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Sample records for strip detectors working

  1. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  2. A digital X-ray imaging system based on silicon strip detectors working in edge-on configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolanos, L. [CEADEN, Calle 30 502 e/ 5ta y 7ma Avenida, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Boscardin, M. [IRST, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, Povo, 38100 Trento (Italy); Cabal, A.E. [CEADEN, Calle 30 502 e/ 5ta y 7ma Avenida, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Diaz, M. [InSTEC, Ave. Salvador Allende esq. Luaces, Quinta de los Molinos, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Grybos, P.; Maj, P. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Prino, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Ramello, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via T. Michel 11, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: luciano.ramello@mfn.unipmn.it; Szczygiel, R. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2009-09-21

    We present the energy resolution and imaging performance of a digital X-ray imaging system based on a 512-strip silicon strip detector (SSD) working in the edge-on configuration. The SSDs tested in the system are 300 {mu}m thick with 1 or 2-cm-long strips and 100 {mu}m pitch. To ensure a very small dead area of the SSD working in edge-on configuration, the detector is cut perpendicular to the strips at a distance of only 20 {mu}m from the end of the strips. The 512-strip silicon detector is read out by eight 64-channel integrated circuits called DEDIX [Grybos et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-54 (2007) 1207]. The DEDIX IC operates in a single photon counting mode with two independent amplitude discriminators per channel. The readout electronic channel connected to a detector with effective input capacitance of about 2 pF has an average equivalent noise charge (ENC) of about 163 el. rms and is able to count 1 Mcps of average rate of input pulses. The system consisting of 512 channels has an excellent channel-to-channel uniformity-the effective threshold spread calculated to the charge-sensitive amplifier inputs is 12 el. rms (at one sigma level). With this system a few test images of a phantom have been taken in the 10-30 keV energy range.

  3. Readout of silicon strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, W

    2003-01-01

    Various architectural and technological options of readout electronics for silicon strip detectors in vertex and tracking applications are discussed briefly. The ABCD3T ASIC for the readout of silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker is presented. The architecture of the chip, some design issues and radiation effects are discussed.

  4. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  5. The charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, T.; Hubbeling, L.; Weilhammer, P.; Kemmer, J.; Koetz, U.; Riebesell, M.; Belau, E.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.; Neugebauer, E.; Seebrunner, H.J.; Wylie, A.

    1983-02-01

    The charge collection in silicon detectors has been studied, by measuring the response to high-energy particles of a 20μm pitch strip detector as a function of applied voltage and magnetic field. The results are well described by a simple model. The model is used to predict the spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors and to propose a detector with optimized spatial resolution. (orig.)

  6. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Casaburi, A; Zen, N; Ohkubo, M

    2015-01-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2–5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications. (paper)

  7. Silicon strip detectors for the LHCb experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Steinkamp, O

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a single-arm magnetic spectrometer. Silicon micro-strip detectors are employed in a significant fraction of the tracking system. The Vertex Locator consists of 21 detector stations that operate inside the LHC beam pipe and are separated from the beam vacuum by a thin aluminium foil. The Silicon Tracker is a large-surface silicon micro-strip detector that covers the full acceptance of the experiment in a single tracking station upstream of the spectrometer magnet and the...

  8. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-04-28

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the

  9. Superconducting strip detectors as position sensitive particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherschel, M. (Lab. fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH-Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland) Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Finkbeiner, F. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Zhao, S.P. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Jaggi, A. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Maier, T. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Lerch, P. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Zehnder, A. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Ott, H.R. (Lab. fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH-Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland) Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland))

    1994-02-01

    The feasibility of using of current-biased superconducting strips for radiation detection is investigated. Narrow Ta strips are exposed to 5.5 MeV [alpha]-particle radiation and the rise-time of the induced voltage pulses is measured as function of temperature and bias current. The rise-time of the voltage signal strongly depends on the site on the strip which is hit by the [alpha]-particle. In order to determine the spatial resolution of a superconducting strip detector, position-sensitive measurements were performed. The maximum lateral resolution estimated so far is 25[mu]m in a 7[mu]m wide, 340 nm thick and 0.6 mm long Ta-strip. (orig.)

  10. ATLAS ITk Strip Detector for High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kroll, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High-Luminosity LHC that is scheduled for 2026. The expected peak instantaneous luminosity up to 7.5E34 per second and cm2 corresponding to approximately 200 inelastic proton-proton interactions per beam crossing, radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000/fb and hadron fluencies over 1E16 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2, as well as fast hardware tracking capability that will bring Level-0 trigger rate of a few MHz down to a Level-1 trigger rate below 1 MHz require a replacement of existing Inner Detector by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The current prototyping phase, that is working with ITk Strip Detector consisting of a four-layer barrel and a forward region composed of six discs on each side of the barrel, has resulted in the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR), which starts the pre-production readiness phase at the ...

  11. ATLAS ITk Strip Detector for High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kroll, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High-Luminosity LHC that is scheduled for 2026. The expected peak instantaneous luminosity up to $7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ corresponding to approximately 200 inelastic proton-proton interactions per beam crossing, radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of $3000\\;\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ and hadron fluencies over $2\\times10^{16}\\;\\mathrm{n}_{\\mathrm{eq}}/\\mathrm{cm}^{2}$, as well as fast hardware tracking capability that will bring Level-0 trigger rate of a few MHz down to a Level-1 trigger rate below 1 MHz require a replacement of existing Inner Detector by an all-silicon Inner Tracker with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The current prototyping phase, that is working with ITk Strip Detector consisting of a four-layer barrel and a forward region composed of six disks on each side of the barrel, has resulted in the ATLAS Inner Tracker Strip Detector Technical Design R...

  12. Radiation damage status of the ATLAS silicon strip detectors (SCT)

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, Takahiko; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon microstrip detector system (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at LHC has been working well for about 7 years since 2010. The innermost layer has already received a few times of 10**13 1-MeV neutron-equivalent fluences/cm2. The evolutions of the radiation damage effects on strip sensors such as leakage current and full depletion voltages will be presented.

  13. Prototype Strip Barrel Modules for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The module design for the Phase II Upgrade of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC employs integrated low mass assembly using single-sided flexible circuits with readout ASICs and a powering circuit incorporating control and monitoring of HV, LV and temperature on the module. Both readout and powering circuits are glued directly onto the silicon sensor surface resulting in a fully integrated, extremely low radiation length module which simultaneously reduces the material requirements of the local support structure by allowing a reduced width stave structure to be employed. Such a module concept has now been fully demonstrated using so-called ABC130 and HCC130 ASICs fabricated in 130nm CMOS technology to readout ATLAS12 n+-in-p silicon strip sensors. Low voltage powering for these demonstrator modules has been realised by utilising a DCDC powerboard based around the CERN FEAST ASIC. This powerboard incorporates an HV multiplexing switch based on a Panasonic GaN transistor. Control and monitori...

  14. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  15. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will extend its current physics program by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, one of the two general-purpose experiments of the LHC, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of its internal tracker due to the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. New radiation-hard prototype n-in-p silicon sensors have been produced for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS tracker. The sensors have been irradiated up to the fluences expected in the high-luminous LHC collider. This paper summarizes recent results on the performance of the irradiated n-in-p detectors.

  16. The ATLAS tracker strip detector for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cormier, Kyle James Read; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    As part of the ATLAS upgrades for the High Luminsotiy LHC (HL-LHC) the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) will be replaced by a new Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will consist of two main components: semi-conductor pixels at the innermost radii, and silicon strips covering larger radii out as far as the ATLAS solenoid magnet including the volume currently occupied by the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). The primary challenges faced by the ITk are the higher planned read out rate of ATLAS, the high density of charged particles in HL-LHC conditions for which tracks need to be resolved, and the corresponding high radiation doses that the detector and electronics will receive. The ITk strips community is currently working on designing and testing all aspects of the sensors, readout, mechanics, cooling and integration to meet these goals and a Technical Design Report is being prepared. This talk is an overview of the strip detector component of the ITk, highlighting the current status and the road ahead.

  17. The new silicon strip detectors for the CMS tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragicevic, M.

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the tracker caused by the increase in luminosity which is proposed as an upgrade to the LHC accelerator (sLHC). This chapter motivates the work I have conducted and clarifies why the solutions proposed by myself are important contributions to the upgrade of the CMS tracker. The following chapters present the concepts that are necessary to operate the silicon strip sensors at sLHC luminosities and additional improvements to the construction and quality assurance of the sensors and the detector modules. The most important concepts and works presented in chapters 7 to 9 are: Development of a software framework to enable the flexible and quick design of test structures and sensors. Selecting a suitable sensor material which is sufficiently radiation hard. Design, implementation and production of a standard set of test structures to enable the quality assurance of such sensors and any future developments. Electrical characterisation of the test structures and analysis

  18. Strip type radiation detector and method of making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantsch, O.; Feigt, I.; Willig, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    An improved strip detector and a method for making such a detector in which a high resistivity N conduction semiconductor body has electrode strips formed thereon by diffusion is described. The strips are formed so as to be covered by an oxide layer at the surface point of the PN junction and in which the opposite side of the semiconductor body then has a substantial amount of material etched away to form a thin semiconductor upon which strip electrodes which are perpendicular to the electrodes on the first side are then placed

  19. A Proposal to Upgrade the Silicon Strip Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matis, Howard; Michael, LeVine; Jonathan, Bouchet; Stephane, Bouvier; Artemios, Geromitsos; Gerard, Guilloux; Sonia, Kabana; Christophe, Renard; Howard, Matis; Jim, Thomas; Vi Nham, Tram

    2007-11-05

    The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) was built by a collaboration of Nantes, Strasbourg and Warsaw collaborators. It is a beautiful detector; it can provide 500 mu m scale pointing resolution at the vertex when working in combination with the TPC. It was first used in Run 4, when half the SSD was installed in an engineering run. The full detector was installed for Run 5 (the Cu-Cu run) and the operation and performance of the detector was very successful. However, in preparation for Run 6, two noisy ladders (out of 20) were replaced and this required that the SSD be removed from the STAR detector. The re-installation of the SSD was not fully successful and so for the next two Runs, 6 and 7, the SSD suffered a cooling system failure that allowed a large fraction of the ladders to overheat and become noisy, or fail. (The cause of the SSD cooling failure was rather trivial but the SSD could not be removed betweens Runs 6 and 7 due to the inability of the STAR detector to roll along its tracks at that time.)

  20. A Proposal to Upgrade the Silicon Strip Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matis, Howard; Michael, LeVine; Jonathan, Bouchet; Stephane, Bouvier; Artemios, Geromitsos; Gerard, Guilloux; Sonia, Kabana; Christophe, Renard; Howard, Matis; Jim, Thomas; Vi Nham, Tram

    2007-01-01

    The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) was built by a collaboration of Nantes, Strasbourg and Warsaw collaborators. It is a beautiful detector; it can provide 500 mu m scale pointing resolution at the vertex when working in combination with the TPC. It was first used in Run 4, when half the SSD was installed in an engineering run. The full detector was installed for Run 5 (the Cu-Cu run) and the operation and performance of the detector was very successful. However, in preparation for Run 6, two noisy ladders (out of 20) were replaced and this required that the SSD be removed from the STAR detector. The re-installation of the SSD was not fully successful and so for the next two Runs, 6 and 7, the SSD suffered a cooling system failure that allowed a large fraction of the ladders to overheat and become noisy, or fail. (The cause of the SSD cooling failure was rather trivial but the SSD could not be removed between Runs 6 and 7 due to the inability of the STAR detector to roll along its tracks at that time.)

  1. Quality Tests of Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cambon, T; CERN. Geneva; Fintz, P; Guillaume, G; Jundt, F; Kuhn, C; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pagès, P; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Sparavec, K; Dulinski, W; Arnold, L

    1997-01-01

    The quality of the SiO2 insulator (AC coupling between metal and implanted strips) of double-sided Silicon strip detectors has been studied by using a probe station. Some tests performed on 23 wafers are described and the results are discussed. Remark This note seems to cause problems with ghostview but it can be printed without any problem.

  2. Efficiency measurements for 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.d [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Koehler, Michael; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2010-11-01

    Silicon strip detectors are widely used as part of the inner tracking layers in particle physics experiments. For applications at the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, silicon detectors with extreme radiation hardness are required. The 3D detector design, where electrodes are processed from underneath the strips into the silicon bulk material, provides a way to enhance the radiation tolerance of standard planar silicon strip detectors. Detectors with several innovative 3D designs that constitute a simpler and more cost-effective processing than the 3D design initially proposed were connected to read-out electronics from LHC experiments and subsequently tested. Results on the amount of charge collected, the noise and the uniformity of charge collection are given.

  3. A new strips tracker for the upgraded ATLAS ITk detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C.

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the fluences and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new sub-detectors must thus be faster, of larger area, more segmented and more radiation hard while the amount of inactive material should be minimized and the power supply to the front-end systems should be increased. For those reasons, the current inner tracker of the ATLAS detector will be fully replaced by an all-silicon tracking system that consists of a pixel detector at small radius close to the beam line and a large area strip tracker surrounding it. This document gives an overview of the design of the strip inner tracker (Strip ITk) and summarises the intensive R&D activities performed over the last years by the numerous institutes within the Strips ITk collaboration. These studies are accompanied with a strong prototyping effort to contribute to the optimisation of the Strip ITk's structure and components. This effort culminated recently in the release of the ATLAS Strips ITk Technical Design Report (TDR).

  4. Impact of radiation on breakdown performance of Si strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, A; Chatterji, S; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, E K; Srivastava-Ajay, K

    2002-01-01

    The very intense radiation environment of high luminosity future colliding beam experiments, like Large Hadron Collider (LHC etc.) makes radiation hardness the most urgent demand for Si detectors. The radiation hardness of Si strip detectors especially developed for LHC experiment was investigated with respect to ionizing and nonionizing radiation using computer simulations. (10 refs).

  5. System Electronics for the ATLAS Upgraded Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Affolder, T; The ATLAS collaboration; Clark, A; Dabrowskic, W; Dewitt, J; Diez Cornell, S; Dressdant, N; Fadeyev, V; Farthouat, P; Ferrere, D; Greenall, A; Grillo, A; Kaplon, J; Key-Charriere, M; La Marra, D; Lipeles, E; Lynn, D; Newcomer, M; Pereirab, F; Phillips, P; Spencer, E; Swientekc, K; Warren, M; Weidberg, A

    2013-01-01

    The basic concept of the front-end system of the Silicon Strip Detector in the Atlas Detector upgraded for the HL-LHC is being elaborated and proposed. The readout electronics of this new detector is based on front-end chips (ABC130), Hybrid Controller chips (HCC) and End of Stave Controller chips (EOSC). This document defines the basic functionality of the front-end system and of the different ASICs.

  6. Development, prototyping and characterization of double sided silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topkar, Anita, E-mail: anita@barc.gov.in; Singh, Arvind; Aggarwal, Bharti; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Arvind; Murali Krishna, L.V.; Das, D.

    2016-10-21

    Double sided DC-coupled silicon strip detectors with geometry of 65 mm×65 mm have been developed in India for nuclear physics experiments. The detectors have 64 P{sup +} strips on the front side and 64 N{sup +} strips on the backside with a pitch of 0.9 mm. These detectors were fabricated using a twelve mask layer process involving double sided wafer processing technology. Semiconductor process and device simulations were carried out in order to theoretically estimate the impact of important design and process parameters on the breakdown voltage of detectors. The performance of the first lot of prototype detectors has been studied using static characterization tests and using an alpha source. The characterization results demonstrate that the detectors have low leakage currents and good uniformity over the detector area of about 40 cm{sup 2}. Overview of the detector design, fabrication process, simulation results and initial characterization results of the detectors are presented in this paper.

  7. The New Silicon Strip Detectors for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dragicevic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the ...

  8. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The LHC upgrade is foreseen to increase the ATLAS design luminosity by a factor ten, implying the need to build a new tracker suited to the harsh HL-LHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. We give an overview of the ATLAS tracker upgrade project, in particular focusing on the crucial innermost silicon strip layers. Results from a wide range of irradiated silicon detectors for the strip region of the future ATLAS tracker are presented. Layout concepts for lightweight yet mechanically very rigid detector modules with high service integration are shown.

  9. Parallel superconducting strip-line detectors: reset behaviour in the single-strip switch regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaburi, A; Heath, R M; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Nappi, C

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting strip-line detectors (SSLDs) are an important emerging technology for the detection of single molecules in time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). We present an experimental investigation of a SSLD laid out in a parallel configuration, designed to address selected single strip-lines operating in the single-strip switch regime. Fast laser pulses were tightly focused onto the device, allowing controllable nucleation of a resistive region at a specific location and study of the subsequent device response dynamics. We observed that in this regime, although the strip-line returns to the superconducting state after triggering, no effective recovery of the bias current occurs, in qualitative agreement with a phenomenological circuit simulation that we performed. Moreover, from theoretical considerations and by looking at the experimental pulse amplitude distribution histogram, we have the first confirmation of the fact that the phenomenological London model governs the current redistribution in these large area devices also after detection events. (paper)

  10. Parallel superconducting strip-line detectors: reset behaviour in the single-strip switch regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaburi, A.; Heath, R. M.; Tanner, M. G.; Cristiano, R.; Ejrnaes, M.; Nappi, C.; Hadfield, R. H.

    2014-04-01

    Superconducting strip-line detectors (SSLDs) are an important emerging technology for the detection of single molecules in time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). We present an experimental investigation of a SSLD laid out in a parallel configuration, designed to address selected single strip-lines operating in the single-strip switch regime. Fast laser pulses were tightly focused onto the device, allowing controllable nucleation of a resistive region at a specific location and study of the subsequent device response dynamics. We observed that in this regime, although the strip-line returns to the superconducting state after triggering, no effective recovery of the bias current occurs, in qualitative agreement with a phenomenological circuit simulation that we performed. Moreover, from theoretical considerations and by looking at the experimental pulse amplitude distribution histogram, we have the first confirmation of the fact that the phenomenological London model governs the current redistribution in these large area devices also after detection events.

  11. Digital Images of Breast Biopsies using a Silicon Strip Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano, Luis M.; Diaz, Claudia C.; Leyva, Antonio; Cabal, Fatima; Ortiz, Carlos M.

    2006-01-01

    In our study we have used a silicon strip detector to obtain digital images of some breast tissues with micro calcifications. Some of those images will be shown and we will discuss the perspectives of using this technique as an improvement of breast cancer diagnostics

  12. Development of the H1 backward silicon strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eick, W.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Bullough, M.A.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Newton, A.M.; Wilburn, C.D.; Horisberger, R.; Pitzl, D.; Haynes, W.J.; Noyes, G.

    1996-10-01

    The development and first results are described of a silicon strip detector telescope for the HERA experiment H1 designed to measure the polar angle of deep inelastic scattered electrons at small Bjorken x and low momentum transfers Q 2 . (orig.)

  13. Operational issues of present ATLAS strip detector

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoob, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Current results from the successful operation of the Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation is presented. This note reports on the operation of the detector including an overview of the issues we encountered and the observation of significant increases in leakage currents from bulk damage due to non-ionising radiation, there have been a small number of significant changes effecting detector operation since the contribution to the previous conference in the series [1]. The main emphasis is given to the tracking performance of the SCT and the data quality during the many months of data-taking (the LHC delivered 47 pb

  14. Evaluation of silicon micro strip detectors with large read-out pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyo, K.; Yamamura, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Asano, Y.; Bozek, A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Palka, H.; Rozanska, M.; Rybicki, K.

    1996-01-01

    For the development of the silicon micro-strip detector with the pitch of the readout strips as large as 250 μm on the ohmic side, we made samples with different structures. Charge collection was evaluated to optimize the width of implant strips, aluminum read-out strips, and/or the read-out scheme among strips. (orig.)

  15. Effects of the interstrip gap on the efficiency and response of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torresi D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effects of the segmentation of the electrodes of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs are investigated. In order to characterize the response of the DSSSDs we perform a first experiment by using tandem beams of different energies directly sent on the detector and a second experiment by mean of a proton microbeam. Results show that the effective width of the inter-strip region and the efficiency for full energy detection, varies with both detected energy and bias voltage. The experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by a simplified model based on the Shockley-Ramo-Gunn framework.

  16. Performance of the ATLAS silicon strip detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albiol, F.; Ballester, F.

    1998-01-01

    The performance of the silicon strip detector prototypes developed for use in ATLAS at the LHC is reported. Baseline detector assemblies (''modules'') of 12 cm length were read out with binary electronics at 40 MHz clock speed. For both irradiated and unirradiated modules, the tracking efficiency, noise occupancy, and position resolution were measured as a function of bias voltage, binary hit threshold, and detector rotation angle in a 1.56 T magnetic field. Measurements were also performed at a particle flux comparable to the one expected at the LHC. (orig.)

  17. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenfeld, Y; Sauvestre, J E; Maréchal, F; Ottini, S; Alamanos, N; Barbier, A; Beaumel, D; Bonnereau, B; Charlet, D; Clavelin, J F; Courtat, P; Delbourgo-Salvador, P; Douet, R; Engrand, M; Ethvignot, T; Gillibert, A; Khan, E; Lapoux, V; Lagoyannis, A; Lavergne, L; Lebon, S; Lelong, P; Lesage, A; Le Ven, V; Lhenry, I; Martin, J M; Musumarra, A; Pita, S; Petizon, L; Pollacco, E; Pouthas, J; Richard, A; Rougier, D; Santonocito, D; Scarpaci, J A; Sida, J L; Soulet, C; Stutzmann, J S; Suomijärvi, T; Szmigiel, M; Volkov, P; Voltolini, G

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm sup 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and a...

  18. Strip Detector for the ATLAS Detector Upgrade for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC through a sizeable increase in the luminosity, reaching 1*10^35 cm2s-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000/fb, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1*10^16 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk), which will consist of both strip and pixelated silicon detectors. The physics motivations, required performance characteristics and basic design of the proposed upgrade of the strip detector will be a subject of this talk. Present ideas and solutions for the strip detector and current research and development program will be discussed.

  19. Strip Detector for the ATLAS Detector Upgrade for the High - Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC through a sizeable increase in the luminosity, reaching 1*10^35 cm2s-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000/fb, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1*10^16 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk), which will consist of both strip and pixelated silicon detectors. The physics motivations, required performance characteristics and basic design of the proposed upgrade of the strip detector will be a subject of this talk. Present ideas and solutions for the strip detector and current research and development program will be discussed.

  20. Beam test of CSES silicon strip detector module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Li; Lu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Li, Xin-Qiao; Xu, Yan-Bing; An, Zheng-Hua; Yu, Xiao-xia; Wang, Hui; Shi, Feng; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Yun

    2017-05-01

    The silicon-strip tracker of the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) consists of two double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) which provide incident particle tracking information. A low-noise analog ASIC VA140 was used in this study for DSSD signal readout. A beam test on the DSSD module was performed at the Beijing Test Beam Facility of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) using a 400-800 MeV/c proton beam. The pedestal analysis results, RMSE noise, gain correction, and intensity distribution of incident particles of the DSSD module are presented. Supported by the XXX Civil Space Programme

  1. The ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Short Strips Detectors for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Soldevila, U; Lacasta, C; Marti i García, S; Miñano, M

    2009-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN around 2018 by about an order of magnitude, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for SLHC operation. In order to cope with the order of magnitude increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. A massive R&D programme is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. New front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics ...

  2. Strip detector for the ATLAS detector upgrade for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veloce, Laurelle Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High Luminosity LHC, scheduled for 2025. The expected radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000fb-1 will require the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1x1016 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2. With the addition of increased readout rates, the existing Inner Detector will have to be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The ITk strip detector consists of a four-layer barrel and a forward region composed of six discs on each side of the barrel. The current prototyping phase has resulted in the ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR), which starts the pre-production readiness phase at the involved institutes. In this contribution we present the design of the ITk Strip Detector and current status of R&D of various detector components.

  3. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  4. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-10-06

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  5. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    CERN Document Server

    Campabadal, F; Key, M; Lozano, M; Martínez, C; Pellegrini, G; Rafí, J M; Ullán, M; Johansen, L; Pommeresche, B; Stugu, B; Ciocio, A; Fadeev, V; Gilchriese, M G D; Haber, C; Siegrist, J; Spieler, H; Vu, C; Bell, P J; Charlton, D G; Dowell, John D; Gallop, B J; Homer, R J; Jovanovic, P; Mahout, G; McMahon, T J; Wilson, J A; Barr, A J; Carter, J R; Fromant, B P; Goodrick, M J; Hill, J C; Lester, C G; Palmer, M J; Parker, M A; Robinson, D; Sabetfakhri, A; Shaw, R J; Anghinolfi, F; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Chouridou, S; Fortin, R; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gruwé, M; Ferrari, P; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; MacPherson, A; Niinikoski, T O; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Rudge, A; Ruggiero, G; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Bialas, W; Dabrowski, W; Grybos, P; Koperny, S; Blocki, J; Brückman, P; Gadomski, S; Godlewski, J; Górnicki, E; Malecki, P; Moszczynski, A; Stanecka, E; Stodulski, M; Szczygiel, R; Turala, M; Wolter, M; Ahmad, A; Benes, J; Carpentieri, C; Feld, L; Ketterer, C; Ludwig, J; Meinhardt, J; Runge, K; Mikulec, B; Mangin-Brinet, M; D'Onofrio, M; Donega, M; Moêd, S; Sfyrla, A; Ferrère, D; Clark, A G; Perrin, E; Weber, M; Bates, R L; Cheplakov, A P; Saxon, D H; O'Shea, V; Smith, K M; Iwata, Y; Ohsugi, T; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Terada, S; Ujiie, N; Ikegami, Y; Unno, Y; Takashima, R; Brodbeck, T; Chilingarov, A G; Hughes, G; Ratoff, P; Sloan, T; Allport, P P; Casse, G L; Greenall, A; Jackson, J N; Jones, T J; King, B T; Maxfield, S J; Smith, N A; Sutcliffe, P; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Beck, G A; Carter, A A; Lloyd, S L; Martin, A J; Morris, J; Morin, J; Nagai, K; Pritchard, T W; Anderson, B E; Butterworth, J M; Fraser, T J; Jones, T W; Lane, J B; Postranecky, M; Warren, M R M; Cindro, V; Kramberger, G; Mandic, I; Mikuz, M; Duerdoth, I P; Freestone, J; Foster, J M; Ibbotson, M; Loebinger, F K; Pater, J; Snow, S W; Thompson, R J; Atkinson, T M; Bright, G; Kazi, S; Lindsay, S; Moorhead, G F; Taylor, G N; Bachindgagyan, G; Baranova, N; Karmanov, D; Merkine, M; Andricek, L; Bethke, Siegfried; Kudlaty, J; Lutz, Gerhard; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R; Schieck, J; Cornelissen, T; Gorfine, G W; Hartjes, F G; Hessey, N P; de Jong, P; Muijs, A J M; Peeters, S J M; Tomeda, Y; Tanaka, R; Nakano, I; Dorholt, O; Danielsen, K M; Huse, T; Sandaker, H; Stapnes, S; Bargassa, Pedrame; Reichold, A; Huffman, T; Nickerson, R B; Weidberg, A; Doucas, G; Hawes, B; Lau, W; Howell, D; Kundu, N; Wastie, R; Böhm, J; Mikestikova, M; Stastny, J; Broklová, Z; Broz, J; Dolezal, Z; Kodys, P; Kubík, P; Reznicek, P; Vorobel, V; Wilhelm, I; Chren, D; Horazdovsky, T; Linhart, V; Pospísil, S; Sinor, M; Solar, M; Sopko, B; Stekl, I; Ardashev, E N; Golovnya, S N; Gorokhov, S A; Kholodenko, A G; Rudenko, R E; Ryadovikov, V N; Vorobev, A P; Adkin, P J; Apsimon, R J; Batchelor, L E; Bizzell, J P; Booker, P; Davis, V R; Easton, J M; Fowler, C; Gibson, M D; Haywood, S J; MacWaters, C; Matheson, J P; Matson, R M; McMahon, S J; Morris, F S; Morrissey, M; Murray, W J; Phillips, P W; Tyndel, M; Villani, E G; Dorfan, D E; Grillo, A A; Rosenbaum, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Spencer, E; Wilder, M; Booth, P; Buttar, C M; Dawson, I; Dervan, P; Grigson, C; Harper, R; Moraes, A; Peak, L S; Varvell, K E; Chu Ming Lee; Hou Li Shing; Lee Shih Chang; Teng Ping Kun; Wan Chang Chun; Hara, K; Kato, Y; Kuwano, T; Minagawa, M; Sengoku, H; Bingefors, N; Brenner, R; Ekelöf, T J C; Eklund, L; Bernabeu, J; Civera, J V; Costa, M J; Fuster, J; García, C; García, J E; González-Sevilla, S; Lacasta, C; Llosa, G; Martí i García, S; Modesto, P; Sánchez, J; Sospedra, L; Vos, M; Fasching, D; González, S; Jared, R C; Charles, E

    2005-01-01

    The design and technology of the silicon strip detector modules for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment have been finalised in the last several years. Integral to this process has been the measurement and verification of the tracking performance of the different module types in test beams at the CERN SPS and the KEK PS. Tests have been performed to explore the module performance under various operating conditions including detector bias voltage, magnetic field, incidence angle, and state of irradiation up to 3 multiplied by 1014 protons per square centimetre. A particular emphasis has been the understanding of the operational consequences of the binary readout scheme.

  6. Calibration and Monitoring of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, D

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) is the largest detector of this kind ever built for a high energy physics experiment. It consists of more than ten millions of analog read-out channels, split between 15,148 detector modules. To ensure that the SST performance fully meets the physics requirements of the CMS experiment, the detector is precisely calibrated and constantly monitored to identify, at a very early stage, any possible problem both in the data acquisition and in the reconstruction chain. Due to its high granularity, the operation of the CMS SST is a challenging task. In this paper we describe the reconstruction strategies, the calibration procedures and the data quality monitoring system that the CMS Collaboration has devised to accurately operate the SST detector.

  7. Simulations of ATLAS silicon strip detector modules in ATHENA framework

    CERN Document Server

    Broklova, Zdenka; Dolezal, Zdenek

    2004-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with properties of the silicon strip detector (SCT) modules of the ATLAS detector and building their software model. First part of the thesis consists of a brief overview of the ATLAS detector properties and focuses on the Inner Detector and its SCT part. Besides mechanical characteristics, analysis of capability to measure the charged particle momentum is placed there as well. Main features of the Athena framework and of the entire ATLAS offine software can be found in the further part. Athena framework is developed for simulations and future analyzing of the whole ATLAS measured data. This text is intended mainly for Athena newcomers. The main contribution of this thesis to ATLAS offine software preparation is implementation of the new SCT end-cap modules' geometry model, its detailed checking and preparation of the necessary software component for whole SCT subsystem for the Combined Testbeam (CTB - summer 2004). We perform checking the functionality of the whole simulation sequen...

  8. Splitting Strip Detector Clusters in Dense Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Tracking in high density environments, particularly in high energy jets, plays an important role in many physics analyses at the LHC. In such environments, there is significant degradation of track reconstruction performance. Between runs 1 and 2, ATLAS implemented an algorithm that splits pixel clusters originating from multiple charged particles, using charge information, resulting in the recovery of much of the lost efficiency. However, no attempt was made in prior work to split merged clusters in the Semi Conductor Tracker (SCT), which does not measure charge information. In spite of the lack of charge information in SCT, a cluster-splitting algorithm has been developed in this work. It is based primarily on the difference between the observed cluster width and the expected cluster width, which is derived from track incidence angle. The performance of this algorithm is found to be competitive with the existing pixel cluster splitting based on track information.

  9. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Auger, F.; Sauvestre, J.E.; Marechal, F.; Ottini, S.; Alamanos, N.; Barbier, A.; Beaumel, D.; Bonnereau, B.; Charlet, D.; Clavelin, J.F.; Courtat, P.; Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Douet, R.; Engrand, M.; Ethvignot, T.; Gillibert, A.; Khan, E.; Lapoux, V.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lavergne, L.; Lebon, S.; Lelong, P.; Lesage, A.; Le Ven, V.; Lhenry, I.; Martin, J.M.; Musumarra, A.; Pita, S.; Petizon, L.; Pollacco, E.; Pouthas, J.; Richard, A.; Rougier, D.; Santonocito, D.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Sida, J.L.; Soulet, C.; Stutzmann, J.S.; Suomijaervi, T.; Szmigiel, M.; Volkov, P.; Voltolini, G.

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and analog channels of the array in one crate placed adjacent to the reaction chamber and fully remote controlled, including pulse visualization on oscilloscopes. A stand alone data acquisition system devoted to the MUST array has been developed. Isotope identification of light charged particles over the full energy range has been achieved, and the capability of the system to measure angular distributions of states populated in inverse kinematics reactions has been demonstrated

  10. EMC Diagnosis and Corrective Actions for Silicon Strip Tracker Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteche, F.; /CERN /Imperial Coll., London; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC

    2006-06-06

    The tracker sub-system is one of the five sub-detectors of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment under construction at CERN for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator. The tracker subdetector is designed to reconstruct tracks of charged sub-atomic particles generated after collisions. The tracker system processes analogue signals from 10 million channels distributed across 14000 silicon micro-strip detectors. It is designed to process signals of a few nA and digitize them at 40 MHz. The overall sub-detector is embedded in a high particle radiation environment and a magnetic field of 4 Tesla. The evaluation of the electromagnetic immunity of the system is very important to optimize the performance of the tracker sub-detector and the whole CMS experiment. This paper presents the EMC diagnosis of the CMS silicon tracker sub-detector. Immunity tests were performed using the final prototype of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) system to estimate the sensitivity of the system to conducted noise, evaluate the weakest areas of the system and take corrective actions before the integration of the overall detector. This paper shows the results of one of those tests, that is the measurement and analysis of the immunity to CM external conducted noise perturbations.

  11. Application of a double-sided silicon-strip detector as a differential pumping barrier for NESR experiments at FAIR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streicher, B.; Egelhof, P.; Ilieva, S.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kollmus, H.; Kroell, Th; Mutterer, M.; von Schmid, M.; Traeger, M.

    2011-01-01

    The presented work focuses on the development of a differential pumping system using double-sided silicon-strip detectors to separate the ultra-high vacuum of a storage ring from subsequent detectors and outgassing components placed in an auxiliary vacuum. Such a technical concept will give the

  12. Study of inter-strip gap effects and efficiency for full energy detection of double sided silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisichella, M.; Forneris, J.; Grassi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a characterization of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSD) with the aim to carry out a systematic study of the inter-strip effects on the energy measurement of charged particles. The dependence of the DSSSD response on ion, energy and applied bias has been investigated. (author)

  13. Micro-strip Metal Foil Detectors for the Beam Profile Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Pugatch, V M; Fedorovitch, O A; Mikhailenko, A V; Prystupa, S V; Pylypchenko, Y

    2005-01-01

    The Micro-strip Metal Foil Detectors (MMFD) designed and used for the Beam Profile Monitoring (BPM) are discussed. Fast particles hitting a metal strip initiate Secondary Electron Emission (SEE) which occurs at 10 - 50 nm surface layers of a strip. The SEE yield is measured by a sensitive Charge Integrator with built-in current-to-frequency converter (1 Hz per 1 fA). The MMFD (deposited onto the 20 μm thick Si-wafer) with 32 Al strips (10 μm wide, 32 μm pitch) has been used for the BPM of the 32 MeV alpha-particle beam at the MPIfK (Heidelberg) Tandem generator for Single-Event-Upset studies of the BEETLE micro-chip. Similar MMFD (0.5 μm thick Ni-strips) with totally removed Si-wafer (by plasma-chemistry, at the working area of 8 x 10 mm2) has been applied for the on-line X-ray BPM at the HASYLAB (DESY). The number of photons (11.3 GeV, mean X-ray energy 18 keV) producing out of a strip a single SEE was evaluated as (1.5 ±0.5)* 104. MMFD has demonstrated stable...

  14. Data quality monitoring of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benucci, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Physics and Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) framework aims at providing a homogeneous monitoring environment across various applications related to data taking at the CMS experiment. In this contribution, the DQM system for the Silicon Strip Tracker will be introduced. The set of elements to assess the status of detector will be mentioned, along with the way to identify problems and trace them to specific tracker elements. Monitoring tools, user interfaces and automated software will be briefly described. The system was used during extensive cosmic data taking of CMS in Autumn 2008, where it demonstrated to have a flexible and robust implementation and has been essential to improve the understanding of the detector. CMS Collaboration believes that this tool is now mature to face the forthcoming data-taking era.

  15. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kaußen, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the four experiments being installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is located at the european organization for nuclear research CERN in Geneva. This proton-proton collider will explore a new energy regime of up to 14TeV center-of-mass energy. To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The entire strip tracker spans an active area of about 198m2 and consists of approximately 16000 modules. Before the silicon sensors were assembl...

  16. Design and characterization of integrated front-end transistors in a micro-strip detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simi, G.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Dittongo, S.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Gregori, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Morganti, M.; U. Pignatel, G.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Rizzo, G.; Speziali, V.; Zorzi, N.

    2002-01-01

    We present the developments in a research program aimed at the realization of silicon micro-strip detectors with front-end electronics integrated in a high resistivity substrate to be used in high-energy physics, space and medical/industrial imaging applications. We report on the fabrication process developed at IRST (Trento, Italy), the characterization of the basic wafer parameters and measurements of the relevant working characteristics of the integrated transistors and related test structures

  17. Strip detector for the ATLAS detector upgrade for the high-luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Madaffari, Daniele; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC through a sizeable increase in the luminosity, reaching 1x10$^{35}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1x10$^{16}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm$^2$. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk), which will consist of both strip and pixelated silicon detectors. The physics motivations, required performance characteristics and basic design of the proposed upgrade of the strip detector will be a subject of this talk. Present ideas and solutions for the strip detector and current research and development program will be discussed.

  18. Silicon strip detector for a novel 2D dosimetric method for radiotherapy treatment verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocci, A.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Arráns, R.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Abou-Haïdar, Z.; Quesada, J. M.; Pérez Vega-Leal, A.; Pérez Nieto, F. J.

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize a silicon strip detector and its associated data acquisition system, based on discrete electronics, to obtain in a near future absorbed dose maps in axial planes for complex radiotherapy treatments, using a novel technique. The experimental setup is based on two phantom prototypes: the first one is a polyethylene slab phantom used to characterize the detector in terms of linearity, percent depth dose, reproducibility, uniformity and penumbra. The second one is a cylindrical phantom, specifically designed and built to recreate conditions close to those normally found in clinical environments, for treatment planning assessment. This system has been used to study the dosimetric response of the detector, in the axial plane of the phantom, as a function of its angle with respect to the irradiation beam. A software has been developed to operate the rotation of this phantom and to acquire signals from the silicon strip detector. As an innovation, the detector was positioned inside the cylindrical phantom parallel to the beam axis. Irradiation experiments were carried out with a Siemens PRIMUS linac operating in the 6 MV photon mode at the Virgen Macarena Hospital. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Geant4 toolkit and results were compared to Treatment Planning System (TPS) calculations for the absorbed dose-to-water case. Geant4 simulations were used to estimate the sensitivity of the detector in different experimental configurations, in relation to the absorbed dose in each strip. A final calibration of the detector in this clinical setup was obtained by comparing experimental data with TPS calculations.

  19. The Control System for the CMS Strip Tracking Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrer, Manuel; Chen, Jie; Dierlamm, Alexander; Frey, Martin; Masetti, Lorenzo; Militaru, Otilia; Shah, Yousaf; Stringer, Robert; Tsirou, Andromachi

    2008-01-01

    The Tracker of the CMS silicon strip tracking detector covers a surface of 206 m2. 9648128 channels are available on 75376 APV front-end chips on 15232 modules, built of 24328 silicon sensors. The power supply of the detector modules is split up in 1944 power supplies with two low voltage for front end power and two high voltage channels each for the bias voltage of the silicon sensors. In addition 356 low voltage channels are needed to power the control chain. The tracker will run at -20°C at low relative humidity for at least 10 years. The Tracker Control System handles all interdependencies of control, low and high voltages, as well as fast ramp downs in case of higher than allowed temperatures or currents in the detector and experimental cavern problems. This is ensured by evaluating $10^{4}$ power supply parameters, $10^{3}$ information from Tracker Safety System and $10^{5}$ information from the tracker front end.

  20. Synchrotron applications of pixel and strip detectors at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, J.; Tartoni, N.; Nave, C.

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of position-sensitive X-ray detectors have been commissioned on the synchrotron X-ray beamlines operating at the Diamond Light Source in UK. In addition to mature technologies such as image-plates, CCD-based detectors, multi-wire and micro-strip gas detectors, more recent detectors based on semiconductor pixel or strip sensors coupled to CMOS read-out chips are also in use for routine synchrotron X-ray diffraction and scattering experiments. The performance of several commercial and developmental pixel/strip detectors for synchrotron studies are discussed with emphasis on the image quality achieved with these devices. Examples of pixel or strip detector applications at Diamond Light Source as well as the status of the commissioning of these detectors on the beamlines are presented. Finally, priorities and ideas for future developments are discussed.

  1. Pulse processing CMOS ASIC for Si-strip/PIN detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandratre, V.B.; Sardesai, S.V.; Kataria, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the design of an 8-channel front-end signal processing ASIC for Si-strip detectors with capacitance from 1 to 40 pf. Each channel consists of a charge amplifier, a shaper amplifier (CR-RC 3 ) and a track-hold stage. The channel outputs are connected to an analog multiplexer which is controlled by an external clock for serial readout. The peaking time is adjustable over 500 ns-1.2us in steps by external control. There is provision for changing gain and polarity. The circuit has a power dissipation of 16 mw per channel and is designed to fabricate in 1.2 um CMOS technology. The 0pf noise is ∼400e. The chip has an area of 5 by 5 mm with target package 48 pin CLCC. (author)

  2. The ATLAS ITk Strip Detector. Status of R&D

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)727037; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    While the LHC at CERN is ramping up luminosity after the discovery of the Higgs Boson in the ATLAS and CMS experiments in 2012, upgrades to the LHC and experiments are planned. The major upgrade is foreseen for 2024, with a roughly tenfold increase in luminosity, resulting in corresponding increases in particle rates and radiation doses. In ATLAS the entire Inner Detector will be replaced for Phase-2 running with an all-silicon system. This paper concentrates on the strip part. Its layout foresees low-mass and modular yet highly integrated double-sided structures for the barrel and forward region. The design features conceptually simple modules made from electronic hybrids glued directly onto the silicon. Modules will then be assembled on both sides of large carbon-core structures with integrated cooling and electrical services.

  3. Charge collection mapping of a novel ultra-thin silicon strip detector for hadrontherapy beam monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouterfa, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.bouterfa@uclouvain.be [ICTEAM Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Alexandre, Geoffrey; Cortina Gil, Eduardo [IRPM Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Flandre, Denis [ICTEAM Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2013-12-21

    In precise hadrontherapy treatments, the particle beam must be monitored in real time without being degraded. Silicon strip detectors have been fabricated over an area as large as 4.5×4.5 cm{sup 2} with ultra low thickness of 20μm. These offer the following considerable advantages: significantly reduced beam scattering, higher radiation hardness which leads to improved detector lifetime, and much better collection efficiency. In a previous work, the novel sensor has been described and a global macroscopic dosimetry characterization has been proposed. This provides practical information for the detector daily use but not about the local microscopic knowledge of the sensor. This work therefore presents a micrometric-accuracy charge-collection characterization of this new generation of ultra-thin silicon strip detectors. This goal is reached thanks to a 1060 nm-wavelength micrometric-sized laser that can be positioned relatively to the sensor with a submicron precision for the three different axes. This study gives a much better knowledge of the inefficient areas of the sensor and allows therefore optimization for future designs.

  4. Characterization of a dose verification system dedicated to radiotherapy treatments based on a silicon detector multi-strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocca, A.; Cortes Giraldo, M. A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Aranas, R.; Abou Haidar, Z.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Quesada, J. M.; Vega-Leal, A. P.; Perez Neto, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the characterization of a silicon detector multi-strips (SSSSD: Single Sided Silicon Strip Detector), developed by the company Micron Semiconductors Ltd. for use as a verification system for radiotherapy treatments.

  5. Technical Design Report for the ATLAS Inner Tracker Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Collaboration, ATLAS

    2017-01-01

    This is the first of two Technical Design Report documents that describe the upgrade of the central tracking system for the ATLAS experiment for the operation at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) starting in the middle of 2026. At this time the LHC will have been upgraded to reach a peak instantaneous luminosity of 7.5x10^34 cm^[-2]s^[-1], which corresponds to approximately 200 inelastic proton-proton collisions per beam crossing. The new Inner Tracker (ITk) will be operational for more than ten years, during which ATLAS aims to accumulate a total data set of 3,000 fb^[-1]. Meeting these requirements presents a unique challenge for the design of an all-silicon tracking system that consists of a pixel detector at small radius close to the beam line and a large-area strip tracking detector surrounding it. This document presents in detail the requirements of the new tracker, its layout and expected performance including the results of several benchmark physics studies at the highest numbers of collisions per beam...

  6. MUST, a set of strip detectors for studying radioactive beams induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Barbier, A.; Beaumel, D.; Charlet, D.; Clavelin, J.F.; Douet, R.; Engrand, M.; Lebon, S.; Lelong, P.; Lesage, A.; Leven, V.; Lhenry, I.; Marechal, F.; Petizon, L.; Pouthas, J.; Richard, A.; Rougier, D.; Soulet, C.; Suomijaervi, T.; Volkov, P.; Voltolini, G.

    1996-01-01

    This report states the specificity of light particles elastic scattering, and the need of detecting recoil protons to improve angular resolution. Then the development of a specific MUST strip detector is detailed: 60 strips detectors with Si O sub 2 dielectric, that yield 500 ps time resolution, and Si (Li) detectors following next. A versatile data acquisition system has been developed too, with CAMAC interface to suit to any experimental plant. (D.L.)

  7. Count rate performance of a silicon-strip detector for photon-counting spectral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X., E-mail: olivia@mi.physics.kth.se; Grönberg, F.; Sjölin, M.; Karlsson, S.; Danielsson, M.

    2016-08-11

    A silicon-strip detector is developed for spectral computed tomography. The detector operates in photon-counting mode and allows pulse-height discrimination with 8 adjustable energy bins. In this work, we evaluate the count-rate performance of the detector in a clinical CT environment. The output counts of the detector are measured for x-ray tube currents up to 500 mA at 120 kV tube voltage, which produces a maximum photon flux of 485 Mphotons/s/mm{sup 2} for the unattenuated beam. The corresponding maximum count-rate loss of the detector is around 30% and there are no saturation effects. A near linear relationship between the input and output count rates can be observed up to 90 Mcps/mm{sup 2}, at which point only 3% of the input counts are lost. This means that the loss in the diagnostically relevant count-rate region is negligible. A semi-nonparalyzable dead-time model is used to describe the count-rate performance of the detector, which shows a good agreement with the measured data. The nonparalyzable dead time τ{sub n} for 150 evaluated detector elements is estimated to be 20.2±5.2 ns.

  8. Count rate performance of a silicon-strip detector for photon-counting spectral CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Grönberg, F.; Sjölin, M.; Karlsson, S.; Danielsson, M.

    2016-08-01

    A silicon-strip detector is developed for spectral computed tomography. The detector operates in photon-counting mode and allows pulse-height discrimination with 8 adjustable energy bins. In this work, we evaluate the count-rate performance of the detector in a clinical CT environment. The output counts of the detector are measured for x-ray tube currents up to 500 mA at 120 kV tube voltage, which produces a maximum photon flux of 485 Mphotons/s/mm2 for the unattenuated beam. The corresponding maximum count-rate loss of the detector is around 30% and there are no saturation effects. A near linear relationship between the input and output count rates can be observed up to 90 Mcps/mm2, at which point only 3% of the input counts are lost. This means that the loss in the diagnostically relevant count-rate region is negligible. A semi-nonparalyzable dead-time model is used to describe the count-rate performance of the detector, which shows a good agreement with the measured data. The nonparalyzable dead time τn for 150 evaluated detector elements is estimated to be 20.2±5.2 ns.

  9. Output factor determination for dose measurements in axial and perpendicular planes using a silicon strip detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Haïdar, Z.; Bocci, A.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Espino, J. M.; Gallardo, M. I.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Ovejero, M. C.; Quesada, J. M.; Arráns, R.; Prieto, M. Ruiz; Vega-Leal, A. Pérez; Nieto, F. J. Pérez

    2012-04-01

    In this work we present the output factor measurements of a clinical linear accelerator using a silicon strip detector coupled to a new system for complex radiation therapy treatment verification. The objective of these measurements is to validate the system we built for treatment verification. The measurements were performed at the Virgin Macarena University Hospital in Seville. Irradiations were carried out with a Siemens ONCOR™ linac used to deliver radiotherapy treatment for cancer patients. The linac was operating in 6 MV photon mode; the different sizes of the fields were defined with the collimation system provided within the accelerator head. The output factor was measured with the silicon strip detector in two different layouts using two phantoms. In the first, the active area of the detector was placed perpendicular to the beam axis. In the second, the innovation consisted of a cylindrical phantom where the detector was placed in an axial plane with respect to the beam. The measured data were compared with data given by a commercial treatment planning system. Results were shown to be in a very good agreement between the compared set of data.

  10. LabVIEW-based control and acquisition system for the dosimetric characterization of a silicon strip detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, M. C.; Pérez Vega-Leal, A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Selva, A.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Arráns, R.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to present a new data acquisition, control, and analysis software system written in LabVIEW. This system has been designed to obtain the dosimetry of a silicon strip detector in polyethylene. It allows the full automation of the experiments and data analysis required for the dosimetric characterization of silicon detectors. It becomes a useful tool that can be applied in the daily routine check of a beam accelerator.

  11. Silicon Strip Detectors for ATLAS at the HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The present ATLAS silicon strip (SCT) and transition radiation (TRT) trackers will be replaced with new silicon strip detectors, as part of the Inner Tracker System (ITK), for the Phase-2 upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, HL-LHC. We have carried out intensive R&D programs to establish radiation harder strip detectors that can survive in a radiation level up to 3000 fb-1 of integrated luminosity based on n+-on-p microstrip detector. We describe main specifications for this year’s sensor fabrication, followed by a description of possible module integration schema

  12. Status of the silicon strip vertex detector for the Mark II experiment at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolphsen, C.; Gratta, G.; Litke, A.

