Modeling of Continuously Casted Slabs through Finite Element Method in Roughing Rolling at Wide Strip Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesin, A.; Salganik, V.; Pustovoytov, D.

    2010-06-01

    In the pipe billet production at the wide strip mills of hot rolling big metal losses are caused by surface defects that affect most parts of the finished strips. The rolling surface defects are referred to the breach of steelmaking technology. Specialists mostly face defects of metal surface such as "scab" and "crack". The only area suffered from these defects is a slab edge. This area has the least surface temperature at the unbending of the continuous-casting machine, and together with deep buckles made by reciprocating motion of the crystallizer it is mostly subjected to transverse cracks that can be up to several millimeters. Each surface defect of the continuously casted slab will further turn into the surface defect of the strip bar. For some grade sets, mostly made of pipe steel grades the amount of strips with these defects can reach up to 60-70%. The area that is mostly prone to these defects is the edge of the strip. The work reveals investigation of the form change peculiarities in the transverse cracks of the continuously casted slab in roughing rolling in the horizontal rollers. The finite element method with software DEFORM 3D V6.1 has been applied in modeling. The work gives a form change mechanism of transverse cracks of slabs in deformation. Further crack growth in rolling is assessed due to Cockroft-Latham criteria.

  6. Electrochemical stripping determination of traces of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in zirconium metal and zirconium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stulik, K.; Beran, P.; Dolezal, J.; Opekar, F.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures have been developed for the determination of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in zirconium metal and zirconium dioxide, at concentrations of 1ppm or less. Zirconium metal was dissolved in sulphuric acid, and zirconium dioxide decomposed under pressure with hydrofluoric acid. Sample solutions were prepared in dilute sulphuric acid. For the stripping determination, the sample solution was either mixed with a complexing tartrate base electrolyte or the pre-electrolysis was carried out in acid solution, with the acid solution being exchanged for a pure base electrolyte (e.g. an acetate buffer) for the stripping step. The stripping step was monitored by d.c., differential pulse and Kalousek commutator voltammetry and the three methods were compared. A stationary mercury-drop electrode can generally be used for all the methods, whereas a mercury-film electrode is suitable only for the d.c. voltammetric determination of copper, lead and cadmium, as pulse measurements with films are poorly reproducible and the electrodes are easily damaged. The relative standard deviation does not exceed 20%. Some samples contained relatively large amounts of copper, which is best separated by electrodeposition on a platinum electrode. (author)

  7. Pulsed power supply for injection bump magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1977-01-01

    A very precise and relatively inexpensive charging circuit for an energy storage capacitor bank feeds an efficient thyristor-controlled pulse-forming discharge circuit. These circuits, which generate magnet pulses of 300 joules at a rate of 30 per second, are analyzed

  8. Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Strip Footing Using Random Layers Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Marek; Łydżba, Dariusz

    2015-09-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of bearing capacity of strip foundation on random purely cohesive soil. The approach proposed combines random field theory in the form of random layers with classical limit analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. For given realization of random the bearing capacity of strip footing is evaluated by employing the kinematic approach of yield design theory. The results in the form of histograms for both bearing capacity of footing as well as optimal depth of failure mechanism are obtained for different thickness of random layers. For zero and infinite thickness of random layer the values of depth of failure mechanism as well as bearing capacity assessment are derived in a closed form. Finally based on a sequence of Monte Carlo simulations the bearing capacity of strip footing corresponding to a certain probability of failure is estimated. While the mean value of the foundation bearing capacity increases with the thickness of the random layers, the ultimate load corresponding to a certain probability of failure appears to be a decreasing function of random layers thickness.

  9. Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Strip Footing Using Random Layers Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawa Marek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with evaluation of bearing capacity of strip foundation on random purely cohesive soil. The approach proposed combines random field theory in the form of random layers with classical limit analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. For given realization of random the bearing capacity of strip footing is evaluated by employing the kinematic approach of yield design theory. The results in the form of histograms for both bearing capacity of footing as well as optimal depth of failure mechanism are obtained for different thickness of random layers. For zero and infinite thickness of random layer the values of depth of failure mechanism as well as bearing capacity assessment are derived in a closed form. Finally based on a sequence of Monte Carlo simulations the bearing capacity of strip footing corresponding to a certain probability of failure is estimated. While the mean value of the foundation bearing capacity increases with the thickness of the random layers, the ultimate load corresponding to a certain probability of failure appears to be a decreasing function of random layers thickness.

  10. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Irr Inventory § 170.445 What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other...

  11. Determination of residual stresses in roll compacted titanium strips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mothosi, KL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available induced during roll compaction of titanium strips were measured for strips of different densities. The different densities were achieved by rolling two different particle size (100 and 325 mesh) titanium powders varying the roll gap (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mm...

  12. Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of jammed titanium screws can be difficult due to the problem of stripping of the hexagonal heads of the screws. We present a technique of extraction of stripped screws with the use of a standard 4.5 mm stainless steel hollow mill in a patient of peri‑implant fracture of the radius fixed with a titanium locking plate 2 ...

  13. Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    screws. We present a technique of extraction of stripped screws with the use of a standard 4.5 mm stainless steel hollow mill in a patient of peri-implant fracture of the radius fixed with a titanium locking plate 2 years back. The technique is quick, safe, and cost effective. Key words: Hollow mill, stripped screws, titanium locked.

  14. Great saphenous vein stripping using nasogastric tube | Ademola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method and result: We describe the use of nasogastric tube in the stripping of GSV. This simple technique has been successfully applied in three patients. Conclusion: There is a need to carry out a prospective study regarding the application of this technique of GSV stripping. Keywords: Great saphenous vein, crossectomy, ...

  15. Reforestation of strip-mined lands in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Spencer Potter; Sidney Weitzman; George R., Jr. Trimble

    1951-01-01

    The early 1940's witnessed a striking increase in strip-mining throughout the eastern coal region. West Virginia, with its extensive coal resources, naturally was caught in the full current of this shift in mining methods. Today the raw gash on the hillside - almost infallibly the mark of a strip-mine operation - is a familiar sight in the State.

  16. Using Comic Strips as a Book Report Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Comic strips are great to share with parents, younger students, and peers. This article presents an activity where students use a six-paneled comic strip to summarize a story. This activity allows for multiple interpretations and enhances comprehension by drawing attention to story elements.

  17. Temperature sensitivity of the oxygenation reaction of stripped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperature sensitivity of the oxygenation reaction of stripped haemolysates from the freshwater fishes Labeo capensis and Ciarias gariepinus. ... of the mudfish Labeo capensis and the catfish Clarias gariepinus, stripped by gel filtration chromatography and buffered at 23°C in 0,05 M Hepes (pH 7,48), were determined at ...

  18. Tape Stripping Technique for Stratum Corneum Protein Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Maja-Lisa; Slotved, H.-C.; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of protein in stratum corneum in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and healthy controls, using tape stripping technique. Furthermore, to compare two different methods for protein assessment. Tape stripping was performed in AD patients and healthy ...

  19. Quality Tests of Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cambon, T; CERN. Geneva; Fintz, P; Guillaume, G; Jundt, F; Kuhn, C; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pagès, P; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Sparavec, K; Dulinski, W; Arnold, L

    1997-01-01

    The quality of the SiO2 insulator (AC coupling between metal and implanted strips) of double-sided Silicon strip detectors has been studied by using a probe station. Some tests performed on 23 wafers are described and the results are discussed. Remark This note seems to cause problems with ghostview but it can be printed without any problem.

  20. Stripping foils for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    Beam physics considerations for the stripping foil of the PSB H- injection system are described, including the arguments for the foil type, thickness, geometry and positioning. The foil performance considerations are described, including expected stripping efficiency, emittance growth, energy straggling, temperature and lifetime. The required movement ranges and tolerances are detailed, together with the assumptions used.

  1. Random pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ya'nan; Jin Dapeng; Zhao Dixin; Liu Zhen'an; Qiao Qiao; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2007-01-01

    Due to the randomness of radioactive decay and nuclear reaction, the signals from detectors are random in time. But normal pulse generator generates periodical pulses. To measure the performances of nuclear electronic devices under random inputs, a random generator is necessary. Types of random pulse generator are reviewed, 2 digital random pulse generators are introduced. (authors)

  2. Optical fiber cable chemical stripping fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, John R. (Inventor); Coleman, Alexander M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An elongated fixture handle member is connected to a fixture body member with both members having interconnecting longitudinal central axial bores for the passage of an optical cable therethrough. The axial bore of the fixture body member, however, terminates in a shoulder stop for the outer end of a jacket of the optical cable covering both an optical fiber and a coating therefor, with an axial bore of reduced diameter continuing from the shoulder stop forward for a predetermined desired length to the outer end of the fixture body member. A subsequent insertion of the fixture body member including the above optical fiber elements into a chemical stripping solution results in a softening of the exposed external coating thereat which permits easy removal thereof from the optical fiber while leaving a desired length coated fiber intact within the fixture body member.

  3. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  4. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will extend its current physics program by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, one of the two general-purpose experiments of the LHC, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of its internal tracker due to the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. New radiation-hard prototype n-in-p silicon sensors have been produced for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS tracker. The sensors have been irradiated up to the fluences expected in the high-luminous LHC collider. This paper summarizes recent results on the performance of the irradiated n-in-p detectors.

  5. Dynamic underground stripping. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) is a combination of technologies targeted to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with organic compounds. DUS is effective both above and below the water table and is especially well suited for sites with interbedded sand and clay layers. The main technologies comprising DUS are steam injection at the periphery of a contaminated area to heat permeable subsurface areas, vaporize volatile compounds bound to the soil, and drive contaminants to centrally located vacuum extraction wells; electrical heating of less permeable sediments to vaporize contaminants and drive them into the steam zone; and underground imaging such as Electrical Resistance Tomography to delineate heated areas to ensure total cleanup and process control. A full-scale demonstration was conducted on a gasoline spill site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from November 1992 through December 1993

  6. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.

  7. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2013-01-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed. PMID:24179697

  8. Comparative study of corneal strip extensometry and inflation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed; Anderson, Kevin

    2005-06-22

    Strip extensometry tests are usually considered less reliable than trephinate inflation tests in studying corneal biomechanics. In spite of the evident simplicity of strip extensometry tests, several earlier studies preferred inflation tests in determining the constitutive relationship of the cornea and its other material properties, such as Young's modulus and the hysteresis behaviour. In this research, the deficiencies of the strip tests are discussed and a mathematical procedure presented to take account of these deficiencies when obtaining the corneal material properties. The study also involves testing 10 pairs of porcine corneas using both strip extensometry and trephinate inflation techniques and the results are subjected to mathematical back analysis in order to determine the stress-strain behaviour. The behaviour obtained from the strip extensometry tests and using the new mathematical analysis procedure is shown to match closely the inflation test results.

  9. Programmable pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Zhihua; Lou Binqiao; Duan Xiaohui

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the design of programmable pulse generator that is based on a micro-controller and controlled by RS232 interface of personal computer. The whole system has good stability. The pulse generator can produce TTL pulse and analog pulse. The pulse frequency can be selected by EPLD. The voltage amplitude and pulse width of analog pulse can be adjusted by analog switches and digitally-controlled potentiometers. The software development tools of computer is National Instruments LabView5.1. The front panel of this virtual instrumentation is intuitive and easy-to-use. Parameters can be selected and changed conveniently by knob and slide

  10. Development and application of potentiometric stripping analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babincev Ljiljana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the voltammetric determination of lead, cadmium and zinc in water. Two ways of determining were investigated: individually and all three metals simultaneously. The experiments were performed using the Potentiometric Stripping Analysis (PSA. Determination of metals in real samples was preceded by preliminary tests. Preliminary investigations were performed in order to determine the optimal conditions of measurement. It was concluded that the process of determining was for most part influenced by: pH, time of metals extraction, stirring rate of the solution and the thickness of the mercury layer on the working electrode. The smallest concentrations of metals which can be determined using this method are: for lead 22.48 μg dm-3, for cadmium 16.23 μg dm-3 and for zinc 18.75 μg dm-3. The obtained results deviated from the actual 1.12% for lead, 1.91% for cadmium and 1.81% for zinc. All tests (individually and simultaneously were conducted from model solution with concentration as follows: 44.96 μg dm-3 for lead, 32.47 μg dm-3 for cadmium and 37.50 μg dm-3 for zinc. The results of individual measurements deviated by 1.02% lead, 1.90% for cadmium and 1.89% for zinc. Simultaneously the contents were lower than real for: -4.58% for lead, cadmium for -1.91% and -1.89% for zinc. For the conditions determined, except for lead, deviations did not exceed ±2% . This indicates that Potentiometric Stripping Analysis is a good way of individual and simultaneous determination of lead, cadmium and zinc and for determination of their concentrations in water (river and groundwater.

  11. Induction linacs and pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in electronic power conversion technology is making possible a new class of induction linacs that can operate at extremely high repetition rates. Advances in insulator technology, pulse forming line design and switching may also lead to a new type of high current accelerator with accelerating gradients at least an order of magnitude greater than those attainable today. The evolution of the induction accelerator pulsed power system will be discussed along with some details of these emerging technologies which are at the frontiers of accelerator technology

  12. Study of inter-strip gap effects and efficiency for full energy detection of double sided silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisichella, M.; Forneris, J.; Grassi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a characterization of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSD) with the aim to carry out a systematic study of the inter-strip effects on the energy measurement of charged particles. The dependence of the DSSSD response on ion, energy and applied bias has been investigated. (author)

  13. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Characteristics of the evolution of a plasma formed by cw and pulse-periodic CO2 laser radiation in various gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevskiĭ, M. F.; Stepanova, M. A.

    1990-06-01

    An investigation was made of the interaction between high-power cw and pulse-periodic CO2 laser radiation and a low-threshold optical breakdown plasma near a metal surface. Characteristics of the breakdown plasma were studied as a function of the experimental conditions. A qualitative analysis was made of the results using a simple one-dimensional model for laser combustion waves.

  14. Microstructural research on hot strips of low carbon steel produced by a compact strip production line under different thermal histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hao; Chen Qixiang; Kang Yonglin; Sun Yi

    2005-01-01

    Coupons with the same composition and thickness (4.0 mm nominal gauge) obtained from hot strips of low carbon steel underwent a series of investigations to analyze the microstructural characteristics and mechanisms responsible for their differences in mechanical properties. Two different industrial technologies were adopted, although the strips used in this research were produced on the same Compact Strip Production (CSP) line. One of the strips was produced with a routine γ→α CSP thermal history, but the other with a γ→α→γ* conventional thermal history. The only difference between them was that one technology had a α→γ* thermal history. Different specimens of both types of strips were prepared for metallographic observation, tensile tests, electron back-scattered diffraction tests and positron annihilation technique tests. Experimental results showed that the differences in mechanical properties could be ascribed to dissimilarities not only in the grain size and textural components but also in dislocation density

  15. Pulsed water jet generated by pulse multiplication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorský, R.; Sitek, Libor; Sochor, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2016), s. 959-967 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : high-pressure pulses * pulse intensifier * pulsed water jet * water hammer effect Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://hrcak.srce.hr/163752?lang=en

  16. New Concept of Cultivation Using Limited Strip-Tillage with Strip Shallow Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Dry land is one of land resources which potentially used for food crop cultivation, especially in the areas which have light to medium technical obstacles. The development of technology to improve soil quality in marginal lands to be productive lands is still widely open for agricultural development in Indonesia. Rooting medium quality can be improved by changing soil tillage method and observing the proper crop irrigation technology. It can be the solution for crop cultivation in clay loam soil. This study aimed to obtain water movement model in a minimally-tilled clay soil with strip shallow irrigation. The concept is limited soil-tillage with strip shallow irrigation method, water supply technique, and crop water requirement. Method used in this study includes developing water movement model (software development in a minimally-tilled clay soil with subsurface irrigation. In the final stages, research also conducted water movement analysis testing apparatus in the laboratory, field validation of the subsurface irrigation performance, and cultivation technique testing to chili pepper growth (Capsicum annuumL.. The development of water movement simulation on a limited strip-tillage with subsurface irrigation uses the concept to quantify the amount of water in the soil. The analysis of movement pattern was demonstrated on contour patterns. It showed that the wetting process can reach depth zone – 5 cm to the rooting zone. It was an important discovery on the development of minimum stripe tillage soil with subsurface irrigation. Specifically, it can be concluded that: the result of fitting by eyes to diffusivity graphic and water content obtained the required parameter values for soil physical properties. It was then simulated on horizontal water movement model on a minimum strip-tillage with strip shallow irrigation /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso

  17. Square pulse linear transformer driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The linear transformer driver (LTD technological approach can result in relatively compact devices that can deliver fast, high current, and high-voltage pulses straight out of the LTD cavity without any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The usual LTD architecture [A. A. Kim, M. G. Mazarakis, V. A. Sinebryukhov, B. M. Kovalchuk, V. A. Vizir, S. N Volkov, F. Bayol, A. N. Bastrikov, V. G. Durakov, S. V. Frolov, V. M. Alexeenko, D. H. McDaniel, W. E. Fowler, K. LeCheen, C. Olson, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, J. Porter, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402; M. G. Mazarakis, W. E. Fowler, A. A. Kim, V. A. Sinebryukhov, S. T. Rogowski, R. A. Sharpe, D. H. McDaniel, C. L. Olson, J. L. Porter, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, and J. R. Woodworth, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050401 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050401] provides sine shaped output pulses that may not be well suited for some applications like z-pinch drivers, flash radiography, high power microwaves, etc. A more suitable power pulse would have a flat or trapezoidal (rising or falling top. In this paper, we present the design and first test results of an LTD cavity that generates such a type of output pulse by including within its circular array a number of third harmonic bricks in addition to the main bricks. A voltage adder made out of a square pulse cavity linear array will produce the same shape output pulses provided that the timing of each cavity is synchronized with the propagation of the electromagnetic pulse.

