WorldWideScience

Sample records for stringent requirements imposed

  1. Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortz, Charlene L.; Huang, Chi-Chien N.; Ravich, Joshua A.; Steiner, Carl N.

    2013-01-01

    This packaging design approach can help heritage hardware meet a flight project's stringent EMC radiated emissions requirement. The approach requires only minor modifications to a hardware's chassis and mainly concentrates on its connector interfaces. The solution is to raise the surface area where the connector is mounted by a few millimeters using a pedestal, and then wrapping with conductive tape from the cable backshell down to the surface-mounted connector. This design approach has been applied to JPL flight project subsystems. The EMC radiated emissions requirements for flight projects can vary from benign to mission critical. If the project's EMC requirements are stringent, the best approach to meet EMC requirements would be to design an EMC control program for the project early on and implement EMC design techniques starting with the circuit board layout. This is the ideal scenario for hardware that is built from scratch. Implementation of EMC radiated emissions mitigation techniques can mature as the design progresses, with minimal impact to the design cycle. The real challenge exists for hardware that is planned to be flown following a built-to-print approach, in which heritage hardware from a past project with a different set of requirements is expected to perform satisfactorily for a new project. With acceptance of heritage, the design would already be established (circuit board layout and components have already been pre-determined), and hence any radiated emissions mitigation techniques would only be applicable at the packaging level. The key is to take a heritage design with its known radiated emissions spectrum and repackage, or modify its chassis design so that it would have a better chance of meeting the new project s radiated emissions requirements.

  2. 49 CFR 199.209 - Other requirements imposed by operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.209 Other requirements imposed by operators. (a... authority of operators, or the rights of employees, with respect to the use or possession of alcohol, including authority and rights with respect to alcohol testing and rehabilitation. (b) Operators may, but...

  3. Waste management from reprocessing: a stringent regulatory requirements for high quality conditioned residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordier, J. C.; Greneche, D.; Devezeaux, J. G.; Dalcorso, J.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear waste production and management in France is governed by safety requirements imposed to all operators. French nuclear safety relies on two basic principles: · Responsibility of the nuclear operator, which expands to waste generated, · Safety basic objectives issued by national Safety Authority. For a long time the regulatory framework for waste production and management has been satisfactorily applied and has benefited to each actor of the process. LLW/MLW and HLW nuclear waste are currently conditioned in safe matrices or packages either likely to be disposed in surface repositories or designed with the intention to be disposed underground according to their radioactive content. France is looking into the case of VLLW and has already carried out a design for future disposal, the design being in the pipe. Other types of waste (i. e. radium bearing waste, graphite, and tritium content waste) are also considered in the whole framework of French waste management. (author)

  4. The rapidly evolving centromere-specific histone has stringent functional requirements in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Maruthachalam; Kwong, Pak N; Menorca, Ron M G; Valencia, Joel T; Ramahi, Joseph S; Stewart, Jodi L; Tran, Robert K; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Comai, Luca; Chan, Simon W-L

    2010-10-01

    Centromeres control chromosome inheritance in eukaryotes, yet their DNA structure and primary sequence are hypervariable. Most animals and plants have megabases of tandem repeats at their centromeres, unlike yeast with unique centromere sequences. Centromere function requires the centromere-specific histone CENH3 (CENP-A in human), which replaces histone H3 in centromeric nucleosomes. CENH3 evolves rapidly, particularly in its N-terminal tail domain. A portion of the CENH3 histone-fold domain, the CENP-A targeting domain (CATD), has been previously shown to confer kinetochore localization and centromere function when swapped into human H3. Furthermore, CENP-A in human cells can be functionally replaced by CENH3 from distantly related organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have used cenh3-1 (a null mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana) to replace endogenous CENH3 with GFP-tagged variants. A H3.3 tail domain-CENH3 histone-fold domain chimera rescued viability of cenh3-1, but CENH3's lacking a tail domain were nonfunctional. In contrast to human results, H3 containing the A. thaliana CATD cannot complement cenh3-1. GFP-CENH3 from the sister species A. arenosa functionally replaces A. thaliana CENH3. GFP-CENH3 from the close relative Brassica rapa was targeted to centromeres, but did not complement cenh3-1, indicating that kinetochore localization and centromere function can be uncoupled. We conclude that CENH3 function in A. thaliana, an organism with large tandem repeat centromeres, has stringent requirements for functional complementation in mitosis.

  5. The Impact on IPO Performance of More Stringent Listing Rules with a Pre-listing Earnings Requirement: Evidence from Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wai-yan Cheng; Yan-leung Cheung; Yuen-ching Tse

    2005-01-01

    This study considers the impact of a change to listing rules covering IPO performance in the Hong Kong stock market. The change, introduced in 1994, imposed a three-year pre-listing earning requirement on new issues. The objective of this research is to screen out a subset of poor IPO performers. We find there is no significant difference in performance between IPOs before and after the regulatory change. We further divide our sample of IPOs registered before the regulatory change into two su...

  6. 20 CFR 655.1110 - What requirements does the NRDAA impose in the filing of an Attestation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reporting period, showing the number of its acute care beds and the percentages of Medicaid and Medicare....” Remittances must be drawn on a bank or other financial institution located in the U.S. and be payable in U.S... of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 655.1110 What requirements are imposed in...

  7. SNF verification requirements imposed through 10 CFR Part 961: Interrelationship with MC ampersand A requirements for the OCRWM safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, N.; Vance, S.

    1994-01-01

    Article VI.B.2 of the Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961, Standard Contract) provides that spent nuclear fuel shall be subject to verification prior to acceptance by the Department of Energy. As part of the overall process for scheduling deliveries of spent nuclear fuel, the Standard Contract requires contract holders to submit detailed descriptions of the spent nuclear fuel they intend to deliver. Thus, the provision for verification in the Standard contract allows the Department the opportunity to ensure that the spent nuclear fuel intended for deliver is consistent with the description provided, and that the material is properly loaded, packaged, marked, and labeled. The Department is currently evaluating the verification requirements for spent nuclear fuel that it will establish pursuant to Article VI.B.2 of the Standard Contract. The Department recognizes that there may be significant overlap between these verification requirements and the requirements established for material control and accountability (MC ampersand A). Therefore, the Department may recommend modifications to the process established in the Standard Contract to ensure that the verification and MC ampersand A functions and activities are fully integrated

  8. 26 CFR 1.857-4 - Tax imposed by reason of the failure to meet certain source-of-income requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax imposed by reason of the failure to meet certain source-of-income requirements. 1.857-4 Section 1.857-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1...

  9. 16 CFR 316.5 - Prohibition on charging a fee or imposing other requirements on recipients who wish to opt out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other than the recipient's electronic mail address and opt-out preferences, or take any other steps except sending a reply electronic mail message or visiting a single Internet Web page, in order to: (a) Use a return electronic mail address or other Internet-based mechanism, required by 15 U.S.C. 7704(a...

  10. Identification and Comparison of Requirements Imposed on Brand Managers: Cross-National Study in the U.S.A. and in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Wroblowská

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The author’s interest focuses on human factor of brand managers, as brands and their added value are considered to be among the most important sources of competitive advantage for business in a competitive marketplace. There is no doubt that for succeeding in their job role, brand managers must have knowledge, dispositional traits and concomitant soft skills that arise from these traits. The purpose of the article is to provide the insight into the offering of brand manager posts in the Czech Republic and in the U.S.A. and to analyse the collected data with the special interest in finding the answer whether the employers are searching the brand managers possessing personal dispositions and skills of knowledge workers, and if there is no significant difference in the requirements between the Czech and American recruitment advertisers. Methodology/methods: For a successful empirical research, the content analysis method by Berelson was used to study the texts in the advertisements publicly available on career portals. The statistical verifications of results were conducted using the chi-square test. Scientific aim:The goal of the primary survey was to provide the answers to the research questions that arise from the following research assumptions: (1 employers do not publish different requirements for candidates for the job of Brand Manager in the U.S.A. and in the Czech Republic, (2 the set of requirements for candidates for the job of Brand Manager in the U.S.A. will confirm that a brand manager is one of the workers who has skills and personality prerequisites expected from knowledge workers. Findings: The results of the actual research project confirmed the fundamental need for excellent communication skills (69.0% and presentation skills (65.5%. Unlike employers in the Czech Republic, the American companies are more interested in people with a high degree of responsibility (41.4% that is the third highest relative

  11. The thermodynamic requirements on atmospheric models imposed by observed stellar nonthermal mass-fluxes and by those observed nonthermal features enhanced in Xe stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    The author presents the case for the 'imperfect wind-tunnel' model both for nonthermal mass-flux and for other observed nonthermal phenomena, in stellar atmospheres generally, not just in O stars particlarly. He asserts, that in studying nonthermal mass-flux from O stars, if attention is limited only to nonthermal mass-flux, and only to O stars, this handicaps, a priori, the chance of understanding what is required for the general model of a stellar atmosphere, in order to produce this variety of nonthermal phenomena observed, alike in all varieties of stars. (Auth.)

  12. The effect of increasingly stringent diagnostic criteria on sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sex differences in premorbid function and symptomatology were examined as increasingly stringent criteria for schizophrenia were applied to 182 male and 139 female . psychotic patients. The male/female ratio rose from 1.6 among those meeting the CATEGO 'broad' criteria for schizophrenia to 3.7 among those satisfying ...

  13. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...... examples of transposition and complicity of theological and juridical thoughts. For the purpose of this paper, imposed constitutions are political and legal norms of a state enacted and enforced without the free and full agreement of the Demos. Legal theology implies the application of religious phenomena......, theories and concepts to achieve undisputed legal legitimacy. Imposed constitutions as rules imposed for salvation for those “Platonic Philosophes” who have seen the “light”, that known the episteme are paramount examples of legal and political theology. The paper has two main sections. The first one...

  14. Circuitry linking the Csr and stringent response global regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Adrianne N; Patterson-Fortin, Laura M; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Potrykus, Katarzyna; Vinella, Daniel; Camacho, Martha I; Fields, Joshua A; Thompson, Stuart A; Georgellis, Dimitris; Cashel, Michael; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2011-06-01

    CsrA protein regulates important cellular processes by binding to target mRNAs and altering their translation and/or stability. In Escherichia coli, CsrA binds to sRNAs, CsrB and CsrC, which sequester CsrA and antagonize its activity. Here, mRNAs for relA, spoT and dksA of the stringent response system were found among 721 different transcripts that copurified with CsrA. Many of the transcripts that copurified with CsrA were previously determined to respond to ppGpp and/or DksA. We examined multiple regulatory interactions between the Csr and stringent response systems. Most importantly, DksA and ppGpp robustly activated csrB/C transcription (10-fold), while they modestly activated csrA expression. We propose that CsrA-mediated regulation is relieved during the stringent response. Gel shift assays confirmed high affinity binding of CsrA to relA mRNA leader and weaker interactions with dksA and spoT. Reporter fusions, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting showed that CsrA repressed relA expression, and (p)ppGpp accumulation during stringent response was enhanced in a csrA mutant. CsrA had modest to negligible effects on dksA and spoT expression. Transcription of dksA was negatively autoregulated via a feedback loop that tended to mask CsrA effects. We propose that the Csr system fine-tunes the stringent response and discuss biological implications of the composite circuitry. © Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Is ionizing radiation regulated more stringently than chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Pack, S.R.; Hattemer-Frey, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    It is widely believed that United States government agencies regulate exposure to ionizing radiation more stringently than exposure to chemical carcinogens. It is difficult to verify this perception, however, because chemical carcinogens and ionizing radiation are regulated using vastly different strategies. Chemical carcinogens are generally regulated individually. Regulators consider the risk of exposure to one chemical rather than the cumulative radiation exposure from all sources. Moreover, standards for chemical carcinogens are generally set in terms of quantities released or resultant environmental concentrations, while standards for ionizing radiation are set in terms of dose to the human body. Since chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared on the basis of equal dose to the exposed individual, standards regulating chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared directly. It is feasible, however, to compare the two sets of standards on the basis of equal risk to the exposed individual, assuming that standards for chemicals and ionizing radiation are equivalent if estimated risk levels are equitable. This paper compares risk levels associated with current standards for ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens. The authors do not attempt to determine whether either type of risk is regulated too stringently or not stringently enough but endeavor only to ascertain if ionizing radiation is actually regulated more strictly than chemical carcinogens

  16. Comparison of urine iodine/creatinine ratio between patients following stringent and less stringent low iodine diet for radioiodine remnant ablation of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Jee Ho; Kim, Byung Il; Ha, Ji Su; Chang, Sei Joong; Shin, Hye Young; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Do Min; Kim, Chong Soon

    2006-01-01

    A low iodine diet (LID) for 1 ∼ 2 weeks is recommended for patients who undergoing radioiodine remnant ablation. However, the LID educations for patients are different among centers because there is no concrete recommendation for protocol of LID. In this investigation, we compared two representative types of LID protocols performed in several centers in Korea using urine iodine to creatinine tatio (urine I/Cr). From 2006, April to June, patients referred to our center for radioiodine remnant ablation of thyroid cancer from several local hospitals which had different LID protocols were included. We divided into two groups, stringent LID for 1 week and less stringent LID for 2 weeks, then measured their urine I/Cr ratio with spot urine when patients were admitted to the hospital. Total 27 patients were included in this investigation (M:F = 1:26; 13 in one-week stringent LID; 14 in two-week less stringent LID). Average of urine I/Cr ratio was 127.87 ± 78.52 μ g/g in stringent LID for 1 week, and 289.75 ± 188.24 μ g/g in less stringent LID for 2 weeks. It was significantly lower in stringent LID for 1 week group (ρ = 0.008). The number of patients whose urine I/Cr ratios were below 100 μ g/g was 6 of 13 in stringent LID for 1 week group, and 3 of 14 in less stringent LID for 2 weeks group. Stringent LID for 1 week resulted in better urinary I/Cr ratio in our investigation compared with the other protocol. However it still resulted in plenty of inadequate range of I/Cr ratio, so more stringent protocol such as stringent LID for 2 weeks is expected more desirable

  17. Self-Imposed Creativity Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    and high concept awareness characterizing the humanities’ general mode of inquiry; (b) expertise in formulating new ‘big’ exploratory and unifying questions, which are waning in creativity research; and (c) greater versatility in the use of empirical data material, since the analytical, speculative...... increasingly fragmented and in need of new ‘big’ unifying questions. Hence the designation of the dissertation’s research approach. The four papers serve a dual purpose. They are contributions in their own right, and they provide partial answers to the overall research question. In this respect, the concept...... of the current dispersed studies on constraints in creativity, spanning psychology, engineering, philosophy, design, and aesthetics. (2) Definitions, concepts, and models of self-imposed creativity constraints for analytical application within and across creative domains, including the 6i model for demonstrating...

  18. La comunidad imposible: atisbos sartreanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rius, Mercè

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Sartre’s ontology is regarded as a precedent of the current political philosophers who state the impossibility of a being-in-common. In this sense they all distance themselves from Hegel and Heidegger, except that the thinkers of the impossible community cannot avoid speculating about death even if they deny that it has any sense. For Sartre though, the incompatibility between death and the freedom to exist remain essential, as well as a defense of realism. Moreover, this paper traces Sartre’s concept of the real and both his tendency and opposition to materialism.En este artículo se aborda la ontología sartreana a modo de precedente de la actual filosofía política que constata la imposibilidad del ser-en-común. Para ambas son Hegel y Heidegger los referentes de que distanciarse. Solo que los pensadores de la imposible comunidad no se abstienen de especular sobre la muerte, aunque nieguen su sentido. En cambio, para Sartre es esencial la incompatibilidad entre la muerte y la libertad del existir, así como la defensa del realismo. Se sigue aquí la pista a su concepto de lo real, a la vez que a su actitud tan propensa como adversa al materialismo.

  19. Role of the Stringent Stress Response in the Antibiotic Resistance Phenotype of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedo, Sandra; Tomasz, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus(MRSA) requires the presence of an acquired genetic determinant,mecAormecC, which encode penicillin-binding protein PBP2A or PBP2A', respectively. Although all MRSA strains share a mechanism of resistance, the phenotypic expression of beta-lactam resistance shows considerable strain-to-strain variation. The stringent stress response, a stress response that results from nutrient limitation, was shown to play a key role in determining the resistance level of an MRSA strain. In the present study, we validated the impact of the stringent stress response on transcription and translation ofmecAin the MRSA clinical isolate strain N315, which also carries known regulatory genes (mecI/mecR1/mecR2andblaI/blaR1) formecAtranscription. We showed that the impact of the stringent stress response on the resistance level may be restricted to beta-lactam resistance based on a "foreign" determinant such asmecA, as opposed to resistance based on mutations in the nativeS. aureusdeterminantpbpB(encoding PBP2). Our observations demonstrate that high-level resistance mediated by the stringent stress response follows the current model of beta-lactam resistance in which the native PBP2 protein is also essential for expression of the resistance phenotype. We also show that theStaphylococcus sciuri pbpDgene (also calledmecAI), the putative evolutionary precursor ofmecA, confers oxacillin resistance in anS. aureusstrain, generating a heterogeneous phenotype that can be converted to high and homogenous resistance by induction of the stringent stress response in the bacteria. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Imposing resolved turbulence in CFD simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, L.; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2011-01-01

    In large‐eddy simulations, the inflow velocity field should contain resolved turbulence. This paper describes and analyzes two methods for imposing resolved turbulence in the interior of the domain in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. The intended application of the methods is to impose...... resolved turbulence immediately upstream of the region or structure of interest. Comparing to the alternative of imposing the turbulence at the inlet, there is a large potential to reduce the computational cost of the simulation by reducing the total number of cells. The reduction comes from a lower demand...... of modifying the source terms. None of the two methods can impose synthetic turbulence with good results, but it is shown that by running the turbulence field through a short precursor simulation, very good results are obtained. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  1. Rapid species responses to changes in climate require stringent climate protection targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van A.J.H.; Leemans, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change book consolidates the scientific findings of the Exeter conference and gives an account of the most recent developments on critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, emission pathways and

  2. A rapid response air quality analysis system for use in projects having stringent quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to solve air quality problems which frequently occur during iterations of the baseline change process. From a schedule standpoint, it is desirable to perform this evaluation in as short a time as possible while budgetary pressures limit the size of the staff available to do the work. Without a method in place to deal with baseline change proposal requests the environment analysts may not be able to produce the analysis results in the time frame expected. Using a concept called the Rapid Response Air Quality Analysis System (RAAS), the problems of timing and cost become tractable. The system could be adapted to assess other atmospheric pathway impacts, e.g., acoustics or visibility. The air quality analysis system used to perform the EA analysis (EA) for the Salt Repository Project (part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program), and later to evaluate the consequences of proposed baseline changes, consists of three components: Emission source data files; Emission rates contained in spreadsheets; Impact assessment model codes. The spreadsheets contain user-written codes (macros) that calculate emission rates from (1) emission source data (e.g., numbers and locations of sources, detailed operating schedules, and source specifications including horsepower, load factor, and duty cycle); (2) emission factors such as those published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and (3) control efficiencies

  3. Distortions Imposed By Inflation on Historical-Cost Depreciation

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.

    1983-01-01

    The use of historical-cost depreciation in periods of persistent inflation decreases the present value of depreciation deductions, thus understating the true economic cost of capital and increasing the real after-tax rate of return required by potential investors. Efforts to correct these problems by adopting depreciation methods that allow for artificially short recovery periods or accelerated rates do not provide an adequate solution. Distortions imposed by inflation on historical-cost depr...

  4. Rapid Curtailing of the Stringent Response by Toxin-Antitoxin Encoded mRNases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Chengzhe; Roghanian, Mohammad; Jørgensen, Mikkel Girke

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli regulates its metabolism to adapt to changes in the environment, in particular to stressful downshifts in nutrient quality. Such shifts elicit the so-called stringent response coordinated by the alarmone guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphate [(p)ppGpp]. At sudden amino-acid (aa......RNase-encoding TA modules present in the wt strain. This observation suggested that toxins are part of the negative feedback to control the (p)ppGpp level during early stringent response. We built a ribosome trafficking model to evaluate the fold of increase in the RelA activity just after the onset of aa...... %. IMPORTANCE: The early stringent response elicited by amino-acid starvation is controlled by a sharp increase of the cellular (p)ppGpp level. Toxin-antitoxin encoded mRNases are activated by (p)ppGpp through enhanced degradation of antitoxins. The present work shows that this activation happens at a very...

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of proteins involved in the stringent response in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Doshun; Ihara, Yuta; Nishihara, Hidenori; Masuda, Shinji

    2017-07-01

    The nucleotide (p)ppGpp is a second messenger that controls the stringent response in bacteria. The stringent response modifies expression of a large number of genes and metabolic processes and allows bacteria to survive under fluctuating environmental conditions. Recent genome sequencing analyses have revealed that genes responsible for the stringent response are also found in plants. These include (p)ppGpp synthases and hydrolases, RelA/SpoT homologs (RSHs), and the pppGpp-specific phosphatase GppA/Ppx. However, phylogenetic relationship between enzymes involved in bacterial and plant stringent responses is as yet generally unclear. Here, we investigated the origin and evolution of genes involved in the stringent response in plants. Phylogenetic analysis and primary structures of RSH homologs from different plant phyla (including Embryophyta, Charophyta, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta) indicate that RSH gene families were introduced into plant cells by at least two independent lateral gene transfers from the bacterial Deinococcus-Thermus phylum and an unidentified bacterial phylum; alternatively, they were introduced into a proto-plant cell by a lateral gene transfer from the endosymbiotic cyanobacterium followed by gene loss of an ancestral RSH gene in the cyanobacterial linage. Phylogenetic analysis of gppA/ppx families indicated that plant gppA/ppx homologs form an individual cluster in the phylogenetic tree, and show a sister relationship with some bacterial gppA/ppx homologs. Although RSHs contain a plastidial transit peptide at the N terminus, GppA/Ppx homologs do not, suggesting that plant GppA/Ppx homologs function in the cytosol. These results reveal that a proto-plant cell obtained genes for the stringent response by lateral gene transfer events from different bacterial phyla and have utilized them to control metabolism in plastids and the cytosol.

  6. 42 CFR 422.756 - Procedures for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... instances where marketing or enrollment or both intermediate sanctions have been imposed, CMS may require an... assist CMS in making a determination as to whether the deficiencies that are the bases for the....752(c)(1), CMS will send a written notice of the Agency's decision to impose a civil money penalty to...

  7. The stringent response regulates adaptation to darkness in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Rachel D; Higgins, Sean A; Flamholz, Avi; Nichols, Robert J; Savage, David F

    2016-08-16

    The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus relies upon photosynthesis to drive metabolism and growth. During darkness, Synechococcus stops growing, derives energy from its glycogen stores, and greatly decreases rates of macromolecular synthesis via unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that the stringent response, a stress response pathway whose genes are conserved across bacteria and plant plastids, contributes to this dark adaptation. Levels of the stringent response alarmone guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-diphosphate (ppGpp) rise after a shift from light to dark, indicating that darkness triggers the same response in cyanobacteria as starvation in heterotrophic bacteria. High levels of ppGpp are sufficient to stop growth and dramatically alter many aspects of cellular physiology, including levels of photosynthetic pigments and polyphosphate, DNA content, and the rate of translation. Cells unable to synthesize ppGpp display pronounced growth defects after exposure to darkness. The stringent response regulates expression of a number of genes in Synechococcus, including ribosomal hibernation promoting factor (hpf), which causes ribosomes to dimerize in the dark and may contribute to decreased translation. Although the metabolism of Synechococcus differentiates it from other model bacterial systems, the logic of the stringent response remains remarkably conserved, while at the same time having adapted to the unique stresses of the photosynthetic lifestyle.

  8. Structural characterization of the stringent response related exopolyphosphatase/guanosine pentaphosphate phosphohydrolase protein family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ole; Laurberg, Martin; Liljas, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Exopolyphosphatase/guanosine pentaphosphate phosphohydrolase (PPX/GPPA) enzymes play central roles in the bacterial stringent response induced by starvation. The high-resolution crystal structure of the putative Aquifex aeolicus PPX/GPPA phosphatase from the actin-like ATPase domain superfamily h...

  9. DOCUMENT IMAGE REGISTRATION FOR IMPOSED LAYER EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi Narayan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of filled-in information from document images in the presence of template poses challenges due to geometrical distortion. Filled-in document image consists of null background, general information foreground and vital information imposed layer. Template document image consists of null background and general information foreground layer. In this paper a novel document image registration technique has been proposed to extract imposed layer from input document image. A convex polygon is constructed around the content of the input and the template image using convex hull. The vertices of the convex polygons of input and template are paired based on minimum Euclidean distance. Each vertex of the input convex polygon is subjected to transformation for the permutable combinations of rotation and scaling. Translation is handled by tight crop. For every transformation of the input vertices, Minimum Hausdorff distance (MHD is computed. Minimum Hausdorff distance identifies the rotation and scaling values by which the input image should be transformed to align it to the template. Since transformation is an estimation process, the components in the input image do not overlay exactly on the components in the template, therefore connected component technique is applied to extract contour boxes at word level to identify partially overlapping components. Geometrical features such as density, area and degree of overlapping are extracted and compared between partially overlapping components to identify and eliminate components common to input image and template image. The residue constitutes imposed layer. Experimental results indicate the efficacy of the proposed model with computational complexity. Experiment has been conducted on variety of filled-in forms, applications and bank cheques. Data sets have been generated as test sets for comparative analysis.

  10. Is imposing risk awareness cultural imperialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Førde, O H

    1998-11-01

    Epidemiology is the main supplier of "bases of action" for preventive medicine and health promotion. Epidemiology and epidemiologists therefore have a responsibility not only for the quality and soundness of the risk estimates they deliver and for the way they are interpreted and used, but also for their consequences. In the industrialised world, the value of, and fascination with health is greater than ever, and the revelation from epidemiological research of new hazards and risks, conveyed to the public by the media, has become almost an every-day phenomenon. This "risk epidemic" in the modern media is paralleled in professional medical journals. It is in general endorsed by health promoters as a necessary foundation for increased health awareness and a desirable impetus for people to take responsibility for their own health through behavioural changes. Epidemiologists and health promoters, however, have in general not taken the possible side effects of increased risk awareness seriously enough. By increasing anxiety regarding disease, accidents and other adverse events, the risk epidemic enhances both health care dependence and health care consumption. More profoundly, and perhaps even more seriously, it changes the way people think about health, disease and death--and ultimately and at least potentially, their perspective on life more generally. The message from the odds ratios from epidemiological research advocates a rationalistic, individualistic, prospective life perspective where maximising control and minimising uncertainty is seen as a superior goal. The inconsistency between applying an expanded health concept, comprising elements of coping, self-realisation and psycho-physical functioning, and imposing intolerance to risk and uncertainty, is regularly overlooked. Acceptance and tolerance of risk and uncertainty, which are inherent elements of human life, is a prerequisite for coping and self-realisation. A further shift away from traditional working

  11. The Stringent Response Induced by Phosphate Limitation Promotes Purine Salvage in Agrobacterium fabrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapragasam, Smitha; Deochand, Dinesh K; Meariman, Jacob K; Grove, Anne

    2017-10-31

    Agrobacterium fabrum induces tumor growth in susceptible plant species. The upregulation of virulence genes that occurs when the bacterium senses plant-derived compounds is enhanced by acidic pH and limiting inorganic phosphate. Nutrient starvation may also trigger the stringent response, and purine salvage is among the pathways expected to be favored under such conditions. We show here that phosphate limitation induces the stringent response, as evidenced by production of (p)ppGpp, and that the xdhCSML operon encoding the purine salvage enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase is upregulated ∼15-fold. The xdhCSML operon is under control of the TetR family transcription factor XdhR; direct binding of ppGpp to XdhR attenuates DNA binding, and the enhanced xdhCSML expression correlates with increased cellular levels of (p)ppGpp. Xanthine dehydrogenase may also divert purines away from salvage pathways to form urate, the ligand for the transcription factor PecS, which in the plant pathogen Dickeya dadantii is a key regulator of virulence gene expression. However, urate levels remain low under conditions that produce increased levels of xdhCSML expression, and neither acidic pH nor limiting phosphate results in induction of genes under control of PecS. Instead, expression of such genes is induced only by externally supplemented urate. Taken together, our data indicate that purine salvage is favored during the stringent response induced by phosphate starvation, suggesting that control of this pathway may constitute a novel approach to modulating virulence. Because bacterial purine catabolism appears to be unaffected, as evidenced by the absence of urate accumulation, we further propose that the PecS regulon is induced by only host-derived urate.

  12. Dual Regulation of Bacillus subtilis kinB Gene Encoding a Sporulation Trigger by SinR through Transcription Repression and Positive Stringent Transcription Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaro Fujita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that transcription of kinB encoding a trigger for Bacillus subtilis sporulation is under repression by SinR, a master repressor of biofilm formation, and under positive stringent transcription control depending on the adenine species at the transcription initiation nucleotide (nt. Deletion and base substitution analyses of the kinB promoter (PkinB region using lacZ fusions indicated that either a 5-nt deletion (Δ5, nt -61/-57, +1 is the transcription initiation nt or the substitution of G at nt -45 with A (G-45A relieved kinB repression. Thus, we found a pair of SinR-binding consensus sequences (GTTCTYT; Y is T or C in an inverted orientation (SinR-1 between nt -57/-42, which is most likely a SinR-binding site for kinB repression. This relief from SinR repression likely requires SinI, an antagonist of SinR. Surprisingly, we found that SinR is essential for positive stringent transcription control of PkinB. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA analysis indicated that SinR bound not only to SinR-1 but also to SinR-2 (nt -29/-8 consisting of another pair of SinR consensus sequences in a tandem repeat arrangement; the two sequences partially overlap the ‘-35’ and ‘-10’ regions of PkinB. Introduction of base substitutions (T-27C C-26T in the upstream consensus sequence of SinR-2 affected positive stringent transcription control of PkinB, suggesting that SinR binding to SinR-2 likely causes this positive control. EMSA also implied that RNA polymerase and SinR are possibly bound together to SinR-2 to form a transcription initiation complex for kinB transcription. Thus, it was suggested in this work that derepression of kinB from SinR repression by SinI induced by Spo0A∼P and occurrence of SinR-dependent positive stringent transcription control of kinB might induce effective sporulation cooperatively, implying an intimate interplay by stringent response, sporulation, and biofilm formation.

  13. Waste management system requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This volume defines the top level requirements for the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). It is designed to be used in conjunction with Volume 1 of the WMSR, General System Requirements. It provides a functional description expanding the requirements allocated to the MGDS in Volume 1 and elaborates on each requirement by providing associated performance criteria as appropriate. Volumes 1 and 4 of the WMSR provide a minimum set of requirements that must be satisfied by the final MGDS design. This document sets forth specific requirements that must be fulfilled. It is not the intent or purpose of this top level document to describe how each requirement is to be satisfied in the final MGDS design. Each subsequent level of the technical document hierarchy must provide further guidance and definition as to how each of these requirements is to be implemented in the design. It is expected that each subsequent level of requirements will be significantly more detailed. Section 2 of this volume provides a functional description of the MGDS. Each function is addressed in terms of requirements, and performance criteria. Section 3 provides a list of controlling documents. Each document cited in a requirement of Chapter 2 is included in this list and is incorporated into this document as a requirement on the final system. The WMSR addresses only federal requirements (i.e., laws, regulations and DOE orders). State and local requirements are not addressed. However, it will be specifically noted at the potentially affected WMSR requirements that there could be additional or more stringent regulations imposed by a state or local requirements or administering agency over the cited federal requirements

  14. The corporation and the community: Credibility, legitimacy, and imposed risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, C. (ed.) (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Rosenthal, I. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Center for Risk and Decision Processes)

    1991-10-01

    In this age of rapid changes, large segments of society no longer trust any institution or authority in regard to pronouncements on what is safe. Because of this distrust, the public has demanded and obtained increased rights for individuals to intervene directly in decisions affecting them. Rosenthal warns that an organization that just fulfills its legal requirements for safety is no longer doing enough. Industry leaders must work toward re-establishing credibility by identifying persons who are potentially at risk as a result of industry activities, involving them in the communication process, and justifying the firm's social benefits. Seeking social legitimacy, chemical manufacturers have formed self-assessment groups and community councils, which have reaped unexpected benefits but have forced them to deal with issues they would have preferred to avoid. To industry leaders who contend that these types of activities are not worth the effort, Rosenthal presents a timely warning. Government and business must reduce public concerns significantly and make stakeholders more willing to tolerate imposed risk because of perceived benefits. It the public's concern is not reduced, we will all be required to make greater and greater investments in an inefficient and largely fruitless pursuit of absolute safety. 16 refs.

  15. The corporation and the community: Credibility, legitimacy, and imposed risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, C.; Rosenthal, I.