    1987-10-01

    We are constructing a silicon strip vertex detector to be used in the Mark II detector in the study of Z 0 decays at the SLAC Linear Collider. The status of the project, including the performance of the individual silicon detector modules, is presented. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Double peak electric field distortion in heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Vladimir; Roe, Shaun; Ruggiero, G; Verbitskaya, E

    2004-01-01

    Non-uniform distribution of the electric field outlined as double peak distortion (DPD) is considered for heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors, which were developed for the CERN-ATLAS semiconductor tracker. DPD originates from the non-uniform accumulation of electrons and holes from the bulk generated current that are captured by radiation induced defects: deep acceptors and donors with mid-gap energy levels. This corresponds to the formation of the low electric field region in the detector central part that consequently will delay charge collection. The electric field distributions at different reverse biases, fluences and detector operational temperatures are calculated using a one-dimensional Poisson equation as it was done earlier for pad detectors. It has been shown that due to the electric field focusing at the strips the DPD effect is more pronounced for strip detectors as compared to that in pad detectors. The double peak electric field distribution is evinced experimentally in current pulse res...

  14. Assembly of an endcap of the ATLAS silicon strip detector at NIKHEF, Amsterdam.

    CERN Multimedia

    Ginter, P

    2005-01-01

    Assembly of an endcap of the ATLAS silicon strip detector (SCT) at NIKHEF, Amsterdam. Technicians are mounting the power distribution cables on the cylinder that houses nine disks with silicon sensors.

  15. Noise characterization of silicon strip detectors-comparison of sensors with and without integrated jfet source-follower.

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomini, Gabriele

    Noise is often the main factor limiting the performance of detector systems. In this work a detailed study of the noise contributions in different types of silicon microstrip sensors is carried on. We investigate three sensors with double-sided readout fabricated by different suppliers for the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC, in addition to detectors including an integrated JFET Source-Follower as a first signal conditioning stage. The latter have been designed as an attempt at improving the performance when very long strips, obtained by gangling together several sensors, are required. After a description of the strip sensors and of their operation, the “static” characterization measurements performed on them (current and capacitance versus voltage and/or frequency) are illustrated and interpreted. Numerical device simulation has been employed as an aid in interpreting some of the measurement results. The commonly used models for expressing the noise of the detector-amplifier system in terms of its relev...

  16. Transparent silicon strip sensors for the optical alignment of particle detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.; Kroha, H.; Widmann, P.

    1995-05-01

    Modern large-area precision tracking detectors require increasing accuracy for the alignment of their components. A novel multi-point laser alignment system has been developed for such applications. The position of detector components with respect to reference laser beams is monitored by semi-transparent optical position sensors which work on the principle of silicon strip photodiodes. Two types of custom designed transparent strip sensors, based on crystalline and on amorphous silicon as active material, have been studied. The sensors are optimised for the typical diameters of collimated laser beams of 3-5 mm over distances of 10-20 m. They provide very high position resolution, on the order of 1 μm, uniformly over a wide measurement range of several centimeters. The preparation of the sensor surfaces requires special attention in order to achieve high light transmittance and minimum distortion of the traversing laser beams. At selected wavelengths, produced by laser diodes, transmission rates above 90% have been achieved. This allows to position more than 30 sensors along one laser beam. The sensors will be equipped with custom designed integrated readout electronics. (orig.)

  17. Response of CZT drift-strip detector to X- and gamma rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Gerward, Leif

    2001-01-01

    The drift-strip method for improving the energy response of a CdZnTe (CZT) detector to hard X- and gamma rays is discussed. Results for a 10 x 10 x 3 mm(3) detector crystal demonstrate a remarkable improvement of the energy resolution. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) is 2.18 keV (3.6%), 2...

  18. Development of a Compton camera for medical applications based on silicon strip and scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmer, J., E-mail: j.krimmer@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Ley, J.-L. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Abellan, C.; Cachemiche, J.-P. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, 13288 Marseille (France); Caponetto, L.; Chen, X.; Dahoumane, M.; Dauvergne, D. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Freud, N. [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard (France); Joly, B.; Lambert, D.; Lestand, L. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Létang, J.M. [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard (France); Magne, M. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); and others

    2015-07-01

    A Compton camera is being developed for the purpose of ion-range monitoring during hadrontherapy via the detection of prompt-gamma rays. The system consists of a scintillating fiber beam tagging hodoscope, a stack of double sided silicon strip detectors (90×90×2 mm{sup 3}, 2×64 strips) as scatter detectors, as well as bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors (38×35×30 mm{sup 3}, 100 blocks) as absorbers. The individual components will be described, together with the status of their characterization.

  19. Silicon two-coordinate detector with separable pad-strip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, L.S.; Babukh, A.V.; Frolov, V.N.; Kazarinov, M.Yu.; Popov, A.A.; Sandukovskij, V.G.; Chalyshev, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of resistive layer Si microstrip detector with two versions of the readout system are presented. One version used the usual single coordinate strip system of 1 mm pitch. The second version used a two coordinate pad-strip system of 3.6 mm pitch ('chess board'). The registration precision of the detector was studied with a UV laser. The two-dimensional imaging ability of the detector with α-particles and with an 241 Am γ-source is shown. 5 refs., 9 figs

  20. A Silicon Strip Detector for the Phase II High Luminosity Upgrade of the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00425747; McMahon, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that detects proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. The Semiconductor Tracker is part of the Inner Detector, implemented using silicon microstrip detectors with binary read-out, providing momentum measurement of charged particles with excellent resolution. The operation of the LHC and the ATLAS experiment started in 2010, with ten years of operation expected until major upgrades are needed in the accelerator and the experiments. The ATLAS tracker will need to be completely replaced due to the radiation damage and occupancy of some detector elements and the data links at high luminosities. These upgrades after the first ten years of operation are named the Phase-II Upgrade and involve a re-design of the LHC, resulting in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This thesis presents the work carried out in the testing of the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade electronic systems in the future strips tracker a...

  1. Metallurgical analysis of spalled work roll of hot strip mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.M.; Khan, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this study failure analysis of four work roll of the Hot Strip Mill is carried out. The microstructure is correlated with the chemical composition of shell and roll-life. It was concluded that for the longer service of the roll, cementite, graphite and martensite should be balanced (as per working requirement of the mill). (author)

  2. Technology Development on P-type Silicon Strip Detectors for Proton Beam Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aouadi, K.; Bouterfa, M.; Delamare, R.; Flandre, D.; Bertrand, D.; Henry, F.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a technology for the fabrication of n-in-p silicon strip detectors, which is based on the use of Al 2 O 3 oxide compared to p-spray insulation scheme. This technology has been developed using the best technological parameters deduced from simulations, particularly for the p-spray implantation parameters. Different wafers were processed towards the fabrication of the radiation detectors with p-spray insulation and Al 2 O 3 . The evaluation of the prototype detectors has been carried out by performing the electrical characterization of the devices through the measurement of current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics, as well as the measurement of detection response under radiation. The results of electrical measurements indicate that detectors fabricated with Al 2 O 3 exhibit a dark current several times lower than p-spray detectors and show an excellent electrical insulation between strips with a higher inter-strip resistance. Response of Al 2 O 3 strip detector under radiation has been found better. The resulting improved output signal dynamic range finally makes the use of Al 2 O 3 more attractive. (authors)

  3. Investigation of the charge collection for strongly irradiated silicon strip detectors of the CMS ECAL Preshower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, Ph.; Peisert, A.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, A.E.; Hou, S.; Lin, W.T.; Cheremukhin, A.E.; Golutvin, I.A.; Urkinbaev, A.R.; Zamyatin, N.I.; Loukas, D.

    2001-01-01

    Strongly irradiated (2.3·10 14 n/cm 2 ) silicon strip detectors of different size, thickness and different design options were tested in a muon beam at CERN in 1999. A charge collection efficiency in excess of 85% and a signal-to-noise ratio of about 6 are obtained in all cases at high enough bias voltage. Details of the charge collection in the interstrip and the guard ring region and cross-talk between strips were also studied. We find that the charge collection efficiency and the cross-talk between strips depend on the interstrip distance

  4. Silicon Strip Detectors for ATLAS at the HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    present ATLAS silicon strip tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker(TRT) are to be replaced with new silicon strip detectors as part of the Inner Tracker System (ITK) for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, HL-LHC. We have carried out intensive R&D programs based on n+-on-p microstrip detectors to fabricate improved radiation hard strip detectors that can survive the radiation levels corresponding to the integrated luminosity of up to 3000 fb−1. We describe the main specifications for this year’s sensor fabrication and the related R&D results, followed by a description of the candidate schema for module integration.

  5. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 538, - (2005), s. 384-407 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * silicon * micro-strip * beam * test Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  6. Commissioning, operation and performance of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker detector

    CERN Document Server

    Demina, Regina

    2009-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker is the largest device of this type ever built for detection of charge particles produced in beam-beam collisions. There are 24244 single-sided micro-strip sensors covering an active area of over 200 square meters, and nearly 10 millions channels to be read out. The detector was installed inside CMS in December 2007, and it was commissioned during the summer 2008. Since then it integrated several global CMS cosmic muons data taking and performances were measured. The commissioning strategy, operational experience learned during the data taking period, and detector performance results will be presented.

  7. CZT drift strip detectors for high energy astrophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Caroli, E.

    2010-01-01

    Requirements for X- and gamma ray detectors for future High Energy Astrophysics missions include high detection efficiency and good energy resolution as well as fine position sensitivity even in three dimensions.We report on experimental investigations on the CZT drift detector developed DTU Spac...

  8. Radiation damage measurements on CZT drift strip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    2003-01-01

    from 2 x 10(8) to 60 x 10(8) p(+)/cm(2). Even for the highest fluences, which had a dramatic effect on the spectroscopic performance, we were able to recover the detectors after an appropriate annealing procedure. The radiation damage was studied as a function of depth inside the detector material...

  9. GaAs strip detectors: the Australian production program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, K.S.A.; Alexiev, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Australian High Energy Physics consortium (composed of the University of Melbourne, the University of Sydney and ANSTO) has been investigating the possibility of producing a large area wheel of SI GaAs detectors for the ATLAS detector array. To help assess the extent of Australia's role in this venture a few SI GaAs microstrip detectors are to be manufactured under contract by the CSIRO division of Radiophysics GaAs IC Prototyping Facility. The planned production of the devices is discussed. First, the reasons for producing the detectors here in Australia are examined, then some basic characteristics of the material are considered, and finally details are provided of the design used for the manufacture of the devices. Two sets of detectors will be produced using the standard Glasgow production recipe; SIGaAs and GaN. The Glasgow mask set is being used as a benchmark against which to compare the Australian devices

  10. A new semicustom integrated bipolar amplifier for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.

    1989-01-01

    The QPA02 is a four channel DC coupled two stage transimpedance amplifier designed at Fermilab on a semicustom linear array (Quickchip 2S) manufactured by Tektronix. The chip was developed as a silicon strip amplifier but may have other applications as well. Each channel consists of a preamplifier and a second stage amplifier/sharper with differential output which can directly drive a transmission line (90 to 140 ohms). External bypass capacitors are the only discrete components required. QPA02 has been tested and demonstrated to be an effective silicon strip amplifier. Other applications may exist which can use this amplifier or a modified version of this amplifier. For example, another design is now in progress for a wire chamber amplifier, QPA03, to be reported later. Only a relatively small effort was required to modify the design and layout for this application. 11 figs

  11. Development of a silicon micro-strip detector for tracking high intensity secondary beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, R.; Asano, H.; Hasegawa, S.; Honda, R.; Ichikawa, Y.; Imai, K.; Joo, C. W.; Nakazawa, K.; Sako, H.; Sato, S.; Shirotori, K.; Sugimura, H.; Tanida, K.; Watabe, T.

    2014-11-01

    A single-sided silicon micro-strip detector (SSD) has been developed as a tracking detector for hadron experiments at J-PARC where secondary meson beams with intensities of up to 108 Hz are available. The performance of the detector has been investigated and verified in a series of test beam experiments in the years 2009-2011. The hole mobility was deduced from the analysis of cluster events. The beam rate dependence was measured in terms of timing resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and hit efficiency. This paper describes the detector with its read-out system, details of the test experiments, and discusses the performance achieved.

  12. Development of a silicon micro-strip detector for tracking high intensity secondary beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, R. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Asano, H. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hasegawa, S. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Honda, R. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ichikawa, Y. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Imai, K. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Joo, C.W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Nakazawa, K. [Physics Department, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Sako, H.; Sato, S. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shirotori, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Sugimura, H. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tanida, K., E-mail: tanida@phya.snu.ac.kr [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Watabe, T. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    A single-sided silicon micro-strip detector (SSD) has been developed as a tracking detector for hadron experiments at J-PARC where secondary meson beams with intensities of up to 10{sup 8} Hz are available. The performance of the detector has been investigated and verified in a series of test beam experiments in the years 2009–2011. The hole mobility was deduced from the analysis of cluster events. The beam rate dependence was measured in terms of timing resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and hit efficiency. This paper describes the detector with its read-out system, details of the test experiments, and discusses the performance achieved.

  13. A new strips tracker for the upgraded ATLAS ITk detector

    CERN Document Server

    David, Claire; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The inner detector of the present ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the particle densities and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new detectors must be faster, they need to be more highly segmented, and covering more area. They also need to be more resistant to radiation, and they require much greater power delivery to the front-end systems. At the same time, they cannot introduce excess material which could undermine performance. For those reasons, the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector must be redesigned and rebuilt completely. The design of the ATLAS Upgrade inner tracker (ITk) has already been defined. It consists of several layers of silicon particle detectors. The innermost layers will be composed of silicon pixel sensors, and the outer layers will consist of s...

  14. Design, fabrication and characterization of multi-guard-ring furnished p+n-n+ silicon strip detectors for future HEP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Kavita; Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh

    2016-07-01

    Si detectors, in various configurations (strips and pixels), have been playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their excellent vertexing and high precision tracking information. In future HEP experiments like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN and the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), the Si tracking detectors will be operated in a very harsh radiation environment, which leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors which in turn changes their electrical properties, i.e. change in the full depletion voltage, increase in the leakage current and decrease in the charge collection efficiency. In order to achieve the long term durability of Si-detectors in future HEP experiments, it is required to operate these detectors at very high reverse biases, beyond the full depletion voltage, thus requiring higher detector breakdown voltage. Delhi University (DU) is involved in the design, fabrication and characterization of multi-guard-ring furnished ac-coupled, single sided, p+n-n+ Si strip detectors for future HEP experiments. The design has been optimized using a two-dimensional numerical device simulation program (TCAD-Silvaco). The Si strip detectors are fabricated with eight-layers mask process using the planar fabrication technology by Bharat Electronic Lab (BEL), India. Further an electrical characterization set-up is established at DU to ensure the quality performance of fabricated Si strip detectors and test structures. In this work measurement results on non irradiated Si Strip detectors and test structures with multi-guard-rings using Current Voltage (IV) and Capacitance Voltage (CV) characterization set-ups are discussed. The effect of various design parameters, for example guard-ring spacing, number of guard-rings and metal overhang on breakdown voltage of test structures have been studied.

  15. Gamma Large Area Silicon Telescope (GLAST): Applying silicon strip detector technology to the detection of gamma rays in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, W.B.

    1993-06-01

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by space satellite experiment EGRET (presently operating on Compton Gamma Ray Observatory -- CGRO) have prompted an investigation into modern detector technologies for the next generation space based gamma ray telescopes. The GLAST proposal is based on silicon strip detectors as the open-quotes technology of choiceclose quotes for space application: no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggerable. The GLAST detector basically has two components: a tracking module preceding a calorimeter. The tracking module has planes of crossed strip (x,y) 300 μm pitch silicon detectors coupled to a thin radiator to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. The gap between the layers (∼5 cm) provides a lever arm for track fitting resulting in an angular resolution of <0.1 degree at high energy. The status of this R ampersand D effort is discussed including details on triggering the instrument, the organization of the detector electronics and readout, and work on computer simulations to model this instrument

  16. Study of the physical processes involved in the operating mode of the micro-strips gas detector Micromegas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barouch, G.

    2001-04-01

    Micromegas is a micro-strip gaseous detector invented in 1996. It consists of two volumes of gas separated by a micro-mesh. The first volume of gas, 3 mm thick, is used to liberate ionization electrons from the incident charged particle. In the second volume, only 100 μm thick, an avalanche phenomenon amplifies the electrons produced in the first volume. Strips printed on an insulating substrate collect the electrons from the avalanche. The geometrical configuration of Micromegas showed many advantages. The short anode-cathode distance combined with a high granularity provide high rate capabilities due to a fast collection of ions produced during the avalanche development. Moreover, the possibility to localize the avalanche with strips printed about every hundreds of micrometers allows to measure the position of the incident particle with a good resolution. In this work, experimental tests of Micromegas are presented along with detailed Monte Carlo simulations used to understand and optimize the detector's performances. The prototypes were tested several times at the PS accelerator at CERN. The analysis of the date showed a stable and efficient behavior of Micromegas combined with an excellent space resolution. In fact, spatial resolutions of less than 15 μm were obtained. In parallel with the in-beam tests, several simulations have been developed in order to gain a better understanding of the detector's response. (author)

  17. NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors stripping procedure for air kerma measurements of diagnostic X-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, L.S.R. [Centro Tecnológico do Exército, CTEx (Brazilian Army Technological Center), Av. das Américas n° 28705, 23085-470 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecão e Dosimetria, CNEN/IRD (Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, CNEN/IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/no, P.O. Box 37750, 22783-127 Barra da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Conti, C.C., E-mail: ccconti@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecão e Dosimetria, CNEN/IRD (Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, CNEN/IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/no, P.O. Box 37750, 22783-127 Barra da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Amorim, A.S.; Balthar, M.C.V. [Centro Tecnológico do Exército, CTEx (Brazilian Army Technological Center), Av. das Américas n° 28705, 23085-470 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-03-21

    Air kerma is an essential quantity for the calibration of national standards used in diagnostic radiology and the measurement of operating parameters used in radiation protection. Its measurement within the appropriate limits of accuracy, uncertainty and reproducibility is important for the characterization and control of the radiation field for the dosimetry of the patients submitted to diagnostic radiology and, also, for the assessment of the system which produces radiological images. Only the incident beam must be considered for the calculation of the air kerma. Therefore, for energy spectrum, counts apart the total energy deposition in the detector must be subtracted. It is necessary to establish a procedure to sort out the different contributions to the original spectrum and remove the counts representing scattered photons in the detector’s materials, partial energy deposition due to the interactions in the detector active volume and, also, the escape peaks contributions. The main goal of this work is to present spectrum stripping procedure, using the MCNP Monte Carlo computer code, for NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors to calculate the air kerma due to an X-ray beam usually used in medical radiology. The comparison between the spectrum before stripping procedure against the reference value showed a discrepancy of more than 63%, while the comparison with the same spectrum after the stripping procedure showed a discrepancy of less than 0.2%.

  18. SVX3: A deadtimeless readout chip for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.; Huffman, T.; Srage, J.; Stroehmer, R.; Yarema, R.; Garcia-Sciveras, M.; Luo, L.; Milgrome, O.

    1997-12-01

    A new silicon strip readout chip called the SVX3 has been designed for the 720,000 channel CDF silicon upgrade at Fermilab. SVX3 incorporates an integrator, analog delay pipeline, ADC, and data sparsification for each of 128 identical channels. Many of the operating parameters are programmable via a serial bit stream, which allows the chip to be used under a variety of conditions. Distinct features of SVX3 include use of a backside substrate contact for optimal ground referencing, and the capability of simultaneous signal acquisition and digital readout allowing deadtimeless operation in the Fermilab Tevatron

  19. Performance updating of CdZnTe strip-drift detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shorohov, M.; Tsirkunova, I.; Loupilov, A.

    2007-01-01

    59.6 and 662 keV correspondingly. Recently, significant progress was done in CdZnTe crystals growth technology. In the present paper we present preliminary result of performance updating of CdZnTe strip-drift detectors based on crystal of 10 x 10 x 6 mm 3 produced by Yinnel Tech company. Results...

  20. Charge collection and depth sensing investigation on CZT drift strip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Caroli, E.

    2010-01-01

    CZT drift strip detectors with Planar Transverse Field (PTF) configuration are suitable for high energy astrophysics instrumentation, where high efficiency, high energy and position resolution are required from the sensors. We report on experimental investigations on the DTU Space developed CZT...

  1. Proposed method of assembly for the BCD silicon strip vertex detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenmeyer, C.

    1989-01-01

    The BCD Silicon strip Vertex Detector is constructed of 10 identical central region modules and 18 similar forward region modules. This memo describes a method of assembling these modules from individual silicon wafers. Each wafer is fitted with associated front end electronics and cables and has been tested to insure that only good wafers reach the final assembly stage. 5 figs

  2. Beam test measurements on GaAs strip and pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertz, D.; Braunschweig, W.; Breibach, J.; Graessel, D.; Kubicki, T.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Rente, C.; Roeper, C.; Siedling, R.; Syben, O.; Tenbusch, F.; Toporowski, M.; Xiao, W.J. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). I. Physikalisches Institut

    1998-06-01

    GaAs strip and pixel detectors constructed in Aachen have been tested in a 1.4 GeV electron beam in Bonn and in a 5 GeV electron beam at DESY in February and May 1997. The strip detectors had a pitch of 50 {mu}m with a strip width of 25 {mu}m and were made of a 250 {mu}m thick Freiberger SI-GaAs wafer. The strip detectors included a punch-through bias structure and an integrated coupling capacitor. Additionally, an improved backside contact was formed, allowing a safe operation of the detector in a soft breakdown regime. Using the fast PreMux128 preamplifier multiplexer chip ({tau}{sub p}=50 ns) a signal-to-noise ratio of 13 was obtained at normal beam incidence for a bias voltage of 200 V, leading to a spatial resolution of 11 {mu}m with a simple COG algorithm. The 8 x 16 pixel array with a pixel size of 125 x 125 {mu}m{sup 2} was read out with the PreMux128 as well. With a double-metal technique, it was possible to bond the single-pixels linearly to the amplifier chip. The obtained signal-to-noise ratio of 30 in combination with a COG algorithm lead to the digital resolution value of 36 {mu}m for both pixel coordinates. (orig.) 10 refs.

  3. A Test-Bench for Measurement of Electrical Static Parameters of Strip Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Danilevich, V G; Dmitriev, A Yu; Elsha, V V; Zamiatin, Y I; Zubarev, E V; Ziaziulia, F E; Kozus, V I; Lomako, V M; Stepankov, D V; Khomich, A P; Shumeiko, N M; Cheremuhin, A E

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for measurement data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control.

  4. A test-bench for measurement of electrical static parameters of strip silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Dmitriev, A.Yu.; Elsha, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control. (author)

  5. Detector and Front-end electronics for ALICE and STAR silicon strip layers

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Higueret, S; Jundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Suire, C; Tarchini, A; Berst, D; Blondé, J P; Clauss, G; Colledani, C; Deptuch, G; Dulinski, W; Hu, Y; Hébrard, L; Kucewicz, W; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Ravel, O; Retière, F

    1998-01-01

    Detector modules consisting of Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) and Front End Electronics (FEE) assembly have been designed in order to provide the two outer layers of the ALICE Inner Tracker System (ITS) [1] as well as the outer layer of the STAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) [2]. Several prototypes have beenproduced and tested in the SPS and PS beam at CERN to validate the final design. Double-sided, AC-coupled SSD detectors provided by two different manufacturers and also a pair of single-sided SSD have been asssociated to new low-power CMOS ALICE128C ASIC chips in a new detector module assembly. The same detectors have also been associated to current Viking electronics for reference purpose. These prototype detector modules are described and some first results are presented.

  6. Application of a wedge strip anode in micro-pattern gaseous detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yang; Yang Yigang; Li Yulan; Li Yuanjing

    2013-01-01

    The wedge strip anode (WSA) has been widely used in 2-D position-sensitive detectors. A circular WSA with an effective diameter of 52 mm is successfully coupled to a tripe gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector through a simple resistive layer. A spatial resolution of 440 μm (FWHM) is achieved for a 10 kVp X-ray using 1 atm Ar:CO 2 =70:30 gas. The simple electronics of only three channels makes it very useful in applications strongly requiring simple interface design, e.g. sealed tubes and high pressure detectors. (authors)

  7. A silicon strip module for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade in the super LHC collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Sevilla, S., E-mail: Sergio.Gonzalez.Sevilla@cern.ch [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Barbier, G. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Anghinolfi, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cadoux, F.; Clark, A. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Dabrowski, W.; Dwuznik, M. [AGH University of Sceince and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Ferrere, D. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Garcia, C. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Edificio Investigacion Paterna, Apartado 22085 46071 Valencia (Spain); Ikegami, Y. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hara, K. [University of Tsukuba, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Jakobs, K. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Kaplon, J. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Koriki, T. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Lacasta, C. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Edificio Investigacion Paterna, Apartado 22085 46071 Valencia (Spain); La Marra, D. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Marti i Garcia, S. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Edificio Investigacion Paterna, Apartado 22085 46071 Valencia (Spain); Parzefall, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Pohl, M. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Terada, S. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-04-21

    The ATLAS detector is a general purpose experiment designed to fully exploit the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a nominal luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. It is expected that after several years of successful data-taking, the LHC physics program will be extended by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of the Inner Detector (ID), since the current tracker will not provide the required performance due to cumulated radiation damage and a dramatic increase in the detector occupancy. In this paper, a proposal of a double-sided silicon micro-strip module for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS ID is presented. The expected thermal performance based upon detailed FEA simulations is discussed. First electrical results from a prototype version of the next generation readout front-end chips are also shown.

  8. Radiation damage measurements on CZT drift strip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    2003-01-01

    from 2 x 10(8) to 60 x 10(8) p(+)/cm(2). Even for the highest fluences, which had a dramatic effect on the spectroscopic performance, we were able to recover the detectors after an appropriate annealing procedure. The radiation damage was studied as a function of depth inside the detector material...... with the proton dose. The radiation contribution to the electron trapping was found to obey the following relation: (mutau(e)(-1))(rad) = (2.5+/-0.2) x 10(-7) x Phi (V/cm)(2) with the proton fluence, Phi in p(+)/cm(2). The trapping depth dependence, however, did not agree well with the damage profile calculated...

  9. Evaluation of the data of the HERA-B vertex detector with regards to the physical properties of the applied silicon strip counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, W.

    1999-01-01

    The HERA-B experiment at the DESY laboratory in Hamburg is dedicated to measuring CP-violation in the decays of neutral B-mesons. The primary purpose of the experiment in the measurement of the CP-asymmetry in the decay channel B 0 → J/ψK S 0 . In order to identify the B-mesons and to determine the time-dependent asymmetry, the decay length anti Δ anti l of the B-mesons must be measured to an accuracy of σ Δl ≤ 500 μm. To achieve this aim, HERA-B has a vertex detector which is based on double-sided silicon strip detectors mounted in a Roman pot system. One important specification of the vertex detector is to allow independent tracking with an efficiency above 95%. Therefore, it is required to select hits on the strip detectors with an efficiency above 99% and optimize the suppression of noise. This thesis describes a detailed investigation of the behaviour of the silicon strip detectors used in the vertex detector. The first part presents measurements performed in the laboratory using a tunable infrared dye laser to simulate the passage of charged particles through the detector. This includes measurements of the charge division between adjacent readout strips and mapping of the detector depletion. The results of the measurements agree excellently with the predictions from a detailed model calculation carried out in this thesis. The second part of the thesis the analysis of data recorded with the HERA-B vertex detector during the commissioning run of spring 1999. The analysis focusses on the investigation of cluster shapes and cluster sizes. In particular, the dependence of these distributions from the selection cuts is analyzed. Additionally, the differences between the two detector designs used, p-spray and p-stop detectors with intermediate strip or without respectively, are worked out. The measured distributions agree very well with the predictions from a model calculation taking all relevant detector parameters into account. The results of the data

  10. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Minano, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown.

  11. The ATLAS Tracker Upgrade Short Strips Detectors for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Soldevila, U; Lacasta, C; Marti i García, S; Miñano, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN around 2018 by about an order of magnitude, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for SLHC operation. In order to cope with the order of magnitude increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. A massive R&D programme is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. New front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics ...

  12. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown. A key issue ...

  13. Atlas Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Minano, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a significant factor, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for Super-LHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will imply a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown.

  14. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the sLHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, Michel; Minano Moya, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown. (authors)

  15. Characterization of a double-sided silicon strip detector autoradiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Örbom, Anders, E-mail: anders.orbom@med.lu.se; Ahlstedt, Jonas; Östlund, Karl; Strand, Sven-Erik [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund SE-22185 (Sweden); Serén, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro; Kotiluoto, Petri [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo FI-02044 (Finland); Hauge, Håvard [Biomolex AS, Oslo NO-0319 (Norway); Olafsen, Tove; Wu, Anna M.; Dahlbom, Magnus [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The most commonly used technology currently used for autoradiography is storage phosphor screens, which has many benefits such as a large field of view but lacks particle-counting detection of the time and energy of each detected radionuclide decay. A number of alternative designs, using either solid state or scintillator detectors, have been developed to address these issues. The aim of this study is to characterize the imaging performance of one such instrument, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) system for digital autoradiography. A novel aspect of this work is that the instrument, in contrast to previous prototype systems using the same detector type, provides the ability for user accessible imaging with higher throughput. Studies were performed to compare its spatial resolution to that of storage phosphor screens and test the implementation of multiradionuclide ex vivo imaging in a mouse preclinical animal study. Methods: Detector background counts were determined by measuring a nonradioactive sample slide for 52 h. Energy spectra and detection efficiency were measured for seven commonly used radionuclides under representative conditions for tissue imaging. System dead time was measured by imaging {sup 18}F samples of at least 5 kBq and studying the changes in count rate over time. A line source of {sup 58}Co was manufactured by irradiating a 10 μm nickel wire with fast neutrons in a research reactor. Samples of this wire were imaged in both the DSSD and storage phosphor screen systems and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) measured for the line profiles. Multiradionuclide imaging was employed in a two animal study to examine the intratumoral distribution of a {sup 125}I-labeled monoclonal antibody and a {sup 131}I-labeled engineered fragment (diabody) injected in the same mouse, both targeting carcinoembryonic antigen. Results: Detector background was 1.81 × 10{sup −6} counts per second per 50 × 50 μm pixel. Energy spectra and

  16. Gas detector with a μm size strips anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oed, A.

    1988-01-01

    A flat electrode device for an ionizing radiation multidetector, particularly for an X-ray detector used in tomodensitometry, is presented. It consists of either two active electrodes of the same kind, or an anode-electrode and a cathode electrode, on opposite sides of a base plate. The device avoids problems linked to flatness and parallelism, and the base plate consists of at least two intermediate plates separated by a space containing at least layer of binding material. The device thus overcomes difficulties associated with thickness and the need to stop ionizing radiation from passing from one cell to another by traversing the base plate. The steps of the fabrication process are detailed [fr

  17. Degradation of charge sharing after neutron irradiation in strip silicon detectors with different geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Greenall, A.; Huse, T.; Tsurin, I.; Wormald, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the CERN/RD50 collaboration is the improvement of the radiation tolerance of semiconductor detectors for future experiments at high-luminosity colliders. In the RD50 framework, evidence of enhanced signal charge in severely irradiated silicon detectors (diodes, segmented planar and 3D devices) was found. The underlying mechanism was labelled charge multiplication. This has been one of the most exciting results from the research activity of RD50 because it could allow for a greatly extended radiation tolerance, if the mechanism is to be found controllable and tuneable. The charge multiplication mechanism is governed by impact ionisation from electrons drifting in high electric field. The electric field profile is influenced by the geometry of the implanted electrodes. In order to investigate the influence of the diode implantation geometry on charge multiplication, the RD50 collaboration has commissioned the production of miniature microstrip silicon sensors with various choices of strip pitch and strip width over pitch (w/p) ratios. Moreover, some of the sensors were produced interleaving readout strips with dummy intermediate ones in order to modify the electric field profile. These geometrical solutions can influence both charge multiplication and charge sharing between adjacent strips. The initial results of this study are here presented

  18. Interference coupling mechanisms in Silicon Strip Detectors - CMS tracker "wings" A learned lesson for SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Arteche, F; Rivetta, C

    2009-01-01

    The identification of coupling mechanisms between noise sources and sensitive areas of the front-end electronics (FEE) in the previous CMS tracker sub-system is critical to optimize the design and integration of integrated circuits, sensors and power distribution circuitry for the proposed SLHC Silicon Strip Tracker systems. This paper presents a validated model of the noise sensitivity observed in the Silicon Strip Detector-FEE of the CMS tracker that allows quantifying both the impact of the noise coupling mechanisms and the system immunity against electromagnetic interferences. This model has been validated based on simulations using finite element models and immunity tests conducted on prototypes of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) and Outer Barrel (TOB) systems. The results of these studies show important recommendations and criteria to be applied in the design of future detectors to increase the immunity against electromagnetic noise.

  19. High energy X-ray photon counting imaging using linear accelerator and silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Y., E-mail: cycjty@sophie.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Bioengineering, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimazoe, K.; Yan, X. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ueda, O.; Ishikura, T. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Fuji, Hino, Tokyo 191-8502 (Japan); Fujiwara, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Uesaka, M.; Ohno, M. [Nuclear Professional School, the University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Tomita, H. [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yoshihara, Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Bioengineering, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-09-11

    A photon counting imaging detector system for high energy X-rays is developed for on-site non-destructive testing of thick objects. One-dimensional silicon strip (1 mm pitch) detectors are stacked to form a two-dimensional edge-on module. Each detector is connected to a 48-channel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The threshold-triggered events are recorded by a field programmable gate array based counter in each channel. The detector prototype is tested using 950 kV linear accelerator X-rays. The fast CR shaper (300 ns pulse width) of the ASIC makes it possible to deal with the high instant count rate during the 2 μs beam pulse. The preliminary imaging results of several metal and concrete samples are demonstrated.

  20. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5∼TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii r<45 cm is done by the Inner Tracking System (ITS), consisting of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The outer two layers of the ITS use double-sided silicon strip detectors. This thesis focuses on testing of these detectors and performance studies of the detector module prototypes at the beam test. Silicon strip detector layers will require about 20 thousand HAL25 front-end readout chips and about 3.5 thousand hybrids each containing 6 HAL25 chips. During the assembly procedure, chips are bonded on a patterned TAB aluminium microcables which connect to all the chip input and output pads, and then the chips are assembled on the hybrids. Bonding failures at the chip or hybrid level may either render the component non-functional or deteriorate its the performance such that it can not be used for the module production. After each bond...

  1. Radiation Damage Effects and Performance of Silicon Strip Detectors using LHC Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067734

    1998-01-01

    Future high energy physics experiments as the ATLAS experiment at CERN, will use silicon strip detectors for fast and high precision tracking information. The high hadron fluences in these experiments cause permanent damage in the silicon.Additional energy levels are introduced in the bandgap thus changing the electrical properties such as leakage current and full depletion voltage V_fd .Very high leakage currents are observed after irradiation and lead to higher electronic noise and thus decrease the spatial resolution.V_fd increases to a few hundred volts after irradiation and eventually beyond the point of stable operating voltages. Prototype detectors with either p-implanted strips (p-in-n) and n-implanted strip detectors (n-in-n) were irradiated to the maximum expected fluence in ATLAS.The irradiation and the following study of the current and V_fd were carried out under ATLAS operational conditions.The evolution of V_fd after irradiation is compared to models based on diode irradiations.The qualitative ...

  2. Integrated USB based readout interface for silicon strip detectors of the ATLAS SCT module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, P.; Linhart, V.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.; Husak, M.

    2011-12-01

    An integrated portable USB based readout interface for the ATLAS semiconductor trackers (SCT) has been built. The ATLAS SCT modules are large area silicon strip detectors designed for tracking of high-energy charged particles resulting in collisions on Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in CERN. These modules can be also used on small accelerators for medical or industry applications where a compact and configurable readout interface would be useful. A complete custom made PC-host software tool was written for Windows platform for control and DAQ with build-in online visualization. The new constructed interface provides integrated power, control and DAQ and configurable communication between the detector module and the controlling PC. The interface is based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and the high speed USB 2.0 standard. This design permits to operate the modules under high particle fluence while minimizing the dead time of the whole detection system. Utilization of the programmable device simplifies the operation and permits future expansion of the functionality without any hardware changes. The device includes the high voltage source for detector bias up to 500 V and it is equipped with number of devices for monitoring the operation and conditions of measurement (temperature, humidity, voltage). These features are particularly useful as the strip detector must be operated in a well controlled environment. The operation of the interface will be demonstrated on data measured with different particles from radiation sources.

  3. First testbeam results of prototype modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS strip tracking detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Susanne; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC through a sizeable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1x1035cm-2s-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at a integrated luminosity of 3000fb-1, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x1016 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk), which will consist of both strip and pixellated silicon detectors. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics is glued on top of a silicon sensor. These so-called modules are glued on carbon structures and will span about 200m2 of active area. A broad R&D program is ongoing to develop and prototype many detector components. The modu...

  4. Electromagnetic noise studies in a silicon strip detector, used as part of a luminosity monitor at LEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegaard, Trygve; Tafjord, Harald; Buran, Torleiv

    1995-02-01

    As part of the luminosity monitor, SAT, in the DELPHI [1] experiment at CERN's Large Electron Positron collider, a tracking detector constructed from silicon strip detector elements was installed in front of an electromagnetic calorimeter. The luminosity was measured by counting the number of Bhabha events at the interaction point of the electron and the positron beans. The tracking detector reconstructs from the interaction point and the calorimeter measures the corresponding particles' energies. The SAT Tracker [2] consists of 504 silicon strip detectors. The strips are DC-coupled to CMOS VLSI-chips, baptized Balder [3,4]. The chip performs amplification, zero-suppression, digitalisation, and multiplexing. The requirements of good space resolution and high efficiency put strong requirements on noise control. A short description of the geometry and the relevant circuit layout is given. We describe the efforts made to minimise the electromagnetic noise in the detector and present some numbers of the noise level using various techniques.

  5. First results of the front-end ASIC for the strip detector of the PANDA MVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagli, T.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Calvo, D.; Di Pietro, V.; Lai, A.; Riccardi, A.; Ritman, J.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Stockmanns, T.; Wheadon, R.; Zambanini, A.

    2017-03-01

    PANDA is a key experiment of the future FAIR facility and the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) is the innermost part of its tracking system. PASTA (PAnda STrip ASIC) is the readout chip for the strip part of the MVD. The chip is designed to provide high resolution timestamp and charge information with the Time over Threshold (ToT) technique. Its architecture is based on Time to Digital Converters with analog interpolators, with a time bin width of 50 ps. The chip implements Single Event Upset (SEU) protection techniques for its digital parts. A first full-size prototype with 64 channels was produced in a commercial 110 nm CMOS technology and the first characterizations of the prototype were performed.

  6. Design and development of a vertex reconstruction for the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) data. Study of gaseous and silicon micro-strips detectors (MSGC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, St.

    2002-12-01

    The work presented in this thesis has contributed to the development of the Compact Muon Solenoid detector (CMS) that will be installed at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will start running in summer 2007. This report is organised in three parts: the study of gaseous detectors and silicon micro-strips detectors, and a development of a software for the reconstruction and analysis of CMS data in the framework of ORCA. First, the micro-strips gaseous detectors (MSGC) study was on the ultimate critical irradiation test before their substitution in the CMS tracker. This test showed a really small number of lost anodes and a stable signal to noise ratio. This test proved that the described MSGC fulfill all the requirements to be integrated in the CMS tracker. The following contribution described a study of silicon micro-strips detectors and its electronics exposed to a 40 MHz bunched LHC like beam. These tests indicated a good behaviour of the data acquisition and control system. The signal to noise ratio, the bunch crossing identification and the cluster finding efficiency had also be analysed. The last study concern the design and the development of an ORCA algorithm dedicates to secondary vertex reconstruction. This iterative algorithm aims to be use for b tagging. This part analyse also primary vertex reconstruction in events without and with pile up. (author)

  7. A Low Mass On-Chip Readout Scheme for Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmler, C., E-mail: christian.irmler@oeaw.ac.at [HEPHY Vienna – Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Bergauer, T.; Frankenberger, A.; Friedl, M.; Gfall, I. [HEPHY Vienna – Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Higuchi, T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ishikawa, A. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Joo, C. [Seoul National University, High Energy Physics Laboratory, 25-107 Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kah, D.H.; Kang, K.H. [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, 1370 Sankyuk Dong, Buk Gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rao, K.K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Experimental High Energy Physics Group, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Kato, E. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Mohanty, G.B. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Experimental High Energy Physics Group, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Negishi, K. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Onuki, Y.; Shimizu, N. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tsuboyama, T. [KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Valentan, M. [HEPHY Vienna – Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-21

    B-factories like the KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, operate at relatively low energies and thus require detectors with very low material budget in order to minimize multiple scattering. On the other hand, front-end chips with short shaping time like the APV25 have to be placed as close to the sensor strips as possible to reduce the capacitive load, which mainly determines the noise figure. In order to achieve both – minimal material budget and low noise – we developed a readout scheme for double-sided silicon detectors, where the APV25 chips are placed on a flexible circuit, which is glued onto the top side of the sensor. The bottom-side strips are connected by two flexible circuits, which are bent around the edge of the sensor. This so-called “Origami” design will be utilized to build the Silicon Vertex Detector of the Belle II experiment, which will consist of four layers made from ladders with up to five double-sided silicon strip sensors in a row. Each ladder will be supported by two ribs made of a carbon fiber and Airex foam core sandwich. The heat dissipated by the front-end chips will be removed by a highly efficient two-phase CO{sub 2} system. Thanks to the Origami concept, all APV25 chips are aligned in a row and thus can be cooled by a single thin cooling pipe per ladder. We present the concept and the assembly procedure of the Origami chip-on-sensor modules.

  8. A Low Mass On-Chip Readout Scheme for Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irmler, C.; Bergauer, T.; Frankenberger, A.; Friedl, M.; Gfall, I.; Higuchi, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Joo, C.; Kah, D.H.; Kang, K.H.; Rao, K.K.; Kato, E.; Mohanty, G.B.; Negishi, K.; Onuki, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Tsuboyama, T.; Valentan, M.

    2013-01-01

    B-factories like the KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, operate at relatively low energies and thus require detectors with very low material budget in order to minimize multiple scattering. On the other hand, front-end chips with short shaping time like the APV25 have to be placed as close to the sensor strips as possible to reduce the capacitive load, which mainly determines the noise figure. In order to achieve both – minimal material budget and low noise – we developed a readout scheme for double-sided silicon detectors, where the APV25 chips are placed on a flexible circuit, which is glued onto the top side of the sensor. The bottom-side strips are connected by two flexible circuits, which are bent around the edge of the sensor. This so-called “Origami” design will be utilized to build the Silicon Vertex Detector of the Belle II experiment, which will consist of four layers made from ladders with up to five double-sided silicon strip sensors in a row. Each ladder will be supported by two ribs made of a carbon fiber and Airex foam core sandwich. The heat dissipated by the front-end chips will be removed by a highly efficient two-phase CO 2 system. Thanks to the Origami concept, all APV25 chips are aligned in a row and thus can be cooled by a single thin cooling pipe per ladder. We present the concept and the assembly procedure of the Origami chip-on-sensor modules

  9. Measurement of characteristic impedance of silicon fiber sheet based readout strip panel for RPC detector in INO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M. K.; Kumar, A.; Marimuthu, N.; Singh, V.; Subrahmanyam, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is a mega science project of India, which is going to use about 30,000 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) as active detector elements for the study of atmoshpheric neutrino oscillations. Each RPC detector will consist of two orthogonally placed readout strip panel for picking the signals generated in the gas chamber. The area of RPC detector in INO-ICAL (Iron Calorimeter) experiment will be 2 m × 2 m, therefore the dimensions of readout strip panel should also be 2 m × 2 m. To get undistorted signals pass through the readout strip panel to front-end electronics, their characteristic impedance should be matched with each other. In the present paper, we describe the need and search of new dielectric material for the fabrication of flame resistant, waterproof and flexible readout strip panel. We will also describe the measurement of characteristic impedance of Plastic Honeycomb (PH) based readout strip panel and Silicon Fiber Sheet (SFS) based readout strip panel in a comparative way, and its variation under loading and with time. Based on this study, we found that a 5 mm thick SFS-based readout strip panel has a minimum signal reflection at 49.5 ohm characteristic impedance value. Our study shows that SFS is a good dielectric material for the purpose.

  10. LHCb - SALT, a dedicated readout chip for strip detectors in the LHCb Upgrade experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Swientek, Krzysztof Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Silicon strip detectors in the upgraded Tracker of LHCb experiment will require a new readout 128-channel ASIC called SALT. It will extract and digitise analogue signals from the sensor, perform digital processing and transmit serial output data. SALT is designed in CMOS 130 nm process and uses a novel architecture comprising of analogue front-end and ultra-low power ($<$0.5 mW) fast (40 MSps) sampling 6-bit ADC in each channel. A prototype of first 8-channel version of SALT chip, comprising all important functionalities, was submitted. Its design and possibly first tests results will be presented.

  11. On the behavior of ion implanted silicon strip detectors in high intensity low energy heavy ion beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bradfield, W; Parker, P D; Visser, D W

    2002-01-01

    In a recent investigation of the development of leakage currents in Silicon Strip Detectors used in experiments with high intensity stable beams, anomalous behavior was observed. Over a very short period of time the leakage current rose to levels that could be damaging to the detectors. A discussion of this evidence and how the problem was solved, with a viable model, will be given, leading to guidelines for use of such detectors in a stable beam environment.

  12. Degradation of charge sharing after neutron irradiation in strip silicon detectors with different geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the CERN/RD50 collaboration is the improvement of the radiation tolerance of semiconductor detectors for future experiments at high-luminosity colliders. In the RD50 framework, evidence of enhanced signal charge in severely irradiated silicon detectors (diodes, segmented planar and 3D devices) was found. The underlying mechanism was labelled charge multiplication. This has been one of the most exciting results from the research activity of RD50 because it could allow for a greatly extended radiation tolerance, if the mechanism is to be found controllable and tuneable. The charge multiplication mechanism is governed by impact ionisation from electrons drifting in high electric field. The electric field profile is influenced by the geometry of the implanted electrodes. In order to investigate the influence of the diode implantation geometry on charge multiplication, the RD50 collaboration has commissioned the production of miniature microstrip silicon sensors with various choices of strip pitch and s...

  13. CMOS front end analog signal readout chip for Si-strip/PIN detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandratre, V.B.; Sardesai, S.V.; Kataria, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the design of an 8-channel front-end chip for Si-strip detectors, ranging in capacitance from 1 to 30 pf. Each channel consists of a charge amplifier, a shaper amplifier (CR-RC 3 ) and a track-hold stage. The channel outputs are connected to an analog multiplexer which is controlled by an external clock for serial readout. The peaking time is adjustable over 250ns-2us in four fixed steps by external control. There is provision for changing gain low/high. A derivative of the chip is also developed for dosimeter application that uses small area diodes as detectors. The circuit has a power dissipation of 6 MW per channel and is designed to fabricate in 1.2um CMOS technology. The Opf noise is ∼400e. The design approach is presented and the results of simulation are shown. (author)

  14. Study of 236U/238U ratio at CIRCE using a 16-strip silicon detector with a TOF system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Cesare M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS is presently the most sensitive technique for the measurement of long-lived actinides, e.g. 236U and xPu isotopes. A new actinide AMS system, based on a 3-MV pelletron tandem accelerator, is operated at the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage (CIRCE in Caserta, Italy. In this paper we report on the procedure adopted to increase the 236U abundance sensitivity as low as possible. The energy and position determinations of the 236U ions, using a 16-strip silicon detector have been obtained. A 236U/238U isotopic ratio background level of about 2.9×10−11 was obtained, summing over all the strips, using a Time of Flight-Energy (TOF-E system with a 16-strip silicon detector (4.9×10−12 just with one strip.

  15. Study of 236U/238U ratio at CIRCE using a 16-strip silicon detector with a TOF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, M.; De Cesare, N.; D'Onofrio, A.; Gialanella, L.; Terrasi, F.

    2015-04-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is presently the most sensitive technique for the measurement of long-lived actinides, e.g. 236U and xPu isotopes. A new actinide AMS system, based on a 3-MV pelletron tandem accelerator, is operated at the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage (CIRCE) in Caserta, Italy. In this paper we report on the procedure adopted to increase the 236U abundance sensitivity as low as possible. The energy and position determinations of the 236U ions, using a 16-strip silicon detector have been obtained. A 236U/238U isotopic ratio background level of about 2.9×10-11 was obtained, summing over all the strips, using a Time of Flight-Energy (TOF-E) system with a 16-strip silicon detector (4.9×10-12 just with one strip).

  16. The readout chain for the P-bar ANDA MVD strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, R.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Pietro, V. Di; Riccardi, A.; Zaunick, H.-G.; Kleines, H.; Goerres, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M.D.; Sohlbach, H.

    2015-01-01

    The P-bar ANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt) experiment will study the strong interaction in annihilation reactions between an antiproton beam and a stationary gas jet target. The detector will comprise different sub-detectors for tracking, particle identification and calorimetry. The Micro-Vertex Detector (MVD) as the innermost part of the tracking system will allow precise tracking and detection of secondary vertices. For the readout of the double-sided silicon strip sensors a custom-made ASIC is being developed, employing the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique for digitization and utilize time-to-digital converters (TDC) to provide a high-precision time stamp of the hit. A custom-made Module Data Concentrator ASIC (MDC) will multiplex the data of all front-ends of one sensor towards the CERN-developed GBT chip set (GigaBit Transceiver). The MicroTCA-based MVD Multiplexer Board (MMB) at the off-detector site will receive and concentrate the data from the GBT links and transfer it to FPGA-based compute nodes for global event building

  17. Silicon strip tracking detector development and prototyping for the Phase-2 Upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Susanne; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In about ten years from now, the Phase-2 upgrade of the LHC is planned. This will result in a severe radiation dose and high particle rates for the multipurpose exeperiments because of a foreseen luminosity of ten times higher the LHC design luminosity. Several detector components will have to be upgraded in the experiments. In the ATLAS experiment the current inner detector will be replaced by an all silicon tracking detector aiming for high performance. The poster will present the development and the latest prototyping of the upgrade silicon strip tracking detector. Its layout foresees low mass and modular double-sided structures for the barrel and forward region. Silicon sensors and readout electronics, so-called modules, are planned to be assembled double-sided on larger carbon-core structures. The modularity allows assembly and testing at multiple sites. Many components need to be developed and their prototyping towards full-size components is ongoing. New developments and test results will be presented....

  18. The honeycomb strip chamber: A two coordinate and high precision muon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolsma, H.P.T.