  18. Membrane air stripping utilizing a plate and frame configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Membrane air stripping has recently been proposed as a possible method to remove volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and radon from drinking water supplies. Current and anticipated regulatory requirements, driven by health consequences, make the removal of these contaminants mandatory. This work examines the use of plate and frame membrane air stripping for the removal of VOCs and radon from a water supply. The theoretical basis of membrane air stripping and a literature review are included. The advantages of membrane air stripping versus other methods of removal, as well as the advantages of a plate and frame configuration versus a hollow fiber configuration for membrane air stripping are discussed. Multiple regression/correlation techniques are used to model mass transfer coefficients and fluid resistances. An economic evaluation is performed using the developed models. The costs of comparable membrane and packed tower air stripping systems are 4.86 cents per thousand gallons versus 4.36 cents per thousand gallons, respectively. This work indicates that plate and frame membrane air stripping may, in fact, prove to be an economical alternative to packed tower aeration and carbon adsorption for the removal of VOCs and radon

  19. Inadvertent Screw Stripping During Ankle Fracture Fixation in Elderly Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinah, A. Feroz; Mears, Simon C.; Knight, Trevor A.; Soin, Sandeep P.; Campbell, John T.; Belkoff, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Poor screw purchase because of osteoporosis presents difficulties in ankle fracture fixation. The aim of our study was to determine if cortical thickness, unicortical versus bicortical purchase, and bone mineral density are predictors of inadvertent screw stripping and overtightening. Ten paired cadaver ankles (average donor age, 81.7 years; range, 50-97 years) were used for the study. Computed tomography scanning with phantoms of known density was used to determine the bone density along the distal fibula. A standard small-fragment, 7-hole, one-third tubular plate was applied to the lateral surface of the fibula, with 3 proximal bicortical cortical screws and 2 distal unicortical cancellous screws. A posterior plate, in which all 5 screws were cortical and achieved bicortical purchase, was subsequently applied to the same bones and positioned so that the screw holes did not overlap. A torque sensor was used to measure the torque of each screw during insertion (Ti) and then stripping (Ts). The effect of bone density, screw location, cortical thickness, and unicortical versus bicortical purchase on Ti and Ts was checked for significance (P screws were inadvertently stripped and 12% were overtightened. Despite 21% of the screws being stripped or being at risk for stripping, we found no significant predictors to warn of impending screw stripping. Additional work is needed to identify clinically useful predictors of screw stripping. PMID:23569675

  20. Pre-earthquake Magnetic Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, J.; Heraud, J. A.; Freund, F. T.

    2015-12-01

    A semiconductor model of rocks is shown to describe unipolar magnetic pulses, a phenomenon that has been observed prior to earthquakes. These pulses are suspected to be generated deep in the Earth's crust, in and around the hypocentral volume, days or even weeks before earth quakes. Their extremely long wavelength allows them to pass through kilometers of rock. Interestingly, when the sources of these pulses are triangulated, the locations coincide with the epicenters of future earthquakes. We couple a drift-diffusion semiconductor model to a magnetic field in order to describe the electromagnetic effects associated with electrical currents flowing within rocks. The resulting system of equations is solved numerically and it is seen that a volume of rock may act as a diode that produces transient currents when it switches bias. These unidirectional currents are expected to produce transient unipolar magnetic pulses similar in form, amplitude, and duration to those observed before earthquakes, and this suggests that the pulses could be the result of geophysical semiconductor processes.

  1. Dissolved Phosphorus Retention in Buffer Strips: Influence of Slope and Soil Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darch, T; Carswell, A; Blackwell, M S A; Hawkins, J M B; Haygarth, P M; Chadwick, D

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) contributes to eutrophication of surface waters and buffer strips may be implemented to reduce its transfer from agricultural sources to watercourses. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that soil type and slope influence the retention of dissolved organic P and inorganic orthophosphate in agricultural runoff in 2-m-wide buffer strip soils. A solution, comprised of dissolved orthophosphate and the organic P compounds glucose-1-phosphate, RNA, and inositol hexakisphosphate (1.8 mg L total P) and a chloride tracer, was applied as simulated overland flow to grassland soil blocks (2 m long × 0.5 m wide × 0.35 m deep), containing intact clay or loam soils, at slope angles of 2, 5, and 10°. Phosphorus forms were determined in the surface and subsurface flow from the soil blocks. Slope had no significant effect on the hydrological behavior of the soil blocks or on the retention of any form of P at the water application rate tested. The clay soil retained 60% of the unreactive P and 21% of the reactive P applied. The loam soil retained 74% of the unreactive P applied but was a net source of reactive P (the load increased by 61%). This indicates leaching of native soil P or hydrolysis of organic compounds and complicates our understanding of P retention in buffer strip soils. Our results suggest that a 2-m buffer strip may be more effective for reducing dissolved unreactive P transfers to surface waters than for reducing the eutrophication risk posed by dissolved reactive P. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, F.J. Jr.

    1983-06-16

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  3. Pulse to pulse klystron diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, J.; Davidson, V.; Genova, L.; Johnson, R.; Reagan, D.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes a system used to study the behavior of SLAC high powered klystrons operating with a twice normal pulse width of 5 μs. At present, up to eight of the klystrons installed along the accelerator can be operated with long pulses and monitored by this system. The report will also discuss some of the recent findings and investigations

  4. Profile of a science comic strip author

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    After studying visual arts, Lison Bernet worked as a lock keeper, waitress, grape picker, farm labourer and chef before finally returning to her first love: drawing. Today a scientific illustrator, Lison is the author of the cartoon strip "La BD du LHC", which she draws every month for LHC France (by CNRS/IN2P3 and CEA/Irfu, see here).   © Lison Bernet. Lison’s career path might seem somewhat chaotic, but it is a reflection of the artist herself: original and passionate. “I never do anything by half measures. When I got into cooking for example [Lison took a chef training course for adults], I became completely wrapped up in it. I even went as far as cooking roasts during my lunch hour, just for practice…” says Lison. On completing the course, Lison got a job as a chef on a canal boat. And it was then that she got the drawing bug again. “I started keeping an illustrated travel diary,” she says. &ldquo...

  5. Operation of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gotra, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), comprising 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules covering an area of about 200 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly interpret and reconstruct the events recorded from the detector, ensuring that the SST performance fully meets the physics research program of the CMS experiment. Calibration constants may be derived from promptly reconstructed events as well as from pedestal runs gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. These calibration procedures were exercised in summer and winter 2009, when the CMS detector was commissioned using cosmic muons and proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV. During these data taking periods the performance of the SST was carefully studied: the noise of the detector, the data integrity, the signal-to-noise ratio, the hit reconstruction efficiency, the calibration workflows have been all checked for stability and for different conditions, at the module...

  6. Application of Stripping Voltammetry for the Determination of Cadmium, Lead, Copper and Zinc in Yemani soils and Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Matloob, Mohammed H.; Al Joufi, Abdulsalam M.; Al Badani, Abdu Ali S.; Aqlan, Essam M. K.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals contents in the solutions from acid digestion of Yemeni soils and vegetables were deter¬mined by differential pulsed anodic stripping voltammetry. The geometric mean for Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations for the soils (to a depth of 40 cm) were 0.56, 9.4, 35 and 58 mg kg"1 dry weight respec¬tively. These levels are closely related to the literature values for uncontaminated soils. Highest and low¬est concentrations of Cd were in watercress and cucumber (37.6 and 2.6|j.g kg"1, resp...

  7. Impact of magnetic fields on ram pressure stripping in disk galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruszkowski, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brüggen, M. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Lee, D. [The Flash Center for Computational Science, The University of Chicago, 5747 South Ellis, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Shin, M.-S., E-mail: mateuszr@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-20

    Ram pressure stripping can remove significant amounts of gas from galaxies in clusters and massive groups and thus has a large impact on the evolution of cluster galaxies. Recent observations have shown that key properties of ram-pressure-stripped tails of galaxies, such as their width and structure, are in conflict with predictions by simulations. To increase the realism of existing simulations, we simulated for the first time a disk galaxy exposed to a uniformly magnetized wind including radiative cooling and self-gravity of the gas. We find that magnetic fields have a strong effect on the morphology of the gas in the tail of the galaxy. While in the purely hydrodynamical case the tail is very clumpy, the magnetohydrodynamical case shows very filamentary structures in the tail. The filaments can be strongly supported by magnetic pressure and, wherever this is the case, the magnetic fields vectors tend to be aligned with the filaments. The ram pressure stripping process may lead to the formation of magnetized density tails that appear as bifurcated in the plane of the sky and resemble the double tails observed in ESO 137-001 and ESO 137-002. Such tails can be formed under a variety of situations, both for the disks oriented face-on with respect to the intracluster medium (ICM) wind and for the tilted ones. While this bifurcation is the consequence of the generic tendency for the magnetic fields to produce very filamentary tail morphology, the tail properties are further shaped by the combination of the magnetic field orientation and the sliding of the field past the disk surface exposed to the wind. Despite the fact that the effect of the magnetic field on the morphology of the tail is strong, magnetic draping does not strongly change the rate of gas stripping. For a face-on galaxy, the field tends to reduce the amount of gas stripping compared to the pure hydrodynamical case, and is associated with the formation of a stable magnetic draping layer on the side of

  8. A Novel Subnanosecond Monocycle Pulse Generator for UWB Radar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinfan Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel ultra-wideband (UWB monocycle pulse generator with good performance is designed and demonstrated in this paper. It contains a power supply circuit, a pulse drive circuit, a unique pulse forming circuit, and a novel monopolar-to-monocycle pulse transition circuit. The drive circuit employs wideband bipolar junction transistors (BJTs and linear power amplifier transistor to produce a high amplitude drive pulse, and the pulse forming circuit uses the transition characteristics of step recovery diode (SRD effectively to produce a negative narrow pulse. At last, the monocycle pulse forming circuit utilizes a novel inductance L short-circuited stub to generate the monocycle pulse directly. Measurement results show that the waveform of the generated monocycle pulses is over 76 V in peak-to-peak amplitude and 3.2 ns in pulse full-width. These characteristics of the monocycle pulse are advantageous for obtaining long detection range and high resolution, when it is applied to ultra-wideband radar applications.

  9. Sustainable in-well vapor stripping: A design, analytical model, and pilot study for groundwater remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Patrick T.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2014-12-01

    A sustainable in-well vapor stripping system is designed as a cost-effective alternative for remediation of shallow chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. A solar-powered air compressor is used to inject air bubbles into a monitoring well to strip volatile organic compounds from a liquid to vapor phase while simultaneously inducing groundwater circulation around the well screen. An analytical model of the remediation process is developed to estimate contaminant mass flow and removal rates. The model was calibrated based on a one-day pilot study conducted in an existing monitoring well at a former dry cleaning site. According to the model, induced groundwater circulation at the study site increased the contaminant mass flow rate into the well by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. Modeled estimates for 5 h of pulsed air injection per day at the pilot study site indicated that the average effluent concentrations of dissolved tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene can be reduced by over 90% relative to the ambient concentrations. The results indicate that the system could be used cost-effectively as either a single- or multi-well point technology to substantially reduce the mass of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater.

  10. Sustainable in-well vapor stripping: A design, analytical model, and pilot study for groundwater remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Patrick T; Ginn, Timothy R

    2014-12-15

    A sustainable in-well vapor stripping system is designed as a cost-effective alternative for remediation of shallow chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. A solar-powered air compressor is used to inject air bubbles into a monitoring well to strip volatile organic compounds from a liquid to vapor phase while simultaneously inducing groundwater circulation around the well screen. An analytical model of the remediation process is developed to estimate contaminant mass flow and removal rates. The model was calibrated based on a one-day pilot study conducted in an existing monitoring well at a former dry cleaning site. According to the model, induced groundwater circulation at the study site increased the contaminant mass flow rate into the well by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. Modeled estimates for 5h of pulsed air injection per day at the pilot study site indicated that the average effluent concentrations of dissolved tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene can be reduced by over 90% relative to the ambient concentrations. The results indicate that the system could be used cost-effectively as either a single- or multi-well point technology to substantially reduce the mass of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Beam loss studies on silicon strip detector modules for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrer, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The large beam energy of the LHC demands for a save beam abort system. Nevertheless, failures cannot be excluded with last assurance and are predicted to occur once per year. As the CMS experiment is placed in the neighboured LHC octant, it is affected by such events. The effect of an unsynchronized beam abort on the silicon strip modules of the CMS tracking detector has been investigated in this thesis by performing one accelerator and two lab experiments. The dynamical behaviour of operational parameters of modules and components has been recorded during simulated beam loss events to be able to disentangle the reasons of possible damages. The first study with high intensive proton bunches at the CERN PS ensured the robustness of the module design against beam losses. A further lab experiment with pulsed IR LEDs clarified the physical and electrical processes during such events. The silicon strip sensors on a module are protected against beam losses by a part of the module design that originally has not been...

  12. Solar UV Photooxidation as Pretreatment for Stripping Voltammetric Trace Metal Analysis in River Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelaneh Woldemichael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of solar ultraviolet radiation as sample pretreatment or preparation step in stripping voltammetric analysis of trace metals in presence of low levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC natural water samples (river water was studied. River water samples were collected from downstream of Warnow river (Germany and acidified to pH of 2±0.2 (by addition of 1 mL of ultrapure 65% HNO3 per liter sample. Furthermore, 100 μL/L of hydrogen peroxide solution (ultrapure, 30% H2O2 was added to the samples as photochemical reaction initiator. The samples were transferred to polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and irradiated with solar radiation of UV-A intensity of 3.6 mW/m2 for six hours, and the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu were determined by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV. The comparison of the values with the results obtained for the original untreated sample and artificial UV-treated one proved that solar UV radiation can be applied to the digestion of dissolved organic carbon in trace metal analysis in natural waters like river water, lake waters, well waters, and so forth.

  13. Determination of Lamotrigine in Pharmaceutical Preparations by Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry Using Screen Printed Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Julia Arcos-Martínez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a procedure that has been optimized for the determination of lamotrigine by Differential Pulse Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry (DPAdSV using carbon screen-printed electrodes (CSPE and mercury coated carbon screen-printed electrodes. Selection of the experimental parameters was made using experimental design methodology. The detection limit found was 5.0 x 10-6 M and 2.0 x 10-6 M for the non modified and Hg modified CSPE, respectively. In terms of reproducibility, the precision of the above mentioned methods was calculated in %RSD values at 9.83% for CSPE and 2.73% for Hg-CSPE. The Hg-coated CSPEs developed in this work were successfully applied in the determination of lamotrigine in pharmaceutical preparations.

  14. Acrylamide content and color development in fried potato strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2006-01-01

    and 45 min; 90 degrees C for 3 and 10 min); (iii) immersed in a citric acid solution of 10 g/L for an hour; (iv) immersed in a sodium pyrophosphate solution of 10 g/L for an hour. Acrylamide content and color was determined in the potato strips after frying. Immersed strips in water for 120 min showed...... (13 5, 327 and 564 mu m acrylamide/kg for 150, 170 and 190 degrees C, respectively). Potato strip immersion in citric acid solution of 10 g/L reduced much more the acrylamide formation after frying than the strip immersion in sodium pyrophosphate solution of 10 g/L (53% vs. 17%, respectively, average...

  15. Digital simulation of anodic stripping voltammetry from thin film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magallanes, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is routinely applied to control of Cu(II) in heavy water in the primary cooling loop of the Nuclear Power Reactor. The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is a very well-known technique in electroanalytical chemistry. However, due to the complexity of the phenomena, it is practised with the fundamentals of empiric considerations. A geometric model for the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) from thin film electrodes which can be calculated by explicit digital simulation method is proposed as a possibility of solving the electrochemically reversible, cuasi-reversible and irreversible reactions under linear potential scan and multiple potential scans. (Until now the analytical mathematical method was applied to reversible reactions). All the results are compared with analytical solutions and experimental results and it permits to conclude that the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) can be studied with the simplicity and potentialities of explicit digital simulation methods. (M.E.L.) [es

  16. Data acquisition software for the CMS strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, R; Cripps, N; Fulcher, J; Radicci, V; Wingham, M; Baulieu, G; Bel, S; Delaere, C; Drouhin, F; Gill, K; Mirabito, L; Cole, J; Jesus, A C A; Giassi, A; Giordano, D; Gross, L; Hahn, K; Mersi, S; Nikolic, M; Tkaczyk, S

    2008-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker, providing a sensitive area of approximately 200 m 2 and comprising 10 million readout channels, has recently been completed at the tracker integration facility at CERN. The strip tracker community is currently working to develop and integrate the online and offline software frameworks, known as XDAQ and CMSSW respectively, for the purposes of data acquisition and detector commissioning and monitoring. Recent developments have seen the integration of many new services and tools within the online data acquisition system, such as event building, online distributed analysis, an online monitoring framework, and data storage management. We review the various software components that comprise the strip tracker data acquisition system, the software architectures used for stand-alone and global data-taking modes. Our experiences in commissioning and operating one of the largest ever silicon micro-strip tracking systems are also reviewed

  17. The Construction of the CMS Tracker Silicon Strip Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Chiorboli, Massimiliano

    2006-01-01

    The procedures followed for the construction of the Silicon Strip Modules to be used in the CMS Tracker Detector are described. The steps of the production chain are described, and the results are given.

  18. The New Silicon Strip Detectors for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dragicevic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the ...

  19. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a laboratory investigation to evaluate the technical performance of advanced power strip (APS) devices when subjected to a range of home entertainment center and home office usage scenarios.

  20. Continuous Strip Reduction Test Simulating Tribological Conditions in Ironing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Üstünyagiz, Esmeray; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Christiansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    materials, surface roughnesses, normal pressure, sliding length, sliding speed, interface temperature and lubrication. This paper proposes a new Strip Reduction Test (SRT) for industrial ironing processes that is capable of replicating the highly severe tribological conditions that are experienced during...

  1. The detection of Cd and Pb in soil solution by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakl, M.; Jaklová Dytrtová, J.; Šestáková, Ivana; Szaková, J.; Tlustoš, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, - (2008), s. 99-100 E-ISSN 1213-7103. [International Conference on Electroanalysis /12./. 16.06.2008-19.06.2008, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/06/0496 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : heavy metals * voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  2. High Pressure Water Stripping Using Multi-Orifice Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David

    1999-01-01

    The use of multi-orifice rotary nozzles greatly increases the speed and stripping effectiveness of high pressure water blasting systems, but also greatly increases the complexity of selecting and optimizing the operating parameters. The rotational speed of the nozzle must be coupled with its transverse velocity as it passes across the surface of the substrate being stripped. The radial and angular positions of each orifice must be included in the analysis of the nozzle configuration. Orifices at the outer edge of the nozzle head move at a faster rate than the orifices located near the center. The energy transmitted to the surface from the impact force of the water stream from an outer orifice is therefore spread over a larger area than energy from an inner orifice. Utilizing a larger diameter orifice in the outer radial positions increases the total energy transmitted from the outer orifice to compensate for the wider distribution of energy. The total flow rate from the combination of all orifices must be monitored and should be kept below the pump capacity while choosing orifice to insert in each position. The energy distribution from the orifice pattern is further complicated since the rotary path of all the orifices in the nozzle head pass through the center section. All orifices contribute to the stripping in the center of the path while only the outer most orifice contributes to the stripping at the edge of the nozzle. Additional orifices contribute to the stripping from the outer edge toward the center section. With all these parameters to configure and each parameter change affecting the others, a computer model was developed to track and coordinate these parameters. The computer simulation graphically indicates the cumulative affect from each parameter selected. The result from the proper choices in parameters is a well designed, highly efficient stripping system. A poorly chosen set of parameters will cause the nozzle to strip aggressively in some areas

  3. The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker: Design and Production Status

    CERN Document Server

    Affolder, A A

    2004-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) will be equipped with 15000 silicon micro-strip detector modules covering a surface of 200 m^2. This paper details the SST layout and updates the status of construction. Progress in the fabrication of module components is detailed, with focus on the front-end hybrid and silicon sensor production. The assembly of over 2200 modules using industrial methods is described; the quality assurance protocols have resulted in modules of extremely high mechanical and electrical quality.