    1991-10-01

    In this age of rapid changes, large segments of society no longer trust any institution or authority in regard to pronouncements on what is safe. Because of this distrust, the public has demanded and obtained increased rights for individuals to intervene directly in decisions affecting them. Rosenthal warns that an organization that just fulfills its legal requirements for safety is no longer doing enough. Industry leaders must work toward re-establishing credibility by identifying persons who are potentially at risk as a result of industry activities, involving them in the communication process, and justifying the firm's social benefits. Seeking social legitimacy, chemical manufacturers have formed self-assessment groups and community councils, which have reaped unexpected benefits but have forced them to deal with issues they would have preferred to avoid. To industry leaders who contend that these types of activities are not worth the effort, Rosenthal presents a timely warning. Government and business must reduce public concerns significantly and make stakeholders more willing to tolerate imposed risk because of perceived benefits. It the public's concern is not reduced, we will all be required to make greater and greater investments in an inefficient and largely fruitless pursuit of absolute safety. 16 refs

  16. Air Quality and Health Benefits of China's Recent Stringent Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Xue, T.; Zhang, Q.; Geng, G.; He, K.

    2016-12-01

    Aggressive emission control measures were taken by China's central and local governments after the promulgation of the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" in 2013. We evaluated the air quality and health benefits of this ever most stringent air pollution control policy during 2013-2015 by utilizing a two-stage data fusion model and newly-developed cause-specific integrated exposure-response functions (IER) developed for the Global Burden of Disease (GBD). The two-stage data fusion model predicts spatiotemporal continuous PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) concentrations by integrating satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, PM2.5 concentrations from measurement and air quality model, and other ancillary information. During the years of analysis, PM2.5 concentration dropped significantly on national average and over heavily polluted regions as identified by Mann-Kendall analysis. The national PM2.5-attributable mortality decreased by 72.8 (95% CI: 59.4, 85.2) thousand (6%) from 1.23 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.39) million in 2013 to 1.15 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.31) million in 2015 due to considerable reduction (i.e. 18%) of population-weighted PM2.5 from 61.4 to 50.5 µg/m3. Meteorological variations between 2013 and 2015 were estimated to raise the PM2.5 levels by 0.24 µg/m3 and national mortality by 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6, 2.6) thousand through sensitivity tests, which implies the dominant role of anthropogenic impacts on PM2.5 abatement and attributable mortality reduction. Our study affirms the effectiveness of China's recent air quality policy, however, due to the possible supralinear shape of C-R functions, health benefits induced by air quality improvement in these years are limited. We therefore appeal for continuous implementation of current policies and further stringent measures from both air quality improvement and public health protection perspectives.

  17. Does dishonesty really invite third-party punishment? Results of a more stringent test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Naoki; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke

    2015-05-01

    Many experiments have demonstrated that people are willing to incur cost to punish norm violators even when they are not directly harmed by the violation. Such altruistic third-party punishment is often considered an evolutionary underpinning of large-scale human cooperation. However, some scholars argue that previously demonstrated altruistic third-party punishment against fairness-norm violations may be an experimental artefact. For example, envy-driven retaliatory behaviour (i.e. spite) towards better-off unfair game players may be misidentified as altruistic punishment. Indeed, a recent experiment demonstrated that participants ceased to inflict third-party punishment against an unfair player once a series of key methodological problems were systematically controlled for. Noticing that a previous finding regarding apparently altruistic third-party punishment against honesty-norm violations may have been subject to methodological issues, we used a different and what we consider to be a more sound design to evaluate these findings. Third-party punishment against dishonest players withstood this more stringent test. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Emission reductions in transition economies: A result of output contraction or more stringent environmental policy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zugravu, N.; Millock, K. [University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne (France); Duchene, G. [University Paris 12, Creteil (France)

    2007-07-01

    Countries in Central and Eastern Europe significantly reduced their CO{sub 2} emissions between 1996 and 2001. Was this emission reduction just the fortuitous result of the major economic transformation undergone by those countries in the transition away from a centralized plan economy? Or is the emission reduction rather a result of more stringent environmental policy? The objective of the article is to answer this question through a model of the relation between environmental quality and enforcement, on the one hand, and environmental quality and economic growth, on the other hand. The authors develop structural equations for the demand (emissions) and supply (environmental stringency) of pollution. The supply equation takes into account the institutional quality of the country (control of corruption and political stability) as well as consumer preferences for environmental quality, as proxied by per capita revenue and unemployment. The system is estimated by three stage least squares on a sample of three groups of countries for comparative analysis: Central and Eastern European countries, Western European countries, and emerging economies. The results indicate that, all else equal, the scale effect on its own would have increased industrial CO{sub 2} emissions in the Central and Eastern European countries in the sample by 44.6% between 1996 and 2001. The composition effect accounted for a corresponding reduction in emissions by 16%. The technique effect had the largest marginal impact, corresponding to a 37.4% reduction in emissions.

  19. Bulk development and stringent selection of microsatellite markers in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li-Jun; Li, Ze-Min; Wang, Ze-Hua; Zhu, Liang; Gong, Ya-Jun; Chen, Min; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-05-20

    Recent improvements in next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled investigation of microsatellites on a genome-wide scale. Faced with a huge amount of candidates, the use of appropriate marker selection criteria is crucial. Here, we used the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis for an empirical microsatellite survey and validation; 132,251 candidate microsatellites were identified, 92,102 of which were perfect. Dinucleotides were the most abundant category, while (AG)n was the most abundant motif. Sixty primer pairs were designed and validated in two natural populations, of which 30 loci were polymorphic, stable, and repeatable, but not all in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage equilibrium. Four marker panels were constructed to understand effect of marker selection on population genetic analyses: (i) only accept loci with single nucleotide insertions (SNI); (ii) only accept the most polymorphic loci (MP); (iii) only accept loci that did not deviate from HWE, did not show SNIs, and had unambiguous peaks (SS) and (iv) all developed markers (ALL). Although the MP panel resulted in microsatellites of highest genetic diversity followed by the SNI, the SS performed best in individual assignment. Our study proposes stringent criteria for selection of microsatellites from a large-scale number of genomic candidates for population genetic studies.

  20. The Stringent Response Promotes Antibiotic Resistance Dissemination by Regulating Integron Integrase Expression in Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Strugeon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Class 1 integrons are genetic systems that enable bacteria to capture and express gene cassettes. These integrons, when isolated in clinical contexts, most often carry antibiotic resistance gene cassettes. They play a major role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria. The key element of integrons is the integrase, which allows gene cassettes to be acquired and shuffled. Planktonic culture experiments have shown that integrase expression is regulated by the bacterial SOS response. In natural settings, however, bacteria generally live in biofilms, which are characterized by strong antibiotic resilience and by increased expression of stress-related genes. Here, we report that under biofilm conditions, the stringent response, which is induced upon starvation, (i increases basal integrase and SOS regulon gene expression via induction of the SOS response and (ii exerts biofilm-specific regulation of the integrase via the Lon protease. This indicates that biofilm environments favor integron-mediated acquisition of antibiotic resistance and other adaptive functions encoded by gene cassettes.

  1. Adaptation to fluctuating temperatures in an RNA virus is driven by the most stringent selective pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Arribas

    Full Text Available The frequency of change in the selective pressures is one of the main factors driving evolution. It is generally accepted that constant environments select specialist organisms whereas changing environments favour generalists. The particular outcome achieved in either case also depends on the relative strength of the selective pressures and on the fitness costs of mutations across environments. RNA viruses are characterized by their high genetic diversity, which provides fast adaptation to environmental changes and helps them evade most antiviral treatments. Therefore, the study of the adaptive possibilities of RNA viruses is highly relevant for both basic and applied research. In this study we have evolved an RNA virus, the bacteriophage Qβ, under three different temperatures that either were kept constant or alternated periodically. The populations obtained were analyzed at the phenotypic and the genotypic level to characterize the evolutionary process followed by the virus in each case and the amount of convergent genetic changes attained. Finally, we also investigated the influence of the pre-existent genetic diversity on adaptation to high temperature. The main conclusions that arise from our results are: i under periodically changing temperature conditions, evolution of bacteriophage Qβ is driven by the most stringent selective pressure, ii there is a high degree of evolutionary convergence between replicated populations and also among populations evolved at different temperatures, iii there are mutations specific of a particular condition, and iv adaptation to high temperatures in populations differing in their pre-existent genetic diversity takes place through the selection of a common set of mutations.

  2. Stringently Defined Otitis Prone Children Demonstrate Deficient Naturally Induced Mucosal Antibody Response to Moraxella catarrhalis Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabin Ren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat is a prominent mucosal pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM. We studied Mcat nasopharyngeal (NP colonization, AOM frequency and mucosal antibody responses to four vaccine candidate Mcat proteins: outer membrane protein (OMP CD, oligopeptide permease (Opp A, hemagglutinin (Hag, and Pilin A clade 2 (PilA2 from stringently defined otitis prone (sOP children, who experience the greatest burden of disease, compared to non-otitis prone (NOP children. sOP children had higher NP colonization of Mcat (30 vs. 22%, P = 0.0003 and Mcat-caused AOM rates (49 vs. 24%, P < 0.0001 than NOP children. Natural acquisition of mucosal antibodies to Mcat proteins OMP CD (IgG, P < 0.0001, OppA (IgG, P = 0.018, Hag (IgG and IgA, both P < 0.0001, and PilA2 (IgA, P < 0.0001 was lower in sOP than NOP children. Higher levels of mucosal IgG to Hag (P = 0.039 and PilA2 (P = 0.0076, and IgA to OMP CD (P = 0.010, OppA (P = 0.030, and PilA2 (P = 0.043 were associated with lower carriage of Mcat in NOP but not sOP children. Higher levels of mucosal IgG to OMP CD (P = 0.0070 and Hag (P = 0.0003, and IgA to Hag (P = 0.0067 at asymptomatic colonization than those at onset of AOM were associated with significantly lower rate of Mcat NP colonization progressing to AOM in NOP compared to sOP children (3 vs. 26%, P < 0.0001. In conclusion, sOP children had a diminished mucosal antibody response to Mcat proteins, which was associated with higher frequencies of asymptomatic NP colonization and NP colonization progressing to Mcat-caused AOM. Enhancing Mcat antigen-specific mucosal immune responses to levels higher than achieved by natural exposure will be necessary to prevent AOM in sOP children.

  3. Microscopic Symmetry Imposed by Rotational Symmetry Boundary Conditions in Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amitava; Post, Carol Beth

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viral capsids, as well as other macromolecular assemblies, have icosahedral structure or structures with other rotational symmetries. This symmetry can be exploited during molecular dynamics (MD) to model in effect the full viral capsid using only a subset of primary atoms plus copies of image atoms generated from rotational symmetry boundary conditions (RSBC). A pure rotational symmetry operation results in both primary and image atoms at short range, and within nonbonded interaction distance of each other, so that nonbonded interactions can not be specified by the minimum image convention and explicit treatment of image atoms is required. As such an unavoidable consequence of RSBC is that the enumeration of nonbonded interactions in regions surrounding certain rotational axes must include both a primary atom and its copied image atom, thereby imposing microscopic symmetry for some forces. We examined the possibility of artifacts arising from this imposed microscopic symmetry of RSBC using two simulation systems: a water shell and human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) capsid with explicit water. The primary unit was a pentamer of the icosahedron, which has the advantage of direct comparison of icosahedrally equivalent spatial regions, for example regions near a 2-fold symmetry axis with imposed symmetry and a 2-fold axis without imposed symmetry. Analysis of structural and dynamic properties of water molecules and protein atoms found similar behavior near symmetry axes with imposed symmetry and where the minimum image convention fails compared with that in other regions in the simulation system, even though an excluded volume effect was detected for water molecules near the axes with imposed symmetry. These results validate the use of RSBC for icosahedral viral capsids or other rotationally symmetric systems. PMID:22096451

  4. Achieving stringent climate targets. An analysis of the role of transport and variable renewable energies using energy-economy-climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzcker, Robert Carl

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is threatening the welfare of mankind. Accordingly, policy makers have repeatedly stated the goal of slowing climate change and limiting the increase of global mean temperature to less than 2 C above pre-industrial times (the so-called ''two degree target''). Stabilizing the temperature requires drastic reductions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to nearly zero. As the global system of energy supply currently relies on fossil fuels, reducing GHG emissions can only be achieved through a full-scale transformation of the energy system. This thesis investigates the economic requirements and implications of different scenarios that achieve stringent climate mitigation targets. It starts with the analysis of characteristic decarbonization patterns and identifies two particularly relevant aspects of mitigation scenarios: deployment of variable renewable energies (VRE) and decarbonization of the transport sector. After investigating these fields in detail, we turned towards one of the most relevant questions for policy makers and analyzed the trade-off between the stringency of a climate target and its economic requirements and implications. All analyses are based on the improvement, application, comparison, and discussion of large-scale IAMs. The novel ''mitigation share'' metric allowed us to identify the relevance of specific technology groups for mitigation and to improve our understanding of the decarbonization patterns of different energy subsectors. It turned out that the power sector is decarbonized first and reaches lowest emissions, while the transport sector is slowest to decarbonize. For the power sector, non-biomass renewable energies contribute most to emission reductions, while the transport sector strongly relies on liquid fuels and therefore requires biomass in combination with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) to reduce emissions. An in-depth investigation of the solar power

  5. Direct-to-physician and direct-to-consumer advertising: Time to have stringent regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, S; Gowri, S; Tyagi, V; Kohli, S; Jain, R; Kapil, P; Bhardwaj, A

    2015-01-01

    the opinion regarding DTCA, 69.9% physicians had a patient discussing DTCA that was clinically inappropriate. One hundred (64.5%) out of 155 physicians opined that DTCA encourage patients to attend physicians regarding preventive healthcare. On the contrary, 82/155 (52.9%) physicians felt that DTCA would damage the same. Similarly, 69 out of the total 100 patients felt that drug advertisements aid them to have better discussions with their treating physicians. Surprisingly, a large majority (91/100) were of the opinion that only safe drugs are allowed to be advertised. To conclude, from the findings of this study both the physicians and patients should be cautious and not overzealous while dealing with drug advertisements or promotional literature. More stringent scrutiny and issue of WLs or blacklisting of indulging pharmaceutical companies are mandatory by the regulatory agency to contain the same.

  6. Alignment to natural and imposed mismatches between the senses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, K.; Brenner, E.; van Beers, R.J.; Schot, W.D.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Does the nervous system continuously realign the senses so that objects are seen and felt in the same place? Conflicting answers to this question have been given. Research imposing a sensory mismatch has provided evidence that the nervous system realigns the senses to reduce the mismatch. Other

  7. Synthetic Peptides to Target Stringent Response-Controlled Virulence in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Murine Cutaneous Infection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pletzer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms continuously monitor their surroundings and adaptively respond to environmental cues. One way to cope with various stress-related situations is through the activation of the stringent stress response pathway. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa this pathway is controlled and coordinated by the activity of the RelA and SpoT enzymes that metabolize the small nucleotide secondary messenger molecule (pppGpp. Intracellular ppGpp concentrations are crucial in mediating adaptive responses and virulence. Targeting this cellular stress response has recently been the focus of an alternative approach to fight antibiotic resistant bacteria. Here, we examined the role of the stringent response in the virulence of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and the Liverpool epidemic strain LESB58. A ΔrelA/ΔspoT double mutant showed decreased cytotoxicity toward human epithelial cells, exhibited reduced hemolytic activity, and caused down-regulation of the expression of the alkaline protease aprA gene in stringent response mutants grown on blood agar plates. Promoter fusions of relA or spoT to a bioluminescence reporter gene revealed that both genes were expressed during the formation of cutaneous abscesses in mice. Intriguingly, virulence was attenuated in vivo by the ΔrelA/ΔspoT double mutant, but not the relA mutant nor the ΔrelA/ΔspoT complemented with either gene. Treatment of a cutaneous P. aeruginosa PAO1 infection with anti-biofilm peptides increased animal welfare, decreased dermonecrotic lesion sizes, and reduced bacterial numbers recovered from abscesses, resembling the phenotype of the ΔrelA/ΔspoT infection. It was previously demonstrated by our lab that ppGpp could be targeted by synthetic peptides; here we demonstrated that spoT promoter activity was suppressed during cutaneous abscess formation by treatment with peptides DJK-5 and 1018, and that a peptide-treated relA complemented stringent response double mutant strain exhibited reduced peptide

  8. Cyber security issues imposed on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Provide history of cyber attacks targeting at nuclear facilities. • Provide cyber security issues imposed on nuclear power plants. • Provide possible countermeasures for protecting nuclear power plants. - Abstract: With the introduction of new technology based on the increasing digitalization of control systems, the potential of cyber attacks has escalated into a serious threat for nuclear facilities, resulting in the advent of the Stuxnet. In this regard, the nuclear industry needs to consider several cyber security issues imposed on nuclear power plants, including regulatory guidelines and standards for cyber security, the possibility of Stuxnet-inherited malware attacks in the future, and countermeasures for protecting nuclear power plants against possible cyber attacks

  9. Optimal Design of DC Electromagnets Based on Imposed Dynamic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Ivas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is proposed a method for computing of optimal geometric dimensions of a DC electromagnet, based on the imposed dynamical characteristics. For obtaining the optimal design, it is built the criterion function in an analytic form that may be optimized in the order to find the constructive solution. Numerical simulations performed in Matlab software confirm the proposed work. The presented method can be extended to other electromagnetic devices which frequently operate in dynamic regime.

  10. Arc Motion in an Obliquely Imposed Alternating Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiho, R; Takeda, K; Sugimoto, M

    2012-01-01

    The arc motion is theoretically investigated under an alternating magnetic field imposed obliquely to the arc. The arc is known to oscillate on a 2-D plane when the alternating magnetic field is imposed perpendicularly to the arc. If the alternating magnetic field is imposed obliquely to the arc, then it is expected that the arc oscillates not on the 2-D plane but in a 3-D space. For this study, 3-D simulation was performed on the motion of the plasma gas under an alternating magnetic field crossing obliquely to the arc. It was also assumed that a stream line of the plasma gas represented the arc profile. The momentum equation for the plasma gas was solved together with the continuity equation. Governing parameters for the gas motion are θ (crossing angle), v 0 (initial velocity of the plasma gas), and λ. Parameter λ is defined as λ = (I a B 0 )/Q 0 . Numerical results are reported under different operating conditions such as magnetic flux densities and the angles between the arc and the magnetic flux. If the crossing angle is larger than 4/π, the arc might be extinguished because of the drastic increase of the arc length.

  11. Flexibly imposing periodicity in kernel independent FMM: A multipole-to-local operator approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wen; Shelley, Michael

    2018-02-01

    An important but missing component in the application of the kernel independent fast multipole method (KIFMM) is the capability for flexibly and efficiently imposing singly, doubly, and triply periodic boundary conditions. In most popular packages such periodicities are imposed with the hierarchical repetition of periodic boxes, which may give an incorrect answer due to the conditional convergence of some kernel sums. Here we present an efficient method to properly impose periodic boundary conditions using a near-far splitting scheme. The near-field contribution is directly calculated with the KIFMM method, while the far-field contribution is calculated with a multipole-to-local (M2L) operator which is independent of the source and target point distribution. The M2L operator is constructed with the far-field portion of the kernel function to generate the far-field contribution with the downward equivalent source points in KIFMM. This method guarantees the sum of the near-field & far-field converge pointwise to results satisfying periodicity and compatibility conditions. The computational cost of the far-field calculation observes the same O (N) complexity as FMM and is designed to be small by reusing the data computed by KIFMM for the near-field. The far-field calculations require no additional control parameters, and observes the same theoretical error bound as KIFMM. We present accuracy and timing test results for the Laplace kernel in singly periodic domains and the Stokes velocity kernel in doubly and triply periodic domains.

  12. Propulsion efficiency and imposed flow fields of a copepod jump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, H.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    the imposed flow fields and associated energetics of jumps by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations by modeling the copepod as a self-propelled body. The computational fluid dynamics simulation was validated by particle image velocimetry data. The flow field generated by a repositioning jump...... velocity vectors pointing towards the copepod; such a flow field may inform the predator of the whereabouts of the escaping copepod prey. High Froude propulsion efficiency (0.94–0.98) was obtained for individual power stroke durations of all simulated jumps. This is unusual for small aquatic organisms...

  13. Arthropod Borne Diseases in Imposed War during 1980-88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khoobdel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imposed war.Methods: The present survey is a historical research and cross-sectional study, focused on arthropod fauna, situation of different arthropod borne diseases and also the ways which military personnel used to protect themselves against them. The information was adopted from valid military health files and also interviewing people who participated in the war.Results: Scabies, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sandfly fever and pediculosis were more prevalent among other arthropod -borne diseases in Iran-Iraq war. Measures to control arthropods and diseases at wartime mainly included: scheduled spraying of pesticides, leishmanization and treatment of patients.Conclusion: Although measures used during the war to control arthropods were proper, however, due to needs and importance of military forces to new equipment and technologies, it is recommended to use deltamethrin-impreg­nated bed net, permethrin treated military uniforms and various insect repellents in future.

  14. 76 FR 9329 - Efficiency Initiative Effort To Reduce Non-Value-Added Costs Imposed on Industry by Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... submission process are not idiosyncratic or overly influenced by particular companies' cost structures. Any... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Efficiency Initiative Effort To Reduce Non-Value-Added Costs Imposed on..., reporting requirements, and other acquisition practices encourage industry to adopt processes and make...

  15. The implementation of modern digital technology in x-ray medical diagnosis in Republic of Moldova - a stringent necessity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The study includes analyses of current technical state of radiodiagnostic equipment from the Public Medico-Sanitary Institution of Ministry of Health of Republic of Moldova (IMSP MS RM). The traditional radiodiagnostic apparatuses were morally and physically outrun at 96,6% (in regional MSPI - 93,5%), inclusive the dental one - 92,0% (in raional MSPI - 97,2%), X-Ray exam -100%, mobile - 84,1% etc. The exploitation of the traditional radiodiagnostic apparatuses with high degree of physical and moral wear essentially diminished the quality of profile investigation, creates premises for diagnostic error perpetrating, increase the collective ionizing irradiation of population etc. In recent years the subvention of MSPI HM RM with digital radiodiagnostic equipment was started. This process is very hard unfold because of grave socio-economic crises in Republic of Moldova. Despite these obstacles the subvention of MSPI HM RM with digital equipment represents a stringent necessity and a time request.

  16. The mechanism of heterogeneous beta-lactam resistance in MRSA: key role of the stringent stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choonkeun Kim

    Full Text Available All methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains carry an acquired genetic determinant--mecA or mecC--which encode for a low affinity penicillin binding protein -PBP2A or PBP2A'--that can continue the catalysis of peptidoglycan transpeptidation in the presence of high concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics which would inhibit the native PBPs normally involved with the synthesis of staphylococcal cell wall peptidoglycan. In contrast to this common genetic and biochemical mechanism carried by all MRSA strains, the level of beta-lactam antibiotic resistance shows a very wide strain to strain variation, the mechanism of which has remained poorly understood. The overwhelming majority of MRSA strains produce a unique--heterogeneous--phenotype in which the great majority of the bacteria exhibit very poor resistance often close to the MIC value of susceptible S. aureus strains. However, cultures of such heterogeneously resistant MRSA strains also contain subpopulations of bacteria with extremely high beta-lactam MIC values and the resistance level and frequency of the highly resistant cells in such strain is a characteristic of the particular MRSA clone. In the study described in this communication, we used a variety of experimental models to understand the mechanism of heterogeneous beta-lactam resistance. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA that received the mecA determinant in the laboratory either on a plasmid or in the form of a chromosomal SCCmec cassette, generated heterogeneously resistant cultures and the highly resistant subpopulations that emerged in these models had increased levels of PBP2A and were composed of bacteria in which the stringent stress response was induced. Each of the major heterogeneously resistant clones of MRSA clinical isolates could be converted to express high level and homogeneous resistance if the growth medium contained an inducer of the stringent stress response.

  17. Global energy scenarios meeting stringent CO2 constraints - cost-effective fuel choices in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar, Christian; Lindgren, Kristian; Andersson, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess fuel choices in the transportation sector under stringent global carbon constraints. Three key questions are asked: (i) when is it cost-effective to carry out the transition away from gasoline/diesel; (ii) to which fuel is it cost-effective to shift; and (iii) in which sector is biomass most cost-effectively used? These questions are analyzed using a global energy systems model (GET 1.0), with a transportation module, where vehicle costs (fuel cell, reformer and storage tank), infrastructure and primary energy availability are treated explicitly. The model is run under the assumption that atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 should be stabilized at 400 ppm. Three main results emerge: (i) despite the stringent CO 2 constraints, oil-based fuels remain dominant in the transportation sector over the next 50 years; and (ii) once a transition towards alternative fuels takes place, the preferred choice of fuel is hydrogen, even if we assume that hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are substantially more costly than methanol fuel cell vehicles. There may, under some circumstances, be a transient period of several decades with a significant share of methanol in the transportation sector. (iii) Biomass is most cost-effectively used in the heat and process heat sectors. If carbon sequestration from biomass is allowed, biomass is primarily used for hydrogen generation since small-scale heat applications are not suitable for carbon sequestration. Detailed sensitivity analyses show that these results are robust with respect to several parameters. Some policy conclusions are drawn

  18. Structural optimization under overhang constraints imposed by additive manufacturing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, G.; Dapogny, C.; Estevez, R.; Faure, A.; Michailidis, G.

    2017-12-01

    This article addresses one of the major constraints imposed by additive manufacturing processes on shape optimization problems - that of overhangs, i.e. large regions hanging over void without sufficient support from the lower structure. After revisiting the 'classical' geometric criteria used in the literature, based on the angle between the structural boundary and the build direction, we propose a new mechanical constraint functional, which mimics the layer by layer construction process featured by additive manufacturing technologies, and thereby appeals to the physical origin of the difficulties caused by overhangs. This constraint, as well as some variants, is precisely defined; their shape derivatives are computed in the sense of Hadamard's method, and numerical strategies are extensively discussed, in two and three space dimensions, to efficiently deal with the appearance of overhang features in the course of shape optimization processes.

  19. Self-imposed length limits in recreational fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Martin, Dustin R.; Hurley, Keith L.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    A primary motivating factor on the decision to harvest a fish among consumptive-orientated anglers is the size of the fish. There is likely a cost-benefit trade-off for harvest of individual fish that is size and species dependent, which should produce a logistic-type response of fish fate (release or harvest) as a function of fish size and species. We define the self-imposed length limit as the length at which a captured fish had a 50% probability of being harvested, which was selected because it marks the length of the fish where the probability of harvest becomes greater than the probability of release. We assessed the influences of fish size, catch per unit effort, size distribution of caught fish, and creel limit on the self-imposed length limits for bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus and white crappie Pomoxis annularis combined, white bass Morone chrysops, and yellow perch Perca flavescens at six lakes in Nebraska, USA. As we predicted, the probability of harvest increased with increasing size for all species harvested, which supported the concept of a size-dependent trade-off in costs and benefits of harvesting individual fish. It was also clear that probability of harvest was not simply defined by fish length, but rather was likely influenced to various degrees by interactions between species, catch rate, size distribution, creel-limit regulation and fish size. A greater understanding of harvest decisions within the context of perceived likelihood that a creel limit will be realized by a given angler party, which is a function of fish availability, harvest regulation and angler skill and orientation, is needed to predict the influence that anglers have on fish communities and to allow managers to sustainable manage exploited fish populations in recreational fisheries.

  20. Nuclear controls are stringent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnekus, D.

    1983-01-01

    The peace-time application of nuclear power in South Africa, the organisations concerned and certain provisions laid down by the Act on Nuclear Energy, aimed at safeguarding the general public, are discussed

  1. SAR moving object imaging using sparsity imposing priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önhon, N. Özben; Çetin, Müjdat

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) returns from a scene with motion can be viewed as data from a stationary scene, but with phase errors due to motion. Based on this perspective, we formulate the problem of SAR imaging of motion-containing scenes as one of joint imaging and phase error compensation. The proposed method is based on the minimization of a cost function which involves sparsity-imposing regularization terms on the reflectivity field to be imaged, considering that it admits a sparse representation as well as on the spatial structure of the motion-related phase errors, reflecting the assumption that only a small percentage of the entire scene contains moving objects. To incorporate the spatial structure of the phase errors into the problem, we provide three different sparsity-enforcing prior terms. In order to achieve computational gains, we also present a two-step version of our approach, which first determines regions of interest that are likely to contain the moving objects and then applies our sparsity-driven approach for joint image reconstruction and autofocusing in such a spatially constrained setting. Our preliminary experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of this new moving target SAR imaging approach.

  2. WARM JUPITERS NEED CLOSE ''FRIENDS'' FOR HIGH-ECCENTRICITY MIGRATION—A STRINGENT UPPER LIMIT ON THE PERTURBER'S SEPARATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Subo [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Road 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Katz, Boaz; Socrates, Aristotle [Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Dr., Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    We propose a stringent observational test on the formation of warm Jupiters (gas-giant planets with 10 days ≲ P ≲ 100 days) by high-eccentricity (high-e) migration mechanisms. Unlike hot Jupiters, the majority of observed warm Jupiters have pericenter distances too large to allow efficient tidal dissipation to induce migration. To access the close pericenter required for migration during a Kozai-Lidov cycle, they must be accompanied by a strong enough perturber to overcome the precession caused by general relativity, placing a strong upper limit on the perturber's separation. For a warm Jupiter at a ∼ 0.2 AU, a Jupiter-mass (solar-mass) perturber is required to be ≲ 3 AU (≲ 30 AU) and can be identified observationally. Among warm Jupiters detected by radial velocities (RVs), ≳ 50% (5 out of 9) with large eccentricities (e ≳ 0.4) have known Jovian companions satisfying this necessary condition for high-e migration. In contrast, ≲ 20% (3 out of 17) of the low-e (e ≲ 0.2) warm Jupiters have detected additional Jovian companions, suggesting that high-e migration with planetary perturbers may not be the dominant formation channel. Complete, long-term RV follow-ups of the warm-Jupiter population will allow a firm upper limit to be put on the fraction of these planets formed by high-e migration. Transiting warm Jupiters showing spin-orbit misalignments will be interesting to apply our test. If the misalignments are solely due to high-e migration as commonly suggested, we expect that the majority of warm Jupiters with low-e (e ≲ 0.2) are not misaligned, in contrast with low-e hot Jupiters.

  3. 78 FR 40773 - Order Imposing Requirements for the Protection of Certain Safeguards Information (Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    .... 1244), any State or any political subdivision of, or any political entity within a State, any foreign government or nation or any political subdivision of any such government or nation, or other entity; and (2... of the public health and safety and the common defense and security of the United States. Access to...

  4. The ASN imposes on EDF complementary requirements for the setting of the hard-core unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2014, the ASN (French Authority for Nuclear Safety) published a list of 19 decisions concerning the implementation of a 'post-Fukushima' hard-core unit in each EDF nuclear power plant. The purpose of the hard-core unit is to have structures and equipment able to resist very extreme events and able to assure the vital functions necessary for the reactor safety. The 19 decisions detail the rules for the design of the hard-core unit. For example the hard-core unit will have to resist earthquakes for which the probability of occurrence is about 1 every 20.000 years while the probability taking into account for the design of the reactor is only 1 every 1000 or 10.000 years

  5. 42 CFR 488.430 - Civil money penalties: Basis for imposing penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalties: Basis for imposing penalty... PROCEDURES Enforcement of Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.430 Civil money penalties: Basis for imposing penalty. (a) CMS or the State may impose a civil money penalty for either the...

  6. 26 CFR 1.802-3 - Tax imposed on life insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax imposed on life insurance companies. 1.802-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.802-3 Tax imposed on life insurance companies. (a) In general. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1957, section 802(a)(1) imposes a...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1374-1A - Tax imposed on certain capital gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Section 1374 Before the Tax Reform Act of 1986 § 1.1374-1A Tax imposed on... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax imposed on certain capital gains. 1.1374-1A... 1374 imposes a tax (computed under paragraph (b) of this section) on the income of such corporation...

  8. Are Dutch residents ready for a more stringent policy to enhance the energy performance of their homes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middelkoop, Manon van; Vringer, Kees; Visser, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Investments in the energy performance of houses offer good prospects for reducing energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. However, people are not easily convinced of the need to take measures to improve the energy performance of their houses, even when financial benefits outweigh the costs. This article analyses the factors that influence the decision for improving the energy performance of existing homes, including policy instruments. Subsequently, the article provides policy suggestions on how to stimulate energy performance improvements. Both owners and tenants (50–70%) support government policy on energy performance improvements to existing homes. Nevertheless, people also have strong feelings of autonomy regarding their homes. Our results underline the importance of well-informed and competent decision-makers. Introducing the use of Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) into the tax system for energy and residential buildings might therefore be an effective way to increase the interest of owners in the EPC, improve the use and effect of this informative instrument, and make the first step towards bridging the tension between autonomy and more stringent instruments.