    1996-04-19

    This thesis describes the construction and performance of the Honeycomb Strip Chamber (HSC). The HSC offers several advantages with respect to classical drift chambers and drift tubes. The main features of the HSC are: -The detector offers the possibility of simultaneous readout of two orthogonal coordinates with approximately the same precision. - The HSC technology is optimised for mass production. This means that the design is modular (monolayers) and automisation of most of the production steps is possible (folding and welding machines). - The technology is flexible. The cell diameter can easily be changed from a few millimetres to at least 20 mm by changing the parameters in the computer programme of the folding machine. The number of monolayers per station can be chosen freely to the demands of the experiment. -The honeycomb structure gives the detector stiffness and makes it self supporting. This makes the technology a very transparent one in terms of radiation length which is important to prevent multiple scattering of high energetic muons. - The dimensions of the detector are defined by high precision templates. Those templates constrain for example the overall tolerance on the wire positions to 20 {mu}m rms. Reproduction of the high precision assembly of the detector is thus guaranteed. (orig.).

  19. The honeycomb strip chamber: A two coordinate and high precision muon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolsma, H.P.T.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the construction and performance of the Honeycomb Strip Chamber (HSC). The HSC offers several advantages with respect to classical drift chambers and drift tubes. The main features of the HSC are: -The detector offers the possibility of simultaneous readout of two orthogonal coordinates with approximately the same precision. - The HSC technology is optimised for mass production. This means that the design is modular (monolayers) and automisation of most of the production steps is possible (folding and welding machines). - The technology is flexible. The cell diameter can easily be changed from a few millimetres to at least 20 mm by changing the parameters in the computer programme of the folding machine. The number of monolayers per station can be chosen freely to the demands of the experiment. -The honeycomb structure gives the detector stiffness and makes it self supporting. This makes the technology a very transparent one in terms of radiation length which is important to prevent multiple scattering of high energetic muons. - The dimensions of the detector are defined by high precision templates. Those templates constrain for example the overall tolerance on the wire positions to 20 μm rms. Reproduction of the high precision assembly of the detector is thus guaranteed. (orig.)

  20. Radiation tolerance of oxygenated n-strip read-out detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P P; Greenall, A

    2003-01-01

    Following earlier work on 'oxygenated' detectors in terms of charge collection efficiencies after proton irradiation, full-size detectors for the LHC have been processed with n-side read-out on oxygen enhanced n-type silicon substrates. Two hundred-micron-thick detectors have been inhomogeneously irradiated up to doses of 7 multiplied by 10**1**4p/cm**2 using 24 GeV protons from the CERN PS. Results are presented on the charge collection efficiencies as a function of operating voltage for regions of the detectors irradiated to different doses, using LHC speed analogue read-out electronics. The measurements confirm the expectations which led to our original proposal of such detectors which are now being envisaged for the silicon-based detector systems at the LHC designed to withstand the greatest doses. The possibilities for survival at an upgraded luminosity LHC (Super-LHC) are also briefly discussed.

  1. Measurements on GaAs strip and pixel detectors in a 50 GeV pion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syben, O. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Arbabi, S. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Braunschweig, W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Breibach, J. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Chu, Z. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Karpinski, W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Krais, R. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Kubicki, Th. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Luebelsmeyer, K. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Rente, C. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Siedling, R. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Tenbusch, F. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Toporowski, M. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Wittmer, B. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Xiao, W.J. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.

    1997-04-01

    GaAs strip and pixel detectors constructed in Aachen have been tested at CERN in a 50 GeV pion beam in September 1995 in collaboration with the CMS Tracker group. The strip detectors had a pitch of 100 {mu}m and were made of a 250 {mu}m thick Freiberger SI-GaAs wafer. The three strip detectors had a strip width of 25, 50 and 75 {mu}m, respectively. Using the fast PreMux128 preamplifier multiplexer chip ({tau}{sub p}=50 ns) a signal to noise ratio of 15 was obtained for the widest strips at normal beam incidence for a bias voltage of 170 V. The 8 x 8 pixel arrays with a pixel size of 1 x 1 mm{sup 2} and 0.5 x 0.5 mm{sup 2}, respectively, were read out with the PreMux128 as well. Here a signal of 12500e{sup -} was obtained for both detectors, leading to a maximum signal to noise ratio of 20 at perpendicular beam incidence and 170 V bias voltage. (orig.).

  2. Prototyping of petalets for the Phase-II upgrade of the silicon strip tracking detector of the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, S.; Benítez, V.; Fernández-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullán, M.; Lacker, H.; Rehnisch, L.; Sperlich, D.; Ariza, D.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Gregor, I.; Keller, J.; Lohwasser, K.; Poley, L.; Prahl, V.; Zakharchuk, N.; Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Mahboubi, K.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Bernabéu, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marco-Hernandez, R.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, D.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz Contell, C.; Soldevila Serrano, U.; Affolder, T.; Greenall, A.; Gallop, B.; Phillips, P. W.; Cindro, V.

    2018-03-01

    In the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. To cope with the resultant increase in occupancy, bandwidth and radiation damage, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk consists of a silicon pixel and a strip detector and exploits the concept of modularity. Prototyping and testing of various strip detector components has been carried out. This paper presents the developments and results obtained with reduced-size structures equivalent to those foreseen to be used in the forward region of the silicon strip detector. Referred to as petalets, these structures are built around a composite sandwich with embedded cooling pipes and electrical tapes for routing the signals and power. Detector modules built using electronic flex boards and silicon strip sensors are glued on both the front and back side surfaces of the carbon structure. Details are given on the assembly, testing and evaluation of several petalets. Measurement results of both mechanical and electrical quantities are shown. Moreover, an outlook is given for improved prototyping plans for large structures.

  3. Readout of non-irradiated and irradiated strip detectors with fast analogue electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cindro, V; Mikuz, M; Zontar, D; Kaplon, J; Riedler, P; Roe, S; Weilhammer, Peter; Dabrowski, W

    2000-01-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors with 50 mu m readout pitch were connected to fast LHC-type analogue readout electronics (DMILL SCT32A) and their performance evaluated before and after irradiation. The p-type strips with a length of 4 cm were fabricated on high- resistivity n-bulk wafers by CSEM. Fast neutrons from the TRIGA research reactor in Ljubljana were used to irradiate detectors to two different fluences: 4.5*10/sup 13/ and 1.5*10/sup 14//cm/sup 2/ 1 MeV neutron equivalent non-ionizing energy loss. A /sup 90/Sr beta source setup was used for detector performance measurements. Most of the observed signal/noise degradation after irradiation could be attributed to the signal loss. Around 82Xharge collection efficiency was measured at higher fluence 100 V above full depletion voltage as determined with C-V measurements. Measurements were performed during annealing and reverse annealing of effective dopant concentration. (9 refs).

  4. Silicon Strip detectors for the ATLAS End-Cap Tracker at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00232570

    Inside physics programme of the LHC different experiment upgrades are foreseen. After the phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector the luminosity will be increased up to 5-7.5x10E34 cm-2s-1. This will mean a considerable increase in the radiation levels, above 10E16 neq/cm2 in the inner regions. This thesis is focused on the development of silicon microstrip detectors enough radiation hard to cope with the particle fluence expected at the ATLAS detector during HL-LHC experiment. In particular on the electrical characterization of silicon sensors for the ATLAS End-Caps. Different mechanical and thermal tests are shown using a Petal core as well as the electrical characterization of the silicon sensors that will be used with the Petal structure. Charge collection efficiency studies are carried out on sensors with different irradiation fluences using the ALiBaVa system and two kinds of strips connection are also analized (DC and AC ganging) with a laser system. The Petalet project is presented and the electrical c...

  5. Beam loss studies on silicon strip detector modules for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrer, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The large beam energy of the LHC demands for a save beam abort system. Nevertheless, failures cannot be excluded with last assurance and are predicted to occur once per year. As the CMS experiment is placed in the neighboured LHC octant, it is affected by such events. The effect of an unsynchronized beam abort on the silicon strip modules of the CMS tracking detector has been investigated in this thesis by performing one accelerator and two lab experiments. The dynamical behaviour of operational parameters of modules and components has been recorded during simulated beam loss events to be able to disentangle the reasons of possible damages. The first study with high intensive proton bunches at the CERN PS ensured the robustness of the module design against beam losses. A further lab experiment with pulsed IR LEDs clarified the physical and electrical processes during such events. The silicon strip sensors on a module are protected against beam losses by a part of the module design that originally has not been...

  6. Non-invasive characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip detectors using pulsed infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of roughly 1300 double sided silicon micro-strip detectors of 3 different dimensions. For the quality assurance of prototype micro-strip detectors a non-invasive detector charaterization is developed. The test system is using a pulsed infrared laser for charge injection and characterization, called Laser Test System (LTS). The system is aimed to develop a set of characterization procedures which are non-invasive (non-destructive) in nature and could be used for quality assurances of several silicon micro-strip detectors in an efficient, reliable and reproducible way. The procedures developed (as reported here) uses the LTS to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype detector modules which are tested with the LTS so far have 1024 strips with a pitch of 58 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with a duration of ≈ 10 ns and power ≈ 5 mW of the laser pulse is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensor produces ≈ 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. The laser scans different prototype sensors and various non-invasive techniques to determine characteristics of the detector modules for the quality assurance is reported.

  7. Performance of a CMS Silicon Strip Detector Module with APV25 Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Friedl, Markus; Bauer, Thomas; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will include a Silicon Strip Tracker covering a sensitive area of 206m2 with about ten million readout channels. Its silicon detectors, made from 6" wafers, will be read out by APV25 front-end chips, fabricated in the 0.25um deep submicron process which is intrinsically radiation-tolerant. A first prototype module has been built consisting of two chained silicon sensors of 320um thickness and three APV25 chips (version S0). The performance of this module has been evaluated in a pion and proton beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute (Villigen/CH).

  8. Development of a 2D silicon strip detector system for mammographic imaging using particle physics technology

    CERN Document Server

    Royle, G J; Speller, R D; Hall, G; Iles, G; Raymond, M; Corrin, E; Stelt, P F; Manthos, N; Triantis, F A

    2002-01-01

    2D silicon strip sensors using particle physics readout technology have been evaluated as mammographic detectors. Two different versions of the APV series of front-end electronics were used that provided different noise levels. The sensors were evaluated using a typical mammography X-ray spectrum. The spatial resolution was evaluated using line pair test patterns and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was measured using the Edge Response Function. Low contrast performance was measured using the TOR(MAX) test object. Limiting spatial resolution of 52 mu m was obtained and an MTF value of 0.1 at 16 lp/mm. The low contrast performance was estimated from 250, 500 mu m and 6 mm diameter objects and was found to be 11.5%, 7% and better than 3.8%, respectively.

  9. SALT, a dedicated readout chip for high precision tracking silicon strip detectors at the LHCb Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugiel, Sz.; Dasgupta, R.; Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kuczynska, M.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.; Szumlak, T.

    2016-02-01

    The Upstream Tracker (UT) silicon strip detector, one of the central parts of the tracker system of the modernised LHCb experiment, will use a new 128-channel readout ASIC called SALT. It will extract and digitise analogue signals from the UT sensors, perform digital signal processing and transmit a serial output data. The SALT is being designed in CMOS 130 nm process and uses a novel architecture comprising of analog front-end and fast (40 MSps) ultra-low power (<0.5 mW) 6-bit ADC in each channel. The prototype ASICs of important functional blocks, like analogue front-end, 6-bit SAR ADC, PLL, and DLL, were designed, fabricated and tested. A prototype of an 8-channel version of the SALT chip, comprising all important functionalities was also designed and fabricated. The architecture and design of the SALT, together with the selected preliminary tests results, are presented.

  10. Evaluation of the performance of irradiated silicon strip sensors for the forward detector of the ATLAS Inner Tracker Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, R., E-mail: riccardo.mori@physik.uni-freiburg.de [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Allport, P.P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department and Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Arratia-Munoz, M.I.; Hommels, L.B.A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ullan, M.; Fleta, C.; Fernandez-Tejero, J. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Bloch, I.; Gregor, I.M.; Lohwasser, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hambrug (Germany); and others

    2016-09-21

    The upgrade to the High-Luminosity LHC foreseen in about ten years represents a great challenge for the ATLAS inner tracker and the silicon strip sensors in the forward region. Several strip sensor designs were developed by the ATLAS collaboration and fabricated by Hamamatsu in order to maintain enough performance in terms of charge collection efficiency and its uniformity throughout the active region. Of particular attention, in the case of a stereo-strip sensor, is the area near the sensor edge where shorter strips were ganged to the complete ones. In this work the electrical and charge collection test results on irradiated miniature sensors with forward geometry are presented. Results from charge collection efficiency measurements show that at the maximum expected fluence, the collected charge is roughly halved with respect to the one obtained prior to irradiation. Laser measurements show a good signal uniformity over the sensor. Ganged strips have a similar efficiency as standard strips.

  11. Prototyping of hybrids and modules for the forward silicon strip tracking detector for the ATLAS Phase-II upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, S.; Benítez, V.; Fernández-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullán, M.; Lacker, H.; Rehnisch, L.; Sperlich, D.; Ariza, D.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Gregor, I.; Keller, J.; Lohwasser, K.; Poley, L.; Prahl, V.; Zakharchuk, N.; Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Mahboubi, K.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Bernabéu, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marco-Hernandez, R.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz Contell, C.; Soldevila Serrano, U.; Affolder, T.; Greenall, A.; Gallop, B.; Phillips, P. W.

    2017-05-01

    For the High-Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider an increased instantaneous luminosity of up to 7.5 ṡ 1034 cm-2 s-1, leading to a total integrated luminosity of up to 3000 fb-1, is foreseen. The current silicon and transition radiation tracking detectors of the ATLAS experiment will be unable to cope with the increased track densities and radiation levels, and will need to be replaced. The new tracking detector will consist entirely of silicon pixel and strip detectors. In this paper, results on the development and tests of prototype components for the new silicon strip detector in the forward regions (end-caps) of the ATLAS detector are presented. Flex-printed readout boards with fast readout chips, referred to as hybrids, and silicon detector modules are investigated. The modules consist of a hybrid glued onto a silicon strip sensor. The channels on both are connected via wire-bonds for readout and powering. Measurements of important performance parameters and a comparison of two possible readout schemes are presented. In addition, the assembly procedure is described and recommendations for further prototyping are derived.

  12. Assembly and Electrical Tests of the First Full-size Forward Module for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Argos, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will replace the existing Inner Detector by an all-silicon detector named the Inner Tracker (ITk) for the High Luminosity LHC upgrades. In the outer region of the Inner Tracker is the strip detector, which consists of a four layer barrel and six discs to each side of the barrel, with silicon-strip modules as basic units. Each module is composed of a sensor and one or more flex circuits that hold the read-out electronics. In the experiment, the modules are mounted on support structures with integrated power and cooling. The modules are designed with geometries that accommodate the central and forward regions, with rectangular sensors in the barrels and wedge shaped sensors in the end-caps. The strips lengths and pitch sizes vary according to the occupancy of the region. In this contribution, we present the construction and results of the electrical tests of the first full-size module of the innermost forward region, named \\textit{Ring 0} in the ATLAS ITk strip detector nomenclature. This m...

  13. Mechanical and Cooling Design Studies for an Integrated Stave Concept for Silicon Strip Detectors for the Super LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cepeda, M; Gilchriese, M G D; Haber, C; Miller, W K; Miller, W O; Post, R

    2008-01-01

    Design studies for the mechanical and thermal performance of an integrated stave concept for large-area silicon-strip detector support and cooling are described. The fabrication and test of small-scale prototypes are also presented. Finite-element and other calculations have been completed to develop the design concept and to compare with the measurements on prototypes.

  14. Assembly and Electrical Tests of the First Full-size Forward Module for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Argos, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will replace the existing Inner Detector by an all-silicon detector named the Inner Tracker (ITk) for the High Luminosity LHC upgrades. In the outer region of the Inner Tracker is the strip detector, which consists of a four layer barrel and six discs to each side of the barrel, with silicon-strip modules as basic units. Each module is composed of a sensor and one or more flex circuits that hold the read-out electronics. In the experiment, the modules are mounted on support structures with integrated power and cooling. The modules are designed with geometries that accommodate the central and forward regions, with rectangular sensors in the barrels and wedge shaped sensors in the end-caps. The strips lengths and pitch sizes vary according to the occupancy of the region. In this contribution, we present the construction and the results of the electrical tests of the first full-size module of the innermost forward region, named Ring 0 in the ATLAS ITk strip detector nomenclature. This module...

  15. A silicon strip detector array for energy verification and quality assurance in heavy ion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrot, Emily; Newall, Matthew; Guatelli, Susanna; Petasecca, Marco; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

    2018-02-01

    The measurement of depth dose profiles for range and energy verification of heavy ion beams is an important aspect of quality assurance procedures for heavy ion therapy facilities. The steep dose gradients in the Bragg peak region of these profiles require the use of detectors with high spatial resolution. The aim of this work is to characterize a one dimensional monolithic silicon detector array called the "serial Dose Magnifying Glass" (sDMG) as an independent ion beam energy and range verification system used for quality assurance conducted for ion beams used in heavy ion therapy. The sDMG detector consists of two linear arrays of 128 silicon sensitive volumes each with an effective size of 2mm × 50μm × 100μm fabricated on a p-type substrate at a pitch of 200 μm along a single axis of detection. The detector was characterized for beam energy and range verification by measuring the response of the detector when irradiated with a 290 MeV/u 12 C ion broad beam incident along the single axis of the detector embedded in a PMMA phantom. The energy of the 12 C ion beam incident on the detector and the residual energy of an ion beam incident on the phantom was determined from the measured Bragg peak position in the sDMG. Ad hoc Monte Carlo simulations of the experimental setup were also performed to give further insight into the detector response. The relative response profiles along the single axis measured with the sDMG detector were found to have good agreement between experiment and simulation with the position of the Bragg peak determined to fall within 0.2 mm or 1.1% of the range in the detector for the two cases. The energy of the beam incident on the detector was found to vary less than 1% between experiment and simulation. The beam energy incident on the phantom was determined to be (280.9 ± 0.8) MeV/u from the experimental and (280.9 ± 0.2) MeV/u from the simulated profiles. These values coincide with the expected energy of 281 MeV/u. The sDMG detector

  16. Application of neural networks to digital pulse shape analysis for an array of silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J.L. [Dpto de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Térmica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Martel, I. [Dpto de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); CERN, ISOLDE, CH 1211 Geneva, 23 (Switzerland); Jiménez, R. [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Galán, J., E-mail: jgalan@diesia.uhu.es [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Salmerón, P. [Dpto de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Térmica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain)

    2016-09-11

    The new generation of nuclear physics detectors that used to study nuclear reactions is considering the use of digital pulse shape analysis techniques (DPSA) to obtain the (A,Z) values of the reaction products impinging in solid state detectors. This technique can be an important tool for selecting the relevant reaction channels at the HYDE (HYbrid DEtector ball array) silicon array foreseen for the Low Energy Branch of the FAIR facility (Darmstadt, Germany). In this work we study the feasibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for particle identification with silicon detectors. Multilayer Perceptron networks were trained and tested with recent experimental data, showing excellent identification capabilities with signals of several isotopes ranging from {sup 12}C up to {sup 84}Kr, yielding higher discrimination rates than any other previously reported.

  17. The use of a silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass in stereotactic radiotherapy QA and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J. H. D.; Knittel, T.; Downes, S.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Jackson, M.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery/therapy (SRS/SRT) is the use of radiation ablation in place of conventional surgical excision to remove or create fibrous tissue in small target volumes. The target of the SRT/SRS treatment is often located in close proximity to critical organs, hence the requirement of high geometric precision including a tight margin on the planning target volume and a sharp dose fall off. One of the major problems with quality assurance (QA) of SRT/SRS is the availability of suitable detectors with the required spatial resolution. The authors present a novel detector that they refer to as the dose magnifying glass (DMG), which has a high spatial resolution (0.2 mm) and is capable of meeting the stringent requirements of QA and dosimetry in SRS/SRT therapy. Methods: The DMG is an array of 128 phosphor implanted n + strips on a p-type Si wafer. The sensitive area defined by a single n + strip is 20x2000 μm 2 . The Si wafer is 375 μm thick. It is mounted on a 0.12 mm thick Kapton substrate. The authors studied the dose per pulse (dpp) and angular response of the detector in a custom-made SRS phantom. The DMG was used to determine the centers of rotation and positioning errors for the linear accelerator's gantry, couch, and collimator rotations. They also used the DMG to measure the profiles and the total scatter factor (S cp ) of the SRS cones. Comparisons were made with the EBT2 film and standard S cp values. The DMG was also used for dosimetric verification of a typical SRS treatment with various noncoplanar fields and arc treatments when applied to the phantom. Results: The dose per pulse dependency of the DMG was found to be cp agrees very well with the standard data with an average difference of 1.2±1.1%. Comparison of the relative intensity profiles of the DMG and EBT2 measurements for a simulated SRS treatment shows a maximum difference of 2.5%. Conclusions: The DMG was investigated for dose per pulse and angular dependency. Its

  18. Electromagnetic noise studies in a silicon strip detector, used as part of a luminosity monitor at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oedegaard, T.; Tafjord, H.; Buran, T.

    1994-12-01

    As part of the luminosity monitor SAT in the DELPHI experiment at CERN's Large Electron Positron collider, a tracking detector constructed from silicon strip detector elements was installed in front of an electromagnetic calorimeter. The luminosity was measured by counting the number of Bhabha events at the interaction point of the electron and the positron beams. The tracking detector reconstructs tracks from the interaction point and the calorimeter measures the corresponding particles' energies.The SAT Tracker consists of 504 silicon strip detectors. The strips are DC-coupled to CMOS VLSI-chips, baptized Balder. The chip performs amplification, zero-suppression, digitalisation, and multiplexing. The requirements of good space resolution and high efficiency put strong requirements on noise control. A short description of the geometry and the relevant circuit layout is given. The authors describe the efforts made to minimise the electromagnetic noise in the detector and present some numbers of the noise level using various techniques. 11 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Spectral CT of the extremities with a silicon strip photon counting detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Stayman, J. W.; Xu, J.; Taguchi, K.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) are an important emerging technology for spectral imaging and material differentiation with numerous potential applications in diagnostic imaging. We report development of a Si-strip PCXD system originally developed for mammography with potential application to spectral CT of musculoskeletal extremities, including challenges associated with sparse sampling, spectral calibration, and optimization for higher energy x-ray beams. Methods: A bench-top CT system was developed incorporating a Si-strip PCXD, fixed anode x-ray source, and rotational and translational motions to execute complex acquisition trajectories. Trajectories involving rotation and translation combined with iterative reconstruction were investigated, including single and multiple axial scans and longitudinal helical scans. The system was calibrated to provide accurate spectral separation in dual-energy three-material decomposition of soft-tissue, bone, and iodine. Image quality and decomposition accuracy were assessed in experiments using a phantom with pairs of bone and iodine inserts (3, 5, 15 and 20 mm) and an anthropomorphic wrist. Results: The designed trajectories improved the sampling distribution from 56% minimum sampling of voxels to 75%. Use of iterative reconstruction (viz., penalized likelihood with edge preserving regularization) in combination with such trajectories resulted in a very low level of artifacts in images of the wrist. For large bone or iodine inserts (>5 mm diameter), the error in the estimated material concentration was errors of 20-40% were observed and motivate improved methods for spectral calibration and optimization of the edge-preserving regularizer. Conclusion: Use of PCXDs for three-material decomposition in joint imaging proved feasible through a combination of rotation-translation acquisition trajectories and iterative reconstruction with optimized regularization.

  20. Silicon strip tracking detector development and prototyping for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, S., E-mail: susanne.kuehn@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    In about ten years from now, the Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will be carried out. Due to increased luminosity, a severe radiation dose and high particle rates will occur for the experiments. In consequence, several detector components will have to be upgraded. In the ATLAS experiment, the current inner detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracking detector with the goal of at least delivering the present detector performance also in the harsh Phase-II LHC conditions. This report presents the current planning and results from first prototype measurements of the upgrade silicon strip tracking detector. - Highlights: • Upgrade of current inner detector of the ATLAS experiment foreseen for High-Luminosity-LHC. • Silicon strip tracker for the upgrade has a modular design, single units are built and tested standalone before assembly in larger structures. • The prototyping is well advanced and approaching maturity. • Several integrated objects have been built, e.g. 70 barrel and 40 endcap prototype modules show low noise test results. • Many additional R & D tasks are ongoing and the collaboration is planning for preparing a technical design report before the end of 2016.

  1. High Precision Axial Coordinate Readout for an Axial 3-D PET Detector Module using a Wave Length Shifter Strip Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Joram, C; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, P; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Lustermann, W; Schinzel, D; Johnson, I; Renker, D; Albrecht, S

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel method to extract the axial coordinate from a matrix of long axially oriented crystals, which is based on wavelength shifting plastic strips. The method allows building compact 3-D axial gamma detector modules for PET scanners with excellent 3-dimensional spatial, timing and energy resolution while keeping the number of readout channels reasonably low. A voxel resolution of about 10 mm3 is expected. We assess the performance of the method in two independent ways, using classical PMTs and G-APDs to read out the LYSO (LSO) scintillation crystals and the wavelength shifting strips. We observe yields in excess of 35 photoelectrons from the strips for a 511 keV gamma and reconstruct the axial coordinate with a precision of about 2.5 mm (FWHM).

  2. Lithium analysis using a double-sided silicon strip detector at LIBAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, Nathaly; Kristiansson, Per; Nilsson, E. J. Charlotta; Ros, Linus; Elfman, Mikael; Pallon, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Quantification and mapping possibilities of lithium in geological material, by Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), was evaluated at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF). LiF and two Standard Reference Materials, (SRM 610 and SRM 612) were used in the investigation. The main part of the data was obtained at the beam energy 635 keV studying the high Q-value reaction 7Li(p, α)4He, but reaction yield and detection limits were also briefly investigated as a function of the energy. A double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSSD) was used to detect the α -particles emitted in the reaction in the backward direction. The combination of the high Q-value, a reasonably good cross-section and the possibility to use a high beam current have been demonstrated to allow for measurement of concentrations down below 50 ppm. Proton energies below 800 keV were demonstrated to be appropriate energies for extracting lithium in combination with boron analysis.

  3. Diagnostic analysis of silicon strips detector readout in the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker module production

    CERN Document Server

    Ciocio, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) Collaboration is currently in the production phase of fabricating and testing silicon strips modules for the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider being built at the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. A small but relevant percentage of ICs developed a new set of defects after being mounted on hybrids that were not detected in the wafer screening. To minimize IC replacement and outright module failure, analysis methods were developed to study IC problems during the production of SCT modules. These analyses included studying wafer and hybrid data correlations to finely tune the selection of ICs and tests to utilize the ability to adjust front-end parameters of the IC in order to reduce the rejection and replacement rate of fabricated components. This paper will discuss a few examples of the problems encountered during the production of SCT hybrids and modules in the area of ICs performance, and will demonstrate the value of the flexibility built into the ABCD3T ...

  4. Design and performance of the ABCD3TA ASIC for readout of silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 552, - (2005), s. 292-328 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : front-end electronics * binary readout * silicon strip detectors * application specific integrated circuits * quality assurance Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  5. Parallel Configuration For Fast Superconducting Strip Line Detectors With Very Large Area In Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaburi, A.; Zen, N.; Suzuki, K.; Ohkubo, M.; Ejrnaes, M.; Cristiano, R.; Pagano, S.

    2009-01-01

    We realized a very fast and large Superconducting Strip Line Detector based on a parallel configuration of nanowires. The detector with size 200x200 μm 2 recorded a sub-nanosecond pulse width of 700 ps in FWHM (400 ps rise time and 530 ps relaxation time) for lysozyme monomers/multimers molecules accelerated at 175 keV in a Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer. This record is the best in the class of superconducting detectors and comparable with the fastest NbN superconducting single photon detector of 10x10 μm 2 . We succeeded in acquiring mass spectra as the first step for a scale-up to ∼mm pixel size for high throughput MS analysis, while keeping a fast response.

  6. T-CAD analysis of electric fields in n-in-p silicon strip detectors in dependence on the p-stop pattern and doping concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Printz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    However, n-in-p detectors necessarily need an isolation layer of the n+ strips due to an accumula- tion layer of electrons caused by positive charge in the SiO$_2$ at the sensor surface. An additional implantation of acceptors like boron between the n+ strips cuts the co...

  7. Characterization of a dose verification system dedicated to radiotherapy treatments based on a silicon detector multi-strips; Caracterizacion de un sistema de verificacion de dosis dedicado a tratamientos de radioterapia basado en un detector de silicio de multi-tiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocca, A.; Cortes Giraldo, M. A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Aranas, R.; Abou Haidar, Z.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Quesada, J. M.; Vega-Leal, A. P.; Perez Neto, F. J.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we present the characterization of a silicon detector multi-strips (SSSSD: Single Sided Silicon Strip Detector), developed by the company Micron Semiconductors Ltd. for use as a verification system for radiotherapy treatments.

  8. Hadron-therapy beam monitoring: Towards a new generation of ultra-thin p-type silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouterfa, M.; Aouadi, K. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bertrand, D. [Particle Therapy Dept., Ion Beam Application IBA, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Olbrechts, B.; Delamare, R. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Raskin, J. P.; Gil, E. C. [Institut de Recherche en Mathematique et Physique IRMP, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Flandre, D. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    Hadron-therapy has gained increasing interest for cancer treatment especially within the last decade. System commissioning and quality assurance procedures impose to monitor the particle beam using 2D dose measurements. Nowadays, several monitoring systems exist for hadron-therapy but all show a relatively high influence on the beam properties: indeed, most devices consist of several layers of materials that degrade the beam through scattering and energy losses. For precise treatment purposes, ultra-thin silicon strip detectors are investigated in order to reduce this beam scattering. We assess the beam size increase provoked by the Multiple Coulomb Scattering when passing through Si, to derive a target thickness. Monte-Carlo based simulations show a characteristic scattering opening angle lower than 1 mrad for thicknesses below 20 {mu}m. We then evaluated the fabrication process feasibility. We successfully thinned down silicon wafers to thicknesses lower than 10 {mu}m over areas of several cm{sup 2}. Strip detectors are presently being processed and they will tentatively be thinned down to 20 {mu}m. Moreover, two-dimensional TCAD simulations were carried out to investigate the beam detector performances on p-type Si substrates. Additionally, thick and thin substrates have been compared thanks to electrical simulations. Reducing the pitch between the strips increases breakdown voltage, whereas leakage current is quite insensitive to strips geometrical configuration. The samples are to be characterized as soon as possible in one of the IBA hadron-therapy facilities. For hadron-therapy, this would represent a considerable step forward in terms of treatment precision. (authors)

  9. Hadron-therapy beam monitoring: Towards a new generation of ultra-thin p-type silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouterfa, M.; Aouadi, K.; Bertrand, D.; Olbrechts, B.; Delamare, R.; Raskin, J. P.; Gil, E. C.; Flandre, D.

    2011-01-01

    Hadron-therapy has gained increasing interest for cancer treatment especially within the last decade. System commissioning and quality assurance procedures impose to monitor the particle beam using 2D dose measurements. Nowadays, several monitoring systems exist for hadron-therapy but all show a relatively high influence on the beam properties: indeed, most devices consist of several layers of materials that degrade the beam through scattering and energy losses. For precise treatment purposes, ultra-thin silicon strip detectors are investigated in order to reduce this beam scattering. We assess the beam size increase provoked by the Multiple Coulomb Scattering when passing through Si, to derive a target thickness. Monte-Carlo based simulations show a characteristic scattering opening angle lower than 1 mrad for thicknesses below 20 μm. We then evaluated the fabrication process feasibility. We successfully thinned down silicon wafers to thicknesses lower than 10 μm over areas of several cm 2 . Strip detectors are presently being processed and they will tentatively be thinned down to 20 μm. Moreover, two-dimensional TCAD simulations were carried out to investigate the beam detector performances on p-type Si substrates. Additionally, thick and thin substrates have been compared thanks to electrical simulations. Reducing the pitch between the strips increases breakdown voltage, whereas leakage current is quite insensitive to strips geometrical configuration. The samples are to be characterized as soon as possible in one of the IBA hadron-therapy facilities. For hadron-therapy, this would represent a considerable step forward in terms of treatment precision. (authors)

  10. Application of a powder diffractometer equipped with a strip detector and Johansson monochromator to phase analysis and structure refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkowicz, Wojciech

    2005-10-01

    During the past two decades, 1D and 2D semiconductor photon-counting detectors found applications, e.g., in detection of elementary particles and in medicine. More recent is their use for the X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy, where they become highly competitive with other detector types. Practical applications of such 1D detectors, built from up to about a hundred (at laboratory diffractometers) to several hundred (at a synchrotron beamline) of strips of size of the order 0.1×10 mm, to diffraction purposes started at the turn of the century. In the present study, selected properties of a laboratory X-ray powder diffractometer equipped with a linear photon-counting detector and a primary-beam Johansson monochromator are described. Aberrations characteristic to Bragg-Brentano instruments equipped with linear detectors are experimentally shown to be weak for 2.1° angular range covered by the detector used in this study. The counting statistics provided by this setting is shown to largely outperform that obtained with the settings equipped with point detectors. Consequently, diffraction peaks are detectable down to the level of 0.1% intensity, permitting for identification of minor impurity phases. Using illustrative examples, it is demonstrated that, with the described instrument, phase analysis of bulk polycrystals and thin polycrystalline layers is facilitated, and that structure refinement of collected data can be successfully performed.

  11. Characterisation of edgeless technologies for pixellated and strip silicon detectors with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Christophersen, M.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gimenez, E.; Kachkanov, V.; Kalliopuska, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Maneuski, D.; Phlips, B. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Stewart, G.; Tartoni, N.; Zain, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced edge or ``edgeless'' detector design offers seamless tileability of sensors for a wide range of applications from particle physics to synchrotron and free election laser (FEL) facilities and medical imaging. Combined with through-silicon-via (TSV) technology, this would allow reduced material trackers for particle physics and an increase in the active area for synchrotron and FEL pixel detector systems. In order to quantify the performance of different edgeless fabrication methods, 2 edgeless detectors were characterized at the Diamond Light Source using an 11 μm FWHM 15 keV micro-focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were: a 150 μm thick silicon active edge pixel sensor fabricated at VTT and bump-bonded to a Medipix2 ROIC; and a 300 μm thick silicon strip sensor fabricated at CIS with edge reduction performed by SCIPP and the NRL and wire bonded to an ALiBaVa readout system. Sub-pixel resolution of the 55 μm active edge pixels was achieved. Further scans showed no drop in charge collection recorded between the centre and edge pixels, with a maximum deviation of 5% in charge collection between scanned edge pixels. Scans across the cleaved and standard guard ring edges of the strip detector also show no reduction in charge collection. These results indicate techniques such as the scribe, cleave and passivate (SCP) and active edge processes offer real potential for reduced edge, tiled sensors for imaging detection applications.

  12. Testbeam Results from Pre and Post Irradiated Modules for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Strip Tracking Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC through a sizeable increase in the luminosity, reaching 1x1035cm-2s-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at a integrated luminosity of 3000fb-1, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1x1016 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk), which will consist of both strip and pixelated silicon detectors. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics is glued on top of a silicon sensor. These so-called modules are glued on carbon structures and will span about 200m^2 of active area. A broad R&D program is ongoing to develop and prototype many detector components. The modules ...

  13. Performance of a single photon counting microstrip detector for strip pitches down to 10 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, A.; Broennimann, Ch.; Dinapoli, R.; Eikenberry, E.; Gozzo, F.; Henrich, B.; Kobas, M.; Kraft, P.; Patterson, B.; Schmitt, B.

    2008-06-01

    The MYTHEN detector is a one-dimensional microstrip detector with single photon counting readout optimized for time resolved powder diffraction experiments at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). The system has been successfully tested for many different synchrotron radiation applications including phase contrast and tomographic imaging, small angle scattering, diffraction and time resolved pump and probe experiments for X-ray energies down to 5 keV and counting rate up to 3 MHz. The frontend electronics is designed in order to be coupled to 50 μm pitch microstrip sensors but some interest in enhancing the spatial resolution is arising for imaging and powder diffraction experiments. A test structure with strip pitches in the range 10-50 μm has been tested and the gain and noise on the readout electronics have been measured for the different strip pitches, observing no large difference down to 25 μm. Moreover, the effect of the charge sharing between neighboring strips on the spatial resolution has been quantified by measuring the Point Spread Function (PSF) of the system for the different pitches.

  14. Silicon subsystem mechanical engineering work for the solenoidal detector collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.O.; Barney, M.; Byrd, D.; Christensen, R.W.; Dransfield, G.; Elder, M.; Gamble, M.; Crastataro, C.; Hanlon, J.; Jones, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    The silicon tracking system (STS) for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) represented an order of magnitude increase in size over any silicon system that had been previously built or even planned. In order to meet its performance requirements, it could not simply be a linear scaling of earlier systems, but instead required completely new concepts. The small size of the early systems made it possible to simply move the support hardware and services largely outside the active volume of the system. For a system five meters long, that simply is not an option. The design of the STS for the SDC experiment was the result of numerous compromises between the capabilities required to do the physics and the limitations imposed by cost, material properties, and silicon strip detector characteristics. From the point of view of the physics, the silicon system should start as close to the interaction point as possible. In addition, the detectors should measure the position of particles passing through them with no errors, and should not deflect or interact with the particles in any way. However, cost, radiation damage, and other factors limiting detector performance dictated, other, more realistic values. Radiation damage limited the inner radius of the silicon detectors to about 9 cm, whereas cost limited the outer radius of the detectors to about 50 cm. Cost also limits the half length of the system to about 250 cm. To control the effects of radiation damage on the detectors required operating the system at a temperature of 0 degrees C or below, and maintaining that temperature throughout life of the system. To summarize, the physics and properties of the silicon strip detectors requires that the detectors be operated at or below 0 degrees C, be positioned very accurately during assembly and remain positionally stable throughout their operation, and that all materials used be radiation hard and have a large thickness for one radiation length

  15. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, L.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Gallop, B.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.-M.; Hara, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lohwasser, K.; Maneuski, D.; Nagorski, S.; Pape, I.; Phillips, P. W.; Sperlich, D.; Sawhney, K.; Soldevila, U.; Ullan, M.; Unno, Y.; Warren, M.

    2016-07-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity up to 6·1034 cm-2s-1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb-1 after ten years of operation, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand fluences to over 1·1016 1 MeV neq/cm2. In order to cope with the consequent increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (end-cap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). A resolution better than the inter strip pitch of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. The effect of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips was investigated in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stop regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch.

  16. Commissioning of the scatter component of a Compton camera consisting of a stack of Si strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liprandi, S.; Marinsek, T.; Bortfeldt, J.; Lang, C.; Lutter, R.; Dedes, G.; Parodi, K.; Thirolf, P.G. [LMU Munich, Garching (Germany); Aldawood, S. [LMU Munich, Garching (Germany); King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Maier, L.; Gernhaeuser, R. [TU Munich, Garching (Germany); Kolff, H. van der [LMU Munich, Garching (Germany); TU Delft (Netherlands); Castelhano, I. [LMU Munich, Garching (Germany); University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Schaart, D.R. [TU Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    At LMU Munich in Garching a Compton camera is presently being developed aiming at the range verification of proton (or ion) beams for hadron therapy via imaging of prompt γ rays from nuclear reactions in the tissue. The poster presentation focuses on the characterization of the scatter component of the Compton camera, consisting of a stack of six double-sided Si strip detectors (50 x 50 mm{sup 2}, 0.5 mm thick, 128 strips/side). The overall 1536 electronics channels are processed by a readout system based on the GASSIPLEX ASIC chip, feeding into a VME-based data acquisition system. The status of the offline and online characterization studies is presented.

  17. Design and performance of the ABCD chip for the binary readout of silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, W; Buttar, C M; Cindro, V; Clarks, A G; Dawson, I; Dorfan, D; Dubbs, T; Falconer, N; French, M; Greenall, A; Grillo, A A; Happer, R; Jarron, Pierre; Kaplon, J; Kudlaty, J; Kramberger, G; Lacasta, C; La Marra, D; Macina, Daniela; Mandic, I; Mikuz, M; Meddeler, G; Milgrome, O; Niggli, H; Phillips, P W; Roe, S; Smith, A; Spieler, H; Spencer, E; Szczygiel, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wolter, M; Zsenei, A

    2000-01-01

    The ABCD design is a single chip implementation of the binary readout architecture for silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker. The prototype chip has been manufactured successfully in the DMILL process. In the paper we present the design of the chip and the measurement results. The basic analogue performance of the ABCD design has been evaluated using a prototype SCT module equipped with the ABCD chips. The digital performance has been evaluated using a general purpose IC tester. The measurements confirmed that all blocks of the ABCD design are fully functional and the chips meet all basic requirements of the SCT. (7 refs).

  18. Development of AC-coupled, poly-silicon biased, p-on-n silicon strip detectors in India for HEP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Ranjan, Kirti; Dierlamm, Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Eber, Robert; Demarteau, Marcel

    2018-02-01

    P-on-n silicon strip sensors having multiple guard-ring structures have been developed for High Energy Physics applications. The study constitutes the optimization of the sensor design, and fabrication of AC-coupled, poly-silicon biased sensors of strip width of 30 μm and strip pitch of 55 μm. The silicon wafers used for the fabrication are of 4 inch n-type, having an average resistivity of 2-5 k Ω cm, with a thickness of 300 μm. The electrical characterization of these detectors comprises of: (a) global measurements of total leakage current, and backplane capacitance; (b) strip and voltage scans of strip leakage current, poly-silicon resistance, interstrip capacitance, interstrip resistance, coupling capacitance, and dielectric current; and (c) charge collection measurements using ALiBaVa setup. The results of the same are reported here.

  19. ALICE silicon strip module

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    This small silicon detector strip will be inserted into the inner tracking system (ITS) on the ALICE detector at CERN. This detector relies on state-of-the-art particle tracking techniques. These double-sided silicon strip modules have been designed to be as lightweight and delicate as possible as the ITS will eventually contain five square metres of these devices.

  20. Characterization of a silicon strip detector for photon-counting spectral CT using monoenergetic photons from 40 keV to 120 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejin; Bornefalk, Hans; Chen, Han; Danielsson, Mats; Karlsson, Staffan; Persson, Mats; Xu, Cheng; Huber, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Background: We are developing a segmented silicon strip detector that operates in photon-counting mode and allows pulse-height discrimination with 8 adjustable energy bins. In this work, we determine the energy resolution of the detector using monoenergetic x-ray radiation from 40 keV to 120 keV. We further investigate the effects of pulse pileup and charge sharing between detector channels that may lead to a decreased energy resolution. Methods: For each incident monochromatic x-ray energy, we obtain count spectra at different photon fluxes. These spectra corresponds to the pulse-height response of the detector and allow the determination of energy resolution and charge-sharing probability. The energy resolution, however, is influenced by signal pileup and charge sharing. Both effects are quantified using Monte Carlo simulations of the detector that aim to reproduce the conditions during the measurements. Results: The absolute energy resolution is found to increase from 1.7 to 2.1 keV for increasing energies 40 keV to 120 keV at the lowest measured photon flux. The effect of charge sharing is found to increase the absolute energy resolution by a factor of 1.025 at maximum. This increase is considered as negligibly small. The pileup of pulses leads to a deterioration rate of the energy resolution of 4 · 10-3 keV Mcps-1 mm2, corresponding to an increase of 0.04keV per 10 Mcps increase of the detected count rate.

  1. A Silicon-Strip Detector for Photon-Counting Spectral CT: Energy Resolution From 40 keV to 120 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejin; Bornefalk, Hans; Chen, Han; Danielsson, Mats; Karlsson, Staffan; Persson, Mats; Xu, Cheng; Huber, Ben

    2014-06-01

    We are developing a segmented silicon-strip detector for spectral computed tomography. The detector operates in photon-counting mode and allows pulse-height discrimination with 8 adjustable energy bins. In this work, we determine the energy resolution of a detector module using monoenergetic x-rays from 40 keV to 120 keV, provided at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble. For each incident x-ray energy, pulse height spectra at different input photon fluxes are obtained. We investigate changes of the energy resolution due to charge sharing between pixels and pulse pileup. The different incident energies are used to channel-wise calibrate the pulse-height response in terms of signal gain and offset and to probe the homogeneity of the detector module. The detector shows a linear pulse-height response in the energy range from 40 keV to 120 keV. The gain variation among the channels is below 4%, whereas the variation of the offsets is on the order of 1 keV. We find an absolute energy resolution ( σE) that degrades from 1.5 keV to 1.9 keV with increasing x-ray energy from 40 keV to 100 keV. With increasing input count rate, σE degrades by approximately 4 ·10-3 keV Mcps-1 mm2, which is, within error bars, the same for the different energies. The effect of charge sharing on the width of the response peak is found to be negligible.

  2. Analysis and comparison of the breakdown performance of semi- insulator and dielectric passivated Si strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Kirti; Chatterji, S; Srivastava-Ajay, K; Shivpuri, R K

    2002-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment in future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments like LHC provides a challenging task to the performance of Si microstrip detectors. Normal operating condition for silicon detectors in HEP experiments are in most cases not as favourable as for experiments in nuclear physics. In HEP experiments the detector may be exposed to moisture and other adverse atmospheric environment. It is therefore utmost important to protect the sensitive surfaces against such poisonous effects. These instabilities can be nearly eliminated and the performance of Si detectors can be improved by implementing suitably passivated metal-overhang structures. This paper presents the influence of the relative permittivity of the passivant on the breakdown performance of the Si detectors using computer simulations. The semi-insulator and the dielectric passivated metal-overhang structures are compared under optimal conditions. The influence of various parameters such as passivation layer thickness, junction dep...

  3. Developing silicon strip detectors with a large-scale commercial foundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    König, A., E-mail: axel.koenig@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Hacker, J. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Treberspurg, W. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-07-11

    Since 2009 the Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) in Vienna is developing a production process for planar silicon strip sensors on 6-in. wafers together with the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies. Four runs with several batches of wafers, each comprising six different sensors, were manufactured and characterized. A brief summary of the recently completed 6-in. campaign is given. Milestones in sensor development as well as techniques to improve the sensor quality are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on a failure causing areas of defective strips which accompanied the whole campaign. Beam tests at different irradiation facilities were conducted to validate the key capability of particle detection. Another major aspect is to prove the radiation hardness of sensors produced by Infineon. Therefore, neutron irradiation studies were performed.

  4. Characteristic performance evaluation of a photon counting Si strip detector for low dose spectral breast CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyo-Min; Ding, Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee, E-mail: symolloi@uci.edu [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S. [DxRay Inc., Northridge, California 91324 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The possible clinical applications which can be performed using a newly developed detector depend on the detector's characteristic performance in a number of metrics including the dynamic range, resolution, uniformity, and stability. The authors have evaluated a prototype energy resolved fast photon counting x-ray detector based on a silicon (Si) strip sensor used in an edge-on geometry with an application specific integrated circuit to record the number of x-rays and their energies at high flux and fast frame rates. The investigated detector was integrated with a dedicated breast spectral computed tomography (CT) system to make use of the detector's high spatial and energy resolution and low noise performance under conditions suitable for clinical breast imaging. The aim of this article is to investigate the intrinsic characteristics of the detector, in terms of maximum output count rate, spatial and energy resolution, and noise performance of the imaging system. Methods: The maximum output count rate was obtained with a 50 W x-ray tube with a maximum continuous output of 50 kVp at 1.0 mA. A{sup 109}Cd source, with a characteristic x-ray peak at 22 keV from Ag, was used to measure the energy resolution of the detector. The axial plane modulation transfer function (MTF) was measured using a 67 μm diameter tungsten wire. The two-dimensional (2D) noise power spectrum (NPS) was measured using flat field images and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) were calculated using the MTF and NPS results. The image quality parameters were studied as a function of various radiation doses and reconstruction filters. The one-dimensional (1D) NPS was used to investigate the effect of electronic noise elimination by varying the minimum energy threshold. Results: A maximum output count rate of 100 million counts per second per square millimeter (cps/mm{sup 2}) has been obtained (1 million cps per 100 × 100 μm pixel). The electrical noise floor was less than 4 keV. The

  5. ATLAS strip detector: Operational Experience and Run1 → Run2 transition

    CERN Document Server

    NAGAI, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS SCT operational experience and the detector performance during the RUN1 period of LHC will be reported. Additionally the preparation outward to RUN2 during the long shut down 1 will be mentioned.

  6. Performance of a double metal n-on-n and a Czochralski silicon strip detector read out at 40 MHz

    CERN Document Server

    Palacios, J P; Buytaert, J; Collins, P; Eckstein, D; Härkönen, J; Luukka, Panja; Parkes, C; Tuovinen, E

    2004-01-01

    The R&D undertaken by the VELO group in order to produce a sensor that satisfies the tight radiation hardness, efficiency, resolution and low material requirements of LHCb has resulted in the choice of an n-on-n double metal layer solution. First, measurements of the performance of the latest prototype and its related front end electronics, designed to function at the LHC speed of 40 MHz, are presented here. In addition, research has been carried out into new materials which could retain good performance in high-radiation environments at and beyond the LHC, and could provide an alternative for a possible VELO upgrade. For the first time, a full size Czochralski silicon detector sample with 50 mum pitch strips has been irradiated with high energy protons and its performance has been measured in a test beam with 40 MHz electronics. The results of this test will be presented.

  7. Performance of a double metal n-on-n and a Czochralski silicon strip detector read out at 40 MHz

    CERN Document Server

    Palacios, J P; Buytaert, J; Collins, P; Eckstein, D; Harkonen, J; Tuovinen, E; Luukka, P

    2006-01-01

    The R&D undertaken by the VELO group in order to produce a sensor that satisfies the tight radiation hardness, efficiency, resolution and low material requirements of LHCb has resulted in the choice of an n-on-n double metal layer solution. First measurements of the performance of the latest prototype and its related front end electronics, designed to function at the LHC speed of 40 MHz, are presented here. In addition, research has been carried out into new materials which could retain good performance in high radiation environments at and beyond the LHC, and could provide an alternative for a possible VELO upgrade. For the first time a full size Czochralski silicon detector sample with 50$\\mu$m pitch strips has been irradiated with high energy protons and its performance has been measured in a test beam with 40 MHz electronics. The results of this test will be presented.