  4. Area Strip Mine Reclamation Using Dredged Material: A Field Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    reclamation of abandoned strip mine spoils.l1 Regraded areas can be seeded or planted with cuttings or seedlings ; however, most strip mine areas are...Helianthus petiolaris PLAINS THREE-AWN GRASS Aristida oligantha PRICKLEY LETTUCE Lactuca scariola QUACK GRASS Agropyron repens RED TOP Agrostis alba REED...Arctium minus FILD THISTLE Cirsiumn vlare BUL THISTLE Cirsiun aulgare A9’ COMMON SOW THISTLE Sonchus uliginosus PRICKLY LETTUCE Lactuca scariola A10

  5. Optimising carbon electrode materials for adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Chaisiwamongkhol, K; Batchelor-McAuley, C; Sokolov, S; Holter, J; Young, N; Compton, R

    2017-01-01

    Different types of carbon electrode materials for adsorptive stripping voltammetry are studied through the use of cyclic voltammetry. Capsaicin is utilised as a model compound for adsorptive stripping voltammetry using unmodified and modified basal plane pyrolytic graphite (BPPG) electrodes modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon black or graphene nanoplatelets, screen printed carbon electrodes (SPE), carbon nanotube modified screen printed electrodes, and carbon paste electrodes....

  6. Edge-TCT for the investigation of radiation damaged silicon strip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feindt, Finn

    2017-02-01

    The edge Transient Current Technique (TCT) is a method for the investigation of silicon sensors. This method requires infrared light from a sub-ns pulsed laser to be focused to a μm-size spot and scanned across the polished cut edge of a sensor. Electron-hole pairs are generated along the light beam in the sensor. These charge carriers drift in the electric field and induce transient currents on the sensor electrodes. The current transients are analyzed as a function of the applied voltage, temperature, absorbed dose and position of the laser-light focus, in order to determine the the drift velocities, electric field and the charge collection in the strip sensor. In the scope of this work, a new edge-TCT setup is commissioned, a procedure for the polishing of the cut edge is implemented and a method to position the focus of the laser light with respect to the sensor is developed. First edge-TCT measurements are performed on non-irradiated, 285 μm thick n-type strip sensors, and the pulse shape and charge collection is studied under different conditions. Furthermore, the prompt current of the transients is extracted, which is the first step towards the determination of the electric field. A new method to measure the attenuation of light in silicon is tested on a non-irradiated sensor and on sensors irradiated with up to a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 1.14 x 10 15 cm -2 , using laser light with a wavelength of 1052 nm.

  7. Stripped Red Giants - Helium Core White Dwarf Progenitors and their sdB Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.

    2017-03-01

    Some gaps in the mosaic of binary star evolution have recently been filled by the discoveries of helium-core white dwarf progenitors (often called extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs) as stripped cores of first-giant branch objects. Two varieties can be distinguished. One class is made up by SB1 binaries, companions being white dwarfs as well. Another class, the so-called EL CVn stars, are composite spectrum binaries, with A-Type companions. Pulsating stars are found among both classes. A riddle is posed by the apparently single objects. There is a one-to-one correspondence of the phenomena found for these new classes of star to those observed for sdB stars. In fact, standard evolutionary scenarios explain the origin of sdB stars as red giants that have been stripped close to the tip of first red giant branch. A subgroup of subluminous B stars can also be identified as stripped helium-cores of red giants. They form an extension of the ELM sequence to higher temperatures. Hence low mass white dwarfs of helium cores and sdB stars in binaries are close relatives in terms of stellar evolution.

  8. Effect Of Heat Treatment On The Corrosion Resistance Of Aluminized Steel Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaba K.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of corrosion resistance of heat treated aluminized steel strips. Products coated by Al-10Si alloy are used among others in a manufacturing process of welded pipes as the elements of the car exhaust systems, working in high temperatures and different environments (eg. wet, salty. The strips and tubes high performance requirements are applied to stability, thickness and roughness of Al-Si coating, adhesion and corrosion resistance. Tubes working in elements of exhaust systems in a wide range of temperatures are exposed to the effects of many aggressive factors, such as salty snow mud. It was therefore decided to carry out research on the impact of corrosion on the environmental influence on heat treated aluminized steel strips. The heat treatment was carried out temperatures in the range 250-700°C for 30, 180, 1440 minutes. Then the coatings was subjected to cyclic impact of snow mud. Total duration of treatment was 12 months and it was divided into three stages of four months and at the end of each stage was made the assessment of factor of corrosion. The results are presented in the form of macroscopic, microscopic (using a scanning electron microscope observations and the degree and type of rusty coating.

  9. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping: Scoping Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.

    2000-01-01

    Data collected during the first stage of a Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Strategic Research and Development Project confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping/sparging as an ultralow level mercury treatment concept for waters containing Hg(II). The process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride to convert the mercury to Hg. This form of mercury can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging. Samples of Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater containing approximately 130 ng/L of total mercury (as Hg(II)) were used for the study. In undosed samples, sparging removed 0 percent of the initial mercury. In the dosed samples, all of the removals were greater than 94 percent, except in one water type at one dose. This sample, which was saturated with dissolved oxygen, showed a 63 percent reduction in mercury following treatment at the lowest dose. Following dosing at minimally effective levels and sparging, treated water contained less than 10 ng/L total mercury. In general, the data indicate that the reduction of mercury is highly favored and that stannous chloride reagent efficiently targets the Hg(II) contaminant in the presence of competing reactions. Based on the results, the authors estimated that the costs of implementing and operating an ultralow level mercury treatment process based on chemical reduction and stripping/sparging are 10 percent to 20 percent of traditional treatment technologies

  10. FRET on lateral flow test strip to enhance sensitivity for detecting cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jidong; Cao, Fengjing; He, Songliang; Xia, Yong; Liu, Xinyu; Jiang, Wenxiao; Yu, Yangyang; Zhang, Huisheng; Chen, Wenwen

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is introduced in the lateral flow strip to detect cancer biomarker CEA with the color and fluorescence dual-readout. Anti-CEA monoclonal antibody coated Au NPs were on the conjugate pad and FITC labelled antibody (FITC-Ab) for CEA was coated on the test line. All the reagents were general in the lateral flow strip or commercially available and no new materials or technique were involved, which make our proposal a more universal method and easier to operate. With the addition of CEA on the sample pad, anti-CEA monoclonal antibody coated Au NPs-CEA-FITC-Ab complex formed on the test line, leading to a megascopic red line and simultaneous quenched fluorescence of FITC via FRET. The visual limit of detection (LOD) through distinguishing red color change was 10ng/mL and the LOD by differentiating fluorescence intensity was 0.1ng/mL, which was two orders of magnitude lower than that without considering fluorescence in the strip. And the linear range changed from 10-80ng/mL to 5-80ng/mL with the analysis of fluorescence change. Meanwhile, the feasibility of our method applied in real clinical samples was also confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Lateral Flow Strip Based Aptasensor for Detection of Ochratoxin A in Corn Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guilan; Zhu, Chao; Huang, Yafei; Yan, Jiao; Chen, Ailiang

    2018-01-31

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin identified as a contaminant in grains and wine throughout the world, and convenient, rapid and sensitive detection methods for OTA have been a long-felt need for food safety monitoring. Herein, we presented a new competitive format based lateral flow strip fluorescent aptasensor for one-step determination of OTA in corn samples. Briefly, biotin-cDNA was immobilized on the surface of a nitrocellulose filter on the test line. Without OTA, Cy5-labeled aptamer combined with complementary strands formed a stable double helix. In the presence of OTA, however, the Cy5-aptamer/OTA complexes were generated, and therefore less free aptamer was captured in the test zone, leading to an obvious decrease in fluorescent signals on the test line. The test strip showed an excellent linear relationship in the range from 1 ng·mL -1 to 1000 ng·mL -1 with the LOD of 0.40 ng·mL -1 , IC 15 value of 3.46 ng·mL -1 and recoveries from 96.4% to 104.67% in spiked corn samples. Thus, the strip sensor developed in this study is an acceptable alternative for rapid detection of the OTA level in grain samples.

  12. A Lateral Flow Strip Based Aptasensor for Detection of Ochratoxin A in Corn Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin identified as a contaminant in grains and wine throughout the world, and convenient, rapid and sensitive detection methods for OTA have been a long-felt need for food safety monitoring. Herein, we presented a new competitive format based lateral flow strip fluorescent aptasensor for one-step determination of OTA in corn samples. Briefly, biotin-cDNA was immobilized on the surface of a nitrocellulose filter on the test line. Without OTA, Cy5-labeled aptamer combined with complementary strands formed a stable double helix. In the presence of OTA, however, the Cy5-aptamer/OTA complexes were generated, and therefore less free aptamer was captured in the test zone, leading to an obvious decrease in fluorescent signals on the test line. The test strip showed an excellent linear relationship in the range from 1 ng·mL−1 to 1000 ng·mL−1 with the LOD of 0.40 ng·mL−1, IC15 value of 3.46 ng·mL−1 and recoveries from 96.4% to 104.67% in spiked corn samples. Thus, the strip sensor developed in this study is an acceptable alternative for rapid detection of the OTA level in grain samples.

  13. A new strips tracker for the upgraded ATLAS ITk detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C.

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the fluences and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new sub-detectors must thus be faster, of larger area, more segmented and more radiation hard while the amount of inactive material should be minimized and the power supply to the front-end systems should be increased. For those reasons, the current inner tracker of the ATLAS detector will be fully replaced by an all-silicon tracking system that consists of a pixel detector at small radius close to the beam line and a large area strip tracker surrounding it. This document gives an overview of the design of the strip inner tracker (Strip ITk) and summarises the intensive R&D activities performed over the last years by the numerous institutes within the Strips ITk collaboration. These studies are accompanied with a strong prototyping effort to contribute to the optimisation of the Strip ITk's structure and components. This effort culminated recently in the release of the ATLAS Strips ITk Technical Design Report (TDR).

  14. Efficient ozone, sulfate, and ammonium free resist stripping process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilo, Davide; Dietze, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, photomask resist strip and cleaning technology development was substantially driven by the industry's need to prevent surface haze formation through the elimination of sulfuric acid and ammonium hydroxide from these processes. As a result, conventional SPM (H2SO4 + H2O2) was replaced with Ozone water (DIO3) for resist stripping and organic removal to eliminate chemical haze formation [1, 2]. However, it has been shown that DIO3 basted strip and clean process causes oxidative degradation of photomask materials [3, 4]. Such material damage can affect optical properties of funcitional mask layers, causeing CD line-width, phase, transmission and reflection changes, adversely affecting image transfer during the Lithography process. To overcome Ozone induced surface damage, SUSS MicroTec successfully developed a highly efficient strip process, where photolysis of DIO3 is leading to highly reactive hydroxyl radical formation, as the main contribution to hydrocarbon removal without surface damage [5]. This technology has been further extended to a final clean process, which is utilizing pure DI water for residual organic material removal during final clean [6]. Recently, SUS MicroTec did also successfully release strip and clean processes which completely remove NH4OH, eliminating any chemicals known today to induce haze [7]. In this paper we show the benefits of these new technologies for highly efficient sulfate and ammonium free stripping and cleaning processes.

  15. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  16. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation with fifth harmonic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarakis, Michael G.; Kim, Alexander A.; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A.; Volkov, Sergey N.; Kondratiev, Sergey S.; Alexeenko, Vitaly M.; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A.; Leckbee, Joshua; Oliver, Bryan V.; Kiefer, Mark L.

    2017-03-21

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first, second, and third power delivery module. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The third power delivery module sends a third energy in the form of a third pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver is configured to form a flat-top pulse by the superposition of the first, second, and third pulses. The first, second, and third pulses have different frequencies.

  17. ELECTRICAL PULSE COUNTER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, W.M.; Jeeves, T.A.

    1962-09-01

    A progressive electrical pulse counter circuit rs designed for the counting of a chain of input pulses. The circuit employs a series of direct connected bistable counting stages simultaneously pulsed by each input pulse and a delay means connected between each of the stages. Each bistable stage has two d-c operative states, which stage, when in its initial state, prevents the next succeeding stage from changing its condition when the latter stage is pulsed. Since the delay circuits between the stages prevents the immediate decay of the d-c state of each stage when the stages are pulsed, only one stage will change its state for each input pulse, thereby providing progressive stage-by-stage counting. (AEC)

  18. Nonlinear generation of ultra-short electromagnetic pulses in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isanin, A.; Bulanov, S.S.; Kamenets, F.; Pegoraro, F.

    2005-01-01

    When a low-frequency relativistic soliton interacts with the electron density modulations of a wake plasma wave, part of the soliton electromagnetic energy is reflected in the form of an extremely short and ultraintense electromagnetic pulse. By computing analytically the spectra of the reflected and of the transmitted electromagnetic pulses, we show that the reflected wave has the form of a single cycle attosecond pulse

  19. Test-beam evaluation of heavily irradiated silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of 7.5x1034cm−2s−1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x1015 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2 in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II and CERN SPS test beam facilities to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before and after irradiation with 8x1014neqcm−2 protons and a total ionising dose of 37.2MRad. The DURA...

  20. Electron trajectories in pulsed radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einwohner, T.; Lippmann, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    The work reported here analyzes the dynamical behavior of an electron, initially at rest, when subjected to a radiation pulse of arbitrary, but integrable, shape. This is done by a general integration procedure that has been programmed in VAXIMA. Upon choosing a specific shape for the pulse, VAXIMA finds both the space-time trajectory and the four-momentum of the electron. These are obtained in analytic or numerical form - or both - at the choice of the user. Several examples of analytical and numerical solutions, for different pulse shapes, are given.

  1. Electron trajectories in pulsed radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einwohner, T.; Lippmann, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    The work reported here analyzes the dynamical behavior of an electron, initially at rest, when subjected to a radiation pulse of arbitrary, but integrable, shape. This is done by a general integration procedure that has been programmed in VAXIMA. Upon choosing a specific shape for the pulse, VAXIMA finds both the space-time trajectory and the four-momentum of the electron. These are obtained in analytic or numerical form - or both - at the choice of the user. Several examples of analytical and numerical solutions, for different pulse shapes, are given

  2. Programmable pulse series generator for NMR relaxometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolbunov, R.N.; Chichikov, S.A.; Lundin, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Paper describes a pulse series generator for NMR relaxometer. The operation mode is set on the basis of the PC program by the PCI bus in the internal memory. The design is based on two Altera Company MAX7000S and Cyclone family microcircuits using the Qartus II 4.0 software. The basic parameters are as follows: pulse minimum length - 50 ns, time resolution - 10 ns, pulse maximum number - 1024, number of controlled output channels - 8. The designed device as a part of the NMR hardware-software system enables to record, to process and to store the experiment results in the form of electronic document [ru

  3. Design and construction of double-Blumlein HV pulse power supply

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    designed and constructed to get a pulse repetition rate of 25Hz. Although, in the present work this pulse generator is used to study the streamer discharge in air, it is useful in many other applications also. Keywords. Pulse power supply; pulse forming line; Blumlein-spark gap; water load; streamer discharge. 1. Introduction.

  4. A 7 T Pulsed Magnetic Field Generator for Magnetized Laser Plasma Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangyue; Liang, Yihan; Song, Falun; Yuan, Peng; Wang, Yulin; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A pulsed magnetic field generator was developed to study the effect of a magnetic field on the evolution of a laser-generated plasma. A 40 kV pulsed power system delivered a fast (~230 ns), 55 kA current pulse into a single-turn coil surrounding the laser target, using a capacitor bank of 200 nF, a laser-triggered switch and a low-impedance strip transmission line. A one-dimensional uniform 7 T pulsed magnetic field was created using a Helmholtz coil pair with a 6 mm diameter. The pulsed magnetic field was controlled to take effect synchronously with a nanosecond heating laser beam, a femtosecond probing laser beam and an optical Intensified Charge Coupled Device (ICCD) detector. The preliminary experiments demonstrate bifurcation and focusing of plasma expansion in a transverse magnetic field.

  5. The Influence of Tool Texture on Friction and Lubrication in Strip Reduction Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Hafis Bin; Christiansen, Peter; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    While texturing of workpiece surfaces to promote lubrication in metal forming has beenapplied for several decades, tool surface texturing is rather new. In the present paper, tool texturing is studied as a method to prevent galling. A strip reduction test was conducted with tools provided...... the pocket width. Larger drawing speed facilitates escape of the entrapped lubricant in the pockets. Testing with low-to-medium viscosity oils leads to a low sheet roughness on the plateaus, but also local workpiece material pick-up on the tool plateaus. Large lubricant viscosity results in higher sheet...

  6. Hemispherical Shell Nanostructures from Metal-Stripped Embossed Alumina on Aluminum Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Albrektsen, Ole; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2011-01-01

    aluminum/ alumina (Al/Al2O3) templates as a novel and versatile nanofabrication procedure, and we demonstrate explicitly how to exploit the technique for developing large-area hexagonally close-packed hemispherical shell nanostructures by stripping noble metal layers from embossed templates fabricated from...... anodized Al. Utilizing for this process the linear relationship between anodization voltage and the resulting interpore distance in the formed oxide, it is possible to tune the radius of curvature of the resulting hemispherical shells continuously, which in turn results in tunable optical properties...

  7. STRIPPED ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES AS PROBES OF ICM PHYSICS. I. TAILS, WAKES, AND FLOW PATTERNS IN AND AROUND STRIPPED ELLIPTICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roediger, E. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojensbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Kraft, R. P.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W. R.; Machacek, M.; Randall, S.; Jones, C. [Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS-4, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Churazov, E. [MPI für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Garching, D-85741 (Germany); Kokotanekova, R., E-mail: eroediger@hs.uni-hamburg.de [AstroMundus Master Programme, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25/8, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-06-10

    Elliptical cluster galaxies are progressively stripped of their atmospheres due to their motion through the intracluster medium (ICM). Deep X-ray observations reveal the fine-structure of the galaxy’s remnant atmosphere and its gas tail and wake. This fine-structure depends on dynamic conditions (galaxy potential, initial gas contents, orbit through the host cluster), orbital stage (early infall, pre-/post-pericenter passage), and ICM plasma properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field structure). We aim to disentangle dynamic and plasma effects in order to use stripped ellipticals as probes of ICM plasma properties. This first paper of a series investigates the hydrodynamics of progressive gas stripping by means of inviscid hydrodynamical simulations. We distinguish a long-lasting initial relaxation phase and a quasi-steady stripping phase. During quasi-steady stripping, the ICM flow around the remnant atmosphere resembles the flow around solid bodies, including a “deadwater” region in the near wake. Gas is stripped from the remnant atmosphere predominantly at its sides via Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities. The downstream atmosphere is largely shielded from the ICM wind and thus shaped into a tail. Observationally, both this “remnant tail” and the stripped gas in the wake can appear as a “tail”, but only in the wake can galactic gas mix with the ambient ICM. While the qualitative results are generic, the simulations presented here are tailored to the Virgo elliptical galaxy M89 (NGC 4552) for the most direct comparison to observations. Papers II and III of this series describe the effect of viscosity and compare to Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively.