  9. Hidden power system inflexibilities imposed by traditional unit commitment formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-España, Germán; Ramírez-Elizondo, Laura; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Quality and accuracy of traditional-energy- and power-based UCs are evaluated. • Real-time performance evaluation simulating “perfect” stochastic UCs. • Ideal energy-based stochastic UC formulations impose hidden system inflexibilities. • A deterministic power-based UC may outperform an ideal energy-based stochastic UC. • Power-based UC overcomes flaws of energy-based UC: lower cost and wind curtailment. - Abstract: Approximations made in traditional day-ahead unit commitment model formulations can result in suboptimal or even infeasible schedules for slow-start units and inaccurate predictions of actual costs and wind curtailment. With increasing wind penetration, these errors will become economically more significant. Here, we consider inaccuracies from three approximations: the use of hourly intervals in which energy production from each generator is modeled as being constant; the disregarding of startup and shutdown energy trajectories; and optimization based on expected wind profiles. The results of unit commitment formulations with those assumptions are compared to models that: (1) use a piecewise-linear power profiles of generation, load and wind, instead of the traditional stepwise energy profiles; (2) consider startup/shutdown trajectories; and (3) include many possible wind trajectories in a stochastic framework. The day-ahead hourly schedules of slow-start generators are then evaluated against actual wind and load profiles using a model real-time dispatch and quick-start unit commitment with a 5 min time step. We find that each simplification usually causes expected generation costs to increase by several percentage points, and results in significant understatement of expected wind curtailment and, in some cases, load interruptions. The inclusion of startup and shutdown trajectories often yielded the largest improvements in schedule performance.

  10. Stringently Defined Otitis Prone Children Demonstrate Deficient Naturally Induced Mucosal Antibody Response toMoraxella catarrhalisProteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dabin; Murphy, Timothy F; Lafontaine, Eric R; Pichichero, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis ( Mcat ) is a prominent mucosal pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM). We studied Mcat nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization, AOM frequency and mucosal antibody responses to four vaccine candidate Mcat proteins: outer membrane protein (OMP) CD, oligopeptide permease (Opp) A, hemagglutinin (Hag), and Pilin A clade 2 (PilA2) from stringently defined otitis prone (sOP) children, who experience the greatest burden of disease, compared to non-otitis prone (NOP) children. sOP children had higher NP colonization of Mcat (30 vs. 22%, P  = 0.0003) and Mcat -caused AOM rates (49 vs. 24%, P  P  P  = 0.018), Hag (IgG and IgA, both P  P  P  = 0.039) and PilA2 ( P  = 0.0076), and IgA to OMP CD ( P  = 0.010), OppA ( P  = 0.030), and PilA2 ( P  = 0.043) were associated with lower carriage of Mcat in NOP but not sOP children. Higher levels of mucosal IgG to OMP CD ( P  = 0.0070) and Hag ( P  = 0.0003), and IgA to Hag ( P  = 0.0067) at asymptomatic colonization than those at onset of AOM were associated with significantly lower rate of Mcat NP colonization progressing to AOM in NOP compared to sOP children (3 vs. 26%, P  NP colonization and NP colonization progressing to Mcat -caused AOM. Enhancing Mcat antigen-specific mucosal immune responses to levels higher than achieved by natural exposure will be necessary to prevent AOM in sOP children.

  11. Stringent constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section from subhalo searches with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The dark matter halo of the Milky Way is predicted to contain a very large number of smaller subhalos. As a result of the dark matter annihilations taking place within such objects, the most nearby and massive subhalos could appear as point-like or spatially extended gamma-ray sources, without observable counterparts at other wavelengths. In this paper, we use the results of the Aquarius simulation to predict the distribution of nearby subhalos, and compare this to the characteristics of the unidentified gamma-ray sources observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Focusing on the brightest high latitude sources, we use this comparison to derive limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section. For dark matter particles lighter than ~200 GeV, the resulting limits are the strongest obtained to date, being modestly more stringent than those derived from observations of dwarf galaxies or the Galactic Center. We also derive independent limits based on the lack of unidentified gamma-ray sources with discernible spatial extension, but these limits are a factor of ~2-10 weaker than those based on point-like subhalos. Lastly, we note that four of the ten brightest high-latitude sources exhibit a similar spectral shape, consistent with 30-60 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to b quarks with an annihilation cross section on the order of sigma v ~ (5-10) x 10^-27 cm^3/s, or 8-10 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to taus with sigma v ~ (2.0-2.5) x 10^-27 cm^3/s.

  12. Imposed Stories: Prisoner Self-narratives in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Hall

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which offenders are required to provide very particular accounts of themselves and to self-narrate in confined ways. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews conducted in the New South Wales justice system, it explores how the stories that offenders are made to accept and tell about themselves often bear little relationship to their own reflections. It analyses how, despite the expectations of judges and prison authorities, these self-narratives are not products of an offender’s soul-searching concerning his past actions and experience; rather they are products of an official legal narrative being imposed on an offender whose capacity to own and enact such a narrative is already seriously compromised.

  13. Removing the Restrictions Imposed on Finite State Machines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determines an effective method of removing the fixed and finite state amount of memory that restricts finite state machines from carrying out compilation jobs that require larger amount of memory. The study is ... The conclusion reviewed the various steps followed and made projections for further reading. Keyword: ...

  14. DOG1-imposed dormancy mediates germination responses to temperature cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphey, M.; Kovach, K.; Elnacash, T.; He, H.; Bentsink, L.; Donohue, K.

    2015-01-01

    Seed dormancy and environment-dependent germination requirements interact to determine the timing of germination in natural environments. This study tested the contribution of the dormancy gene Delay Of Germination 1 (DOG1) to primary and secondary dormancy induction in response to environmental

  15. Demands imposed on the quality of nuclear power plant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruehl, F.

    1986-01-01

    The qualitative requirements on pipelines in nuclear power plants can only be met with standardized and quality-controlled fabrication and testing. Quality assurance systems like the ASME Code, Sect. III, or KTA 1401 are outline specifications that take account of the producers' specific conditions. The resulting, optimized production processes can be tailored to the user's individual needs. Quality assurance systems provide a basis for higher safety in component production. (orig.) [de

  16. DEFINITION OF ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS IMPOSED BY FILLING STATIONS ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaryta Radomska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of green space was considered in the paper. The basic negative impacts on the quantity and quality of green spaces were defined. It was set that the optimization of green areas exploitation is main prerequisite of the urban environment improvement which requires their comprehensive study, assessment of natural resource potential and its possible changes, study of the approaches to their use without damage to nature and people to be. The implementation of proposed recommendations within geoecological approach allows to detect complex structural and functional properties of green spaces geosystem as natural objects and finding ways for their improvement.

  17. Global gene expression during stringent response in Corynebacterium glutamicum in presence and absence of the rel gene encoding (pppGpp synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinowski Jörn

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The stringent response is the initial reaction of microorganisms to nutritional stress. During stringent response the small nucleotides (pppGpp act as global regulators and reprogram bacterial transcription. In this work, the genetic network controlled by the stringent response was characterized in the amino acid-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum. Results The transcriptome of a C. glutamicum rel gene deletion mutant, unable to synthesize (pppGpp and to induce the stringent response, was compared with that of its rel-proficient parent strain by microarray analysis. A total of 357 genes were found to be transcribed differentially in the rel-deficient mutant strain. In a second experiment, the stringent response was induced by addition of DL-serine hydroxamate (SHX in early exponential growth phase. The time point of the maximal effect on transcription was determined by real-time RT-PCR using the histidine and serine biosynthetic genes. Transcription of all of these genes reached a maximum at 10 minutes after SHX addition. Microarray experiments were performed comparing the transcriptomes of SHX-induced cultures of the rel-proficient strain and the rel mutant. The differentially expressed genes were grouped into three classes. Class A comprises genes which are differentially regulated only in the presence of an intact rel gene. This class includes the non-essential sigma factor gene sigB which was upregulated and a large number of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism which were downregulated. Class B comprises genes which were differentially regulated in response to SHX in both strains, independent of the rel gene. A large number of genes encoding ribosomal proteins fall into this class, all being downregulated. Class C comprises genes which were differentially regulated in response to SHX only in the rel mutant. This class includes genes encoding putative stress proteins and global transcriptional regulators that might be

  18. Imposed work of breathing during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation : a bench study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerde, Marc; van Genderingen, Huib R.; Leenhoven, Tom; Roubik, Karel; Ploetz, Frans B.; Markhorst, Dick G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The ventilator and the endotracheal tube impose additional workload in mechanically ventilated patients breathing spontaneously. The total work of breathing (WOB) includes elastic and resistive work. In a bench test we assessed the imposed WOB using 3100 A/3100 B SensorMedics

  19. Resolution unfolding with limits imposed by statistical experimental errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, D.W.

    1977-02-01

    A typical form of the resolution equation is derived by considering the physical measurement of an energy dependent spectrum. It is shown that the information contained in a data set may be expressed by writing the spectrum as a linear combination of a set of resolution functions. Introduction of other functions to describe the spectrum involves extra physical information. An iterative conjugate gradient technique to obtain a spectrum consistent with the data is described. At each iteration the residual discrepancy between the currently predicted yield and the measured data is used to generate the form and mangitude of the next term to be added to the spectrum. Other unfolding techniques are described and analysed, some faster than the conjugate gradient technique in special cases, but restricted in usefulness by implicit assumptions about the resolution functions. The nature of residual errors is considered. The variations of independently measured data sets are discussed, and hence, the variations of the sequence of terms appearing in a consequent conjugate gradient analysis. An approximate measure is obtained for the expected variation of independently obtained spectra. Refinements are briefly considered which apply to a resolution function that is not known precisely or which make use of a requirement that the spectrum be positive throughout its range. It is concluded that a conjugate gradient technique is best if sufficient computer facilities are available, and that, of the less demanding techniques, the best is one that is essentially a more slowly convergent version of a conjugate gradient method. (author)

  20. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Graham N; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E

    2012-02-22

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (C(met)) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. C(met) for locomotion in armour was 2.1-2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with C(met) for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles.

  1. Can value-based insurance impose societal costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Lane; Dall, Timothy M; Ruiz, David; Saavoss, Josh; Tongue, John

    2014-09-01

    Among policy alternatives considered to reduce health care costs and improve outcomes, value-based insurance design (VBID) has emerged as a promising option. Most applications of VBID, however, have not used higher cost sharing to discourage specific services. In April 2011, the state of Oregon introduced a policy for public employees that required additional cost sharing for high-cost procedures such as total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Our objectives were to estimate the societal impact of higher co-pays for TKA using Oregon as a case study and building on recent work demonstrating the effects of knee osteoarthritis and surgical treatment on employment and disability outcomes. We used a Markov model to estimate the societal impact in terms of quality of life, direct costs, and indirect costs of higher co-pays for TKA using Oregon as a case study. We found that TKA for a working population can generate societal benefits that offset the direct medical costs of the procedure. Delay in receiving surgical care, because of higher co-payment or other reasons, reduced the societal savings from TKA. We conclude that payers moving toward value-based cost sharing should consider consequences beyond direct medical expenses. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison and Analysis of Regulatory and Derived Requirements for Certain DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments; Lessons Learned for Future Spent Fuel Transportation Campaigns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, George L.; Fawcett, Rick L.; Rieke, Philip C.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive materials transportation is stringently regulated by the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to protect the public and the environment. As a Federal agency, however, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must seek State, Tribal and local input on safety issues for certain transportation activities. This interaction has invariably resulted in the imposition of extra-regulatory requirements, greatly increasing transportation costs and delaying schedules while not significantly enhancing the level of safety. This paper discusses the results an analysis of the regulatory and negotiated requirements established for a July 1998 shipment of spent nuclear fuel from foreign countries through the west coast to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Staff from the INEEL Nuclear Materials Engineering and Disposition Department undertook the analysis in partnership with HMTC, to discover if there were instances where requirements derived from stakeholder interactions duplicate, contradict, or otherwise overlap with regulatory requirements. The study exhaustively lists and classifies applicable Department of Transportation (DOT) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. These are then compared with a similarly classified list of requirements from the Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) and those developed during stakeholder negotiations. Comparison and analysis reveals numerous attempts to reduce transportation risk by imposing more stringent safety measures than those required by DOT and NRC. These usually took the form of additional inspection, notification and planning requirements. There are also many instances of overlap with, and duplication of regulations. Participants will gain a greater appreciation for the need to understand the risk-oriented basis of the radioactive materials regulations and their effectiveness in ensuring safety when negotiating extra-regulatory requirements

  3. 75 FR 29404 - Contract Reporting Requirements of Intrastate Natural Gas Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Analysis 109 X. Regulatory Flexibility Act 110 XI. Document Availability 112 XII. Effective Date and... less stringent transactional reporting requirements for NGPA section 311 intrastate pipelines and... transactional reporting requirements for intrastate and Hinshaw pipelines in order to increase market...

  4. Legal status and source of offenders' firearms in states with the least stringent criteria for gun ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittes, Katherine A; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W

    2013-02-01

    Gun possession by high-risk individuals presents a serious threat to public safety. U.S. federal law establishes minimum criteria for legal purchase and possession of firearms; many states have laws disqualifying additional categories for illegal possession. We used data from a national survey of state prison inmates to calculate: 1) the proportion of offenders, incarcerated for crimes committed with firearms in 13 states with the least restrictive firearm purchase and possession laws, who would have been prohibited if their states had stricter gun laws; and 2) the source of gun acquisition for offenders who were and were not legally permitted to purchase and possess firearms. Nearly three of ten gun offenders (73 of 253 or 28.9%) were legal gun possessors but would have been prohibited from purchasing or possessing firearms when committing their most recent offense if their states had stricter prohibitions. Offenders who were already prohibited under current law acquired their gun from a licensed dealer, where a background check is required, five times less often than offenders who were not prohibited (3.9% vs. 19.9%; χ(2)=13.31; p≤0.001). Nearly all (96.1%) offenders who were legally prohibited, acquired their gun from a supplier not required to conduct a background check. Stricter gun ownership laws would have made firearm possession illegal for many state prison inmates who used a gun to commit a crime. Requiring all gun sales to be subject to a background check would make it more difficult for these offenders to obtain guns.

  5. Crop yield response to water stress imposed at different growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Mahmood Shah, M.; Wisal, M.

    1995-01-01

    Potato requires sufficient soil moisture and fertilization to produce high yields but the present water resoures are limited compared to the cultivable land, field experiments were conduced from 1991 to 1995 to study relationship between yield and crop water use as a function of water stress imposed at different growth stages. The irrigation treatments involved application of full and stress watering s selectively at four growth stages : Establishment , Flowering Tuber formation and ripening. In full watering, full water requirements of the crop were met, i.e., ET sub a = ET sub m whereas in stress watering about half the amount of full watering was applied, i.e., ET sub a < ET sub m. Changes in moisture content of the soil pre files after irrigation were monitored with the help of neutron moisture probe in order to compute ET sub a by the water balance method. The results obtained showed that the tuber yield was produced by full watering ( T 1) and the lowest by continuous stress watering (T 2). A plot of relative yield against relative evapotranspiration deficit revealed that ripening was the lest sensitive whereas early development followed by flowering the most sensitive growth stage to water stress. The crop water use efficiencies were generally higher in the treatments where a combination of normal and stress watering was applied compared to where all - normal watering s were applied. The traditional irrigation practice resulted in wasteful water application with relatively lower yields, hence the results from this project will have high value for the farming community to get this higher yields with scarce water resources. The studies with labelled fertilizer showed that planting and earthing - up were equally important growth stages of potato for applying fertilizer for its efficient utilization. 3 figs; 25 tabs; 12 refs (Author)

  6. Granulocytes impose a tight bottleneck upon the gut luminal pathogen population during Salmonella typhimurium colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Maier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Topological, chemical and immunological barriers are thought to limit infection by enteropathogenic bacteria. However, in many cases these barriers and their consequences for the infection process remain incompletely understood. Here, we employed a mouse model for Salmonella colitis and a mixed inoculum approach to identify barriers limiting the gut luminal pathogen population. Mice were infected via the oral route with wild type S. Typhimurium (S. Tm and/or mixtures of phenotypically identical but differentially tagged S. Tm strains ("WITS", wild-type isogenic tagged strains, which can be individually tracked by quantitative real-time PCR. WITS dilution experiments identified a substantial loss in tag/genetic diversity within the gut luminal S. Tm population by days 2-4 post infection. The diversity-loss was not attributable to overgrowth by S. Tm mutants, but required inflammation, Gr-1+ cells (mainly neutrophilic granulocytes and most likely NADPH-oxidase-mediated defense, but not iNOS. Mathematical modelling indicated that inflammation inflicts a bottleneck transiently restricting the gut luminal S. Tm population to approximately 6000 cells and plating experiments verified a transient, inflammation- and Gr-1+ cell-dependent dip in the gut luminal S. Tm population at day 2 post infection. We conclude that granulocytes, an important clinical hallmark of S. Tm-induced inflammation, impose a drastic bottleneck upon the pathogen population. This extends the current view of inflammation-fuelled gut-luminal Salmonella growth by establishing the host response in the intestinal lumen as a double-edged sword, fostering and diminishing colonization in a dynamic equilibrium. Our work identifies a potent immune defense against gut infection and reveals a potential Achilles' heel of the infection process which might be targeted for therapy.

  7. Crop yield response to deficit irrigation imposed at different plant growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovaks, T.; Kovaks, G.; Szito, J.

    1995-01-01

    A series of field experiments were conducted between 1991 - 1994 using 7 irrigation treatments at two fertilizer levels. Nitrogen fertilizers used were labelled with 15 N stable isotope to examine the effect of irrigation on the fertilizer N use efficiency by isotope technique. The irrigation were maintained at four different growth stages of maize, soybean and potato( vegetative, flowering, yield formation and ripening ) in 4 replicates. The aim of study was to compare deficit irrigation( i.e. the water stress imposed, during one growth stage ) with normal irrigation practice included the traditional one. Two watering regimes were established : (1) normal watering when available water was within the range of 60 - 90 %, and (2) deficit irrigation, when the AW was at 30 to 60 %. Neutron probe was used for measuring the soil water status and evaporation data were recorded to determine the amount of irrigation water demand. Reference evapotranspiration ( ETo) was calculated according to Penman - Monteith. Crop water requirement ( ETm) were determined in every year. Actual evapotranspiration ( ETa) was computed using CROPWAT: FAO computer program for irrigation planning and management (1992). Every irrigation treatment was equipped with neutron access tubes in two replicates at a depth from 10 to 130 cm. tensiometers were installed at depths of 30, 50, 60 and 80 cm in one replicate of treatments and were measured on a daily basis while neutron probe measurements were used to monitor the soil water table fluctuations. The irrigation method used was a special type of low pressure drop irrigation. There were measured the amount of rainfall with irrigation water supplied and the moisture distribution profiles were drown for the different treatments. Relationships between relative yield decrease and evapotranspiration and also between the crop yield and water use were determined. 9 tabs, 9 refs, ( Author )

  8. Tributes imposed on tourists as a new-old source of local governments income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin BURZEC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth in a number of tourists and, consequently, a larger income obtained from tourism by the state led to the situation when the previously marginalized tributes imposed on tourists by local governments have assumed greater significance. Additional revenues to local units’ budgets, gained from the above-mentioned tributes, are often allotted for better infrastructure and tourist promotion, thereby contributing to the increased tourist competitiveness. The present paper discusses the construction of levies imposed on tourists by local governments in various European states. Besides, the issues of how local governments can influence the construction of the tax within the frames of the granted tax autonomy are examined. Due to the fact that in many European countries burdens imposed on tourists by local units can be called taxes, fees or other levies, the term „tribute”, as a broader one including all statutory charges, is intentionally used in the present paper.

  9. Stringent and reproducible tetracycline-regulated transgene expression by site-specific insertion at chromosomal loci with pre-characterised induction characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papanastasiou Antigoni M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to regulate transgene expression has many applications, mostly concerning the analysis of gene function. Desirable induction characteristics, such as low un-induced expression, high induced expression and limited cellular heterogeneity, can be seriously impaired by chromosomal position effects at the site of transgene integration. Many clones may therefore need to be screened before one with optimal induction characteristics is identified. Furthermore, such screens must be repeated for each new transgene investigated, and comparisons between clones with different transgenes is complicated by their different integration sites. Results To circumvent these problems we have developed a "screen and insert" strategy in which clones carrying a transgene for a fluorescent reporter are first screened for those with optimal induction characteristics. Site-specific recombination (SSR is then be used repeatedly to insert any new transgene at the reporter transgene locus of such clones so that optimal induction characteristics are conferred upon it. Here we have tested in a human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080 two of many possible implementations of this approach. Clones (e.g. Rht14-10 in which a GFP reporter gene is very stringently regulated by the tetracycline (tet transactivator (tTA protein were first identified flow-cytometrically. Transgenes encoding luciferase, I-SceI endonuclease or Rad52 were then inserted by SSR at a LoxP site adjacent to the GFP gene resulting stringent tet-regulated transgene expression. In clone Rht14-10, increases in expression from essentially background levels (+tet to more than 104-fold above background (-tet were reproducibly detected after Cre-mediated insertion of either the luciferase or the I-SceI transgenes. Conclusion Although previous methods have made use of SSR to integrate transgenes at defined sites, none has effectively combined this with a pre-selection step to identify

  10. Historic and future trends of vehicle emissions in Beijing, 1998-2020: A policy assessment for the most stringent vehicle emission control program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Wu, Xiaomeng; Li, Mengliang; Ge, Yunshan; Liang, Bin; Xu, Yueyun; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Huan; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2014-06-01

    As a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, Beijing released the Clean Air Action Plan 2013-2017 document in August 2013 to improve its urban air quality. It has put forward this plan containing the most stringent emission control policies and strategies to be adopted for on-road vehicles of Beijing. This paper estimates the historic and future trends and uncertainties in vehicle emissions of Beijing from 1998 to 2020 by applying a new emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet (EMBEV). Our updated results show that total emissions of CO, THC, NOx and PM2.5 from the Beijing vehicle fleet are 507 (395-819) kt, 59.1 (41.2-90.5) kt, 74.7 (54.9-103.9) kt and 2.69 (1.91-4.17) kt, respectively, at a 95% confidence level. This represents significant reductions of 58%, 59%, 31% and 62%, respectively, relative to the total vehicle emissions in 1998. The past trends clearly posed a challenge to NOx emission mitigation for the Beijing vehicle fleet, especially in light of those increasing NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) which have partly offset the reduction benefit from light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs). Because of recently announced vehicle emission controls to be adopted in Beijing, including tighter emissions standards, limitations on vehicle growth by more stringent license control, promotion of alternative fuel technologies (e.g., natural gas) and the scrappage of older vehicles, estimated vehicle emissions in Beijing will continue to be mitigated by 74% of CO, 68% of THC, 56% of NOx and 72% of PM2.5 in 2020 compared to 2010 levels. Considering that many of the megacities in China are facing tremendous pressures to mitigate emissions from on-road vehicles, our assessment will provide a timely case study of significance for policy-makers in China.

  11. 20 CFR 655.1230 - What time limits are imposed in ALJ proceedings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What time limits are imposed in ALJ proceedings? 655.1230 Section 655.1230 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... direct the parties to serve pleadings or documents by a method other than regular mail. (b) Two (2...

  12. Special economic zones as an instrument to enhance international cooperation in the economic conditions imposed sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    BURTSEVA TATIANA; SHUGAR VALERIYA

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the role of special economic zones in the conditions imposed sanctions. We analyzed the number of residents, including foreign ones, as well as the amount of their investment. We studied the special economic zones of tourist-type as a tool to enhance the attractiveness of the country and the region in particular.

  13. CJEU rules on use of standards in imposing information duties on life insurance companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.

    2015-01-01

    The EU Directive applicable to life insurance sets out what kind of information insurance companies must give to policyholders. It also allows Member States to impose broader information duties, provided that the information is necessary for the policyholder to understand the contract. In its ruling

  14. ENTRAINMENT OF THE BREATHING RHYTHM OF THE CARP BY IMPOSED OSCILLATION OF THE GILL ARCHES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGRAAF, PJF; ROBERTS, BL

    Artificial oscillation imposed onto the gill arches could modify the respiratory rhythm in the carp Cyprinus carpio. The degree of modification depended upon the frequency and amplitude of the applied movement. Oscillation at frequencies close to the spontaneous respiratory rhythm and at amplitudes

  15. 76 FR 74690 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological and Ethnological Material From Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... with Bolivia on December 4, 2001, concerning the imposition of import restrictions on certain... CFR Part 12 [CBP Dec. 11-24] RIN 1515-AD83 Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological and Ethnological Material From Bolivia AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Department of...

  16. Identification during imposed change: the roles of personal values, type of change, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlik, Noga; Oreg, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    Using a person-situation perspective, we explain what happens to individuals' identification with a collective in the context of a change. We propose that given the anxiety that often emerges during change, individuals' personal values (conservation and openness to change) interact with type of change (imposed vs. voluntary) in predicting identification following change. In a pilot, longitudinal field study (N = 61, 67% female) of an imposed university campus relocation, we measured employees' values and identification with the university before and several months after the relocation. In two lab experiments (Study 1: N = 104, 91.3% female; Study 2: N = 113, 75.2% female), we manipulated a change to be either imposed or voluntary and compared the relationships between values and identification across types of change. In Study 2, we also measured anxiety from the change. When change was imposed (all three studies), but not when voluntary (Studies 1 and 2), individuals' conservation was positively, and openness negatively, related to individuals' post-change identification. The effects emerged only for individuals who experienced change-related anxiety (Study 2). Our findings demonstrate that individuals' identification with a changing collective depends on the amount of anxiety change elicits and on the particular combination of their values and type of change. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 42 CFR 423.756 - Procedures for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... independent review has been performed. (ii) In instances where marketing or enrollment or both intermediate... both for a limited period of time in order to assist CMS in making a determination as to whether the... decision to impose a civil money penalty to include— (i) A description of the basis for the determination...

  18. 13 CFR 127.700 - What penalties may be imposed under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What penalties may be imposed under this part? 127.700 Section 127.700 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE PROCEDURES Penalties § 127.700 What penalties may...

  19. Are the force characteristics of synchronous handcycling affected by speed and the method to impose power?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnet, U.; van Drongelen, S.V.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of exercise conditions (speed and method to impose power) on the applied force, force effectiveness and distribution of work during handcycling. Method: Ten able-bodied men performed handcycling on a treadmill. To test the effect of speed, subjects propelled

  20. Are the force characteristics of synchronous handcycling affected by speed and the method to impose power?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnet, Ursina; van Drongelen, Stefan; Veeger, DirkJan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objective: To investigate the influence of exercise conditions (speed and method to impose power) on the applied force, force effectiveness and distribution of work during handcycling. Method: Ten able-bodied men performed handcycling on a treadmill. To test the effect of speed, subjects propelled

  1. Adolescent Drug Use and the Deterrent Effect of School-Imposed Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, G. R.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of the effect of school-imposed penalties for drug use on a student's consumption of marijuana are biased if both are determined by unobservable school or individual attributes. Reverse causality is also a potential challenge to retrieving estimates of the causal relationship, as the severity of school sanctions may simply reflect the…

  2. Analysis of federally imposed penalties for violations of the Consolidated Omnibus Reconciliation Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R J; Guisto, J A; Meislin, H W; Spaite, D W

    1996-07-01

    To identify the incidence of federally imposed penalties for violations of the Consolidated Omnibus Reconciliation Act (COBRA). Under the Freedom of Information Act, we retrieved a copy of any document related to fines imposed on, settlements made by, or litigation against physicians or hospitals as a result of COBRA violations from the Office of the Inspector General. Under a separate inquiry, also under the Freedom of Information Act, we requested and received from the central office of the Health Care Financing Administration the National Composite Log showing the status of all complaint investigations pursuant to COBRA since the inception of the law. One thousand seven hundred fifty-seven complaint investigations were authorized. Of the 1,729 investigations completed, 412 (24%) were found to be out of compliance with federal regulations. Of these, 27 cases resulted in fines imposed on hospitals. These fines ranged from $1,500 to $150,000 with a mean of $33,917, a median of $25,000, and standard deviation of $35,899. The six fines that were imposed against physicians ranged in value from $2,500 to $20,000 with a mean of $8,500, a median of $7,500, and an SD of $8,612. Seven hospitals but no physicians were terminated from the Medicare program for COBRA violations. The incidence of federally imposed penalties for COBRA violations is low given the multitude of patient transfers that have occurred since the enactment of COBRA. The growing concern regarding this issue may be related to current litigation efforts to broaden the scope and applications of these laws.

  3. Critical examination of the uniformity requirements for single-photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M K; Vermeersch, C

    1991-01-01

    It is generally recognized that single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imposes very stringent requirements on gamma camera uniformity to prevent the occurrence of ring artifacts. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between nonuniformities in the planar data and the magnitude of the consequential ring artifacts in the transaxial data, and how the perception of these artifacts is influenced by factors such as reconstruction matrix size, reconstruction filter, and image noise. The study indicates that the relationship between ring artifact magnitude and image noise is essentially independent of the acquisition or reconstruction matrix sizes, but is strongly dependent upon the type of smoothing filter applied during the reconstruction process. Furthermore, the degree to which a ring artifact can be perceived above image noise is dependent on the size and location of the nonuniformity in the planar data, with small nonuniformities (1-2 pixels wide) close to the center of rotation being less perceptible than those further out (8-20 pixels). Small defects or nonuniformities close to the center of rotation are thought to cause the greatest potential corruption to tomographic data. The study indicates that such may not be the case. Hence the uniformity requirements for SPECT may be less demanding than was previously thought.

  4. 25 CFR 900.46 - What requirements are imposed upon the Secretary for financial management by these standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization... with Treasury regulations as modified by the Act, for the transfer of funds from the United States to the Indian tribe or tribal organization in strict compliance with the self-determination contract and...

  5. An electron plasma experiment to study vortex dynamics subject to externally imposed flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, N. C.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M.

    2018-01-01

    An experimental technique is presented for studying two-dimensional (2D) ideal fluid vortices in the presence of externally imposed flows, using an electron plasma confined in a Penning-Malmberg trap. This procedure is made possible by an isomorphism between the Drift-Poisson equations governing electron plasma dynamics and the 2D Euler equations describing an ideal fluid. Here, the electron density is the analog of fluid vorticity, and the electric potential that of the fluid stream function. External flows are imposed in 2D using a segmented electrode spanning the length of the plasma. Details of the experimental procedure and data analysis are given, including the capabilities and limitations of the experimental approach.

  6. The cost of self-imposed regulatory burden in animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulin, Joseph D; Bradfield, John F; Bergdall, Valerie K; Conour, Laura A; Grady, Andrew W; Hickman, Debra L; Norton, John N; Wallace, Jeanne M

    2014-08-01

    U.S. federal regulations and standards governing the care and use of research animals enacted in the mid- to late 1980s, while having positive effects on the welfare and quality of the animals, have resulted in dramatic increases in overall research costs. In addition to the expenses of housing and caring for animals according to the standards, establishing the requisite internal compliance bureaucracies has markedly driven up costs, in both institutional monetary expenditures and lost research effort. However, many institutions are increasing these costs even further through additional self-imposed regulatory burden, typically characterized by overly complex compliance organizations and unnecessary policies and procedures. We discuss the sources of this self-imposed burden and recommend strategies for avoiding it while preserving an appropriate focus on animal well-being and research success. © FASEB.

  7. Endotracheal tubes and imposed work of breathing: what should we do about it, if anything?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Richard D

    2003-01-01

    Concerns about the work of breathing imposed by the endotracheal tube have led clinicians to routinely use pressure support to overcome this resistive component. More recently, ventilator manufacturers have introduced systems to automatically overcome endotracheal tube resistance, regardless of tube diameter or patient demand for flow. Despite the theoretical advantages, neither method appears to provide superior performance. Stepping back, the real question may be, is overcoming endotracheal tube resistance really important? PMID:12974965

  8. Minimax passband group delay nonlinear FIR filter design without imposing desired phase response

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Charlotte Yuk-Fan; Ling, Wing-Kuen; Dam, Hai Huyen; Yeo, Kok-Lay

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filter is designed without imposing a desired phase response. The maximum passband group delay of the filter is minimized subject to a positivity constraint on the passband group delay response of the filter as well as a specification on the maximum absolute difference between the desired magnitude square response and the designed magnitude square response over both the passband and the stopband. This filter design problem is a no...

  9. Imposed Work of Breathing and Breathing Comfort of Nonintubated Volunteers Breathing with Three Portable Ventilators and a Critical Care Ventilator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, Paul

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to assess the imposed inspiratory work of breathing and breathing comfort of nonintubated healthy volunteers breathing spontaneously through three portable ventilators...

  10. Age and sex differences in steadiness of elbow flexor muscles with imposed cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Hugo M.; Spears, Vincent C.; Schlinder-Delap, Bonnie; Yoon, Tejin; Nielson, Kristy A.; Hunter, Sandra K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose These studies determined (1) age and sex-related differences in steadiness of isometric contractions when high cognitive demand was imposed across a range of forces with the elbow flexor muscles (study 1) and, (2) sex differences in steadiness among older adults when low cognitive demand was imposed (study 2). Methods 36 young adults (18–25 years; 18 women) and 30 older adults (60–82 years; 17 women) performed isometric contractions at 5%, 30% and 40% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Study 1 involved a high-cognitive demand session (serial subtractions by 13 during the contraction) and a control session (no mental math). Study 2 (older adults only) involved a low-cognitive demand session (subtracting by 1s). Results Older individuals exhibited greater increases in force fluctuations (coefficient of variation of force, CV) with high cognitive demand than young adults, with the largest age difference at 5% MVC (P = 0.01). Older adults had greater agonist EMG activity with high-cognitive demand and women had greater coactivation than men (Pdemand for the older women but not for the older men (P = 0.03). Conclusion Older adults had reduced steadiness and increased muscle activation when high cognitive demand was imposed while low cognitive demand induced increased force fluctuations in older women but not older men. These findings have implications for daily and work-related tasks that involve cognitive demand performed simultaneously during submaximal isometric contractions in an aging workforce. PMID:25633070

  11. 36 CFR 1280.34 - What are the types of corrective action NARA imposes for prohibited behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the types of corrective action NARA imposes for prohibited behavior? 1280.34 Section 1280.34 Parks, Forests, and Public... corrective action NARA imposes for prohibited behavior? (a) Individuals who violate the provisions of this...