  8. Study of the physical processes involved in the operating mode of the micro-strips gas detector Micromegas; Analyse des phenomenes physiques lies au fonctionnement du detecteur gazeux a micropistes micromegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barouch, G

    2001-04-01

    Micromegas is a micro-strip gaseous detector invented in 1996. It consists of two volumes of gas separated by a micro-mesh. The first volume of gas, 3 mm thick, is used to liberate ionization electrons from the incident charged particle. In the second volume, only 100 {mu}m thick, an avalanche phenomenon amplifies the electrons produced in the first volume. Strips printed on an insulating substrate collect the electrons from the avalanche. The geometrical configuration of Micromegas showed many advantages. The short anode-cathode distance combined with a high granularity provide high rate capabilities due to a fast collection of ions produced during the avalanche development. Moreover, the possibility to localize the avalanche with strips printed about every hundreds of micrometers allows to measure the position of the incident particle with a good resolution. In this work, experimental tests of Micromegas are presented along with detailed Monte Carlo simulations used to understand and optimize the detector's performances. The prototypes were tested several times at the PS accelerator at CERN. The analysis of the date showed a stable and efficient behavior of Micromegas combined with an excellent space resolution. In fact, spatial resolutions of less than 15 {mu}m were obtained. In parallel with the in-beam tests, several simulations have been developed in order to gain a better understanding of the detector's response. (author)

  9. Alternative glues for the production of ATLAS silicon strip modules for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00407830; Bloch, Ingo; Edwards, Sam; Friedrich, Conrad; Gregor, Ingrid M.; Jones, T; Lacker, Heiko; Pyatt, Simon; Rehnisch, Laura; Sperlich, Dennis; Wilson, John

    2016-05-24

    The Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) includes the replacement of the current Inner Detector with an all-silicon tracker consisting of pixel and strip detectors. The current Phase-II detector layout requires the construction of 20,000 strip detector modules consisting of sensor, circuit boards and readout chips, which are connected mechanically using adhesives. The adhesive between readout chips and circuit board is a silver epoxy glue as was used in the current ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). This glue has several disadvantages, which motivated the search for an alternative. This paper presents a study concerning the use of six ultra-violet (UV) cure glues and a glue pad for use in the assembly of silicon strip detector modules for the ATLAS upgrade. Trials were carried out to determine the ease of use, the thermal conduction and shear strength, thermal cycling, radiation hardness, corrosion resistance and shear strength tests. These investigatio...

  10. Alternative glues for the production of ATLAS silicon strip modules for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS inner detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poley, Luise; Bloch, Ingo; Edwards, Sam

    2016-04-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) includes the replacement of the current Inner Detector with an all-silicon tracker consisting of pixel and strip detectors. The current Phase-II detector layout requires the construction of 20,000 strip detector modules consisting of sensor, circuit boards and readout chips, which are connected mechanically using adhesives. The adhesive between readout chips and circuit board is a silver epoxy glue as was used in the current ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). This glue has several disadvantages, which motivated the search for an alternative. This paper presents a study concerning the use of six ultra-violet (UV) cure glues and a glue pad for use in the assembly of silicon strip detector modules for the ATLAS upgrade. Trials were carried out to determine the ease of use, the thermal conduction and shear strength, thermal cycling, radiation hardness, corrosion resistance and shear strength tests. These investigations led to the exclusion of three UV cure glues as well as the glue pad. Three UV cure glues were found to be possible better alternatives. Results from electrical tests of first prototype modules constructed using these glues are presented.

  11. A novel laser alignment system for tracking detectors using transparent silicon strip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.; Kroha, H.; Widmann, P.

    1995-02-01

    Modern large-area precision tracking detectors require increasing accuracy of the geometrical alignment over large distances. A novel optical multi-point alignment system has been developed for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The system uses collimated laser beams as alignment references which are monitored by semi-transparent optical position sensors. The custom designed sensors provide very precise and uniform position information on the order of 1 μm over a wide measurement range. At suitable laser wavelengths, produced by laser diodes, transmission rates above 90% have been achieved which allow to align more than 30 sensors along one laser beam. With this capability and equipped with integrated readout electronics, the alignment system offers high flexibility for precision applications in a wide range of detector systems. (orig.)

  12. A Coupled Model for Work Roll Thermal Contour with Subsectional Cooling in Aluminum Strip Cold Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Jian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Little attention had been given to the evaluation of subsectional cooling control ability under complicated working conditions. In this paper, heat generation was calculated by using finite difference method. Strip hardening, work roll elastic deformation and elastic recovery of strip were taken into account. The mean coefficient of convective heat transfer on work roll surface was simulated by FLUENT. Calculation model had used the alternative finite difference scheme, which improved the model stability and computing speed. The simulation result shows that subsectional cooling control ability is different between different rolling passes. Positive and negative control abilities are roughly the same in the same pass. The increase of rolled length, working pressure of header and friction coefficient has positive effect on subsectional cooling control ability, and the rolling speed is on the contrary. On the beginning of the pass, when work roll surface has not reached the stable temperature, control ability of subsectional cooling is mainly affected by rolled length. The effect of mean coefficient of convective heat transfer and coefficient of friction is linear. When rolling speed is over 500 m/min, control ability of subsectional cooling becomes stable.

  13. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5∼TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii r<45 cm is done by the Inner Tracking System (ITS), consisting of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The outer two layers of

  14. Study of pressure vessels for micro-strip-gas-counters as two-dimensional neutron position sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Hideshi; Kaneko, Junichi

    2001-01-01

    The development of two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detectors that have performances of a fast response and a very small space-resolution are required for various neutron scattering experiments using high-intensity pulse-neutron sources in a high-intensity proton accelerator facility. We put forward the development of a micro-strip gas counter (MSGC) filled with helium-3 gas as the two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector. The MSGC requests a pressure vessel that withstands gas pressure of 5-10 atm. For obtainment of a small neutron-attenuation, the pressure vessel requires a neutron-window that is made thin wall and has small cross sections of absorption and scattering for low energy neutrons. We have studied and compared three kinds of neutron-windows for manufacturing the pressure vessel. After the study, we were able to design the pressure vessel with neutron-window thickness of 2 mm on conditions that are a window area of 100 x 100 mm, material of aluminum and inner pressure of 10 atm. (author)

  15. Mechanical studies towards a silicon micro-strip super module for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade at the high luminosity LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, G; Cadoux, F; Clark, A; Favre, Y; Ferrere, D; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Iacobucci, G; Marra, D La; Perrin, E; Seez, W; Endo, M; Hanagaki, K; Hara, K; Ikegami, Y; Nakamura, K; Takubo, Y; Terada, S; Jinnouchi, O; Nishimura, R; Takashima, R

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that after several years of data-taking, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) physics programme will be extended to the so-called High-Luminosity LHC, where the instantaneous luminosity will be increased up to 5 × 10 34  cm −2  s −1 . For the general-purpose ATLAS experiment at the LHC, a complete replacement of its internal tracking detector will be necessary, as the existing detector will not provide the required performance due to the cumulated radiation damage and the increase in the detector occupancy. The baseline layout for the new ATLAS tracker is an all-silicon-based detector, with pixel sensors in the inner layers and silicon micro-strip detectors at intermediate and outer radii. The super-module (SM) is an integration concept proposed for the barrel strip region of the future ATLAS tracker, where double-sided stereo silicon micro-strip modules (DSM) are assembled into a low-mass local support (LS) structure. Mechanical aspects of the proposed LS structure are described

  16. The ATLAS inner detector semiconductor tracker (Si and GaAs strips) review of the 1995 beam tests at the CERN SPS H8 beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Moorhead, G F

    1995-01-01

    This talk will consist of a brief review of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) strip detector (both silicon and gallium arsenide) beam tests conducted at the ATLAS test beam facility at the CERN SPS H8 beamline. It will include a brief overview of the H8 facilities, the experimental layout of the SCT/Strip apparatus, the data acquisition system, some of the online software tools and the high precision silicon hodoscope and timing modules used. A very brief indication of some of the main varieties of detector systems tested and the measurements performed will be given. Throughout some emphasis will be placed on the contributions and-interests of members of the Melbourne group. (author).

  17. MUST, a set of strip detectors for studying radioactive beams induced reactions; MUST, un ensemble de detecteurs a pistes pour l`etude des reactions induites par faisceaux radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Barbier, A.; Beaumel, D.; Charlet, D.; Clavelin, J.F.; Douet, R.; Engrand, M.; Lebon, S.; Lelong, P.; Lesage, A.; Leven, V.; Lhenry, I.; Marechal, F.; Petizon, L.; Pouthas, J.; Richard, A.; Rougier, D.; Soulet, C.; Suomijaervi, T.; Volkov, P.; Voltolini, G. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Auger, F.; Ottini, S.; Alamanos, N. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Sauvestre, J.E.; Bonnereau, B.; Champion, L.; Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Ethvignot, T.; Szmigiel, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    1996-12-31

    This report states the specificity of light particles elastic scattering, and the need of detecting recoil protons to improve angular resolution. Then the development of a specific MUST strip detector is detailed: 60 strips detectors with Si O sub 2 dielectric, that yield 500 ps time resolution, and Si (Li) detectors following next. A versatile data acquisition system has been developed too, with CAMAC interface to suit to any experimental plant. (D.L.). 27 refs.

  18. Characterisation of micro-strip and pixel silicon detectors before and after hadron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P.P

    2012-01-01

    The use of segmented silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing in particle physics has grown substantially since their introduction in 1980. It is now anticipated that roughly 50,000 six inch wafers of high resistivity silicon will need to be processed into sensors to be deployed in the upgraded experiments in the future high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. These detectors will also face an extremely severe radiation environment, varying with distance from the interaction point. The volume of required sensors is large and their delivery is required during a relatively short time, demanding a high throughput from the chosen suppliers. The current situation internationally, in this highly specialist market, means that security of supply for large orders can therefore be an issue and bringing additional potential vendors into the field can only be an advantage. Semiconductor companies that could include planar sensors suitable for particle physics in their product lines will, however, need to prove their pro...

  19. Nanoparticle-Based Immunochromatographic Test Strip with Fluorescent Detector for Quantification of Phosphorylated Acetycholinesterase: An Exposure Biomarker of Organophosphorous Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiying; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Tang, Yong; Du, Dan; Liu, Deli; Lin, Yuehe

    2013-09-21

    A nanoparticle-based fluorescence immunochromatographic test strip (FITS) coupled with a hand-held detector for highly selective and sensitive detection of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an exposure biomarker of organophosphate (OP) pesticides and nerve agents, is reported. In this approach, OP-AChE adducts were selectively captured by quantum dot-tagged anti-AChE antibodies (Qdot-anti-AChE) and zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs). The sandwich-like immunoreactions were performed among the Qdot-anti-AChE, OP-AChE and ZrO2 NPs to form Qdot-anti-AChE/OP-AChE/ZrO2 complex, which was detected by recording the fluorescence intensity of Qdot captured on the test line. Paraoxon was used as the model OP pesticides. Under optimal conditions, this portable FITS immunosensor demonstrates a highly linear absorption response over the range of 0.01 nM to 10 nM OP-AChE, with a detection limit of 4 pM, coupled with a good reproducibility. Moreover, the FITS immunosensor has been validated with OP-AChE spiked human plasma samples. This is the first report on the development of ZrO2 NPs-based FITS for detection of OP-AChE adduct. The FITS immunosensor provides a sensitive and low-cost sensing platform for on-site screening/evaluating OP pesticides and nerve agents poisoning.

  20. Optimization, evaluation and calibration of a cross-strip DOI detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F. P.; Kolb, A.; Pichler, B. J.

    2018-02-01

    This study depicts the evaluation of a SiPM detector with depth of interaction (DOI) capability via a dual-sided readout that is suitable for high-resolution positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging. Two different 12  ×  12 pixelated LSO scintillator arrays with a crystal pitch of 1.60 mm are examined. One array is 20 mm-long with a crystal separation by the specular reflector Vikuiti enhanced specular reflector (ESR), and the other one is 18 mm-long and separated by the diffuse reflector Lumirror E60 (E60). An improvement in energy resolution from 22.6% to 15.5% for the scintillator array with the E60 reflector is achieved by taking a nonlinear light collection correction into account. The results are FWHM energy resolutions of 14.0% and 15.5%, average FWHM DOI resolutions of 2.96 mm and 1.83 mm, and FWHM coincidence resolving times of 1.09 ns and 1.48 ns for the scintillator array with the ESR and that with the E60 reflector, respectively. The measured DOI signal ratios need to be assigned to an interaction depth inside the scintillator crystal. A linear and a nonlinear method, using the intrinsic scintillator radiation from lutetium, are implemented for an easy to apply calibration and are compared to the conventional method, which exploits a setup with an externally collimated radiation beam. The deviation between the DOI functions of the linear or nonlinear method and the conventional method is determined. The resulting average of differences in DOI positions is 0.67 mm and 0.45 mm for the nonlinear calibration method for the scintillator array with the ESR and with the E60 reflector, respectively; Whereas the linear calibration method results in 0.51 mm and 0.32 mm for the scintillator array with the ESR and the E60 reflector, respectively; and is, due to its simplicity, also applicable in assembled detector systems.

  1. Analysis and comparison of the breakdown performance of semi-insulator and dielectric passivated Si strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Namrata; Chatterji, Sudeep; Srivastava, Ajay K.; Shivpuri, R. K.

    2002-12-01

    The harsh radiation environment in future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments like LHC provides a challenging task to the performance of Si microstrip detectors. Normal operating condition for silicon detectors in HEP experiments are in most cases not as favourable as for experiments in nuclear physics. In HEP experiments the detector may be exposed to moisture and other adverse atmospheric environment. It is therefore utmost important to protect the sensitive surfaces against such poisonous effects. These instabilities can be nearly eliminated and the performance of Si detectors can be improved by implementing suitably passivated metal-overhang structures. This paper presents the influence of the relative permittivity of the passivant on the breakdown performance of the Si detectors using computer simulations. The semi-insulator and the dielectric passivated metal-overhang structures are compared under optimal conditions. The influence of various parameters such as passivation layer thickness, junction depth, metal-overhang width, device depth, substrate resistivity and fixed oxide charge on the junction breakdown voltage of these structures is extensively studied. The results presented in this work clearly demonstrate the superiority of the metal-overhang structure design employing semi-insulator passivated structures over dielectric passivated ones in realising a given breakdown voltage. The effect of bulk damage caused by hadron environment in the passivated Si detectors is simulated, to a first order approximation, by varying effective carrier concentration (calculated using Hamburg Model) and minority carrier lifetime. This approach allows getting an insight of the device behaviour after radiation damage by evaluating the electric field distribution, and thus proves helpful in predicting some interesting results.

  2. Development and evaluation of test stations for the quality assurance of the silicon micro-strip detector modules for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poettgens, M.

    2007-01-01

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of four large-scale detectors which will be operated at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). For the search for new physics the reconstruction of the collision products and their properties is essential. In the innermost part of the CMS detector the traces of ionizing particles are measured utilizing a silicon tracker. A large fraction of this detector is equipped with silicon micro-strip modules which provide a precise space resolution in 1-dimension. A module consists of a sensor for detection of particles, the corresponding read-out electronics (hybrid) and a mechanical support structure. Since the 15,148 modules, which will be installed in the silicon micro-strip detector, have a total sensitive surface area of about 198 m 2 , the inner tracker of CMS is the largest silicon tracking detector, which has ever been built. While the sensors and hybrids are produced in industry, the construction of the modules and the control of the quality is done by the members of the 21 participating institutes. Since the access to the silicon micro-strip tracker will be very limited after the installation in the CMS detector the installed modules must be of high quality. For this reason the modules are thoroughly tested and the test results are uploaded to a central database. By the development of a read-out system and the corresponding software the III. Physikalisches Institut made an important contribution for the electrical and functional quality control of hybrids and modules. The read-out system provides all features for the operation and test of hybrids and modules and stands out due to high reliability and simple handling. Because a very user-friedly and highly automated software it became the official test tool and was integrated in various test stands. The test stands, in which the read-out system is integrated in, are described and the tests which are implemented in the corresponding

  3. Development and Evaluation of Test Stations for the Quality Assurance of the Silicon Micro-Strip Detector Modules for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pöttgens, Michael

    2007-01-01

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of four large-scale detectors which will be operated at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). For the search for new physics the reconstruction of the collision products and their properties is essential. In the innermost part of the CMS detector the traces of ionizing particles are measured utilizing a silicon tracker. A large fraction of this detector is equipped with silicon micro-strip modules which provide a precise space resolution in 1-dimension. A module consists of a sensor for detection of particles, the corresponding read-out electronics (hybrid) and a mechanical support structure. Since the 15,148 modules, which will be installed in the silicon micro-strip detector, have a total sensitive surface area of about 198 m2, the inner tracker of CMS is the largest silicon tracking detector, which has ever been built. While the sensors and hybrids are produced in industry, the construction of the modules and the control o...

  4. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00407830; Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard; Bloch, Ingo; Diez, Sergio; Fernandez-Tejero, Javier; Fleta, Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Hara, Kazuhiko; Ikegami, Yoichi; Lacasta, Carlos; Lohwasser, Kristin; Maneuski, Dzmitry; Nagorski, Sebastian; Pape, Ian; Phillips, Peter W.; Sperlich, Dennis; Sawhney, Kawal; Soldevila, Urmila; Ullan, Miguel; Unno, Yoshinobu; Warren, Matt

    2016-07-29

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1x10^35 cm^-2 s^-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb^-1, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x10^16 1 MeV neutrons per cm^2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 micron FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 micron thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 micron thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout...

  5. ATLAS Strip Detector: Operational Experience and Run1-> Run2 Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, Koichi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Large hadron collider was operated very successfully during the Run1 and provided a lot of opportunities of physics studies. It currently has a consolidation work toward to the operation at $\\sqrt{s}=14 \\mathrm{TeV}$ in Run2. The ATLAS experiment has achieved excellent performance in Run1 operation, delivering remarkable physics results. The SemiConductor Tracker contributed to the precise measurement of momentum of charged particles. This paper describes the operation experience of the SemiConductor Tracker in Run1 and the preparation toward to the Run2 operation during the LS1.

  6. ATLAS Strip Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A phased upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is planned. The last upgrade phase (HL-LHC) is currently foreseen in 2022-2023. It aims to increase the integrated luminosity to about ten times the original LHC design luminosity. To cope with the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation dose expected during HL-LHC operation, the ATLAS collaboration is developing technologies for a complete tracker replacement. This new detector will need to provide extreme radiation hardness and a high granularity, within the tight constraints imposed by the existing detectors and their services. An all-silicon high-granularity tracking detector is proposed. An international R&D collaboration is working on the strip layers for this new tracker. A number of large area prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers have been designed and fabricated for use at HL-LHC. These prototype detectors and miniature test detectors have been irradiated to a set of fluences matched to HL-LHC expectatio...

  7. Performance of a 128 channel analogue front-end chip for read-out of Si strip detector modules for LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Chesi, Enrico Guido; Cindro, V; Dabrowski, W; Ferrère, D; Kramberger, G; Kaplon, J; Lacasta, C; Lozano-Bahilo, J; Mikuz, M; Morone, C; Roe, S; Szczygiel, R; Tadel, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Zsenei, A

    2000-01-01

    We present a 128-channel analogue front-end chip, SCT128A-HC, for readout of silicon strip detectors employed in the inner tracking detectors of the LHC experiment. The chip is produced in the radiation hard DMILL technology. The architecture of the chip and critical design issues are discussed. The performance of the chip has been evaluated in details in the test bench and is presented in the paper. The chip is used to read out prototype analogue modules compatible in size, functionality and performance with the ATLAS SCT base line modules. Several full size detector modules equipped with SCT128A-HC chips has been built and tested successfully in the lab with beta particles as well as in the test beam. The results concerning the signal-to-noise ratio, noise occupancy, efficiency and spatial resolution are presented. The radiation hardness issues are discussed. (5 refs).

  8. TSCA Work Plan Chemical Risk Assessment Methylene Chloride: Paint Stripping Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    This risk assessment addresses DCM, a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is used as a solvent in a wide range of industrial, commercial and consumer use applications, such as adhesives, paint stripping, pharmaceuticals, metal cleaning, chemical processin

  9. Design and development of a vertex reconstruction for the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) data. Study of gaseous and silicon micro-strips detectors (MSGC); Conception d'un algorithme de reconstruction de vertex pour les donnees de CMS. Etude de detecteurs gazeux (MSGC) et silicium a micropistes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, St

    2002-12-01

    The work presented in this thesis has contributed to the development of the Compact Muon Solenoid detector (CMS) that will be installed at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will start running in summer 2007. This report is organised in three parts: the study of gaseous detectors and silicon micro-strips detectors, and a development of a software for the reconstruction and analysis of CMS data in the framework of ORCA. First, the micro-strips gaseous detectors (MSGC) study was on the ultimate critical irradiation test before their substitution in the CMS tracker. This test showed a really small number of lost anodes and a stable signal to noise ratio. This test proved that the described MSGC fulfill all the requirements to be integrated in the CMS tracker. The following contribution described a study of silicon micro-strips detectors and its electronics exposed to a 40 MHz bunched LHC like beam. These tests indicated a good behaviour of the data acquisition and control system. The signal to noise ratio, the bunch crossing identification and the cluster finding efficiency had also be analysed. The last study concern the design and the development of an ORCA algorithm dedicates to secondary vertex reconstruction. This iterative algorithm aims to be use for b tagging. This part analyse also primary vertex reconstruction in events without and with pile up. (author)

  10. Design,construction and commissioning of a cylinder of double-sided silicon micro-strips detectors for the Star experiment at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedon, M.

    2005-05-01

    This study has been performed in the frame of quark gluon plasma physics research in the STAR experiment at RHIC. It deals with the design, the construction and the commissioning of a barrel of silicon-strip detectors (SSD). Added to the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the STAR detector, it extends the capabilities of track reconstruction for charged particles emitted in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. It also contributes to the general study of the quark-gluon plasma production undertaken at STAR. The SSD is a cylinder of 1 m long and of 23 cm radius, and it is composed of 320 compact identical modules. Each module includes one double-sided silicon micro-strip detector, 12 readout chips ALICE 128C, 12 TAB ribbons, 2 COSTAR control chips and 2 hybrids supporting all the components. The document explains why the SSD is an important and relevant element, and justifies the technological choices as well as their validation by in-beam characterization. All component functionalities, characteristics and test procedures are presented. The data and test results are stored in a database for tracing purpose. Component and module production is described. Two parallel studies have been performed, analysed and described. One on the temperature dependence of the module performances and the other one on the optimal adjustments of the analogue blocks inside the ALICE 128C chip. The SSD installation on the RHIC site as well as the commissioning are presented together with the first data takings. (author)

  11. A 2 × 2 mm2 superconducting strip-line detector for high-performance time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaburi, A; Esposito, E; Ejrnaes, M; Cristiano, R; Suzuki, K; Ohkubo, M; Pagano, S

    2012-01-01

    We present the fabrication and characterization of the latest generation of superconducting strip-line detectors (SSLD) for application in time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF MS) of heavy molecules. The SSLD is realized in the parallel strip-line configuration to achieve a 2 × 2 mm 2 sensitive area. The parallel SSLD is mounted in a TOF MS and tested at 4.2 K under bombardment of lysozyme molecules. The detector exhibits output pulses with rise and fall times of 500 ps and 2.3 ns respectively. We also present measurements of the time evolution during the acquisition of the singly and doubly charged monomers and singly charged dimers peaks in the mass spectrum. We argue that the observed behavior proves that parallel SSLD can perform charge state discrimination. The achievement of a 2 × 2 mm 2 sensitive area with an output pulse rise time in the region of the sub-nanosecond and a fall time of a few nanoseconds is a milestone in the development of superconducting detectors for TOF MS applications because it addresses important issues such as high mass resolution and high-throughput analysis. (paper)

  12. The Rewards of Research at an Undergraduate Institution and Lessons Learned in Building Detector Systems that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenhower, Donald

    2015-04-01

    This talk addresses primary lessons learned during 28 years of work leading to the awarding of this prize for work on designing, building and operating detectors, with most of the work involving over 150 undergraduates during this time period. There are a wide range of skills and knowledge to be learned if a young scientist is interested in following this career route, so the most important subset of these will be described. Part will be how to involve undergraduate students at their fullest potential, and important differences of ACU from many programs, which has led to collaborators to make inquiries as to when will the ``ACU Army'' arrive so that they can time when their detector components will be shipped to the experiments for the testing and setup to be handed over to these students. The size of the detectors constructed have varied from small hodoscopes to the world's largest active cathode strip chambers. The science knowledge needed for detector construction is extremely multidisciplinary, and this must be learned by the professor directing the work as they will not have an engineering or support staff to lean on usually. This will include fields often considered unimportant to physics; however, ignorance of them can lead to failure. Knowing the primary question to ask will show where a significant area of concern will lie in what is being done by a person, group or company on a subsystem for a detector. Textbook descriptions of detectors, electronics, and materials can lead young experimenters astray. It has been learning the correct, fundamental physical processes that determine actual detector performance that has allowed the awardee to make his most important contributions over many years of research. A final lesson to be described will be how to make your undergraduate research program self-sustaining, so that critical knowledge is not lost as students graduate. Research supported in part by grants from the U.S. DOE Office of Science, the NSF, and

  13. ATLAS ITk Short Strip Prototype Module with Integrated DCDC Powering and Control Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Tracker detector at the HL - LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Greenall, Ashley; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The prototype Barrel module design, for the Phase II upgrade of the of the new Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC, has adopted an integrated low mass assembly featuring single-sided flexible circuits, with readout ASICs, glued to the silicon strip sensor. Further integration has been achieved by the attachment of module DCDC powering, HV sensor biasing switch and autonomous monitoring and control to the sensor. This low mass, integrated module approach benefits further in a reduced width stave structure to which the modules are attached. The results of preliminary electrical tests of such an integrated module will be presented.

  14. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  15. Development and evaluation of test stations for the quality assurance of the silicon micro-strip detector modules for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poettgens, M.

    2007-11-22

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of four large-scale detectors which will be operated at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). For the search for new physics the reconstruction of the collision products and their properties is essential. In the innermost part of the CMS detector the traces of ionizing particles are measured utilizing a silicon tracker. A large fraction of this detector is equipped with silicon micro-strip modules which provide a precise space resolution in 1-dimension. A module consists of a sensor for detection of particles, the corresponding read-out electronics (hybrid) and a mechanical support structure. Since the 15,148 modules, which will be installed in the silicon micro-strip detector, have a total sensitive surface area of about 198 m{sup 2}, the inner tracker of CMS is the largest silicon tracking detector, which has ever been built. While the sensors and hybrids are produced in industry, the construction of the modules and the control of the quality is done by the members of the 21 participating institutes. Since the access to the silicon micro-strip tracker will be very limited after the installation in the CMS detector the installed modules must be of high quality. For this reason the modules are thoroughly tested and the test results are uploaded to a central database. By the development of a read-out system and the corresponding software the III. Physikalisches Institut made an important contribution for the electrical and functional quality control of hybrids and modules. The read-out system provides all features for the operation and test of hybrids and modules and stands out due to high reliability and simple handling. Because a very user-friedly and highly automated software it became the official test tool and was integrated in various test stands. The test stands, in which the read-out system is integrated in, are described and the tests which are implemented in the

  16. Design and Construction of Precision Tooling for the Construction of Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors for the ATLAS Small Wheel Upgrade Project

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389964; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical precision is a key-aspect of the $2~m^2$ high-rate capable Micromegas detectors for the upgrade of the Small Wheels of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. 32 SM2 quadruplets will be built by four German sites with cathodes and strip-anodes made of stable honeycomb sandwiches.\\\\ To achieve the required single plane resolution below $100\\mu m$ the deviation from planarity of a single detector plane must not exceed $80\\mu m$ in direction perpendicular to the precision coordinate. The global position of the readout strips has to be within $30\\mu m$ for a single readout-plane of three PCBs, as well as between all four planes of a quadruplet.\\\\ Precision tooling is used for the correct positioning of readout PCBs and readout sandwich planes. For quality control of the planarity of the sandwich planes a laser distance sensor combined with a coordinate measurement system has been developed. Deviation from planarity below 10 $\\mu$m can be easily resolved.\\\\ We will present key features of the challenging construct...

  17. An efficient, FPGA-based, cluster detection algorithm implementation for a strip detector readout system in a Time Projection Chamber polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Kyle J.; Hill, Joanne E.; Black, J. Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Jahoda, Keith

    2016-05-01

    A fundamental challenge in a spaceborne application of a gas-based Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for observation of X-ray polarization is handling the large amount of data collected. The TPC polarimeter described uses the APV-25 Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to readout a strip detector. Two dimensional photo- electron track images are created with a time projection technique and used to determine the polarization of the incident X-rays. The detector produces a 128x30 pixel image per photon interaction with each pixel registering 12 bits of collected charge. This creates challenging requirements for data storage and downlink bandwidth with only a modest incidence of photons and can have a significant impact on the overall mission cost. An approach is described for locating and isolating the photoelectron track within the detector image, yielding a much smaller data product, typically between 8x8 pixels and 20x20 pixels. This approach is implemented using a Microsemi RT-ProASIC3-3000 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), clocked at 20 MHz and utilizing 10.7k logic gates (14% of FPGA), 20 Block RAMs (17% of FPGA), and no external RAM. Results will be presented, demonstrating successful photoelectron track cluster detection with minimal impact to detector dead-time.

  18. Report of the working group on detector simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L.E.; Lebrun, P.

    1986-01-01

    An ad hoc group at Snowmass reviewed the need for detector simulation to support detectors at the SSC. This report first reviews currently available programs for detector simulation, both those written for single specific detectors and those aimed at general utility. It then considers the requirements for detector simulation for the SSC, with particular attention to enhancements that are needed relative to present programs. Finally, a list of recommendations is given.

  19. Report of the working group on detector simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.; Lebrun, P.

    1986-01-01

    An ad hoc group at Snowmass reviewed the need for detector simulation to support detectors at the SSC. This report first reviews currently available programs for detector simulation, both those written for single specific detectors and those aimed at general utility. It then considers the requirements for detector simulation for the SSC, with particular attention to enhancements that are needed relative to present programs. Finally, a list of recommendations is given

  20. Increasing the Working Capabilities of the Egyptian Scanning Landmine Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.S.A.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes and discusses the developments which were performed to increase the potential uses of Egyptian Scanning Landmine Detectors, ESCALAD. The ESCALAD apply two nuclear techniques for allocation and identification of landmines buried in arid soil like landmine fields in Egypt. The first technique is based on measuring thermal neutrons backscattered from the soil and the second one is based on measuring gamma-rays emitted from elements of landmine interrogated by fast and thermal neutrons when the soil is irradiated by fast neutrons from Pu-α-Be sources. The developed systems with their associated detectors, neutron sources, measuring electronics and data analysis modules are mounted on an electrically driven trolley. The neutron backscattering NBS device detects landmines by the recognition of hydrogen density variation between explosive material, of a landmine and its surroundings, soil and other scattered objects. When a high energy neutron flux from Pu-α-Be sources penetrates the soil in which the landmine is buried, the neutrons undergo successive moderation processes until they come back with thermal energy. An array of two dimensional position sensitive thermal neutron detectors of 3 He was used to monitor the backscattered thermal neutrons and for each neutron the position of hit along the tube with respect to the position on the ground is recorded. The elemental analysis technique is regarded as a complementary sensor of ESCALAD in which the gamma rays produced from fast/thermal neutrons interactions with the buried objects (i.e., a landmine) are measured. The measured response for gamma-rays is given as gamma ray spectrum. A mine is recognized through measuring the difference in the elemental composition, especially H, C, N and O. To increase the working capabilities of ESCALAD, different design mechanisms were developed for mount the detectors tray to overcome the effect of soil surface roughness and standoff distance on scanning

  1. The ITk strips tracker for the phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector of the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koutoulaki, Afroditi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The inner detector of the present ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the particle densities and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new detectors must be faster, they need to be more highly segmented, and covering more area. They also need to be more resistant to radiation, and they require much greater power delivery to the front-end systems. At the same time, they cannot introduce excess material which could undermine performance. For those reasons, the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector must be redesigned and rebuilt completely. The design of the ATLAS Upgrade inner tracker (ITk) has already been defined. It consists of several layers of silicon particle detectors. The innermost layers will be composed of silicon pixel sensors, and the outer layers will consist of s...

  2. Recent T980 Crystal Collimation Studies at the Tevatron Exploiting a Pixel Detector System and a Multi-strip Crystal Array

    CERN Document Server

    Still, D; Carrigan, R A; Drozhdin, A I; Johnson, T R; Mokhov, N V; Previtali, V; Rivera, R; Shiltsev, V; Zagel, J; Zvoda, V V; Mirarchi, D; Redaelli, S; Guidi, V; Mazzolari, A; Ivanov, Y M; Yazynin, I A; Chesnokov, Y A

    2012-01-01

    With the shutdown of the Tevatron, the T-980 crystal collimation experiment at Fermilab has been successfully completed. Results of dedicated beam studies in May 2011 are described in this paper. For these studies, two multi-strip crystals were installed in the vertical goniometer and an O-shaped crystal installed in a horizontal goniometer. A two-plane CMS pixel detector was also installed in order to enhance the experiment with the capability to image the profile of crystal channeled or multiple volume reflected beam. The experiment successfully imaged channeled beam from a crystal for 980-GeV protons for the first time. This new enhanced hardware yielded impressive results. The performance and characterization of the crystals studied have been very reproducible over time and consistent with simulations.

  3. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  4. A fast, low-power, 6-bit SAR ADC for readout of strip detectors in the LHCb Upgrade experiment.

    CERN Document Server

    Firlej, M; Idzik, M; Moron, J; Swientek, K

    2014-01-01

    The readout of silicon strip sensors in the upgraded Tracker System of Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) experiment will require a novel complex Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). The ASIC will extract and digitise analogue signal from the sensor and subsequently will perform digital processing and serial data transmission. One of the key processing blocks, placed in each channel, will be an Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC). A prototype of fast, low-power 6-bit Successive Approximation Register (SAR) ADC was designed, fabricated and tested. The measurements of ADC prototypes confirmed simulation results showing excellent overall performance. In particular, very good resolution with Effective Number Of Bits (ENOB) 5.85 was obtained together with very low power consumption of 0.35 mW at 40 MS/s sampling rate. The results of the performed static and dynamic measurements confirm excellent ADC operation for higher sampling rates up to 80 MS/s.

  5. A fast, low-power, 6-bit SAR ADC for readout of strip detectors in the LHCb Upgrade experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.

    2014-07-01

    The readout of silicon strip sensors in the upgraded Tracker System of Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) experiment will require a novel complex Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). The ASIC will extract and digitise analogue signal from the sensor and subsequently will perform digital processing and serial data transmission. One of the key processing blocks, placed in each channel, will be an Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC). A prototype of fast, low-power 6-bit Successive Approximation Register (SAR) ADC was designed, fabricated and tested. The measurements of ADC prototypes confirmed simulation results showing excellent overall performance. In particular, very good resolution with Effective Number Of Bits (ENOB) 5.85 was obtained together with very low power consumption of 0.35 mW at 40 MS/s sampling rate. The results of the performed static and dynamic measurements confirm excellent ADC operation for higher sampling rates up to 80 MS/s.

  6. Modeling and simulation of Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) based on double-sided CdTe strip detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Özşahin, İlker; Ünlü, Mehmet Zübeyir

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common leading cause of cancer death among women. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Mammography, also known as Positron Emission Mammography (PEM), is a method for imaging primary breast cancer. Over the past few years, PEMs based on scintillation crystals dramatically increased their importance in diagnosis and treatment of early stage breast cancer. However, these detectors have significant limitations like poor energy resolution resulting with false-negative resu...

  7. Work plan for steam generator leak detector tests in CCTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    This work plan outlines a test program on devices for the detection of water to sodium leaks in an LMFBR steam generator, to be carried out in the Core Component Test Loop (CCTL) at the Argonne National Laboratory. The objective of these tests is to develop the data on the performance characteristics of leak detectors which will be applicable to the design of reliable leak detection systems for large scale LMFBR plants, with particular attention to the needs and requirements of the Demonstration Plants. In doing this, water will be injected into sodium in the CCTL in controlled quantities and at rates which it is considered necessary to detect in LMFBR steam generators. The experiments will be planned to establish the performance and limitations of the leak detection devices, and in order to furnish data applicable to the design of the leak detection systems of the LMFBR Steam Generators, will include an analysis to determine the scaling factors needed to translate the results of the CCTL tests to meaningful predictions on leak detection system behavior in large steam generators

  8. The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Azzurri, P

    2005-01-01

    With over 200 square meters of sensitive Silicon and almost 10 million readout channels, the Silicon Strip Tracker of the CMS experiment at the LHC will be the largest Silicon strip detector ever built. The design, construction and expected performance of the CMS Tracker is reviewed in the following.

  9. New Position Algorithms for the 3-D CZT Drift Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Kuvvetli, Irfan

    2017-01-01

    The 3-D position sensitive CZT detector for high-energy astrophysics developed at DTU has been investigated with a digitizer readout system. The 3-D CZT detector is based on the CZT drift-strip detector principle and was fabricated using a REDLEN CZT crystal (20 mm x 20 mm x 5 mm). The detector...... cathode strips. For the characterization work, we used a DAQ system with a 16 channels 250-MHz 14-b digitizer, SIS3316. It allowed us to analyze the pulse shapes of the signals from four detector cells at a time. The 3-D CZT setup was characterized with a finely collimated radioactive source of Cs-137...

  10. Working towards coordination of detector development in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    AIDA-2020 collaboration

    2015-01-01

    AIDA-2020, the largest EU-funded detector R&D project, kicked off at the beginning of June with a meeting at CERN (see here). The aim of the project is to advance detector technologies beyond current limits by sharing the high-quality infrastructure provided by 52 partners from 19 countries.   Knowledge exchange between the various groups who are involved in developing innovative technological solutions for the next generation of detectors is the emphasis of the AIDA-2020 EU-funded project, which started on 1 May and will run for four years. AIDA-2020 is the successor to AIDA, a four-year EU-funded programme that concluded at the end of January 2015, which successfully coordinated a joint European effort in detector R&D and significantly improved various key European research infrastructures, enabling advanced detector development for the high-energy physics community. Highlights of AIDA’s networking activities were the development of generic toolkits for detector description ...

  11. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  12. Work on CMS Muon Detector (CSCs) during Long Shutdown 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Lapka, Marzena

    2015-01-01

    These U.S. physicists made crucial contributions in preparing new electronics in the CMS effort to refurbish the first layer of the muon detector endcap. This effort recently passed a major review, suggesting the project is on track to be part of the experiment when detector operations resumes in early 2015. From left to right: Wells Wulsin (Oklahoma State), Nick Amin (Texas A&M), Indara Suarez (Texas A&M), Shalhout Shalhout (UC Davis), Joe Haley (Northeastern), Michael Gardner (UC Davis), and Justin Pilot (UC Davis). Inset: Joe Golf (left) and Manuel Franco Sevilla, both of UC Santa Barbara.

  13. The design of fast analog channels for the readout of strip detectors in the inner layers of the SuperB SVT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.

    2013-08-01

    Six layers of microstrip detectors are foreseen in the present baseline design of the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker. Different strip pitches and lengths will be used in the various SVT layers; however, the capability of standing a high background rate and of operating with high hit detection efficiency will be a common feature of the innermost layers. These requirements set the need for a readout chip with analog channels with a short signal shaping time (25-200 ns in layers 0-3) to achieve an adequate time stamp resolution and a small pulse overlap. These channels are also required to provide a 4-bit hit amplitude resolution for dE / dx measurements. A new chip is being designed in a 130 nm CMOS process to comply with these specifications. This paper discusses the solutions that are adopted in this chip for the various blocks of the analog channels, and will present the simulation results for the current design along with the expected performance in terms of parameters such as signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, linearity, power dissipation.

  14. Photosensitive Strip RETHGEM

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir; Nappi, E.; Oliveira, R.; Paic, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Picchi, P.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative photosensitive gaseous detector, consisting of a GEM like amplification structure with double layered electrodes (instead of commonly used metallic ones) coated with a CsI reflective photocathode, is described. In one of our latest designs, the inner electrode consists of a metallic grid and the outer one is made of resistive strips; the latter are manufactured by a screen printing technology on the top of the metallic strips grid The inner metallic grid is used for 2D position measurements whereas the resistive layer provides an efficient spark protected operation at high gains - close to the breakdown limit. Detectors with active areas of 10cm x10cm and 10cm x20cm were tested under various conditions including the operation in photosensitive gas mixtures containing ethylferrocene or TMAE vapors. The new technique could have many applications requiring robust and reliable large area detectors for UV visualization, as for example, in Cherenkov imaging devices.

  15. Data acquisition software for the CMS strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, R; Cripps, N; Fulcher, J; Radicci, V; Wingham, M; Baulieu, G; Bel, S; Delaere, C; Drouhin, F; Gill, K; Mirabito, L; Cole, J; Jesus, A C A; Giassi, A; Giordano, D; Gross, L; Hahn, K; Mersi, S; Nikolic, M; Tkaczyk, S

    2008-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker, providing a sensitive area of approximately 200 m 2 and comprising 10 million readout channels, has recently been completed at the tracker integration facility at CERN. The strip tracker community is currently working to develop and integrate the online and offline software frameworks, known as XDAQ and CMSSW respectively, for the purposes of data acquisition and detector commissioning and monitoring. Recent developments have seen the integration of many new services and tools within the online data acquisition system, such as event building, online distributed analysis, an online monitoring framework, and data storage management. We review the various software components that comprise the strip tracker data acquisition system, the software architectures used for stand-alone and global data-taking modes. Our experiences in commissioning and operating one of the largest ever silicon micro-strip tracking systems are also reviewed

  16. Works of art investigation with silicon drift detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Leutenegger, P; Fiorini, C; Strüder, L; Kemmer, J; Lechner, P; Sciuti, S; Cesareo, R

    2000-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy analysis is a non-destructive technique widely used in archeometry to investigate the chemical composition of pigments, metal alloys and stones for restoration and historical investigation. The classical detection systems for archeometrical investigations utilize cryogenic detectors, like Si(Li) and HPGe, characterized by a satisfactory energy resolution (of the order of 140 eV FWHM at 6 keV). However, the requirements of liquid N sub 2 drastically limit the portability of such systems, limiting the possibility of making measurements 'on the field'. Recently new silicon PIN diodes Peltier cooled were introduced, allowing the construction of portable instrumentation. However, their energy resolution (of the order of 250 eV FWHM at 6 keV) results in some cases unsatisfactory (for instance in the identification of light elements). Both the requirements of portability and good energy resolution are fulfilled by the silicon drift detector (SDD). The SDD, cooled by a Peltie...

  17. Elastic strips

    OpenAIRE

    Chubelaschwili, David; Pinkall, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of finding an explicit description of a developable narrow Moebius strip of minimal bending energy, which was first formulated by M. Sadowsky in 1930, we will develop the theory of elastic strips. Recently E.L. Starostin and G.H.M. van der Heijden found a numerical description for an elastic Moebius strip, but did not give an integrable solution. We derive two conservation laws, which describe the equilibrium equations of elastic strips. In applying these laws we find...

  18. Automatic surface inspection of pickled steel strips at Kawasaki Steel Chiba Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, M.; Torao, A.; Tomura, Y.; Tsujimoto, M.

    1999-01-01

    Conventional optical surface inspection systems for pickled steels have a problem in reliable inspection due to their varied surface nature. In order to solve this problem, new thresholding and classifying techniques were studied, and their performances were proved satisfactory in field tests. A new CCD-based inspection system using these techniques was installed in the No. 6 Pickling Line in Chiba Works, Kawasaki Steel Corporation. The camera arrangement of the system had been experimentally optimized. The system has been fully operational and has brought various benefits such as decrease in troubles caused by surface defects in the following processes. (author)

  19. Design,construction and commissioning of a cylinder of double-sided silicon micro-strips detectors for the Star experiment at RHIC; Developpement et mise en oeuvre de detecteurs silicium a micropistes pour l'experience star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedon, M

    2005-05-15

    This study has been performed in the frame of quark gluon plasma physics research in the STAR experiment at RHIC. It deals with the design, the construction and the commissioning of a barrel of silicon-strip detectors (SSD). Added to the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the STAR detector, it extends the capabilities of track reconstruction for charged particles emitted in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. It also contributes to the general study of the quark-gluon plasma production undertaken at STAR. The SSD is a cylinder of 1 m long and of 23 cm radius, and it is composed of 320 compact identical modules. Each module includes one double-sided silicon micro-strip detector, 12 readout chips ALICE 128C, 12 TAB ribbons, 2 COSTAR control chips and 2 hybrids supporting all the components. The document explains why the SSD is an important and relevant element, and justifies the technological choices as well as their validation by in-beam characterization. All component functionalities, characteristics and test procedures are presented. The data and test results are stored in a database for tracing purpose. Component and module production is described. Two parallel studies have been performed, analysed and described. One on the temperature dependence of the module performances and the other one on the optimal adjustments of the analogue blocks inside the ALICE 128C chip. The SSD installation on the RHIC site as well as the commissioning are presented together with the first data takings. (author)

  20. Influences of lubricant pocket geometry and working conditions upon micro lubrication mechanisms in upsetting and strip drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimizu, Ichiro; Martins, P. A. F.; Bay, Niels

    2010-01-01

    , during upsetting and strip drawing, by means of a rigid-viscoplastic finite-element formulation. Special emphasis is placed on the effect of pocket geometry on the build-up of hydrostatic pressure, which is responsible for the onset of micro-lubrication mechanisms. A good agreement is found between...... the numerically predicted and the experimentally measured distributions of hydrostatic stress....

  1. Multi electrode semiconductors detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; Bertolucci, Ennio; Bosisio, L; Bradaschia, C; Budinich, M; Fidecaro, F; Foà, L; Focardi, E; Giazotto, A; Giorgi, M A; Marrocchesi, P S; Menzione, A; Ristori, L; Rolandi, Luigi; Scribano, A; Stefanini, A; Vincelli, M L

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in this laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (3 refs).

  2. Multi electrode semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Budinich, M.; Bradaschia, C.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in the laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (Auth.)

  3. Search for heavy lepton resonances decaying to a Z boson and a lepton in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector and investigations of radiation tolerant silicon-strip detectors for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade of the ATLAS inner detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiik-Fuchs, Liv

    2017-03-09

    The success of particle physics experiments, like those at the Large Hardon Collider (LHC) at CERN, relies on a worldwide interdisciplinary collaboration in a variety of different fields. This thesis contributes to two vital aspects in this area of research:in the first part of a search for heavy trilepton resonances decaying to a Z boson and an electron or muon is presented, while the second part focusses on research and development of radiation tolerant silicon tracking detectors designed for the upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the future luminosity upgrade of the LHC. The search for trilepton resonances is based on pp collision data taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb{sup -1}. To reconstruct the narrow resonance, events with at least three leptons (electrons or muons) with a high-transverse momentum are selected. Two of these leptons are required to be consistent with originating from a Z boson decay. Since no significant excess above Standard Model background predictions is observed, 95% confidence level upper limits on the production cross section of trilepton resonances beyond the Standard Model are derived. The results of this analysis are interpreted in the context of vector-like lepton and type-III seesaw models. For the vector-like lepton model, most heavy lepton mass values in the range 113-176 GeV are excluded. For the type-III seesaw model, most mass values in the range 100-474 GeV are excluded. The second part of this thesis focusses on the development of radiation-tolerant silicon strip detectors for the luminosity upgrade of the ATLAS detector envisaged to commence in the year 2016. This thesis includes the results of several studies which contribute to multiple key aspects required for a successful upgrade of the silicon strip detector of the ATLAS Inner Tracker. Among these are the results of a beam test providing the first comparative results between

  4. Dependency on the silicon detector working bias for proton–deuteron particle identification at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueñas, J.A.; Mengoni, D.; Assie, M.; Parkar, V.V.; Sánchez Benítez, A.M.; Shrivastava, A.; Triossi, A.; Beaumel, D.; Martel, I.

    2013-01-01

    Proton–deuteron identification at energies between 2.5 MeV and 6 MeV has been studied as a function of the detector working bias. Digital pulse shape analysis (DPSA) has been used to perform the separation from the two mono-energetic beams. The technique makes use of the current signal delivered by a 500μm neutron transmutation doped (NTD) silicon detector, which was setup for low-field injection. It is shown that identification of the H isotopes is better when the detector working bias is close to the depletion voltage rather than over-depletion. The presence of high frequency noise diminished the possibility of identification, however, the use of a simple triangular smoothing algorithm counteracted this

  5. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  6. Gamma-ray imaging with thick position-sensitive silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland-Fitzgerald, C.; Kurfess, J.D.; Phlips, B.F.; Wulf, E.A.; Novikova, E.I.

    2006-01-01

    The construction of a prototype Compton imager at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is nearly complete. The instrument is an 8-layer stacked silicon detector and is based on the '3-Compton' energy reconstruction technique. The silicon detectors are 2 mm thick, double-sided, orthogonal strip detectors. Instrumentation and performance of the individual detectors and layers are presented along with simulations of the completed instrument. Implications of the instrument for real world applications and future work involving the final assembly are discussed

  7. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  8. Selective chemical stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    At the end of the 80's, some of the large European airlines expressed a wish for paint systems with improved strippability on their aircraft, allowing the possibility to strip down to the primer without altering it, using 'mild' chemical strippers based on methylene chloride. These improvements were initially intended to reduce costs and stripping cycle times while facilitating rapid repainting, and this without the need to change the conventionally used industrial facilities. The level of in-service performance of these paint systems was to be the same as the previous ones. Requirements related to hygiene safety and the environment were added to these initial requirements. To meet customers' expectations, Aerospatiale, within the Airbus Industry GIE, formed a work group. This group was given the task of specifying, following up the elaboration and qualifying the paint systems allowing requirements to be met, in relation with the paint suppliers and the airlines. The analysis made in this report showed the interest of transferring as far upstream as possible (to paint conception level) most of the technical constraints related to stripping. Thus, the concept retained for the paint system, allowing selective chemical stripping, is a 3-coat system with characteristics as near as possible to the previously used paints.

  9. Detectors - Electronics; Detecteurs - Electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1998-04-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X {yields} e{sup -} converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the {sup 3}He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  10. ATLAS Strips Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Miñano, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the LHC at CERN around 2020 by about an order of magnitude (SLHC). The ATLAS experiment will require a new particle tracking system for SLHC operation in order to cope with the increase in background events by about one order of magnitude at the higher luminosity. , an all silicon detector with enhanced radiation hardness is being designed. A massive R&D programme, involving many particles physics groups and several leadings manufacturers of silicon detectors for particle physics, is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In this framework new sensor materials like p-type silicon and the 3D technology are investigated. In parallel, the SCT commissioning experience has taught us to look into alternative module concepts, in which higher levels of integration are combined with the modularity of the SCT approach. We will report on the status of the R&D projects on radiation hard silicon strip detectors for particle physics, link...