  8. Acrylamide content and color development in fried potato strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2006-01-01

    Acrylamide formation and changes in color of fried potato strips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato strips (0.8 x 0.8 x 5 cm) of Bintje variety were fried at 150, 170 and 190 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar to 40 g...... water/100 g (total basis). Prior to frying, potato strips were treated in one of the following ways: (i) immersed in distilled water for 0 min (control), 60 min and 120 min; (ii) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50 degrees C for 40 and 80 min; 70 degrees C for 10...... and 45 min; 90 degrees C for 3 and 10 min); (iii) immersed in a citric acid solution of 10 g/L for an hour; (iv) immersed in a sodium pyrophosphate solution of 10 g/L for an hour. Acrylamide content and color was determined in the potato strips after frying. Immersed strips in water for 120 min showed...

  9. Prototype indicator strip for tank ammunition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, B.; Griest, W.

    1993-10-31

    Combustible nitrocellulose ordnance casings offer advantages of: light weight, low cost, low detectability, and quick cycling of rounds by immediate disposal. However, mechanical strength is degraded with time by the action of humidity and nitroester diffusion through the casing to adhesives. The primary development effort of this study is a means to detect nitroester migration to the crucial skive joint which binds an assortment of warhead choices to propellant casings. This work has developed a prototype colorimetric indicator strip which, when applied in a field environment, produces a purple tint proportional to casing nitroester concentration, and inversely proportional to remaining adhesive joint strength. This work addressed the three steps in indicator strip use: (1) A suggested protocol for indicator strip preparation was developed. Various coatings, support reagents, and backings were examined resulting in a choice of polyethylene tape coating over separate AB- and C-impregnated cellulose punches. Various methods of punch creation and impregnation were tried resulting in stirred aqueous solutions and suspensions of AB and C, respectively. (2) Suggested protocols for indicator strip application to lab backings and field casings were developed. After chemical stripper was applied to the alumina-polyurethane paint on casings, C and AB punches were stacked and double-tape sealed. (3) A means for indicator strip monitoring was developed. From known time of indicator reaction, casing humidity, and indicator color, a means for field concentration determination was determined. Lab time-lapse photography was used to calibrate the indicator at a single level of humidity.

  10. Theoretical study of H- stripping with a wiggler magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The first step for injecting protons into the LAMPF Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at LANL is to strip a beam of 800-MeV H - ions to H 0 with a 1.8-T dipole magnet. Because of the finite lifetime of energetic H - ions in the magnetic field, their trajectories bend before stripping causing the angular spread of the beam, and therefore its emittance, to grow during the stripping process. In the case of the PSR, the horizontal beam emittance grows by a factor of roughly three during injection. As a consequence, beam losses in the ring are significantly greater than they would be if there were not emittance growth. A speculative technique is proposed in which the beam divergence growth and resulting emittance growth is reduced by stripping the H - in a wiggler magnet whose transverse field alternates in direction as a function of position along the beam axis. The wiggler field configuration is adjusted so that the angular beam spread introduced during passage through one unidirectional-field increment of path is relatively small and so that 99.99% of the beam is stripped after passing through the whole magnet. With careful field design the net added angular beam spread is reduced because the incremental angular spreads are painted back and forth over the same small range. In the hypothetical case described, the calculated emittance growth and beam loss increase are significantly smaller than those calculated for a conventional stripper magnet. 3 refs., 3 figs

  11. Handling and Curing Characteristics of Cut-Strip Tobacco. Part 2: Effect of Yellowing Time and Drying Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson WH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Part 2 of a study on comparative handling and curing characteristics of cut-strip vs. whole leaf tobacco. Part 1 considered the effect of leaf size (cut-strip size vs. whole leaf, packing density and mode of leaf orientation on cured leaf chemistry and leaf quality; whereas, the present study considers further the effect of leaf form, two yellowing times and two drying potentials during yellowing. Results showed that leaf chemistry and quality were quite similar for cut-strip (15.2 × 22.9 cm and whole leaf. Insignificant differences were noted for cured leaf starch and sugars, although slightly lower levels of alkaloids (significant at the 0.01 level were observed for cut strip. Curing treatments significantly affected leaf chemistry. Increased yellowing time resulted in lower levels of starch and higher levels of sugar. Sugars were also higher for tobacco yellowed under the higher drying potential. The two forms of leaf responded similarly to different curing schedules (i.e. no interaction of leaf form with schedule. Also, government grade and price data were essentially unaffected by leaf form or curing schedule over the range of variables tested. Cured leaf starch was abnormally high on the average for both leaf forms. Interestingly, starch levels were lower when intact tobacco was bulk-cured in racks rather than box cured (6.35% vs. 9.02%. Since curing schedules were similar, air velocity in the two curing methods might be a factor. Also the cured leaf starch content was about 56% lower for tobacco produced at the Oxford Tobacco Research Station (in a secondary study than at the Central Crops Research Station. It is postulated that carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism during growth and maturation might be affected by excess rainfall events and/or nitrogen availability, with subsequent effects on starch-to-sugar conversion during curing.

  12. Tidal stripping of stars near supermassive black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandford R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a binary system composed of a supermassive black hole and a star orbiting the hole in an equatorial, circular orbit, the stellar orbit will shrink due to the action of gravitational radiation, until the star fills its Roche lobe outside the Innermost Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO of the hole or plunges into the hole. In the former case, gas will flow through the inner Lagrange point (L1 to the hole. If this tidal stripping process happens on a time scale faster than the thermal time scale but slower than the dynamical time scale, the entropy as a function of the interior mass is conserved. The star will evolve adiabatically, and, in most cases, will recede from the hole while filling its Roche lobe. We calculate how the stellar equilibrium properties change, which determines how the stellar orbital period and mass-transfer rate change through the “Roche evolution” for various types of stars in the relativistic regime. We envisage that the mass stream eventually hits the accretion disc, where it forms a hot spot orbiting the hole and may ultimately modulate the luminosity with the stellar orbital frequency. The ultimate goal is to probe the mass and spin of the hole and provide a test of general relativity in the strong-field regime from the resultant quasi-periodic signals. The observability of such a modulation is discussed along with a possible interpretation of an intermittent 1 hour period in the X-ray emission of RE J1034+ 396.

  13. High voltage pulse conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springfield, R.M.; Wheat, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close

  14. Discovery of Ram-pressure Stripped Gas around an Elliptical Galaxy in Abell 2670

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Kim, Minjin; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Jaffé, Yara; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Nantais, Julie; Candlish, Graeme; Demarco, Ricardo; Treister, Ezequiel

    2017-01-01

    Studies of cluster galaxies are increasingly finding galaxies with spectacular one-sided tails of gas and young stars, suggestive of intense ram-pressure stripping. These so-called “jellyfish” galaxies typically have late-type morphology. In this paper, we present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of an elliptical galaxy in Abell 2670 with long tails of material visible in the optical spectra, as well as blobs with tadpole-like morphology. The spectra in the central part of the galaxy reveal a stellar component as well as ionized gas. The stellar component does not have significant rotation, while the ionized gas defines a clear star-forming gas disk. We argue, based on deep optical images of the galaxy, that the gas was most likely acquired during a past wet merger. It is possible that the star-forming blobs are also remnants of the merger. In addition, the direction and kinematics of the one-sided ionized tails, combined with the tadpole morphology of the star-forming blobs, strongly suggests that the system is undergoing ram pressure from the intracluster medium. In summary, this paper presents the discovery of a post-merger elliptical galaxy undergoing ram-pressure stripping.

  15. Cluster-based Data Gathering in Long-Strip Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FANG, W.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a special class of wireless sensor networks that are different from traditional ones in that the sensor nodes in this class of networks are deployed along narrowly elongated geographical areas and form a long-strip topology. According to hardware capabilities of current sensor nodes, a cluster-based protocol for reliable and efficient data gathering in long-strip wireless sensor networks (LSWSN is proposed. A well-distributed cluster-based architecture is first formed in the whole network through contention-based cluster head election. Cluster heads are responsible for coordination among the nodes within their clusters and aggregation of their sensory data, as well as transmission the data to the sink node on behalf of their own clusters. The intra-cluster coordination is based on the traditional TDMA schedule, in which the inter-cluster interference caused by the border nodes is solved by the multi-channel communication technique. The cluster reporting is based on the CSMA contention, in which a connected overlay network is formed by relay nodes to forward the data from the cluster heads through multi-hops to the sink node. The relay nodes are non-uniformly deployed to resolve the energy-hole problem which is extremely serious in the LSWSN. Extensive simulation results illuminate the distinguished performance of the proposed protocol.

  16. Discovery of Ram-pressure Stripped Gas around an Elliptical Galaxy in Abell 2670

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Kim, Minjin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K. [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Jaffé, Yara [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Duc, Pierre-Alain [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/Irfu/SAp CNRS Universite Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Nantais, Julie [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Fernandez Concha 700, 7591538 Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Candlish, Graeme [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso (Chile); Demarco, Ricardo [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Treister, Ezequiel, E-mail: yksheen@kasi.re.kr [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-05-01

    Studies of cluster galaxies are increasingly finding galaxies with spectacular one-sided tails of gas and young stars, suggestive of intense ram-pressure stripping. These so-called “jellyfish” galaxies typically have late-type morphology. In this paper, we present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of an elliptical galaxy in Abell 2670 with long tails of material visible in the optical spectra, as well as blobs with tadpole-like morphology. The spectra in the central part of the galaxy reveal a stellar component as well as ionized gas. The stellar component does not have significant rotation, while the ionized gas defines a clear star-forming gas disk. We argue, based on deep optical images of the galaxy, that the gas was most likely acquired during a past wet merger. It is possible that the star-forming blobs are also remnants of the merger. In addition, the direction and kinematics of the one-sided ionized tails, combined with the tadpole morphology of the star-forming blobs, strongly suggests that the system is undergoing ram pressure from the intracluster medium. In summary, this paper presents the discovery of a post-merger elliptical galaxy undergoing ram-pressure stripping.

  17. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  18. Effects of high-energy electro-pulsing treatment on microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoxin; Wang, Lingsheng; Tse, Zion T H; Tang, Guoyi; Song, Guolin

    2015-04-01

    The effect of electro-pulsing treatment (EPT) on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of cold-rolled Ti-6Al-4V alloy strips was investigated in this paper. It was found that the elongation to failure of materials obtains a noticeable enhancement with increased EPT processing time while slightly sacrificing strength. Fine recrystallized grains and the relative highest elongation to failure (32.5%) appear in the 11second-EPT samples. Grain coarsening and decreased ductility were brought in with longer EPT duration time. Fracture surface analysis shows that transition from intergranular brittle facture to transgranular dimple fracture takes place with an increase in processing time of EPT. Meanwhile, corrosion behavior of titanium alloys is greatly improved with increased EPT processing time, which is presented by polarization test and surface observation with the beneficial effect of forming a protective anatase-TiO2 film on the surface of alloys. The rapid recrystallization behavior and oxide formation of the titanium alloy strip under EPTs are attributed to the enhancement of nucleation rate, atomic diffusion and oxygen migration resulting from the coupling of the thermal and athermal effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The use of a silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass in stereotactic radiotherapy QA and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J. H. D.; Knittel, T.; Downes, S.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Jackson, M.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery/therapy (SRS/SRT) is the use of radiation ablation in place of conventional surgical excision to remove or create fibrous tissue in small target volumes. The target of the SRT/SRS treatment is often located in close proximity to critical organs, hence the requirement of high geometric precision including a tight margin on the planning target volume and a sharp dose fall off. One of the major problems with quality assurance (QA) of SRT/SRS is the availability of suitable detectors with the required spatial resolution. The authors present a novel detector that they refer to as the dose magnifying glass (DMG), which has a high spatial resolution (0.2 mm) and is capable of meeting the stringent requirements of QA and dosimetry in SRS/SRT therapy. Methods: The DMG is an array of 128 phosphor implanted n + strips on a p-type Si wafer. The sensitive area defined by a single n + strip is 20x2000 μm 2 . The Si wafer is 375 μm thick. It is mounted on a 0.12 mm thick Kapton substrate. The authors studied the dose per pulse (dpp) and angular response of the detector in a custom-made SRS phantom. The DMG was used to determine the centers of rotation and positioning errors for the linear accelerator's gantry, couch, and collimator rotations. They also used the DMG to measure the profiles and the total scatter factor (S cp ) of the SRS cones. Comparisons were made with the EBT2 film and standard S cp values. The DMG was also used for dosimetric verification of a typical SRS treatment with various noncoplanar fields and arc treatments when applied to the phantom. Results: The dose per pulse dependency of the DMG was found to be cp agrees very well with the standard data with an average difference of 1.2±1.1%. Comparison of the relative intensity profiles of the DMG and EBT2 measurements for a simulated SRS treatment shows a maximum difference of 2.5%. Conclusions: The DMG was investigated for dose per pulse and angular dependency. Its

  20. Mechanically driven millimeter source of nanosecond X-ray pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, C. G.; Escobar, J. V.; Hird, J. R.; Putterman, S. J.

    2010-06-01

    The emission of nanosecond pulses of ≈20 keV photons having a total energy of GeVs which are generated by peeling millimeter wide strips of pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) tape in a partial pressure of air (≈10-3 Torr) is demonstrated. The X-ray spectrum is similar to that obtained by peeling much wider bands of PSA, implying that the characteristic length for the sequence of processes that govern this phenomenon is less than 1 mm. These experiments demonstrate that MEMS-type X-ray generators are technologically feasible.

  1. Phonon thermal conductance of disordered graphene strips with armchair edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lipeng; Xiong Shijie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the model of lattice dynamics together with the transfer matrix technique, we investigate the thermal conductances of phonons in quasi-one-dimensional disordered graphene strips with armchair edges using Landauer formalism for thermal transport. It is found that the contributions to thermal conductance from the phonon transport near von Hove singularities is significantly suppressed by the presence of disorder, on the contrary to the effect of disorder on phonon modes in other frequency regions. Besides the magnitude, for different widths of the strips, the thermal conductance also shows different temperature dependence. At low temperatures, the thermal conductance displays quantized features of both pure and disordered graphene strips implying that the transmission of phonon modes at low frequencies are almost unaffected by the disorder

  2. Efficiency measurements for 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.d [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Koehler, Michael; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2010-11-01

    Silicon strip detectors are widely used as part of the inner tracking layers in particle physics experiments. For applications at the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, silicon detectors with extreme radiation hardness are required. The 3D detector design, where electrodes are processed from underneath the strips into the silicon bulk material, provides a way to enhance the radiation tolerance of standard planar silicon strip detectors. Detectors with several innovative 3D designs that constitute a simpler and more cost-effective processing than the 3D design initially proposed were connected to read-out electronics from LHC experiments and subsequently tested. Results on the amount of charge collected, the noise and the uniformity of charge collection are given.

  3. Synchronizing a Triple Dragline Stripping System in Thick Overburden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Bülent

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the use of combined stripping systems to investigate the technical feasibility of extracting thick coal seams underlying deep overburden strata. The possibility of using multiple draglines in tandem with bucket wheel excavator systems is explored. Pit geometry design alternatives incorporating a triple dragline excavation fleet with bucket wheel excavator-cross pit spreader subsystems (BWE+XPS are examined. A production simulation algorithm, which emphasizes synchronizing excavator units in the triple dragline system, is developed. The combined methodology is evaluated in Sector-D of the Afşin-Elbistan lignite basin, one of the most important resources for electricity production in Turkey. The results reveal that a combined stripping fleet may successfully perform overburden stripping at the predetermined rate and uncover coal seams.