  12. 26 CFR 301.7422-1 - Special rules for certain excise taxes imposed by chapter 42 or 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special rules for certain excise taxes imposed... Proceedings Civil Actions by the United States § 301.7422-1 Special rules for certain excise taxes imposed by... modified or reversed as the result of a decision of a higher court, upon the expiration, with respect to...

  13. 28 CFR 522.13 - Relationship between existing civil contempt commitment orders and new criminal sentences imposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contempt commitment orders and new criminal sentences imposed under the U.S. or D.C. Code. 522.13 Section..., CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.13 Relationship between existing civil contempt commitment orders and new criminal sentences imposed under the U.S. or D.C...

  14. Inducible Expression of Agrobacterium Virulence Gene VirE2 for Stringent Regulation of T-DNA Transfer in Plant Transient Expression Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkovskienė, Erna; Paškevičius, Šarūnas; Werner, Stefan; Gleba, Yuri; Ražanskienė, Aušra

    2015-11-01

    Agrotransfection with viral vectors is an effective solution for the transient production of valuable proteins in plants grown in contained facilities. Transfection methods suitable for field applications are desirable for the production of high-volume products and for the transient molecular reprogramming of plants. The use of genetically modified (GM) Agrobacterium strains for plant transfections faces substantial biosafety issues. The environmental biosafety of GM Agrobacterium strains could be improved by regulating their T-DNA transfer via chemically inducible expression of virE2, one of the essential Agrobacterium virulence genes. In order to identify strong and stringently regulated promoters in Agrobacterium strains, we evaluated isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside-inducible promoters Plac, Ptac, PT7/lacO, and PT5/lacOlacO and cumic acid-inducible promoters PlacUV5/CuO, Ptac/CuO, PT5/CuO, and PvirE/CuO. Nicotiana benthamiana plants were transfected with a virE2-deficient A. tumefaciens strain containing transient expression vectors harboring inducible virE2 expression cassettes and containing a marker green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene in their T-DNA region. Evaluation of T-DNA transfer was achieved by counting GFP expression foci on plant leaves. The virE2 expression from cumic acid-induced promoters resulted in 47 to 72% of wild-type T-DNA transfer. Here, we present efficient and tightly regulated promoters for gene expression in A. tumefaciens and a novel approach to address environmental biosafety concerns in agrobiotechnology.

  15. Application of a tablet film coating model to define a process-imposed transition boundary for robust film coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ban, Sander; Pitt, Kendal G; Whiteman, Marshall

    2018-02-01

    A scientific understanding of interaction of product, film coat, film coating process, and equipment is important to enable design and operation of industrial scale pharmaceutical film coating processes that are robust and provide the level of control required to consistently deliver quality film coated product. Thermodynamic film coating conditions provided in the tablet film coating process impact film coat formation and subsequent product quality. A thermodynamic film coating model was used to evaluate film coating process performance over a wide range of film coating equipment from pilot to industrial scale (2.5-400 kg). An approximate process-imposed transition boundary, from operating in a dry to a wet environment, was derived, for relative humidity and exhaust temperature, and used to understand the impact of the film coating process on product formulation and process control requirements. This approximate transition boundary may aid in an enhanced understanding of risk to product quality, application of modern Quality by Design (QbD) based product development, technology transfer and scale-up, and support the science-based justification of critical process parameters (CPPs).

  16. Market microstructure matters when imposing a Tobin tax—Evidence from the lab☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Michael; Huber, Jürgen; Kleinlercher, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Trading in FX markets is dominated by two microstructures: exchanges with market makers and OTC-markets without market makers. Using laboratory experiments we test whether the impact of a Tobin tax is different in these two market microstructures. We find that (i) in markets without market makers an unilaterally imposed Tobin tax (i.e. a tax haven exists) increases volatility. (ii) In contrast, in markets with market makers we observe a decrease in volatility in unilaterally taxed markets. (iii) An encompassing Tobin tax has no impact on volatility in either setting. Efficiency does not vary significantly across tax regimes. PMID:22210970

  17. Market microstructure matters when imposing a Tobin tax-Evidence from the lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Michael; Huber, Jürgen; Kleinlercher, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    TRADING IN FX MARKETS IS DOMINATED BY TWO MICROSTRUCTURES: exchanges with market makers and OTC-markets without market makers. Using laboratory experiments we test whether the impact of a Tobin tax is different in these two market microstructures. We find that (i) in markets without market makers an unilaterally imposed Tobin tax (i.e. a tax haven exists) increases volatility. (ii) In contrast, in markets with market makers we observe a decrease in volatility in unilaterally taxed markets. (iii) An encompassing Tobin tax has no impact on volatility in either setting. Efficiency does not vary significantly across tax regimes.

  18. Transition to magnetorotational turbulence in Taylor–Couette flow with imposed azimuthal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Guseva; Avila, M; Willis, A P; Hollerbach, R

    2015-01-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is thought to be a powerful source of turbulence and momentum transport in astrophysical accretion discs, but obtaining observational evidence of its operation is challenging. Recently, laboratory experiments of Taylor–Couette flow with externally imposed axial and azimuthal magnetic fields have revealed the kinematic and dynamic properties of the MRI close to the instability onset. While good agreement was found with linear stability analyses, little is known about the transition to turbulence and transport properties of the MRI. We here report on a numerical investigation of the MRI with an imposed azimuthal magnetic field. We show that the laminar Taylor–Couette flow becomes unstable to a wave rotating in the azimuthal direction and standing in the axial direction via a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. Subsequently, the flow features a catastrophic transition to spatio-temporal defects which is mediated by a subcritical subharmonic Hopf bifurcation. Our results are in qualitative agreement with the PROMISE experiment and dramatically extend their realizable parameter range. We find that as the Reynolds number increases defects accumulate and grow into turbulence, yet the momentum transport scales weakly. (paper)

  19. Egg eviction imposes a recoverable cost of virulence in chicks of a brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Anderson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Chicks of virulent brood parasitic birds eliminate their nestmates and avoid costly competition for foster parental care. Yet, efforts to evict nest contents by the blind and naked common cuckoo Cuculus canorus hatchling are counterintuitive as both adult parasites and large older cuckoo chicks appear to be better suited to tossing the eggs and young of the foster parents.Here we show experimentally that egg tossing imposed a recoverable growth cost of mass gain in common cuckoo chicks during the nestling period in nests of great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus hosts. Growth rates of skeletal traits and morphological variables involved in the solicitation of foster parental care remained similar between evictor and non-evictor chicks throughout development. We also detected no increase in predation rates for evicting nests, suggesting that egg tossing behavior by common cuckoo hatchlings does not increase the conspicuousness of nests.The temporary growth cost of egg eviction by common cuckoo hatchlings is the result of constraints imposed by rejecter host adults and competitive nestmates on the timing and mechanism of parasite virulence.

  20. Imposed, ordered dust structures and other plasma features in a strongly magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Edward; Leblanc, Spencer; Lynch, Brian; Konopka, Uwe; Merlino, Robert; Rosenberg, Marlene

    2015-11-01

    The Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment (MDPX) device has been in operation for just over one year. In that time, the MDPX device has been operating using a uniform magnetic field configuration up to 3.0 Tesla and has successfully produced plasmas and dusty plasmas at high magnetic fields. In these experimental studies, we have made observations of a new type of imposed, ordered structure in a dusty plasma at magnetic fields above 1 T. These dusty plasma structures are shown to scale inversely with neutral pressure and are shown to reflect the spatial structure of a wire mesh placed in the plasma. Additionally, recent measurements have been made that give insights into the effective potential that establishes the ordered structures in the plasma. In this presentation, we report on details of the imposed, ordered dusty plasma structure as well as filamentary features that also appear in the plasma and modify the confinement of the dusty plasma. This work is supported with funding from the NSF and Department of Energy.

  1. Imposing a pause between the eccentric and concentric phases increases the reliability of isoinertial strength assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarés, Jesús G; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; Pérez, Carlos Esteban; De La Cruz-Sánchez, Ernesto; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of imposing a pause between the eccentric and concentric phases on the biological within-subject variation of velocity- and power-load isoinertial assessments. Seventeen resistance-trained athletes undertook a progressive loading test in the bench press (BP) and squat (SQ) exercises. Two trials at each load up to the one-repetition maximum (1RM) were performed using 2 techniques executed in random order: with (stop) and without (standard) a 2-s pause between the eccentric and concentric phases of each repetition. The stop technique resulted in a significantly lower coefficient of variation for the whole load-velocity relationship compared to the standard one, in both BP (2.9% vs. 4.1%; P = 0.02) and SQ (2.9% vs. 3.9%; P = 0.01). Test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were r = 0.61-0.98 for the standard and r = 0.76-0.98 for the stop technique. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the error associated with the standard technique was 37.9% (BP) and 57.5% higher (SQ) than that associated with the stop technique. The biological within-subject variation is significantly reduced when a pause is imposed between the eccentric and concentric phases. Other relevant variables associated to the load-velocity and load-power relationships such as the contribution of the propulsive phase and the load that maximises power output remained basically unchanged.

  2. Tool-based requirement traceability between requirement and design artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Turban, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Processes for developing safety-critical systems impose special demands on ensuring requirements traceability. Achieving valuable traceability information, however, is especially difficult concerning the transition from requirements to design. Bernhard Turban analyzes systems and software engineering theories cross-cutting the issue (embedded systems development, systems engineering, software engineering, requirements engineering and management, design theory and processes for safety-critical systems). As a solution, the author proposes a new tool approach to support designers in their thinkin

  3. Itinerarios imposibles del sujeto nómade en la hora de la estrella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Tatiana Vargas Ortiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2176-8522.2009n9p39 En La Hora de la Estrella de Clarice Lispector el sujeto emprende la búsqueda de su identidad a través de desplazamientos propios de su naturaleza nómade. Estos desplazamientos de la consciencia del sujeto forman una serie de itinerarios que revelan algunas imposibilidades que el sujeto nómade sufre en una sociedad que lo condena a su alienación. La imposibilidad de la autoconsciencia del yo, su devenir animal y el vaciamiento del deseo, son parte de estos itinerarios imposibles que acontecen en la novela.

  4. Stimulated Raman Scattering Imposes Fundamental Limits to the Duration and Bandwidth of Temporal Cavity Solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yadong; Anderson, Miles; Coen, Stéphane; Murdoch, Stuart G.; Erkintalo, Miro

    2018-02-01

    Temporal cavity solitons (CS) are optical pulses that can persist in passive resonators, and they play a key role in the generation of coherent microresonator frequency combs. In resonators made of amorphous materials, such as fused silica, they can exhibit a spectral redshift due to stimulated Raman scattering. Here we show that this Raman-induced self-frequency-shift imposes a fundamental limit on the duration and bandwidth of temporal CSs. Specifically, we theoretically predict that stimulated Raman scattering introduces a previously unidentified Hopf bifurcation that leads to destabilization of CSs at large pump-cavity detunings, limiting the range of detunings over which they can exist. We have confirmed our theoretical predictions by performing extensive experiments in synchronously driven fiber ring resonators, obtaining results in excellent agreement with numerical simulations. Our results could have significant implications for the future design of Kerr frequency comb systems based on amorphous microresonators.

  5. Tribal communities and coal in Northeast India: The politics of imposing and resisting mining bans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDuie-Ra, Duncan; Kikon, Dolly

    2016-01-01

    Bans on coal mining have been implemented in two tribal majority states in India's north-east frontier; Nagaland and Meghalaya. In Nagaland the state government imposed the ban in an attempt to capture control of coal extraction and trade, while in Meghalaya India's National Green Commission imposed the ban over concern for the environment and labour conditions. In both cases local communities have opposed the bans, and in some areas resumed mining under the authority of tribal councils and powerful civil society actors. In this paper we explore the politics of coal extraction that resulted in these bans and the response of communities and authorities. In doing so we made three main arguments that contribute to understanding of coal and communities in frontier regions where state control is partial and the legacy of armed conflict is powerful. First, in both locations the majority of the coal mining activity has been initiated and managed by members of tribal communities rather than profit-driven outsiders. Second, in contrast to other contexts in India (notably Orissa and Jharkhand) where large state or private enterprises seek to modify the law to enable coal extraction, in Nagaland and Meghalaya it has been communities that resent and challenge state and national laws being applied to their lands. Third, the right to extract coal is connected to the right of tribal communities to determine what happens on their lands. - Highlights: • Tribal communities initiate and manage coal mining in Nagaland and Meghalaya. • Laws banning coal extraction have been challenged and resisted by local communities. • The right to extract coal is tied to protecting tribal land rights. • Tribal autonomy in coal policy is progressive, yet enables capture by local elites. • Where there has been regulation of coal mining it has come from unexpected sources.

  6. Effects of imposed resistance on tidal volume with 5 neonatal nasal continuous positive airway pressure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Shannon E; Fedor, Katherine L; Chatburn, Robert L

    2010-05-01

    Neonates with respiratory distress syndrome are often treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Nasal CPAP methods include electronic feedback control, underwater seal, flow opposition, and flow opposition with fluidic flow reversal on expiration. Few studies have compared those modes, and the results have been contradictory. We compared the effect of resistive load on simulated tidal volume (V(T)) with 5 neonatal nasal CPAP systems: Fisher and Paykel nasal CPAP tubing with Maquet Servo-i ventilator in NIV CPAP mode; Cardinal Health AirLife nasal CPAP system; Fisher and Paykel nasal CPAP tubing with water-seal pressure generator; AirLife infant nasal CPAP generator kit; and Hamilton Medical Arabella fluidic nasal CPAP generator. The lung simulator settings were: compliance 0.5 mL/cm H2O, resistance 125 H2O/L/s, sinusoidal patient-effort range 6.5-26 cm H2O, rise 25%, hold 0%, release 25%, respiratory rate 65 breaths/min. We compared the mean values from 10 breaths. The mean inspiratory pressure drop and V(T) difference (compared to the simulator alone, unloaded) increased with V(T), respectively, from 0.32 cm H2O to 1.73 cm H2O, and from -0.04 mL to -0.40 mL. Flow opposition had the smallest pressure drop (from 0.10 cm H2O to 0.64 cm H2O, P nasal CPAP's pressure drop was largest (P or = 9 mL the electronic nasal CPAP's pressure drop was largest (P nasal CPAP systems correlate with the differences in unassisted V(T) due to loading effects. The ventilator imposed the least load, and the AirLife nasal CPAP system imposed the most.

  7. Protein Homeostasis Imposes a Barrier on Functional Integration of Horizontally Transferred Genes in Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon Bershtein

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT plays a central role in bacterial evolution, yet the molecular and cellular constraints on functional integration of the foreign genes are poorly understood. Here we performed inter-species replacement of the chromosomal folA gene, encoding an essential metabolic enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, with orthologs from 35 other mesophilic bacteria. The orthologous inter-species replacements caused a marked drop (in the range 10-90% in bacterial growth rate despite the fact that most orthologous DHFRs are as stable as E.coli DHFR at 37°C and are more catalytically active than E. coli DHFR. Although phylogenetic distance between E. coli and orthologous DHFRs as well as their individual molecular properties correlate poorly with growth rates, the product of the intracellular DHFR abundance and catalytic activity (kcat/KM, correlates strongly with growth rates, indicating that the drop in DHFR abundance constitutes the major fitness barrier to HGT. Serial propagation of the orthologous strains for ~600 generations dramatically improved growth rates by largely alleviating the fitness barriers. Whole genome sequencing and global proteome quantification revealed that the evolved strains with the largest fitness improvements have accumulated mutations that inactivated the ATP-dependent Lon protease, causing an increase in the intracellular DHFR abundance. In one case DHFR abundance increased further due to mutations accumulated in folA promoter, but only after the lon inactivating mutations were fixed in the population. Thus, by apparently distinguishing between self and non-self proteins, protein homeostasis imposes an immediate and global barrier to the functional integration of foreign genes by decreasing the intracellular abundance of their products. Once this barrier is alleviated, more fine-tuned evolution occurs to adjust the function/expression of the transferred proteins to the constraints imposed by the

  8. Individually ventilated cages impose cold stress on laboratory mice: a source of systemic experimental variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, John M; Knowles, Scott; Lamkin, Donald M; Stout, David B

    2013-11-01

    Individual ventilated cages (IVC) are increasing in popularity. Although mice avoid IVC in preference testing, they show no aversion when provided additional nesting material or the cage is not ventilated. Given the high ventilation rate in IVC, we developed 3 hypotheses: that mice housed in IVC experience more cold stress than do mice housed in static cages; that IVC-induced cold stress affects the results of experiments using mice; and that, when provided shelters, mice behaviorally thermoregulate and thereby rescue the cold-stress effects of IVC. To test these hypotheses, we housed mice in IVC, IVC with shelters, and static cages maintained at 20 to 21 °C. We quantified the cold stress of each housing system on mice by assessing nonshivering thermogenesis and brown adipose vacuolation. To test housing effects in a common, murine model of human disease, we implanted mice with subcutaneous epidermoid carcinoma cells and quantified tumor growth, tumor metabolism, and adrenal weight. Mice housed in IVC had histologic signs of cold stress and significantly higher nonshivering thermogenesis, smaller subcutaneous tumors, lower tumor metabolism, and larger adrenal weights than did mice in static cages. Shelters rescued IVC-induced nonshivering thermogenesis, adrenal enlargement, and phenotype-dependent cold-mediated histologic changes in brown adipose tissue and tumor size. IVC impose chronic cold stress on mice, alter experimental results, and are a source of systemic confounders throughout rodent-dependent research. Allowing mice to exhibit behavioral thermoregulation through seeking shelter markedly rescues the experiment-altering effects of housing-imposed cold stress, improves physiologic uniformity, and increases experimental reproducibility across housing systems.

  9. 46 CFR 298.13 - Financial requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the reporting requirements imposed by § 298.42. (2) “Working Capital” means the excess, if any, of... Working Capital requirements, as set forth in paragraph (f) of this section. (1) The various financial..., minimum requirements at Closing usually are as follows: (i) Working Capital. The Company's Working Capital...

  10. Limits Imposed on Heat Produced during Core Formation by Radiative Transfer Processes and Thermodynamic Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, R. E.; Hofmeister, A.

    2010-12-01

    The popular view that Earth is sufficiently hot to still be shedding primordal heat, largely originating in the core, is inconsistent with thermodynamic constraints and recent heat transport studies. Previous work presumes that the large difference in gravitational potential energy (Ug) between a fictious, homogeneous reference state and Earth’s current layered configuration of metallic core and rocky mantle was converted to frictional heat during core formation, greatly increasing temperature (T) inside the Earth. However, heating (ΔT >0) was deduced by assuming that Ug is positive, which is inconsistent with Newton’s law of gravitation. Use of an erroneous sign for ΔUg has prevented recognition that the process is an exothermic transformation. Thermodynamic principles were not considered in previous analyses: neglecting the effect of the change in configuration on entropy and energy contributes greatly to the view that heat is retained. Instead, stringent limits are set on the permissible temperature increase by the rapid rate of ballistic radiative transfer, a process associated with transient events, as well as by the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics. In the static, instantaneous model of core formation, configurational entropy (S) of the Earth decreases upon forming the ordered layered state; this entropy decrease is offset by a greater increase in S of the surrounding universe, which can only be accomplished by release of heat to space (the surroundings). Instantaneous dissipation of heat in the static model reasonably approximates radiative processes being superfast. Core formation involves negligible changes in volume and rotational energy, so Helmholtz free energy (=Ug-TS) is conserved, as in atmospheric processes and other graviational-thermodynamic problems. Because S of the universe is immense and heat must flow from hotter to colder bodies, negligible heat from core formation is retained, consistent with the exothermic nature of this transition

  11. Transcriptomes Reveal Genetic Signatures Underlying Physiological Variations Imposed by Different Fermentation Conditions in Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Roger S.; van Bokhorst-van de Veen, Hermien; Wiersma, Anne; Overmars, Lex; Marco, Maria L.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are utilized widely for the fermentation of foods. In the current post-genomic era, tools have been developed that explore genetic diversity among LAB strains aiming to link these variations to differential phenotypes observed in the strains investigated. However, these genotype-phenotype matching approaches fail to assess the role of conserved genes in the determination of physiological characteristics of cultures by environmental conditions. This manuscript describes a complementary approach in which Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 was fermented under a variety of conditions that differ in temperature, pH, as well as NaCl, amino acid, and O2 levels. Samples derived from these fermentations were analyzed by full-genome transcriptomics, paralleled by the assessment of physiological characteristics, e.g., maximum growth rate, yield, and organic acid profiles. A data-storage and -mining suite designated FermDB was constructed and exploited to identify correlations between fermentation conditions and industrially relevant physiological characteristics of L. plantarum, as well as the associated transcriptome signatures. Finally, integration of the specific fermentation variables with the transcriptomes enabled the reconstruction of the gene-regulatory networks involved. The fermentation-genomics platform presented here is a valuable complementary approach to earlier described genotype-phenotype matching strategies which allows the identification of transcriptome signatures underlying physiological variations imposed by different fermentation conditions. PMID:22802930

  12. Association between the training loads imposed to amateur rugby sevens players and burnout syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sarly Coutinho Sobral

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Burnout syndrome has been shown to be increasingly prevalent in athletes, since it is related to factors that influence levels of stress during the preparation of sports. Therefore, it has been studied in several sports, but not in Rugby Seven. The aim of this study was to correlate the effects of training loads imposed on amateur Rugby Sevens players with the burnout questionnaire. Nine players (25 ± 5 years-old were evaluated before the preparatory period. Assessment included the measurement of the % fat percentage; nutritional status, stress, and aerobic power. During the preparatory period, once again, it was assessed the state of stress, aerobic power, and intensity of the training program. It was observed that there is no significant correlation between the intensity of the workout and Burnout scores (p> 0.05, nor between Burnout scores and aerobic capacity. However, there was significant a correlation between the intensity of training performed with aerobic power (p< 0.01. Therefore, it is concluded that a training program prescribed properly, prevents the onset of burnout syndrome in Rugby Sevens players.

  13. Plasma membrane NADH oxidase of maize roots responds to gravity and imposed centrifugal forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E.; Morre, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    NADH oxidase activities measured with excised roots of dark-grown maize (Zea mays) seedlings and with isolated plasma membrane vesicles from roots of dark-grown maize oscillated with a regular period length of 24 min and were inhibited by the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic [correction of dichorophenoxyacetic] acid. The activities also responded to orientation with respect to gravity and to imposed centrifugal forces. Turning the roots upside down resulted in stimulation of the activity with a lag of about 10 min. Returning the sections to the normal upright position resulted in a return to initial rates. The activity was stimulated reversibly to a maximum of about 2-fold with isolated plasma membrane vesicles, when subjected to centrifugal forces of 25 to 250 x g for 1 to 4 min duration. These findings are the first report of a gravity-responsive enzymatic activity of plant roots inhibited by auxin and potentially related to the gravity-induced growth response. c2001 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.

  14. Lower-limb amputee recovery response to an imposed error in mediolateral foot placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Ava D; Klute, Glenn K

    2014-09-22

    Despite walking with a wider step width, amputees remain 20% more likely to fall than non-amputees. Since mediolateral (ML) balance is critical for ambulation and contingent on ML foot placement, we used a ML disturbance to perturb walking balance and explore the influence of prosthetic foot stiffness on balance recovery. Ten transtibial amputees were fit with two commonly prescribed prosthetic feet with differing stiffness characteristics; 12 non-amputees also participated. A perturbation device that released an air burst just before heel strike imposed a repeatable medial or lateral disturbance in foot placement. After a medial disturbance, the first recovery step width was narrowed (pprosthetic limb (-103%), the sound limb (-51%) and non-amputees (-41%) and more than twice as variable. The ML inclination angle remained reduced (-109%) for the prosthetic limb, while the sound limb and non-amputees approached undisturbed levels (pprosthetic medial disturbance versus two steps for the sound limb and for non-amputees. After a lateral disturbance, the first recovery step was widened for the prosthetic limb (+82%), sound limb (+75%), and wider than non-amputees (+51%; pProsthetic feet with different stiffness properties did not have a significant effect. In conclusion, amputee balance was particularly challenged by medial disturbances to the prosthetic limb implying a need for improved interventions that address these balance deficits. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Optimal Placement of Actors in WSANs Based on Imposed Delay Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxi Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs refer to a group of sensors and actors linked by wireless medium to probe environment and perform specific actions. Such certain actions should always be taken before a deadline when an event of interest is detected. In order to provide such services, the whole monitor area is divided into several virtual areas and nodes in the same area form a cluster. Clustering of the WSANs is often pursued to give that each actor acts as a cluster-head. The number of actors is related to the size and the deployment of WSANs cluster. In this paper, we find a method to determine the accurate number of actors which enables them to receive data and take actions in an imposed time-delay. The k-MinTE and the k-MaxTE clustering algorithm are proposed to form the minimum and maximum size of cluster, respectively. In those clustering algorithms, actors are deployed in such a way that sensors could route data to actors within k hops. Then, clusters are arranged by the regular hexagon. At last, we evaluate the placement of actors and results show that our approach is effective.

  16. Damage Characterization of EBC-SiCSiC Ceramic Matrix Composites Under Imposed Thermal Gradient Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Matthew P.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Zhu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high temperature capabilities, Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) components are being developed for use in hot-section aerospace engine applications. Harsh engine environments have led to the development of Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) for silicon-based CMCs to further increase thermal and environmental capabilities. This study aims at understanding the damage mechanisms associated with these materials under simulated operating conditions. A high heat-flux laser testing rig capable of imposing large through-thickness thermal gradients by means of controlled laser beam heating and back-side air cooling is used. Tests are performed on uncoated composites, as well as CMC substrates that have been coated with state-of-the-art ceramic EBC systems. Results show that the use of the EBCs may help increase temperature capability and creep resistance by reducing the effects of stressed oxidation and environmental degradation. Also, the ability of electrical resistance (ER) and acoustic emission (AE) measurements to monitor material condition and damage state during high temperature testing is shown; suggesting their usefulness as a valuable health monitoring technique. Micromechanics models are used to describe the localized stress state of the composite system, which is utilized along with ER modeling concepts to develop an electromechanical model capable of characterizing material behavior.

  17. Imposing Cognitive Constraints on Reference Production: The Interplay Between Speech and Gesture During Grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Carro, Ingrid; Goudbeek, Martijn; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-10-01

    Past research has sought to elucidate how speakers and addressees establish common ground in conversation, yet few studies have focused on how visual cues such as co-speech gestures contribute to this process. Likewise, the effect of cognitive constraints on multimodal grounding remains to be established. This study addresses the relationship between the verbal and gestural modalities during grounding in referential communication. We report data from a collaborative task where repeated references were elicited, and a time constraint was imposed to increase cognitive load. Our results reveal no differential effects of repetition or cognitive load on the semantic-based gesture rate, suggesting that representational gestures and speech are closely coordinated during grounding. However, gestures and speech differed in their execution, especially under time pressure. We argue that speech and gesture are two complementary streams that might be planned in conjunction but that unfold independently in later stages of language production, with speakers emphasizing the form of their gestures, but not of their words, to better meet the goals of the collaborative task. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Relationship of Different Perceived Exertion Scales in Walking or Running with Self-Selected and Imposed Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Marcelo Ricardo Cabral

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to: (1 compare the Heart Rate (HR and Rating Perceived Exertion (RPE in training with self-selected and imposed loads, and (2 associate the OMNI-Walk/Run and Borg scales with self-selected and imposed loads, both on a treadmill. Ten trained men (20.3 ± 2.0 years, 75.6 ± 9.8 kg, 175.1 ± 5.1 cm participated in a training program with self-selected load (time and speed individually preferred and another with imposed load (even self-selected time and speed 10% higher. The HR and RPE were measured, every minute of training, by the OMNIWalk/ Run and Borg scales. No significant differences were found in the HR and RPE between training sessions. The correlation between the OMNI-Walk/Run and Borg scales showed a moderate association (r = 0.55 in training with self-selected load and a strong association in imposed load (r = 0.79. In this study, self-selected load induced a suboptimal stimulus to elicit favorable organic adaptations. Moreover, high correlation of OMNI Walk/Run and Borg scales with the imposed load showed that the greater the load of training the best were answers of RPE.

  19. A critical role of lateral hypothalamus in context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Nathan J; Rabei, Rana; Kaganovsky, Konstantin; Caprioli, Daniele; Bossert, Jennifer M; Bonci, Antonello; Shaham, Yavin

    2014-05-28

    In human alcoholics, abstinence is often self-imposed, despite alcohol availability, because of the negative consequences of excessive use. During abstinence, relapse is often triggered by exposure to contexts associated with alcohol use. We recently developed a rat model that captures some features of this human condition: exposure to the alcohol self-administration environment (context A), after punishment-imposed suppression of alcohol self-administration in a different environment (context B), provoked renewal of alcohol seeking in alcohol-preferring P rats. The mechanisms underlying context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence are unknown. Here, we studied the role of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and its forebrain projections in this effect. We first determined the effect of context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking on Fos (a neuronal activity marker) expression in LH. We next determined the effect of LH reversible inactivation by GABAA + GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol + baclofen) on this effect. Finally, we determined neuronal activation in brain areas projecting to LH during context-induced renewal tests by measuring double labeling of the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CTb; injected in LH) with Fos. Context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence was associated with increased Fos expression in LH. Additionally, renewal was blocked by muscimol + baclofen injections into LH. Finally, double-labeling analysis of CTb + Fos showed that context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence was associated with selective activation of accumbens shell neurons projecting to LH. The results demonstrate an important role of LH in renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence and suggest a role of accumbens shell projections to LH in this form of relapse. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347447-11$15.00/0.

  20. Possible Weakening Processes Imposed on California's Earthen Levees under Protracted Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. D.; Vahedifard, F.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    California is currently suffering from a multiyear extreme drought and the impacts of the drought are anticipated to worsen in a warming climate. The resilience of critical infrastructure under extreme drought conditions is a major concern which has not been well understood. Thus, there is a crucial need to improve our understanding about the potential threats of drought on infrastructure and take subsequent actions in a timely manner to mitigate these threats and adopt our infrastructure for forthcoming extreme events. The need is more pronounced for earthen levees, since their functionality to protect limited water resources and dryland is more critical during drought. A significant amount of California's levee systems are currently operating under a high risk condition. Protracted drought can further threaten the structural competency of these already at-risk levee systems through several thermo-hydro mechanical weakening processes that undermine their stability. Viable information on the implications of these weakening processes, particularly on California's earthen levees, is relatively incomplete. This article discusses, from a geotechnical engineering perspective, how California's protracted drought might threaten the integrity of levee systems through the imposition of several thermo-hydro mechanical weakening processes. Pertinent facts and statistics regarding the drought in California are presented and discussed. Catastrophic levee failures and major damages resulting from drought-induce weakening processes such as shear strength reduction, desiccation cracking, land subsidence and surface erosion, fissuring and soil softening, and soil carbon oxidation are discussed to illustrate the devastating impacts that the California drought might impose on existing earthen levees. This article calls for further research in light of these potential drought-inducing weakening mechanisms to support mitigation strategies for reducing future catastrophic levee failures.

  1. Imposed visual feedback delay of an action changes mass perception based on the sensory prediction error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya eHonda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available While performing an action, the timing of when the sensory feedback is given can be used to establish the causal link between the action and its consequence. It has been shown that delaying the visual feedback while carrying an object makes people feel the mass of the object to be greater, suggesting that the feedback timing can also impact the perceived quality of an external object. In this study, we investigated the origin of the feedback timing information that influences the mass perception of the external object.Participants made a straight reaching movement while holding a manipulandum. The movement of the manipulandum was presented as a cursor movement on a monitor. In Experiment 1, various delays were imposed between the actual trajectory and the cursor movement. The participants’ perceived mass of the manipulandum significantly increased as the delay increased to 400 ms, but this gain did not reach significance when the delay was 800 ms. This suggests the existence of a temporal tuning mechanism for incorporating the visual feedback into the perception of mass. In Experiment 2, we examined whether the increased mass perception during the visual delay was due to the prediction error of the visual consequence of an action or to the actual delay of the feedback itself. After the participants adapted to the feedback delay, the perceived mass of the object became lighter than before, indicating that updating the temporal prediction model for the visual consequence diminishes the overestimation of the object’s mass. We propose that the misattribution of the visual delay into mass perception is induced by the sensorimotor prediction error, possibly when the amount of delay (error is within the range that can reasonably include the consequence of an action.