  11. Using nanostructured conductive carbon tape modified with bismuth as the disposable working electrode for stripping analysis in paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiu-Mei; Zhang, Qing; Shi, Chuan-Guo; Xu, Jing-Juan; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying

    2013-10-15

    Low cost disposable working electrodes are specifically desired for practical applications of electrochemical detection considering maturity of electrochemical stations and data collection protocols. In this paper double-sided conductive adhesive carbon tape with nanostructure was applied to fabricate disposable working electrodes. Being supported by indium tin oxide glass, the prepared carbon tape electrodes were coated with bismuth film for stripping analysis of heavy metal ions. By integrating the bismuth modified electrodes with paper-based analytical devices, we were able to differentiate Zn, Cd and Pb ions with the sample volume of around 15 μL. After the optimization of parameters, including modification of bismuth film and the area of the electrodes, etc., Pb ions could be measured in the linear range from 10 to 500 μg/L with the detection limit of 2 μg/L. Our experimental results revealed that the disposable modified electrodes could be used to quantify migrated lead from toys with the results agreed well with that using atomic absorption spectrometry. Although bismuth modification and stripping analysis could be influenced by the low conductivity of the carbon tape, the low cost disposable carbon tape electrodes take the advantages of large-scaled produced double-sided carbon tape, including its reproducible nanostructure and scaled-up fabrication process. In addition, the preparation of disposable electrodes avoids time-consuming pretreatment and experienced operation. This study implied that the carbon tape might be an alternative candidate for practical applications of electrochemical detection. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Panda Strip Asic: Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, A.

    2018-01-01

    PASTA is the 64 channel front-end chip, designed in a 110 nm CMOS technology to read out the strip sensors of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. This chip provides high resolution timestamp and deposited charge information by means of the time-over-threshold technique. Its working principle is based on a predecessor, the TOFPET ASIC, that was designed for medical applications. A general restructuring of the architecture was needed, in order to meet the specific requirements imposed by the physics programme of PANDA, especially in terms of radiation tolerance, spatial constraints, and readout in absence of a first level hardware trigger. The first revision of PASTA is currently under evaluation at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, where a data acquisition system dedicated to the MVD prototypes has been developed. This paper describes the main aspect of the chip design, gives an overview of the data acquisition system used for the verification, and shows the first results regarding the performance of PASTA.

  13. The ATLAS Inner Detector operation,data quality and tracking performance.

    CERN Document Server

    Stanecka, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector comprises silicon and gas based detectors. The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) and the Pixel Detector are the key precision tracking silicon devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. And the the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT), the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector is made of thin-walled proportional-mode drift tubes (straws). The Pixel Detector consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. The SCT is a silicon strip detector and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. The TRT is made...

  14. Evaluation of high grid strip densities based on the moiré artifact analysis for quality assurance: Simulation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, U. K.; Park, C. K.; Lim, H. W.; Cho, H. S.; Lee, D. Y.; Lee, H. W.; Kim, K. S.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, G. A.; Kang, S. Y.; Park, J. E.; Kim, W. S.; Jeon, D. H.; Woo, T. H.

    2017-09-01

    We have recently developed precise x-ray grids having strip densities in the range of 100 - 250 lines/inch by adopting the precision sawing process and carbon interspace material for the demands of specific x-ray imaging techniques. However, quality assurance in the grid manufacturing has not yet satisfactorily conducted because grid strips of a high strip density are often invisible through an x-ray nondestructive testing with a flat-panel detector of an ordinary pixel resolution (>100 μm). In this work, we propose a useful method to evaluate actual grid strip densities over the Nyquist sampling rate based on the moiré artifact analysis. We performed a systematic simulation and experiment with several sample grids and a detector having a 143- μm pixel resolution to verify the proposed quality assurance method. According to our results, the relative differences between the nominal and the evaluated grid strip densities were within 0.2% and 1.8% in the simulation and experiment, respectively, which demonstrates that the proposed method is viable with an ordinary detector having a moderate pixel resolution for quality assurance in grid manufacturing.

  15. Noise analysis due to strip resistance in the ATLAS SCT silicon strip module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipnis, I.

    1996-08-01

    The module is made out of four 6 cm x 6 cm single sided Si microstrip detectors. Two detectors are butt glued to form a 12 cm long mechanical unit and strips of the two detectors are electrically connected to form 12 cm long strips. The butt gluing is followed by a back to back attachment. The module in this note is the Rφ module where the electronics is oriented parallel to the strip direction and bonded directly to the strips. This module concept provides the maximum signal-to-noise ratio, particularly when the front-end electronics is placed near the middle rather than at the end. From the noise analysis, it is concluded that the worst-case ΔENC (far-end injection) between end- and center-tapped modules will be 120 to 210 el. rms (9 to 15%) for a non-irradiated detector and 75 to 130 el. rms (5 to 9%) for an irradiated detector, for a metal strip resistance of 10 to 20 Ω/cm

  16. MUST detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Auger, F.; Sauvestre, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The IPN-Orsay, in collaboration with the SPhN-Saclay and the DPTA Bruyeres, has built an array of 8 telescopes based on Si-strip technology for the study of direct reactions induced by radioactive beams. The detectors are described, along with the compact high density VXI electronics and the stand-alone data acquisition system developed in the laboratory. One telescope was tested using an 40 Ar beam and the measured performances are discussed. (authors)

  17. The Construction of the CMS Tracker Silicon Strip Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Chiorboli, Massimiliano

    2006-01-01

    The procedures followed for the construction of the Silicon Strip Modules to be used in the CMS Tracker Detector are described. The steps of the production chain are described, and the results are given.

  18. Optimizing the Stripping Procedure for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment faces a major challenge from the large amounts of data received while the LHC is running. The ability to sort this information in a useful manner is important for working groups to perform physics analyses. Both hardware and software triggers are used to decrease the data rate and then the stripping process is used to sort the data into streams and further into stripping lines. This project studies the hundreds of stripping lines to look for overlaps between them in order to make the stripping process more efficient.

  19. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos

    2002-01-01

    Many conjugated polymers show an appreciable difference in volume between their oxidized and reduced forms. This property can be utilized in soft electrochemically driven actuators, "artificial muscles". Several geometries have been proposed for the conversion of the volume expansion into useful...... mechanical work. In a particularly simple geometry, the length change of polymer strips is exploited. The polymer strips are connected to the driving circuit at the end of the strip that is attached to the support of the device. The other end of the strip is connected to the load. The advantage of this set...

  20. Laboratory testing of Alcoscan saliva-alcohol test strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This report describes a laboratory evaluation of Alcoscan saliva-alcohol test strips. The objectives of this work were: (1) to determine the precision and accuracy of the Alcoscan strips; and (2) to determine what effect extreme ambient temperatures ...

  1. ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker and Pixel Detector: Status and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) and the Pixel Detector are the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is a silicon strip detector and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. The Pixel Detector consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In the talk the current status of the SCT and Pixel Detector will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detectors including an overview of the issues we encountered and the observation of significant increases in leakage currents (as expected) from bulk ...

  2. Varicose vein stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stripping; Venous reflux - vein stripping; Venous ulcer - veins Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor Images Circulatory system References American Family Physician. Management of varicose veins. www.aafp.org/afp/2008/ ...

  3. Timing performances and edge effects of detectors worked from 6-in. silicon slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Anzalone, A.; Cardella, G.; Cavallaro, Sl.; De Filippo, E.; Di Pietro, A.; Femino, S.; Geraci, M.; Giustolisi, F.; Guazzoni, P.; Iacono Manno, M.; Lanzalone, G.; Lanzano, G.; Lo Nigro, S.; Musumarra, A.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Sambataro, S.; Sperduto, M.L.; Sutera, C.; Zetta, L.

    1997-01-01

    Prototypes of new passivated implanted planar silicon detectors, obtained for the first time from 6 in. silicon slices, have been tested. The time and energy resolutions have been studied as a function of the type and energy of the detected particles, in order to test the performances of these detectors for time of flight measurements in the Chimera project. Some problems arising from edge effects observed in double-pad detectors have been solved by using a guard ring. (orig.)

  4. Studies, tests and adjustment of a pixellated semiconductor detector working in counting mode, for gamma imaging in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manach, E.

    2005-09-01

    Since several years, the nuclear industry is using gamma-imaging systems in order to map the radioactivity inside the nuclear facilities. Our work comes within the development of a new imaging system for these applications, which is based on a pixellated CdTe semiconductor hybridized with the new electronic counting chip Medipix2 (256 2 pixels 55 μm-side). A simulation code was developed to describe the interaction of the photons and the energy deposition in the substrate, the transport of the charges and the signal induction on the pixels. This code gave us a better understanding of the detector working for photons having energy between 60 keV and 1.5 MeV. Experimental studies, realized with first-generation Medipix1 detectors, have shown the good working for high energies and pointed out the importance of the contribution of the secondary particles coming with direct photons. Several Medipix2-CdTe detectors were realized during this thesis (1 mm thick, hybridization with indium bumps). We observed some localized defects but their origin (substrate or hybridization) has not been completely established. Nevertheless, the detectors showed good performances for our application, especially for low-level dose rate and/or for low-energy photons (60 keV). The detector's response under irradiation was studied for different working parameters and the obtained results were compared with the simulations. Besides, the performances of the new Medipix2-Si detectors were shown for various radiation-imaging applications. (author)

  5. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  6. New Position Algorithms for the 3-D CZT Drift Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Kuvvetli, I.

    2017-06-01

    The 3-D position sensitive CZT detector for high-energy astrophysics developed at DTU has been investigated with a digitizer readout system. The 3-D CZT detector is based on the CZT drift-strip detector principle and was fabricated using a REDLEN CZT crystal (20 mm × 20 mm × 5 mm). The detector contains 12 drift cells, each comprising one collecting anode strip with four drift strips, biased such that the electrons are focused and collected by the anode strips. Three-dimensional position determination is achieved using the anode strip signals, the drift-strip signals, and the signals from ten cathode strips. For the characterization work, we used a DAQ system with a 16 channels 250-MHz 14-b digitizer, SIS3316. It allowed us to analyze the pulse shapes of the signals from four detector cells at a time. The 3-D CZT setup was characterized with a finely collimated radioactive source of 137Cs at 662 keV. The analysis required development of novel position determination algorithms which are the subject of this paper. Using the digitizer readout, we demonstrate improved position determination compared to the previous read out system based on analog electronics. Position resolutions of 0.4-mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) in the x-, y-, and z-directions were achieved and the energy resolution was 7.2-keV FWHM at 662 keV. The timing information allows identification of multiple interaction events within one detector cell, e.g., Compton scattering followed by photoelectric absorption. These characteristics are very important for a high-energy spectral-imager suitable for use in advanced Compton telescopes, or as focal detector for new hard X-ray and soft γ-ray focusing telescopes or in polarimeter instrumentation. CZT detectors are attractive for these applications since they offer relatively high-quantum efficiency. From a technical point of view it is advantageous that their cooling requirements are modest.

  7. Detectors for Particle Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    This textbook provides a clear, concise and comprehensive review of the physical principles behind the devices used to detect charged particles and gamma rays, and the construction and performance of these many different types of detectors. Detectors for high-energy particles and radiation are used in many areas of science, especially particle physics and nuclear physics experiments, nuclear medicine, cosmic ray measurements, space sciences and geological exploration. This second edition includes all the latest developments in detector technology, including several new chapters covering micro-strip gas chambers, silicion strip detectors and CCDs, scintillating fibers, shower detectors using noble liquid gases, and compensating calorimeters for hadronic showers. This well-illustrated textbook contains examples from the many areas in science in which these detectors are used. It provides both a coursebook for students in physics, and a useful introduction for researchers in other fields.

  8. This detector can't be built (without lots of work)

    CERN Document Server

    Breidenbach, M

    2002-01-01

    Most of us believe that e sup + e sup - detectors are technically trivial compared to those for hadron colliders and that detectors for linear colliders are extraordinarily trivial. The cross sections are tiny; there are approximately no radiation issues (compared to real machines) and for linear colliders, the situation is even simpler. The crossing rate is miniscule, so that hardware triggers are not needed, the DAQ is very simple, and the data processing requirements are quite modest. The challenges arise from the emphasis on precision measurements within reasonable cost constraints. The Silicon Detector, SD, is a ''preconceptual'' design of a high performance detector for the NLC, with reasonably uncompromised performance in general and stressing superb energy flow performance with its electromagnetic calorimeter (ECal). However, it is assumed from the beginning that funding will be very tight and that the detector costs must be constrained and rational. It also remains to be demonstrated by detailed simu...

  9. The Strip Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    1996-01-01

    When the behaviour of a ship in waves is to be predicted it is convenient to have a tool which includes different approaches to the problem.The aim of this project is to develop such a tool named the strip theory module. The strip theory module will consist of submodules dependent on the I....... At last a postprocessor will be included with facilities for statistical calculations and for plots and prints of the results.The project is divided into 7 tasks where the third is to be completed.This report has two aims. To give an introduction to the project of developing a strip theory module......-ship code available at the department. It will be structured as a general preprocessor mainly to determine the hydrodynamic mass and damping. A strip processor including three different theories: A linear frequency domain strip theory, a quadratic strip theory and a nonlinear time domain strip theory...

  10. Vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10 -13 s, among them the τ lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation

  11. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Agram, Jean-Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), consisting of 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules and covering an area of 198 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly reconstruct the events recorded. Calibration constants are derived from different workflows, from promptly reconstructed events with particles as well as from commissioning events gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. The performance of the SST has been carefully studied since the beginning of data taking: the noise of the detector, data integrity, signal-over-noise ratio, hit reconstruction efficiency and resolution have been all investigated with time and for different conditions. In this paper we describe the reconstruction strategies, the calibration procedures and the detector performance results from the latest CMS operation.

  12. Infrared LED Enhanced Spectroscopic CdZnTe Detector Working under High Fluxes of X-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Pekárek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an application of infrared light-induced de-polarization applied on a polarized CdZnTe detector working under high radiation fluxes. We newly demonstrate the influence of a high flux of X-rays and simultaneous 1200-nm LED illumination on the spectroscopic properties of a CdZnTe detector. CdZnTe detectors operating under high radiation fluxes usually suffer from the polarization effect, which occurs due to a screening of the internal electric field by a positive space charge caused by photogenerated holes trapped at a deep level. Polarization results in the degradation of detector charge collection efficiency. We studied the spectroscopic behavior of CdZnTe under various X-ray fluxes ranging between 5 × 10 5 and 8 × 10 6 photons per mm 2 per second. It was observed that polarization occurs at an X-ray flux higher than 3 × 10 6 mm − 2 ·s − 1 . Using simultaneous illumination of the detector by a de-polarizing LED at 1200 nm, it was possible to recover X-ray spectra originally deformed by the polarization effect.

  13. Large-scale module production for the CMS silicon strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Cattai, A

    2005-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) for the CMS experiment at LHC consists of 210 m**2 of silicon strip detectors grouped into four distinct sub-systems. We present a brief description of the CMS Tracker, the industrialised detector module production methods and the current status of the SST with reference to some problems encountered at the factories and in the construction centres.

  14. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Boudoul, Gaelle

    2011-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) of the CMS experiment is, with 9.6 million readout channels, the largest strip tracker ever built. In order to correctly interpret and reconstruct the events recorded it needs to be precisely calibrated, thus ensuring that it fully contributes to the physics research program of the CMS experiment. In 2009 and 2010, the performance of the SST has been carefully studied using cosmic muons and tracks from proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 900 GeV, 2.36 TeV and 7 TeV. In this paper, we present some results of the detector performance.

  15. Performance of the CAMEX64 silicon strip readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, R.J.

    1989-06-01

    The CAMEX64 is a 64 channel full custom CMOS chip designed specifically for the readout of silicon strip detectors. CAMEX which stands for CMOS Multichannel Analog MultiplEXer for Silicon Strip Detectors was designed by members of the Franhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems and the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics. Each CAMEX channel has a switched capacitor charge sensitive amplifier with 4 sampling capacitors and a multiplexing scheme for reading out each of the channels on an analog bus. The device uses multiple sampling capacitors to filter and reduce input noise. Filtering is controlled through sampling techniques using external clocks. The device operates in a double correlated sampling mode and therefore cannot separate detector leakage current from a charge input. Normal operation of this device is similar to all other silicon readout chips designed and built thus far in that there is a data acquisition cycle during which charge is simultaneously accepted on all channels for a short period of time from a detector array, followed by a readout cycle where that charge or hit information is read out. This device works especially well for colliding beam experiments where the time of charge arrival is accurately known. However it can be used in fixed target or asynchronous mode where the time of charge arrival is not well known. In the asynchronous mode it appears that gain is somewhat dependent on the time interval required to decide whether or not to accept charge input information and thus the maximum signal to noise performance found with the synchronous mode may not be achieved in the asynchronous mode. 18 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Ductility of reinforced concrete columns confined with stapled strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.F.; Khan, Q.U.Z.; Shabbir, F.; Sharif, M.B.; Ijaz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Response of three 150x150x450mm short reinforced concrete (RC) columns confined with different types of confining steel was investigated. Standard stirrups, strips and stapled strips, each having same cross-sectional area, were employed as confining steel around four comer column bars. Experimental work was aimed at probing into the affect of stapled strip confinement on post elastic behavior and ductility level under cyclic axial load. Ductility ratios, strength enhancement factor and core concrete strengths were compared to study the affect of confinement. Results indicate that strength enhancement in RC columns due to strip and stapled strip confinement was not remarkable as compared to stirrup confined column. It was found that as compared to stirrup confined column, stapled strip confinement enhanced the ductility of RC column by 183% and observed axial capacity of stapled strip confined columns was 41 % higher than the strip confined columns. (author)

  17. Deuteron stripping reactions using dirac phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, E. A.; McNeil, J. A.

    2001-04-01

    In this work deuteron stripping reactions are studied using the distorted wave born approximation employing dirac phenomenological potentials. In 1982 Shepard and Rost performed zero-range dirac phenomenological stripping calculations and found a dramatic reduction in the predicted cross sections when compared with similar nonrelativistic calculations. We extend the earlier work by including full finite range effects as well as the deuteron's internal D-state. Results will be compared with traditional nonrelativistic approaches and experimental data at low energy.

  18. Silicon detector technology development in India for the participation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A specific research and development program has been carried out by BARC in India to develop the technology for large area silicon strip detectors for application in nuclear and high energy physics experiments. These strip detectors will be used as pre-shower detector in the CMS experiment at LHC, CERN for 0/ ...

  19. Silicon detector technology development in India for the participation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A specific research and development program has been carried out by BARC in India to develop the technology for large area silicon strip detectors for application in nuclear and high energy physics experiments. These strip detectors will be used as pre-shower detector in the CMS experiment at LHC, CERN for ...

  20. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    During data-taking in 2010 the RPC system behaviour was very satisfactory for both the detector and trigger performances. Most of the data analyses are now completed and many results and plots have been approved in order to be published in the muon detector paper. A very detailed analysis of the detector efficiency has been performed using 60 million muon events taken with the dedicated RPC monitor stream. The results have shown that the 96.3% of the system was working properly with an average efficiency of 95.4% at 9.35 kV in the Barrel region and 94.9% at 9.55 kV in the Endcap. Cluster size goes from 1.6 to 2.2 showing a clear and well-known correlation with the strip pitch. Average noise in the Barrel is less than 0.4 Hz/cm2 and about 98% of full system has averaged noise less then 1 Hz/cm2. A linear dependence of the noise versus the luminosity has been preliminary observed and is now under study. Detailed chamber efficiency maps have shown a few percent of chambers with a non-uniform efficiency distribu...

  1. Medipix3: A 64 k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ballabriga, R; Wong, W; Heijne, E; Campbell, M; Llopart, X

    2011-01-01

    Medipix3 is a 256 x 256 channel hybrid pixel detector readout chip working in a single photon counting mode with a new inter-pixel architecture, which aims to improve the energy resolution in pixelated detectors by mitigating the effects of charge sharing between channels. Charges are summed in all 2 x 2 pixel clusters on the chip and a given hit is allocated locally to the pixel summing circuit with the biggest total charge on an event-by-event basis. Each pixel contains also two 12-bit binary counters with programmable depth and overflow control. The chip is configurable such that either the dimensions of each detector pixel match those of one readout pixel or detector pixels are four times greater in area than the readout pixels. In the latter case, event-by-event summing is still possible between the larger pixels. Each pixel has around 1600 transistors and the analog static power consumption is below 15 mu W in the charge summing mode and 9 mu W in the single pixel mode. The chip has been built in an 8-m...

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of gas-filled radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, A.

    2000-06-01

    A new simulation code has been developed that allows the response of gas-filled proportional counters to be calculated. The code is an electron transport code that simulates the elastic and inelastic scattering processes that occur as a result of electron-impact collisions with the gas atoms. The simulation concentrates on the avalanche development after the primary ionising particle has freed electrons in the gas volume, by tracking electrons until they reach the anode of the counter. The dynamics of the ions that accumulate in the gas volume are also considered. A major motivation for this work is the general renewed interest in proportional counters over the last decade, since the advent of micro-pattern detectors such as the micro-strip and the micro-gap detector. It is argued that the low relative cost, intrinsic amplification and environmental stability of these detectors gives them considerable advantages over other types of radiation detectors. The code has been benchmarked against experimental data. The manner in which the variation in the avalanche statistics affects the energy resolution properties of the detector is examined for single wire counters, micro-strip and micro-gap counters. The stability of micro-gap detectors when subjected to high rates of irradiation is also examined. It is envisaged that these detectors will be used in the future as part of a multiphase flow tomography device for imaging the flow of oil/water/natural gas mixtures that have been pumped through pipes from the seabed. (author)

  3. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  4. Science Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  5. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  6. Low material budget floating strip Micromegas for ion transmission radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, J., E-mail: jonathan.bortfeldt@cern.ch [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Biebel, O.; Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Klitzner, F.; Lösel, Ph. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Magallanes, L. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 672, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Müller, R. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Parodi, K. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlüter, T. [LMU Munich, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Voss, B. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Zibell, A. [JMU Würzburg, Sanderring 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    Floating strip Micromegas are high-accuracy and discharge insensitive gaseous detectors, able to track single particles at fluxes of 7 MHz/cm{sup 2} with 100 μm resolution. We developed low-material-budget detectors with one-dimensional strip readout, suitable for tracking at highest particle rates as encountered in medical ion transmission radiography or inner tracker applications. Recently we additionally developed Kapton-based floating strip Micromegas with two-dimensional strip readout, featuring an overall thickness of 0.011 X{sub 0}. These detectors were tested in high-rate proton and carbon-ion beams at the tandem accelerator in Garching and the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, operated with an optimized Ne:CF{sub 4} gas mixture. By coupling the Micromegas detectors to a new scintillator based range detector, ion transmission radiographies of PMMA and tissue-equivalent phantoms were acquired. The range detector with 18 layers is read out via wavelength shifting fibers, coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier. We present the performance of the Micromegas detectors with respect to timing and single plane track reconstruction using the μTPC method. We discuss the range resolution of the scintillator range telescope and present the image reconstruction capabilities of the combined system.

  7. Research and Development in Micromegas Detector for the ATLAS Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Iakovidis, Georgios

    My candidacy as a Ph.D student begun officially on September 2010. It was at the time that the MAMMA collaboration performed R&D on micromegas detectors transforming them spark resistant. This was done by adding a foil of resistive strips on top of the readout strips. Joining the collaboration I started to be active in the test beam periods dedicating time to understand the detector behaviour. In parallel I developed simulation procedures to understand further the detector and finally describe the physical processes taking place when a charged particle traverses the detector. Moreover, the unexplored at that time μTPC method was studied. In late 2011 the micromegas technology was a candidate for the ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW) upgrade to which I dedicated most of my time in order satisfy the requirements and prove that the detector will work in the ATLAS environment including the magnetic field conditions. Most of the work at that time was dedicated to understand the spatial resolution of the detector an...

  8. Measurement of volumic activities of radon in air in houses and in working rooms with solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakam, O.K.

    1993-01-01

    In this work, a new method of measuring volumic activity of radon has been developed. This method is based on using solid state nuclear track detectors LR-115 type II. It has been applied to measurement of volumic activities of radon in air in houses and in working rooms in different regions of Morocco. These measurements, carried out for the first time in the country, allowed to estimate the dose equivalents of radon received by the population of the studied regions. 59 refs., 38 figs., 38 tabs. (F.M.)

  9. The 'KATOD-1' strip readout ASIC for cathode strip chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Gorbunov, N.V.; Karzhavin, V.Yu.; Khabarov, V.S.; Movchan, S.A.; Smolin, D.A.; Dvornikov, O.V.; Shumejko, N.M.; Chekhovskij, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The 'KATOD-1', a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2 : +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology

  10. Strip defect recognition in electrical tests of silicon microstrip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentan, Manfred, E-mail: valentan@mpp.mpg.de

    2017-02-11

    This contribution describes the measurement procedure and data analysis of AC-coupled double-sided silicon microstrip sensors with polysilicon resistor biasing. The most thorough test of a strip sensor is an electrical measurement of all strips of the sensor; the measured observables include e.g. the strip's current and the coupling capacitance. These measurements are performed to find defective strips, e.g. broken capacitors (pinholes) or implant shorts between two adjacent strips. When a strip has a defect, its observables will show a deviation from the “typical value”. To recognize and quantify certain defects, it is necessary to determine these typical values, i.e. the values the observables would have without the defect. As a novel approach, local least-median-of-squares linear fits are applied to determine these “would-be” values of the observables. A least-median-of-squares fit is robust against outliers, i.e. it ignores the observable values of defective strips. Knowing the typical values allows to recognize, distinguish and quantify a whole range of strip defects. This contribution explains how the various defects appear in the data and in which order the defects can be recognized. The method has been used to find strip defects on 30 double-sided trapezoidal microstrip sensors for the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, which have been measured at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna (Austria).

  11. Aeroelastic deformation of a perforated strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttag, M.; Karimi, H. H.; Falcón, C.; Reis, P. M.

    2018-01-01

    We perform a combined experimental and numerical investigation into the static deformation of perforated elastic strips under uniform aerodynamic loading at high-Reynolds-number conditions. The static shape of the porous strips, clamped either horizontally or vertically, is quantified as they are deformed by wind loading, induced by a horizontal flow. The experimental profiles are compared to numerical simulations using a reduced model that takes into account the normal drag force on the deformed surface. For both configurations (vertical and horizontal clamping), we compute the drag coefficient of the strip, by fitting the experimental data to the model, and find that it decreases as a function of porosity. Surprisingly, we find that, for every value of porosity, the drag coefficients for the horizontal configuration are larger than those of the vertical configuration. For all data in both configurations, with the exception of the continuous strip clamped vertically, a linear relation is found between the porosity and drag. Making use of this linearity, we can rescale the drag coefficient in a way that it becomes constant as a function of the Cauchy number, which relates the force due to fluid loading on the elastic strip to its bending rigidity, independently of the material properties and porosity of the strip and the flow speed. Our findings on flexible strips are contrasted to previous work on rigid perforated plates. These results highlight some open questions regarding the usage of reduced models to describe the deformation of flexible structures subjected to aerodynamic loading.

  12. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U.

    2006-04-01

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  13. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  14. The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker: Design and Production Status

    CERN Document Server

    Affolder, A A

    2004-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) will be equipped with 15000 silicon micro-strip detector modules covering a surface of 200 m^2. This paper details the SST layout and updates the status of construction. Progress in the fabrication of module components is detailed, with focus on the front-end hybrid and silicon sensor production. The assembly of over 2200 modules using industrial methods is described; the quality assurance protocols have resulted in modules of extremely high mechanical and electrical quality.

  15. Testbeam evaluation of silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase - II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration; Ai, Xiaocong; Allport, Phillip; Arling, Jan-Hendrik; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Carli, Ina; Casse, Gianluigi; Chen, Liejian; Chisholm, Andrew; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cunningham, William Reilly; Dervan, Paul; Diez Cornell, Sergio; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dopke, Jens; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan Linus Roderik; Escobar, Carlos; Fabiani, Veronica; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fernandez Tejero, Javier; Fleta Corral, Maria Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Garcia-Argos, Carlos; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Greig, Graham George; Guescini, Francesco; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hauser, Marc Manuel; Huang, Yanping; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Keller, John; Klein, Christoph; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Kotek, Zdenek; Kroll, Jiri; Kuehn, Susanne; Lee, Steven Juhyung; Liu, Yi; Lohwasser, Kristin; Meszarosova, Lucia; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mi\\~nano Moya, Mercedes; Mori, Riccardo; Moser, Brian; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschke, Richard; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, Peter William; Poley, Anne-luise; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Ravotti, Federico; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of \\mbox{$7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$}. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over $1x10^{15}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per $cm^{2}$ in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II test beam facility to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before irradiation. The DURANTA telescope was used to obtain a pointing...

  16. The Data Quality Monitoring for the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, V; Bainbridge, R; Benucci, L; Borgia, M A; Borrello, L; Cole, J; Cripps, N; Delmeire, E; Dero, V; Dutta, S; Giordano, D; Hammad, G H; Hashemi, H; Le Bihan, A C; Le Bourgeois, M; Palmonari, F; Pierro, A; Zito, G

    2009-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), consisting of more than 10 million channels, is organized in about 15,000 detector modules and it is the largest silicon strip tracker ever built for high energy physics experiments. The Data Quality Monitoring system for the Tracker has been developed within the CMS Software framework. More than 100,000 monitorable quantities need to be managed by the DQM system that organizes them in a hierarchical structure reflecting the detector arrangement in subcomponents and the various levels of data processing. Monitorable quantities computed at the level of individual detectors are processed to extract automatic quality checks and summary results that can be visualized with specialized graphical user interfaces. In view of the great complexity of the CMS Tracker detector the standard visualization tools based on histograms have been complemented with 2 and 3 dimensional graphical images of the subdetector that can show the whole detector down to single channel resolution. The fu...

  17. Quantum strips on surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Krejcirik, David

    2002-01-01

    Motivated by the theory of quantum waveguides, we investigate the spectrum of the Laplacian, subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions, in a curved strip of constant width that is defined as a tubular neighbourhood of an infinite curve in a two-dimensional Riemannian manifold. Under the assumption that the strip is asymptotically straight in a suitable sense, we localise the essential spectrum and find sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of geometrically induced bound states. I...

  18. The PASTA chip for the silicon micro strip sensor of the PANDA MVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Alberto; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Di Pietro, Valentino; Quagli, Tommaso; Schnell, Robert; Zaunick, Hans-Georg [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Ritman, James; Stockmanns, Tobias; Zambanini, Andre [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    In the Micro Vertex Detector, which is the innermost detector of PANDA, there are two different types of sensors: hybrid pixel and double sided micro strips. My work is focused on the development of the ASIC readout for the strips, which in the PANDA experiment must cope with a hit rate up to 50 kHz per channel. The energy loss measurement of the particles crossing the silicon sensor is obtained by implementing the Time over Threshold technique. The first PASTA (PANDA Strip ASIC) prototype is based on a Time to Digital Converter with an analog clock interpolator which combines good time resolution with a low power consumption. A full size chip was developed in a 0.11μ m CMOS technology and delivered in Autumn 2015. It features 64 channels with both analog and digital parts, a digital global controller, LVDS drivers and integrated bias. In the presentation, an overview of PASTA and the results of the first tests is presented.

  19. Study of semiconductor detectors applied to diagnostic X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, Cesar Marques

    2003-08-01

    This work aims an evaluation of procedures for photons spectrum determination, produced by a X ray tube, normally used for medical diagnoses which operation voltage ranges from 20 to 150 kVp, to allow more precise characterization of the photon beam. The use of spectrum analysis will contribute to reduce the uncertainty in the ionization camera calibrations. For this purpose, two kind of detectors were selected, a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) and a planar HPGe detector. The X ray interaction with the detector's crystal produces, by electronic processes, a pulse high distribution as an output, which is no the true photon spectrum, due to the presence of K shell escape peaks, Compton scattering and to the fact that the detectors efficiency diminish rapidly with the increase of the photon energy. A detailed analysis of the contributing factors to distortions in the spectrum is necessary and was performed by Monte Carlo calculation with the MCNP 4B computer code. In order to determine the actual photon spectrum for a X ray tube a spectra stripping procedure is described for the HPGe detector. The detector's response curves, determined by the Monte Carlo calculation, were compared to the experimental ones, for isotropic point sources. For the methodology validation, stripped spectra were compared to the theoretical ones, for the same X ray tube's settings, for a qualitative evaluation. The air kerma rate calculated with the photon spectra were compared to the direct measurement using an ionization chamber, for a quantitative evaluation. (author)

  20. The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker performance using cosmic ray data

    CERN Document Server

    Borrello, L

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker is the largest tracking system based on silicon detector technology ever built for high energy physics experiment. It consists of 24,244 single-sided micro-strip sensors for a total active area of 198 $m^2$ and about 10 million readout channels. The SST was installed inside CMS in December 2007, commissioned during summer 2008 and then it participated along with other CMS subdetectors in several cosmic muon data taking runs. The commissioning strategy, operational experience and detector performance results will be presented.

  1. ATLAS ITk short-strip stave prototypes with 130 nm chipset

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00116199; The ATLAS collaboration; Dopke, Jens; Sawyer, Craig

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS ITk Collaboration is working to deliver a new Inner Tracking detector for use at HL-LHC. The strip tracker community has recently constructed a partially loaded, double-sided demonstrator stave using the HCC / ABC130 chipset in 130 nm CMOS technology. Mindful of the need to maximise power efficiency whilst minimising the cost and material of associated cable plant, the system design includes the integration of a low-mass DC-DC converter and sensor bias (HV) switch within each module. This paper documents the first results from the demonstrator stave. The system concept is also outlined.

  2. ATLAS ITk Short-Strip Stave prototypes with 130nm chipset

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Peter William; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS ITk is working to deliver a new Inner Tracking detector for use at HL-LHC. The strip tracker community has recently constructed partially loaded, double sided demonstrator staves using the HCC / ABC130 chipset in 130nm CMOS technology. Mindful of the need to maximise power efficiency whilst minimising the cost and material of associated cable plant, the system design includes the integration of a low-mass DC-DC converter and sensor bias (HV) switch within each module. This paper documents the first results from the demonstrator staves. The system concept and the roadmap toward a full system test are also outlined.

  3. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    Richard Breedon

    Following the opening of the CMS detector, commissioning of the cathode strip chamber (CSC) system resumed in earnest. Some on-chamber electronics problems could be fixed on the positive endcap when each station became briefly accessible as the steel yokes were peeled off. There was no opportunity to work on the negative endcap chambers during opening; this had to wait instead until the yokes were again separated and the stations accessible during closing. In March, regular detector-operating shifts were resumed every weekday evening during which Local Runs were taken using cosmic rays to monitor and validate repairs and improvements that had taken place during the day. Since April, the CSC system has been collecting cosmic data under shift supervision 24 hours a day on weekdays, and 24/7 operation began in early June. The CSC system arranged shifts for continuous running in the entire first half of 2009. One reward of this effort is that every chamber of the CSC system is alive and recording events. There...

  4. The Silicon Ministrip Detector of the DELPHI Very Forward Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067985

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this work is the design, test and construction of a new silicon tracking detector for the extreme forward region of the DELPHI experiment at LEP. I joined the Very Forward Tracker (VFT) Ministrip group in 1993, at a time when the upgrade of the DELPHI tracking system was proposed. My first task was to participate in the design of the ministrip detector for the VFT. This included the optimisation of the detector layout in simulations and the study of prototype detectors in the testbeam. In 1994 I became responsible for the tests and assembly' of the VFT ministrip detector at CERN. The main focus of my work was the study of the performance of a large variety of detectors in beam tests. This included the preparation of the test setup, the tests of different detectors and the analysis of the measurements. With these measurements it is possible to compare the advantages and disadvantages of various new layouts for large pitch silicon strip detectors. In particular the signal response and spatial res...

  5. A new micro-strip tracker for the new generation of experiments at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinardo, Mauro E. [Univ. of Milan (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    This thesis concerns the development and characterization of a prototype Silicon micro-strip detector that can be used in the forward (high rapidity) region of a hadron collider. These detectors must operate in a high radiation environment without any important degradation of their performance. The innovative feature of these detectors is the readout electronics, which, being completely data-driven, allows for the direct use of the detector information at the lowest level of the trigger. All the particle hits on the detector can be readout in real-time without any external trigger and any particular limitation due to dead-time. In this way, all the detector information is available to elaborate a very selective trigger decision based on a fast reconstruction of tracks and vertex topology. These detectors, together with the new approach to the trigger, have been developed in the context of the BTeV R&D program; our aim was to define the features and the design parameters of an optimal experiment for heavy flavour physics at hadron colliders. Application of these detectors goes well beyond the BTeV project and, in particular, involves the future upgrades of experiments at hadron colliders, such as Atlas, CMS and LHCb. These experiments, indeed, are already considering for their future high-intensity runs a new trigger strategy a la BTeV. Their aim is to select directly at trigger level events containing Bhadrons, which, on several cases, come from the decay of Higgs bosons, Zo's or W±'s; the track information can also help on improving the performance of the electron and muon selection at the trigger level. For this reason, they are going to develop new detectors with practically the same characteristics as those of BTeV. To this extent, the work accomplished in this thesis could serve as guide-line for those upgrades.

  6. Modules and Front-End Electronics Developments for the ATLAS ITk Strips Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Argos, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High Luminosity LHC, scheduled for 2024. The existing Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The ITk strip detector consists of a four layer barrel and a forward region composed of six discs on each side of the barrel. The basic unit of the detector is the silicon-strip module, consisting of a sensor and one or more hybrid circuits that hold the read-out electronics. The geometries of the barrel and end-cap modules take into account the regions that they have to cover. In the central region, the detectors are rectangular with straight strips, whereas on the forward region the modules require wedge shaped sensors with varying strip length and pitch. The current prototyping phase has resulted in the ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR), which kicks-off the pre-production readiness phase at the involved institutes. ...

  7. Modules and Front-End Electronics Developments for the ATLAS ITk Strips Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Argos, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High Luminosity LHC, scheduled for 2024. The existing Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The ITk strip detector consists of a four layer barrel and a forward region composed of six discs on each side of the barrel. The basic unit of the detector is the silicon-strip module, consisting of a sensor and one or more hybrid circuits that hold the read-out electronics. The geometries of the barrel and end-cap modules take into account the regions that they have to cover. In the central region, the detectors are rectangular with straight strips, whereas in the forward region the modules require wedge shaped sensors with varying strip length and pitch. The current prototyping phase has resulted in the ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR), which kicks-off the pre-production readiness phase at the involved institutes. ...

  8. Large scale test of wedge shaped micro strip gas counters

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Aulchenko, V M; Bachmann, S; Baibusinov, B O; Barthe, S; Beaumont, W; Beckers, T; Beissel, F; Benhammou, Ya; Bergdolt, A M; Bernier, K; Blüm, H P; Bondar, A E; Bouhali, O; Boulogne, I; Bozzo, M; Brom, J M; Camps, C; Chorowicz, V; Coffin, J P; Commichau, V; Contardo, D; Croix, J; De Troy, J G; Drouhin, F; Eberle, H; Flügge, G; Fontaine, J C; Geist, Walter M; Goerlach, U; Gundlfinger, K; Hangarter, K; Haroutunian, R; Helleboid, J M; Henkes, T; Hoffer, M; Hoffmann, C; Huss, D; Ischebeck, R; Jeanneau, F; Juillot, P; Junghans, S; Kapp, M R; Kärcher, K; Knoblauch, D; Kräber, M H; Krauth, M; Kremp, J; Lounis, A; Lübelsmeyer, K; Maazouzi, C; Macke, D; Metri, R; Mirabito, L; Müller, T; Nagaslaev, V; Neuberger, D; Nowak, A; Pallarès, A; Pandoulas, D; Petertill, M; Pooth, O; Racca, C; Ripp, I; Ruoff, E; Sauer, A; Schmitz, P; Schulte, R; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schunk, J P; Schuster, G; Schwaller, B; Shekhtman, L I; Siedling, R; Sigward, M H; Simonis, H J; Smadja, G; Stefanescu, J; Szczesny, H; Tatarinov, A A; Thümmel, W H; Tissot, S; Titov, V; Todorov, T; Tonutti, M; Udo, Fred; Van der Velde, C; Van Doninck, W K; Van Dyck, C; Vanlaer, P; Van Lancker, L; Verdini, P G; Weseler, S; Wittmer, B; Wortmann, R; Zghiche, A; Zhukov, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to check the system aspects of the forward-backward MSGC tracker designed for the future CMS experiment at LHC, 38 trapezoidal MSGC counters assembled in six multi-substrates detector modules were built and exposed to a muon beam at the CERN SPS. Results on the gain uniformity along the wedge-shaped strip pattern and across the detector modules are shown together with measurements of the detection efficiency and the spatial resolution. (8 refs).

  9. Large scale test of wedge shaped micro strip gas counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Atz, S.; Aulchenko, V.; Bachmann, S.; Baiboussinov, B.; Barthe, S.; Beaumont, W.; Beckers, T.; Beissel, F.; Benhammou, Y.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Bernier, K.; Bluem, P.; Bondar, A.; Bouhali, O.; Boulogne, I.; Bozzo, M.; Brom, J.M.; Camps, C.; Chorowicz, V.; Coffin, J.; Commichau, V.; Contardo, D.; Croix, J.; Troy, J. de; Drouhin, F.; Eberle, H.; Fluegge, G.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Geist, W.; Goerlach, U.; Gundlfinger, K.; Hangarter, K.; Haroutunian, R.; Helleboid, J.M.; Henkes, Th.; Hoffer, M.; Hoffman, C.; Huss, D.; Ischebeck, R.; Jeanneau, F.; Juillot, P.; Junghans, S.; Kapp, M.R.; Kaercher, K.; Knoblauch, D.; Kraeber, M.; Krauth, M.; Kremp, J.; Lounis, A.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Maazouzi, C.; Macke, D.; Metri, R.; Mirabito, L.; Mueller, Th.; Nagaslaev, V.; Neuberger, D.; Nowack, A.; Pallares, A.; Pandoulas, D.; Petertill, M.; Pooth, O.; Racca, C.; Ripp, I.; Ruoff, E.; Sauer, A.; Schmitz, P.; Schulte, R.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schunk, J.P.; Schuster, G.; Schwaller, B.; Shektman, L.; Siedling, R.; Sigward, M.H.; Simonis, H.J.; Smadja, G.; Stefanescu, J.; Szczesny, H.; Tatarinov, A.; Thuemmel, W.H.; Tissot, S.; Titov, V.; Todorov, T.; Tonutti, M.; Udo, F.; Velde, C. Vander. E-mail: vandervelde@hep.iihe.ac.be; Doninck, W. van; Dyck, Ch. van; Vanlaer, P.; Lancker, L. van; Verdini, P.G.; Weseler, S.; Wittmer, B.; Wortmann, R.; Zghiche, A.; Zhukov, V

    1999-11-01

    In order to check the system aspects of the forward-backward MSGC tracker designed for the future CMS experiment at LHC, 38 trapezoidal MSGC counters assembled in six multi-substrates detector modules were built and exposed to a muon beam at the CERN SPS. Results on the gain uniformity along the wedge-shaped strip pattern and across the detector modules are shown together with measurements of the detection efficiency and the spatial resolution.

  10. Two methods to estimate the position resolution for straw chambers with strip readouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Movchan, S.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Preda, T.

    1993-01-01

    The centroid and charge-ratio methods are used to investigate the position resolutions of a new kind of gas detector: A straw chamber with a strip readout. The methods are simple and give the same resolution. The charge-ratio method is not sensitive to the pedestal subtraction and cross talks between the strips. (orig.)

  11. Area Specific Stripping of lower energy windows for AGS and CGS NaI systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Byström, Sören

    By the Area Specific Stripping (ASS) method for NaI gamma detectors it is possible in a simple way obtain the parameters (stripping factors) that are needed for being able to discern between natural radioactivity signals and signals from manmade radioactivity and radiation anomalies in general. T...

  12. An X-ray imaging device based on a GEM detector with delay-line readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Cheng; Sun, Yong-Jie; Shao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    An X-ray imaging device based on a triple-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detector, a fast delay-line circuit with 700 MHz cut-off frequency and two dimensional readout strips with 150 μm width on the top and 250 μm width on the bottom, is designed and tested. The localization information is derived from the propagation time of the induced signals on the readout strips. This device has a good spatial resolution of 150 μm and works stably at an intensity of 105 Hz/mm2 with 8 keV X-rays.

  13. Bush will tour Illionois lab working to fight terrorism Argonne develops chemical detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "A chemical sensor that detects cyanide gas, a biochip that can determine the presence of anthrax, and a portable device that finds concealed nuclear materials are among the items scientists at Argonne National Laboratory are working on to combat terrorism" (1/2 page).

  14. A 3D CZT high resolution detector for x- and gamma-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Zappettini, A.

    2014-01-01

    At DTU Space we have developed a high resolution three dimensional (3D) position sensitive CZT detector for high energy astronomy. The design of the 3D CZT detector is based on the CZT Drift Strip detector principle. The position determination perpendicular to the anode strips is performed using...

  15. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  16. Web-Based Cathode Strip Chamber Data Display

    CERN Multimedia

    Firmansyah, M

    2013-01-01

    Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) is a detector that uses gas and high electric field to detect particles. When a particle goes through CSC, it will ionize gas particles and generate electric signal in the anode and cathode of the detector. Analysis of the electric signal data can help physicists to reconstruct path of the particles and determine what happen inside the detector. Using data display, analysis of CSC data becomes easier. One can determine which data is interesting, unusual, or maybe only contain noise.\

  17. Silicon strip sensor R and D activities in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the development of the double sided silicon, DC-coupled detectors (DSSD) for tracking applications. The DSSD are being fabricated with experience of producing the Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) which consists of 182 silicon PIN diode sensors for the charge identification of the incoming particles in the CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass) experiment. A DSSD consists of 512 readout channels and the implanted strips are orthogonal to each other on opposite sides of the detector wafer. The design of the DSSD and its various components are presented. Very preliminary measurement results from the first batch run are also discussed. (author)

  18. Impact of metal overhang and guard ring techniques on breakdown voltage of Si strip sensors - 2003 IEEE nuclear science symposium, medical imaging conference, and workshop of room-temperature semiconductor detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, K; Namrata, S; Chatterji, S; Srivastava-Ajay, K; Kumar, A; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Shivpuri, R K

    2004-01-01

    The importance of Si sensors in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments can hardly be overemphasized. However, the high luminosity and the high radiation level in the future HEP experiments, like Large Hadron Collider (LHC), has posed a serious challenge to the fabrication of Si detectors. For the safe operation over the full LHC lifetime, detectors are required to sustain very high voltage operation, well exceeding the bias voltage needed to full deplete the heavily irradiated Si sensors. Thus, the main effort in the development of Si sensors is concentrated on a design that avoids p-n junction breakdown at operational biases. Among various proposed techniques, Field-limiting Ring (FLR) (or guard ring) and Metal-Overhang (MO) are technologically simple and are suitable for vertical devices. Since high-voltage planar Si junctions are of great importance in the HEP experiments, it is very interesting to compare these two aforementioned techniques for achieving the maximum breakdown voltage under optimal conditio...

  19. The HERMES recoil photon-detector and nuclear p{sub t}-Broadening at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarlem, Y. van

    2007-09-15

    The first part of this work consists of hardware research and development done in order to construct and test a photon-detector as one of the three detectors of the HERMES recoil detector. The HERMES recoil detector consists of a target cell, a silicon-detector, a scintillating fiber tracker, and a photon-detector. All are inside a super-conducting magnet. The silicon detector uses energy deposition to determine the momentum of the particle because in its energy range the energy deposition is an unambiguous function of the momentum of the particle. The scintillating fiber tracker is located outside the beam-vacuum and is surrounded by the photon-detector. It consists of two barrels with layers of scintillating fibers. It detects particles by converting their energy deposition into light. It measures two space points of a charged particle and from the bending of the assigned track (in the magnetic field provided by the super-conducting magnet) a momentum measurement can be derived. The photon-detector is located between the scintillating fiber tracker and the magnet. It consists (from the inside out) of three layers of tungsten showering material followed by scintillating strips. The second part of this work is an analysis performed concerning the transverse momentum broadening of hadrons produced in deep-inelastic scattering on a nuclear target compared to a D target. (orig.)

  20. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  1. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  2. Event reconstruction techniques for Si (strip)-CsI (Tl) telescope for VECC charged particle array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, T.K.; Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Dey, A.; Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Meena, J.K.; Mukherjee, G.; Ghosh, T.K.; Gupta, D.

    2006-01-01

    A 4π charged particle detector array is being developed as a part of the nuclear physics experimental facility for the superconducting cyclotron, which is under construction at VECC, Kolkata. The energy loss in the Si-strip ΔE detector has been calculated for protons, deuterons, tritons and alphas at different energies by using the code TRIM

  3. Test-beam evaluation of heavily irradiated silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of 7.5x1034cm−2s−1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x1015 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2 in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II and CERN SPS test beam facilities to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before and after irradiation with 8x1014neqcm−2 protons and a total ionising dose of 37.2MRad. The DURA...

  4. Simulation studies for the ATLAS upgrade Strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jike; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    ATLAS is making extensive efforts towards preparing a detector upgrade for the High luminosity operations of the LHC (HL-LHC), which will commence operation in ~10 years. The current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by a all-silicon tracker (comprising an inner Pixel tracker and outer Strip tracker). The software currently used for the new silicon tracker is broadly inherited from that used for the LHC Run 1 and 2, but many new developments have been made to better fulfil the future detector and operation requirements. One aspect in particular which will be highlighted is the simulation software for the Strip tracker. The available geometry description software (including the detailed description for all the sensitive elements, the services, etc.) did not allow for accurate modeling of the planned detector design. A range of sensors/layouts for the Strip tracker are being considered and must be studied in detailed simulations in order to assess the performance and ascertain that requirements are met. For...

  5. Electronic rumble strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Donald R.; Lenz, James

    1997-02-01

    Single vehicle run-off-road accidents are responsible for significant numbers of injuries and fatalities, and significant property damage. This fact spurs interest in warning systems to alert drivers that vehicles are drifting towards the edge of the road, and that a run-off road accident is imminent. An early attempt at such a warning system is the use of machined grooves on the shoulder to create a rumble strip. Such a system only provides warning, however, as the vehicle actually leaves the traffic lane. More desirable is a system that warns in anticipation of such departure. Honeywell has under development a magnetic lateral guidance system that couples a sensitive magnetoresistive transducer with a magnetic traffic marking tape being developed by 3M. While this development was initially undertaken for use in automated highways, or for special tasks such as guiding snowplow owners, the system can provide an effective, all-weather warning system to provide alert of impending departure from the roadway. This electronic rumble strip is actually a simpler system than the baseline guidance system, and can monitor both distance from the traffic lane edge and the speed of approach to the edge with a low cost sensor.