  4. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-06-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  5. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Wolfgang; Dragicevic, Marko; Friedl, Markus; Fruhwirth, R; Hansel, S; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred; Oberegger, Margit; Pernicka, Manfred; Schmid, Siegfried; Stark, Roland; Steininger, Helmut; Uhl, Dieter; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Widl, Edmund; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Cardaci, Marco; Beaumont, Willem; de Langhe, Eric; de Wolf, Eddi A; Delmeire, Evelyne; Hashemi, Majid; Bouhali, Othmane; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; Elgammal, Sherif; Hammad, Gregory Habib; de Lentdecker, Gilles; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Devroede, Olivier; De Weirdt, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Goorens, Robert; Heyninck, Jan; Maes, Joris; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Wastiels, C; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bruno, Giacomo; De Callatay, Bernard; Florins, Benoit; Giammanco, Andrea; Gregoire, Ghislain; Keutgen, Thomas; Kcira, Dorian; Lemaitre, Vincent; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertermont, L; Roberfroid, Vincent; Rouby, Xavier; Teyssier, Daniel; Daubie, Evelyne; Anttila, Erkki; Czellar, Sandor; Engstrom, Pauli; Harkonen, J; Karimaki, V; Kostesmaa, J; Kuronen, Auli; Lampen, Tapio; Linden, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Maenpaa, T; Michal, Sebastien; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Ageron, Michel; Baulieu, Guillaume; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dupasquier, Thierry; Gelin, Georges; Giraud, Noël; Guillot, Gérard; Estre, Nicolas; Haroutunian, Roger; Lumb, Nicholas; Perries, Stephane; Schirra, Florent; Trocme, Benjamin; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Blaes, Reiner; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Didierjean, Francois; Goerlach, Ulrich; Graehling, Philippe; Gross, Laurent; Hosselet, J; Juillot, Pierre; Lounis, Abdenour; Maazouzi, Chaker; Olivetto, Christian; Strub, Roger; Van Hove, Pierre; Anagnostou, Georgios; Brauer, Richard; Esser, Hans; Feld, Lutz; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Kukulies, Christoph; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pierschel, Gerhard; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schwering, Georg; Sprenger, Daniel; Thomas, Maarten; Weber, Markus; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; Beissel, Franz; Bock, E; Flugge, G; Gillissen, C; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Jahn, Dieter; Kaussen, Gordon; Linn, Alexander; Perchalla, Lars; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Buhmann, Peter; Butz, Erik; Flucke, Gero; Hamdorf, Richard Helmut; Hauk, Johannes; Klanner, Robert; Pein, Uwe; Schleper, Peter; Steinbruck, G; Blum, P; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Fahrer, Manuel; Frey, Martin; Furgeri, Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Kaminski, Jochen; Ledermann, Bernhard; Liamsuwan, Thiansin; Muller, S; Muller, Th; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Steck, Pia; Zhukov, Valery; Cariola, P; De Robertis, Giuseppe; Ferorelli, Raffaele; Fiore, Luigi; Preda, M; Sala, Giuliano; Silvestris, Lucia; Tempesta, Paolo; Zito, Giuseppe; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Giordano, Domenico; Maggi, Giorgio; Manna, Norman; My, Salvatore; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Galanti, Mario; Giudice, Nunzio; Guardone, Nunzio; Noto, Francesco; Potenza, Renato; Saizu, Mirela Angela; Sparti, V; Sutera, Concetta; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Brianzi, Mirko; Civinini, Carlo; Maletta, Fernando; Manolescu, Florentina; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Broccolo, B; Ciulli, Vitaliano; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Genta, Chiara; Landi, Gregorio; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Macchiolo, Anna; Magini, Nicolo; Parrini, Giuliano; Scarlini, Enrico; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Candelori, Andrea; Dorigo, Tommaso; Kaminsky, A; Karaevski, S; Khomenkov, Volodymyr; Reznikov, Sergey; Tessaro, Mario; Bisello, Dario; De Mattia, Marco; Giubilato, Piero; Loreti, Maurizio; Mattiazzo, Serena; Nigro, Massimo; Paccagnella, Alessandro; Pantano, Devis; Pozzobon, Nicola; Tosi, Mia; Bilei, Gian Mario; Checcucci, Bruno; Fano, Livio; Servoli, Leonello; Ambroglini, Filippo; Babucci, Ezio; Benedetti, Daniele; Biasini, Maurizio; Caponeri, Benedetta; Covarelli, Roberto; Giorgi, Marco; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Marcantonini, Marta; Postolache, Vasile; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Balestri, Gabriele; Berretta, Luca; Bianucci, S; Boccali, Tommaso; Bosi, Filippo; Bracci, Fabrizio; Castaldi, Rino; Ceccanti, Marco; Cecchi, Roberto; Cerri, Claudio; Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Dobur, Didar; Dutta, Suchandra; Giassi, Alessandro; Giusti, Simone; Kartashov, Dmitry; Kraan, Aafke; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Lungu, George-Adrian; Magazzu, Guido; Mammini, Paolo; Mariani, Filippo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Moggi, Andrea; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Petragnani, Giulio; Profeti, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Domenico; Sanguinetti, Giulio; Sarkar, Subir; Sentenac, Daniel; Serban, Alin Titus; Slav, Adrian; Soldani, A; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tolaini, Sergio; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vos, Marcel; Zaccarelli, Luciano; Avanzini, Carlo; Basti, Andrea; Benucci, Leonardo; Bocci, Andrea; Cazzola, Ugo; Fiori, Francesco; Linari, Stefano; Massa, Maurizio; Messineo, Alberto; Segneri, Gabriele; Tonelli, Guido; Azzurri, Paolo; Bernardini, Jacopo; Borrello, Laura; Calzolari, Federico; Foa, Lorenzo; Gennai, Simone; Ligabue, Franco; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Rizzi, Andrea; Yang, Zong-Chang; Benotto, Franco; Demaria, Natale; Dumitrache, Floarea; Farano, R; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Migliore, Ernesto; Romero, Alessandra; Abbaneo, Duccio; Abbas, M; Ahmed, Ijaz; Akhtar, I; Albert, Eric; Bloch, Christoph; Breuker, Horst; Butt, Shahid Aleem; Buchmuller, Oliver; Cattai, Ariella; Delaere, Christophe; Delattre, Michel; Edera, Laura Maria; Engstrom, Pauli; Eppard, Michael; Gateau, Maryline; Gill, Karl; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Grabit, Robert; Honma, Alan; Huhtinen, Mika; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kortesmaa, Jarmo; Kottelat, Luc-Joseph; Kuronen, Auli; Leonardo, Nuno; Ljuslin, Christer; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Marchioro, Alessandro; Mersi, Stefano; Michal, Sebastien; Mirabito, Laurent; Muffat-Joly, Jeannine; Onnela, Antti; Paillard, Christian; Pal, Imre; Pernot, Jean-Francois; Petagna, Paolo; Petit, Patrick; Piccut, C; Pioppi, Michele; Postema, Hans; Ranieri, Riccardo; Ricci, Daniel; Rolandi, Gigi; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sigaud, Christophe; Syed, A; Siegrist, Patrice; Tropea, Paola; Troska, Jan; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Vasey, François; Alagoz, Enver; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rochet, Jacky; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Steiner, Stefan; Wilke, Lotte; Church, Ivan; Cole, Joanne; Coughlan, John A; Gay, Arnaud; Taghavi, S; Tomalin, Ian R; Bainbridge, Robert; Cripps, Nicholas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Hall, Geoffrey; Noy, Matthew; Pesaresi, Mark; Radicci, Valeria; Raymond, David Mark; Sharp, Peter; Stoye, Markus; Wingham, Matthew; Zorba, Osman; Goitom, Israel; Hobson, Peter R; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Haidong; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Stringer, Robert; Mangano, Boris; Affolder, K; Affolder, T; Allen, Andrea; Barge, Derek; Burke, Samuel; Callahan, D; Campagnari, Claudio; Crook, A; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Dietch, J; Garberson, Jeffrey; Hale, David; Incandela, H; Incandela, Joe; Jaditz, Stephen; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kreyer, Steven Lawrence; Kyre, Susanne; Lamb, James; Mc Guinness, C; Mills, C; Nguyen, Harold; Nikolic, Milan; Lowette, Steven; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rubinstein, Noah; Sanhueza, S; Shah, Yousaf Syed; Simms, L; Staszak, D; Stoner, J; Stuart, David; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; White, Dean; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Bagby, Linda; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Cihangir, Selcuk; Gutsche, Oliver; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Mark; Luzhetskiy, Nikolay; Mason, David; Miao, Ting; Moccia, Stefano; Noeding, Carsten; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Skup, Ewa; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Yumiceva, Francisco; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Zerev, E; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Khalatian, S; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Chen, Jie; Hinchey, Carl Louis; Martin, Christophe; Moulik, Tania; Robinson, Richard; Gritsan, Andrei; Lae, Chung Khim; Tran, Nhan Viet; Everaerts, Pieter; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Nahn, Steve; Rudolph, Matthew; Sung, Kevin; Betchart, Burton; Demina, Regina; Gotra, Yury; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Christofek, Leonard; Hooper, Ryan; Landsberg, Greg; Nguyen, Duong; Narain, Meenakshi; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  6. Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Moving Strip with Inertial Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-yi Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the movement mechanism of strip and rollers in tandem mill, the strip between two stands was simplified to axially moving Euler beam and the rollers were simplified to the inertial component on the fixed axis rotation, namely, inertial boundary. Nonlinear vibration mechanical model of Euler beam with inertial boundary conditions was established. The transverse and longitudinal motion equations were derived based on Hamilton’s principle. Kantorovich averaging method was employed to discretize the motion equations and the inertial boundary equations, and the solutions were obtained using the modified iteration method. Depending on numerical calculation, the amplitude-frequency responses of Euler beam were determined. The axial velocity, tension, and rotational inertia have strong influences on the vibration characteristics. The results would provide an important theoretical reference to control and analyze the vertical vibration of moving strip in continuous rolling process.

  7. ISM stripping from cluster galaxies and inhomogeneities in cooling flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Noam; Bregman, Joel N.; Sarazin, Craig L.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of the x ray surface brightness profiles of cluster cooling flows suggest that the mass flow rate decreases towards the center of the cluster. It is often suggested that this decrease results from thermal instabilities, in which denser blobs of gas cool rapidly and drop below x ray emitting temperatures. If the seeds for the thermal instabilities are entropy perturbations, these perturbations must enter the flow already in the nonlinear regime. Otherwise, the blobs would take too long to cool. Here, researchers suggest that such nonlinear perturbations might start as blobs of interstellar gas which are stripped out of cluster galaxies. Assuming that most of the gas produced by stellar mass loss in cluster galaxies is stripped from the galaxies, the total rate of such stripping is roughly M sub Interstellar Matter (ISM) approx. 100 solar mass yr(-1). It is interesting that the typical rates of cooling in cluster cooling flows are M sub cool approx. 100 solar mass yr(-1). Thus, it is possible that a substantial portion of the cooling gas originates as blobs of interstellar gas stripped from galaxies. The magnetic fields within and outside of the low entropy perturbations can help to maintain their identities, both by suppressing thermal conduction and through the dynamical effects of magnetic tension. One significant question concerning this scenario is: Why are cooling flows seen only in a fraction of clusters, although one would expect gas stripping to be very common. It may be that the density perturbations only survive and cool efficiently in clusters with a very high intracluster gas density and with the focusing effect of a central dominant galaxy. Inhomogeneities in the intracluster medium caused by the stripping of interstellar gas from galaxies can have a number of other effects on clusters. For example, these density fluctuations may disrupt the propagation of radio jets through the intracluster gas, and this may be one mechanism for producing Wide

  8. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  9. Experimental evidence that wildflower strips increase pollinator visits to crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltham, Hannah; Park, Kirsty; Minderman, Jeroen; Goulson, Dave

    2015-08-01

    Wild bees provide a free and potentially diverse ecosystem service to farmers growing pollination-dependent crops. While many crops benefit from insect pollination, soft fruit crops, including strawberries are highly dependent on this ecosystem service to produce viable fruit. However, as a result of intensive farming practices and declining pollinator populations, farmers are increasingly turning to commercially reared bees to ensure that crops are adequately pollinated throughout the season. Wildflower strips are a commonly used measure aimed at the conservation of wild pollinators. It has been suggested that commercial crops may also benefit from the presence of noncrop flowers; however, the efficacy and economic benefits of sowing flower strips for crops remain relatively unstudied. In a study system that utilizes both wild and commercial pollinators, we test whether wildflower strips increase the number of visits to adjacent commercial strawberry crops by pollinating insects. We quantified this by experimentally sowing wildflower strips approximately 20 meters away from the crop and recording the number of pollinator visits to crops with, and without, flower strips. Between June and August 2013, we walked 292 crop transects at six farms in Scotland, recording a total of 2826 pollinators. On average, the frequency of pollinator visits was 25% higher for crops with adjacent flower strips compared to those without, with a combination of wild and commercial bumblebees (Bombus spp.) accounting for 67% of all pollinators observed. This effect was independent of other confounding effects, such as the number of flowers on the crop, date, and temperature. Synthesis and applications. This study provides evidence that soft fruit farmers can increase the number of pollinators that visit their crops by sowing inexpensive flower seed mixes nearby. By investing in this management option, farmers have the potential to increase and sustain pollinator populations over time.

  10. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-10-06

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  11. A visual strip sensor for determination of iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sanjukta A., E-mail: sanjuktaak301@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Thakur, Neha; Parab, Harshala J.; Pandey, Shailaja P. [Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Shinde, Rakesh N.; Pandey, Ashok K. [Radiochemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R. [Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-12-03

    Highlights: • A visual strip sensor for on-site detection of iron has been developed and made. • The sensor is easy to synthesize, portable and recyclable with shelf life >1 year. • Visual detection limit for iron using the present sensor is 50 ng mL{sup −1}. • Visual strip sensor was applied to ground water and fruit juices. - Abstract: A visual strip has been developed for sensing iron in different aqueous samples like natural water and fruit juices. The sensor has been synthesized by UV-radiation induced graft polymerization of acrylamide monomer in microporous poly(propylene) base. For physical immobilization of iron selective reagent, the in situ polymerization of acrylamide has been carried out in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline. The loaded strip on interaction with Fe(II) in aqueous solution turned into orange red color and the intensity of the color was found to be directly proportional to the amount of Fe(II) in the aqueous sample. The minimal sensor response with naked eye was found for 50 ng mL{sup −1} of Fe in 15 min of interaction. However, as low as 20 ng mL{sup −1} Fe could be quantified using a spectrophotometer. The detection limit calculated using the 3s/S criteria, where ‘s’ is the standard deviation of the absorbance of blank reagent loaded strip and ‘S’ is the slope of the linear calibration plot, was 1.0 ng mL{sup −1}. The strip was applied to measure Fe in a variety of samples such as ground water and fruit juices.

  12. Opportunities in pulse combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenchley, D. L.; Bomelburg, H. J.

    1985-10-01

    In most pulse combustors, the combustion occurs near the closed end of a tube where inlet valves operate in phase with the pressure amplitude variations. Thus, within the combustion zone, both the temperature and the pressure oscillate around a mean value. However, the development of practical applications of pulse combustion has been hampered because effective design requires the right combination of the combustor's dimensions, valve characteristics, fuel/oxidizer combination, and flow pattern. Pulse combustion has several additional advantages for energy conversion efficiency, including high combustion and thermal efficiency, high combustion intensity, and high convective heat transfer rates. Also, pulse combustion can be self-aspirating, generating a pressure boost without using a blower. This allows the use of a compact heat exchanger that may include a condensing section and may obviate the need for a chimney. In the last decade, these features have revived interest in pulse combustion research and development, which has resulted in the development of a pulse combustion air heater by Lennox, and a pulse combustion hydronic unit by Hydrotherm, Inc. To appraise this potential for energy savings, a systematic study was conducted of the many past and present attempts to use pulse combustion for practical purposes. The authors recommended areas where pulse combustion technology could possibly be applied in the future and identified areas in which additional R and D would be necessary. Many of the results of the study project derived from a special workshop on pulse combustion. This document highlights the main points of the study report, with particular emphasis on pulse combustion application in chemical engineering.

  13. A plane mirror experiment inspired by a comic strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúcio Prados Ribeiro, Jair

    2016-01-01

    A comic strip about a plane mirror was used in a high school optics test, and it was perceived that a large portion of the students believed that the mirror should be larger than the object so the virtual image could be entirely visible. Inspired on the comic strip, an experimental demonstration with flat mirrors was developed, in order to readdress this topic learning. Students were encouraged to create their own investigation of the phenomenon with a simple instrumental apparatus and also suggest different experimental approaches.

  14. The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker performance using cosmic ray data

    CERN Document Server

    Borrello, L

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker is the largest tracking system based on silicon detector technology ever built for high energy physics experiment. It consists of 24,244 single-sided micro-strip sensors for a total active area of 198 $m^2$ and about 10 million readout channels. The SST was installed inside CMS in December 2007, commissioned during summer 2008 and then it participated along with other CMS subdetectors in several cosmic muon data taking runs. The commissioning strategy, operational experience and detector performance results will be presented.

  15. Beam test of CSES silicon strip detector module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Li; Lu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Li, Xin-Qiao; Xu, Yan-Bing; An, Zheng-Hua; Yu, Xiao-xia; Wang, Hui; Shi, Feng; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Yun

    2017-05-01

    The silicon-strip tracker of the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) consists of two double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) which provide incident particle tracking information. A low-noise analog ASIC VA140 was used in this study for DSSD signal readout. A beam test on the DSSD module was performed at the Beijing Test Beam Facility of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) using a 400-800 MeV/c proton beam. The pedestal analysis results, RMSE noise, gain correction, and intensity distribution of incident particles of the DSSD module are presented. Supported by the XXX Civil Space Programme

  16. The Dugdale model for a semi-infinite crack in a strip of two-dimensional decagonal quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling-yun, Xie; Tian-you, Fan

    2011-05-01

    The problem of a semi-infinite crack in a strip is useful in materials science and engineering. The paper proposes a Dugdale model for the configuration of two-dimensional decagonal quasicrystals. Through the complex variable method, we obtain the exact solution of the problem. The plastic zone and the crack tip opening displacement and the most important physical quantity, stress intensity factor, can be expressed in quite a simple form.

  17. Lesotho's Ideal Form of Government: Monarchic – Aristocratic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to a formal document that declared the Basotho to be British subjects, Lesotho's form of government was a conglomeration of monarchy, aristocracy and democracy. The end of British rule marked a significant turn, the Mountain Kingdom stripping off the monarchy his powers and adopting the so-called democratic form ...

  18. Pulse duration discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosakovskij, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Basic circuits of a discriminator for discrimination of pulses with the duration greater than the preset one, and of a multifunctional discriminator allowing to discriminate pulses with the duration greater (tsub(p)>tsub(s)) and lesser (tsub(p) tsub(s) and with the duration tsub(p) [ru

  19. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-01-21

    An anticoincidence device is described for a pair of adjacent channels of a multi-channel pulse height analyzer for preventing the lower channel from generating a count pulse in response to an input pulse when the input pulse has sufficient magnitude to reach the upper level channel. The anticoincidence circuit comprises a window amplifier, upper and lower level discriminators, and a biased-off amplifier. The output of the window amplifier is coupled to the inputs of the discriminators, the output of the upper level discriminator is connected to the resistance end of a series R-C network, the output of the lower level discriminator is coupled to the capacitance end of the R-C network, and the grid of the biased-off amplifier is coupled to the junction of the R-C network. In operation each discriminator produces a negative pulse output when the input pulse traverses its voltage setting. As a result of the connections to the R-C network, a trigger pulse will be sent to the biased-off amplifier when the incoming pulse level is sufficient to trigger only the lower level discriminator.

  20. Sources of pulsed radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, M.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics of various sources of pulsed radiation are examined from the viewpoint of their importance to the radiation chemist, and some examples of uses of such sources are mentioned. A summary is given of the application of methods of physical dosimetry to pulsed sources, and the calibration of convenient chemical dosimeters by physical dosimetry is outlined. 7 figures, 1 table

  1. Pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, D.F.; Bykovskii, Yu.A.; Vergun, I.I.; Kozlovskii, K.I.; Kozyrev, Yu.P.; Leonov, R.K.; Simagin, B.I.; Tsybin, A.S.; Shikanov, A.Ie.

    1986-03-01

    The paper describes a new device for generating pulsed neutron fields, utilized in nuclear geophysics for carrying out pulsed neutron logging and activation analysis under field conditions. The invention employs a sealed-off neutron tube with a laser ion source which increases neutron yield to the level of 10 neutrons per second or higher. 2 refs., 1 fig

  2. Gas phase pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Andong Liu; Mulac, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Gas phase pulse radiolysis, a technique which can be used to study many different phenomena in chemistry and physics, is discussed. As a source of small radicals, pulse radiolysis is important to the field of chemistry, particularly to combustion and atmospheric kinetics. The reactions of 1,3-butadiene, allene, ethylene and acetylene with OH are presented. 52 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Stripping Paint From Exterior Wood Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark T. Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Removing paint and other film-forming finishes is a time consuming and often difficult process. In some cases, finishes need to be removed prior to repainting; for example, if the old surface is covered with severely peeled or blistered paint or if excessive paint buildup has caused cross-grain cracking. You must also remove the finish before applying a penetrating...

  4. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry: Determination of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    –18 Gold nanoparticles pos- ... trode for improving sensitivity and low memory loss. Cr(VI) is reduced on SPE-AuNPs to form chromium ... peak current after background subtraction at 0.05 V. 3. Results and Discussion. 3.1 Characterization of ...

  5. Adsorptive Cathodic Stripping Voltammetric Determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hoang & Yen. Trop J Pharm Res, October 2013;12 (5): 783. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research October 2013; 12 (5): 783-790 ... enzymes DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase. IV, which probably leads to the lethal release of double-strand DNA breaks [3]. The bioavailable salt forms of ciprofloxacin in the market ...

  6. Periodic dark pulse emission induced by delayed feedback in a quantum well semiconductor laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the experimental observation of periodic dark pulse emission in a quantum-well semiconductor laser with delayed optical feedback. We found that under appropriate operation conditions the laser can also emit a stable train of dark pulses. The repetition frequency of the dark pulse is determined by the external cavity length. Splitting of the dark pulse was also observed. We speculate that the observed dark pulse is a kind of temporal cavity soliton formed in the laser.