  2. Risk preferences impose a hidden distortion on measures of choice impulsivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lopez-Guzman

    Full Text Available Measuring temporal discounting through the use of intertemporal choice tasks is now the gold standard method for quantifying human choice impulsivity (impatience in neuroscience, psychology, behavioral economics, public health and computational psychiatry. A recent area of growing interest is individual differences in discounting levels, as these may predispose to (or protect from mental health disorders, addictive behaviors, and other diseases. At the same time, more and more studies have been dedicated to the quantification of individual attitudes towards risk, which have been measured in many clinical and non-clinical populations using closely related techniques. Economists have pointed to interactions between measurements of time preferences and risk preferences that may distort estimations of the discount rate. However, although becoming standard practice in economics, discount rates and risk preferences are rarely measured simultaneously in the same subjects in other fields, and the magnitude of the imposed distortion is unknown in the assessment of individual differences. Here, we show that standard models of temporal discounting -such as a hyperbolic discounting model widely present in the literature which fails to account for risk attitudes in the estimation of discount rates- result in a large and systematic pattern of bias in estimated discounting parameters. This can lead to the spurious attribution of differences in impulsivity between individuals when in fact differences in risk attitudes account for observed behavioral differences. We advance a model which, when applied to standard choice tasks typically used in psychology and neuroscience, provides both a better fit to the data and successfully de-correlates risk and impulsivity parameters. This results in measures that are more accurate and thus of greater utility to the many fields interested in individual differences in impulsivity.

  3. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: a legally imposed challenge to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, M; Rogiers, V

    2010-03-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  4. Convection patterns in a liquid metal under an imposed horizontal magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Takatoshi; Hamano, Yozo; Miyagoshi, Takehiro; Yamagishi, Yasuko; Tasaka, Yuji; Takeda, Yasushi

    2013-12-01

    We performed laboratory experiments of Rayleigh-Bénard convection with liquid gallium under various intensities of a uniform imposed horizontal magnetic field. An ultrasonic velocity profiling method was used to visualize the spatiotemporal structure of the flows with simultaneous monitoring of the temperature fluctuations in the liquid gallium layer. The explored Rayleigh numbers Ra range from the critical value for onset of convection to 10(5); the Chandrasekhar number Q covers values up to 1100. A regime diagram of the convection patterns was established in relation to the Ra and Q values for a square vessel with aspect ratio 5. We identified five flow regimes: (I) a fluctuating large-scale pattern without rolls, (II) weakly constrained rolls with fluctuations, (III) a continuous oscillation of rolls, (IV) repeated roll number transitions with random reversals of the flow direction, and (V) steady two-dimensional (2D) rolls. These flow regimes are classified by the Ra/Q values, the ratio of the buoyancy to the Lorentz force. Power spectra from the temperature time series indicate that regimes I and II have the features of developed turbulence, while the other regimes do not. The region of steady 2D rolls (Busse balloon) extends to high Ra values in the present setting by a horizontal magnetic field and regime V is located inside the Busse balloon. Concerning the instabilities of the steady 2D rolls, regime III is the traveling wave convection developed from the oscillatory instability. Regime IV can be regarded as a state of phase turbulence, which is induced by intermittent occurrences of the skewed-varicose instability.

  5. Assessment of the sensory and physical limitations imposed by leprosy in a Brazilian Amazon Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Yolette Urbano Pauxis Aben-Athar

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION Leprosy often results in sensory and physical limitations. This study aimed to evaluate these limitations using a quantitative approach in leprosy patients in Belém (Pará, Brazil. METHODS This epidemiological, cross-sectional study measured the sensory impairment of smell and taste through the use of a questionnaire and evaluated activity limitations of daily life imposed by leprosy through the Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness (SALSA Scale. Data were collected from 84 patients and associations between the degree of disability and clinical and epidemiological characteristics were assessed. RESULTS The majority of patients were men (64.3%, married (52.4%, age 31-40 years old (26.2%, had primary education (50%, and were independent laborers (36.9%. The multibacillary operational classification (81%, borderline clinical form (57.1%, and 0 degrees of physical disability (41.7% were predominant. SALSA scores ranged from 17 to 59 points, and being without limitations was predominant (53.6%. The risk awareness score ranged from 0 to 8, with a score of 0 (no awareness of risk being the most common (56%. Evaluation of smell and taste sensory sensitivities revealed that 70.2% did not experience these sensory changes. Patients with leprosy reactions were 7 times more likely to develop activity limitations, and those who had physical disabilities were approximately four times more likely to develop a clinical picture of activity limitations. CONCLUSIONS Most patients showed no sensory changes, but patients with leprosy reactions were significantly more likely to develop activity limitations. Finally, further studies should be performed, assessing a higher number of patients to confirm the present results.

  6. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: A legally imposed challenge to science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, M.; Rogiers, V.

    2010-01-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  7. Experiences in certification of packages for transportation of fresh nuclear fuel in the context of new safety requirements established by IAEA regulations (IAEA-96 regulations, ST-1) for air transportation of nuclear materials (requirements to C-type packages)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudai, V.I.; Kovtun, A.D.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Nilulin, V.M.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Yakushev, V.A.; Bobrovsky, V.S.; Rozhkov, V.V.; Agapov, A.M.; Kolesnikov, A.S. [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' MSZ' ' , Electrostal (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' NPCC' ' , Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)]|[Minatom of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Gosatomnadzor of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Every year in Russia, a large amount of domestic and international transportation of fresh nuclear fuel (FNF) used in Russian and foreign energy and research atomic reactors and referred to fissile materials based on IAEA Regulations is performed. Here, bulk transportation is performed by air, and it concerns international transportation in particular. According to national ''Main Regulations for Safe Transport and physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (OPBZ- 83)'' and ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Regulations), nuclear and radiation security under normal (accident free) and accident conditions of transport must be completely provided by the package design. In this context, high requirements to fissile packages exposed to heat and mechanical loads in transport accidents are imposed. A long-standing experience in accident free transportation of FM has shown that such approach to provide nuclear and radiation security pays for itself completely. Nevertheless, once in 10 years the International Atomic Energy Agency on every revision of the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' places more stringent requirements upon the FM and transportation thereof, resulting from the objectively increasing risk associated with constant rise in volume and density of transportation, and also strained social and economical situation in a number of regions in the world. In the new edition of the IAEA Regulations (ST-1), published in 1996 and brought into force in 2001 (IAEA-96 Regulations), the requirements to FM packages conveyed by aircraft were radically changed. These requirements are completely presented in new Russian ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' (PBTRM- 2004) which will be brought into force in the time ahead.

  8. Safety requirements and safety experience of nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurer, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    Peaceful use of nuclear energy within the F.R.G. is rapidly growing. The Energy Programme of the Federal Government forecasts a capacity of up to 50.000 MW in 1985. Whereas most of this capacity will be of the LWR-Type, other activities are related to LMFBR - and HTGR - development, nuclear ships, and facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. Safety of nuclear energy is the pacemaker for the realization of nuclear programmes and projects. Due to a very high population - and industrialisation density, safety has the priority before economical aspects. Safety requirements are therefore extremely stringent, which will be shown for the legal, the technical as well as for the organizational area. They apply for each nuclear facility, its site and the nuclear energy system as a whole. Regulatory procedures differ from many other countries, assigning executive power to state authorities, which are supervised by the Federal Government. Another particularity of the regulatory process is the large scope of involvement of independent experts within the licensing procedures. The developement of national safety requirements in different countries generates a necessity to collaborate and harmonize safety and radiation protection measures, at least for facilities in border areas, to adopt international standards and to assist nuclear developing countries. However, different nationally, regional or local situations might raise problems. Safety experience with nuclear facilities can be concluded from the positive construction and operation experience, including also a few accidents and incidents and the conclusions, which have been drawn for the respective factilities and others of similar design. Another tool for safety assessments will be risk analyses, which are under development by German experts. Final, a scope of future problems and developments shows, that safety of nuclear installations - which has reached a high performance - nevertheless imposes further tasks to be solved

  9. Lethal Consequences of Overcoming Metabolic Restrictions Imposed on a Cooperative Bacterial Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Eunhye; Kang, Yongsung; Lim, Jae Yun; Ham, Hyeonheui; Hwang, Ingyu

    2017-02-28

    Quorum sensing (QS) controls cooperative activities in many Proteobacteria In some species, QS-dependent specific metabolism contributes to the stability of the cooperation. However, the mechanism by which QS and metabolic networks have coevolved to support stable public good cooperation and maintenance of the cooperative group remains unknown. Here we explored the underlying mechanisms of QS-controlled central metabolism in the evolutionary aspects of cooperation. In Burkholderia glumae , the QS-dependent glyoxylate cycle plays an important role in cooperativity. A bifunctional QS-dependent transcriptional regulator, QsmR, rewired central metabolism to utilize the glyoxylate cycle rather than the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Defects in the glyoxylate cycle caused metabolic imbalance and triggered high expression of the stress-responsive chaperonin GroEL. High-level expression of GroEL in glyoxylate cycle mutants interfered with the biosynthesis of a public resource, oxalate, by physically interrupting the oxalate biosynthetic enzyme ObcA. Under such destabilized cooperativity conditions, spontaneous mutations in the qsmR gene in glyoxylate cycle mutants occurred to relieve metabolic stresses, but these mutants lost QsmR-mediated pleiotropy. Overcoming the metabolic restrictions imposed on the population of cooperators among glyoxylate cycle mutants resulted in the occurrence and selection of spontaneous qsmR mutants despite the loss of other important functions. These results provide insight into how QS bacteria have evolved to maintain stable cooperation via QS-mediated metabolic coordination. IMPORTANCE We address how quorum sensing (QS) has coevolved with metabolic networks to maintain bacterial sociality. We found that QS-mediated metabolic rewiring is critical for sustainable bacterial cooperation in Burkholderia glumae The loss of the glyoxylate cycle triggered the expression of the stress-responsive molecular chaperonin GroEL. Excessive biosynthesis of Gro

  10. Imposed Environmental Stresses Facilitate Cell-Free Nanoparticle Formation by Deinococcus radiodurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been examined in a wide range of organisms, due to increased interest in green synthesis and environmental remediation applications involving heavy metal ion contamination. Deinococcus radiodurans is particularly attractive for environmental remediation involving metal reduction, due to its high levels of resistance to radiation and other environmental stresses. However, few studies have thoroughly examined the relationships between environmental stresses and the resulting effects on nanoparticle biosynthesis. In this work, we demonstrate cell-free nanoparticle production and study the effects of metal stressor concentrations and identity, temperature, pH, and oxygenation on the production of extracellular silver nanoparticles by D. radiodurans R1. We also report the synthesis of bimetallic silver and gold nanoparticles following the addition of a metal stressor (silver or gold), highlighting how production of these particles is enabled through the application of environmental stresses. Additionally, we found that both the morphology and size of monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles were dependent on the environmental stresses imposed on the cells. The nanoparticles produced by D. radiodurans exhibited antimicrobial activity comparable to that of pure silver nanoparticles and displayed catalytic activity comparable to that of pure gold nanoparticles. Overall, we demonstrate that biosynthesized nanoparticle properties can be partially controlled through the tuning of applied environmental stresses, and we provide insight into how their application may affect nanoparticle production in D. radiodurans during bioremediation. IMPORTANCE Biosynthetic production of nanoparticles has recently gained prominence as a solution to rising concerns regarding increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics and a desire for environmentally friendly methods of bioremediation and chemical synthesis. To date, a range of

  11. Burden of caring: risks and consequences imposed on caregivers of those living and dying with advanced heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Strömberg; M.L. Luttik

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the latest research on the risks and consequences of the burden that may be imposed on informal carers of persons living and dying with advanced heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic search in PubMed over the period 2013-2014 ultimately revealed 24 original

  12. 49 CFR 236.567 - Restrictions imposed when device fails and/or is cut out en route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions imposed when device fails and/or is cut out en route. 236.567 Section 236.567 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS...

  13. Public opinion on imposing restrictions to people with an alcohol- or drug addiction : A cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boekel, L.C.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van Weeghel, J.; Garretsen, H.F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Alcohol- and drug addiction tends to evoke disapproval and rejection among people. This study provides insight into the origin of people’s negative attitudes towards these people. Corrigan’s attribution model is used to examine intentions of the Dutch public to impose restrictions to people

  14. The Redistributive Impact of Restrictive Measures on EU Members: Winners and Losers from Imposing Sanctions on Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giumelli, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    EU sanctions on Russia created concerns among its members. It is well known that sanctions impose a cost on their targets as well as on the senders, as lamented by European governments, but the costs of EU sanctions on its members have not been fully explored. This article intends to fill this gap

  15. 76 FR 56866 - Bureau of Economic, Energy and Business Affairs; Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... of Economic, Energy and Business Affairs; Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran... determined that the following persons have engaged in sanctionable activity described in section 5(a) of the... Memorandum''), the Secretary has determined that the following persons have engaged in sanctionable activity...

  16. 78 FR 35351 - Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Pursuant to the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Petrochemical Company and Niksima Food and Beverage JLT. DATES: Effective Date: The sanctions on Ferland Company Limited, Jam Petrochemical Company, and Niksima Food and Beverage JLT are effective May 31, 2013. FOR... to be imposed on Niksima Food and Beverage JLT: 1. Banking transactions. Any transfers of credit or...

  17. 28 CFR 1.10 - Procedures applicable to prisoners under a sentence of death imposed by a United States District...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures applicable to prisoners under a sentence of death imposed by a United States District Court. 1.10 Section 1.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXECUTIVE CLEMENCY § 1.10 Procedures applicable to prisoners under a...

  18. New insights into the regulatory pathways associated with the activation of the stringent response in bacterial resistance to the PBP2-targeted antibiotics, mecillinam and OP0595/RG6080.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumith, M; Mushtaq, S; Livermore, D M; Woodford, N

    2016-10-01

    The diazabicyclooctane β-lactamase inhibitor OP0595 (RG6080) also acts as an antibiotic, targeting PBP2 in Enterobacteriaceae, but this activity is vulnerable to mutational resistance. We used WGS to investigate the basis of this resistance. Twenty OP0595-selected mutants, comprising four derived from each of five different Escherichia coli strains, were sequenced on Illumina HiSeq. Reads from each mutant were mapped to the assembled genome of the corresponding parent. A variant-calling file generated with Samtools was parsed to determine genetic alterations. Besides OP0595, the mutants consistently showed decreased susceptibility to mecillinam, which likewise targets PBP2, and grew as stable round forms in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of OP0595. Among the 20 mutants, 18 had alterations in genes encoding tRNA synthase and modification functions liable to induce expression of the RpoS sigma factor through activation of the stringent response or had mutations suppressing inactivators of RpoS or the stringent response signal-degrading enzyme, SpoT. TolB was inactivated in one mutant: this activates RcsBC regulation and was previously associated with mecillinam resistance. The mechanism of resistance remained unidentified in one mutant. Both the RpoS and RcsBC systems regulate genes of cell division, including ftsAQZ that can compensate for loss or inhibition of PBP2, allowing survival of the challenged bacteria as stable round forms, as seen. WGS identified the global stringent response signal, entailing induction of RpoS, as the main mediator of mutational resistance to OP0595 in E. coli. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 15 CFR 760.5 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS § 760.5 Reporting requirements. (a) Scope of reporting requirements. (1) A United... a restrictive trade practice or boycott fostered or imposed by a foreign country against a country... foreign boycott or restrictive trade practice. (i) A request received by a United States person located in...

  20. Revision of TRV Requirements for the Application of Generator Circuit-Breakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palazzo, M.; Popov, M.; Marmolejo, A.; Delfanti, M.

    2015-01-01

    The requirements imposed on generator circuitbreakers greatly differ from the requirements imposed on other transmission and distribution circuit-breakers. Due to the location of installation between the generator and the associated step-up transformer, a generator circuit-breaker must meet high

  1. The g-factor of the electron bound in {sup 28}Si{sup 13+}. The most stringent test of bound-state quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, Sven

    2012-09-06

    This thesis describes the ultra-precise determination of the g-factor of the electron bound to hydrogenlike {sup 28}Si{sup 13+}. The experiment is based on the simultaneous determination of the cyclotron- and Larmor frequency of a single ion, which is stored in a triple Penning-trap setup. The continuous Stern-Gerlach effect is used to couple the spin of the bound electron to the motional frequencies of the ion via a magnetic bottle, which allows the non-destructive determination of the spin state. To this end, a highly sensitive, cryogenic detection system was developed, which allowed the direct, non-destructive detection of the eigenfrequencies with the required precision. The development of a novel, phase sensitive detection technique finally allowed the determination of the g-factor with a relative accuracy of 4 . 10{sup -11}, which was previously inconceivable. The comparison of the hereby determined value with the value predicted by quantumelectrodynamics (QED) allows the verification of the validity of this fundamental theory under the extreme conditions of the strong binding potential of a highly charged ion. The exact agreement of theory and experiment is an impressive demonstration of the exactness of QED. The experimental possibilities created in this work will allow in the near future not only further tests of theory, but also the determination of the mass of the electron with a precision that exceeds the current literature value by more than an order of magnitude.

  2. 77 FR 33624 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological and Ethnological Materials From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... aspects, Michael Craig, Chief, Interagency Requirements Branch, Trade Policy and Programs, Office of... the Determination to Extend as ``Archaeological Material from the Prehispanic Cultures and Certain... foreign affairs function of the United States and is, therefore, being made without notice or public...

  3. 24 CFR 266.120 - Actions for which sanctions may be imposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the requirements of this part. (c) Engagement in business practices that do not conform to generally accepted practices of prudent lenders or that demonstrate irresponsibility. (d) Actions or conduct for... program; (7) Perform underwriting, insurance of advances, cost certification, management, servicing or...

  4. Most of the Long-Term Genetic Gains from Optimum-Contribution Selection can be Realised with Restrictions Imposed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, Mark; Ostersen, Tage; Ask, Birgitte

    Text: We reasoned that optimum-contribution selection (OCS) with restrictions imposed during optimisation will realise most of the long-term genetic gains realised by OCS without restrictions. We used stochastic simulation to estimate long-term rates of genetic gain realised by breeding schemes...... using OCS without and with restrictions imposed during optimisation. In all but a few exceptions, the long-term rates of genetic gain realised by OCS with restrictions was 95-100% of the rates realised by OCS without restrictions. It was only when the restrictions became overly strict that we began...... to lose gain. We also present evidence from the Danish pig-breeding scheme for Duroc that practical implementation of OCS with restrictions increases genetic gains and decreases rates of inbreeding. OCS has gone from a selection method that was difficult to apply in practice, to one that is readily...

  5. The central dynamics of M3, M13, and M92: stringent limits on the masses of intermediate-mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamann, S.; Wisotzki, L.; Roth, M. M.; Gerssen, J.; Husser, T.-O.; Sandin, C.; Weilbacher, P.

    2014-06-01

    We used the PMAS integral field spectrograph to obtain large sets of radial velocities in the central regions of three northern Galactic globular clusters: M3, M13, and M92. By applying the novel technique of crowded field 3D spectroscopy, we measured radial velocities for about 80 stars within the central ~10″ of each cluster. These are by far the largest spectroscopic datasets obtained in the innermost parts of these clusters up to now. To obtain kinematical data across the whole extent of the clusters, we complement our data with measurements available in the literature. We combine our velocity measurements with surface brightness profiles to analyse the internal dynamics of each cluster using spherical Jeans models, and investigate whether our data provide evidence for an intermediate-mass black hole in any of the clusters. The surface brightness profiles reveal that all three clusters are consistent with a core profile, although shallow cusps cannot be excluded. We find that spherical Jeans models with a constant mass-to-light ratio provide a good overall representation of the kinematical data. A massive black hole is required in none of the three clusters to explain the observed kinematics. Our 1σ (3σ) upper limits are 5300 M⊙ (12 000 M⊙) for M3, 8600 M⊙ (13 000 M⊙) for M13, and 980 M⊙ (2700 M⊙) for M92. A puzzling circumstance is the existence of several potential high velocity stars in M3 and M13, as their presence can account for the majority of the discrepancies that we find in our mass limits compared to M92. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTables D.1 to D.6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  6. Affective Responses to Acute Resistance Exercise Performed at Self-Selected and Imposed Loads in Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, Brian C; Garver, Matthew J; Cotter, Joshua A; Devor, Steven T; Lucas, Alexander R; Fairman, Ciaran M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the affective responses to acute resistance exercise (RE) performed at self-selected (SS) and imposed loads in recreationally trained women. Secondary purposes were to (a) examine differences in correlates of motivation for future participation in RE and (b) determine whether affective responses to RE were related to these select motivational correlates of RE participation. Twenty recreationally trained young women (mean age = 23 years) completed 3 RE sessions involving 3 sets of 10 repetitions using loads of 40% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), 70% 1RM, and an SS load. Affective responses were assessed before, during, and after each RE session using the Feeling Scale. Self-efficacy and intention for using the imposed and SS loads for their regular RE participation during the next month were also assessed postexercise. Results revealed that although the SS and imposed load RE sessions yielded different trajectories of change in affect during exercise (p participation (p resistance training; and affective responses were unrelated to motivational correlates of resistance training.

  7. The Effect of Water Deficit Imposing Methods on Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of New Potato Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh Parvizi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water deficiency is the main factor that limits crop production in arid and semiarid regions. Due to limitation in water resources, low efficiency of water in surface irrigation method and irregular rainfall application of sprinkle and triple irrigation methods is inevitable in more regions of Iran. In this respect, it is crucial to employ methods that can improve water use efficiency and do not damage the sustainable production of potato in these regions. Introduction of some potato cultivars that have good capability of yield in deficit irrigation is anopportunity in this case. In previous study new released potato cultivar (Savalan and three other promising clones had more yield and growing potential compared with Agriacultivar. Therefore, it was necessary to evaluate new cultivar (Savalan and promising clones in water deficit irrigation. In this respect, as is expected, if cultivars or clones have more tolerance to water deficit they canbe suitable cultivar candidate and germplasms in water critical water conditions in many regions of Iran. Material and Methods This experiment has been conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Hamedanin split plot design based on Randomized Complete Block in three replications with two factors, including: 1. Water deficit irrigation treatment, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100% of regular potato irrigation requirement. 2. Three clones accompanied with Savalan and Sante Cultivars. Irrigation system was tape method. Irrigation treatments were established immediately after cultivation of tubers. Water requirement was calculated through corrected vapotranspiration (ETo determined by Penman-Monteith equation considering 90% water use efficiency. During the growing season, fewgrowing indices including, flowering longevity and harvesting time were recorded along with measurement of dry and fresh root weights. Total yield was measured by selecting randomly of 2 m2in every plot

  8. Role of Ventral Subiculum in Context-Induced Relapse to Alcohol Seeking after Punishment-Imposed Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Nathan J; Campbell, Erin J; Whitaker, Leslie R; Harvey, Brandon K; Kaganovsky, Konstantin; Adhikary, Sweta; Hope, Bruce T; Heins, Robert C; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Vardy, Eyal; Bonci, Antonello; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-03-16

    In many human alcoholics, abstinence is self-imposed because of the negative consequences of excessive alcohol use, and relapse is often triggered by exposure to environmental contexts associated with prior alcohol drinking. We recently developed a rat model of this human condition in which we train alcohol-preferring P rats to self-administer alcohol in one context (A), punish the alcohol-reinforced responding in a different context (B), and then test for relapse to alcohol seeking in Contexts A and B without alcohol or shock. Here, we studied the role of projections to nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell from ventral subiculum (vSub), basolateral amygdala, paraventricular thalamus, and ventral medial prefrontal cortex in context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence. First, we measured double-labeling of the neuronal activity marker Fos with the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (injected in NAc shell) and demonstrated that context-induced relapse is associated with selective activation of the vSub→NAc shell projection. Next, we reversibly inactivated the vSub with GABA receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen) before the context-induced relapse tests and provided evidence for a causal role of vSub in this relapse. Finally, we used a dual-virus approach to restrict expression of the inhibitory κ opioid-receptor based DREADD (KORD) in vSub→NAc shell projection neurons. We found that systemic injections of the KORD agonist salvinorin B, which selectively inhibits KORD-expressing neurons, decreased context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. Our results demonstrate a critical role of vSub in context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence and further suggest a role of the vSub→NAc projection in this relapse. In many human alcoholics, abstinence is self-imposed because of the negative consequences of excessive use, and relapse is often triggered by exposure to environmental contexts associated with prior alcohol use. Until recently, an

  9. Self-imposed self-assessment program at a DOE Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoffrion, R.R.; Loud, J.J.; Walter, E.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials and Technology (NMT) Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has implemented a performance-based self-assessment program at the TA-55 plutonium facility. The program was conceptualized and developed by LANL's internal assessment group, AA-2. The management walkaround program fosters continuous improvement in NMT products and performance of its activities. The program, based on experience from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, is endorsed at the site by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) personnel and by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board. The self-assessment program focuses on how work is actually performed rather than on paperwork or process compliance. Managers critically and continually assess ES ampersand H, conduct of operations, and other functional area requirements

  10. 28 CFR 522.12 - Relationship between existing criminal sentences imposed under the U.S. or D.C. Code and new...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sentences imposed under the U.S. or D.C. Code and new civil contempt commitment orders. 522.12 Section 522..., AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.12 Relationship between existing criminal sentences imposed under the U.S. or D.C. Code and new civil contempt commitment...

  11. Leaf herbivory imposes fitness costs mediated by hummingbird and insect pollinators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Chautá

    Full Text Available Plant responses induced by herbivore damage can provide fitness benefits, but can also have important costs due to altered interactions with mutualist pollinators. We examined the effects of plant responses to herbivory in a hummingbird-pollinated distylous shrub, Palicourea angustifolia. Through a series of field experiments we investigated whether damage from foliar herbivores leads to a reduction in fruit set, influences floral visitation, or alters floral traits that may influence pollinator preference or pollinator efficiency. Foliar herbivory by a generalist grasshopper led to reduced fruit set in branches that were directly damaged as well as in adjacent undamaged branches on the same plant. Furthermore, herbivory resulted in reduced floral visitation from two common hummingbird species and two bee species. An investigation into the potential mechanisms behind reduced floral visitation in induced plants showed that foliar herbivore damage resulted in shorter styles and lower nectar volumes. This reduction in style length could reduce pollen deposition between different floral morphs that is required for optimal pollination in a distylous plant. We did not detect any differences in the volatile blends released by damaged and undamaged branches, suggesting that foliar herbivore-induced changes in floral morphology and rewards, and not volatile blends, are the primary mechanism mediating changes in visitation. Our results provide novel mechanisms for how plant responses induced by foliar herbivores can lead to ecological costs.

  12. Communications-imposed pilot workload - A comparison of sixteen estimation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, J. G.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen potential metrics of mental workload were investigated in regard to their relative sensitivity to communications load and their differential intrusion on primary task performance. A moving-base flight simulator was used to present three cross-country flights to each of 30 subject pilots, each flight varying only in the difficulty of the inherent communications requirements. With the exception of the rating scale measures, which were obtained immediately post-flight, all measures were taken over a seven minute segment of the flight task. The results indicated that both the Modified Cooper-Harper and the workload Multi-descriptor rating scales were reliably sensitive to changes in communications load. Also, the secondary task measure of time estimation and the physiological measure of pupil diameter yielded sensitivity. As expected, those primary task measures which were direct measures of communicative performance were also sensitive to load, while aircraft control primary task measures were not, attesting to the task-specificity of such measures. Finally, the intrusion analysis revealed no differential interference between workload measures.

  13. SHMT2 drives glioma cell survival in ischaemia but imposes a dependence on glycine clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohoon; Fiske, Brian P; Birsoy, Kivanc; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Kami, Kenjiro; Possemato, Richard L; Chudnovsky, Yakov; Pacold, Michael E; Chen, Walter W; Cantor, Jason R; Shelton, Laura M; Gui, Dan Y; Kwon, Manjae; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Ligon, Keith L; Kang, Seong Woo; Snuderl, Matija; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Sabatini, David M

    2015-04-16

    Cancer cells adapt their metabolic processes to support rapid proliferation, but less is known about how cancer cells alter metabolism to promote cell survival in a poorly vascularized tumour microenvironment. Here we identify a key role for serine and glycine metabolism in the survival of brain cancer cells within the ischaemic zones of gliomas. In human glioblastoma multiforme, mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT2) and glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) are highly expressed in the pseudopalisading cells that surround necrotic foci. We find that SHMT2 activity limits that of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) and reduces oxygen consumption, eliciting a metabolic state that confers a profound survival advantage to cells in poorly vascularized tumour regions. GLDC inhibition impairs cells with high SHMT2 levels as the excess glycine not metabolized by GLDC can be converted to the toxic molecules aminoacetone and methylglyoxal. Thus, SHMT2 is required for cancer cells to adapt to the tumour environment, but also renders these cells sensitive to glycine cleavage system inhibition.

  14. The potential of imposed magnetic fields for enhancing ignition probability and fusion energy yield in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L. J.; Ho, D. D.-M.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Rhodes, M. A.; Strozzi, D. J.; Blackfield, D. T.; Hawkins, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    We examine the potential that imposed magnetic fields of tens of Tesla that increase to greater than 10 kT (100 MGauss) under implosion compression may relax the conditions required for ignition and propagating burn in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. This may allow the attainment of ignition, or at least significant fusion energy yields, in presently performing ICF targets on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) that today are sub-marginal for thermonuclear burn through adverse hydrodynamic conditions at stagnation [Doeppner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 055001 (2015)]. Results of detailed two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic-burn simulations applied to NIF capsule implosions with low-mode shape perturbations and residual kinetic energy loss indicate that such compressed fields may increase the probability for ignition through range reduction of fusion alpha particles, suppression of electron heat conduction, and potential stabilization of higher-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Optimum initial applied fields are found to be around 50 T. Given that the full plasma structure at capsule stagnation may be governed by three-dimensional resistive magneto-hydrodynamics, the formation of closed magnetic field lines might further augment ignition prospects. Experiments are now required to further assess the potential of applied magnetic fields to ICF ignition and burn on NIF.

  15. 10 CFR 221.35 - Contractual requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Contracts with priority ratings shall be subject to all applicable laws and regulations which govern the... requirements. (a) No supplier may discriminate against an order or contract on which a priority rating has been placed under this part by charging higher prices, by imposing terms and conditions for such orders or...

  16. Quality Space and Launch Requirements Addendum to AS9100C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-05

    inability to repair vehicles on orbit, stringent quality and reliability requirements are levied on contractors to ensure that products will meet their...standard either in full or as appropriately tailored shall be levied on prime contractors, subcontractors, and their sub-tier suppliers of space and...laurence.s.jpatzman@lmco.c om Bryant Allen HQ U.S. Army Material Command, Departmental Standardization Officer bryant.allen1@us.army.mil Aileen Sedmark ASD(R&E)/SE

  17. Provider imposed restrictions to clients' access to family planning in urban Uttar Pradesh, India: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Lisa M; Speizer, Ilene S; Rimal, Rajiv; Sripad, Pooja; Chatterjee, Nilesh; Achyut, Pranita; Nanda, Priya

    2013-12-23

    Medical barriers refer to unnecessary policies or procedures imposed by health care providers that are not necessarily medically advised; these restrictions impede clients' access to family planning (FP). This mixed methods study investigates provider imposed barriers to provision of FP using recent quantitative and qualitative data from urban Uttar Pradesh, India. Baseline quantitative data were collected in six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India from service delivery points (SDP), using facility audits, exit interviews, and provider surveys; for this study, the focus is on the provider surveys. More than 250 providers were surveyed in each city. Providers were asked about the FP methods they provide, and if they restrict clients' access to each method based on age, parity, partner consent, or marital status. For the qualitative research, we conducted one-on-one interviews with 21 service providers in four of the six cities in Uttar Pradesh. Each interview lasted approximately 45 minutes. The quantitative findings show that providers restrict clients' access to spacing and long-acting and permanent methods of FP based on age, parity, partner consent and marital status. Qualitative findings reinforce that providers, at times, make judgments about their clients' education, FP needs and ability to understand FP options thereby imposing unnecessary barriers to FP methods. Provider restrictions on FP methods are common in these urban Uttar Pradesh sites. This means that women who are young, unmarried, have few or no children, do not have the support of their partner, or are less educated may not be able to access or use FP or their preferred method. These findings highlight the need for in-service training for staff, with a focus on reviewing current guidelines and eligibility criteria for provision of methods.

  18. Provider imposed restrictions to clients’ access to family planning in urban Uttar Pradesh, India: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical barriers refer to unnecessary policies or procedures imposed by health care providers that are not necessarily medically advised; these restrictions impede clients’ access to family planning (FP). This mixed methods study investigates provider imposed barriers to provision of FP using recent quantitative and qualitative data from urban Uttar Pradesh, India. Methods Baseline quantitative data were collected in six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India from service delivery points (SDP), using facility audits, exit interviews, and provider surveys; for this study, the focus is on the provider surveys. More than 250 providers were surveyed in each city. Providers were asked about the FP methods they provide, and if they restrict clients’ access to each method based on age, parity, partner consent, or marital status. For the qualitative research, we conducted one-on-one interviews with 21 service providers in four of the six cities in Uttar Pradesh. Each interview lasted approximately 45 minutes. Results The quantitative findings show that providers restrict clients’ access to spacing and long-acting and permanent methods of FP based on age, parity, partner consent and marital status. Qualitative findings reinforce that providers, at times, make judgments about their clients’ education, FP needs and ability to understand FP options thereby imposing unnecessary barriers to FP methods. Conclusions Provider restrictions on FP methods are common in these urban Uttar Pradesh sites. This means that women who are young, unmarried, have few or no children, do not have the support of their partner, or are less educated may not be able to access or use FP or their preferred method. These findings highlight the need for in-service training for staff, with a focus on reviewing current guidelines and eligibility criteria for provision of methods. PMID:24365015

  19. Evaluation of the conditions imposed by the fracture surface geometry on water seepage through fractured porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, Nestor O.; Faybishenko, B.