  6. Large-area self-powered neutron-detectors for neutron-flux measurements in HTRs. Status of developmental work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.; Hecker, R.; Serpekian, T.; Benninghofen, G.; Serafin, N.; Spillekothen, H.G.

    1982-06-01

    The development is described of the large-area SPN-detector as an out of core power monitoring system. Gadolinium or cobalt was used as the emitter. Response functions of the gadolinium SPN-detector were found with regard to the reactor power, the effect of the gamma field, its short-term behaviour following reactor shutdown and long-term behaviour during reactor operation. It was shown that a detector of 0.1 mm emitter thickness can withstand an integral thermal neutron flux of 2.10 20 nvt almost without efficiency loss thus indicating that the large-area gadolinium SPN-detector is a suitable means for power monitoring in large HTGR's

  7. Front End Spectroscopy ASIC for Germanium Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Eric

    Large-area, tracking, semiconductor detectors with excellent spatial and spectral resolution enable exciting new access to soft (0.2-5 MeV) gamma-ray astrophysics. The improvements from semiconductor tracking detectors come with the burden of high density of strips and/or pixels that require high-density, low-power, spectroscopy quality readout electronics. CMOS ASIC technologies are a natural fit to this requirement and have led to high-quality readout systems for all current semiconducting tracking detectors except for germanium detectors. The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI), formerly NCT, at University of California Berkeley and the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) at Goddard Space Flight Center utilize germanium cross-strip detectors and are on the forefront of NASA's Compton telescope research with funded missions of long duration balloon flights. The development of a readout ASIC for germanium detectors would allow COSI to replace their discrete electronics readout and would enable the proposed Gamma-Ray Explorer (GRX) mission utilizing germanium strip-detectors. We propose a 3-year program to develop and test a germanium readout ASIC to TRL 5 and to integrate the ASIC readout onto a COSI detector allowing a TRL 6 demonstration for the following COSI balloon flight. Our group at NRL led a program, sponsored by another government agency, to produce and integrate a cross-strip silicon detector ASIC, designed and fabricated by Dr. De Geronimo at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ASIC was designed to handle the large (>30 pF) capacitance of three 10 cm^2 detectors daisy-chained together. The front-end preamplifier, selectable inverter, shaping times, and gains make this ASIC compatible with a germanium cross-strip detector as well. We therefore have the opportunity and expertise to leverage the previous investment in the silicon ASIC for a new mission. A germanium strip detector ASIC will also require precise timing of the signals at

  8. A GEM readout with radial zigzag strips and linear charge-sharing response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiwu; Hohlmann, Marcus; Azmoun, Babak; Purschke, Martin L.; Woody, Craig

    2018-04-01

    We study the position sensitivity of radial zigzag strips intended to read out large GEM detectors for tracking at future experiments. Zigzag strips can cover a readout area with fewer strips than regular straight strips while maintaining good spatial resolution. Consequently, they can reduce the number of required electronic channels and related cost for large-area GEM detector systems. A non-linear relation between incident particle position and hit position measured from charge sharing among zigzag strips was observed in a previous study. We significantly reduce this non-linearity by improving the interleaving of adjacent physical zigzag strips. Zigzag readout structures are implemented on PCBs and on a flexible foil and are tested using a 10 cm × 10 cm triple-GEM detector scanned with a strongly collimated X-ray gun on a 2D motorized stage. Angular resolutions of 60-84 μrad are achieved with a 1.37 mrad angular strip pitch at a radius of 784 mm. On a linear scale this corresponds to resolutions below 100 μm.

  9. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-06-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  10. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Wolfgang; Dragicevic, Marko; Friedl, Markus; Fruhwirth, R; Hansel, S; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred; Oberegger, Margit; Pernicka, Manfred; Schmid, Siegfried; Stark, Roland; Steininger, Helmut; Uhl, Dieter; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Widl, Edmund; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Cardaci, Marco; Beaumont, Willem; de Langhe, Eric; de Wolf, Eddi A; Delmeire, Evelyne; Hashemi, Majid; Bouhali, Othmane; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; Elgammal, Sherif; Hammad, Gregory Habib; de Lentdecker, Gilles; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Devroede, Olivier; De Weirdt, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Goorens, Robert; Heyninck, Jan; Maes, Joris; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Wastiels, C; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bruno, Giacomo; De Callatay, Bernard; Florins, Benoit; Giammanco, Andrea; Gregoire, Ghislain; Keutgen, Thomas; Kcira, Dorian; Lemaitre, Vincent; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertermont, L; Roberfroid, Vincent; Rouby, Xavier; Teyssier, Daniel; Daubie, Evelyne; Anttila, Erkki; Czellar, Sandor; Engstrom, Pauli; Harkonen, J; Karimaki, V; Kostesmaa, J; Kuronen, Auli; Lampen, Tapio; Linden, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Maenpaa, T; Michal, Sebastien; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Ageron, Michel; Baulieu, Guillaume; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dupasquier, Thierry; Gelin, Georges; Giraud, Noël; Guillot, Gérard; Estre, Nicolas; Haroutunian, Roger; Lumb, Nicholas; Perries, Stephane; Schirra, Florent; Trocme, Benjamin; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Blaes, Reiner; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Didierjean, Francois; Goerlach, Ulrich; Graehling, Philippe; Gross, Laurent; Hosselet, J; Juillot, Pierre; Lounis, Abdenour; Maazouzi, Chaker; Olivetto, Christian; Strub, Roger; Van Hove, Pierre; Anagnostou, Georgios; Brauer, Richard; Esser, Hans; Feld, Lutz; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Kukulies, Christoph; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pierschel, Gerhard; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schwering, Georg; Sprenger, Daniel; Thomas, Maarten; Weber, Markus; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; Beissel, Franz; Bock, E; Flugge, G; Gillissen, C; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Jahn, Dieter; Kaussen, Gordon; Linn, Alexander; Perchalla, Lars; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Buhmann, Peter; Butz, Erik; Flucke, Gero; Hamdorf, Richard Helmut; Hauk, Johannes; Klanner, Robert; Pein, Uwe; Schleper, Peter; Steinbruck, G; Blum, P; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Fahrer, Manuel; Frey, Martin; Furgeri, Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Kaminski, Jochen; Ledermann, Bernhard; Liamsuwan, Thiansin; Muller, S; Muller, Th; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Steck, Pia; Zhukov, Valery; Cariola, P; De Robertis, Giuseppe; Ferorelli, Raffaele; Fiore, Luigi; Preda, M; Sala, Giuliano; Silvestris, Lucia; Tempesta, Paolo; Zito, Giuseppe; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Giordano, Domenico; Maggi, Giorgio; Manna, Norman; My, Salvatore; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Galanti, Mario; Giudice, Nunzio; Guardone, Nunzio; Noto, Francesco; Potenza, Renato; Saizu, Mirela Angela; Sparti, V; Sutera, Concetta; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Brianzi, Mirko; Civinini, Carlo; Maletta, Fernando; Manolescu, Florentina; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Broccolo, B; Ciulli, Vitaliano; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Genta, Chiara; Landi, Gregorio; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Macchiolo, Anna; Magini, Nicolo; Parrini, Giuliano; Scarlini, Enrico; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Candelori, Andrea; Dorigo, Tommaso; Kaminsky, A; Karaevski, S; Khomenkov, Volodymyr; Reznikov, Sergey; Tessaro, Mario; Bisello, Dario; De Mattia, Marco; Giubilato, Piero; Loreti, Maurizio; Mattiazzo, Serena; Nigro, Massimo; Paccagnella, Alessandro; Pantano, Devis; Pozzobon, Nicola; Tosi, Mia; Bilei, Gian Mario; Checcucci, Bruno; Fano, Livio; Servoli, Leonello; Ambroglini, Filippo; Babucci, Ezio; Benedetti, Daniele; Biasini, Maurizio; Caponeri, Benedetta; Covarelli, Roberto; Giorgi, Marco; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Marcantonini, Marta; Postolache, Vasile; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Balestri, Gabriele; Berretta, Luca; Bianucci, S; Boccali, Tommaso; Bosi, Filippo; Bracci, Fabrizio; Castaldi, Rino; Ceccanti, Marco; Cecchi, Roberto; Cerri, Claudio; Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Dobur, Didar; Dutta, Suchandra; Giassi, Alessandro; Giusti, Simone; Kartashov, Dmitry; Kraan, Aafke; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Lungu, George-Adrian; Magazzu, Guido; Mammini, Paolo; Mariani, Filippo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Moggi, Andrea; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Petragnani, Giulio; Profeti, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Domenico; Sanguinetti, Giulio; Sarkar, Subir; Sentenac, Daniel; Serban, Alin Titus; Slav, Adrian; Soldani, A; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tolaini, Sergio; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vos, Marcel; Zaccarelli, Luciano; Avanzini, Carlo; Basti, Andrea; Benucci, Leonardo; Bocci, Andrea; Cazzola, Ugo; Fiori, Francesco; Linari, Stefano; Massa, Maurizio; Messineo, Alberto; Segneri, Gabriele; Tonelli, Guido; Azzurri, Paolo; Bernardini, Jacopo; Borrello, Laura; Calzolari, Federico; Foa, Lorenzo; Gennai, Simone; Ligabue, Franco; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Rizzi, Andrea; Yang, Zong-Chang; Benotto, Franco; Demaria, Natale; Dumitrache, Floarea; Farano, R; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Migliore, Ernesto; Romero, Alessandra; Abbaneo, Duccio; Abbas, M; Ahmed, Ijaz; Akhtar, I; Albert, Eric; Bloch, Christoph; Breuker, Horst; Butt, Shahid Aleem; Buchmuller, Oliver; Cattai, Ariella; Delaere, Christophe; Delattre, Michel; Edera, Laura Maria; Engstrom, Pauli; Eppard, Michael; Gateau, Maryline; Gill, Karl; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Grabit, Robert; Honma, Alan; Huhtinen, Mika; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kortesmaa, Jarmo; Kottelat, Luc-Joseph; Kuronen, Auli; Leonardo, Nuno; Ljuslin, Christer; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Marchioro, Alessandro; Mersi, Stefano; Michal, Sebastien; Mirabito, Laurent; Muffat-Joly, Jeannine; Onnela, Antti; Paillard, Christian; Pal, Imre; Pernot, Jean-Francois; Petagna, Paolo; Petit, Patrick; Piccut, C; Pioppi, Michele; Postema, Hans; Ranieri, Riccardo; Ricci, Daniel; Rolandi, Gigi; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sigaud, Christophe; Syed, A; Siegrist, Patrice; Tropea, Paola; Troska, Jan; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Vasey, François; Alagoz, Enver; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rochet, Jacky; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Steiner, Stefan; Wilke, Lotte; Church, Ivan; Cole, Joanne; Coughlan, John A; Gay, Arnaud; Taghavi, S; Tomalin, Ian R; Bainbridge, Robert; Cripps, Nicholas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Hall, Geoffrey; Noy, Matthew; Pesaresi, Mark; Radicci, Valeria; Raymond, David Mark; Sharp, Peter; Stoye, Markus; Wingham, Matthew; Zorba, Osman; Goitom, Israel; Hobson, Peter R; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Haidong; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Stringer, Robert; Mangano, Boris; Affolder, K; Affolder, T; Allen, Andrea; Barge, Derek; Burke, Samuel; Callahan, D; Campagnari, Claudio; Crook, A; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Dietch, J; Garberson, Jeffrey; Hale, David; Incandela, H; Incandela, Joe; Jaditz, Stephen; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kreyer, Steven Lawrence; Kyre, Susanne; Lamb, James; Mc Guinness, C; Mills, C; Nguyen, Harold; Nikolic, Milan; Lowette, Steven; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rubinstein, Noah; Sanhueza, S; Shah, Yousaf Syed; Simms, L; Staszak, D; Stoner, J; Stuart, David; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; White, Dean; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Bagby, Linda; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Cihangir, Selcuk; Gutsche, Oliver; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Mark; Luzhetskiy, Nikolay; Mason, David; Miao, Ting; Moccia, Stefano; Noeding, Carsten; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Skup, Ewa; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Yumiceva, Francisco; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Zerev, E; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Khalatian, S; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Chen, Jie; Hinchey, Carl Louis; Martin, Christophe; Moulik, Tania; Robinson, Richard; Gritsan, Andrei; Lae, Chung Khim; Tran, Nhan Viet; Everaerts, Pieter; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Nahn, Steve; Rudolph, Matthew; Sung, Kevin; Betchart, Burton; Demina, Regina; Gotra, Yury; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Christofek, Leonard; Hooper, Ryan; Landsberg, Greg; Nguyen, Duong; Narain, Meenakshi; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  11. Radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  12. Membrane air stripping utilizing a plate and frame configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Membrane air stripping has recently been proposed as a possible method to remove volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and radon from drinking water supplies. Current and anticipated regulatory requirements, driven by health consequences, make the removal of these contaminants mandatory. This work examines the use of plate and frame membrane air stripping for the removal of VOCs and radon from a water supply. The theoretical basis of membrane air stripping and a literature review are included. The advantages of membrane air stripping versus other methods of removal, as well as the advantages of a plate and frame configuration versus a hollow fiber configuration for membrane air stripping are discussed. Multiple regression/correlation techniques are used to model mass transfer coefficients and fluid resistances. An economic evaluation is performed using the developed models. The costs of comparable membrane and packed tower air stripping systems are 4.86 cents per thousand gallons versus 4.36 cents per thousand gallons, respectively. This work indicates that plate and frame membrane air stripping may, in fact, prove to be an economical alternative to packed tower aeration and carbon adsorption for the removal of VOCs and radon

  13. A detector for neutron imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Britton, C L; Wintenberg, A L; Warmack, R J; McKnight, T E; Frank, S S; Cooper, R G; Dudney, N J; Veith, G M; Stephan, A C

    2004-01-01

    A bright neutron source such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) places extreme requirements on detectors including excellent 2-D spatial imaging and high dynamic range. Present imaging detectors have either shown position resolutions that are less than acceptable or they exhibit excessive paralyzing dead times due to the brightness of the source. High neutron detection efficiency with good neutron- gamma discrimination is critical for applications in neutron scattering research where the usefulness of the data is highly dependent on the statistical uncertainty associated with each detector pixel.. A detector concept known as MicroMegas (MicroMEsh GAseous Structure) has been developed at CERN in Geneva for high- energy physics charged-particle tracking applications and has shown great promise for handling high data rates with a rather low-cost structure. We are attempting to optimize the MicroMegas detector concept for thermal neutrons and have designed a 1-D neutron strip detector which we have tested In ...

  14. The HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

    2013-02-15

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  15. The HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Belostotski, S.

    2013-02-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  16. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  17. Pixels detectors and silicon X-rays detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Delpierre, P.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are beginning to be used in large particle physics experiments. The hybrid technique (detector and electronics on two separate wafers) allows large surfaces to be built. For ATLAS at LHC it is proposed to cover areas of more than 1 m2 with 5000 to 10000 pixels/cm2. Each pixel has a full electronic chain directly connected which means very low input capacitance and no integration of dark current. Furthermore, silicon strip detectors and CCD's have been successfully test...

  18. Bismuth-based electrochemical stripping analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Method and apparatus for trace metal detection and analysis using bismuth-coated electrodes and electrochemical stripping analysis. Both anodic stripping voltammetry and adsorptive stripping analysis may be employed.

  19. The track finding algorithm of the Belle II vertex detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilka Tadeas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belle II experiment is a high energy multi purpose particle detector operated at the asymmetric e+e− - collider SuperKEKB in Tsukuba (Japan. In this work we describe the algorithm performing the pattern recognition for inner tracking detector which consists of two layers of pixel detectors and four layers of double sided silicon strip detectors arranged around the interaction region. The track finding algorithm will be used both during the High Level Trigger on-line track reconstruction and during the off-line full reconstruction. It must provide good efficiency down to momenta as low as 50 MeV/c where material effects are sizeable even in an extremely thin detector as the VXD. In addition it has to be able to cope with the high occupancy of the Belle II detectors due to the background. The underlying concept of the track finding algorithm, as well as details of the implementation are outlined. The algorithm is proven to run with good performance on simulated ϒ(4S → BB̄ events with an efficiency for reconstructing tracks of above 90% over a wide range of momentum.

  20. A possible role for silicon microstrip detectors in nuclear medicine: Compton imaging of positron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannavini, M. G.; Speller, R. D.; Royle, G. J.; Cullum, I.; Raymond, M.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.

    2002-01-01

    Collimation of gamma-rays based on Compton scatter could provide in principle high resolution and high sensitivity, thus becoming an advantageous method for the imaging of radioisotopes of clinical interest. A small laboratory prototype of a Compton camera is being constructed in order to initiate studies aimed at assessing the feasibility of Compton imaging of positron emitters. The design of the camera is based on the use of a silicon collimator consisting of a stack of double-sided, AC-coupled microstrip detectors (area 6×6 cm 2, 500 μm thickness, 128 channels/side). Two APV6 chips are employed for signal readout on opposite planes of each detector. This work presents the first results on the noise performance of the silicon strip detectors. Measurements of the electrical characteristics of the detector are also reported. On the basis of the measured noise, an angular resolution of approximately 5° is predicted for the Compton collimator.

  1. A possible role for silicon microstrip detectors in nuclear medicine Compton imaging of positron emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Scannavini, M G; Royle, G J; Cullum, I; Raymond, M; Hall, G; Iles, G

    2002-01-01

    Collimation of gamma-rays based on Compton scatter could provide in principle high resolution and high sensitivity, thus becoming an advantageous method for the imaging of radioisotopes of clinical interest. A small laboratory prototype of a Compton camera is being constructed in order to initiate studies aimed at assessing the feasibility of Compton imaging of positron emitters. The design of the camera is based on the use of a silicon collimator consisting of a stack of double-sided, AC-coupled microstrip detectors (area 6x6 cm sup 2 , 500 mu m thickness, 128 channels/side). Two APV6 chips are employed for signal readout on opposite planes of each detector. This work presents the first results on the noise performance of the silicon strip detectors. Measurements of the electrical characteristics of the detector are also reported. On the basis of the measured noise, an angular resolution of approximately 5 deg. is predicted for the Compton collimator.

  2. New technology for volatile components stripping in process fluids; Nova tecnologia para estripagem de componentes volateis em fluidos de processo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Roberto Massao [White Martins Gases Industriais, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    Stripping is a process used in order to remove volatile contaminants during the purification step by bubbling inert gas in a contaminated liquid. This work defines the stripping process and its process parameters, describes some stripping techniques and introduces the supersonic stripper, that works at supersonic velocity. Dissolved oxygen reduction and stripping time reduction results are shown. The conclusion is that the supersonic stripper is superior to the in-line conventional systems. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Annealing studies of irradiated p-type sensors designed for the upgrade of ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC in 2025 will challenge the silicon strip detector performance with high fluence and long operation time. Sensors have been designed and tests on charge collection and electrical performance have been carried out in order to evaluate their behavior. Besides that, it is important to understand and predict the long-term evolution of the sensor properties. In this work, we present detailed studies on the annealing behavior of ATLAS12 strip sensors designed by the ITK Strip Sensor Working Group and irradiated from 510^13 to 210^15 n_eq/cm^2. Systematic charge collection, leakage current and impedance measurements have been carried out during the annealing time at 23 and 60°C until break-down or the appearance of charge multiplication. Sensors showing charge multiplication have been then kept at high voltage for a long time in order to monitor their stability. The difference in the annealing behavior between the two temperatures has been analyzed. From the impedance measurem...

  4. Annealing Studies of irradiated p-type Sensors Designed for the Upgrade of ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC in 2025 will challenge the silicon strip detector performance with high fluence and long operation time. Sensors have been designed and tests on charge collection and electrical performance have been carried out in order to evaluate their behaviour. Besides that, it is important to understand and predict the long-term evolution of the sensor prop- erties. In this work, detailed studies on the annealing behaviour of ATLAS12 strip sensors designed by the ITK Strip Sensor Working Group and irradiated from 5 × 1013 neqcm−2 to 2 × 1015 neqcm−2 are presented. Systematic charge collection, leakage current and impedance measurements have been carried out during the annealing time at 23 and 60◦C until break-down or the appearance of charge multiplication. Sensors showing charge multiplication have been then kept at high voltage for a long time in order to monitor their stability. The difference in the annealing behaviour between the two temperatures has been analysed and...

  5. Operation of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gotra, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), comprising 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules covering an area of about 200 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly interpret and reconstruct the events recorded from the detector, ensuring that the SST performance fully meets the physics research program of the CMS experiment. Calibration constants may be derived from promptly reconstructed events as well as from pedestal runs gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. These calibration procedures were exercised in summer and winter 2009, when the CMS detector was commissioned using cosmic muons and proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV. During these data taking periods the performance of the SST was carefully studied: the noise of the detector, the data integrity, the signal-to-noise ratio, the hit reconstruction efficiency, the calibration workflows have been all checked for stability and for different conditions, at the module...

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of a CZT detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Sung Dae; Park, Se Hwan; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Han Soo; Cho, Yoon Ho; Kang, Sang Mook; Kim, Yong Kyun; Hong, Duk Geun

    2008-01-01

    CZT detector is one of the most promising radiation detectors for hard X-ray and γ-ray measurement. The energy spectrum of CZT detector has to be simulated to optimize the detector design. A CZT detector was fabricated with dimensions of 5x5x2 mm 3 . A Peltier cooler with a size of 40x40 mm 2 was installed below the fabricated CZT detector to reduce the operation temperature of the detector. Energy spectra of were measured with 59.5 keV γ-ray from 241 Am. A Monte Carlo code was developed to simulate the CZT energy spectrum, which was measured with a planar-type CZT detector, and the result was compared with the measured one. The simulation was extended to the CZT detector with strip electrodes. (author)

  7. Pixelated CdZnTe drift detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2005-01-01

    A technique, the so-called Drift Strip Method (DSM), for improving the CdZnTe detector energy response to hard X-rays and gamma-rays was applied as a pixel geometry. First tests have confirmed that this detector type provides excellent energy resolution and imaging performance. We specifically...... report on the performance of 3 mm thick prototype CZT drift pixel detectors fabricated using material from eV-products. We discuss issues associated with detector module performance. Characterization results obtained from several prototype drift pixel detectors are presented. Results of position...

  8. Performance Testing of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Breedon, Richard; Andreev, M. Tripathi V; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Lisowsky, B; Matthey, Christina; Rakness, Gregory; Wenman, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The production, installation, and testing of 468 cathode strip chambers for the endcap muon system of the CMS experiment played a critical role in the preparation of the endcap muon system for the final commissioning. Common testing procedures and sets of standard equipment were used at 5 international assembly centers. The chambers were then thoroughly retested after shipment to CERN. Final testing was performed after chamber installation on the steel disks in the CMS detector assembly building. The structure of the detector quality control procedure is presented along with the results of chamber performance validation tests.

  9. Light output distribution in scintillator strips with wave length shifting fibers of DANSS spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelov, N.; Aleksev, I.; Kalinkin, D.; Makhichkulyan, I.; Nesterov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Starostin, A.; Svirida, D.; Tarkovsky, E.

    2017-12-01

    DANSS is a highly segmented plastic scintillator detector, which uses scintillator strips with a Gd-loaded reflective cover to detect reactor antineutrino by inverse beta-decay. Light is collected with wave length shifting fibers (3 per strip) placed in grooves. Therefore the distribution of light output could be significantly non-uniform. Transverse profile of light output was studied in ITEP at a test bench consisting of proportional chambers and scintillator strips. Tracks of cosmic particles, which crossed chambers, were reconstructed with high accuracy, whereby transverse profiles of light output were built with step 1 mm for six scintillator strips. This result is important for calibration of DANSS and the method could be useful in constructing similar detectors.

  10. Inadvertent Screw Stripping During Ankle Fracture Fixation in Elderly Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinah, A. Feroz; Mears, Simon C.; Knight, Trevor A.; Soin, Sandeep P.; Campbell, John T.; Belkoff, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Poor screw purchase because of osteoporosis presents difficulties in ankle fracture fixation. The aim of our study was to determine if cortical thickness, unicortical versus bicortical purchase, and bone mineral density are predictors of inadvertent screw stripping and overtightening. Ten paired cadaver ankles (average donor age, 81.7 years; range, 50-97 years) were used for the study. Computed tomography scanning with phantoms of known density was used to determine the bone density along the distal fibula. A standard small-fragment, 7-hole, one-third tubular plate was applied to the lateral surface of the fibula, with 3 proximal bicortical cortical screws and 2 distal unicortical cancellous screws. A posterior plate, in which all 5 screws were cortical and achieved bicortical purchase, was subsequently applied to the same bones and positioned so that the screw holes did not overlap. A torque sensor was used to measure the torque of each screw during insertion (Ti) and then stripping (Ts). The effect of bone density, screw location, cortical thickness, and unicortical versus bicortical purchase on Ti and Ts was checked for significance (P screws were inadvertently stripped and 12% were overtightened. Despite 21% of the screws being stripped or being at risk for stripping, we found no significant predictors to warn of impending screw stripping. Additional work is needed to identify clinically useful predictors of screw stripping. PMID:23569675

  11. [Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a progress report on research that has been conducted under DOE Grant DEFG0292ER40697 for the past year, and describes proposed work for the second year of this 8 year grant starting November 15, 1992. Personnel supported by the contract include 4 faculty, 1 research faculty, 4 postdocs, and 9 graduate students. The work under this grant has in the past been directed in two complementary directions -- DO at Fermilab, and the second SSC detector GEM. A major effort has been towards the construction and commissioning of the new Fermilab Collider detector DO, including design, construction, testing, the commissioning of the central tracking and the central calorimeters. The first DO run is now underway, with data taking and analysis of the first events. Trigger algorithms, data acquisition, calibration of tracking and calorimetry, data scanning and analysis, and planning for future upgrades of the DO detector with the advent of the FNAL Main Injector are all involved. The other effort supported by this grant has been towards the design of GEM, a large and general-purpose SSC detector with special emphasis on accurate muon measurement over a large solid angle. This effort will culminate this year in the presentation to the SSC laboratory of the GEM Technical Design Report. Contributions are being made to the detector design, coordination, and physics simulation studies with special emphasis on muon final states. Collaboration with the RD5 group at CERN to study muon punch through and to test cathode strip chamber prototypes was begun

  12. Position Sensitive Proximity Charge Sensing Readout of HPGe Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Anders Peterson

    Electrode segmentation is a necessity to achieve position sensitivity in semicon- ductor radiation detectors. Traditional segmentation requires decreasing electrode sizes while increasing channel numbers to achieve very fine position resolution. These electrodes can be complicated to fabricate, and many electrodes with individual electronic channels are required to instrument large detector areas. To simplify the fabrication process, we have moved the readout electrodes onto a printed circuit board that is positioned above the ionization type detection material. In this scheme, charge from radiation interactions will be shared amongst several electrodes, allowing for position interpolation. Because events can be reconstructed in between electrodes, fewer electrodes are needed to instrument large detector areas. The proximity charge sensing method of readout promises to simplify detector fabrication while maintaining the position resolution that is required by fields such as homeland security, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear physics, and medical imaging. We performed scanning measurements on a proof of principle detector that we fabricated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). These measurements showed that position resolution much finer than the strip pitch was achievable using the proximity charge readout method. We performed analytic calculations and Monte Carlo modeling to optimize the readout electrode geometry for a larger detector to test the limits of this technology. We achieved an average position resolution of 288 microm with eight proximity electrodes at a 5 mm pitch and 1 mm strip width, set 100 microm away from the detector surface by a Kapton spacer. To achieve this resolution using standard technologies, 300 microm pitch strips are necessary, and would require 100 channels to instrument the same area. Through our optimization calculations, we found that there is a trade-off between position resolution and energy resolution

  13. Characterization of galvannealed strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreas, G.; Hardy, Y.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of enhancing coating quality control during galvannealing process, an online microscopic image acquisition sensor has been developed at CRM. In galvannealing process, the ζ phase surface density is a coating quality characteristic, and the on-line microscope, equipped with optics placed at 20 mm from the surface, grabs 250 μm x 190 μm images on which ζ crystals (approximate dimensions: 1 μm x 10 μm) can be clearly identified. On-line, the sensor is mounted in front of a roll where the strip has a stable position. The coating surface to sensor optics distance is continuously measured by an accurate triangulation sensor (1 μm repeatability) and is adjusted in such a way that, due to roll eccentricity, the image is focused at least twice per revolution. When focused, image of moving product is frozen by a short (10 ns) laser light pulse and is grabbed. The obtained image is then processed to extract ζ phase percentage and allows adjustment of process parameters to reach the desired coating characteristics. (author)

  14. Silicon detector technology development in India for the participation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A specific research and development program has been carried out by BARC in India to develop the technology for large area silicon strip detectors for application in nuclear and high energy physics .... found to meet the specifications and show a stable behavior without showing early breakdown of strips after irradiation to ...

  15. Simulating detectors dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustom, Ibrahim Farog Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear detectors are used in all aspects of nuclear measurements. All nuclear detectors are characterized by their dead time i.e. the time needed by a detector to recover from a previous incident. A detector dead time influences measurements taken by a detector and specially when measuring high decay rate (>) where is the detector dead time. Two models are usually used to correct for the dead time effect: the paralayzable and the non-paralayzable models. In the current work we use Monte Carlo simulation techniques to simulate radioactivity and the effect of dead time and the count rate of a detector with a dead time =5x10 - 5s assuming the non-paralayzable model. The simulation indicates that assuming a non -paralayzable model could be used to correct for decay rate measured by a detector. The reliability of the non-paralayzable model to correct the measured decay rate could be gauged using the Monte Carlo simulation. (Author)

  16. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  17. A new Slow Control and Run Initialization Byte-wise Environment (SCRIBE) for the quality control of mass-produced CMS GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Colafranceschi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The CMS collaboration aims at improving the muon trigger and tracking performance at the HL-LHC by installing new Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors in the endcaps of the CMS experiment. Construction and commissioning of GEM detectors for the first muon endcap stations is ramping up in several laboratories using common quality control protocols. The SCRIBE framework is a scalable and cross-platform web-based application for the RD51 Scalable Readout System (SRS) that controls data acquisition and analyzes data in near real time. It has been developed mainly to simplify and standardize measurements of the GEM detector response uniformities with x-rays across all production sites. SCRIBE works with zero suppression of raw SRS pulse height data. This has increased acquisition rates to 5 kHz for a CMS GEM detector with 3072 strips and allows strip-by-strip response comparisons with a few hours of data taking. SCRIBE also manages parallel data reconstruction to provide near real-time feedback on the detector ...

  18. Influence of polystyrene scintillator strip methods of production on their main characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senchyshyn, V.; Grynyov, B.; Melnychuk, S.; Lagutin, V.; Dracos, M.; Olchevski, A.; Gornushkin, Y.; Nozdrin, A.; Sadovski, A.

    2007-01-01

    The baseline option for Target Tracker of OPERA detector is plastic scintillator strips, 6.7 m length, read with wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber. Usually such strips are supposed to be obtained by extrusion from pellets. Despite many advantages of extrusion process the strips extruded from pellet strips have low attenuation length (BAL=20-40cm) and low yield (LY). The main idea of our new method was to obtain scintillator using extrusion method but from the melt of specially polymerized plastic. Pilot setup was created and pilot batch for OPERA prototype was obtained with the 10 kg/h productivity. Still, for mass production there was a necessity to adapt the production scheme and to manage quality assurance and quality control system. During mass production of scintillator strips for OPERA detector we have implemented all obtained results into production process. And we have carefully studied their influence on strip quality. The achieved average light yield is 7.2 ph.el. for OPERA strips

  19. Study on the realization of a minimum ionizing particle detector: development of a PPAC (Parallel-plate Avalanche Chamber)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heil, C.

    1980-01-01

    Parallel-Plate Avalanche Chamber (PPAC) detectors are used currently to observe nuclear disintegrations in nuclear physics. The work that has been done here shows PPAC can be used in high energy physics under certain conditions to detect minimum ionizing particles. Their advantage is to join good time resolution with low matter density. A PPAC prototype has been made with 90% efficiency, 3 NS jitter, 2 NS rise time, 20 mg/cm 2 mass, 1.5 mm spatial accuracy. The parameters studied were electrodes design, choice of gas filling, electronics and anode strips. The detector is to be used as a hodoscope with high flux of particles [fr

  20. Deuteron stripping reactions with Tabakin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1976-05-01

    Deuteron stripping reactions are considered. Due to the strong repulsion between nucleons at very short distances, we have investigated the nuclear short-range correlations. The neutron proton nuclear potential in the deuteron is taken as a short-range repulsive core surrounded by a long-range attractive potential. The neutron-proton potential is taken as the Tabakin separable potential to take into account the short-range correlations. The differential cross-sections for deuteron stripping reactions have been calculated in two different cases by taking Yamaguchi or Breit et al type parameters for the Tabakin potential used. The angular distributions for different (d,p) stripping reactions on the different target nuclei 28 Si, 32 , 34 S, 36 Ar, 40 , 48 Ca, 50 , 52 , 54 Cr have been calculated using the DWBA calculations. Our present theoretical calculations for the angular distributions of the different reactions cosidered have been fitted to the experimental data, where good agreement is obtained. The extracted spectroscopic factors from the present work are found to be more reliable

  1. Micro-Hole and Strip Plate (MHSP) operation in CF{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natal da Luz, H. [Departmento de Fisica, Universidade de Aveiro, P-3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departmento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)], E-mail: hugo@gian.fis.uc.pt; Mir, J.A. [CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Veloso, J.F.C.A. [Departmento de Fisica, Universidade de Aveiro, P-3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Santos, J.M.F. dos [Departmento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M. [CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-21

    The Micro-Hole and Strip Plate (MHSP) is a hybrid electron multiplier which combines the working principles of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) and a Micro-Strip Gas Counter (MSGC). The compact double stage electron multiplication processes found in the MHSP enables the realisation of higher gas gain than the lone GEM operation. Thermal neutron detection using gas detectors involves the use of {sup 3}He gas with another suitable stopping gas, operated at elevated pressure to confine the products of the neutron-{sup 3}He reaction. It is, however, well known that the gain of GEMs drops too sharply with increasing chamber pressure. We have pursued experimental work using the MHSP to infer the upper limits of thermal neutron position resolution. The stopping gas used during the present studies was Tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) chosen due to its low X-ray and {gamma}-ray efficiency, requiring only 2.6 bar to yield a position resolution of 1 mm. In the present studies, systematic measurements were taken to establish the gain versus CF{sub 4} pressure characteristics of the MHSP, in the 1 to 2.65 bar range. These studies demonstrated that it was possible to sustain gains above 10{sup 4} and 300 with pressures of 1 and 2.65 bar, respectively. The advantage of having two multiplication stages in the MHSP separated by only few tens of microns, results in a less pronounced gain reduction with pressure, presenting higher gains than single or multiple GEMs. The energy resolution at 1 bar was 29% FWHM for the 5.9 keV Mn K{sub {alpha}} line from a {sup 55}Fe source, which is a typical value for micro-patterned gas detectors operating in CF{sub 4}.

  2. Micro-Hole and Strip Plate (MHSP) operation in CF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal da Luz, H.; Mir, J. A.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Rhodes, N. J.; Schooneveld, E. M.

    2007-09-01

    The Micro-Hole and Strip Plate (MHSP) is a hybrid electron multiplier which combines the working principles of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) and a Micro-Strip Gas Counter (MSGC). The compact double stage electron multiplication processes found in the MHSP enables the realisation of higher gas gain than the lone GEM operation. Thermal neutron detection using gas detectors involves the use of He3 gas with another suitable stopping gas, operated at elevated pressure to confine the products of the neutron- He3 reaction. It is, however, well known that the gain of GEMs drops too sharply with increasing chamber pressure. We have pursued experimental work using the MHSP to infer the upper limits of thermal neutron position resolution. The stopping gas used during the present studies was Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) chosen due to its low X-ray and γ-ray efficiency, requiring only 2.6 bar to yield a position resolution of 1 mm. In the present studies, systematic measurements were taken to establish the gain versus CF4 pressure characteristics of the MHSP, in the 1 to 2.65 bar range. These studies demonstrated that it was possible to sustain gains above 104 and 300 with pressures of 1 and 2.65 bar, respectively. The advantage of having two multiplication stages in the MHSP separated by only few tens of microns, results in a less pronounced gain reduction with pressure, presenting higher gains than single or multiple GEMs. The energy resolution at 1 bar was 29% FWHM for the 5.9 keV Mn Kα line from a Fe55 source, which is a typical value for micro-patterned gas detectors operating in CF4.

  3. A New Virtual Point Detector Concept for a HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Jong In; Yun, Ju Yong

    2009-01-01

    For last several decades, the radiation measurement and radioactivity analysis techniques using gamma detectors have been well established. Especially , the study about the detection efficiency has been done as an important part of gamma spectrometry. The detection efficiency depends strongly on source-to-detector distance. The detection efficiency with source-to-detector distance can be expressed by a complex function of geometry and physical characteristics of gamma detectors. In order to simplify the relation, a virtual point detector concept was introduced by Notea. Recently, further studies concerning the virtual point detector have been performed. In previous other works the virtual point detector has been considered as a fictitious point existing behind the detector end cap. However the virtual point detector position for the front and side of voluminous detectors might be different due to different effective central axis of them. In order to more accurately define the relation, therefore, we should consider the virtual point detector for the front as well as side and off-center of the detector. The aim of this study is to accurately define the relation between the detection efficiency and source-to-detector distance with the virtual point detector. This paper demonstrates the method to situate the virtual point detectors for a HPGe detector. The new virtual point detector concept was introduced for three area of the detector and its characteristics also were demonstrated by using Monte Carlo Simulation method. We found that the detector has three virtual point detectors except for its rear area. This shows that we should consider the virtual point detectors for each area when applying the concept to radiation measurement. This concept can be applied to the accurate geometric simplification for the detector and radioactive sources.

  4. Geometry Calibration of the SVT in the CLAS12 Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter; Gilfoyle, Gerard

    2016-09-01

    A new detector called CLAS12 is being built in Hall B as part of the 12 GeV Upgrade at Jefferson Lab to learn how quarks and gluons form nuclei. The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) is one of the subsystems designed to track the trajectory of charged particles as they are emitted from the target at large angles. The sensors of the SVT consist of long, narrow, strips embedded in a silicon substrate. There are 256 strips in a sensor, with a stereo angle of 0 -3° degrees. The location of the strips must be known to a precision of a few microns in order to accurately reconstruct particle tracks with the required resolution of 50-60 microns. Our first step toward achieving this resolution was to validate the nominal geometry relative to the design specification. We also resolved differences between the design and the CLAS12, Geant4-based simulation code GEMC. We developed software to apply alignment shifts to the nominal design geometry from a survey of fiducial points on the structure that supports each sensor. The final geometry will be generated by a common package written in JAVA to ensure consistency between the simulation and Reconstruction codes. The code will be tested by studying the impact of known distortions of the nominal geometry in simulation. Work supported by the Univeristy of Richmond and the US Department of Energy.

  5. Optical strip waveguide: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogusu, K; Kawakami, S; Nishida, S

    1979-03-15

    An analysis of the strip waveguide is presented with special emphasis on reflection and transmission of a wave obliquely incident on the side of a strip. Mode conversion and the contribution of radiation modes are taken into account in the formulation. The numerical results of the mode conversion and attenuation constant of the fundamental leaky mode are presented and compared with the results of other authors. The numerical accuracy of our analysis is also checked by two different procedures. It is found that the radiation modes have considerable effects on the waveguide characteristics.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of a 3D Positive ion detector and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Pitchaikannu; Sureka, Chandrasekaran Senbagavadivoo

    2017-11-01

    There is a growing interest to experimentally evaluate the track structure induced by ionizing particles in order to characterize the radiobiological quality of ionizing radiation for applications in radiotherapy and radiation protection. To do so, a novel positive ion detector based on the multilayer printed circuit board (PCB) technology has been proposed previously, which works under the principle of ion induced impact ionization. Based on this, an upgraded 3D positive ion detector was fabricated in order to improve its efficiency and use it for various applications. To improve the efficiency of the detector, cathodes with different insulators (Bakelite plate and Steatite Ceramics) and conducting layers (ITO, FTO, and Gold coated cathode) were studied under various gaseous media (methane, nitrogen, and air) using Am-241, Co-60, Co-57, Na-22, Cs-137, and Ba-133 sources. From this study, it is confirmed that the novel 3D positive ion detector that has been upgraded using gold as strip material, tungsten (87%) coated copper (13%) as the core wire, gold coated ceramic as cathode, and thickness of 3.483 mm showed 9.2% efficiency under methane medium at 0.9 Torr pressure using an Am-241 source. It is also confirmed that when the conductivity of the cathode and thickness of the detector is increased, the performance of the detector is improved significantly. Further, the scope of the detector to use in the field of radiation protection, radiation dosimetry, gamma spectrometry, radiation biology, and oncology are reported here.

  7. Progress in multi-element silicon detectors for synchrotron XRF applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewigt, B.; Rossington, C.; Kipnis, I.; Krieger, B.

    1995-10-01

    Multi-element silicon strip detectors, in conjunction with integrated circuit pulse-processing electronics, offer an attractive alternative to conventional lithium-drifted silicon and high purity germanium detectors for high count rate, low noise synchrotron x-ray fluorescence applications. We have been developing these types of detectors specifically for low noise synchrotron applications, such as extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, microprobe x-ray fluorescence and total reflection x-ray fluorescence. The current version of the 192-element detector and integrated circuit preamplifier, cooled to -25 degrees C with a single-stage thermoelectric cooler, achieves an energy resolution of <200 eV full width of half maximum (FWHM) per channel (at 5.9 keV, 2 μs peaking time), and each detector element is designed to handle ∼20 kHz count rate. The detector system will soon be completed to 64 channels using new application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) amplifier chips, new CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control standard) analog-to-digital converters recently developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), CAMAC histogramming modules, and Macintosh-based data acquisition software. We report on the characteristics of this detector system, and the work in progress towards the next generation system

  8. Laser tests of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, Zdenek; Escobar, Carlos; Gadomski, Szymon; Garcia, Carmen; Gonzalez, Sergio; Kodys, Peter; Kubik, Petr; Lacasta, Carlos; Marti, Salvador; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Moorhead, Gareth F.; Phillips, Peter W.; Reznicek, Pavel; Slavik, Radan

    2007-01-01

    This paper collects experiences from the development of a silicon sensor laser testing setup and from tests of silicon strip modules (ATLAS End-cap SCT), pixel modules (DEPFET) and large-area diodes using semiconductor lasers. Lasers of 1060 and 680 nm wavelengths were used. A sophisticated method of focusing the laser was developed. Timing and interstrip properties of modules were measured. Analysis of optical effects involved and detailed discussion about the usability of laser testing for particle detectors are presented

  9. The micro slit gas detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claude Labbe, J.; Gomez, F. E-mail: fgomez@cern.ch; Nunez, T.; Pazos, A.; Vazquez, P

    1999-06-01

    We describe the first tests with a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of slits opened in a copper metallized kapton foil with 30 {mu}m anode strips suspended in these openings. In this way, the multiplication process is similar to a standard MSGC. The fundamental difference is the absence of an insulating substrate around the anode. Also the material budget is significantly reduced, and the problems related to charging-up or polarization are removed. Ageing properties of this detector are under study.

  10. Imaging monolithic silicon detector telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorini, F.; Sipala, V.; Cardella, G.; Boiano, C.; Carbone, B.; Cosentino, L.; Costa, E.; Di Pietro, A.; Emanuele, U.; Fallica, G.; Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; La Guidara, E.; Marchetta, C.; Pappalardo, A.; Piazza, A.; Randazzo, N.; Rizzo, F.; Russo, G.V.; Russotto, P.

    2008-01-01

    We show the results of some test beams performed on a new monolithic strip silicon detector telescope developed in collaboration with the INFN and ST-microelectronics. Using an appropriate design, the induction on the ΔE stages, generated by the charge released in the E stage, was used to obtain the position of the detected particle. The position measurement, together with the low threshold for particle charge identification, allows the new detector to be used for a large variety of applications due to its sensitivity of only a few microns measured in both directions

  11. Systematic irradiation studies and quality assurance of silicon strip sensors for the CBM Silicon Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larionov, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is designed to investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at neutron star core densities under laboratory conditions. This work is a contribution to the development of the main tracking detector of the CBM experiment - the Silicon Tracking System (STS), designed to provide the tracking and the momentum information for charged particles in a high multiplicity environment. The STS will be composed of about 900 highly segmented double-sided silicon strip sensors and is expected to face a harsh radiation environment up to 1 x 10 14 cm -2 in 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence after several years of operation. The two most limiting factors of the successful operation of the system are the radiation damage and the quality of produced silicon sensors. It is therefore of importance to ensure both the radiation tolerance of the STS sensors and their quality during the production phase. The first part of this work details the investigation of the radiation tolerance of the STS sensors. Series of irradiations of miniature sensors as well as full-size prototype sensors were performed with reactor neutrons and 23 MeV protons to a broad range of fluences, up to 2 x 10 14 n eq /cm 2 . The evolution of the main sensor characteristics (leakage current, full depletion voltage and charge collection) was extensively studied both as a function of accumulated fluence and time after irradiation. In particular, charge collection measurements of miniature sensors demonstrated the ability of the sensors to yield approx. 90% to 95% of the signal after irradiation up to the lifetime fluence, depending on the readout side. First results on the charge collection performance of irradiated full-size prototype sensors have been obtained, serving as an input data for further final signal-to-noise evaluation in the whole readout chain. Operational stability of these

  12. SiC-based neutron detector in quasi-realistic working conditions: efficiency and stability at room and high temperature under fast neutron irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferone, Raffaello; Issa, Fatima; Ottaviani, Laurent; Biondo, Stephane; Vervisch, Vanessa [IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, Aix-Marseille University, Case 231,13397 Marseille Cedex 20, (France); Szalkai, Dora; Klix, Axel [KIT- Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology Karlsruhe 76344, (Germany); Vermeeren, Ludo [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, (Belgium); Saenger, Richard [Schlumberger, Clamart, (France); Lyoussi, Abadallah [CEA, DEN, Departement d' Etudes des Reacteurs, Service de Physique Experimentale, Laboratoire Dosimetrie Capteurs Instrumentation, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, (France)

    2015-07-01

    In the framework of the European I SMART project, we have designed and made new SiC-based nuclear radiation detectors able to operate in harsh environments and to detect both fast and thermal neutrons. In this paper, we report experimental results of fast neutron irradiation campaign at high temperature (106 deg. C) in quasi-realistic working conditions. Our device does not suffer from high temperature, and spectra do show strong stability, preserving features. These experiments, as well as others in progress, show the I SMART SiC-based device skills to operate in harsh environments, whereas other materials would strongly suffer from degradation. Work is still demanded to test our device at higher temperatures and to enhance efficiency in order to make our device fully exploitable from an industrial point of view. (authors)

  13. Prototype indicator strip for tank ammunition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, B.; Griest, W.

    1993-10-31

    Combustible nitrocellulose ordnance casings offer advantages of: light weight, low cost, low detectability, and quick cycling of rounds by immediate disposal. However, mechanical strength is degraded with time by the action of humidity and nitroester diffusion through the casing to adhesives. The primary development effort of this study is a means to detect nitroester migration to the crucial skive joint which binds an assortment of warhead choices to propellant casings. This work has developed a prototype colorimetric indicator strip which, when applied in a field environment, produces a purple tint proportional to casing nitroester concentration, and inversely proportional to remaining adhesive joint strength. This work addressed the three steps in indicator strip use: (1) A suggested protocol for indicator strip preparation was developed. Various coatings, support reagents, and backings were examined resulting in a choice of polyethylene tape coating over separate AB- and C-impregnated cellulose punches. Various methods of punch creation and impregnation were tried resulting in stirred aqueous solutions and suspensions of AB and C, respectively. (2) Suggested protocols for indicator strip application to lab backings and field casings were developed. After chemical stripper was applied to the alumina-polyurethane paint on casings, C and AB punches were stacked and double-tape sealed. (3) A means for indicator strip monitoring was developed. From known time of indicator reaction, casing humidity, and indicator color, a means for field concentration determination was determined. Lab time-lapse photography was used to calibrate the indicator at a single level of humidity.

  14. The Strip Silicon Photo-Multiplier: An innovation for enhanced time and position measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroud, K., E-mail: Katayoun.Doroud@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Williams, M.C.S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Yamamoto, K. [Solid State Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2017-05-01

    There is considerable R&D concerning precise time measurement from a variety of detectors, and in particular for the Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM). In this paper we discuss a new geometry for the SiPM in the form of a strip. A strip can be read out at both end, with each end coupled to an individual TDC (time to digital converter). The time difference is related to the position of the firing SPAD along the length of the strip, while the average of the two times gives the time of the hit. Results from the testing of the first prototype Strip SiPMs are presented in this paper.

  15. Study and implant of a new beam detector at Ganil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignet, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This report explains the principle, study and installation of a new beam detector implanted at Ganil. This new detector uses the ionization by the beam of residual gas. It is formed of an accelerator (to canalize ions), an amplifier composed of 2 microchannel plates and of localization lattice (strips)

  16. Characterization of 3D-DDTC strip sensors with passing-through columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dellInformazione, Universitá di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Betancourt, C. [Institute of Physics, University of Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dellInformazione, Universitá di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Lecini, B. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dellInformazione, Universitá di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Kuehn, S.; Parzefall, U. [Institute of Physics, University of Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    We report on the pre-irradiation electrical and functional characterization of newly developed 3D silicon strip detectors fabricated at FBK. Critical layout aspects present in the previous version of the technology were solved, and the new sensors are showing encouraging results both in terms of electrical properties and charge collection efficiency.

  17. The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker from integration to start-up

    CERN Document Server

    Ciulli, V

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) integration has been completed. After an extensive period of testing with cosmic muons the detector is ready for the final installation inside the CMS magnet. This paper will review the integration procedures and the tests completed to ensure that SST performs according to specifications.