  7. Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....

  8. Vector pulsing soliton of self-induced transparency in waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamashvili, G.T.

    2015-01-01

    A theory of an optical resonance vector pulsing soliton in waveguide is developed. A thin transition layer containing semiconductor quantum dots forms the boundary between the waveguide and one of the connected media. Analytical and numerical solutions for the optical vector pulsing soliton in waveguide are obtained. The vector pulsing soliton in the presence of excitonic and bi-excitonic excitations is compared with the soliton for waveguide TM-modes with parameters that can be used in modern optical experiments. It is shown that these nonlinear waves have significantly different parameters and shapes. - Highlights: • An optical vector pulsing soliton in a planar waveguide is presented. • Explicit form of the optical vector pulsing soliton are obtained. • The vector pulsing soliton and the soliton have different parameters and profiles

  9. Preparation and SERS performance of Au NP/paper strips based on inkjet printing and seed mediated growth: The effect of silver ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Guojun; Yang, Yue; Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Jian; Li, Jianjun; Zhao, Junwu

    2018-04-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been widely used in biomedical sensing with the advantages of high sensitivity and label-free. However, the fabrication of SERS substrates with good Raman activity, reproducibility, and low cost is still under development in practical applications. This paper presents a practicable method for fabricating Au NP/paper strips by using inkjet printing and seed mediated growth. Small gold seed synthesized by borohydride reduction was used as ink and printed on the filter paper. The printed gold seed grew in situ in the growth solution and formed the gold nanoparticle (Au NP)/paper strips. The fabricated paper strip was characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The diffuse reflectance spectra indicated that the Au NP/paper strips had two local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks: the short one at around 540 nm and the long one located in the range of 640-840 nm. And the long LSPR peak firstly shifted to red then to blue with the increased concentrations of silver ions in growth solution. From the SEM images, the shape of grown Au NPs was diverse, including sphere, rod, ellipsoid, dimer, trimer, and big aggregates. We thought the short peak came from the LSPR of nanospheres and the transvers LSPR of rod and ellipsoid like particles, while the long peak mainly came from the plasmonic coupling of dimer along the inter-particle axis. The obtained Au NP/paper strip with the long peak located around 650 nm had the highest SERS activity, which could be attributed to the plasmon resonance induced local field enhancement and nanogap effect. Also, the SERS performance results indicated the printed SERS strips exhibited satisfied uniformity and stability, demonstrating the potential of Au NP/paper strip in real-world applications.

  10. Young tourists visiting strip clubs and paying for sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    it for the first time. Among the men who attended strip clubs, 32% reported having done it for the first time. Stripclub patronage and paying for sex were both associated with higher levels of drinking, use of Viagra, and with having done the same thing before the holiday. Paying for sex was uniquely associated...

  11. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 538, - (2005), s. 384-407 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * silicon * micro-strip * beam * test Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  12. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry for Arsenic Determination on Composite Gold Electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Kopanica, M.; Krista, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2003), s. 265-272 ISSN 0009-2223 Grant - others:GIT(AR) 101/02/U111/CZ Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : arsenic determination * stripping voltammetry * composite gold electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.415, year: 2003

  13. Visual method for detecting critical damage in railway contact strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judek, S.; Skibicki, J.

    2018-05-01

    Ensuring an uninterrupted supply of power in the electric traction is vital for the safety of this important transport system. For this purpose, monitoring and diagnostics of the technical condition of the vehicle’s power supply elements are becoming increasingly common. This paper presents a new visual method for detecting contact strip damage, based on measurement and analysis of the movement of the overhead contact line (OCL) wire. A measurement system configuration with a 2D camera was proposed. The experimental method has shown that contact strips damage can be detected by transverse displacement signal analysis. It has been proven that the velocity signal numerically established on that basis has a comparable level in the case of identical damage, regardless of its location on the surface of the contact strip. The proposed method belongs to the group of contact-less measurements, so it does not require interference with the structure of the catenary network nor the mounting of sensors in its vicinity. Measurement of displacements of the contact wire in 2D space makes it possible to combine the functions of existing diagnostic stands assessing the correctness of the mean contact force control adjustment of the current collector with the elements of the contact strip diagnostics, which involves detecting their damage which may result in overhead contact line rupture.

  14. Nutrient removal by prairie filter strips in agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Zhou; M.J. Helmers; H. Asbjornsen; R. Kolka; M.D. Tomer; R.M. Cruse

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from agricultural landscapes have been identified as primary sources of excess nutrients in aquatic systems. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of prairie filter strips (PFS) in removing nutrients from cropland runoff in 12 small watersheds in central Iowa. Four treatments with PFS of different spatial...

  15. Metallurgical analysis of spalled work roll of hot strip mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.M.; Khan, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this study failure analysis of four work roll of the Hot Strip Mill is carried out. The microstructure is correlated with the chemical composition of shell and roll-life. It was concluded that for the longer service of the roll, cementite, graphite and martensite should be balanced (as per working requirement of the mill). (author)

  16. Effectiveness of anti-strip agents in asphalt mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Since the late 1970s there has been much research performed to better understand the stripping phenomenon in asphalt mixtures. : As a result, there have been changes in both materials and technology over the past 30 years to improve the resistance to...

  17. Strip-Search Case Testing Balance between Privacy, Student Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2009-01-01

    As it weighs the high-profile case of a 13-year-old girl strip-searched at school, the U.S. Supreme Court is grappling with where to draw the line between protecting student privacy rights and allowing school officials to take steps to ensure a safe environment. During oral arguments, several of the justices seemed sympathetic to the challenges…

  18. Evaluation of Questionnaire, Reagent Strip and Egg Count as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A longitudinal study covering 55 months evaluated the three diagnostic tools used for confirmation of prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among 1151 consented primary school pupils in 13 communities of Edo State, Nigeria. Questionnaire, reagent strip method and parasitological examination were employed.

  19. Qualification of submerged-arc narrow strip cladding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, P.S.; Gottschling, J.D.; Jeffers, G.K.

    1975-08-01

    An unique narrow strip cladding process for use on both plate and forging material for nuclear components was developed. The qualification testing of this low-heat input process for cladding nuclear components, including those of SA508 Class 2 material is described. The theory that explains the acceptable results of these tests is also given. (auth)

  20. Qualification of submerged-arc narrow strip cladding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, P.S.; Gottschling, J.D.; Jeffers, G.K.

    1976-03-01

    Babcock and Wilcox has developed an unique narrow strip cladding process for use on both plate and forging material for nuclear components. The qualification testing of this low-heat input process for cladding nuclear components is described, including those of SA508 Class 2 material. The theory that explains the acceptable results of these tests is also given

  1. Effectiveness of buffer strips in the Netherlands : research plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noij, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    On 1 July 2004 the European Commission and the Netherlands reached an agreement about the implementation of the Nitrates Directive for the nearby future. In this decree narrow fertilizer-free strips of 0.25 – 1.501 m are prescribed, depending on the type of crop and the method of herbicide

  2. Digital Images of Breast Biopsies using a Silicon Strip Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano, Luis M.; Diaz, Claudia C.; Leyva, Antonio; Cabal, Fatima; Ortiz, Carlos M.

    2006-01-01

    In our study we have used a silicon strip detector to obtain digital images of some breast tissues with micro calcifications. Some of those images will be shown and we will discuss the perspectives of using this technique as an improvement of breast cancer diagnostics

  3. Magnetic stray fields of periodically arranged Co-Crmicro strips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Lintelo, J.G.T.; te Lintelo, J.G.T.

    1993-01-01

    Research was carried out on magnetic stray fields of Co-Cr micro strips. This investigation was motivated by the search for increasing bit density and miniaturisation in magnetic data storage and magnetic sensor devices. In these devices the magnetisation is patterned, i.e. by writing bits or

  4. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Presented at the ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings on August 12-17, 2012, this presentation reports on laboratory tests of 20 currently available advanced power strip products, which reduce wasteful electricity use of miscellaneous electric loads in buildings.

  5. Impact of radiation on breakdown performance of Si strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, A; Chatterji, S; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, E K; Srivastava-Ajay, K

    2002-01-01

    The very intense radiation environment of high luminosity future colliding beam experiments, like Large Hadron Collider (LHC etc.) makes radiation hardness the most urgent demand for Si detectors. The radiation hardness of Si strip detectors especially developed for LHC experiment was investigated with respect to ionizing and nonionizing radiation using computer simulations. (10 refs).

  6. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  7. Mechanistic modeling & effectiveness of buffer strips for pesticide regulatory frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative Filter Strips (VFS) have been used as an effective conservation practice in agricultural areas for controlling and mitigate the effect of sediment, nutrients and pesticides loads into water bodies. In addition to the agricultural sector, another important use of VFS for controlling plague...

  8. Development of the H1 backward silicon strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eick, W.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Bullough, M.A.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Newton, A.M.; Wilburn, C.D.; Horisberger, R.; Pitzl, D.; Haynes, W.J.; Noyes, G.

    1996-10-01

    The development and first results are described of a silicon strip detector telescope for the HERA experiment H1 designed to measure the polar angle of deep inelastic scattered electrons at small Bjorken x and low momentum transfers Q 2 . (orig.)

  9. Engineering analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers for GEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, J.A.; Belser, F.C.; Pratuch, S.M.; Wuest, C.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Mitselmakher, G. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Gordeev, A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Johnson, C.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Polychronakos, V.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Golutvin, I.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-21

    Structural analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers performed up to the date of this publication are documented. Mechanical property data for typical chamber materials are included. This information, originally intended to be an appendix to the {open_quotes}CSC Structural Design Bible,{close_quotes} is presented as a guide for future designers of large chambers.

  10. Vibration control of an elastic strip by a singular force

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 10 September 2008; revised 27 August 2009; accepted 17 December. 2009. Abstract. Vibration characteristics of an elastic plate in the shape of an infinite strip are changed by applying a lateral concentrated force to the plate. The homo- geneous, isotropic, elastic plate is infinite in the x-direction and the sides ...

  11. Vibration control of an elastic strip by a singular force

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vibration characteristics of an elastic plate in the shape of an infinite strip are changed by applying a lateral concentrated force to the plate. The homogeneous, isotropic, elastic plate is infinite in the -direction and the sides are simply supported. The size of the force is changed in proportion to the displacement measured at ...

  12. Low material budget floating strip Micromegas for ion transmission radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, J., E-mail: jonathan.bortfeldt@cern.ch [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Biebel, O.; Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Klitzner, F.; Lösel, Ph. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Magallanes, L. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 672, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Müller, R. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Parodi, K. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlüter, T. [LMU Munich, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Voss, B. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Zibell, A. [JMU Würzburg, Sanderring 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    Floating strip Micromegas are high-accuracy and discharge insensitive gaseous detectors, able to track single particles at fluxes of 7 MHz/cm{sup 2} with 100 μm resolution. We developed low-material-budget detectors with one-dimensional strip readout, suitable for tracking at highest particle rates as encountered in medical ion transmission radiography or inner tracker applications. Recently we additionally developed Kapton-based floating strip Micromegas with two-dimensional strip readout, featuring an overall thickness of 0.011 X{sub 0}. These detectors were tested in high-rate proton and carbon-ion beams at the tandem accelerator in Garching and the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, operated with an optimized Ne:CF{sub 4} gas mixture. By coupling the Micromegas detectors to a new scintillator based range detector, ion transmission radiographies of PMMA and tissue-equivalent phantoms were acquired. The range detector with 18 layers is read out via wavelength shifting fibers, coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier. We present the performance of the Micromegas detectors with respect to timing and single plane track reconstruction using the μTPC method. We discuss the range resolution of the scintillator range telescope and present the image reconstruction capabilities of the combined system.

  13. Paint stripping with high power flattened Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researchers present results on improved paint stripping performance with an intra-cavity generated Flattened Gaussian Beam (FGB). A resonator with suitable diffractive optical elements was designed in order to produce a single mode...

  14. Upconversion fluorescent strip sensor for rapid determination of Vibrio anguillarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Wu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Yihua; Yang, Xiaoling; Jiang, Xin; Xiao, Jingfan; Zhang, Yuanxing; Li, Chunzhong

    2014-03-01

    Here, we report a simple and ultrasensitive upconversion fluorescent strip sensor based on NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles (NPs) and the lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA). Carboxyl-modified β-NaYF4:Yb,Er NPs were successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot solvothermal approach, upon further coupling with monoclonal antibody, the resultant UCNPs-antibody conjugates probes were used in LFIA and served as signal vehicles for the fluorescent reporters. V. anguillarum was used as a model analyte to demonstrate the use of this strip sensor. The limit of the detection for the fluorescent strip was determined as 102 CFU mL-1, which is 100 times lower than those displayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while the time needed for the detection was only 15 min. Furthermore, no cross-reaction with other eight pathogens was found, indicating the good specificity of the strip. This developed LFIA would offer the potential as a useful tool for the quantification of pathogens analysis in the future.

  15. A Harmonic Algorithm for the 3D Strip Packing Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bansal (Nikhil); X. Han; K. Iwama; M. Sviridenko; G. Zhang (Guochuan)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the three-dimensional (3D) strip packing problem, we are given a set of 3D rectangular items and a 3D box $B$. The goal is to pack all the items in $B$ such that the height of the packing is minimized. We consider the most basic version of the problem, where the items must be packed

  16. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenfeld, Y; Sauvestre, J E; Maréchal, F; Ottini, S; Alamanos, N; Barbier, A; Beaumel, D; Bonnereau, B; Charlet, D; Clavelin, J F; Courtat, P; Delbourgo-Salvador, P; Douet, R; Engrand, M; Ethvignot, T; Gillibert, A; Khan, E; Lapoux, V; Lagoyannis, A; Lavergne, L; Lebon, S; Lelong, P; Lesage, A; Le Ven, V; Lhenry, I; Martin, J M; Musumarra, A; Pita, S; Petizon, L; Pollacco, E; Pouthas, J; Richard, A; Rougier, D; Santonocito, D; Scarpaci, J A; Sida, J L; Soulet, C; Stutzmann, J S; Suomijärvi, T; Szmigiel, M; Volkov, P; Voltolini, G

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm sup 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and a...

  17. Use of moisture induced stress testing to evaluate stripping potential of hot mix asphalt (HMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Stripping of hot mix asphalt (HMA) in the field is an ongoing issue for many Departments of Transportation : (DOTs). A leading cause of stripping is hydraulic scouring. The Moisture Induced Stress Tester (MIST) is a recently : developed technology th...

  18. Performance of the carbon stripping foils in the Argonne FN tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, P.K.; Munson, F.; Heath, C.; Thomas, G.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon stripping foils produced by the glow discharge cracking of ethylene were produced and the foils were tested in the Argonne FN tandem accelerator. The results are presented and the characteristics of stripping media are discussed

  19. Computerized Decision Support Improves Medication Review Effectiveness : An Experiment Evaluating the STRIP Assistant's Usability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulendijk, Michiel C; Spruit, Marco R; Drenth-van Maanen, A Clara; Numans, Mattijs E; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Jansen, Paul A F; Knol, Wilma

    BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy poses threats to patients' health. The Systematic Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Prescribing (STRIP) is a drug optimization process for conducting medication reviews in primary care. To effectively and efficiently incorporate this method into daily practice, the STRIP

  20. Computerized decision support improves medication review effectiveness: an experiment evaluating the STRIP Assistant’s usability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulendijk, M.; Spruit, M.; Drenth-van Maanen, C.; Numans, M.; Brinkkemper, S.; Jansen, P.; Knol, W

    2015-01-01

    Background Polypharmacy poses threats to patients’ health. The Systematic Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Prescribing (STRIP) is a drug optimization process for conducting medication reviews in primary care. To effectively and efficiently incorporate this method into daily practice, the STRIP

  1. Tools for applying lead tape to flat conductor cabling for chemical stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angele, W.

    1969-01-01

    Two tools facilitate chemical stripping of insulation on flat conductor cabling. A tape pressing tool and a taping fixture apply adhesive lead tape with the proper amount of pressure to protect the remaining insulation from the chemical stripping solution.

  2. Extraction and stripping of neodymium (III) and dysprosium (III) by TRUEX solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Alok; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    McCabe-Thiele diagram for the extraction and stripping of Nd (III) and Dy (III) by TRUEX solvent has been constructed to determine the number of stages required for complete extraction and stripping. (author)

  3. Optical pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The interest in using large lasers to achieve a very short and intense pulse for generating fusion plasma has provided a strong impetus to reexamine the possibilities of optical pulse compression at high energy. Pulse compression allows one to generate pulses of long duration (minimizing damage problems) and subsequently compress optical pulses to achieve the short pulse duration required for specific applications. The ideal device for carrying out this program has not been developed. Of the two approaches considered, the Gires--Tournois approach is limited by the fact that the bandwidth and compression are intimately related, so that the group delay dispersion times the square of the bandwidth is about unity for all simple Gires--Tournois interferometers. The Treacy grating pair does not suffer from this limitation, but is inefficient because diffraction generally occurs in several orders and is limited by the problem of optical damage to the grating surfaces themselves. Nonlinear and parametric processes were explored. Some pulse compression was achieved by these techniques; however, they are generally difficult to control and are not very efficient. (U.S.)

  4. RF Pulsed Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritzkau, David P.

    2002-01-03

    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  5. Pros and cons of flowers strips for farmers. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyttenbroeck, R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. To counteract environmental problems due to agricultural intensification, European farmers can apply agri-environmental schemes in their fields. Flower strips are one example of these schemes, with the aim of supporting biodiversity, leading to an increase in "useful" species groups such as pollinators for crop pollination and natural enemies for pest control. However, to our knowledge, a complete appraisal of the pros and cons of flower strips, from a farmer's point of view, does not yet exist. It is proposed that better and more complete information could increase the adoption and implementation of such agri-environmental schemes. Objectives. This study aims 1 to assess the pros and cons of flower strips, from a farmer's point of view, and 2 to highlight the knowledge gaps that exist in the scientific literature, for the different types of pros and cons. Method. We listed the different components of the appraisal of pros and cons and conducted a systematic screening of the scientific literature on flower strips and these components. Results. The largest part of the 31 selected studies was concerning agronomical and ecological processes, such as pollination and animal pest control. Most of them indicated positive effects of flower strips. For many components of the appraisal, mostly economic and social ones, few or no studies were found. Conclusions. While a positive balance of pros and cons, from a farmer's point of view, came from our literature screening, large research gaps still remain and more research is required, especially in the economic and social components of the evaluation.