    2003-01-01

    In order to determine the geometric patterns of the fracture surfaces that imposes conditions on the fluid flow through fractured porous media, a series a fracture models have been analyzed using the RIMAPS technique and the variogram method. Results confirm that the main paths followed by the fluid channels are determined by the surface topography and remain constant during water seepage evolution. Characteristics scale lengths of both situations: fracture surface and the flow of water, are also found. There exists a relationship between the scale lengths corresponding to each situation. (author)

  20. Athletes' perceptions of anti-doping sanctions: the ban from sport versus social, financial and self-imposed sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Knudsen, Mette Lykke

    2015-01-01

    athletes from 40 sports (N = 645; response rate, 43%). Results showed that 78% of athletes regarded the ban as a deterrent. Older male athletes, however, did so to a lesser degree. Seventy-seven per cent, regardless of gender, age, sport type and previous experience of doping testing, viewed social......Today the main doping deterrence strategy is to ban athletes from sport if caught. This study examines whether Danish elite athletes perceive the ban as a deterrent and how they evaluate social, self-imposed and financial sanctions compared with the ban. Questionnaires were emailed to elite...

  1. 26 CFR 44.6001-1 - Record requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... records required pursuant to § 44.4403-1, every person required to pay tax under section 4401 shall keep... § 44.6419-2. (d) Place for keeping records. Every person required to pay the tax imposed by section... TAXES TAXES ON WAGERING; EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 1955 Administrative Provisions of Special Application to...

  2. Excitation of skinned muscle fibers by imposed ion gradients. IV. Effects of stretch and perchlorate ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, E W

    1989-01-01

    Depolarizing ion gradients stimulate 45Ca release in skeletal muscle fibers skinned by microdissection. Several lines of indirect evidence suggest that sealed transverse (T) tubules rather than sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are the locus of such stimulatory depolarization. Two implications of this hypothesis were tested. (a) A requirement for signal transmission was evaluated from the stimulation of 45Ca efflux in fibers that had been highly stretched, an intervention that can impair the electrical stimulation of intact fibers. Length was increased over approximately 95-115 s, after loading with 45Ca and rinsing at normal length; prestimulus 45Ca loss due to stretch itself was very small. In the first study, stimulation of 45Ca release by KCl replacement of K propionate was inhibited completely in fibers stretched to twice slack length, compared with fibers at 1.05-1.1 times slack length. Identical protocols did not alter 45Ca release stimulated by caffeine or Mg2+ reduction, implying that SR Ca release per se was fully functional and inhibition was selective for a preceding step in ionic stimulation. In a second study, stimulation by choline Cl replacement of K methanesulfonate, at constant [K+] [Cl-] product, was inhibited strongly; total 45Ca release decreased 69%, and stimulation above control loss decreased 78%, in segments stretched to twice the length at which sarcomere spacing had been 2.2 micron, compared with paired controls from the same fibers kept at 2.3 micron. (b) Perchlorate potentiation of T tubule activation was evaluated in fibers stimulated at constant [K+] [Cl-] at normal length (2.3 micron); this anion shifts the voltage dependence of intramembrane charge movement and contractile activation in intact fibers. Perchlorate (8 mM) potentiated both submaximal stimulation of Ca2+-dependent 45Ca release by partial choline Cl replacement of K methanesulfonate and the small Ca2+-insensitive 45Ca efflux component stimulated by nearly full replacement in

  3. METHODOLOGICAL BASIS IMPOSING RESTRICTIONS IN LAND USE, BURDENED LAND RIGHTS DURING LAND TENURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosh J.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The question of balanced consolidation of social legislation in a reasonable ratio of land rights and the interests of society as a whole, as well as local communities, citizens and legal entities established by them are general in nature and require specificity it is. Proved that one way of solving this problem is the establishment of restoictions of land rights, restrictions in land use. However, the mechanism of regulation establishment, implementation and termination of restrictions on the rights to land are not very functional and needs improvement. Current legislation in Ukraine does not contain a balanced set of regulations that would determine the nature and objectives of the restrictions, including encumbrances of land rights, their types, the reasons establishing and implementing restrictions of ownership and other rights to land and so on. Based on our analysis, we provide scientifically grounded suggestions on improving the legal framework, particularly, in terms of restrictions on land use and registration in the land management process, as an important means of influence on those rights in order to ensure rational land use and protection it is. Proved that the efficiency of administrative decisions during setting restrictions on land use purpose and usage of land is possible on the basis of land zoning, thus, it is necessary to adopt the Law of Ukraine "On land zoning." In addition, the current classification of land use restrictions, which was proposed by prominent scientists in Ukraine AM Tretyak (classification of restrictions in land use by functional features, and D.S. Dobryak and D.I. Babmindra (classification of restrictions on land use based on their placement by owners and land users, is complemented by types, namely: legal, environmental, ecological, technological, sanitation, urban and special. In the result of scientific studies,we have proposed a model of methodological process of land management actions on formation

  4. A Novel Method to Overcome Coat-Imposed Seed Dormancy in Lupinus albus L. and Trifolium pratense L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskender Tiryaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel method to overcome coat-imposed seed dormancy in legume plants. Seeds of Lupinus albus L. and Trifolium pratense L. were stored in a freezer at −80°C for a period of time and then immediately treated with or without hot water at 90°C for 5 seconds. Germination tests were carried out in darkness at 20±1.0°C with four replications in a completely randomized design. Final germination percentage (FGP, germination rate, and synchrony of seeds were evaluated. The results showed that new approach of freeze-thaw scarification provided high percentage of germinations in white lupin (84.16% and red clover (74.50% seeds while control seeds had FGPs of 3.3% and 26.0%, respectively. The immediate thawing of frozen seeds in hot water for 5 seconds was found not only an effective and reliable but also the quickest seed treatment method to prevail against coat-imposed seed dormancy in legume species and may become operationally applicable to other plant species.

  5. Ultra-Low Noise Quad Photoreceiver for Space Based Laser Interferometric Gravity Wave Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravity wave detection using space-based long-baseline laser interferometric sensors imposes stringent noise requirements on the system components, including the...

  6. SDC detector foundation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western, J.L.; Butalla, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) Detector weighs approximately 32,000 metric tons, and its ability to perform to design specifications is directly related to its internal alignment. The limits of the misalignment tolerance envelope in combination with the detector weight impose a set of tolerance limits of performance directly upon the foundation structure. The foundation must accommodate different detector loading conditions during installation, operation, maintenance, and future enhancements. The foundation must also respond to the loading conditions within a restrictive set of displacement limitations in order to maintain the detector's critical alignment, thereby guaranteeing its operational integrity. This paper will present the results of this study, which has been issued to the Architect Engineer/Construction Manager as user requirements of design. The total structural system performance of the combination of both the detector and its foundation will be discussed

  7. Estimation of tracheal pressure and imposed expiratory work of breathing by the endotracheal tube, heat and moisture exchanger, and ventilator during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Akinori; Yoshida, Takeshi; Yamanaka, Hidenori; Fujino, Yuji

    2013-07-01

    The resistance of the endotracheal tube (ETT), the heat and moisture exchanger (HME), and the ventilator may affect the patient's respiratory status. Although previous studies examined the inspiratory work of breathing (WOB), investigation of WOB in the expiratory phase is rare. We estimated tracheal pressure at the tip of the ETT (Ptrach) and calculated expiratory WOB imposed by the ETT, the HME, and the expiratory valve. We examined imposed expiratory WOB in patients under a continuous mandatory ventilation (CMV) mode and during spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs). We hypothesized that imposed expiratory WOB would increase with heightened ventilatory demand. We measured airway pressure (Paw) and respiratory flow (V). We estimated Ptrach using the equation Ptrach = Paw - K1 × V(K2) - 2.70 × V(L/s)(1.42). K1 and K2 were determined by the inner diameter (ID) of the ETT. Imposed expiratory WOB was calculated from the area of Ptrach above PEEP versus lung volume. We examined imposed expiratory WOB and imposed expiratory resistance in relation to mean expiratory flow. We examined 28 patients under CMV mode, and 29 during SBT. During both CMV and SBT, as mean expiratory flow increased, imposed expiratory WOB increased. The regression curves between mean expiratory flow (x) (L/s) and imposed expiratory WOB (y) (J/L) were y = 1.35x(0.83) (R(2) = 0.79) for 7 mm ID ETT under CMV, y = 1.12x(0.82) (R(2) = 0.73) for 8 mm ID ETT under CMV, y = 1.07x(1.04) (R(2) = 0.85) for 7 mm ID ETT during SBT, and y = 0.84x(0.93) (R(2) = 0.75) for 8 mm ID ETT during SBT. Levels of imposed expiratory WOB were affected by ETT diameter and ventilator mode. The reason for increasing imposed expiratory WOB was an increase in expiratory resistance imposed by the ETT and HME. Under mechanical ventilation, imposed expiratory WOB should be considered in patients with higher minute ventilation.

  8. Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Acute Resistance Exercise Performed at Imposed and Self-Selected Loads in Recreationally Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Joshua A; Garver, Matthew J; Dinyer, Taylor K; Fairman, Ciaran M; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    Cotter, JA, Garver, MJ, Dinyer, TK, Fairman, CM, and Focht, BC. Ratings of perceived exertion during acute resistance exercise performed at imposed and self-selected loads in recreationally trained women. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2313-2318, 2017-Resistance exercise (RE) is commonly used to elicit skeletal muscle adaptation. Relative intensity of a training load links closely with the outcomes of regular RE. This study examined the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to acute bouts of RE using imposed (40% and 70% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and self-selected (SS) loads in recreationally trained women. Twenty physically active women (23.15 ± 2.92 years), who reported regular RE training of at least 3 weekly sessions for the past year, volunteered to participate. During the initial visit, participants completed 1RM testing on 4 exercises in the following order: leg extension, chest press, leg curl, and lat pull-down. On subsequent visits, the same exercises were completed at the SS or imposed loads. The RPE was assessed after the completion of each set of exercises during the 3 RE conditions using the Borg-15 category scale. Self-selected loads corresponded to an average of approximately 57%1RM (±7.62). Overall, RPE increased with load (40%1RM = 11.26 [±1.95]; SS 57%1RM = 13.94 [±1.58]; and, 70%1RM = 15.52 [±2.05]). Reflecting the linear pattern found between load and perceived effort, the present data provide evidence that RPE levels less than 15 likely equate to loads which are not consistent with contemporary American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for enhancing musculoskeletal health which includes strength and hypertrophy. Women desiring increases in strength and lean mass likely need to train at an exertion level at or surpassing a rating of 15 on the Borg-15 category. This article examined the modification of training load on perceived exertion, but other variables, such as the number of repetitions completed, may also be

  9. Imposing genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The idea that a world in which everyone was born "perfect" would be a world in which something valuable was missing often comes up in debates about the ethics of technologies of prenatal testing and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). This thought plays an important role in the "disability critique" of prenatal testing. However, the idea that human genetic variation is an important good with significant benefits for society at large is also embraced by a wide range of figures writing in the bioethics literature, including some who are notoriously hostile to the idea that we should not select against disability. By developing a number of thought experiments wherein we are to contemplate increasing genetic diversity from a lower baseline in order to secure this value, I argue that this powerful intuition is more problematic than is generally recognized, especially where the price of diversity is the well-being of particular individuals.

  10. Self-Imposed Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrington, Mary Lynne; Sharratt, Gene C.

    2009-01-01

    Anne is a natural-born leader. Told as a child she could do anything she set her mind to, she fulfilled that prophesy growing up, including being elected student body president of her high school. As an adult, she enjoyed a happy home life and professional success in education, assuming several leadership positions in her 2,600-student school…

  11. Seamless Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Naumchev, Alexandr; Meyer, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Popular notations for functional requirements specifications frequently ignore developers' needs, target specific development models, or require translation of requirements into tests for verification; the results can give out-of-sync or downright incompatible artifacts. Seamless Requirements, a new approach to specifying functional requirements, contributes to developers' understanding of requirements and to software quality regardless of the process, while the process itself becomes lighter...

  12. Imposing motion constraints to a force reflecting tele-robot through real-time simulation of a virtual mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, L.; Andriot, C.

    1995-01-01

    In a tele-operation system, assistance can be given to the operator by constraining the tele-robot position to remain within a restricted subspace of its workspace. A new approach to motion constraint is presented in this paper. The control law is established simulating a virtual ideal mechanism acting as a jig, and connected to the master and slave arms via springs and dampers. Using this approach, it is possible to impose any (sufficiently smooth) motion constraint to the system, including non linear constraints (complex surfaces) involving coupling between translations and rotations and physical equivalence ensures that the controller is passive. Experimental results obtained with a 6-DOF tele-operation system are given. Other applications of the virtual mechanism concept include hybrid position-force control and haptic interfaces. (authors). 11 refs., 7 figs

  13. Magnitude of Increased Infliximab Clearance Imposed by Anti-infliximab Antibodies in Crohn's Disease Is Determined by Their Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Helena; Steenholdt, Casper; Ainsworth, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    in IFX clearance imposed by anti-IFX Abs has generally been evaluated using a binary classification, i.e., positive or negative. This analysis aimed to investigate if anti-IFX Ab concentrations provide a more adequate prediction of alterations in clearance. Data originated from a clinical trial on Crohn...... relationships and exploiting information from two different quantification assays, measuring semi-quantitative "total" or "unbound neutralizing" concentrations of anti-IFX Ab, respectively. Inclusion of anti-IFX Ab status/concentration improved the model's performance for all investigated relationships...... in identifying high clearance individuals. Simulations showed that even at low concentrations, anti-IFX Abs lead to sub-therapeutic IFX concentrations, supporting a need of treatment interventions in all anti-IFX Ab positive patients. The developed model can serve as a basis for further investigations to refine...

  14. Residual strength and crack propagation tests on C-130 airplane center wings with service-imposed fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, H. L.; Reeder, F. L.; Dirkin, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Fourteen C-130 airplane center wings, each containing service-imposed fatigue damage resulting from 4000 to 13,000 accumulated flight hours, were tested to determine their fatigue crack propagation and static residual strength characteristics. Eight wings were subjected to a two-step constant amplitude fatigue test prior to static testing. Cracks up to 30 inches long were generated in these tests. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 56 to 87 percent of limit load. The remaining six wings containing cracks up to 4 inches long were statically tested as received from field service. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 98 to 117 percent of limit load. Damage-tolerant structural design features such as fastener holes, stringers, doublers around door cutouts, and spanwise panel splices proved to be effective in retarding crack propagation.

  15. Adaptation of the tourism in Romania to the new economic context imposed by the global economic crisis (in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia IFTIME

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis affected the tourist market from Romania since 2008. 2010 was for the Romanian tourism enterprises the year of successful attempts to respond to the economic and social stimuli imposed by the economic crisis. The way in which they managed to cope with the crisis shows that solutions are available to those who adapt to the conditions of fierce competition.The global economic crisis rippled its effects in all areas of activity, tourism included. Some field entrepreneurs consider that tourism will be the most affected sector of services by this crisis because the consumers will leave it at the bottom of the basket of consumption goods and services.

  16. 76 FR 16851 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Application 11-11-C-00-BUR, To Impose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... revenue: $35,000,000. Description of Proposed Impose and Use Project Regional Intermodal Transportation... operators and off-airport hotel vans; pedestrian crosswalk across Empire Avenue to connect the train station...

  17. Evaluation of cognitive loads imposed by traditional paper-based and innovative computer-based instructional strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Mansour, Mahmoud M; Wilhite, Dewey R

    2010-01-01

    Strategies of presenting instructional information affect the type of cognitive load imposed on the learner's working memory. Effective instruction reduces extraneous (ineffective) cognitive load and promotes germane (effective) cognitive load. Eighty first-year students from two veterinary schools completed a two-section questionnaire that evaluated their perspectives on the educational value of a computer-based instructional program. They compared the difference between cognitive loads imposed by paper-based and computer-based instructional strategies used to teach the anatomy of the canine skeleton. Section I included 17 closed-ended items, rated on a five-point Likert scale, that assessed the use of graphics, content, and the learning process. Section II included a nine-point mental effort rating scale to measure the level of difficulty of instruction; students were asked to indicate the amount of mental effort invested in the learning task using both paper-based and computer-based presentation formats. The closed-ended data were expressed as means and standard deviations. A paired t test with an alpha level of 0.05 was used to determine the overall mean difference between the two presentation formats. Students positively evaluated their experience with the computer-based instructional program with a mean score of 4.69 (SD=0.53) for use of graphics, 4.70 (SD=0.56) for instructional content, and 4.45 (SD=0.67) for the learning process. The mean difference of mental effort (1.50) between the two presentation formats was significant, t=8.26, p≤.0001, df=76, for two-tailed distribution. Consistent with cognitive load theory, innovative computer-based instructional strategies decrease extraneous cognitive load compared with traditional paper-based instructional strategies.

  18. Imposed Work of Breathing for Flow Meters with In-Line versus Flow-Through Technique during Simulated Neonatal Breathing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snorri Donaldsson

    Full Text Available The ability to determine airflow during nasal CPAP (NCPAP treatment without adding dead space or resistance would be useful when investigating the physiologic effects of different NCPAP systems on breathing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on pressure stability of different flow measuring devices at the in-line and flow-through position, using simulated neonatal breathing.Six different flow measure devices were evaluated by recording pressure changes and imposed work of breathing for breaths with 16 and 32 ml tidal volumes. The tests were performed initially with the devices in an in line position and with 5 and 10 L/min using flow through technique, without CPAP. The flow meters were then subsequently tested with an Infant Flow CPAP system at 3, 5 and 8 cm H2O pressure using flow through technique. The quality of the recorded signals was compared graphically.The resistance of the measuring devices generated pressure swings and imposed work of breathing. With bias flow, the resistance also generated CPAP pressure. Three of the devices had low resistance and generated no changes in pressure stability or CPAP pressure. The two devices intended for neonatal use had the highest measured resistance.The importance of pressure stability and increased work of breathing during non-invasive respiratory support are insufficiently studied. Clinical trials using flow-through technique have not focused on pressure stability. Our results indicate that a flow-through technique might be a way forward in obtaining a sufficiently high signal quality without the added effects of rebreathing and increased work of breathing. The results should stimulate further research and the development of equipment for dynamic flow measurements in neonates.

  19. Magnitude of Increased Infliximab Clearance Imposed by Anti-infliximab Antibodies in Crohn's Disease Is Determined by Their Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, Helena; Steenholdt, Casper; Ainsworth, Mark A; Goebgen, Eva; Brynskov, Jørn; Thomsen, Ole Ø; Huisinga, Wilhelm; Kloft, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies (Abs) against infliximab (IFX) increase IFX clearance and can result in treatment failure and acute hypersensitivity reactions. However, interpretation of their clinical value is complicated by individual differences in Ab responses and methods used for quantification. The increase in IFX clearance imposed by anti-IFX Abs has generally been evaluated using a binary classification, i.e., positive or negative. This analysis aimed to investigate if anti-IFX Ab concentrations provide a more adequate prediction of alterations in clearance. Data originated from a clinical trial on Crohn's disease patients with IFX treatment failure. The trial was not originally designed for pharmacokinetic analysis. Therefore, published pharmacokinetic models were utilized as priors to enable covariate investigation. The impact of anti-IFX Abs on clearance was assessed using different mathematical relationships and exploiting information from two different quantification assays, measuring semi-quantitative "total" or "unbound neutralizing" concentrations of anti-IFX Ab, respectively. Inclusion of anti-IFX Ab status/concentration improved the model's performance for all investigated relationships. The anti-IFX Ab concentrations were superior to the binary classifications, indicating that the magnitude of increase in IFX clearance imposed by anti-IFX Abs closely relates to their concentration. Furthermore, total anti-IFX Ab concentrations appeared superior to the unbound neutralizing fraction in identifying high clearance individuals. Simulations showed that even at low concentrations, anti-IFX Abs lead to sub-therapeutic IFX concentrations, supporting a need of treatment interventions in all anti-IFX Ab positive patients. The developed model can serve as a basis for further investigations to refine treatment recommendations for patients with anti-IFX Abs.

  20. Linear induction accelerator requirements for ion fast ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, G.

    1998-01-26

    Fast ignition (fast heating of DT cores afief compression) reduces driver energy (by 10 X or more) by reducing the implosion velocity and energy for a given fuel compression ratio. For any type of driver that can deliver the ignition energy fast enough, fast ignition increases the target gain compared to targets using fast implosions for central ignition, as long as the energy to heat the core after compression is comparable to or less than the slow compression energy, and as long as the coupling efficiency of the fast ignitor beam to heat the core is comparable to the overall efficiency of compressing the core (in terms of beam energy-to-DT-efficiency). Ion driven fast ignition, compared to laser-driven fast ignition, has the advantage of direct (dE/dx) deposition of beam energy to the DT, eliminating inefficiencies for conversion into hot electrons, and direct ion heating also has a more favorable deposition profile with the Bragg-peak near the end of an ion range chosen to be deep inside a compressed DT core. While Petawatt laser experiments at LLNL have demonstrated adequate light-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency, it is not yet known if light and hot electrons can channel deeply enough to heat a small portion of a IOOOxLD compressed DT core to ignition. On the other hand, lasers with chirped-pulse amplification giving thousand-fold pulse compressions have been demonstrated to produce the short pulses, small focal spots and Petawatt peak powers approaching those required for fast ignition, whereas ion accelerators that can produce sufficient beam quality for similar compression ratios and focal spot sizes of ion bunches have not yet been demonstrated, where an imposed coherent velocity tilt plays the analogous role for beam compression as does frequency chirp with lasers. Accordingly, it is the driver technology, not the target coupling physics, that poses the main challenge to ion-driven fast ignition. As the mainline HIF program is concentrating on

  1. Status of the U.S. nuclear option, conditions leading to its resurgence, and current licensing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidi, J.

    2007-01-01

    The projected increase in electricity demand, increased concern over emissions along with more stringent emission requirements, volatility of the gas and oil supplies and prices, and the convergence of favourable conditions and legislation make nuclear power a practical option for meeting future electricity base-load demands. (author)

  2. Requirements for the project management in the client / engineering contractor relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    Investment projects impose a multitude of requirements upon clients and engineering contractors to cope with the management of project inherent conflicts. The paper reviews certain aspects on why such conflicts develop, and how they may be resolved. (orig.)

  3. G.M. counter and pre-determined dead time; Compteur G.M. et temps mort impose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamotte, R.; Le Baud, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    This paper is divided into two main parts. - The first section recalls the principle on which a G.M. counter works, and examines the factors which lead to inaccuracies in counting. The concept of dead time, although simple risen associated with the counter alone, becomes complicated as soon as an electronic dead time is introduced to meet the demands of a measurement or an experiment. The resulting dead time, due to the coexistence of these dead times created by a single motivating factor, shows up as a function of certain laws of probability. From the analysis of the various cases of possible combinations, the conditions which must be fulfilled by a system with pre-determined dead time may be determined. This leads to a method for measuring the dead time of a G.M. counter, and the possibility of studying the latter under the utilisation conditions foreseen. - In the second part the principle, construction and characteristics of two systems with pre-determined dead time are discussed. To conclude, a comparison of several experimental results justifies an extension of the possibilities of a G.M. counter used in conjunction with such a system. (author) [French] Deux parties essentielles scindent cet expose. - La premiere partie rappelle le principe de fonctionnement d'un compteur G.M. et examine les facteurs d'imprecisions affectant les comptages. La notion de temps mort, simple quand elle est associee au compteur seul, se complique des qu'intervient un temps mort electronique introduit pour les besoins d'une mesure ou d'une experience. Le temps mort resultant, du a la coexistence de ces temps morts engendres par une meme cause, se manifeste en fonction de certaines lois de probabilites. L'analyse des differents cas de combinaisons possibles permet de preciser les imperatifs auxquels doit repondre un systeme a temps mort impose. Il en decoule une methode de mesure du temps mort d'un compteur G.M. et la possibilite d

  4. A comparison of the physiological demands imposed by competing in a half-marathon vs. a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2017-11-01

    While there is widespread scientific information about the physiological challenges imposed on elite endurance runners during competitions, the information regarding the amateur population is scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the physical and physiological load imposed by competing in a real half-marathon vs. a marathon race. From a larger group of participants, we selected 22 experienced runners who were matched in pairs (11 marathoners and 11 half-marathoners) for age and anthropometric data. Participants completed their respective distances on the same day and circuit while race time was measured by means of chip timing. Sweat samples were obtained during the race using sweat patches. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained and jump height was measured during a countermovement jump. Participants also rated their perception of leg muscle pain at the end of the race. Running pace was similar for half-marathoners vs. marathoners (3.3±0.4 vs. 3.1±0.4 m·s-1; P=0.36). At the end of the race, jump height reduction (-11±12% vs. -25±19%; P=0.03), serum myoglobin concentration (186.1±93.6 vs. 564.1±370.7 µg·mL-1; P<0.01) and self-reported muscle pain (3.0 ±2.3 vs. 5.5 ±1.0 A.U.; P<0.01) were lower in half-marathoners vs. marathoners. Sweat rate (~1.0±0.3 L·h-1; P=0.79) and sweat sodium concentration (47.8±29.4 and 39.3±24.1 mmol·L-1; P=0.47) were similar for both groups but body mass reduction (-1.9±0.8% vs. -3.3±0.8%; P<0.01) and electrolyte imbalance were higher in marathoners. Completing a marathon induces higher muscle fatigue, greater muscle fiber damage and perceived muscle pain levels and higher body water and electrolyte deficits than finishing a half-marathon with a similar running speed. This information could be valuable to improve physical training for endurance running disciplines.

  5. Burden of caring: risks and consequences imposed on caregivers of those living and dying with advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, Anna; Luttik, M L

    2015-03-01

    To summarize the latest research on the risks and consequences of the burden that may be imposed on informal carers of persons living and dying with advanced heart failure. A systematic search in PubMed over the period 2013-2014 ultimately revealed 24 original articles included in this review. From this research update it can be concluded that the body of knowledge increased with more studies focusing on caregivers of patients with advanced heart failure. Caregivers are important partners in care and their lives are seriously affected by the condition of advanced heart failure. Studies on the longitudinal effects of the caregiving role on caregiver's quality of life and on caregiver contributions to patient outcomes is still scarce. Focus of current research is moving towards relationship aspects. Dyadic-care typologies and the concept of incongruence within dyads in terms of conflicting perspectives on how to manage the heart failure are new and important concepts presented in studies presented in this review. Heart failure patients and their caregivers still lack sufficient palliative care and communication on prognosis and end-of-life care. More research is needed to determine the optimal time to start palliative interventions to support caregivers of patients with advanced heart failure.

  6. Perceptual and Cognitive Factors Imposing "Speed Limits" on Reading Rate: A Study with the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primativo, Silvia; Spinelli, Donatella; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; De Luca, Maria; Martelli, Marialuisa

    2016-01-01

    Adults read at high speed, but estimates of their reading rate vary greatly, i.e., from 100 to 1500 words per minute (wpm). This discrepancy is likely due to different recording methods and to the different perceptual and cognitive processes involved in specific test conditions. The present study investigated the origins of these notable differences in RSVP reading rate (RR). In six experiments we investigated the role of many different perceptual and cognitive variables. The presence of a mask caused a steep decline in reading rate, with an estimated masking cost of about 200 wpm. When the decoding process was isolated, RR approached values of 1200 wpm. When the number of stimuli exceeded the short-term memory span, RR decreased to 800 wpm. The semantic context contributed to reading speed only by a factor of 1.4. Finally, eye movements imposed an upper limit on RR (around 300 wpm). Overall, data indicate a speed limit of 300 wpm, which corresponds to the time needed for eye movement execution, i.e., the most time consuming mechanism. Results reconcile differences in reading rates reported by different laboratories and thus provide suggestions for targeting different components of reading rate.

  7. Progressively motile human spermatozoa are well protected against in vitro lipid peroxidation imposed by induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhemrev, J P; Vermeiden, J P; Haenen, G R; De Bruijne, J J; Rekers-Mombarg, L T; Bast, A

    2001-05-01

    Semen samples of 24 patients were analysed. Volumes were measured and the numbers of progressively motile (PMS), motile (MS) and nonmotile spermatozoa (NMS) were determined. These 24 samples appeared to show a large variation in motility percentages and numbers. Spermatozoa of these semen samples were isolated from the seminal plasma and exposed to induced radical oxygen stress imposed by iron/ascorbate. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was quantified as thiobarbituric acid reactive material. The contributions of PMS, MS and NMS were also estimated. It was found that the PMS did not contribute to the formation of lipid peroxides. The cellular radical defence system of PMS may offer them adequate protection against the harsh conditions of radical oxygen stress. Stepwise regression analyses showed that only the population of NMS contributed significantly to the explanation of the variance in LPO production (R2 = 0.56, P < 0.001). Pre-existing membrane lipid peroxides were not detected in spermatozoa. It is therefore suggested that LPO takes place only after radical oxygen stress has exhausted the cellular defence system. LPO is not the initial, but one of the later, events leading to the death of spermatozoa. It is concluded that the population of progressively motile spermatozoa in semen samples does not contribute to the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances as induced by in vitro radical oxygen stress.

  8. An Autoregulatory Mechanism Imposes Allosteric Control on the V(DJ Recombinase by Histone H3 Methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination is initiated by a specialized transposase consisting of the subunits RAG-1 and RAG-2. The susceptibility of gene segments to DNA cleavage by the V(DJ recombinase is correlated with epigenetic modifications characteristic of active chromatin, including trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 4 (H3K4me3. Engagement of H3K4me3 by a plant homeodomain (PHD in RAG-2 promotes recombination in vivo and stimulates DNA cleavage by RAG in vitro. We now show that H3K4me3 acts allosterically at the PHD finger to relieve autoinhibition imposed by a separate domain within RAG-2. Disruption of this autoinhibitory domain was associated with constitutive increases in recombination frequency, DNA cleavage activity, substrate binding affinity, and catalytic rate, thus mimicking the stimulatory effects of H3K4me3. Our observations support a model in which allosteric control of RAG is enforced by an autoinhibitory domain whose action is relieved by engagement of active chromatin.

  9. Mice under Caloric Restriction Self-Impose a Temporal Restriction of Food Intake as Revealed by an Automated Feeder System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Rodríguez, Victoria A; de Groot, Marleen H M; Rijo-Ferreira, Filipa; Green, Carla B; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2017-07-05

    Caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan in mammals, yet the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain unknown. The manner in which CR has been implemented in longevity experiments is variable, with both timing and frequency of meals constrained by work schedules. It is commonplace to find that nocturnal rodents are fed during the daytime and meals are spaced out, introducing prolonged fasting intervals. Since implementation of feeding paradigms over the lifetime is logistically difficult, automation is critical, but existing systems are expensive and not amenable to scale. We have developed a system that controls duration, amount, and timing of food availability and records feeding and voluntary wheel-running activity in mice. Using this system, mice were exposed to temporal or caloric restriction protocols. Mice under CR self-imposed a temporal component by consolidating food intake and unexpectedly increasing wheel-running activity during the rest phase, revealing previously unrecognized relationships among feeding, metabolism, and behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MHD effects on turbulent dissipation process in channel flows with an imposed wall-normal magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yoshinobu, E-mail: yamamotoy@yamanashi.ac.jp [Division of Mechanical Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Kunugi, Tomoaki [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, C3-d2S06, Kyoto-Daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-Ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We succeeded the establishing DNS database for the epsilon transport equation for turbulent channel flows under high-Re and Ha conditions. • Turbulent dissipation process under the MHD effects shows the similarity under the same R condition, where R is the Reynolds number based on the Hartmann layer thickness and the laminar centerline velocity. • Modulation of the non-MHD terms is important from the view point of the turbulence modeling. - Abstract: In this study, we succeeded in establishing DNS database significantly increased the range of Reynolds number and Hartmann numbers for the epsilon transport equation in turbulent channel flows imposed on a wall-normal uniform magnetic field. Maximum friction Reynolds number based on the channel half-height is 1000 with the Hartmann number based on the channel half-height, 0, 24, and 34. The contribution of MHD source term derived from Lorentz force on the turbulent dissipation process is very small. However, modulation of the other terms in this process was remarkably observed with Hartmann number increasing. The turbulent dissipation process under the MHD effects is similar under the same R condition, where R is the Reynolds number based on the Hartmann layer thickness and the laminar centerline velocity.