  18. detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolins, M.; Barnett, B.A.; Binnie, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The 4π Detector Working Group tried to address two major questions: can general 4π detectors be built for the SSC that will be able to study rare processes at center-of-mass energies of 40 TeV and at luminosities of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 ; what are realistic cost estimates for such detectors? The general conclusions of these studies were that these types of detectors could be built, would be able to do physics under these conditions, and would each cost between 200 and 300 million dollars

  19. Buttock Lifting with Polypropylene Strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballivian Rico, José; Esteche, Atilio; Hanke, Carlos José Ramírez; Ribeiro, Ricardo Cavalcanti

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of gluteal suspension with polypropylene strips. Ninety healthy female patients between the ages of 20 and 50 years (mean, 26 years), who wished to remodel their buttocks from December 2004 to February 2013 were studied retrospectively. All 90 patients were treated with 2 strips of polypropylene on each buttock using the following procedures: 27 (30 %) patients were suspended with polypropylene strips; 63 (70 %) patients were treated with tumescent liposuction in the sacral "V", lower back, supragluteal regions, and flanks to improve buttocks contour (aspirated volume of fat from 350 to 800 cc); 16 (18 %) patients underwent fat grafting in the subcutaneous and intramuscular layers (up to 300 cc in each buttock to increase volume); 5 (6 %) patients received implants to increase volume; and 4 (4.4 %) patients underwent removal and relocation of intramuscular gluteal implants to improve esthetics. Over an 8-year period, 90 female patients underwent gluteal suspension surgeries. Good esthetic results without complications were obtained in 75 of 90 (84 %) cases. Complications occurred in 15 of 90 (16.6 %) patients, including strip removal due to postoperative pain in 1 (1.1 %) patient, and seroma in both subgluteal sulci in 3 (3.3 %) patients. The results of this study performed in 90 patients over 8 years showed that the suspension with polypropylene strips performed as a single procedure or in combination with other cosmetic methods helps to enhance and lift ptosed gluteal and paragluteal areas. This journal requires that the authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  20. Nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present monograph is intended to treat the commonly used detectors in the field of nuclear physics covering important developments of the recent years. After a general introduction, a brief account of interaction of radiation with matter relevant to the processes in radiation detection is given in Chapter II. In addition to the ionization chamber, proportional counters and Geiger Mueller counters, several gas-filled detectors of advanced design such as those recently developed for heavy ion physics and other types of studies have been covered in Chapter III. Semiconductor detectors are dealt with in Chapter IV. The scintillation detectors which function by sensing the photons emitted by the luminescence process during the interaction of the impinging radiation with the scintillation detector medium are described in Chapter V. The topic of neutron detectors is covered in Chapter VI, as in this case the emphasis is more on the method of neutron detection rather than on detector type. Electronic instrumentation related to signal pulse processing dealt with in Chapter VII. The track etch detectors based on the visualization of the track of the impinging charge particle have also been briefly covered in the last chapter. The scope of this monograph is confined to detectors commonly used in low and medium energy nuclear physics research and applications of nuclear techniques. The monograph is intended for post-graduate students and those beginning to work with the radiation detectors. (author)

  1. Small area detectors at the European XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcato, M.; Gessler, P.; Hauf, S.; Kuster, M.; Meyer, M.; Nordgren, J.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Youngman, C.

    2014-05-01

    The detectors to be used at the European XFEL have to deal with the unique time structure of the machine, delivering up to 2700 pulses, with a repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, ten times per second, the very high photon flux and the need to combine single-photon sensitivity and a large dynamic range. This represents a challenge not only for the large-area 2D imaging detectors but also for the smaller-area detectors and makes the use of standard commercial devices impossible. Dedicated solutions are therefore envisaged for small imaging- or strip-detectors. In this contribution the focus is put on two particular small-area detector solutions which are planned to be used at the European XFEL, a strip detector for hard X-rays (with energy 3 < E < 25 keV) and an imaging detector for soft X-rays (0.25 < E < 3 keV). Hard X-rays photon-beam diagnostics as well as hard X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy at the European XFEL make use of strip detectors as detectors for beam spectrometers or as energy-dispersive detectors in combination with an energy-dispersive element. The European XFEL is establishing cooperation with the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen to develop a new version of the Gotthard detector best suited to the European XFEL needs. The use case and the required detector specifications are illustrated. Starting from the present detector version, the modifications planned to adapt it to the European XFEL running conditions are described. These include the capability of running at an increased rate and to provide a veto signal to the large 2D imaging detectors, in order to be able to remove non-interesting images already at early stages of the DAQ system. In another particular application, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, a Micro-Channel Plate detector matched to a delay-line readout is foreseen to be used. In this case the European XFEL is aiming for a highly customized solution provided by the German company Surface Concept. The use case is described

  2. Integration of the end cap TEC+ of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, Richard

    2008-04-28

    CMS is the first large experiment of high-energy particle physics whose inner tracking system is exclusively instrumented with silicon detector modules. This tracker comprises 15 148 silicon strip modules enclosing the interaction point in 10-12 layers. The 1. Physikalisches Institut B of RWTH Aachen was deeply involved in the completion of the end caps of the tracking system. The institute played a leading role in the end cap design, produced virtually all support structures and several important electrical components, designed and built the laser alignment system of the tracker, performed system tests and finally integrated one of the two end caps in Aachen. This integration constitutes the central part of the present thesis work. The main focus was on the development of methods to recognise defects early in the integration process and to assert the detector's functionality. Characteristic quantities such as the detector noise or the optical gain of the readout chain were determined during integration as well as during a series of tests performed after transport of the end cap from Aachen to CERN. The procedures followed during the mechanical integration of the detector and during the commissioning of integrated sectors are explained, and the software packages developed for quality assurance are described. In addition, results of the detector readout are presented. During the integration phase, sub-structures of the end cap - named petals - were subjected to a reception test which has also been designed and operated as part of this thesis work. The test setup and software developed for the test are introduced and an account of the analysis of the recorded data is given. Before the end cap project entered the production phase, a final test beam experiment was performed in which the suitability of a system of two fully equipped petals for operation at the LHC was checked. The measured ratio of the signal induced in the silicon sensors by minimal ionising

  3. Integration of the end cap TEC+ of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, Richard

    2008-01-01

    CMS is the first large experiment of high-energy particle physics whose inner tracking system is exclusively instrumented with silicon detector modules. This tracker comprises 15 148 silicon strip modules enclosing the interaction point in 10-12 layers. The 1. Physikalisches Institut B of RWTH Aachen was deeply involved in the completion of the end caps of the tracking system. The institute played a leading role in the end cap design, produced virtually all support structures and several important electrical components, designed and built the laser alignment system of the tracker, performed system tests and finally integrated one of the two end caps in Aachen. This integration constitutes the central part of the present thesis work. The main focus was on the development of methods to recognise defects early in the integration process and to assert the detector's functionality. Characteristic quantities such as the detector noise or the optical gain of the readout chain were determined during integration as well as during a series of tests performed after transport of the end cap from Aachen to CERN. The procedures followed during the mechanical integration of the detector and during the commissioning of integrated sectors are explained, and the software packages developed for quality assurance are described. In addition, results of the detector readout are presented. During the integration phase, sub-structures of the end cap - named petals - were subjected to a reception test which has also been designed and operated as part of this thesis work. The test setup and software developed for the test are introduced and an account of the analysis of the recorded data is given. Before the end cap project entered the production phase, a final test beam experiment was performed in which the suitability of a system of two fully equipped petals for operation at the LHC was checked. The measured ratio of the signal induced in the silicon sensors by minimal ionising particles

  4. Construction of two large-size four-plane micromegas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, Michele; Degrange, Jordan; De Oliveira, Rui; Düdder, Andreas; Farina, Edoardo; Kuger, Fabian; Iengo, Paolo; Gomez, Francisco Perez; Lin, Tai-Hua; Schott, Matthias; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sforza, Federico; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Vergain, Maurice; Wotschack, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    We report on the construction and initial performance studies of two micromegas detector quadruplets with an area of 0.5 m$^2$. They serve as prototypes for the planned upgrade project of the ATLAS muon system. Their design is based on the resistive-strip technology and thus renders the detectors spark tolerant. Each quadruplet comprises four detection layers with 1024 readout strips and a strip pitch of 415 $\\mu$m. In two out of the four layers the strips are inclined by $\\pm$1.5$^{\\circ}$ to allow for the measurement of a second coordinate. We present the detector concept and report on the experience gained during the detector construction. In addition an evaluation of the detector performance with cosmic rays and test-beam data is given.

  5. Reconstruction of Micropattern Detector Signals using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flekova, L.; Schott, M.

    2017-10-01

    Micropattern gaseous detector (MPGD) technologies, such as GEMs or MicroMegas, are particularly suitable for precision tracking and triggering in high rate environments. Given their relatively low production costs, MPGDs are an exemplary candidate for the next generation of particle detectors. Having acknowledged these advantages, both the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the LHC are exploiting these new technologies for their detector upgrade programs in the coming years. When MPGDs are utilized for triggering purposes, the measured signals need to be precisely reconstructed within less than 200 ns, which can be achieved by the usage of FPGAs. In this work, we present a novel approach to identify reconstructed signals, their timing and the corresponding spatial position on the detector. In particular, we study the effect of noise and dead readout strips on the reconstruction performance. Our approach leverages the potential of convolutional neural network (CNNs), which have recently manifested an outstanding performance in a range of modeling tasks. The proposed neural network architecture of our CNN is designed simply enough, so that it can be modeled directly by an FPGA and thus provide precise information on reconstructed signals already in trigger level.

  6. Micro-channel cooling for silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaschel, Nils

    2017-12-15

    Silicon tracking detectors employed in high-energy physics are located very close to the interaction points of the colliding particle beams. The high energetic radiation emerging from the interaction induces defects into the silicon, downgrading the efficiency to collect the charges created by passing particles and increasing the noise while data taking. Cooling the sensors to low temperatures can help to prevent defects and maintain a high efficiency and lower noise level. In order to maximize the LHC's discovery potential, the collider and its detectors will be upgraded to a higher luminosity around 2024. The conditions inside the detector will become harsher demanding that the technology must adapt to the new situation. Radiation damage is already an issue in the current ATLAS detector and therefore a huge number of parameters are constantly monitored and evaluated to ensure optimal operation. To provide the best possible settings the behavior of the sensors inside the ATLAS Inner Detector is predicted using simulations. In this work several parameters in the simulation including the depletion voltage and the crosstalk between sensor strips of the SCT detector are analyzed and compared with data. The main part of this work concerns the investigation of a novel cooling system based on microchannels etched into silicon in a generic research and development project at DESY and IMB-CNM. A channel layout is designed providing a homogeneous flow distribution across a large surface area and tested in a computational fluid simulation before its production. Two different fabrication techniques, anodic and eutectic bonding, are used to test prototypes with differing mechanical and thermal properties. Hydromechanical and thermal measurements are performed to fully characterize the flow inside the device and the thermal properties of the prototype in air and in a vacuum. The thermal behavior is analyzed by means of local measurements with thermal resistors and infrared

  7. Micro-channel cooling for silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaschel, Nils

    2017-12-01

    Silicon tracking detectors employed in high-energy physics are located very close to the interaction points of the colliding particle beams. The high energetic radiation emerging from the interaction induces defects into the silicon, downgrading the efficiency to collect the charges created by passing particles and increasing the noise while data taking. Cooling the sensors to low temperatures can help to prevent defects and maintain a high efficiency and lower noise level. In order to maximize the LHC's discovery potential, the collider and its detectors will be upgraded to a higher luminosity around 2024. The conditions inside the detector will become harsher demanding that the technology must adapt to the new situation. Radiation damage is already an issue in the current ATLAS detector and therefore a huge number of parameters are constantly monitored and evaluated to ensure optimal operation. To provide the best possible settings the behavior of the sensors inside the ATLAS Inner Detector is predicted using simulations. In this work several parameters in the simulation including the depletion voltage and the crosstalk between sensor strips of the SCT detector are analyzed and compared with data. The main part of this work concerns the investigation of a novel cooling system based on microchannels etched into silicon in a generic research and development project at DESY and IMB-CNM. A channel layout is designed providing a homogeneous flow distribution across a large surface area and tested in a computational fluid simulation before its production. Two different fabrication techniques, anodic and eutectic bonding, are used to test prototypes with differing mechanical and thermal properties. Hydromechanical and thermal measurements are performed to fully characterize the flow inside the device and the thermal properties of the prototype in air and in a vacuum. The thermal behavior is analyzed by means of local measurements with thermal resistors and infrared

  8. Detectors for proton counting. Si-APD and scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Shunji

    2008-01-01

    Increased intensity of synchrotron radiation requests users to prepare photon pulse detectors having higher counting rates. As detectors for photon counting, silicon-avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) and scintillation detectors were chosen for the fifth series of detectors. Principle of photon detection by pulse and need of amplification function of the detector were described. Structure and working principle, high counting rate measurement system, bunch of electrons vs. counting rate, application example of NMR time spectroscopy measurement and comments for users were described for the Si-APD detector. Structure of scintillator and photomultiplier tube, characteristics of scintillator and performance of detector were shown for the NaI detector. Future development of photon pulse detectors was discussed. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Commissioning and Calibrating the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bainbridge, Robert; Drouhin, F; Fulcher, J; Giassi, A; Gross, L; Mirabito, L; Vintache, D; Wingham, M

    2007-01-01

    The data acquisition system for the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) is based around a custom analogue front-end ASIC, an analogue optical link system and an off-detector VME board that performs digitization, zero-suppression and data formatting. A complex procedure is required to optimally configure, calibrate and synchronize the 107 channels of the SST readout system. We present an overview of this procedure, which will be used to commission and calibrate the SST during the integration, Start-Up and operational phases of the experiment. Recent experiences from the CMS Magnet Test Cosmic Challenge and system tests at the Tracker Integration Facility are also reported.

  10. Characterization of 3D-DDTC detectors on p-type substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Betta, G -F Dalla; Bosisio, Luciano; Darbo, Giovanni; Gabos, Paolo; Gemme, Claudia; Koehler, Michael; La Rosa, Alessandro; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pernegger, Heinz; Piemonte, Claudio; Povoli, Marco; Rachevskaia, Irina; Ronchin, Sabina; Wiik, Liv; Zoboli, Aanrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    We report on the electrical and functional characterization of 3D Double-side, Double-Type-Column (3D- DDTC) detectors fabricated on p-type substrates. Results relevant to detectors in the diode, strip and pixel configurations are presented, and demonstrate a clear improvement in the charge collection performance compared to the first prototypes of these detectors.

  11. Detection of low momentum protons with the new HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilardi, Ignazio

    2008-10-15

    In this theis the recoil detector for the HERMES experiment at HERA is described. It consists of a silicon strip detector, a scintillating fiber tracker, and a photon detector for the {delta}{sup +} background rejection, all surrounded by a superconducting 1 Tesla solenoid. Results of cosmic ray tests are presented. (HSI)

  12. Study of a microstrip gas detector for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clergeau, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    The micro-strip gas chambers (MSGC) were realized due to the technological advances in the field of micro-electronics. The wire of usual gas counters is replaced in these detectors by metallic stripes as a periodic sequence of electrodes (anodes and cathodes) spaced by around 200 μm. At a distance of 3 mm above the strip containing substrate, a metallic plane is placed, thus defining the gaseous room where the passage of a charged particle produces by ionization a primary electron signal collected by the detector anodes. Due to its granularity a MSGC can operate under very high particle fluxes since charge can be collected very rapidly. Also, the impact parameters can be determined with high accuracy due to the high space and time resolutions. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) or the MSGC detectors planned to equip one of the experiments proposed for LHC should detect, in extreme operational conditions, the particle impacts in a 4 Tesla magnetic field, for around ten years and for a particle flux of around 10 4 Hz/mm 2 . The CMS detector is described in chapter 2. The operation principle and the problems encountered in the development of MSGC detectors are summarized in chapter 3. The chapter 4 is dedicated to the study of the performances of MSGCs in magnetic fields. In the chapters 5 to 7 the processing of the signal from detectors of this type is described, particularly, the performances of various ways of treat the signal in terms of detection efficiency and counting loads are presented.The chapter 8 presents the results obtained with the prototype obtained at IPNL while the chapter 9 gives the conclusions of the performed works. (author)

  13. Spectrometry of X-ray beams using Cadmium and Zinc Teluride detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Paulo Henriques Bastos

    1997-06-01

    Determination of X-ray spectra to be utilized for medical diagnostics is a complementary process to the development of procedures to be applied to the quality control of radiodiagnostics X-ray equipment. Until some years ago, that was only possible using Germanium or Silicon detectors. Both have an excellent resolution in this energy range, but present also some restrictions as there are high costs and the necessity of operating them at temperature of liquid Nitrogen, which is not always available at the measurement's place. Room temperature detectors like Cadmium Telluride and Mercury Iodine don't have these restrictions. They, however, have a lower resolution and incomplete collection of the charges produced by their interaction with radiation. With technological advance of crystal growth in general and new techniques like cooling the crystal with a Peltier cell and rise time discrimination circuits, today Cadmium Telluride detectors show a resolution very close to that from Germanium detectors. This work relates to the routine use of Cadmium and Zinc Telluride detectors for measuring X-ray spectra in loco of diagnostic X-ray units. It characterizes the properties of a commercially available detector and offers a model for stripping the measured pulse height distribution. It was also developed a collimator to allow the direct measurement of the beam. The model developed and the constructed set-up were applied to two X-ray tubes and the achieved spectra compared with some spectra available from the literature. (author)

  14. The vertex detector for the Lepton/Photon collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J.P.; Boissevain, J.G.; Fox, D.; Hecke, H. van; Jacak, B.V.; Kapustinsky, J.S.; Leitch, M.J.; McGaughey, P.L.; Moss, J.M.; Sondheim, W.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The conceptual design of the vertex detector for the Lepton/Photon Collaboration at RHIC is described, including simulations of its expected performance. The design consists of two con- centric layers of single-sided Si strips. The expected performance as a multiplicity detector and in measuring the pseudo-rapidity ({nu}) distribution is discussed as well as the expected vertex finding efficiency and accuracy. Various options which could be used to reduce the cost of the detector are also discussed.

  15. The vertex detector for the Lepton/Photon Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.P.; Boissevain, J.G.; Fox, D.; van Hecke, H.; Jacak, B.V.; Kapustinsky, J.S.; Leitch, M.J.; McGaughey, P.L.; Moss, J.M.; Sondheim, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The conceptual design of the vertex detector for the Lepton/Photon Collaboration at RHIC is described, including simulations of its expected performance. The design consists of two concentric layers of single-sided Si strips. The expected performance as a multiplicity detector and in measuring the pseudo-rapidity η distribution is discussed as well as the expected vertex finding efficiency and accuracy. Various options which could be used to reduce the cost of the detector are also discussed

  16. Detector trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes briefly the development of detectors for high energy physics experiments. Especially considered are semiconductor microstrip detectors, drift tubes, holographic bubble chambers, scintillating fiber optics, and calorimeters. (HSI).

  17. Commissioning the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker prior to Operations with Cosmic Ray Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Stringer, R

    2009-01-01

    During autumn 2008, the Silicon Strip Tracker was operated with the full CMS experiment in a comprehensive test, in the presence of the 3.8~T magnetic field produced by the CMS superconducting solenoid. This note details the detector commissioning phase just prior to this data-taking exercise and the procedures used to optimise the performance of the Silicon Strip Tracker. The number of detector modules used during the test corresponds to 98.0\\% of the total system. The ten million channels of the SST readout system were calibrated and synchronised with cosmic ray muon data using automated procedures. Excellent hit and track reconstruction efficiencies were observed, which demonstrate the quality of the SST detector and the precision of the calibration procedures.

  18. A Method to Simulate the Observed Surface Properties of Proton Irradiated Silicon Strip Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00335524; Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R.; Eber, R.; Eichhorn, T.; Lalwani, K.; Messineo, A.; Printz, M.; Ranjan, K.

    2015-04-23

    During the scheduled high luminosity upgrade of LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, the position sensitive silicon detectors installed in the vertex and tracking part of the CMS experiment will face more intense radiation environment than the present system was designed for. To upgrade the tracker to required performance level, extensive measurements and simulations studies have already been carried out. A defect model of Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD simulation package for the bulk properties of proton irradiated devices has been producing simulations closely matching with measurements of silicon strip detectors. However, the model does not provide expected behavior due to the fluence increased surface damage. The solution requires an approach that does not affect the accurate bulk properties produced by the proton model, but only adds to it the required radiation induced properties close to the surface. These include the observed position dependency of the strip detector's charge collec...

  19. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Noomen, J; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a $\\beta$-source and the performance before and after intense ($>10^{15}/{\\rm cm^2}$) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiations increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiations with protons ($2.2\\times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$) lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions ($2.9\\times 10^{15}~\\pi/{\\rm cm^2}$) lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations.

  20. MCP detector development for UV space missions

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Lauro; Barnstedt, Jürgen; Hanke, Lars; Kalkuhl, Christoph; Kappelmann, Norbert; Rauch, Thomas; Stelzer, Beate; Werner, Klaus; Elsener, Hans-Rudolf; Schaadt, Daniel M.

    2018-01-01

    We are developing imaging and photon counting UV-MCP detectors, which are sensitive in the wavelength range from far ultraviolet to near ultraviolet. A good quantum efficiency, solar blindness and high spatial resolution is the aim of our development. The sealed detector has a Cs-activated photoactive layer of GaN (or similarly advanced photocathode), which is operated in semitransparent mode on (001)-MgF 2 . The detector comprises a stack of two long-life MCPs and a coplanar cross strip anod...

  1. Shower maximum detector for SDC calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernwein, J.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype for the SDC end-cap (EM) calorimeter complete with a pre-shower and a shower maximum detector was tested in beams of electrons and Π's at CERN by an SDC subsystem group. The prototype was manufactured from scintillator tiles and strips read out with 1 mm diameter wave-length shifting fibers. The design and construction of the shower maximum detector is described, and results of laboratory tests on light yield and performance of the scintillator-fiber system are given. Preliminary results on energy and position measurements with the shower max detector in the test beam are shown. (authors). 4 refs., 5 figs

  2. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  3. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  4. The CMS silicon strip tracker and its electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, CH) will be the world's biggest accelerator machine when operation starts in 2006. One of its four detector experiments is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), consisting of a large-scale silicon tracker and electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters, all embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field of 4 T, and a muon system surrounding the magnet coil. The Silicon Strip Tracker has a sensitive area of 206m 2 with 10 million analog channels which are read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. The building blocks of the CMS Tracker are the silicon sensors, APV amplifier ASICs, supporting front-end ASICs, analog and digital optical links as well as data processors and control units in the back-end. Radiation tolerance, readout speed and the huge data volume are challenging requirements. The charge collection in silicon detectors was modeled, which is discussed as well as the concepts of readout amplifiers with respect to the LHC requirements, including the deconvolution method of fast pulse shaping, electronic noise constraints and radiation effects. Moreover, extensive measurements on prototype components of the CMS Tracker and different versions of the APV chip in particular were performed. There was a significant contribution to the construction of several detector modules, characterized them in particle beam tests and quantified radiation induced effects on the APV chip and on silicon detectors. In addition, a prototype of the analog optical link and the analog performance of the back-end digitization unit were evaluated. The results are very encouraging, demonstrating the feasibility of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker system and motivating progress towards the construction phase. (author)

  5. Operational experience of ATLAS SCT and Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kocian, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector based on silicon sensors is consisting of a strip detector (SCT) and a pixel detector. It is the crucial component for vertexing and tracking in the ATLAS experiment. With the excellent performance of the LHC well beyond the original specification the silicon tracking detectors are facing substantial challenges in terms of data acquisition, radiation damage to the sensors, and SEUs in the readout ASICs. The approaches on how the detector systems cope with the demands of high luminosity operation while maintaining excellent performance through hardware upgrades, software and firmware algorithms, and operational settings, are presented.

  6. The Las Vegas Strip as a Genuinely Invented Global Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortega

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Vegas, Nevada, is typically recognised as a place via a single urban gesture, that gesture being Las Vegas Boulevard, which is more commonly referred to as "The Strip". In constructing a thesis around the theme, "Here or There? Interconnections between the Global and the Local", one cannot ignore the invitation to discuss globalisation and its effects on a particular local fabric. For the purpose of this text, globalisation can be thought of as what Carmona et al describe as an intricate series of events leading to the world "becoming increasingly interconnected, with centralised decision making exploiting economies of scale and standardisation" (2003: 101. The centralised decision-making process for The Strip is evident in the strategy to develop individually themed casino resorts along Las Vegas Boulevard that respond to a competitive economy, thus creating a newly standardised landscape. If we also understand that globalisation can be thought of as the development of an interconnected world where economic, political and cultural boundaries can be easily crossed, this work can begin to define how the Las Vegas Strip is a genuinely invented global landscape. This paper addresses the "here-ness" as well as the "there-ness" of The Strip, while offering a dialectical framework for establishing a meaning of place by having 'there' placed 'here'. By employing semiological interpretations of real landscapes from around the globe (for example, Venturi et al, 1972, The Strip becomes a newly invented landscape of "simulations" (Baudrillard, 1988. As such, The Strip acts as a narrative that forms a unique place, opening the door to questions of authenticity and identity. This paper concludes by focusing on the question of "Here or There?" as an appropriate deviation from the assumed role that the post-modern landscape of the Las Vegas Strip plays. This work is intended to be a point of departure from the frequent criticism of the Las Vegas Strip as

  7. Spectral response of multi-element silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, B.A.; Rossington, C.S.; Chapman, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Multi-element silicon strip detectors, in conjunction with integrated circuit pulse-processing electronics, offer an attractive alternative to conventional lithium-drifted silicon Si(Li) and high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) for high count rate, low noise synchrotron x-ray fluorescence applications. One of the major differences between the segmented Si detectors and the commercially available single-element Si(Li) or HPGe detectors is that hundreds of elements can be fabricated on a single Si substrate using standard silicon processing technologies. The segmentation of the detector substrate into many small elements results in very low noise performance at or near, room temperature, and the count rate of the detector is increased many-fold due to the multiplication in the total number of detectors. Traditionally, a single channel of detector with electronics can handle {approximately}100 kHz count rates while maintaining good energy resolution; the segmented detectors can operate at greater than MHz count rates merely due to the multiplication in the number of channels. One of the most critical aspects in the development of the segmented detectors is characterizing the charge sharing and charge loss that occur between the individual detector strips, and determining how these affect the spectral response of the detectors.

  8. Design and Tests of the Silicon Sensors for the ZEUS Micro Vertex Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Dannheim, D.; Koetz, U.; Coldewey, C.; Fretwurst, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Klanner, R.; Martens, J.; Koffeman, E.; Tiecke, H.; Carlin, R.

    2002-01-01

    To fully exploit the HERA-II upgrade,the ZEUS experiment has installed a Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) using n-type, single-sided, silicon micro-strip sensors with capacitive charge division. The sensors have a readout pitch of 120 micrometers, with five intermediate strips (20 micrometer strip pitch). The designs of the silicon sensors and of the test structures used to verify the technological parameters, are presented. Results on the electrical measurements are discussed. A total of 1123 sen...

  9. Silicon strip prototypes for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS tracker for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00474514

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the integration structures for the silicon strips tracker of the ATLAS detector proposed for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), also referred to as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In this proposed detector Silicon strip sensors are arranged in highly modular structures, called `staves' and `petals'. This paper presents performance results from the latest prototype stave built at Berkeley. This new, double-sided prototype is composed of a specialized core structure, in which a shield-less bus tape is embedded in between carbon fiber lay-ups. A detailed description of the prototype and its electrical performance are discussed in detail.

  10. Detector R&D

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, T

    2004-01-01

    The next big project in high energy physics should be a high energy e /sup +/e/sup -/ linear collider, operating at energies up to around 1 TeV. A vigorous R&D program has started to prepare the grounds for a detector at such a machine. The amounts of precision data expected at this machine make a novel approach to the reconstruction of events necessary; the particle flow ansatz. This in turn influences significantly the design of a detector for such an experiment. Apart from work ongoing for the linear collider detector, preparations are under way for an update of the LHC. This requires extremely radiation hard detectors. In this paper the state of the different detector development projects is reviewed. (21 refs).

  11. Strip velocity measurements for gated x-ray imagers using short pulse lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P. W.; Cardenas, M.; Griffin, M.; Mead, A.; Silbernagel, C. T.; Bell, P.; Haque, S.

    2013-09-01

    Strip velocity measurements of gated X-ray imagers are presented using an ultra-short pulse laser. Obtaining time- resolved X-ray images of inertial confinement fusion shots presents a difficult challenge. One diagnostic developed to address this challenge is the gated X-ray imagers. The gated X-ray detectors (GXDs) developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory use a microchannel plate (MCP) coated with a gold strip line, which serves as a photocathode. GXDs are used with an array of pinholes, which image onto various parts of the GXD image plane. As the pulse sweeps over the strip lines, it creates a time history of the event with consecutive images. In order to accurately interpret the timing of the images obtained using the GXDs, it is necessary to measure the propagation of the pulse over the strip line. The strip velocity was measured using a short pulse laser with a pulse duration of approximately 1-2 ps. The 200nm light from the laser is used to illuminate the GXD MCP. The laser pulse is split and a retroreflective mirror is used to delay one of the legs. By adjusting the distance to the mirror, one leg is temporally delayed compared to the reference leg. The retroreflective setup is calibrated using a streak camera with a 1 ns full sweep. Resolution of 0.5 mm is accomplished to achieve a temporal resolution of ~5 ps on the GXD strip line.

  12. Optimization of the process of steel strip perforation and nickel platting for the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Aleksandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the production of pocket type electrodes for Ni-Cd batteries perforation of proper steel strips and then nickel platting of perforated steel strips were made. In the nickel platting process, the organic solvent, trichloroethylene, has previously been used for cleaning. Due to the carcinogenic nature of trichloroethylene and the many operations previously required during cleaning, it was considered to do cleaning of perforated steel strips without use of the mentioned organic solvent. In the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strips, the tests of perforation of steel strips with use of oils of different viscosity were made. It was shown that there was no dysfunction during the work of the perforation plants, meaning there was no additional heating of the strips, deterring of the steel filings, nor excessive wearing of the perforation apparatus. The perforation percent was the same irrelevant of the viscosity of the used oil. Before being perforated using the oils with different viscosity, the nickel platting steel strips were cleaned in different degreasers (based on NaOH as well as on KOH. It was shown that efficient cleaning without the use of trichloroethylene is possible with the use of oil with smaller viscosity in the perforated steel strips process and the degreaser based on KOH in the cleaning process, before nickel platting. It also appeared that the alkali degreaser based on KOH was more efficient, bath corrections were made less often and the working period of the baths was longer, which all in summary means less quantity of chemicals needed for degreasing of perforated steel strips.

  13. Commissioning and Performance of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker with Cosmic Ray Muons

    CERN Document Server

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Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; 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Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; 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Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    During autumn 2008, the Silicon Strip Tracker was operated with the full CMS experiment in a comprehensive test, in the presence of the 3.8 T magnetic field produced by the CMS superconducting solenoid. Cosmic ray muons were detected in the muon chambers and used to trigger the readout of all CMS sub-detectors. About 15 million events with a muon in the tracker were collected. The efficiency of hit and track reconstruction were measured to be higher than 99% and consistent with expectations from Monte Carlo simulation. This article details the commissioning and performance of the Silicon Strip Tracker with cosmic ray muons.

  14. Stand-alone Cosmic Muon Reconstruction Before Installation of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Dragicevic, M; Friedl, M; Fruhwirth, R; Hansel, S; Hrubec, J; Krammer, M; Oberegger, M; Pernicka, M; Schmid, S; Stark, RS; Steininger, H; Uhl, D; Waltenberger, W; Widl, E; Van Mechelen, P; Cardaci, M; Beaumont, W; de Langhe, E; de Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Hashemi, M; Bouhali, O; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; Dewulf, J P; Elgammal, S; Hammad, G; de Lentdecker, G; Marage, P; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Adler, V; Devroede, O; De Weirdt, S; D'Hondt, J; Goorens, R; Heyninck, J; Maes, J; Mozer, M; Tavernier, S; Van Lancker, L; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Wastiels, C; Bonnet, J L; Bruno, G; De Callatay, B; Florins, B; Giammanco, A; Gregoire, G; Keutgen, Th; Kcira, D; Lemaitre, V; Michotte, D; Militaru, O; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertermont, L; Roberfroid, V; Rouby, X; Teyssier, D; Daubie, E; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Engstrom, P; Harkonen, J; Karimaki, V; Kostesmaa, J; Kuronen, A; Lampen, T; Linden, T; Luukka, P R; Maenpaa, T; Michal, S; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ageron, M; Baulieu, G; Bonnevaux, A; Boudoul, G; Chabanat, E; Chabert, E; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Della Negra, R; Dupasquier, T; Gelin, G; Giraud, N; Guillot, G; Estre, N; Haroutunian, R; Lumb, N; Perries, S; Schirra, F; Trocme, B; Vanzetto, S; Agram, J L; Blaes, R; Drouhin, F; Ernenwein, J P; Fontaine, J C; Berst, J D; Brom, J M; Didierjean, F; Goerlach, U; Graehling, P; Gross, L; Hosselet, J; Juillot, P; Lounis, A; Maazouzi, C; Olivetto, C; Strub, R; Van Hove, P; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Klein, K; Kukulies, C; Olzem, J; Ostapchuk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Beissel, F; Bock, E; Flugge, G; Gillissen, C; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Jahn, D; Kaussen, G; Linn, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Stahl, A; Zoeller, M H; Buhmann, P; Butz, E; Flucke, G; Hamdorf, R; Hauk, J; Klanner, R; Pein, U; Schleper, P; Steinbruck, G; Blum, P; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Fahrer, M; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Hoffmann, K H; Kaminski, J; Ledermann, B; Liamsuwan, T; Muller, S; Muller, Th; Schilling, F P; Simonis, H J; Steck, P; Zhukov, V; Cariola, P; De Robertis, G; Ferorelli, R; Fiore, L; Preda, M; Sala, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Creanza, D; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; Giordano, D; Maggi, G; Manna, N; My, S; Selvaggi, G; Albergo, S; Chiorboli, M; Costa, S; Galanti, M; Giudice, N; Guardone, N; Noto, F; Potenza, R; Saizu, M A; Sparti, V; Sutera, C; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Brianzi, M; Civinini, C; Maletta, F; Manolescu, F; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Broccolo, B; Ciulli, V; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Macchiolo, A; Magini, N; Parrini, G; Scarlini, E; Cerati, G; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Candelori, A; Dorigo, T; Kaminsky, A; Karaevski, S; Khomenkov, V; Reznikov, S; Tessaro, M; Bisello, D; De Mattia, M; Giubilato, P; Loreti, M; Mattiazzo, S; Nigro, M; Paccagnella, A; Pantano, D; Pozzobon, N; Tosi, M; Bilei, G M; Checcucci, B; Fano, L; Servoli, L; Ambroglini, F; Babucci, E; Benedetti, D; Biasini, M; Caponeri, B; Covarelli, R; Giorgi, M; Lariccia, P; Mantovani, G; Marcantonini, M; Postolache, V; Santocchia, A; Spiga, D; Bagliesi, G; Balestri, G; Berretta, L; Bianucci, S; Boccali, T; Bosi, F; Bracci, F; Castaldi, R; Ceccanti, M; Cecchi, R; Cerri, C; Cucoanes, A S; Dell'Orso, R; Dobur, D; Dutta, S; Giassi, A; Giusti, S; Kartashov, D; Kraan, A; Lomtadze, T; Lungu, G A; Magazzu, G; Mammini, P; Mariani, F; Martinelli, G; Moggi, A; Palla, F; Palmonari, F; Petragnani, G; Profeti, A; Raffaelli, F; Rizzi, D; Sanguinetti, G; Sarkar, S; Sentenac, D; Serban, A T; Slav, A; Soldani, A; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Tolaini, S; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Vos, M; Zaccarelli, L; Avanzini, C; Basti, A; Benucci, L; Bocci, A; Cazzola, U; Fiori, F; Linari, S; Massa, M; Messineo, A; Segneri, G; Tonelli, G; Azzurri, P; Bernardini, J; Borrello, L; Calzolari, F; Foa, L; Gennai, S; Ligabue, F; Petrucciani, G; Rizzi, A; Yang, Z; Benotto, F; Demaria, N; Dumitrache, F; Farano, R; Borgia, M A; Castello, R; Costa, M; Migliore, E; Romero, A; Abbaneo, D; Abbas, M; Ahmed, I; Akhtar, I; Albert, E; Bloch, C; Breuker, H; Butt, S; Buchmuller, O; Cattai, A; Delaere, C; Delattre, M; Edera, L M; Engstrom, P; Eppard, M; Gateau, M; Gill, K; Giolo-Nicollerat, A S; Grabit, R; Honma, A; Huhtinen, M; Kloukinas, K; Kortesmaa, J; Kottelat, L J; Kuronen, A; Leonardo, N; Ljuslin, C; Mannelli, M; Masetti, L; Marchioro, A; Mersi, S; Michal, S; Mirabito, L; Muffat-Joly, J; Onnela, A; Paillard, C; Pal, I; Pernot, J F; Petagna, P; Petit, P; Piccut, C; Pioppi, M; Postema, H; Ranieri, R; Ricci, D; Rolandi, G; Ronga, F; Sigaud, C; Syed, A; Siegrist, P; Tropea, P; Troska, J; Tsirou, A; Vander Donckt, M; Vasey, F; Alagoz, E; Amsler, C; Chiochia, V; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, P; Rochet, J; Rommerskirchen, T; Schmidt, A; Steiner, S; Wilke, L; Church, I; Cole, J; Coughlan, J; Gay, A; Taghavi, S; Tomalin, I; Bainbridge, R; Cripps, N; Fulcher, J; Hall, G; Noy, M; Pesaresi, M; Radicci, V; Raymond, D M; Sharp, P; Stoye, M; Wingham, M; Zorba, O; Goitom, I; Hobson, P R; Reid, I; Teodorescu, L; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Liu, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Stringer, R; Mangano, B; Affolder, K; Affolder, T; Allen, A; Barge, D; Burke, S; Callahan, D; Campagnari, C; Crook, A; D'Alfonso, M; Dietch, J; Garberson, Jeffrey Ford; Hale, D; Incandela, H; Incandela, J; Jaditz, S; Kalavase, P; Kreyer, S; Kyre, S; Lamb, J; Mc Guinness, C; Mills, C; Nguyen, H; Nikolic, M; Lowette, S; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rubinstein, N; Sanhueza, S; Shah, Y; Simms, L; Staszak, D; Stoner, J; Stuart, D; Swain, S; Vlimant, J R; White, D; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Bagby, L; Bhat, P C; Burkett, K; Cihangir, S; Gutsche, O; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Luzhetskiy, N; Mason, D; Miao, T; Moccia, S; Noeding, C; Ronzhin, A; Skup, E; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Tkaczyk, S; Yumiceva, F; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zerev, E; Anghel, I; Bazterra, V E; Gerber, C E; Khalatian, S; Shabalina, E; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Chen, J; Hinchey, C; Martin, C; Moulik, T; Robinson, R; Gritsan, A V; Lae, C K; Tran, N V; Everaerts, P; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Nahn, S; Rudolph, M; Sung, K; Betchart, B; Demina, R; Gotra, Y; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D; Orbaker, D; Christofek, L; Hooper, R; Landsberg, G; Nguyen, D; Narain, M; Speer, T; Tsang, K V

    2009-01-01

    The subsystems of the CMS silicon strip tracker were integrated and commissioned at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) in the period from November 2006 to July 2007. As part of the commissioning, large samples of cosmic ray data were recorded under various running conditions in the absence of a magnetic field. Cosmic rays detected by scintillation counters were used to trigger the readout of up to 15% of the final silicon strip detector, and over 4.7 million events were recorded. This document describes the cosmic track reconstruction and presents results on the performance of track and hit reconstruction as from dedicated analyses.

  15. Reception Test of Petals for the End Cap TEC+ of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, R; Klein, Katja; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Adler, Volker; Adolphi, Roman; Ageron, Michel; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Atz, Bernd; Barvich, Tobias; Baulieu, Guillaume; Beaumont, Willem; Beissel, Franz; Bergauer, Thomas; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Blüm, Peter; Bock, E; Bogelsbacher, F; de Boer, Wim; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouhali, Othmane; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Brom, Jean-Marie; Butz, Erik; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Clerbaux, Barbara; Contardo, Didier; De Callatay, Bernard; Dehm, Philip; Delaere, Christophe; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Didierjean, Francois; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Dragicevic, Marko; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Esser, Hans; Estre, Nicolas; Fahrer, Manuel; Fernández, J; Florins, Benoit; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Flügge, Günter; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Freudenreich, Klaus; Frey, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Furgeri, Alexander; Giraud, Noël; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goorens, Robert; Graehling, Philippe; Grégoire, Ghislain; Gregoriev, E; Gross, Laurent; Hansel, S; Haroutunian, Roger; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Heyninck, Jan; Hosselet, J; Hrubec, Josef; Jahn, Dieter; Juillot, Pierre; Kaminski, Jochen; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kaussen, Gordon; Keutgen, Thomas; Klanner, Robert; König, Stefan; Kosbow, M; Krammer, Manfred; Ledermann, Bernhard; Lemaître, Vincent; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Linn, Alexander; Lounis, Abdenour; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Lumb, Nicholas; Maazouzi, Chaker; Mahmoud, Tariq; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Mirabito, Laurent; Müller, Thomas; Neukermans, Lionel; Ollivetto, C; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pein, Uwe; Pernicka, Manfred; Perriès, Stephane; Piaseki, C; Pierschel, Gerhard; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Rouby, Xavier; Sabellek, Andreas; Schael, Stefan; Schirm, Norbert; Schleper, Peter; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stahl, Achim; Steck, Pia; Steinbruck, G; Stoye, Markus; Strub, Roger; Tavernier, Stefaan; Teyssier, Daniel; Theel, Andreas; Trocmé, Benjamin; Udo, Fred; Van der Donckt, M; Van der Velde, C; Van Hove, Pierre; Vanlaer, Pascal; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Staa, Rolf; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Weber, Markus; Weiler, Thomas; Weseler, Siegfried; Wickens, John; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; De Wolf, Eddi A; Zhukov, Valery; Zoeller, Marc Henning

    2009-01-01

    The silicon strip tracker of the CMS experiment has been completed and was inserted into the CMS detector in late 2007. The largest sub system of the tracker are its end caps, comprising two large end caps (TEC) each containing 3200 silicon strip modules. To ease construction, the end caps feature a modular design: groups of about 20 silicon modules are placed on sub-assemblies called petals and these self-contained elements are then mounted onto the TEC support structures. Each end cap consists of 144 such petals, which were built and fully qualified by several institutes across Europe. From

  16. P-Type Silicon Strip Sensors for the Future CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    The Tracker Group of the CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to increase the LHC design luminosity by an order of magnitude. This will require silicon tracking detectors with a significantly higher radiation hardness. The CMS Tracker Collaboration has conducted an irradiation and measurement campaign to identify suitable silicon sensor materials and strip designs for the future outer tracker at CMS. Based on these results, the collaboration has chosen to use n-in-p type strip and macro-pixel sensors and focus further investigations on the optimization of that sensor type. This paper describes the main measurement results and conclusions that motivated this decision.

  17. Cosmic-ray tests of the DOe preshower detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baringer, P.; Bross, A.; Buescher, V.; Canelli, F.; Davis, G.; Del Signore, K.; Desai, S.; Estrada, J.; Ginther, G.; Gordeev, A.; Grannis, P.; Gruenendahl, S.; Hou, S. E-mail: suen@fnal.gov; Kotcher, J.; Lincoln, D.; Liu, M.; Mayorov, A.A.; Neal, H.A.; Nunnemann, T.; Patwa, A.; Qian, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rubinov, P.; Sawyer, L.; Talalaevskii, A.; Turcot, A.S.; Kooten, R. van; Wang, Z.M.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Yamin, P.; Yip, K.; Zhou, B

    2001-08-21

    The DOe preshower detector consists of scintillator strips with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, and a readout using Visible Light Photon Counters. The response to minimum ionizing particles has been tested with cosmic-ray muons. We report results on the gain calibration and light-yield distributions. The spatial resolution is investigated taking into account the light sharing between strips, the effects of multiple scattering and various systematic uncertainties. The detection efficiency and noise contamination are also investigated.

  18. Cosmic-ray tests of the DOe preshower detector

    CERN Document Server

    Baringer, P; Büscher, V; Canelli, F; Davis, G; Del Signore, K; Desai, S; Estrada, J; Ginther, G; Gordeev, A; Grannis, P; Grünendahl, S; Hou, S; Kotcher, J; Lincoln, D; Liu, M; Mayorov, A A; Neal, H A; Nunnemann, T; Patwa, A; Qian, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Rubinov, P; Sawyer, L; Talalaevskii, A; Turcot, A S; Kooten, R V; Wang, Z M; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Yamin, P; Yip, K; Zhou, B

    2001-01-01

    The DOe preshower detector consists of scintillator strips with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, and a readout using Visible Light Photon Counters. The response to minimum ionizing particles has been tested with cosmic-ray muons. We report results on the gain calibration and light-yield distributions. The spatial resolution is investigated taking into account the light sharing between strips, the effects of multiple scattering and various systematic uncertainties. The detection efficiency and noise contamination are also investigated.

  19. Centroid finding method for position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Boie, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A new centroid finding method for all detectors where the signal charge is collected or induced on strips or wires, or on subdivided resistive electrodes, is presented. The centroid of charge is determined by convolution of the sequentially switched outputs from these subdivisions or from the strips with a linear centroid finding filter. The position line width is inversely proportional to N 3 sup(/) 2 , where N is the number of subdivisions. (orig.)

  20. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  1. Diffraction by a finite strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    A new approach is presented to diffraction problems involving plane strip barriers or slit apertures. These are problems that display the effects of multiple interacting edges. The approach taken here provides exact, compact solutions. The theory is introduced through a series of examples that are, in fact, the 'standard' problems of the subject, diffraction of a plane oblique wave by a slit, for example. In each case, the solutions are found to depend explicitly on a single 'special' function and its Fourier transform. These fundamental functions are described, with the emphasis placed on practical computational methods. The example problems are all couched in the language of acoustics.

  2. Study of micro-strip gas ionisation chambers substrates for CMS experiment at LHC; Etude de substrats pour chambres gazeuses a micropistes dans le cadre de l`experience CMS au LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallares, A.

    1996-06-14

    High luminosity, expected interaction and dose rates of the future LHC collider require the development of micro-strips gas chambers. In addition to optimization of this new detector, this work is concerned with understanding of gain loss phenomena. Influence of the gas substrate is carefully analysed, as well as theoretical concepts concerning glasses and their behaviour under polarization and irradiation, and the consequence on detection operations.Electron spin resonance is used to study, in standard glass, creation of radiation induced defects which may be charged. (D.L.). 14 refs.

  3. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Breedon

    Figure 2: Five ME4/2 chambers mounted on the +endcap. At the end of June, five large, outer cathode strip chambers (CSC) that were produced as spares during the original production were mounted on part of the disk space reserved for ME4/2 on the positive endcap (Fig. 2). The chambers were cabled, attached to services, and fully integrated and commissioned into the CSC DAQ and trigger systems. Comprising almost a full trigger sector, CMS will be able to test the significant improvement the trigger efficiency of the EMU system that the presence of the full ME4/2 ring is expected to bring. The return of beam in November was observed as “splash” events in the CSCs in which the detectors were showered with a huge number of particles at the same time. Although the CSCs were operating at a lower standby voltage the multiple hits on a strips could not be individually distinguished.&am...

  4. Mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jie; Xu, Shanqing; Wen, Guilin; Xie, Yi Min

    2018-01-01

    In this study the mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip under opposite-sense bending was investigated. It was found that a simple crease, which led to the increase of the second moment of area, could significantly alter the overall mechanical behaviour of a thin strip, for example the peak moment could be increased by 100 times. The crease was treated as a cylindrical segment of a small radius. Parametric studies demonstrated that the geometry of the strip could stron...

  5. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  6. The charge collection in single side silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, V V; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Weilhammer, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The transient current technique has been used to investigate signal formation in unirradiated silicon microstrip detectors, which are similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Nanosecond pulsed infrared and red lasers were used to induce the signals under study. Two peculiarities in the detector performance were observed: an unexpectedly slow rise to the signal induced in a given strip when signals are injected opposite to the strip, and a long duration of the induced signal in comparison with the calculated drift time of charge carriers through the detector thickness - with a significant fraction of the charge being induced after charge carrier arrival. These major effects and details of the detector response for different positions of charge injection are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem and compared with predictions arising from the more commonly studied phenomenon of signal formation in planar pad detectors.

  7. Status of fully integrated GaAs particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, W.; Breibach, J.; Kubicki, Th.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Maesing, Th.; Rente, C.; Roeper, Ch.; Siemes, A.

    1999-01-01

    GaAs strip detectors are of interest because of their radiation hardness at room temperature and the high absorption coefficient of GaAs for x-rays. The detectors currently under development will be used in the VLQ-experiment at the H1 experiment at the HERA collider. This will be the first high energy physics experiment where GaAs detectors will be used. The detectors have a sensitive area of 5 x 4 cm with a pitch of 62 μ m. Due to the high density of channels the biasing resistors and coupling capacitors are integrated. For the resistors a resistive layer made of Cermet is used. The properties of the first fully integrated strip detector are presented

  8. Ammonia stripping of biologically treated liquid manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitalo, Anni; Kyrö, Aleksis; Aura, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for efficient ammonia removal in air stripping is that the pH of the liquid to be stripped is sufficiently high. Swine manure pH is usually around 7. At pH 7 (at 20°C), only 0.4% of ammonium is in ammonia form, and it is necessary to raise the pH of swine slurry to achieve efficient ammonia removal. Because manure has a very high buffering capacity, large amounts of chemicals are needed to change the slurry pH. The present study showed that efficient air stripping of manure can be achieved with a small amount of chemicals and without strong bases like NaOH. Slurry was subjected to aerobic biological treatment to raise pH before stripping. This facilitated 8 to 32% ammonia removal without chemical treatment. The slurry was further subjected to repeated cycles of stripping with MgO and Ca(OH)(2) additions after the first and second strippings, respectively, to raise slurry pH in between the stripping cycles. After three consecutive stripping cycles, 59 to 86% of the original ammonium had been removed. It was shown that the reduction in buffer capacity of the slurry was due to ammonia and carbonate removal during the stripping cycles. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. MCP detector development for UV space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Lauro; Barnstedt, Jürgen; Hanke, Lars; Kalkuhl, Christoph; Kappelmann, Norbert; Rauch, Thomas; Stelzer, Beate; Werner, Klaus; Elsener, Hans-Rudolf; Schaadt, Daniel M.