  6. The Examination of Fatty Acid Taste with Edible Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebba, Sahbina; Abarintos, Ray A.; Kim, Dae G.; Tiyouh, Melissa; Stull, Judith C.; Movalia, Ankur; Smutzer, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether humans could detect long-chain fatty acids when these lipid molecules are delivered to the oral cavity by edible taste strips. For suprathreshold studies, up to 1.7 umoles of stearic acid or linoleic acid were incorporated into 0.03 mm thick, one-inch square taste strips. Normalized taste intensity values for stearic acid were in the barely detectable range, with values equal to, or slightly above control strips. One-third of test subjects described the taste quality as oily/fatty/waxy. Approximately 75% of test subjects could detect the presence of linoleic acid when this fatty acid was incorporated into dissolvable strips. Normalized taste intensity values for linoleic acid were in the weak to moderate range. The most commonly reported taste quality responses for linoleic acid were fatty/oily/waxy, or bitter. When nasal airflow was obstructed, the perceived taste intensity of linoleic acid decreased by approximately 40 percent. Taste intensity values and taste quality responses for linoleic acid were then compared among tasters and non-tasters of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). Individuals who could detect the bitter taste of PROP reported higher taste intensity values for linoleic acid compared with PROP non-tasters. However, taste quality responses for linoleic acid were similar among both PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters. These results indicate that humans can detect long-chain fatty acids by both olfactory and non-olfactory pathways when these hydrophobic molecules are delivered to the oral cavity by means of edible taste strips. These studies further show that genetic variation in taste sensitivity to PROP affects chemosensory responses to the cis-unsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid in the oral cavity. PMID:22521910

  7. Comparison of blood glucose test strips in the detection of neonatal hypoglycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, B H; Kalra, D

    1982-01-01

    Blood glucose levels were estimated in 101 neonatal blood samples using three glucose test strip methods and the results compared with those from a laboratory. BM-test-glycemie 20-800 test strips and Reflotest-hypoglycemie test strips gave a rapid and reliable estimate of blood glucose level in the range 0-8 mmol/l (0-140 mg/100 ml). Dextrostix test strips tended to overestimate all blood glucose levels.

  8. Nickel(II) removal by mixtures of Acorga M5640 and DP8R in pseudo-emulsion based hollow fiber with strip dispersion technology

    OpenAIRE

    González, Roberto; Cerpa Naranjo, Arisbel; Alguacil, Francisco José

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the investigation of Ni(II) extraction from aqueous solution through pseudo-emulsion based hollow fiber strip dispersion (PSEHFSD) containing the mixture 2-hydroxy-5-nonylbenzaldehyde oxime+di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid/Exxsol D100 as extractant in the form of a pseudo-emulsion with H₂SO₄. The organic and aqueous strip phases are separated when the stirring device is stopped. The permeation of Ni(II) is investigated as a function of various experimental variables: hydrod...

  9. Pulse-width discriminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budyashov, Yu.G.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    A pulse duration discriminator is described which is intended for processing signals from multilayer scintillators. The basic elements of the scintillator are: an input gate, a current generator, an integrating capacitor, a Schmidt trigger and an anticoincidence circuit. The basic circuit of the discriminator and its time diagrams explaining its operating are given. The discriminator is based on microcircuits. Pulse duration discrimination threshold changes continuously from 20 to 100 ns, while its amplitude threshold changes within 20 to 100 mV. The temperature instability of discrimination thresholds (both in pulse width and in amplitude) is better than 0.1 per cent/deg C

  10. Radio frequency pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Z.D.

    1988-12-01

    High gradients require peak powers. One possible way to generate high peak powers is to generate a relatively long pulse at a relatively low power and compress it into a shorter pulse with higher peak power. It is possible to compress before dc to rf conversion as is done for the relativistic klystron or after dc to rf conversion as is done with SLED. In this note only radio frequency pulse compression (RFPC) is considered. Three methods of RFPC will be discussed: SLED, BEC, and REC. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  11. High performance pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Michael G.; Moran, Stuart L.; Hardesty, Leonard W.

    1992-06-01

    The device is a compact Marx-type generator capable of producing a high-voltage burst of pulses having risetimes less than 10 nanoseconds at repetition rates up to 10 kHz. High-pressure hydrogen switches are used as the switching elements to achieve high rep-rate. A small coaxial design provides low inductance and a fast risetime. The device may be used as a high-rep-rate high-voltage trigger generator, or as a high-voltage pulse source capable of producing up to 1 MV pulses at high repetition rates.

  12. Pulse joining cartridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich; Bonnen, John Joseph Francis

    2017-09-26

    A pulsed joining tool includes a tool body that defines a cavity that receives an inner tubular member and an outer tubular member and a pulse joining cartridge. The tubular members are nested together with the cartridge being disposed around the outer tubular member. The cartridge includes a conductor, such as a wire or foil, that extends around the outer tubular member and is insulated to separate a supply segment from a return segment. A source of stored electrical energy is discharged through the conductor to join the tubular members with an electromagnetic force pulse.

  13. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties...... such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types...... of MD configurations: Vacuum Membrane Distillation , Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation , Direct Contact Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation. The influence of feed temperature and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and concentration factor for different types of aroma compounds have...

  14. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types...... of MD configurations: Vacuum Membrane Distillation , Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation , Direct Contact Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation. The influence of feed temperature and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and concentration factor for different types of aroma compounds have...

  15. Sediment removal by prairie filter strips in row-cropped ephemeral watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Xiaobo Zhou; Heidi Asbjornsen; Randy Kolka; Mark D. Tomer; Richard M. Cruse

    2012-01-01

    Twelve small watersheds in central Iowa were used to evaluate the eff ectiveness of prairie filter strips (PFS) in trapping sediment from agricultural runoff. Four treatments with PFS of different size and location (100% rowcrop, 10% PFS of total watershed area at footslope, 10% PFS at footslope and in contour strips, 20% PFS at footslope and in contour strips)...

  16. 77 FR 73010 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The period of review (POR... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the United Arab Emirates'' (Preliminary Decision Memorandum), dated...

  17. 78 FR 77649 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from the United Arab... Strip from the United Arab Emirates'' (Preliminary Decision Memorandum), dated concurrently with this...

  18. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  19. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313, 314...

  20. A design aid for sizing filter strips using buffer area ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.G. Dosskey; M.J. Helmers; D.E. Eisenhauer

    2011-01-01

    Nonuniform field runoff can reduce the effectiveness of filter strips that are a uniform size along a field margin. Effectiveness can be improved by placing more filter strip where the runoff load is greater and less where the load is smaller. A modeling analysis was conducted of the relationship between pollutant trapping efficiency and the ratio of filter strip area...

  1. Effect of Strip Mining on Water Quality in Small Streams in Eastern Kentucky, 1967-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth L. Dyer; Willie R. Curtis

    1977-01-01

    Eight years of streamflow data are analyzed to show the effects of strip mining on chemical quality of water in six first-order streams in Breathitt County, Kentucky. All these watersheds were unmined in August, 1967, but five have since been strip mined. The accumulated data from this case history study indicate that strip mining causes large increases in the...

  2. Study of the influence of temperature and time on the electroplating nickel layer in Inconel 718 strips used in spacer grid of Pressurized Water Cooled nuclear reactors (PWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Renato; Abati, Amanda; Verne, Júlio; Panossian, Zehbour, E-mail: amanda.abati@marinha.mil.br, E-mail: jvernegropp@gmail.com, E-mail: renato.rezende@marinha.mil.br, E-mail: zep@ipt.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CTMSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratório de Desenvolvimento e Instrumentação de Combustível Nuclear; Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas (IPT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Inconel 718 (UNS N07718: Ni-{sup 19}Cr-{sup 18}Fe-{sup 5}Nb-3 Mo) is a precipitation hardenable nickel alloy that has good corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength. These strips are used for assembling the spacer grid of fuel element of pressurized water cooled nuclear reactors (PWR). The spacer grid is a structural component of fundamental importance in fuel elements of PWR reactors, maintaining the position and necessary spacing of the fuel rods within the arrangement of the fuel element. The spacer grid is formed by joining the points of intersection of the strips, by a joint process called brazing. For this process, these strips are stamped and plated with a thin layer of nickel by means of electroplating in order to protect against oxidation and allow a better flowability and wettability of the addition metal in the strips during brazing. Oxidation at the surface of the base material harms wettability and inhibits spreading of the liquid addition metal on the substrate surface during the brazing process. The use of coatings such as nickel plating is used to ensure such conditions. The results showed that there is a process of diffusion de some chemical elements such as chromium, iron, titanium and aluminum from the substrate to the nickel layer and nickel from the layer to the substrate. These chemical elements are responsible for the oxidation at the surface of the strip. (author)

  3. Molten salts as stripping media for radioactive superficial decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira Lainetti, Paulo Ernesto [Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente - CQMA, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 C. Universitaria Sao Paulo - SP, CEP- 5508-000 (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The main practical difficulty associated to the task of the dismantling and decommissioning of the IPEN's old Nuclear Fuel Cycle facilities has been the big amount of radioactive waste generated in the dismantling operations. The waste is mainly in the form of contaminated carbon steel structures. In the IPEN, the presence of contamination in the equipments, structures and buildings, although restricted to low and medium activity levels, constituted an important concern due, on one hand, to the great volume of radioactive wastes generated during the operations. In the other hand, it should be outstanding that the capacity of radioactive wastes stockpiling in IPEN found been exhausted. Basically, for the facilities dismantling operations, the main radionuclides of interest, from the radioprotection point of view, are U of natural isotopic composition and thorium-232. In function of the large waste volume generated in the dismantling operations, the main concerns and focuses of research and technological development in the IPEN's Chemical and Environmental Center - CQMA - have been the effluent and waste treatment subjects, besides the development of some special decontamination techniques, since most old nuclear fuel cycle facilities are installed in the CQMA's area. It should be stood out that, in scenery of reduction of the importance of the nuclear program in the Institution, occurred in the nineties and in the first half of the present decade, there was a significant reduction of sections previously engaged in the activities as, for instance, the decontamination area. That section would be of vital importance for the execution of any D and D program. In this context, the reduction of the radioactive waste volume has a significant impact in the decommissioning costs and in the amount of material to be stored. For these reasons, in spite of the role of the CQMA has not ever been the treatments of radioactive wastes or decontamination, several new

  4. IKOR - An isochronous pulse compressor ring for proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, G.

    1981-06-01

    This report contains the results of a study carried out for an isochronous compressor ring IKOR which compresses the 500 μs linac macropulses into pulses of 0.68 μs length. Its basic component is a ring magnet with alternating gradient and separated functions. Due to the isochronous operation, an rf system can be avoided which otherwise would be necessary in order to maintain a void in the circulating beam for the purpose of ejection. Injection is performed by charge exchange. The H - beam of the accelerator is first converted into a H 0 beam by stripping off one electron by a high gradient magnet placed in the transfer channel. Subsequently, the beam is converted into a proton beam by removing the remaining electron through a stripping foil in the ring. IKOR will be filled in 658 turns. Immediately after filling, the beam is ejected in a single turn via a kicker and a septum magnet and is transported to the spallation target. Because of the high intensity of 2.7 x 10 14 protons per pulse and, secondly, due to the high repetition rate of 100 Hz, beam dynamics and radiation protection aspects dominate the design and are, for this reason, treated in detail. (orig.)

  5. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Baik, Seong Hoon; Hong, Seok Kyung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-01-01

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  6. Pulsed Lorentz Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pulsed Lorentz Accelerator (PLA) is proposed to fill the propulsion gap for 6U and smaller satellites. The primary objective is to demonstrate the basic...

  7. Compact pulsed electron beam system for microwave generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. K.; Deb, P.; Shukla, R.; Banerjee, P.; Prabaharan, T.; Adhikary, B.; Verma, R.; Sharma, A.; Shyam, A.

    2012-11-01

    A compact 180 kV electron beam system is designed for high power microwave generation. The electron beam system is consists of a secondary energy storage device, which can deliver energy to the load at faster rate than usual primary energy storage system such as tesla transformers or marx generator. The short duration, high voltage pulse with fast rise time and good flattop is applied to vacuum diode for high power microwave generation. The compact electron beam system is made up of single turn primary tesla transformer which charges a helical pulse forming line and transfers its energy to vacuum diode through a high voltage pressurized spark gap switch. We have used helical pulse forming line which has higher inductance as compared to coaxial pulse forming line, which in turns increases, the pulse width and reduce the length of the pulse forming line. Water dielectric medium is used because of its high dielectric constant, high dielectric strength and efficient energy storage capability. The time dependent breakdown property and high relative permittivity of water makes it an ideal choice for this system. The high voltage flat-top pulse of 90 kV, 260 ns is measured across the matched load. In this article we have reported the design details, simulation and initial experimental results of 180 kV pulsed electron beam system for high power microwave generation.

  8. Online measurement method for pulse amplitude in pulsed extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinghai; Li Shichang; Chen Jing

    2009-01-01

    Online measurement of pulse amplitude by air purge was studied. The pulse amplitude in a pulsed extraction column was calculated online by measurement of characteristic parameters of the signal's curve. The method can be used for calculation of different pulsed extraction columns. (authors)

  9. Realtime aspects of pulse-to-pulse modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.; Riedel, C.; Roesch, W.

    1992-01-01

    The pulse-to-pulse modulation of the SIS-ESR control system is described. Fast response to operator interaction and to changes in process conditions is emphasized as well as the essential part played by the timing system in pulse-to-pulse modulation. (author)

  10. Pulsed spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development ar Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provide a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology

  11. Pulsed spallation Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development at Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provides a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology

  12. Ultrashort pulse induced nanogratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolte Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available When intense femtosecond laser pulses are focused into a glass substrate, self-organized periodic nanostructures, so-called nanogratings, are generated in a certain parameter regime. To clarify the ultimate structure of the nanogratings we employed focused ion beam (FIB milling and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS. The results considerably show that voids are the primary constituents and their number increases with ongoing exposure to laser pulses. Potential applications will be highlighted.

  13. Coherent pulse position modulation quantum cipher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohma, Masaki; Hirota, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of fundamental idea of Yuen, we present a new type of quantum random cipher, where pulse position modulated signals are encrypted in the picture of quantum Gaussian wave form. We discuss the security of our proposed system with a phase mask encryption

  14. Removal of nitrogen from swine manure by ammonia stripping; Reduccion del contenido en nitrogeno amoniacal del purin procino mediante la tecnica de stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, M. D.; Alamo, J. del; Nunez, U.; Irusta, R. [Grupo de Tecnologia Ambiental . Laboratorio de Analisis y Estudios Medioambientales. Valladolid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Lab scale experiments were undertaken to investigate air stripping as method for removing ammonia from cattle effluents and, more concretely, from the liquid fraction of swine manure. The effects of packet size, influent pH, air to liquid flow ratio and liquid recirculation flow in the stripping tower were investigated. The high ammonia removal efficiency of the air stripping method indicates that it could provide an interim solution for current waste management problems in the swine industry. (Author) 5 refs.

  15. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  16. Automatic Extraction of High-Resolution Rainfall Series from Rainfall Strip Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Valencia, Jose Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is a complex phenomenon involving the detachment and transport of soil particles, storage and runoff of rainwater, and infiltration. The relative magnitude and importance of these processes depends on a host of factors, including climate, soil, topography, cropping and land management practices among others. Most models for soil erosion or hydrological processes need an accurate storm characterization. However, this data are not always available and in some cases indirect models are generated to fill this gap. In Spain, the rain intensity data known for time periods less than 24 hours back to 1924 and many studies are limited by it. In many cases this data is stored in rainfall strip charts in the meteorological stations but haven't been transfer in a numerical form. To overcome this deficiency in the raw data a process of information extraction from large amounts of rainfall strip charts is implemented by means of computer software. The method has been developed that largely automates the intensive-labour extraction work based on van Piggelen et al. (2011). The method consists of the following five basic steps: 1) scanning the charts to high-resolution digital images, 2) manually and visually registering relevant meta information from charts and pre-processing, 3) applying automatic curve extraction software in a batch process to determine the coordinates of cumulative rainfall lines on the images (main step), 4) post processing the curves that were not correctly determined in step 3, and 5) aggregating the cumulative rainfall in pixel coordinates to the desired time resolution. A colour detection procedure is introduced that automatically separates the background of the charts and rolls from the grid and subsequently the rainfall curve. The rainfall curve is detected by minimization of a cost function. Some utilities have been added to improve the previous work and automates some auxiliary processes: readjust the bands properly, merge bands when

  17. Pulsed-DC selfsputtering of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiatrowski, A; Posadowski, W M; Radzimski, Z J

    2008-01-01

    At standard magnetron sputtering conditions (argon pressure ∼0.5 Pa) inert gas particles are often entrapped in the formed films. Inert gas contamination can be eliminated by using the self-sustained magnetron sputtering process because it is done in the absence of the inert gas atmosphere. The self-sustained sputtering (SSS) gives also a unique condition during the transport of sputtered particles to the substrate. It is especially useful for filling high aspect ratio submicron scale structures for microelectronics. So far it has been shown that the self-sputtering process can be sustained in the DC operation mode (DC-SSS) only. The main disadvantage of DC-SSS process is instability related to possible arc formation. Usage of pulsed sputtering, similarly to reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering, could eliminate this problem. In this paper results of pulsed-DC self-sustained magnetron sputtering (pulsed DC-SSS) of copper are presented for the first time. The planar magnetron equipped with a 50 mm in diameter and 6 mm thick copper target was powered by DC-power supply modulated by power switch. The maximum target power was about 11 kW (∼550W/cm 2 ). The magnetron operation was investigated as a function of pulsing frequency (20-100 kHz) and duty factor (50-90%). The discharge extinction pressure was determined for these conditions. The plasma emission spectra (400-410nm range) and deposition rates were observed for both DC and pulsed DC sustained self-sputtering processes. The presented results illustrate that stable pulsed DC-SSS process can be obtained at pulsing frequency in the range of 60-100 kHz and duty factor of 70-90%

  18. The new silicon strip detectors for the CMS tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragicevic, M.

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the tracker caused by the increase in luminosity which is proposed as an upgrade to the LHC accelerator (sLHC). This chapter motivates the work I have conducted and clarifies why the solutions proposed by myself are important contributions to the upgrade of the CMS tracker. The following chapters present the concepts that are necessary to operate the silicon strip sensors at sLHC luminosities and additional improvements to the construction and quality assurance of the sensors and the detector modules. The most important concepts and works presented in chapters 7 to 9 are: Development of a software framework to enable the flexible and quick design of test structures and sensors. Selecting a suitable sensor material which is sufficiently radiation hard. Design, implementation and production of a standard set of test structures to enable the quality assurance of such sensors and any future developments. Electrical characterisation of the test structures and analysis

  19. Broadband CPMG sequence with short composite refocusing pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, Van D. M.; Mandal, Soumyajit; Song, Yi-Qiao; Hürlimann, Martin D.