  11. Contact transmission of influenza virus between ferrets imposes a looser bottleneck than respiratory droplet transmission allowing propagation of antiviral resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frise, Rebecca; Bradley, Konrad; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Galiano, Monica; Elderfield, Ruth A.; Stilwell, Peter; Ashcroft, Jonathan W.; Fernandez-Alonso, Mirian; Miah, Shahjahan; Lackenby, Angie; Roberts, Kim L.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Barclay, Wendy S.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. It is important to elucidate the stringency of bottlenecks during transmission to shed light on mechanisms that underlie the evolution and propagation of antigenic drift, host range switching or drug resistance. The virus spreads between people by different routes, including through the air in droplets and aerosols, and by direct contact. By housing ferrets under different conditions, it is possible to mimic various routes of transmission. Here, we inoculated donor animals with a mixture of two viruses whose genomes differed by one or two reverse engineered synonymous mutations, and measured the transmission of the mixture to exposed sentinel animals. Transmission through the air imposed a tight bottleneck since most recipient animals became infected by only one virus. In contrast, a direct contact transmission chain propagated a mixture of viruses suggesting the dose transferred by this route was higher. From animals with a mixed infection of viruses that were resistant and sensitive to the antiviral drug oseltamivir, resistance was propagated through contact transmission but not by air. These data imply that transmission events with a looser bottleneck can propagate minority variants and may be an important route for influenza evolution. PMID:27430528

  12. Ultrasonic vibration imposed on nanoparticle-based ZnO film improves the performance of the ensuing perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yihe; Du, Peng; Wang, Zhiyu; Chen, Qianli; Eslamian, Morteza

    2018-02-01

    This work focuses on the development of nearly annealing-free ZnO-based perovskite solar cells (PSCs), suitable for low-cost manufacturing of PSCs on flexible substrates. To this end, thin film of ZnO nanoparticles is employed as the electron transporting layer (ETL), because of its low-temperature solution-processability and high electron mobility. In order to remove the structural and surface defects, ultrasonic vibration is imposed on the substrate of the as-spun wet ZnO films for a short duration of 3 min. It is shown that the ultrasonic excitation bridges the ZnO nanoparticles (cold sintering), and brings about significant improvement in the ZnO film nanostructure and functionality. In addition, ethyl acetate (EA), as an emerging volatile anti-solvent, is employed to deposit the methylammonium (MA) lead halide perovskite thin film atop the ZnO ETL, in order to prepare perovskite layers that only need an annealing time of 30 s. The ZnO-based PSCs, with a simple structure and free of additional treatments, except for the ultrasonic vibration, exhibit a promising performance with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 11%, 40% higher than that of the control device. The ultrasonic vibration treatment is facile, low-cost, environmentally friendly, and compatible with the scalable coating and printing techniques, such as spray and blade coating.

  13. On the aggregate grid load imposed by battery health-conscious charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashash, Saeid; Moura, Scott J.; Fathy, Hosam K.

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the problem of estimating the aggregate load imposed on the power grid by the battery health-conscious charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The article begins by generating a set of representative daily trips using (i) the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and (ii) a Markov chain model of both federal and naturalistic drive cycles. A multi-objective optimizer then uses each of these trips, together with PHEV powertrain and battery degradation models, to optimize both PHEV daily energy cost and battery degradation. The optimizer achieves this by varying (i) the amounts of charge obtained from the grid by each PHEV, and (ii) the timing of this charging. The article finally computes aggregate PHEV power demand by accumulating the charge patterns optimized for individual PHEV trips. The results of this aggregation process show a peak PHEV load in the early morning (between 5.00 and 6.00 a.m.), with approximately half of all PHEVs charging simultaneously. The ability to charge at work introduces smaller additional peaks in the aggregate load pattern. The article concludes by exploring the sensitivity of these results to the relative weighting of the two optimization objectives (energy cost and battery health), battery size, and electricity price.

  14. El Gobierno de la República en el exilio : crónica de un imposible retorno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Flores

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El triunfo de los aliados en la Segunda Guena Mundial hizo que los republicanos españoles exiliados en 1939 concibiesen esperanzas de un inmediato retomo de la República a su país con el apoyo aliado. Con esta idea se reconstituyeron las instituciones de la República Española en el exilio en México D. R, en agosto de 1945. En este artículo se analiza el proceso de esa reconstitución y los sucesivos gobiernos que se sucedieron hasta la disolución de las instituciones en junio de 1977, después de un imposible retorno.The victory of the salles in the Second World war did that the Spanish republicans exiled in 1939 were conceiving hopes ofan immediate return ofthe Republic to his(its country with the allied support. With this idea there were re-constituted the institutions of the Spanish Republic in the exile in México D.F., in August, 1945. In this article there are analyzed the process of this reconstitution and the successive governments that happened up to the dissolution of the institutions in June, 1977, afíer impossible I come back.

  15. The health economic burden that acute and chronic wounds impose on an average clinical commissioning group/health board in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, J F; Vowden, K; Vowden, P

    2017-06-02

    To estimate the patterns of care and related resource use attributable to managing acute and chronic wounds among a catchment population of a typical clinical commissioning group (CCG)/health board and corresponding National Health Service (NHS) costs in the UK. This was a sub-analysis of a retrospective cohort analysis of the records of 2000 patients in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Patients' characteristics, wound-related health outcomes and health-care resource use were quantified for an average CCG/health board with a catchment population of 250,000 adults ≥18 years of age, and the corresponding NHS cost of patient management was estimated at 2013/2014 prices. An average CCG/health board was estimated to be managing 11,200 wounds in 2012/2013. Of these, 40% were considered to be acute wounds, 48% chronic and 12% lacking any specific diagnosis. The prevalence of acute, chronic and unspecified wounds was estimated to be growing at the rate of 9%, 12% and 13% per annum respectively. Our analysis indicated that the current rate of wound healing must increase by an average of at least 1% per annum across all wound types in order to slow down the increasing prevalence. Otherwise, an average CCG/health board is predicted to manage ~23,200 wounds per annum by 2019/2020 and is predicted to spend a discounted (the process of determining the present value of a payment that is to be received in the future) £50 million on managing these wounds and associated comorbidities. Real-world evidence highlights the substantial burden that acute and chronic wounds impose on an average CCG/health board. Strategies are required to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and healing rates.

  16. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    technology. During 2011, this study focused on evaluating potable water requirements by assembling a forum of internal and external experts from NASA, other federal agencies, and academia. Key findings from this forum included: (1) Preventive design and operational strategies should be stringent and the primary focus of NASA's mitigation efforts, as they are cost effective and can be attained with conventional technology. (2) Microbial monitoring hardware should be simple and must be able to measure the viability of microorganisms in a sample. Multiple monitoring technologies can be utilized as long as at the microorganisms being identified can also be confirmed as viable. (3) Evidence showing alterations in the crew immune function and microbial virulence complicates risk assessments and creates the need for very conservative requirements. (4) One key source of infectious agents will always be the crew, and appropriate preventative measures should be taken preflight. (5) Water systems should be thoroughly disinfected (sterilized if possible) preflight and retain a residual biocide throughout the mission. Future forums will cover requirements for other types of samples, specifically spaceflight food and environmental samples, such as vehicle air and vehicle and cargo surfaces. An interim report on the potable water forum has been delivered to the Human Research Program with a final report on the recommendations for all sample types being delivered in September 2013.

  17. Imposed Hispanicity: How the Imposition of Racialized and Gendered Identities in Texas Affects Mexican Women in Romantic Relationships with White Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Guillén

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Intimate, romantic spaces are important sites for the examination of self-identification and perceived identification, especially with regard to gender and racial power. In this article I examine how white men in romantic relationships or marriages with Mexican women and residing in Texas, impose “Hispanic” as a racial identity as a discursive tactic that reinforces the hegemonic power of being white and being a man in order to define the situation, impose ideals that distance Mexican partners from being “too ethnic” or “threatening” in order to achieve closer proximity to “honorary whiteness” and acceptability of racial others, and creates a romantic space that is coercive instead of loving and safe. This study thus finds that white men used their hegemony to not only employ imposed Hispanicity, which I define as an institutionally created but culturally and institutionally imposed label, and an action based on the use of direct and indirect coercion and force by others, in this case, white romantic partners, for the purpose of establishing power and determining the situation in which racial definitions are made. Therefore, “Hispanic” becomes an identity that is chosen by others and while participants of Mexican descent do employ agency, the socially imposed conditions and expectations associated with “Hispanic” serve to police the identities, bodies, lives, and actions of people of Latin American descent.

  18. Rapamycin combined with anti-CD45RB mAb and IL-10 or with G-CSF induces tolerance in a stringent mouse model of islet transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Gagliani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large pool of preexisting alloreactive effector T cells can cause allogeneic graft rejection following transplantation. However, it is possible to induce transplant tolerance by altering the balance between effector and regulatory T (Treg cells. Among the various Treg-cell types, Foxp3(+Treg and IL-10-producing T regulatory type 1 (Tr1 cells have frequently been associated with tolerance following transplantation in both mice and humans. Previously, we demonstrated that rapamycin+IL-10 promotes Tr1-cell-associated tolerance in Balb/c mice transplanted with C57BL/6 pancreatic islets. However, this same treatment was unsuccessful in C57BL/6 mice transplanted with Balb/c islets (classified as a stringent transplant model. We accordingly designed a protocol that would be effective in the latter transplant model by simultaneously depleting effector T cells and fostering production of Treg cells. We additionally developed and tested a clinically translatable protocol that used no depleting agent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Diabetic C57BL/6 mice were transplanted with Balb/c pancreatic islets. Recipient mice transiently treated with anti-CD45RB mAb+rapamycin+IL-10 developed antigen-specific tolerance. During treatment, Foxp3(+Treg cells were momentarily enriched in the blood, followed by accumulation in the graft and draining lymph node, whereas CD4(+IL-10(+IL-4(- T (i.e., Tr1 cells localized in the spleen. In long-term tolerant mice, only CD4(+IL-10(+IL-4(- T cells remained enriched in the spleen and IL-10 was key in the maintenance of tolerance. Alternatively, recipient mice were treated with two compounds routinely used in the clinic (namely, rapamycin and G-CSF; this drug combination promoted tolerance associated with CD4(+IL-10(+IL-4(- T cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The anti-CD45RB mAb+rapamycin+IL-10 combined protocol promotes a state of tolerance that is IL-10 dependent. Moreover, the combination of rapamycin+G-CSF induces

  19. Lower-limb amputee ankle and hip kinetic response to an imposed error in mediolateral foot placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Ava D; Shofer, Jane B; Klute, Glenn K

    2015-11-26

    Maintaining balance while walking is challenging for lower limb amputees. The effect of prosthetic foot stiffness on recovery kinetics from an error in foot placement may inform prescription practice and lead to new interventions designed to improve balance. Ten unilateral transtibial amputees were fit with two prosthetic feet with different stiffness properties in random order. After a 3-week acclimation period, they returned to the lab for testing before switching feet. Twelve non-amputees also participated in a single data collection. While walking on an instrumented treadmill, we imposed a repeatable, unexpected medial or lateral disturbance in foot placement by releasing a burst of air at the ankle just before heel strike. Three-dimensional motion capture, ground reaction force and center of pressure (COP) data were collected for two steps prior, the disturbed step and three steps after the disturbance. During undisturbed walking, coronal ankle impulse was lower by 42% for amputees wearing a stiff compared to a compliant foot (p=0.017); however, across steps, both prosthetic recovery patterns were similar compared to the sound limb and non-amputees. Peak coronal hip moment was 15-20% lower for both foot types during undisturbed walking (p<0.001), with less change in response to the medial disturbance (p<0.001) compared to the sound limb and non-amputees. Amputee prosthetic COP excursion was unaffected by the disturbance (2.4% change) compared to the sound limb (59% change; p<0.001) and non-amputees (55% change; p<0.001). These findings imply that a prosthetic foot-ankle system able to contribute to ankle kinetics may improve walking balance among amputees. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Vulnerability imposed by diet and brain trauma for anxiety-like phenotype: implications for post-traumatic stress disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethika Tyagi

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, cerebral concussion is a risk factor for the development of psychiatric illness such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We sought to evaluate how omega-3 fatty acids during brain maturation can influence challenges incurred during adulthood (transitioning to unhealthy diet and mTBI and predispose the brain to a PTSD-like pathobiology. Rats exposed to diets enriched or deficient in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 during their brain maturation period, were transitioned to a western diet (WD when becoming adult and then subjected to mTBI. TBI resulted in an increase in anxiety-like behavior and its molecular counterpart NPY1R, a hallmark of PTSD, but these effects were more pronounced in the animals exposed to n-3 deficient diet and switched to WD. The n-3 deficiency followed by WD disrupted BDNF signaling and the activation of elements of BDNF signaling pathway (TrkB, CaMKII, Akt and CREB in frontal cortex. TBI worsened these effects and more prominently in combination with the n-3 deficiency condition. Moreover, the n-3 deficiency primed the immune system to the challenges imposed by the WD and brain trauma as evidenced by results showing that the WD or mTBI affected brain IL1β levels and peripheral Th17 and Treg subsets only in animals previously conditioned to the n-3 deficient diet. These results provide novel evidence for the capacity of maladaptive dietary habits to lower the threshold for neurological disorders in response to challenges.

  1. Vulnerability imposed by diet and brain trauma for anxiety-like phenotype: implications for post-traumatic stress disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Ethika; Agrawal, Rahul; Zhuang, Yumei; Abad, Catalina; Waschek, James A; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, cerebral concussion) is a risk factor for the development of psychiatric illness such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We sought to evaluate how omega-3 fatty acids during brain maturation can influence challenges incurred during adulthood (transitioning to unhealthy diet and mTBI) and predispose the brain to a PTSD-like pathobiology. Rats exposed to diets enriched or deficient in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) during their brain maturation period, were transitioned to a western diet (WD) when becoming adult and then subjected to mTBI. TBI resulted in an increase in anxiety-like behavior and its molecular counterpart NPY1R, a hallmark of PTSD, but these effects were more pronounced in the animals exposed to n-3 deficient diet and switched to WD. The n-3 deficiency followed by WD disrupted BDNF signaling and the activation of elements of BDNF signaling pathway (TrkB, CaMKII, Akt and CREB) in frontal cortex. TBI worsened these effects and more prominently in combination with the n-3 deficiency condition. Moreover, the n-3 deficiency primed the immune system to the challenges imposed by the WD and brain trauma as evidenced by results showing that the WD or mTBI affected brain IL1β levels and peripheral Th17 and Treg subsets only in animals previously conditioned to the n-3 deficient diet. These results provide novel evidence for the capacity of maladaptive dietary habits to lower the threshold for neurological disorders in response to challenges.

  2. Pre-power-stroke cross-bridges contribute to force transients during imposed shortening in isolated muscle fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C Minozzo

    Full Text Available When skeletal muscles are activated and mechanically shortened, the force that is produced by the muscle fibers decreases in two phases, marked by two changes in slope (P₁ and P₂ that happen at specific lengths (L₁ and L₂. We tested the hypothesis that these force transients are determined by the amount of myosin cross-bridges attached to actin and by changes in cross-bridge strain due to a changing fraction of cross-bridges in the pre-power-stroke state. Three separate experiments were performed, using skinned muscle fibers that were isolated and subsequently (i activated at different Ca²⁺ concentrations (pCa²⁺ 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 (n = 13, (ii activated in the presence of blebbistatin (n = 16, and (iii activated in the presence of blebbistatin at varying velocities (n = 5. In all experiments, a ramp shortening was imposed (amplitude 10%L₀, velocity 1 L₀•sarcomere length (SL•s⁻¹, from an initial SL of 2.5 µm (except by the third group, in which velocities ranged from 0.125 to 2.0 L₀•s⁻¹. The values of P₁, P₂, L₁, and L₂ did not change with Ca²⁺ concentrations. Blebbistatin decreased P₁, and it did not alter P₂, L₁, and L₂. We developed a mathematical cross-bridge model comprising a load-dependent power-stroke transition and a pre-power-stroke cross-bridge state. The P₁ and P₂ critical points as well as the critical lengths L₁ and L₂ were explained qualitatively by the model, and the effects of blebbistatin inhibition on P₁ were also predicted. Furthermore, the results of the model suggest that the mechanism by which blebbistatin inhibits force is by interfering with the closing of the myosin upper binding cleft, biasing cross-bridges into a pre-power-stroke state.

  3. 17 CFR 270.6c-8 - Exemptions for registered separate accounts to impose a deferred sales load and to deduct certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.6c-8 Exemptions for registered separate accounts... such sales load imposed, when added to any sales load previously paid on such contract, shall not... the value of any variable annuity contract participating in such account, upon total redemption of the...

  4. The disciplined healthcare professional: a qualitative interview study on the impact of the disciplinary process and imposed measures in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, L.M.; Weenink, J.W.; Winters, S.; Robben, P.B.; Westert, G.P.; Kool, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is known that doctors who receive complaints may have feelings of anger, guilt, shame and depression, both in the short and in the long term. This might lead to functional impairment. Less is known about the impact of the disciplinary process and imposed measures. Previous studies of

  5. 3D Core Model for simulation of nuclear power plants: Simulation requirements, model features, and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbino, H.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994-1996, Thomson Training and Simulation (TT and S) earned out the D50 Project, which involved the design and construction of optimized replica simulators for one Dutch and three German Nuclear Power Plants. It was recognized early on that the faithful reproduction of the Siemens reactor control and protection systems would impose extremely stringent demands on the simulation models, particularly the Core physics and the RCS thermohydraulics. The quality of the models, and their thorough validation, were thus essential. The present paper describes the main features of the fully 3D Core model implemented by TT and S, and its extensive validation campaign, which was defined in extremely positive collaboration with the Customer and the Core Data suppliers. (author)

  6. Requirements Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Elizabeth; Dick, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Written for those who want to develop their knowledge of requirements engineering process, whether practitioners or students.Using the latest research and driven by practical experience from industry, Requirements Engineering gives useful hints to practitioners on how to write and structure requirements. It explains the importance of Systems Engineering and the creation of effective solutions to problems. It describes the underlying representations used in system modeling and introduces the UML2, and considers the relationship between requirements and modeling. Covering a generic multi-layer r

  7. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  8. Reservoir simulation with imposed flux continuity conditions on heterogeneous and anisotropic media for general geometries, and the inclusion of hysteresis in forward modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigestad, Geir Terje

    2003-04-01

    The thesis is divided into two main parts. Part I gives an overview and summary of the theory that lies behind the flow equations and the discretization principles used in the work. Part II is a collection of research papers that have been written by the candidate (in collaboration with others). The main objective of this thesis is the discretization of an elliptic PDE which describes the pressure in a porous medium. The porous medium will in general be described by permeability tensors which are heterogeneous and anisotropic. In addition, the geometry is often complex for practical applications. This requires discretization approaches that are suited for the problems in mind. The discretization approaches used here are based on imposed flux and potential continuity, and will be discussed in detail in Chapter 3 of Part I. These methods are called Multi Point Flux Approximation Methods, and the acronym MPFA will be used for them. Issues related to these methods will be the main issue of this thesis. The rest of this thesis is organised as follows: Part I: Chapter 1 gives a brief overview of the physics and mathematics behind reservoir simulation. The standard mass balance equations are presented, and we try to explain what reservoir simulation is. Some standard discretization s methods are briefly discussed in Chapter 2. The main focus in Part I is on the MPFA discretization approach for various geometries, and is given in Chapter 3. Some details may have been left out in the papers of Part II, and the section serves both as a summary of the discretization method(s), as well as a more detailed description than what is found in the papers. In Chapter 4, extensions to handle time dependent and nonlinear problems are discussed. Some of the numerical examples presented in Part II deal with two phase flow, and are based on the extension given in this chapter. Chapter 5 discusses numerical results that have been obtained for the MPFA methods for elliptic problems, and

  9. 26 CFR 301.6362-6 - Requirements relating to residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purposes other than its individual income tax (such as liability for State inheritance tax or jurisdiction...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Seizure of Property for Collection of Taxes § 301.6362-6 Requirements relating to residence. (a) In general. A tax imposed by a State meets the...

  10. 12 CFR 226.20 - Subsequent disclosure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... creditor need only disclose: (1) The unpaid balance of the obligation assumed. (2) The total charges imposed by the creditor in connection with the assumption. (3) The information required to be disclosed... creditor expressly agrees in writing with a subsequent consumer to accept that consumer as a primary...

  11. Requirements applied in Cuba to the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouevedo Garcia, J.R.; Lopez Forteza, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to comment the supplementary requirements imposed by the Competent Authority to the operations of the main importing/delivering enterprise of unsealed sources for approvals and administration since the establishment, in 1987, of the legal framework on transport of radioactive materials. The paper summarizes the achieved results in this field in over 11 years operation. (author)

  12. Optimal neural computations require analog processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses some of the limitations of hardware implementations of neural networks. The authors start by presenting neural structures and their biological inspirations, while mentioning the simplifications leading to artificial neural networks. Further, the focus will be on hardware imposed constraints. They will present recent results for three different alternatives of parallel implementations of neural networks: digital circuits, threshold gate circuits, and analog circuits. The area and the delay will be related to the neurons` fan-in and to the precision of their synaptic weights. The main conclusion is that hardware-efficient solutions require analog computations, and suggests the following two alternatives: (i) cope with the limitations imposed by silicon, by speeding up the computation of the elementary silicon neurons; (2) investigate solutions which would allow the use of the third dimension (e.g. using optical interconnections).

  13. Guide for reviewing safety analysis reports for packaging: Review of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, D.W.

    1988-10-01

    This review section describes quality assurance requirements applying to design, purchase, fabrication, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, assembly, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance, repair, and modification of components of packaging which are important to safety. The design effort, operation's plans, and quality assurance requirements should be integrated to achieve a system in which the independent QA program is not overly stringent and the application of QA requirements is commensurate with safety significance. The reviewer must verify that the applicant's QA section in the SARP contains package-specific QA information required by DOE Orders and federal regulations that demonstrate compliance. 8 refs

  14. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  15. THE HEGEMONY IMPOSED BY THE GOVERNMENT AND THE RESISTANCE OF WETU TELU SASAKNESE ETHNIC GROUP AT BAYAN DISTRICT, NORTH LOMBOK REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Wirata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is entitled “The Hegemony Imposed by the Government and theResistance of Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Group at Bayan District, North Lombok”.The interaction between the government and the Wetu Telu Sasaknese community atBayan District has resulted in differences in views, ideas, and behaviors leading tofriction and refusal or opposition from the community.This research is focused on 1 how has the hegemony imposed by thegovernment upon the Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Group residing at Bayan District,North Lombok Regency taken place? 2 what has been done by the people of the WetuTelu Sasaknese Ethnic Group residing at Bayan Distrik, North Lombok to resist to thehegemony imposed by the government upon them? and 3 what are the effects andmeanings of the hegemony imposed by the government and the resistance of the WetuTelu Sasaknese Ethnic Group on the multicultural community life at Bayan District,North Lombok Regency?The data needed were collected by interview, observation, and documentationand were descriptively, qualitatively and interpretatively analyzed. The theories used togive answers to the problems formulated above are the theory of hegemony (Gramsci,the theory of deconstruction (Jacques Derrida, and the theory of discourse (Foucault.The results show that the hegemony imposed by the government has taken placein a number of particular aspects such as the religious aspect, socio political aspect,cultural aspect and educational aspect. Being marginalized and being not free indeveloping their tradition and culture, the people of Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Groupresiding at Bayan District, North Lombok Regency, have been responsible for theirresistance to the government and the followers Islam Waktu Lima. The resistance hasbeen shown by avoiding, refusing and even opposing what is considered not inaccordance with their tradition and culture.One of the effects of the hegemony imposed by the government and theresistance made by the

  16. 77 FR 59747 - Repeal of the Final Rule Imposing Special Measures and Withdrawal of the Findings of Primary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Money Laundering Concern of November 25, 2003, issued pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 5318A of the Bank Secrecy... amends the anti-money laundering provisions of the BSA, codified at 12 U.S.C. 1829b, 12 U.S.C. 1951-1959..., or type of account is of ``primary money laundering concern,'' to require domestic financial...

  17. Latency in Visionic Systems: Test Methods and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, J. J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2005-01-01

    A visionics device creates a pictorial representation of the external scene for the pilot. The ultimate objective of these systems may be to electronically generate a form of Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) to eliminate weather or time-of-day as an operational constraint and provide enhancement over actual visual conditions where eye-limiting resolution may be a limiting factor. Empirical evidence has shown that the total system delays or latencies including the imaging sensors and display systems, can critically degrade their utility, usability, and acceptability. Definitions and measurement techniques are offered herein as common test and evaluation methods for latency testing in visionics device applications. Based upon available data, very different latency requirements are indicated based upon the piloting task, the role in which the visionics device is used in this task, and the characteristics of the visionics cockpit display device including its resolution, field-of-regard, and field-of-view. The least stringent latency requirements will involve Head-Up Display (HUD) applications, where the visionics imagery provides situational information as a supplement to symbology guidance and command information. Conversely, the visionics system latency requirement for a large field-of-view Head-Worn Display application, providing a Virtual-VMC capability from which the pilot will derive visual guidance, will be the most stringent, having a value as low as 20 msec.

  18. Investigating the effect of tractive parameters on imposed vertical stresses under driving wheel using a soil bin test rig facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Taghavifar

    2015-09-01

    traction force. Furthermore, it was deduced that the increase in depth leads to a reduction of soil vertical stresses. Conclusions: The present study is aimed at investigating the effect of net traction force on the imposed vertical stress under the 220/65R21 driving wheel. Hence, velocity at three levels (i.e. 0.8, 1, 1.2 m s-1, wheel load at three levels (i.e. 2, 3, and 4 kN and slippage at three levels (i.e. 8, 12, and 15% were considered to obtain traction force and soil vertical stress at three depths of 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 m. Experiments were carried out in the complete randomized block design with three replicates on clay loam soil at 12% moisture content. The vertical stress was measured using a manufactured soil stress transducer where the net traction was measured using four horizontally installed load cells between the tester rig and the carriage. A correlation was developed between soil stress and traction force. The results revealed that vertical stress increases with respect to increase of wheel load and slippage, whereas vertical stress decreases by increase in depth and velocity. Additionally, it was found that wheel load and slippage bring about increased traction force while velocity has no significant effect on traction force at 1% significance level. Finally, it was deduced that an increase of traction force results in an increase of vertical stress transmission.

  19. A critical role of nucleus accumbens dopamine D1-family receptors in renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Nathan J; Kaganovsky, Konstantin

    2015-06-01

    In humans, places or contexts previously associated with alcohol use often provoke relapse during abstinence. This phenomenon is modeled in laboratory animals using the ABA renewal procedure, in which extinction training in context (B) suppresses alcohol seeking, and renewal of this seeking occurs when the animal returns to the original training context (A). However, extinction training does not adequately capture the motivation for abstinence in human alcoholics who typically self-initiate abstinence in response to the negative consequences of excessive use. We recently developed a procedure to study renewal in laboratory rats after abstinence imposed by negative consequences (footshock punishment). The mechanisms of renewal of punished alcohol seeking are largely unknown. Here, we used the D1-family receptor antagonist SCH 23390 to examine the role of nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core dopamine in renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence. We trained alcohol-preferring "P rats" to self-administer 20% alcohol in Context A and subsequently suppressed alcohol taking via response-contingent footshock punishment in Context B. We tested the effects of systemic, NAc shell, or NAc core injections of SCH 23390 on renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence. We found that both systemic and NAc shell and core injections of SCH 23390 decreased renewal of punished alcohol seeking. Our results demonstrate a critical role of NAc dopamine in renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence. We discuss these results in reference to the brain mechanisms of renewal of alcohol seeking after extinction versus punishment. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Self-imposed evaluation of the Helmholtz Research School MICMoR as a tool for quality assurance and advancement of a structured graduate programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elija Bleher, Bärbel; Schmid, Hans Peter; Scholz, Beate

    2015-04-01

    The Helmholtz Research School MICMoR (Mechanisms and Interactions of Climate Change in Mountain Regions) offers a structured graduate programme for doctoral students in the field of climate change research. It is hosted by the Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research (KIT/IMK-IFU) in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in collaboration with 7 Bavarian partner universities and research institutions. Hence, MICMoR brings together a considerably large network with currently 20 doctoral students and 55 scientists. MICMoR offers scientific and professional skills training, provides a state-of-the-art supervision concept, and fosters international exchange and interdisciplinary collaboration. In order to develop and advance its programme, MICMoR has committed itself to a self-imposed mid-term review in its third year, to monitor to which extent its original objectives have been reached, and to explore and identify where MICMoR has room for improvement. The evaluation especially focused on recruitment, supervision, training, networking and cooperation. Carried out by an external expert (Beate Scholz from scholz ctc), the evaluation was based on a mixed methods approach, i.e. combining a quantitative survey involving all doctoral candidates as well as their supervisors and focus groups with different MICMoR stakeholders. The evaluation has brought forward some highly interesting results, pinpointing challenges and opportunities of setting up a structured doctoral programme. Overall, the evaluation proved to be a useful tool for evidence-based programme and policy planning, and demonstrated a high level of satisfaction of supervisors and fellows. Supervision, with facets ranging from disciplinary feedback to career advice, is demanding and requires strong commitment and adequate human resources development by all parties involved. Thus, MICMoR plans to offer mentor coaching and calls on supervisors and mentors to form a community of learners with their doctoral students. To

  1. Closure requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Closure of a waste management unit can be either permanent or temporary. Permanent closure may be due to: economic factors which make it uneconomical to mine the remaining minerals; depletion of mineral resources; physical site constraints that preclude further mining and beneficiation; environmental, regulatory or other requirements that make it uneconomical to continue to develop the resources. Temporary closure can occur for a period of several months to several years, and may be caused by factors such as: periods of high rainfall or snowfall which prevent mining and waste disposal; economic circumstances which temporarily make it uneconomical to mine the target mineral; labor problems requiring a cessation of operations for a period of time; construction activities that are required to upgrade project components such as the process facilities and waste management units; and mine or process plant failures that require extensive repairs. Permanent closure of a mine waste management unit involves the provision of durable surface containment features to protect the waters of the State in the long-term. Temporary closure may involve activities that range from ongoing maintenance of the existing facilities to the installation of several permanent closure features in order to reduce ongoing maintenance. This paper deals with the permanent closure features

  2. SHMT2 drives glioma cell survival in the tumor microenvironment but imposes a dependence on glycine clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohoon; Fiske, Brian P.; Birsoy, Kivanc; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Kami, Kenjiro; Possemato, Richard; Chudnovsky, Yakov; Pacold, Michael E.; Chen, Walter W.; Cantor, Jason R.; Shelton, Laura M.; Gui, Dan Y.; Kwon, Manjae; Ramkissoon, Shakti H.; Ligon, Keith L.; Kang, Seong Woo; Snuderl, Matija; Heiden, Matthew G. Vander; Sabatini, David M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cancer cells adapt their metabolic processes to support rapid proliferation, but less is known about how cancer cells alter metabolism to promote cell survival in a poorly vascularized tumor microenvironment1–3. Here, we identify a key role for serine and glycine metabolism in the survival of brain cancer cells within the ischemic zones of gliomas. In human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT2) and glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) are highly expressed in the pseudopalisading cells that surround necrotic foci. We find that SHMT2 activity limits that of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) and reduces oxygen consumption, eliciting a metabolic state that confers a profound survival advantage to cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions. GLDC inhibition impairs cells with high SHMT2 levels as the excess glycine not metabolized by GLDC can be converted to the toxic molecules aminoacetone and methylglyoxal. Thus, SHMT2 is required for cancer cells to adapt to the tumor environment, but also renders these cells sensitive to glycine cleavage system inhibition. PMID:25855294

  3. 76 FR 68027 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Certification Requirement and Procurement Prohibition Relating to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ...] RIN 9000-AL71 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Certification Requirement and Procurement Prohibition... Sanctions Act of 1996 (the Iran Sanctions Act). Section 106 imposes a procurement prohibition relating to... requires use of the FAR provision at 52.225-25, Prohibition on Engaging in Sanctioned Activities Relating...

  4. 76 FR 31892 - Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA, and GINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA, and GINA AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice... Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to entities covered... the same record retention requirements under GINA that are imposed under Title VII and the ADA, i.e...

  5. 76 FR 23732 - Margin Requirements for Uncleared Swaps for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... required to collect margin from one another. 3. Positions Between CSEs and Financial Entities Proposed Sec..., or in activities that are financial in nature as defined in Section 4(k) of the Bank Holding Company.... Positions Between CSEs and Non-financial Entities The proposal would not impose margin requirements on non...

  6. 42 CFR 423.410 - Waiver of certain requirements to expand choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... licensure application on a timely basis. The State failed to complete action on the licensing application... requirements) not generally applied by the State to other entities engaged in a substantially similar business... imposed, as a condition of licensing, any documentation or information requirements relating to solvency...

  7. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Volume 3: Mission requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    User missions that are enabled or enhanced by a manned space station are identified. The mission capability requirements imposed on the space station by these users are delineated. The accommodation facilities, equipment, and functional requirements necessary to achieve these capabilities are identified, and the economic, performance, and social benefits which accrue from the space station are defined.

  8. Leer por placer en los colegios: ¿Misión Imposible? / Read for pleasure in schools: mission impossible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallardo Álvarez, Isabel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente artículo es fruto del trabajo en el aula universistaria, donde junto con los grupos de estudiantes, se buscaron formas alternativas de atraer a los estudiantes de secudaria a la lectura. En él se reflexiona sobre las causas por las cuales el grupo de jóvenes que asiste a los colegios de secundaria se resistea leer. Para ello se indaga tanto en las razones sociales y tecnológicas, como las educativas y se buscan explicaciones a la negativa de enfrentarse a un texto literario. Además, se revisan los contenidos sobre la lectura de textos literarios que propone el Ministerio de Educación Pública Costarricense, así como las novelas de lectura obligatoria. Finalmente, se presentan dos actividades basadas en la imagen, que buscan despertar el gusto por la lectura y acercar al joven a desarrollar esta habilidad.Abstract: This article is the result of work in the high education classroom, which along with student groups, were sought alternative ways to attract students secudaria to reading. It reflects on the reasons why the group of young people who attend secondary schools are reluctant to read. This explores both the technological and social reasons, such as educational and sought explanations for the failure to address a literary text. In addition, we review the content on the reading of literary texts proposed by the Costarrican Ministry of Public Education, as well as the novels of required reading. Finally, there are two activities based on the image, seeking to awaken the taste for reading and bring the youth to develop this skill.