    2018-04-01

    We are developing imaging and photon counting UV-MCP detectors, which are sensitive in the wavelength range from far ultraviolet to near ultraviolet. A good quantum efficiency, solar blindness and high spatial resolution is the aim of our development. The sealed detector has a Cs-activated photoactive layer of GaN (or similarly advanced photocathode), which is operated in semitransparent mode on (001)-MgF2. The detector comprises a stack of two long-life MCPs and a coplanar cross strip anode with advanced readout electronics. The main challenge is the flawless growth of the GaN photocathode layer as well as the requirements for the sealing of the detector, to prevent a degradation of the photocathode. We present here the detector concept and the experimental setup, examine in detail the status in the production and describe the current status of the readout electronics development.

  10. Upgrade of ATLAS ITk Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Huegging, Fabian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenges to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with an entirely-silicon inner tracker (ITk) which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation levels are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors and low mass global and local support structures. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the ITk ATLAS Pixel detector developments as well as different layout options will be reviewed.

  11. Design of a high current extraction/strypping system using extraction and stripping isotherms

    OpenAIRE

    Danovska, Milena; Karanfilov, Dejan; Golomeova, Mirjana; Krstev, Boris; Zendelska, Afrodita

    2015-01-01

    The isotherms define the capacity of some extragent for its capability to extract required metal (in this case copper). They are used to evaluate how the system extraction/stripping works, or expected to work. The construction of extraction isotherm consists of the following stages: preparation of laboratory extragent, the organic phase is brought into contact with the electrolyte, optimization of the extraction equilibrium isotherm. Similarly, construct and stripping isotherm: or...

  12. A novel enhanced calibration method for DSSSD detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Levent; Vogt, Andreas; Reiter, Peter; Birkenbach, Benedikt; Hirsch, Rouven; Seidlitz, Michael; Warr, Nigel [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSSD) are employed for the detection of charged particles in low-energy nuclear physics providing position and energy information for the impinging particle. Intersecting areas of both p- and n-side strips form individual pixel segments allowing for a high detector granularity. However, due to limitation in fabrication and the response of readout electronics, the performance of different channels may vary. In order to achieve best energy information, a calibration of each p- and n-side strip with a very high precision is mandatory. DSSSD responses are analyzed employing energy correlation matrices between adjacent strips in order to determine charge-sharing and energy-loss effects. A novel calibration method is based on the fact that each event is registered simultaneously on the p- and n-side strips. A two-dimensional calibration procedure allows for a significant enhancement of the energy resolution. In this way, the performance of DSSSDs with position-dependent radiation damage is improved clearly by excluding locally damaged detector areas without losing the information of complete p- or n-side strips.

  13. Lepton detector workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imlay, R.; Iwata, S.; Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    The study group met from June 7 to 11, 1976, with the dual purpose of reviewing an earlier Lepton Detector report in order to resolve some of the remaining design problems and of considering possible alternatives. Since the role of this group was primarily that of providing a critique of the earlier work, the reader is referred to that earlier paper for the general motivation and design of the detector. Problems studied at this session are described

  14. Development and application of potentiometric stripping analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babincev Ljiljana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the voltammetric determination of lead, cadmium and zinc in water. Two ways of determining were investigated: individually and all three metals simultaneously. The experiments were performed using the Potentiometric Stripping Analysis (PSA. Determination of metals in real samples was preceded by preliminary tests. Preliminary investigations were performed in order to determine the optimal conditions of measurement. It was concluded that the process of determining was for most part influenced by: pH, time of metals extraction, stirring rate of the solution and the thickness of the mercury layer on the working electrode. The smallest concentrations of metals which can be determined using this method are: for lead 22.48 μg dm-3, for cadmium 16.23 μg dm-3 and for zinc 18.75 μg dm-3. The obtained results deviated from the actual 1.12% for lead, 1.91% for cadmium and 1.81% for zinc. All tests (individually and simultaneously were conducted from model solution with concentration as follows: 44.96 μg dm-3 for lead, 32.47 μg dm-3 for cadmium and 37.50 μg dm-3 for zinc. The results of individual measurements deviated by 1.02% lead, 1.90% for cadmium and 1.89% for zinc. Simultaneously the contents were lower than real for: -4.58% for lead, cadmium for -1.91% and -1.89% for zinc. For the conditions determined, except for lead, deviations did not exceed ±2% . This indicates that Potentiometric Stripping Analysis is a good way of individual and simultaneous determination of lead, cadmium and zinc and for determination of their concentrations in water (river and groundwater.

  15. Performance of μ-RWELL detector vs resistivity of the resistive stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencivenni, G.; De Oliveira, R.; Felici, G.; Gatta, M.; Morello, G.; Ochi, A.; Lener, M. Poli; Tskhadadze, E.

    2018-04-01

    The μ-RWELL is a compact spark-protected single amplification stage Micro-Pattern-Gaseous-Detector (MPGD). The detector amplification stage is realized with a polyimide structure, micro-patterned with a dense matrix of blind-holes, integrated into the readout structure. The anode is formed by a thin Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) resistive layer separated by an insulating glue layer from the readout strips. The introduction of the resistive layer strongly suppressing the transition from streamer to spark gives the possibility to achieve large gains (> 104), without significantly affecting the capability to be efficiently operated in high particle fluxes. In this work we present the results of a systematic study of the μ-RWELL performance as a function of the DLC resistivity. The tests have been performed either with collimated 5.9 keV X-rays or with pion and muon beams at the SPS Secondary Beamline H4 and H8 at CERN.

  16. The IFR Online Detector Control system at the BaBar Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paolucci, Pierluigi

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumented Flux Return (IFR)[1] is one of the five subdetectors of the BaBar[2] experiment on the PEP II accelerator at SLAC. The IFR consists of 774 Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors, covering an area of about 2,000 m 2 and equipped with 3,000 Front-end Electronic Cards (FEC) reading about 50,000 channels (readout strips). The first aim of a B-factory experiment is to run continuously without any interruption and then the Detector Control system plays a very important role in order to reduce the dead-time due to the hardware problems. The I.N.F.N. group of Naples has designed and built the IFR Online Detector Control System (IODC)[3] in order to control and monitor the operation of this large number of detectors and of all the IFR subsystems: High Voltage, Low Voltage, Gas system, Trigger and DAQ crates. The IODC consists of 8 custom DAQ stations, placed around the detector and one central DAQ station based on VME technology and placed in electronic house. The IODC use VxWorks and EPICS to implement slow control data flow of about 2500 hardware channels and to develop part of the readout module consisting in about 3500 records. EPICS is interfaced with the BaBar Run Control through the Component Proxy and with the BaBar database (Objectivity) through the Archiver and KeyLookup processes

  17. Study the radiation damage effects in Si microstrip detectors for future HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalwani, Kavita; Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) detectors are playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their superior tracking capabilities. In future HEP experiments, like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, the silicon tracking detectors will be operated in a very intense radiation environment. This leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors, which in turn will affect the operating performance of Si detectors. It is important to complement the measurements of the irradiated Si strip detectors with device simulation, which helps in understanding of both the device behavior and optimizing the design parameters needed for the future Si tracking system. An important ingredient of the device simulation is to develop a radiation damage model incorporating both bulk and surface damage. In this work, a simplified two-trap model is incorporated in device simulation to describe the type-inversion. Further, an extensive simulation of effective doping density as well as electric field profile is carried out at different temperatures for various fluences.

  18. Study the radiation damage effects in Si microstrip detectors for future HEP experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalwani, Kavita, E-mail: kavita.phy@mnit.ac.in [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) Jaipur, Jaipur-302017 (India); Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh [University of Delhi (DU), Delhi-110007 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Silicon (Si) detectors are playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their superior tracking capabilities. In future HEP experiments, like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, the silicon tracking detectors will be operated in a very intense radiation environment. This leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors, which in turn will affect the operating performance of Si detectors. It is important to complement the measurements of the irradiated Si strip detectors with device simulation, which helps in understanding of both the device behavior and optimizing the design parameters needed for the future Si tracking system. An important ingredient of the device simulation is to develop a radiation damage model incorporating both bulk and surface damage. In this work, a simplified two-trap model is incorporated in device simulation to describe the type-inversion. Further, an extensive simulation of effective doping density as well as electric field profile is carried out at different temperatures for various fluences.

  19. Silicon strip prototypes for the ATLAS Upgrade tracker of the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Díez, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the integration structures for the silicon strips tracker of the ATLAS detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), also referred to as High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). Silicon strip sensors are arranged in highly modular structures, called `staves' and `petals'. This paper focuses on the prototyping effort developed by the strips tracker barrel community, as well as on the description of one of the latest stave prototypes. This new prototype is composed of a particular core structure, in which a shield-less bus tape is embedded in between carbon fiber lay-ups. Electrical and thermal performances of the prototype are presented, as well as a description of the assembly procedures and tools.

  20. Aging tests of MSGC detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Boulogne, I; Defontaines, F; Grard, Fernand

    2003-01-01

    MSGC aging effects have been systematically studied to determine optimal performance in the design framework of the CMS forward tracker. Tests were conducted on prototypes under various operating conditions (glass substrates, Cr or Au strips, Ar-DME or Ne-DME gas mixtures, gas set-up purity, and others), using an X-ray generator for irradiation. The different steps of our investigations are summarized. They demonstrate the complexity of the aging phenomenon as well as the difficulty of getting stable behavior of MSGC detectors under high rates of irradiation.

  1. Stereo Information in Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The New Small Wheel of the ATLAS experiment layout foresees eight micromegas detection layers. Some of them will feature stereo strips designed to measure both the precision and the second coordinate. In this note we describe the principle of reconstructing a space point using stereo information obtained from two micromegas detector layers rotated by a known angle. Furthermore, an error analysis is carried out to correlate the precision and the second coordinate resolution with the corresponding rotated micromegas layers resolution. We analyze and examine two different cases in order to find the optimum layout for the muon spectrometer needs.

  2. New strips of convergence for Dirichlet series

    OpenAIRE

    Defant, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this article we study the interplay of the theory of classical Dirichlet series in one complex variable with recent development on monomial expansions of holomorphic functions in infinitely many variables. For a given Dirichlet series we obtain new strips of convergence in the complex plane related to Bohr’s classical strips of uniform but non absolute convergence.

  3. Hardness of approximation for strip packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Kociumaka, Tomasz; Pilipczuk, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Strip packing is a classical packing problem, where the goal is to pack a set of rectangular objects into a strip of a given width, while minimizing the total height of the packing. The problem has multiple applications, for example, in scheduling and stock-cutting, and has been studied extensive...

  4. Mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip under opposite-sense bending was investigated. It was found that a simple crease, which led to the increase of the second moment of area, could significantly alter the overall mechanical behaviour of a thin strip, for example the peak moment could be increased by 100 times. The crease was treated as a cylindrical segment of a small radius. Parametric studies demonstrated that the geometry of the strip could strongly influence its flexural behaviour. We showed that the uniform thickness and the radius of the creased segment had the greatest and the least influence on the mechanical behaviour, respectively. We further revealed that material properties could dramatically affect the overall mechanical behaviour of the creased strip by gradually changing the material from being linear elastic to elastic-perfect plastic. After the formation of the fold, the moment of the two ends of the strip differed considerably when the elasto-plastic materials were used, especially for materials with smaller tangent modulus in the plastic range. The deformation patterns of the thin strips from the finite element simulations were verified by physical models made of thin metal strips. The findings from this study provide useful information for designing origami structures for engineering applications using creased thin strips.

  5. Smile detectors correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Kivanc; Chang, Xin; Skarbek, Władysław

    2017-08-01

    The novel smile recognition algorithm is presented based on extraction of 68 facial salient points (fp68) using the ensemble of regression trees. The smile detector exploits the Support Vector Machine linear model. It is trained with few hundreds exemplar images by SVM algorithm working in 136 dimensional space. It is shown by the strict statistical data analysis that such geometric detector strongly depends on the geometry of mouth opening area, measured by triangulation of outer lip contour. To this goal two Bayesian detectors were developed and compared with SVM detector. The first uses the mouth area in 2D image, while the second refers to the mouth area in 3D animated face model. The 3D modeling is based on Candide-3 model and it is performed in real time along with three smile detectors and statistics estimators. The mouth area/Bayesian detectors exhibit high correlation with fp68/SVM detector in a range [0:8; 1:0], depending mainly on light conditions and individual features with advantage of 3D technique, especially in hard light conditions.

  6. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  7. Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Recovery and Dehydration of 1-Butanol and Acetone/Butanol/Ethanol from Dilute Aqueous Solutions. Part 2. Experimental Validation with Simple Mixtures and Actual Fermentation Broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: In Part1 of this work, a process integrating vapor stripping, vapor compression, and a vapor permeation membrane separation step, Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was predicted to produce energy savings compared to traditional distillation systems for separat...

  8. Transmutation detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodová, Z.; Klupák, V.; Sus, F.; Kučera, Jan; Kůs, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 632, č. 1 (2011), s. 109-111 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Transmutation detector * Activation method * Neutron detector * Neutron fluence Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  9. Vapor Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, H. M.; Garrard, G. C.; Houston, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Detector eliminates need for removing covers to take samples. Detector is canister consisting of screw-in base and clear plastic tube that contains two colors of silica gel. Monoethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide vapors are visually monitored with canister containing color-changing gels.

  10. Progress on CMS detector lowering

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    It was an amazing engineering challenge - the lowering of the first hugeendcap disc (YE+3) of the CMS detector slowly and carefully 100 metres underground. The spectacular descent took place on 30 November and was documented by a film crew from Reuters news group. The uniquely shaped slice is 16 m high, about 50 cm thick, and weighs 400 tonnes. It is one of 15 sections that make up the complete CMS detector. The solid steel structure of the disc forms part of the magnet return yoke and is equipped on both sides with muon chambers. A special gantry crane lowered the element, with just 20 cm of leeway between the edges of the detector and the walls of the shaft! On 12 December, a further section of the detector (YE+2) containing the cathode strip chamber made the 10-hour journey underground. This piece is 16 m high and weighs 880 tonnes. There are now four sections of the detector in the experimental cavern, with a further 11 to follow. The endcap disc YE+3 (seen in the foreground) begins its journey down the ...

  11. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Lewis, J.C.; McClung, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material [1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)], feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches [0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)] were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests

  12. Analysis of Lead and Zinc by Mercury-Free Potentiometric Stripping Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    1997-01-01

    A method is presented for trace-element analysis of lead and zinc by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) where both the glassy-carbon working electrode and the electrolyte are free of mercury. Analysis of zinc requires an activation procedure of the glassy-carbon electrode. The activation...... is performed by pre-concentrating zinc on glassy carbon at -1400 mV(SCE) in a mercury-free electrolyte containing 0.1 M HCl and 2 ppm Zn2+, followed by stripping at approx. -1050 mV. A linear relationship between stripping peak areas, recorded in the derivative mode, and concentration was found...

  13. The solenoidal detector collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems (STS) will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. The STS is physically a small part of the central tracking system and the calorimeter of the detector being proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. The STS will consist of silicon microstrip detectors and possibly silicon pixel detectors. The other two components are an outer barrel tracker, which will consist of straw tubes or scintillating fibers; and an outer intermediate angle tracker, which will consist of gas microstrips. The components are designed to work as an integrated system. Each componenet has specific strengths, but is individually incapable of providing the overall performance required by the physics goals of the SSC. The large particle fluxes, the short times between beam crossing, the high channel count, and the required very high position measurement accuracy pose challenging problems that must be solved. Furthermore, to avoid degrading the measurements, the solutions must be achieved using only a minimal amount of material. An additional constraint is that only low-Z materials are allowed. If that were not difficlut enough, the solutions must also be affordable

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of the response functions of Cd Te detectors to be applied in X-rays spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomal, A. [Universidade Federale de Goias, Instituto de Fisica, Campus Samambaia, 74001-970, Goiania, (Brazil); Lopez G, A. H.; Santos, J. C.; Costa, P. R., E-mail: alessandra_tomal@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua du Matao Travessa R. 187, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    In this work, the energy response functions of a Cd Te detector were obtained by Monte Carlo simulation in the energy range from 5 to 150 keV, using the Penelope code. The response functions simulated included the finite detector resolution and the carrier transport. The simulated energy response matrix was validated through comparison with experimental results obtained for radioactive sources. In order to investigate the influence of the correction by the detector response at diagnostic energy range, x-ray spectra were measured using a Cd Te detector (model Xr-100-T, Amptek), and then corrected by the energy response of the detector using the stripping procedure. Results showed that the Cd Te exhibit good energy response at low energies (below 40 keV), showing only small distortions on the measured spectra. For energies below about 70 keV, the contribution of the escape of Cd- and Te-K x-rays produce significant distortions on the measured x-ray spectra. For higher energies, the most important correction is the detector efficiency and the carrier trapping effects. The results showed that, after correction by the energy response, the measured spectra are in good agreement with those provided by different models from the literature. Finally, our results showed that the detailed knowledge of the response function and a proper correction procedure are fundamental for achieve more accurate spectra from which several qualities parameters (i.e. half-value layer, effective energy and mean energy) can be determined. (Author)

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of the response functions of Cd Te detectors to be applied in X-rays spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomal, A.; Lopez G, A. H.; Santos, J. C.; Costa, P. R.

    2014-08-01

    In this work, the energy response functions of a Cd Te detector were obtained by Monte Carlo simulation in the energy range from 5 to 150 keV, using the Penelope code. The response functions simulated included the finite detector resolution and the carrier transport. The simulated energy response matrix was validated through comparison with experimental results obtained for radioactive sources. In order to investigate the influence of the correction by the detector response at diagnostic energy range, x-ray spectra were measured using a Cd Te detector (model Xr-100-T, Amptek), and then corrected by the energy response of the detector using the stripping procedure. Results showed that the Cd Te exhibit good energy response at low energies (below 40 keV), showing only small distortions on the measured spectra. For energies below about 70 keV, the contribution of the escape of Cd- and Te-K x-rays produce significant distortions on the measured x-ray spectra. For higher energies, the most important correction is the detector efficiency and the carrier trapping effects. The results showed that, after correction by the energy response, the measured spectra are in good agreement with those provided by different models from the literature. Finally, our results showed that the detailed knowledge of the response function and a proper correction procedure are fundamental for achieve more accurate spectra from which several qualities parameters (i.e. half-value layer, effective energy and mean energy) can be determined. (Author)

  16. Staves and Petals: Multi-module Local Support Structures of the ATLAS ITk Strips Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) is an all-silicon tracker that will replace the existing inner detector at the Phase-II Upgrade of ATLAS. The outermost part of the tracker consists of the strips tracker, in which the sensor elements consist of silicon micro-strip sensors with strip lengths varying from 1.7 to up to 10 cm. The current design is part of the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR) and envisions a four-layer barrel and two six-disk end-cap regions. The sensor and readout units (``modules'') are directly glued onto multi-module, low-mass, high thermal performance carbon fibre structures, called “staves” for the barrel and ``petals'' for the end-cap. They provide cooling, power, data and control lines to the modules with a minimal amount of external services. An extensive prototyping program was put in place over the last years to fully characterise these structures mechanically, thermally, and electrically. Thermo-mechanical stave and petal prototypes have recently been built and ...

  17. Prototype performance of novel muon telescope detector at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, L.; Ames, V.

    2011-01-01

    Research on a large-area, cost-effective Muon Telescope Detector has been carried out for RHIC and for next generation detectors at future QCD Lab. We utilize state-of-the-art multi-gap resistive plate chambers with large modules and long readout strips in detector design. The results from cosmic ray and beam test will be presented to address intrinsic timing and spatial resolution for a Long-MRPC. The prototype performance of a novel muon telescope detector at STAR will be reported, including muon identification capability, timing and spatial resolution. (author)

  18. Cathode Strip Chambers in ATLAS: Installation, Commissioning and in situ Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulous, T.; Polychronakos, V.; Assamaga, K.A.; Benedict, B.H.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Deng, J.; Gordeev, A.; Eschrich, I.G.; Grachev, V.; Johns, K. Junnarkar, S.S.; Kandasamy, A.; Kaushik, V.; Khodinov, A.; Lankford, A.; Lei, X.; Garcia, R.M.; Nikolopoulos, K.; O' Connor, P.; Parnell-Lampen, C.L.; Park, W.; Porter, R.; Purohit, M.V.; Schernau, M.; Toggerson, B.K.; Tompkins, D.

    2009-06-01

    The Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the LHC is designed to provide high quality stand-alone muon identification, momentum measurement and trigger capabilities with high pseudorapidity coverage. Precision tracking at the inner-most station in the high pseudorapidity regions, 2.3 < |eta| < 2.7, is performed by 16 four-layered Cathode Strip Chambers on each end-cap. These are multi-wire proportional chambers with segmented cathodes providing excellent spatial resolution and high counting rate capability. The second cathode of each layer is coarsely segmented, providing the transverse coordinate. The detector level performance of the system is presented. The installation and commissioning effort for the Cathode Strip Chambers is described. Finally, the in situ performance is briefly discussed.

  19. High rate operation of micro-strip gas chambers on diamond-coated glass

    CERN Document Server

    Bouclier, Roger; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Temmel, T; Cooke, R A; Donnel, S; Sastri, S A; Sonderer, N

    1996-01-01

    Very high rate operation of micro­strip gas chambers can be achieved using slightly conducting substrates. We describe preliminary measurements realized with detectors manufactured on boro-silicate glass coated, before the photo-lithographic processing, with a diamond layer having a surface resistivity of around 1014 ‡/o. Stable medium-term operation, and a rate capability largely exceeding the one obtained with identical plates manufactured on uncoated glass are demonstrated. If these results are confirmed by long-term measurements the diamond coating technology appears very attractive since it allows, with a moderate cost overhead, to use thin, commercially available glass with the required surface quality for the large-scale production of gas micro-strip detectors.

  20. Closing in on the Tip of the CMSSM Stau Coannihilation Strip

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, Nishita; Luo, Feng; Marrouche, Jad

    2014-01-01

    Near the tip of the stau coannihilation strip in the CMSSM with a neutralino LSP, the astrophysical cold dark matter density constraint forces the stau-neutralino mass difference to be small. If this mass difference is smaller than the tau mass, the stau may decay either in the outer part of an LHC detector - the `disappearing track' signature - or be sufficiently long-lived to leave the detector before decaying - the long-lived massive charged-particle signature. We combine searches for these signatures with conventional missing transverse energy searches during LHC Run 1, identifying the small remaining parts of the CMSSM stau coannihilation strip region that have not yet been excluded, and discussing how they may be explored during Run 2 of the LHC.

  1. LabVIEW-based sequential-injection analysis system for the determination of trace metals by square-wave anodic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry on mercury-film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Anastasios; Voulgaropoulos, Anastasios

    2003-01-01

    The development of a dedicated automated sequential-injection analysis apparatus for anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) is reported. The instrument comprised a peristaltic pump, a multiposition selector valve and a home-made potentiostat and used a mercury-film electrode as the working electrodes in a thin-layer electrochemical detector. Programming of the experimental sequence was performed in LabVIEW 5.1. The sequence of operations included formation of the mercury film, electrolytic or adsorptive accumulation of the analyte on the electrode surface, recording of the voltammetric current-potential response, and cleaning of the electrode. The stripping step was carried out by applying a square-wave (SW) potential-time excitation signal to the working electrode. The instrument allowed unattended operation since multiple-step sequences could be readily implemented through the purpose-built software. The utility of the analyser was tested for the determination of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) by SWASV and of nickel(II), cobalt(II) and uranium(VI) by SWAdSV.

  2. Particle identification by silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Denison de Souza

    1997-01-01

    A method is developed for the evaluation of the energy loss, dE/dx, of a charged particle traversing a silicon strip detector. The method is applied to the DELPHI microvertex detector leading to diagrams of dE/dx versus momentum for different particles. The specific case of pions and protons is treated and the most probable value of dE/dx and the width of the dE/dx distribution for those particles in the momentum range of 0.2 GeV/c to 1.5 GeV/c, are obtained. The resolution found is 13.4 % for particles with momentum higher than 2 GeV/c and the separation power is 2.9 for 1.0 GeV/c pions and protons. (author)

  3. Cryogenic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, A.

    1987-01-01

    Presently the development of new large scale detector systems, used in very high energy physics experiments, is very active. In the low energy range, the introduction of charge coupled devices allows improved spacial and energy resolution. In the keV region, high resolution can only be achieved via the well established diffraction spectrometers with the well-known disadvantage of a small throughput. There exist no efficient detectors for non-ionizing radiation such as coherent nuclear scattering of weakly interacting particles. The development of high resolution solid state detectors in the keV-region with the possibility of nuclear recoil detection is therefore highly desired. Such detectors applied in astro and particle physics would thus allow one to obtain new information not achievable otherwise. Three types of cryogenic detectors exist: Calorimeters/Bolometers. This type is sensitive to the produced excess phonons and measures the deposited energy by detecting the heat pulses. Excess charge carriers should be used to produce phonons. Tunneling junctions. This type is sensitive to excess charge produced by the Cooper pair breakup. Excess phonons should be used to break up Cooper pairs. Superheated superconducting granules (SSG). An SSG detector consists of granules, the metastability of which is disturbed by radiation. The Meissner effect then causes a change in the field distribution of the applied external field, which can be detected. The present paper discusses the basic principle of calorimetric and tunneling junction detectors and some of their applications. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  4. Proton and hydrogen atom detection efficiency of resistance strip magnetic electron multiplier particle-counting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehrenberg, P.J.; Clark, K.C.

    1976-10-01

    The absolute detection efficiency for protons and for hydrogen atoms in the energy range 5--60 keV is determined for a resistance strip magnetic electron multiplier particle-counting system. Significant history-dependent gain variations are discussed. The detector system is suitable for use in coincidence experiments requiring particle-counting rates to 1.0 MHz and timing accuracies of 3.0 nsec. (AIP)

  5. Investigation of HV/HR-CMOS technology for the ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Grillo, A. A.; Liang, Z.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Seiden, A.; Volk, J.; Affolder, A.; Buckland, M.; Meng, L.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; McMahon, S.; Nickerson, R.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.; Vigani, L.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Kanisauskas, K.; Maneuski, D.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Grenier, P.; Kenney, C.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Turchetta, R.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Ehrler, F.; Peric, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Stanitzki, M.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Seidel, S.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Wang, R.; Zhang, J.; Warren, M.; Song, W.; Xiu, Q.; Zhu, H.

    2016-09-01

    ATLAS has formed strip CMOS project to study the use of CMOS MAPS devices as silicon strip sensors for the Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade. This choice of sensors promises several advantages over the conventional baseline design, such as better resolution, less material in the tracking volume, and faster construction speed. At the same time, many design features of the sensors are driven by the requirement of minimizing the impact on the rest of the detector. Hence the target devices feature long pixels which are grouped to form a virtual strip with binary-encoded z position. The key performance aspects are radiation hardness compatibility with HL-LHC environment, as well as extraction of the full hit position with full-reticle readout architecture. To date, several test chips have been submitted using two different CMOS technologies. The AMS 350 nm is a high voltage CMOS process (HV-CMOS), that features the sensor bias of up to 120 V. The TowerJazz 180 nm high resistivity CMOS process (HR-CMOS) uses a high resistivity epitaxial layer to provide the depletion region on top of the substrate. We have evaluated passive pixel performance, and charge collection projections. The results strongly support the radiation tolerance of these devices to radiation dose of the HL-LHC in the strip tracker region. We also describe design features for the next chip submission that are motivated by our technology evaluation.

  6. The Implementation of the power supply system of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Paoletti, S

    2007-01-01

    The power supply system of the silicon strip tracker of the CMS experiment provides HV bias and LV power to the 15000 modules of the detector, arranged into 1944 “power groups” and 256 “control rings”. Around 1200 power supply modules, disposed on 29 racks, operate in a “hostile” radiation and magnetic field environment, 10 m away from the beam crossing region. They power the detector through≃ 50 m long custom-designed “Low Impedance” cables, adopting the sensing wire technique to compensate ...

  7. Upgrades to the CSC Cathode Strip Chamber Electronics for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bravo, Cameron Bily

    2016-01-01

    The luminosity, latency, and trigger rate foreseen at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) present challenges to efficient readout of the Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) of the CMS end cap muon detector. Upgrades to the electronics are targeted for the inner rings of CSCs in each station, which have the highest flux of particles. The upgrades comprise digital cathode front end boards for nearly deadtimeless and long trigger latency operating capability, new DAQ boards that transmit data from the detectors with higher-bandwidth links, and a new data concentrator/interface to the central DAQ system that can receive the higher input rates.

  8. ATLAS ITk short-strip stave prototype module with integrated DCDC powering and control

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)397167; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During the Phase II upgrade, the ATLAS detector at the LHC will be upgraded with a new Inner Tracker (ITk) detector. The ITk prototype barrel module design has adopted an integrated low mass assembly featuring single-sided flexible circuits, with readout ASICs, glued to the silicon strip sensor. Further integration has been achieved by the attachment of module DCDC powering, a HV sensor biasing switch and autonomous monitoring and control to the sensor. This low mass integrated module approach benefits further in a reduced width stave structure to which the modules are attached. The results of preliminary electrical tests of such an integrated module are presented.

  9. An aging study of a gas electron multiplier with micro-strip gas chamber readout

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, J

    1999-01-01

    We have performed an aging study of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) readout with a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber (MSGC). The GEM is constructed from Kapton and copper, and the MSGC is constructed from semiconductive glass and gold. When the detector (GEM+MSGC) is operated in an argon-dimethyl ether (DME) gas mixture and irradiated with a 5.4 keV photon beam, about 220 mC/cm of charge can be accumulated without degradation of the detector performance. This corresponds to about 20 years of operation at the LHC.

  10. Testbeam studies of pre-prototype silicon strip sensors for the LHCb UT upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Abba, Andrea; Blusk, Steven; Britton, Thomas; Davis, Adam; Dendek, Adam; Dey, Biplab; Ely, Scott; Evans, T.; Fu, Jinlin; Gandini, Paolo; Lionetto, Federica; Manning, Peter Michael; Meadows, Brian; Mountain, Raymond; Neri, Nicola; Petruzzo, Marco; Pikies, Malgorzata; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Szumlak, Tomasz; Wang, Jianchun

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is preparing for a major upgrade in 2018-2019. One of the key components in the upgrade is a new silicon tracker situated upstream of the analysis magnet of the experiment. The Upstream Tracker (UT) will consist of four planes of silicon strip detectors, with each plane covering an area of about 2m$^2$. An important consideration of these detectors is their performance after they have been exposed to a large radiation dose. In this article we present test beam results of pre-prototype n-in-p and p-in-n sensors that have been irradiated with doses up to 23.3 MRad.

  11. Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated mathematical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samaraseker; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1998-09-30

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evaluation and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a join research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American steel makers.

  12. Investigations into the impact of bond pads and p-stop implants on the detection efficiency of silicon micro-strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poley, Luise; Lohwasser, Kristin [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Blue, Andrew [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy; and others

    2016-11-15

    The High Luminosity Upgrade of the LHC will require the replacement of the Inner Detector of ATLAS with the Inner Tracker (ITk) in order to cope with higher radiation levels and higher track densities. Prototype silicon strip detector modules are currently developed and their performance is studied in both particle test beams and X-ray beams. In previous test beam studies of prototype modules, silicon sensor strips were found to respond in regions varying from the strip pitch of 74.5 μm. The variations have been linked to local features of the sensor architecture. This paper presents results of detailed sensor measurements in both X-ray and particle beams investigating the impact of sensor features (metal pads and p-stops) on the responding area of a sensor strip.

  13. Characterization of radiolytically generated degradation products in the strip section of a TRUEX flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterman, Dean R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Olson, Lonnie G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Groenewold, Gary S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McDowell, Rocklan G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tillotson, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Law, Jack D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet the FCRD level 2 milestone M3FT-13IN0302053, “Identification of TRUEX Strip Degradation.” The INL radiolysis test loop has been used to identify radiolytically generated degradation products in the strip section of the TRUEX flowsheet. These data were used to evaluate impact of the formation of radiolytic degradation products in the strip section upon the efficacy of the TRUEX flowsheet for the recovery of trivalent actinides and lanthanides from acidic solution. The nominal composition of the TRUEX solvent used in this study is 0.2 M CMPO and 1.4 M TBP dissolved in n-dodecane and the nominal composition of the TRUEX strip solution is 1.5 M lactic acid and 0.050 M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Gamma irradiation of a mixture of TRUEX process solvent and stripping solution in the test loop does not adversely impact flowsheet performance as measured by stripping americium ratios. The observed increase in americium stripping distribution ratios with increasing absorbed dose indicates the radiolytic production of organic soluble degradation compounds.

  14. Self-powered radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Playfoot, K.C.; Bauer, R.F.; Goldstein, N.P.

    1980-01-01

    The detector consists of a central wire made of inconel that is placed along the longitudinal axis of the detector, a tube-shaped emitter electrode of Rh or Co enclosing this wire, and a coaxial outer collector electrode separated from the emitter electrode by an insulation. The collector electrode may consist of inconel, too. The detector is manufactured by means of the cupping process or by working in the die. (DG) [de

  15. Determining the dynamic range of MCPs based on pore size and strip current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C.; Adrian, M. L.; Herrero, F.; James, P.; Jones, H. H.; Rodriguez, M.; Roman, P.; Shappirio, M.

    2010-12-01

    Micro-Channel Plates (MCPs) are used as detectors for almost all detectors measuring particles (both ions, electrons and neutrals) below 30 keV. Recent advances in the manufacturing technology of the MCPs have increased the number of options one has when selecting plates for an instrument. But it is not clear how many of these options affect the performance of the MCPs. In particular the dynamic range is not a clear cut calculation to make from the strip current. There is also some evidence that pore size and coating play a role. We measured the dynamic range and pulse height distribution of MCPs detector chevron stacks with a wide variety of strip currents from the low “normal” range in the EDR range. We also looked at the effects of varying the pore size from 25 microns to 10 microns, partial plating of the MCP surface and coating one surface on each MCP with gold rather than the standard zinc chromium. We will show how the dynamic range and pulse height distributions vary vs. strip current, pore size, and surface plating configurations.

  16. Status of the CDF silicon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Gino

    CDF is a collider experiment that is running at the Tevatron. The core of the CDF detector is an 8 layer silicon micro strip tracker. There are 722,432 active strips with pitches that range from 25 to 140 μm. This device is an essential part of the heavy flavor tagging and forward tracking capabilities of the experiment and it is one of the largest silicon detectors in present use by an HEP experiment. A of the experience in commissioning and operating this double-sided detector during the first 2 years of Run II is presented. A description of the encountered failure modes follows a general view of the design. After more than 2 years of data taking, we report on the performance of the tracker and its effect on physics analyses. A short description of the SVT, the level 2 Silicon Vertex Trigger, will be given as well. PACS: 29.40.GX Tracking and position sensitive detectors - 29.40.Wk Solid-state detectors

  17. Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors for non-destructive analysis of works of art by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Cesareo, R; Castellano, A

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors, such as Si-PIN, Si-drift, Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x Te and HgI sub 2 , coupled to miniaturized low-power X-ray tubes, are well suited in portable systems for energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), analysis of archaeological samples. The Si-PIN detector is characterized by a thickness of about 300 mu m, an area of about 2x3 mm sup 2 , an energy resolution of about 200-250 eV at 5.9 keV and an entrance window of 25-75 mu m. The Si-drift detector has approximately the same area and thickness, but an energy resolution of 155 eV at 5.9 keV. The efficiency of these detectors is around 100% from 4 to 10 keV, and then decreases versus energy, reaching approx 9% at 30 keV. Coupled to a miniaturized 10 kV, 0.1 mA, Ca-anode or to a miniaturized 30 kV, 0.1 mA, W-anode X-ray tubes, portable systems can be constructed, which are able to analyse K-lines of elements up to about silver, and L-lines of heavy elements. The Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x Te detector ha...

  18. DUMAND detector

    CERN Multimedia

    This object is one of the 256 other detectors of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detection) experiment. The goal of the experiment was the construction of the first deep ocean high energy neutrino detector, to be placed at 4800 m depth in the Pacific Ocean off Keahole Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. A few years ago, a European conference with Cosmic experiments was organized at CERN as they were projects like DUMAND in Hawaii. Along with the conference, a temporary exhibition was organised as well. It was a collaboration of institutions from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the U.S.A. CERN had borrowed equipment and objects from different institutes around the world, including this detector of the DUMAND experiment. Most of the equipment were sent back to the institutes, however this detector sphere was offered to a CERN member of the personnel.

  19. Detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.

    1977-10-01

    Semiconductor detectors are now applied to a very wide range of problems. The combination of relatively low cost, excellent energy resolution, and simultaneous broad energy-spectrum analysis is uniquely suited to many applications in both basic and applied physics. Alternative techniques, such as magnetic spectrometers for charged-particle spectroscopy, while offering better energy resolution, are bulky, expensive, and usually far more difficult to use. Furthermore, they do not directly provide the broad energy-spectrum measurements easily accomplished using semiconductor detectors. Scintillation detectors, which are approximately equivalent to semiconductor detectors in convenience and cost, exhibit 10 to 100 times worse energy resolution. However, their high efficiency and large potential size recommend their use in some measurements

  20. End of the CMSSM coannihilation strip is nigh

    CERN Document Server

    Citron, M.; Luo, F.; Marrouche, J.; Olive, K.A.; de Vries, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    A recent global fit to the CMSSM incorporating current constraints on supersymmetry, including missing transverse energy searches at the LHC, BR(B_s to mu+ mu-) and the direct XENON100 search for dark matter, favours points towards the end of the stau-neutralino (stau_1- chi) coannihilation strip with relatively large m_1/2 and 10 < tan beta < 40 and points in the H/A rapid-annihilation funnel with tan beta ~ 50. The coannihilation points typically have m_stau_1-m_chi < 5 GeV, and a significant fraction, including the most-favoured point, has m_stau_1-m_chi < m_tau. In such a case, the stau_1 lifetime would be so long that the stau_1 would be detectable as a long-lived massive charged particle that may decay inside or outside the apparatus. We show that CMSSM scenarios close to the tip of the coannihilation strip for tan beta < 40 are already excluded by LHC searches for massive charged particles, and discuss the prospects for their detection in the CMS and ATLAS detectors via time-of-flight me...

  1. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Commissioning and Preliminary Performances

    CERN Document Server

    Palmonari, F M

    2009-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest silicon microstrip detector. The SST is composed of four subdetectors which were integrated into the Tracker Support Tube (TST) at the CERN Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) in March 2007. After the insertion of the TST into CMS in December 2007, the first data taking of CMS with the SST included took place in July 2008 without magnetic field and one month later with a magnetic field of 3.8 Tesla. The SST was ready for the LHC start-up of September 10, 2008. The main aspects of the SST commissioning and a description of the problems encountered and solved so far are summarized here together with some preliminary performance evaluation.

  2. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation detector for measuring e.g. a neutron flux consists of a central emitter, an insulating shell arranged around it, and a tube-shaped collector enclosing both. The emitter itself is composed of a great number of stranded, spiral wires of small diameter giving a defined flexibility to the detector. For emitter material Pt, Rh, V, Co, Ce, Os or Ta may be used. (DG) [de

  3. Particle detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The lecture series will present an overview of the basic techniques and underlying physical principles of particle detectors, applied to current and future high energy physics experiments. Illustrating examples, mainly from the field of collider experiments, will demonstrate the performance and limitations of the various techniques. After an introduction the following topics will be covered: Tracking (gas, solid state based) - Scintillation and light detection Calorimetry - Particle Identification - Electronics and Data Acquisition - Detector Systems

  4. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  5. Slip Morphology of Elastic Strips on Frictional Rigid Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Tomohiko G; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Wada, Hirofumi

    2017-04-28

    The morphology of an elastic strip subject to vertical compressive stress on a frictional rigid substrate is investigated by a combination of theory and experiment. We find a rich variety of morphologies, which-when the bending elasticity dominates over the effect of gravity-are classified into three distinct types of states: pinned, partially slipped, and completely slipped, depending on the magnitude of the vertical strain and the coefficient of static friction. We develop a theory of elastica under mixed clamped-hinged boundary conditions combined with the Coulomb-Amontons friction law and find excellent quantitative agreement with simulations and controlled physical experiments. We also discuss the effect of gravity in order to bridge the difference in the qualitative behaviors of stiff strips and flexible strings or ropes. Our study thus complements recent work on elastic rope coiling and takes a significant step towards establishing a unified understanding of how a thin elastic object interacts vertically with a solid surface.

  6. Department of Radiation Detectors - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekoszewski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Work carried out in 1996 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. The Departamental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors, adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments. These objectives were accomplished in 1996 by: research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. a spherical set of particle detectors silicon ball), detectors for particle identification), development of technology of high-resistivity silicon detectors HRSi (grant proposal), development of thermoelectric cooling systems (grant proposal), research on p-i-n photodiode-based personal dosimeters, study of applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. The Department conducts research on the design and technology involved in producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. Various tube models and their power supplies were developed. Some work has also been devoted to the detection and dosimetry of X-rays. X-ray tube generators are applied to non-destructive testing and are components of analytical systems such as: X-ray fluorescence chemical composition analysis, gauges of layer thickness and composition stress measurements, on-line control of processes, others where an X-ray tube may replace a radio-isotope source. In 1996, the Department: reviewed the domestic demand for X-ray generators, developed an X-ray generator for diagnosis of ostheroporosis of human limbs, prepared a grant proposal for the development of a new instrument for radiotherapy, the so-called needle-like X-ray tube. (author)

  7. Department of Radiation Detectors - Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekoszewski, J. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Work carried out in 1996 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. The Departamental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors, adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments. These objectives were accomplished in 1996 by: research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. a spherical set of particle detectors silicon ball), detectors for particle identification), development of technology of high-resistivity silicon detectors HRSi (grant proposal), development of thermoelectric cooling systems (grant proposal), research on p-i-n photodiode-based personal dosimeters, study of applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. The Department conducts research on the design and technology involved in producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. Various tube models and their power supplies were developed. Some work has also been devoted to the detection and dosimetry of X-rays. X-ray tube generators are applied to non-destructive testing and are components of analytical systems such as: X-ray fluorescence chemical composition analysis, gauges of layer thickness and composition stress measurements, on-line control of processes, others where an X-ray tube may replace a radio-isotope source. In 1996, the Department: reviewed the domestic demand for X-ray generators, developed an X-ray generator for diagnosis of ostheroporosis of human limbs, prepared a grant proposal for the development of a new instrument for radiotherapy, the so-called needle-like X-ray tube. (author).

  8. Radiation detectors for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagi, V.

    2005-01-01

    Detection and measurement of radiation plays a vital role in nuclear reactors from the point of view of control and safety, personnel protection and process control applications. Various types of radiation are measured over a wide range of intensity. Consequently a variety of detectors find use in nuclear reactors. Some of these devices have been developed in Electronics Division. They include gas-filled detectors such as 10 B-lined proportional counters and chambers, fission detectors and BF 3 counters are used for the measurement of neutron flux both for reactor control and safety, process control as well as health physics instrumentation. In-core neutron flux instrumentation employs the use detectors such as miniature fission detectors and self-powered detectors. In this development effort, several indigenous materials, technologies and innovations have been employed to suit the specific requirement of nuclear reactor applications. This has particular significance in view of the fact that several new types of reactors such as P-4, PWR and AHWR critical facilities, FBTR, PFBR as well as the refurbishment of old units like CIRUS are being developed. The development work has sought to overcome some difficulties associated with the non-availability of isotopically enriched neutron-sensing materials, achieving all-welded construction etc. The present paper describes some of these innovations and performance results. (author)

  9. High resolution silicon detectors for colliding beam physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Bedeschi, F.; Bertolucci, E.; Bettoni, D.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Dell'Orso, M.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Raso, G.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.

    1984-01-01

    Resolution and linearity of the position measurement of Pisa multi-electrode silicon detectors are presented. The detectors are operated in slightly underdepleted mode and take advantage of their intrinsic resistivity for resistive charge partition between adjacent strips. 22 μm resolution is achieved with readout lines spaced 300 μm. Possible applications in colliding beam experiments for the detection of secondary vertices are discussed. (orig.)

  10. A Scintillator Purification System for the Borexino Solar Neutrino Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector was performed with a system that combined distillation, water extraction, gas stripping and filtration. The purification of the scintillator achieved unprecedented low backgrounds for the large scale liquid scintillation detector. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, construction and commissioning of the purification system, and reviews the require...

  11. The vertex detector of the UA2 experiment (a low mass self sustaining system of cylindrical multiwire proportional chambers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dialinas, M.; Forget, J.; Geoffroy, D.; Jean, P.; Vergand, M.

    1983-07-01

    The construction of the cylindrical proportional strip chambers of the UA2 vertex detector is reported. The mechanical design, the engineering and the effective realization are described in detail. Possible improvements for the construction of such chambers are also given

  12. A video strip chart program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    A strip chart recorder has been utilized for trend analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory EN tandem since 1987. At the EN, the author could not afford the nice eight channel thermal pen recorder that was used at the 25 URC. He had to suffice with two channel fiber tip or capillary pen type recorders retrieved from salvage and maintained with parts from other salvaged recorders. After cycling through several machines that eventually became completely unserviceable, a search for a new thermal recorder was begun. As much as he hates to write computer code, he decided to try his hand at getting an old data acquisition unit, that had been retrieved several years ago from salvage, to meet his needs. A BASIC language compiler was used because time was not available to learn a more advanced language. While attempting to increase acquisition and scroll speed on the 6 MHz 80286 that the code was first developed on, it became apparent that scrolling only the first small portion of the screen at high speed and then averaging that region and histogramming the average provided both the speed necessary for capturing fairly short duration events, and a trend record without use of back scrolling and disk storage routines. This turned out to be quite sufficient

  13. Detection of mercury ions using L-cysteine modified electrodes by anodic stripping voltammetric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanitha, M.; Balasubramanian, N.; Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, Camellia

    2018-02-01

    The detection of contaminants in wastewater is of massive importance in today's situation as they pose a serious threat to the environment as well as humans. One such vital contaminants is mercury and its compound, the reported mercury detectors grieve from low sensitivity, high cost and slow response. In the present work graphene based electrode material is developed for sensing mercury contaminants in wastewater using electrochemical technique. The synthesized material graphene oxide (GO) modified with L-Cysteine in presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as capping agent was characterized using SEM, TEM and Raman Spectroscopic analysis. It is ascertained from the morphological characterization that the nanocomposite exhibits a spherical morphology. The L-cysteine modified graphene oxide electrode is electrochemically characterized using redox couple [Fe(CN)63-/4-] and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) analysis. Electrochemical sensing of Hg (II) ions in solution was done using Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The incorporation of graphene significantly increases the sensitivity and selectivity towards mercury sensing.

  14. ATLAS Inner Detector: Commissioning with Cosmics Data

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has started taking data last autumn with the inauguration of the LHC. Determination of vertex position and charged particle tracks is performed in the Inner Detector which consists of pixel and microstrip Silicon sensors and transition radiation tubes. In this talk construction and commissioning of these three detectors will be presented. The Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment with approx. 80 million readout channels. After connection of cooling and services and verification of their operation the ATLAS Pixel Detector is now in the final stage of its commissioning phase. Prior to the first beams expected in Autumn 2009, a full characterization of the detector is performed. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. Sensors are assembled into 4000 modules with 6 million readout channels. The completed SCT detector was operated for many months u...

  15. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asztalos, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need

  16. A detector system for studying nuclear reactions relevant to Single Event Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murin, Yu. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinski 28, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: murin@jinr.ru; Babain, Yu. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinski 28, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Chubarov, M. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinski 28, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tuboltsev, Yu. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinski 28, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pljuschev, V. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinski 28, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zubkov, M. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinski 28, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nomokonov, P. [High Energy Laboratory, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Voronin, A. [Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Merkin, M. [Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kondratiev, V. [St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Olsson, N.; Blomgren, J. [Department of Neutron Research, Uppsala University, Box 525, SE 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Westerberg, L. [Department of Physics, Uppsala University, Box 530, SE 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Ekstroem, C.; Kolozhvari, A. [The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 533, SE 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Jaederstroem, H. [Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Uppsala University, Box 531, SE 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Jakobsson, B.; Golubev, P. [Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bargholz, Chr.; Geren, L.; Tegner, P.-E.; Zartova, I. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Budzanowski, A.; Czech, B.; Skwirczynska, I. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, PL 31 342 Cracow (Poland); Tang, H.H.K. [IBM, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2007-08-01

    We describe a device to study reactions relevant for the Single Event Effect (SEE) in microelectronics by means of 200A and 300AMeV, inverse kinematics, Si+H and Si+D reactions. The work is focused on the possibility to measure Z=2-14 projectile fragments as efficiently as possible. During commissioning and first experiments the fourth quadrant of the CELSIUS storage ring acted as a spectrometer to register fragments in two planes of Si strip detectors in the angular region 0{sup a}t -0.6{sup a}t. A combination of ring-structured and sector-structured Si strip detector planes operated at angles 0.6{sup a}t-1.1{sup a}t. For specific event tagging a Si+ phoswich scintillator wall operated in the range 3.9{sup a}t-11.7{sup a}t and Si {delta}E-E telescopes of CHICSi type operated at large angles.

  17. Construction and Quality Assurance of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer at LHC/CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389527; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. To cope with increasing background rates, associated with the steadily increasing luminosity of LHC to 10 times design luminosity, the present detector technology in the current innermost stations of the muon endcap system of the ATLAS experiment (the Small Wheel), will be replaced in 2019 by resistive strip Micromegas and small strip TGC detectors. Both technologies will provide tracking and trigger information. In the ``New Small Wheel'' the Micromegas will be arranged in eight detection layers built of trapezoidally shaped quadruplets of four different sizes covering in total about 1200\\,m$^2$ of detection plane. In order to achieve 15\\,\\% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, a challenging mechanical precision is required in the construction of each active plane, with an alignment of the readout strips at the level of 30\\,\\textmu m along the precision coordinate and 80\\,\\textmu m perpendicular...

  18. Prevention of Stripping under Chip Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Eighteen chip-sealed roadways in eight cities and counties in Minnesota were evaluated both in the field (for condition surveys and density tests) and in the laboratory (for permeability, stripping, tensile-strength ratio, asphalt film thickness, and...

  19. Buffer Strips for Riparian Zone Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This study provides a review of technical literature concerning the width of riparian buffer strips needed to protect water quality and maintain other important values provided by riparian ecosystem...

  20. Temperature Profile of the Duracell Test Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viiri, Jouni; Kettunen, Lasse

    1996-01-01

    Presents the temperature profile of the Duracell Test Strip obtained using a Inframetrics 740 thermal imaging radiometer and ThermaGRAM95 software and compares this to the theoretical profile derived by Clark and Bonicamp. (JRH)