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate that CPMG sequences with phase-modulated refocusing pulses of the same duration as the standard 180° pulses can generate echo trains with significantly increased amplitudes compared to the standard CPMG sequence in the case when there is a large range of Larmor frequencies across the sample. The best performance is achieved with symmetric phase-alternating (SPA) composite refocusing pulses of the form α-yβ+yα-y. In comparison to standard 180° pulses, we show that with SPA refocusing pulses with α ≈ 27° and β ≈ 126°, it is possible to double the signal-to-noise ratio without increasing the total pulse duration or power consumption of the refocusing pulses. The increased bandwidth of these pulses more than compensates for the decrease in performance in the vicinity of resonance. To achieve the full benefit of the broadband nature of the SPA pulses in a CPMG sequence, it is necessary to combine these refocusing pulses with a broadband excitation pulse. When it is not possible to use a short, high amplitude excitation pulse, we show that phase-alternating (PA) excitation pulses are suitable for this purpose. We present a detailed analysis of the underlying spin dynamics of these new pulse sequences and confirm the simulations with experiments. We show that for samples with T1/T2 > 1, the new sequences in grossly inhomogeneous fields do not only generate echoes with an increased amplitude, but also with an increased decay time. Finally, we analyze the diffusion properties and show quantitatively that the broadband sequences have a substantially higher diffusion sensitivity compared with the standard CPMG sequence.

  20. Instantaneous coherent destruction of tunneling and fast quantum state preparation for strongly pulsed spin qubits in diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn

    2010-01-01

    Qubits driven by resonant strong pulses are studied and a parameter regime is explored in which the dynamics can be solved in closed form. Instantaneous coherent destruction of tunneling can be seen for longer pulses, whereas shorter pulses allow a fast preparation of the qubit state. Results...... are compared with recent experiments of pulsed nitrogen-vacancy center spin qubits in diamond....

  1. Land restoration after strip mining for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    Recent legislation requires that lands surface mined for coal be returned to approximate original topography and vegetative cover be restored. Spoils provide poor rooting habitat because of extreme stoniness or excessive slope steepness which provide few niches for seeds to become lodged and also spoil may provide poor mineral nutrition, poor water retention and sometimes the spoil may even have chemical properties detrimental to plant growth (acidity, alkalinity or even unusually large amounts of toxic mineral elements i.e., copper, sodium). To provide a substrate better suited for plant growth, recommendations for restoration call for deep burial of unfavorable substrate components i.e., rocks and materials of unusual chemistry and the dressing of reshaped spoil with topsoil i.e., material with the most favorable properties for plant growth. Even though all the substrate requirements for healthy plant growth may be met, such as adding a form of available nitrogen as fertilizer, plants will not grow if weather conditions are extreme. For example, in very dry (desert) climates precipitation may be too scanty or too erratic to permit the successful establishment of many kinds of plants. Even under the most favorable conditions plant productivity averaged over a period of years is low. Also in very cold climates the growing season may be limited to only a few weeks in summer e.g., arctic and alpine tundra regions. This shortens the time available for photosynthesis and keeps plant productivity low.

  2. Signal-Amplified Lateral Flow Test Strip for Visual Detection of Cu2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Wang

    Full Text Available A signal-amplified lateral flow test strip (SA-LFTS for the detection of Cu2+ in aqueous solution was constructed based on Cu+-catalyzed click chemistry and hybridization of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA. Alkyne and azide modified ssDNA acted as specific elements for Cu2+ recognition, and a chemical ligation product formed through Cu+-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition. Hybridization of ssDNA-labeled gold nanoparticles resulted in high sensitivity, and the output signal could be observed directly by the naked eye. Using the developed SA-LFTS under optimal conditions, Cu2+ could be detected rapidly with limit of detections of 5 nM and 4.2 nM by visual observation and quantitative analysis, respectively. The sensitivity (i.e. the visual limit of detection of the SA-LFTS was 80-times higher than that of traditional LFTS. The SA-LFTS was applied to the determination of Cu2+ in municipal water and river water samples with the results showing good recovery and accuracy. The developed test strip is promising for point-of-care applications and detection of Cu2+ in the field.

  3. Stripping of acetone from water with microfabricated and membrane gas-liquid contactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Achilleas; Ghiotto, Francesco; Lam, Koon Fung; Gavriilidis, Asterios

    2014-01-07

    Stripping of acetone from water utilizing nitrogen as a sweeping gas in co-current flow was conducted in a microfabricated glass/silicon gas-liquid contactor. The chip consisted of a microchannel divided into a gas and a liquid chamber by 10 μm diameter micropillars located next to one of the channel walls. The channel length was 35 mm, the channel width was 220 μm and the microchannel depth 100 μm. The micropillars were wetted by the water/acetone solution and formed a 15 μm liquid film between them and the nearest channel wall, leaving a 195 μm gap for gas flow. In addition, acetone stripping was performed in a microchannel membrane contactor, utilizing a hydrophobic PTFE membrane placed between two microstructured acrylic plates. Microchannels for gas and liquid flows were machined in the plates and had a depth of 850 μm and 200 μm respectively. In both contactors the gas/liquid interface was stabilized: in the glass/silicon contactor by the hydrophilic micropillars, while in the PTFE/acrylic one by the hydrophobic membrane. For both contactors separation efficiency was found to increase by increasing the gas/liquid flow rate ratio, but was not affected when increasing the inlet acetone concentration. Separation was more efficient in the microfabricated contactor due to the very thin liquid layer employed.

  4. Removal of Chloroform (CHCl3 from Tehran Drinking Water by GAC and Air Stripping Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M T Samadi, S Nasseri, A Mesdaghinia, M R Alizadefard

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The harmful substances, defined as trihalomethanes (THMs, were found to be formed during the disinfection of drinking water when chlorine was used as the disinfectant. In this research, the effectiveness of granular activated carbon (GAC and air stripping (AS packed column for the removal of chloroform (CHCl3 (as THMs basic indicator compound in many resources in range of 50 to300µg/L, from drinking water was studied. Pilots of GAC and air stripping columns were designed and set up. The study was carried out for the two cases of deionized and chlorinated Tehran tap water. Also the effects of flow rate, chloroform and TDS concentrations were considered in both treatment systems. Gas chromatography (GC with electron capture detector (ECD was used for determination of chloroform concentration in inlet and outlet samples. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS and non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis method. Results showed a positive correlation between the flow rate and chloroform concentration, and removal efficiencies. The average of variations of removal efficiencies for AS and GAC columns with deionized water samples were, 89.9%, 71.2% and for chlorinated Tehran tap water were 91.2% and 76.4%, respectively. The removal of feed residual chlorine in these columns with 0.5, 0.8 ppm was 100%, respectively and re-chlorination for finishing water was recommended. Results showed AS to be considered more effective in chloroform removal for conventional water treatment plants as a finishing process.

  5. Gas stripping and mixing in galaxy clusters: a numerical comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heß, Steffen; Springel, Volker

    2012-11-01

    The ambient hot intrahalo gas in clusters of galaxies is constantly fed and stirred by infalling galaxies, a process that can be studied in detail with cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. However, different numerical methods yield discrepant predictions for crucial hydrodynamical processes, leading for example to different entropy profiles in clusters of galaxies. In particular, the widely used Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) scheme is suspected to strongly damp fluid instabilities and turbulence, which are both crucial to establish the thermodynamic structure of clusters. In this study, we test to which extent our recently developed Voronoi particle hydrodynamics (VPH) scheme yields different results for the stripping of gas out of infalling galaxies and for the bulk gas properties of cluster. We consider both the evolution of isolated galaxy models that are exposed to a stream of intracluster medium or are dropped into cluster models, as well as non-radiative cosmological simulations of cluster formation. We also compare our particle-based method with results obtained with a fundamentally different discretization approach as implemented in the moving-mesh code AREPO. We find that VPH leads to noticeably faster stripping of gas out of galaxies than SPH, in better agreement with the mesh-code than with SPH. We show that despite the fact that VPH in its present form is not as accurate as the moving mesh code in our investigated cases, its improved accuracy of gradient estimates makes VPH an attractive alternative to SPH.

  6. Signal-Amplified Lateral Flow Test Strip for Visual Detection of Cu2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Juanjuan; Dong, Jinbo; Cai, Jia; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua; Zhang, Cunzheng; Liu, Fengquan

    2017-01-01

    A signal-amplified lateral flow test strip (SA-LFTS) for the detection of Cu2+ in aqueous solution was constructed based on Cu+-catalyzed click chemistry and hybridization of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Alkyne and azide modified ssDNA acted as specific elements for Cu2+ recognition, and a chemical ligation product formed through Cu+-catalyzed alkyne–azide cycloaddition. Hybridization of ssDNA-labeled gold nanoparticles resulted in high sensitivity, and the output signal could be observed directly by the naked eye. Using the developed SA-LFTS under optimal conditions, Cu2+ could be detected rapidly with limit of detections of 5 nM and 4.2 nM by visual observation and quantitative analysis, respectively. The sensitivity (i.e. the visual limit of detection) of the SA-LFTS was 80-times higher than that of traditional LFTS. The SA-LFTS was applied to the determination of Cu2+ in municipal water and river water samples with the results showing good recovery and accuracy. The developed test strip is promising for point-of-care applications and detection of Cu2+ in the field. PMID:28072878

  7. Particle acceleration by electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    Particle interaction with plane electromagnetic pulses is studied. It is shown that particle acceleration by a wavy pulse, depending on the shape of the pulse, may not be small. Further, a diffusive-type particle acceleration by multiple weak pulses is described and discussed. (author)

  8. Dynamics of traveling reaction pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovzhenko, A. Yu.; Rumanov, E. N.

    2007-01-01

    The growth of activator losses is accompanied by the decay of a traveling reaction pulse. In a ring reactor, this propagation threshold is present simultaneously with a threshold related to the ring diameter. The results of numerical experiments with pulses of an exothermal reaction reveal the transition from pulse propagation to a homogeneous hot regime, established regimes with periodic variations of the pulse velocity, and oscillatory decay of the pulse. When the medium becomes 'bistable' as a result of the variation in parameters, this factor does not prevent the propagation of pulses, but leads to changes in the pulse structure

  9. High voltage pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  10. Dietary behaviours and dental fluorosis among Gaza Strip children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhaloob, L; Abed, Y

    2013-07-01

    A high prevalence of dental fluorosis has been identified among children in the Gaza Strip. This study aimed to determine the history of breastfeeding and dietary behaviours among children in the Gaza Strip and to examine potential associations with the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. A cross-sectional study recruited a stratified cluster random sample of 350 children aged 12-18 years and their mothers. Data about dietary behaviours in the first 7 years of life were collected by interview questionnaire. Dental fluorosis was determined using the Thyllstrup-Fejerskov index. A majority of children were breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months (82.9%) but 98.1% were given tea in the first year of life. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 78.0%. Both intake of animal proteins and plant proteins were negatively associated with the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. Further studies to investigate fluoride intake is required to plan preventive interventions.

  11. Slip Morphology of Elastic Strips on Frictional Rigid Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Tomohiko G; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Wada, Hirofumi

    2017-04-28

    The morphology of an elastic strip subject to vertical compressive stress on a frictional rigid substrate is investigated by a combination of theory and experiment. We find a rich variety of morphologies, which-when the bending elasticity dominates over the effect of gravity-are classified into three distinct types of states: pinned, partially slipped, and completely slipped, depending on the magnitude of the vertical strain and the coefficient of static friction. We develop a theory of elastica under mixed clamped-hinged boundary conditions combined with the Coulomb-Amontons friction law and find excellent quantitative agreement with simulations and controlled physical experiments. We also discuss the effect of gravity in order to bridge the difference in the qualitative behaviors of stiff strips and flexible strings or ropes. Our study thus complements recent work on elastic rope coiling and takes a significant step towards establishing a unified understanding of how a thin elastic object interacts vertically with a solid surface.

  12. Feature curve extraction from point clouds via developable strip intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wah Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of computing smooth feature curves from CAD type point clouds models. The proposed method reconstructs feature curves from the intersections of developable strip pairs which approximate the regions along both sides of the features. The generation of developable surfaces is based on a linear approximation of the given point cloud through a variational shape approximation approach. A line segment sequencing algorithm is proposed for collecting feature line segments into different feature sequences as well as sequential groups of data points. A developable surface approximation procedure is employed to refine incident approximation planes of data points into developable strips. Some experimental results are included to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  13. Cooling characteristics of a strip fin heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riu, Kap Jong; Park, Cheol Woo; Jang, Chung Sun; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2005-01-01

    Air-cooled heat sinks are employed in many electronic cooling applications since they provide significant heat transfer enhancement and operational flexibility. Strip-shaped fin heat sink is of interest and needs to be investigated as general cooling products for more applicability. The purposes of this study are to evaluate heat sink performance without bypass flow condition and to determine optimal heat sink geometries. The results show that the decreasing rate of thermal resistance of a heat sink decreases with increasing inlet air velocity, and the increasing rate of pressure drop increases with increasing inlet air velocity, but is not affected by input power. The increasing rate of optimal longitudinal fin spacing is larger than that of transverse fin spacing. The strip fin heat sink tested in this study showed better cooling performance compared to that of other plate fin type

  14. The Data Quality Monitoring for the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, V; Bainbridge, R; Benucci, L; Borgia, M A; Borrello, L; Cole, J; Cripps, N; Delmeire, E; Dero, V; Dutta, S; Giordano, D; Hammad, G H; Hashemi, H; Le Bihan, A C; Le Bourgeois, M; Palmonari, F; Pierro, A; Zito, G

    2009-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), consisting of more than 10 million channels, is organized in about 15,000 detector modules and it is the largest silicon strip tracker ever built for high energy physics experiments. The Data Quality Monitoring system for the Tracker has been developed within the CMS Software framework. More than 100,000 monitorable quantities need to be managed by the DQM system that organizes them in a hierarchical structure reflecting the detector arrangement in subcomponents and the various levels of data processing. Monitorable quantities computed at the level of individual detectors are processed to extract automatic quality checks and summary results that can be visualized with specialized graphical user interfaces. In view of the great complexity of the CMS Tracker detector the standard visualization tools based on histograms have been complemented with 2 and 3 dimensional graphical images of the subdetector that can show the whole detector down to single channel resolution. The fu...

  15. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The LHC upgrade is foreseen to increase the ATLAS design luminosity by a factor ten, implying the need to build a new tracker suited to the harsh HL-LHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. We give an overview of the ATLAS tracker upgrade project, in particular focusing on the crucial innermost silicon strip layers. Results from a wide range of irradiated silicon detectors for the strip region of the future ATLAS tracker are presented. Layout concepts for lightweight yet mechanically very rigid detector modules with high service integration are shown.

  16. A new semicustom integrated bipolar amplifier for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.

    1989-01-01

    The QPA02 is a four channel DC coupled two stage transimpedance amplifier designed at Fermilab on a semicustom linear array (Quickchip 2S) manufactured by Tektronix. The chip was developed as a silicon strip amplifier but may have other applications as well. Each channel consists of a preamplifier and a second stage amplifier/sharper with differential output which can directly drive a transmission line (90 to 140 ohms). External bypass capacitors are the only discrete components required. QPA02 has been tested and demonstrated to be an effective silicon strip amplifier. Other applications may exist which can use this amplifier or a modified version of this amplifier. For example, another design is now in progress for a wire chamber amplifier, QPA03, to be reported later. Only a relatively small effort was required to modify the design and layout for this application. 11 figs

  17. Linear induction accelerators made from pulse-line cavities with external pulse injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, I.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of linear induction accelerator have been reported previously. In one, unidirectional voltage pulses are generated outside the accelerator and injected into the accelerator cavity modules, which contain ferromagnetic material to reduce energy losses in the form of currents induced, in parallel with the beam, in the cavity structure. In the other type, the accelerator cavity modules are themselves pulse-forming lines with energy storage and switches; parallel current losses are made zero by the use of circuits that generate bidirectional acceleration waveforms with a zero voltage-time integral. In a third type of design described here, the cavities are externally driven, and 100% efficient coupling of energy to the beam is obtained by designing the external pulse generators to produce bidirectional voltage waveforms with zero voltage-time integral. A design for such a pulse generator is described that is itself one hundred percent efficient and which is well suited to existing pulse power techniques. Two accelerator cavity designs are described that can couple the pulse from such a generator to the beam; one of these designs provides voltage doubling. Comparison is made between the accelerating gradients that can be obtained with this and the preceding types of induction accelerator

  18. Magnetic-Force-Assisted Straightening of Bent Mild Steel Strip by Laser Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Polash P.; Kalita, Karuna; Dixit, Uday S.; Liao, Hengcheng

    2017-12-01

    This study proposes a technique to straighten bent metallic strips with magnetic-force-assisted laser irradiation. Experiments were conducted for three different types of mechanically-bent mild strips. The first type was bent strips without any heat treatment. The second type was stress-relieved and third type was subcritical-annealed bent strips. These strips were straightened following different schemes of laser irradiation sequence to understand the performance of straightening. A parametric study was conducted by varying laser power and scanning speed. Micro-hardness, tensile test, Charpy impact test and microstructure after straightening were also studied. Different scanning schemes provided different microstructures and mechanical properties. Any serious deterioration in the quality of straightened strips was not noticed. Overall, subcritical-annealed bent strips provided the best performance in straightening. The proposed straightening scheme has potential of becoming an industrial practice.

  19. The Theoretical Instability Strip of V777 Her White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Grootel, V.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Dupret, M.-A.

    2017-03-01

    We present a new theoretical investigation of the instability strip of V777 Her (DBV) white dwarfs. We apply a time-dependent convection (TDC) treatment to cooling models of DB and DBA white dwarfs. Using the spectroscopic calibration for the convective efficiency, ML2/α=1.25, we find a wide strip covering the range of effective temperature from 30,000 K down to about 22,000 K at log g = 8.0. This accounts very well for the empirical instability strip derived from a new accurate and homogenous spectroscopic analysis of known pulsators. Our approach leads to an exact description of the blue edge and to a correct understanding of the onset and development of pulsational instabilities, similarly to our results of TDC applied to ZZ Ceti white dwarfs in the recent past. We propose that, contrarily to what is generally believed, there is practically no fuzziness on the boundaries of the V777 Her instability strip due to traces of hydrogen in the atmospheres of some of these helium-dominated-atmosphere stars. Contrary to the blue edge, the red edge provided by TDC computations is far too cool compared to the empirical one. A similar situation was observed for the ZZ Ceti stars as well. We hence test the energy leakage argument (i.e., the red edge occurs when the thermal timescale in the driving region becomes equal to the critical period beyond which gravity modes cease to exist), which was successful to correctly reproduce the red edge of ZZ Ceti white dwarfs. Based on this argument, the red edge is qualitatively well reproduced as indicated above. However, upon close inspection, it may be about 1000 K too cool compared to the empirical one, although the latter relies on a few objects only. We also test the hypothesis of including turbulent pressure in our TDC computations in order to provide an alternate physical mechanism to account for the red edge. First promising results are presented.

  20. Radiation damage status of the ATLAS silicon strip detectors (SCT)

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, Takahiko; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon microstrip detector system (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at LHC has been working well for about 7 years since 2010. The innermost layer has already received a few times of 10**13 1-MeV neutron-equivalent fluences/cm2. The evolutions of the radiation damage effects on strip sensors such as leakage current and full depletion voltages will be presented.