  9. Relationships between climate at origin and seedling traits in eight Panafrican provenances of Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn. under imposed drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayala, J.; Sanon, Z.; Bazié, P.

    2018-01-01

    The morphological responses of seedlings of eight African provenances of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea tree or Karité) to imposed draught stress were compared under nursery experimental conditions. The potted seedlings were subjected to three different watering regimes (87 days after sowing): no water...... stress (100% of the field capacity, C), moderate water stress (75% of C) and severe water stress (50% of C). Before the application of the stress, we observed genotypical differences in the morphological variables at the scale of leaves and of above-ground parts. The six-month water stress affected...

  10. Modeling of MHD turbulent heat transfer in channel flows imposed wall-normal magnetic fields under the various Prandtl number fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yoshinobu, E-mail: yamamotoy@yamanashi.ac.jp [Division of Mechanical Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Kunugi, Tomoaki, E-mail: kunugi@nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, C3-d2S06, Kyoto-Daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-Ku 615-8540, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We show the applicability to predict the heat transfer imposed on a uniform wall-normal magnetic field by means of the zero-equation heat transfer model. • Quasi-theoretical turbulent Prandtl numbers with various molecular Prandtl number fluids were obtained. • Improvements of the prediction accuracy in turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate under the magnetic fields were accomplished. - Abstract: Zero-equation heat transfer models based on the constant turbulent Prandtl number are evaluated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data for fully developed channel flows imposed on a uniform wall-normal magnetic field. Quasi-theoretical turbulent Prandtl numbers are estimated by DNS data of various molecular Prandtl number fluids. From the viewpoint of highly-accurate magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) heat transfer prediction, the parameters of the turbulent eddy viscosity of the k–É› model are optimized under the magnetic fields. Consequently, we use the zero-equation model based on a constant turbulent Prandtl number to demonstrate MHD heat transfer, and show the applicability of using this model to predict the heat transfer.

  11. Requirements of titanium alloys for aeronautical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiban, Brânduşa; Bran, Dragoş-Teodor; Elefterie, Cornelia Florina

    2018-02-01

    The project presents the requirements imposed for aeronatical components made from Titanium based alloys. Asignificant portion of the aircraft pylons are manufactured from Titanium alloys. Strength, weight, and reliability are the primary factors to consider in aircraft structures. These factors determine the requirements to be met by any material used to construct or repair the aircraft. Many forces and structural stresses act on an aircraft when it is flying and when it is static and this thesis describes environmental factors, conditions of external aggression, mechanical characteristics and loadings that must be satisfied simultaneously by a Ti-based alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Inconel super alloys, Aluminum alloys). For this alloy class, the requirements are regarding strength to weight ratio, reliability, corrosion resistance, thermal expansion and so on. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  12. Aeronautical Industry Requirements for Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bran, D. T.; Elefterie, C. F.; Ghiban, B.

    2017-06-01

    The project presents the requirements imposed for aviation components made from Titanium based alloys. A significant portion of the aircraft pylons are manufactured from Titanium alloys. Strength, weight, and reliability are the primary factors to consider in aircraft structures. These factors determine the requirements to be met by any material used to construct or repair the aircraft. Many forces and structural stresses act on an aircraft when it is flying and when it is static and this thesis describes environmental factors, conditions of external aggression, mechanical characteristics and loadings that must be satisfied simultaneously by a Ti-based alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Inconel super alloys, Aluminum alloys).For this alloy class, the requirements are regarding strength to weight ratio, reliability, corrosion resistance, thermal expansion and so on. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  13. Erythrocyte stability under imposed fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Critical monitoring of the volumes, ion fluxes and related measures in erythrocytes exposed to a ... The erythrocyte offered an excellent tool since its lysis can be monitored readily. A systematic investigation led to a number of insights ... The consequent increase in self potential of the charged 'sphere' would account for a ...

  14. Imposed currents in galvanic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Soestbergen, M.; Bazant, M.Z.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the steady-state behavior of a general mathematical model for reversible galvanic cells, such as redox flow cells, reversible solid oxide fuel cells, and rechargeable batteries. We consider not only operation in the galvanic discharging mode, spontaneously generating a positive current

  15. LA REPÚBLICA IMPOSIBLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Page

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La filosofía política de Philip Pettit es uno de los mayores intentos contemporáneos por elaborar una completa teoría republicana acerca del buen gobierno. En la base de este republicanismo se encuentran dos supuestos, a los que, por lo demás, ha adherido, de distintas maneras, la tradición republicana en general. Primero, que los seres humanos son capaces de generar civilidad o virtud cívica y, segundo, que los seres humanos son intrínsecamente corruptibles, es decir, dadas ciertas condiciones, ejercerán el poder arbitrariamente. El artículo busca mostrar que ambas afirmaciones no son compatibles y que, en consecuencia, al nivel de supuestos fundamentales, esta teoría republicana del gobierno debe ser repensada.

  16. Most of the long-term genetic gain from optimum-contribution selection can be realised with restrictions imposed during optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, Mark; Ostersen, Tage; Ask, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    Background We tested the hypothesis that optimum-contribution selection (OCS) with restrictions imposed during optimisation realises most of the long-term genetic gain realised by OCS without restrictions. Methods We used stochastic simulation to estimate long-term rates of genetic gain realised...... restrictions, OCS with restrictions provides a useful alternative. Not only does it realise most of the long-term genetic gain, OCS with restrictions enables OCS to be tailored to individual breeding schemes.......% of the additional gain realised by OCS without restrictions, where additional gain was the difference in the long-term rates of genetic gain realised by OCS without restrictions and our reference point with truncation selection. The only exceptions were those restrictions that removed all solutions near the optimum...

  17. Silencing of renal DNaseI in murine lupus nephritis imposes exposure of large chromatin fragments and activation of Toll like receptors and the Clec4e

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiyagarajan, Dhivya; Fismen, Silje; Seredkina, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that transformation of mild lupus nephritis into end-stage disease is imposed by silencing of renal DNaseI gene expression in (NZBxNZW)F1 mice. Down-regulation of DNaseI results in reduced chromatin fragmentation, and in deposition of extracellular chromatin-IgG complexes...... Toll like receptors and the necrosis-related Clec4e receptor in murine and human lupus nephritis. Furthermore, analyses where performed to determine if matrix metalloproteases are up-regulated as a consequence of chromatin-mediated Toll like receptors/Clec4e stimulation. Mouse and human mRNA expression...... but less pronounced in patients with lupus nephritis treated with immunosuppresants. In conclusion, silencing of renal DNaseI gene expression initiates a cascade of inflammatory signals leading to progression of both murine and human lupus nephritis. Principal component analyses biplot of data from murine...

  18. Law proposal aiming at imposing the domestic consumption tax to the natural gas used for hydrogen generation for petroleum refining purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    In France, natural gas benefits from tax exemptions in several situations and in particular when used as raw material for hydrogen generation, which in turn, is used for crude oil refining and fuels generation. However, crude oil is cheaper when it is heavier but more hydrogen, and thus more natural gas, is needed to refine it and more CO 2 is released in the atmosphere. Therefore, refining cheap crude oil increases the refining margins of oil companies but their environmental impact as well. The aim of this law proposal is to impose the domestic consumption tax to natural gas when used in oil refining processes in order to finance the development of the renewable hydrogen industry through the creation of a High Council of Hydrogen Industry. This High Council would be in charge of promoting the development of renewable hydrogen production facilities and distribution circuits, of hydrogen-fueled vehicles, and of fuel cells. (J.S.)

  19. Albugo-imposed changes to tryptophan-derived antimicrobial metabolite biosynthesis may contribute to suppression of non-host resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, David C; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Xu, Deyang; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Çevik, Volkan; Asai, Shuta; Kemen, Eric; Cruz-Mireles, Neftaly; Kemen, Ariane; Belhaj, Khaoula; Schornack, Sebastian; Kamoun, Sophien; Holub, Eric B; Halkier, Barbara A; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2017-03-20

    Plants are exposed to diverse pathogens and pests, yet most plants are resistant to most plant pathogens. Non-host resistance describes the ability of all members of a plant species to successfully prevent colonization by any given member of a pathogen species. White blister rust caused by Albugo species can overcome non-host resistance and enable secondary infection and reproduction of usually non-virulent pathogens, including the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans on Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the molecular basis of host defense suppression in this complex plant-microbe interaction is unclear. Here, we investigate specific defense mechanisms in Arabidopsis that are suppressed by Albugo infection. Gene expression profiling revealed that two species of Albugo upregulate genes associated with tryptophan-derived antimicrobial metabolites in Arabidopsis. Albugo laibachii-infected tissue has altered levels of these metabolites, with lower indol-3-yl methylglucosinolate and higher camalexin accumulation than uninfected tissue. We investigated the contribution of these Albugo-imposed phenotypes to suppression of non-host resistance to P. infestans. Absence of tryptophan-derived antimicrobial compounds enables P. infestans colonization of Arabidopsis, although to a lesser extent than Albugo-infected tissue. A. laibachii also suppresses a subset of genes regulated by salicylic acid; however, salicylic acid plays only a minor role in non-host resistance to P. infestans. Albugo sp. alter tryptophan-derived metabolites and suppress elements of the responses to salicylic acid in Arabidopsis. Albugo sp. imposed alterations in tryptophan-derived metabolites may play a role in Arabidopsis non-host resistance to P. infestans. Understanding the basis of non-host resistance to pathogens such as P. infestans could assist in development of strategies to elevate food security.

  20. Crystallization of a stringent response factor from Aquifex aeolicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ole; Laurberg, Martin; Gajhede, Michael

    2002-01-01

    a = 50.8, b = 70.3, c = 90.9 A. Methionine residues were introduced by mutation and deliberate oxidation of the protein allowed us to produce additional crystal forms with reproducible diffraction ability and increased phasing potential. This is the first report on the crystallization of a member...

  1. Stringent cost management and preservation of safety culture, a contradiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Klaus; Pamme, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Competition in the deregulated electricity market does not leave nuclear power plants unaffected. Hence the question is to answer, whether the safety is going to suffer under the cost pressure on the market. Therefore the target of NPP operator's cost management is to run plants at maximum availability and with optimized cost structures that lead to minimized specific generating costs. The c osts of safety , with their fixed-cost character, are elements of this cost structure. The process of economic optimization of the cost structure does not permit cost minimization on its own sake in the area of operation cost and fuel cost (front and back end). The basis of economical assessment rather must be the minimization of potential risks which could entail losses of availability. However, many investments like plant modifications or preventive maintenance efforts made in order to avoid losses of availability to a large extent also imply at least a preservation or even higher levels of safety. Thus, economic efficiency and safety are closely correlated. Public opinion is very sensible as soon as the high level of plant safety seems to be touched by economic pressure. But realizing that German NPP are endowed with mature design and safety features, improvements of safety standards can only marginally be increased by further technical optimizations. Therefore plant management, man-machine-interface and the individual behaviour of the employees are targets for improvement of nuclear safety and economic efficiency by increasing the efficiency of processes. An even more efficient use of scarce funds and a tolerable political environment should allow the safety level of NPP to be upheld, and safety culture could be maintained and even be improved. (author)

  2. Crystallization of a stringent response factor from Aquifex aeolicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ole; Laurberg, Martin; Gajhede, Michael

    2002-01-01

    a = 50.8, b = 70.3, c = 90.9 A. Methionine residues were introduced by mutation and deliberate oxidation of the protein allowed us to produce additional crystal forms with reproducible diffraction ability and increased phasing potential. This is the first report on the crystallization of a member...... of the Ppx/GppA phosphatase family....

  3. Environmental requirements in thermochemical and biochemical conversion of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frings, R.M.; Mackie, K.L.; Hunter, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    Many biological and thermochemical processing options exist for the conversion of biomass to fuels. Commercially, these options are assessed in terms of fuel product yield and quality. However, attention must also be paid to the environmental aspects of each technology so that any commercial plant can meet the increasingly stringent environmental legislation in the world today. The environmental aspects of biological conversion (biogasification and bioliquefaction) and thermal conversion (high pressure liquefaction, flash pyrolysis, and gasification) are reviewed. Biological conversion processes are likely to generate waste streams which are more treatable than those from thermal conversion processes but the available data for thermal liquefaction are very limited. Close attention to waste minimisation is recommended and processing options that greatly reduce or eliminate waste streams have been identified. Product upgrading and its effect on wastewater quality also requires attention. Emphasis in further research studies needs to be placed on providing authentic waste streams for environmental assessment. (author)

  4. Using post-grazing sward height to impose dietary restrictions of varying duration in early lactation: its effects on spring-calving dairy cow production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosse, M; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Delaby, L; Ganche, E; Kennedy, E

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate and carryover effects of imposing two post-grazing sward heights (PGSH) for varying duration during early lactation on sward characteristics and dairy cow production. The experiment was a randomised block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. A total of 80 spring-calving (mean calving date - 6 February) dairy cows were randomly assigned, pre-calving, to one of the two (n=40) PGSH treatments - S (2.7 cm) and M (3.5 cm) - from 13 February to 18 March, 2012 (P1). For the subsequent 5-week period (P2: 19 March to 22 April, 2012), half the animals from each P1 treatment remained on their treatment, whereas the other half of the animals switched to the opposing treatment. Following P2, all cows were managed similarly for the remainder of the lactation (P3: 23 April to 4 November, 2012) to measure the carryover effect. Milk production, BW and body condition score were measured weekly, and grass dry matter intake (GDMI) was measured on four occasions - approximately weeks 5, 10, 15 and 20 of lactation. Sward utilisation (above 2.7 cm; P1 and P2) was significantly improved by reducing the PGSH from 3.5 (0.83) to 2.7 cm (0.96). There was no effect of PGSH on cumulative annual grass dry matter (DM) production (15.3 t DM/ha). Grazing to 2.7 cm reduced GDMI by 1.7 and 0.8 kg DM/cow in P1 and P2, respectively, when compared with 3.5 cm (13.3 and 14.0 kg/cow per day, respectively). Cows grazing to 2.7 cm for both P1 and P2 (SS) tended to have reduced cumulative 10-week milk yield (-105 kg) and milk solids yield (-9 kg) when compared with cows grazing to 3.5 cm for both periods (MM; 1608 and 128 kg/cow, respectively). Treatments that alternated PGSH at the end of P1, SM and MS had intermediate results. There was no interaction between P1 and P2 treatments. There was also no carryover effect of early lactation grazing regime on milk and milk solids production in P3, given the reduction in early lactation

  5. MHD mixed convection and entropy generation of nanofluid filled lid driven cavity under the influence of inclined magnetic fields imposed to its upper and lower diagonal triangular domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selimefendigil, Fatih, E-mail: fatih.selimefendigil@cbu.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celal Bayar University, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Öztop, Hakan F., E-mail: hfoztop1@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technology Faculty, Fırat University, 23119 Elazığ (Turkey); Chamkha, Ali J., E-mail: achamkha@pmu.edu.sa [Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, mixed convection of CuO–water nanofluid filled lid driven cavity having its upper and lower triangular domains under the influence of inclined magnetic fields is numerically investigated. The top horizontal wall of the cavity is moving with constant speed of u{sub w} with +x direction while no-slip boundary conditions are imposed on the other walls of the cavity. The top wall of the cavity is maintained at constant cold temperature of T{sub c} while the bottom wall is at hot temperature of T{sub h} and on the other walls of the cavity are assumed to be adiabatic. The governing equations are solved by using Galerkin weighted residual finite element formulation. Entropy generation is produced by using formulation and integrated with calculated velocities and temperatures. The numerical investigation is performed for a range of parameters: Richardson number (between 0.01 and 100), Hartmann number (between 0 and 50), inclination angle of magnetic field (between 0° and 90°) and solid volume fraction of the nanofluid (between 0 and 0.05). Different combinations of Hartmann numbers and inclination angles of the magnetic fields are imposed in the upper and lower triangular domains of the square cavity. It is observed that the local and averaged heat transfer deteriorates when the Richardson number, Hartmann number of the triangular domains increase. When the Hartmann number and magnetic angle of the upper triangle are increased, more deterioration of the averaged transfer is obtained when compared to lower triangular domain. Local and averaged heat transfer increase as the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticles increases and adding nanoparticles is more effective for the local enhancement of the heat transfer when the heat transfer rate is high and convection is not damped with lowering the Hartmann number. Second law analysis of the system for different combinations of flow parameters is also performed. - Highlights: • MHD mixed convection of

  6. Analysis of power and frequency control requirements in view of increased decentralized production and market liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roffel, B; de Boer, WW

    This paper presents a systematic approach of the analysis of the minimum control requirements that are imposed on power producing units in the Netherlands, especially in the case when decentralized production increases. Also some effects of the liberalization on the control behavior are analyzed.

  7. 26 CFR 1.25A-1 - Calculation of education tax credit and general eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Calculation of education tax credit and general... tax credit and general eligibility requirements. (a) Amount of education tax credit. An individual taxpayer is allowed a nonrefundable education tax credit against income tax imposed by chapter 1 of the...

  8. 76 FR 2747 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements, Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... entities over which the agency exercises regulatory authority. Recent trends lead the agency to estimate... confidential business information provisions of 49 CFR Part 512. Requesters are not required to keep copies of any records or reports submitted to us. As a result, the cost imposed to keep records would be zero...

  9. ICT Requirements and Challenges for Provision of Grid Services from Renewable Generation Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, Kamal; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Petersen, Lennart

    2018-01-01

    and to coordinate their grid support services (GSS) as well. Among other requirements, the coordination of GSS will highly depend on the communication between renewable plants and system operators’ control rooms, thereby imposing high responsibility on the under lying communication infrastructure. Despite...

  10. The pWW0 plasmid imposes a stochastic expression regime to the chromosomal ortho pathway for benzoate metabolism in Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Rocha, Rafael; de Lorenzo, Victor

    2014-07-01

    Environmental plasmids often expand the metabolic repertoire of bacteria that carry them, but they also interfere with the biochemical and genetic network of the host. The pWW0 plasmid born by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 encodes the TOL pathway for degradation of toluene/m-xylene through production of intermediate compounds benzoate/3-methylbenzoate. These can be also recognized as substrates by the chromosomally encoded ben and cat gene products, thereby creating a manifest regulatory and biochemical conflict. In this context, we have investigated how the introduction of the pWW0 plasmid into P. putida affects behaviour of the promoter of the ben pathway (Pb) in single cells. Using a series of standardized transcriptional fusions to green fluorescent protein, we found that acquisition of the TOL pathway switches the activation course of the Pb promoter from unimodal/graded to bimodal/stochastic when cells were exposed to benzoate. This behaviour was propagated downstream into the Pc promoter of the cat gene cluster, which responds to the benzoate-degradation intermediate cis,cis-muconate. The TOL plasmid thus imposes expression of the chromosomal Pb with a stochastic behaviour likely to result in biochemical heterogeneity of the otherwise genetically clonal population when exposed to benzoate as a growth substrate.

  11. Short-term episodes of imposed fasting have a greater effect on young northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in summer than in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David A. S.; Volpov, Beth L.; Trites, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    An unexpected shortage of food may affect wildlife in a different way depending on the time of year when it occurs. We imposed 48 h fasts on six female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus; ages 6–24 months) to identify times of year when they might be particularly sensitive to interruptions in food supply. We monitored changes in their resting metabolic rates and their metabolic response to thermal challenges, and also examined potential bioenergetic causes for seasonal differences in body mass loss. The pre-fast metabolism of the fur seals while in ambient air or submerged in water at 4°C was higher during summer (June to Sepember) than winter (November to March), and submergence did not significantly increase metabolism, indicating a lack of additional thermoregulatory costs. There was no evidence of metabolic depression following the fasting periods, nor did metabolism increase during the post-fast thermal challenge, suggesting that mass loss did not negatively impact thermoregulatory capacity. However, the fur seals lost mass at greater rates while fasting during the summer months, when metabolism is normally high to facilitate faster growth rates (which would ordinarily have been supported by higher food intake levels). Our findings suggest that summer is a more critical time of year than winter for young northern fur seals to obtain adequate nutrition. PMID:27293642

  12. Developing the laminar MHD forced convection flow of water/FMWNT carbon nanotubes in a microchannel imposed the uniform heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimipour, Arash; Taghipour, Abdolmajid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Malvandi, Amir, E-mail: amirmalvandi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to investigate magnetic field and slip effects on developing laminar forced convection of nanofluids in the microchannels. A novel mixture of water and FMWNT carbon nanotubes is used as the working fluid. To do this, fluid flow and heat transfer through a microchannel is simulated by a computer code in FORTRAN language. The mixture of FMWNT carbon nanotubes suspended in water is considered as the nanofluid. Slip velocity is supposed as the hydrodynamic boundary condition while the microchannel's lower wall is insulated and the top wall is under the effect of a constant heat flux. Moreover, the flow field is subjected to a magnetic field with a constant strength. The results are presented as the velocity, temperature and Nusselt number profiles. It is observed that nanofluid composed of water and carbon nanotubes (FMWNT) can work well to increase the heat transfer rate along the microchannel walls. Furthermore, it is indicated that imposing the magnetic field is very effective at the thermally developing region. In contrast, the magnetic field effect at fully developed region is insignificant, especially at low values of Reynolds number. - Highlights: • Simulation of water/FMWNT carbon nanotubes flow in a microchannel. • The effects of magnetic field strength on nanofluid's slip velocity. • The effects of Ha, Re, ϕ and slip coefficient on averaged Nusselt number. • Magnetic field effect at developing flow region is significant.

  13. Scarred myocardium imposes additional burden on remote viable myocardium despite a reduction in the extent of area with late contrast MR enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, Maythem; Weber, Oliver; Do, Loi; Martin, Alastair; Saloner, David; Higgins, Charles B. [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lee, Randall J. [University of California, Department of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ursell, Philip [University of California, Department of Pathology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can simultaneously detect and quantify myocardial dysfunction and shrinkage in contrast-enhanced areas postinfarction. This ability permits the investigation of our hypothesis that transformation of infarcted myocardium to scarred tissue imposes additional burdens on peri-infarcted and remote myocardium. Pigs (n=8) were subjected to reperfused infarction. Gd-DOTA-enhanced inversion recovery gradient echo sequence (IR-GRE) imaging was performed 3 days and 8 weeks postinfarction. Global and regional left ventricular (LV) function was evaluated by cine MRI. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) stain was used to delineate infarction while hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and Masson's trichrome stains were used to characterize remodeled myocardium. Late contrast-enhanced MRIs showed a decrease in the extent of enhanced areas from 17{+-}2% at 3 days to13{+-}1% LV mass at 8 weeks. TTC infarction size was 12{+-}1% LV mass. Cine MRIs showed expansion in dysfunctional area due to unfavorable remodeling, ischemia, or strain. Ejection fraction was reduced in association with increased end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes. Scarred myocardium contained collagen fibers and remodeled thick-walled vessels embedded in collagen. Sequential MRI showed greater LV dysfunction despite the shrinkage in extent of enhanced areas 2 months postinfarction. The integration of late enhancement and cine MRI incorporates anatomical and functional evaluation of remodeled hearts. (orig.)

  14. Prophylactic cranial irradiation may impose a detrimental effect on overall survival of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuan-shuan Xie

    Full Text Available To determine the role of brain metastases (BM and overall survival (OS in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC by performing a meta-analysis of the RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials and non-RCTs (non-randomized controlled clinical trials published in the literature.A meta-analysis was performed using trials identified through PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Two investigators independently assessed the quality of the trials and extracted data. The outcomes included BM, OS, median survival (MS, response rate (RR, Hazard ratios (HRs and odds ratios (ORs, and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were pooled using ReMan software.Twelve trials (6 RCTs and 6 non-RCTs involving 1,718 NSCLC patients met the inclusion criteria. They were grouped on the basis of study design for separate Meta-analyses. The results showed that prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI reduced the risk of BM as compared with non-PCI in NSCLC patients (OR = 0.30, 95% [CI]: 0.21-0.43, p<0.00001. However, HRs for OS favored non-PCI (HR = 1.19, 95% [CI]: 1.06-1.33, p = 0.004, without evidence of heterogeneity between the studies.Our results suggest that although PCI decreased the risk of BM, it may impose a detrimental effect on OS of NSCLC patients.

  15. Solution of the Dynamic Interaction Problem between a Framed Structure and an Acoustic Cavity Using Imposed Deformation Functions at the Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcelo Vieira Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analytical procedure for solution of the dynamic interaction problem of a vibrating framed structure connected to a bidimensional cavity, containing an acoustic fluid. Initially the pressure solution for the fluid domain is developed, using the separation of variables technique. In a next step, this solution is applied to an entirely open cavity and to a closed cavity in the transversal direction, both containing a vibrating boundary with an arbitrary deformation. The generalized parameters of the structure (mass, rigidity, and force are obtained by means of the virtual work principle, with the generalized force represented by the dynamic pressures acting on the interface. The dynamic equilibrium equation of the system is established for an imposed deformation, making a parametric study of the involved variables possible. Finally, it is demonstrated that this procedure can be generalized, allowing the construction of practical abacuses for other boundary conditions of both the structure and the cavity, and that these results allow a reasonable interpretation of the coupling regions, including the prediction of added mass and added stiffness effects, as well as corresponding frequencies and mode shapes of the coupled problem.

  16. Vaccine-induced Human Antibodies Specific for the Third Variable Region of HIV-1 gp120 Impose Immune Pressure on Infecting Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Zolla-Pazner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of V3-specific IgG antibodies (Abs in the RV144 clinical HIV vaccine trial, which reduced HIV-1 infection by 31.2%, the anti-V3 Ab response was assessed. Vaccinees' V3 Abs were highly cross-reactive with cyclic V3 peptides (cV3s from diverse virus subtypes. Sieve analysis of CRF01_AE breakthrough viruses from 43 vaccine- and 66 placebo-recipients demonstrated an estimated vaccine efficacy of 85% against viruses with amino acids mismatching the vaccine at V3 site 317 (p = 0.004 and 52% against viruses matching the vaccine at V3 site 307 (p = 0.004. This analysis was supported by data showing that vaccinees' plasma Abs were less reactive with I307 when replaced with residues found more often in vaccinees' breakthrough viruses. Simultaneously, viruses with mutations at F317 were less infectious, possibly due to the contribution of F317 to optimal formation of the V3 hydrophobic core. These data suggest that RV144-induced V3-specific Abs imposed immune pressure on infecting viruses and inform efforts to design an HIV vaccine.

  17. ZnO nanoparticles impose a panmetabolic toxic effect along with strong necrosis, inducing activation of the envelope stress response in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovic, Sinisa; Elder, Jeff; Medihala, Prabhakara; Lawrence, John R; Predicala, Bernardo; Zhang, Haixia; Korber, Darren R

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we tested the antimicrobial activity of three metal nanoparticles (NPs), ZnO, MgO, and CaO NPs, against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in liquid medium and on solid surfaces. Out of the three tested metal NPs, ZnO NPs exhibited the most significant antimicrobial effect both in liquid medium and when embedded on solid surfaces. Therefore, we focused on revealing the mechanisms of surface-associated ZnO biocidal activity. Using the global proteome approach, we report that a great majority (79%) of the altered proteins in biofilms formed by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were downregulated, whereas a much smaller fraction (21%) of proteins were upregulated. Intriguingly, all downregulated proteins were enzymes involved in a wide range of the central metabolic pathways, including translation; amino acid biosynthetic pathways; nucleobase, nucleoside, and nucleotide biosynthetic processes; ATP synthesis-coupled proton transport; the pentose phosphate shunt; and carboxylic acid metabolic processes, indicating that ZnO NPs exert a panmetabolic toxic effect on this prokaryotic organism. In addition to their panmetabolic toxicity, ZnO NPs induced profound changes in cell envelope morphology, imposing additional necrotic effects and triggering the envelope stress response of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis. The envelope stress response effect activated periplasmic chaperones and proteases, transenvelope complexes, and regulators, thereby facilitating protection of this prokaryotic organism against ZnO NPs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Coated fuel particles: requirements and status of fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huschka, H.; Vygen, P.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel cycle, design, and irradiation performance requirements impose restraints on the fabrication processes. Both kernel and coating fabrication processes are flexible enough to adapt to the needs of the various existing and proposed high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Extensive experience has demonstrated that fuel kernels with excellent sphericity and uniformity can be produced by wet chemical processes. Similarly experience has shown that the various multilayer coatings can be produced to fully meet design and specification requirements. Quality reliability of coated fuel particles is ensured by quality control and quality assurance programs operated by an aduiting system that includes licensing officials and the customer

  19. Electron beam combination by RF deflectors Tolerance and requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, R

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the new Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) Test Facility CTF3, it is planned to perform a demonstration of the bunch frequency multiplication process on which the CLIC drive beam generation scheme is based. This process relies on the combination of electron bunch trains in isochronous rings using RF deflecting cavities. Specific requirements are imposed on both the beam characteristics and the RF amplitude and phase in the deflectors. In this paper, we study and specify these requirements in the case of the Preliminary Phase of CTF3.

  20. Research requirements for improved design of reinforced concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.K.; Holley, M.J. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reinforced concrete is a competitive material for the construction of nuclear power plant containment structures. However, the designer is constrained by limited data on the behavior of certain construction details which require him to use what may be excessive rebar quantities and lead to difficult and costly construction. This paper discusses several design situations where research is recommended to increase the designer's options, to facilitate construction, and to extend the applicability of reinforced concrete to such changing containment requirements as may be imposed by an evolving nuclear technology. (Auth.)

  1. ERP in agriculture: Lessons learned from the Dutch horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.; Robbemond, R.M.; Wolfert, J.

    2015-01-01

    Farming nowadays is a complex managerial task that imposes stringent requirements on farm management information systems. In other sectors, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are widely implemented to meet such requirements. This paper assesses the applicability of ERP systems in the

  2. IMPACT OF ENERGY GROUP STRUCTURE ON NUCLEAR DATA TARGET ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS FOR ADVANCED REACTOR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores; H. Hiruta

    2011-06-01

    A target accuracy assessment study using both a fine and a broad energy structure has shown that less stringent nuclear data accuracy requirements are needed for the latter energy structure. However, even though a reduction is observed, still the requirements will be very difficult to be met unless integral experiments are also used to reduce nuclear data uncertainties. Target accuracy assessment is the inverse problem of the uncertainty evaluation. To establish priorities and target accuracies on data uncertainty reduction, a formal approach can be adopted by defining target accuracy on design parameters and finding out required accuracy on data in order to meet them. In fact, the unknown uncertainty data requirements can be obtained by solving a minimization problem where the sensitivity coefficients in conjunction with the constraints on the integral parameters provide the needed quantities for finding the solutions.

  3. Menores y acceso a Internet en el hogar: las normas familiares Internet Access by Minors at Home: Usage Norms Imposed by Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Morey López

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el establecimiento de normas por parte de los progenitores a sus hijos sobre la utilización de Internet en los hogares. Los datos se han obtenido mediante encuestación sobre una muestra representativa de los menores de las Islas Baleares de entre 6 y 16 años, habiéndose analizado las siguientes dimensiones: acceso de los menores a Internet desde el hogar; grado de autonomía o acompañamiento en la navegación; normativización impuesta en el hogar por parte de sus padres y madres; tipos de normas impuestas; relación entre normas y género; valoración de los menores de los conocimientos y habilidades de sus progenitores para navegar por Internet y, finalmente, el acompañamiento de los padres y madres a la hora de navegar por Internet. Se constata que poco más del 53% de los menores de entre 6 y 14 años, y del 62% de los de 15 y 16 años navegan a través de Internet sin que sus progenitores les establezcan limitaciones. Cuando establecen algún tipo de normas, éstas se refieren, principalmente, a restricciones de carácter temporal. Por tanto, se infiere que los padres y madres no son conscientes de los peligros de la Red o que, al menos, actúan de forma poco razonable. Ello muestra la necesidad de sensibilizar y formar a las familias para que asuman su responsabilidad educativa.This paper examines and discusses the rules and standards set by parents for their children on Internet usage at home. Data that supports the paper have been obtained by surveying a representative sample of children in the Balearic Islands aged between 6 and 16 years; the analysis dimensions are: access by minors to the Internet from home; location of the computer from which have online access; level of autonomy or accompaniment while surfing the Net; norms imposed by their parents; types of rules imposed; relationship between norms and gender; the minors’ opinion and assessment of the knowledge and abilities of their parents on use of

  4. Metformin Ameliorates Dysfunctional Traits of Glibenclamide- and Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion by Suppression of Imposed Overactivity of the Islet Nitric Oxide Synthase-NO System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Lundquist

    Full Text Available Metformin lowers diabetic blood glucose primarily by reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis and increasing peripheral glucose uptake. However, possible effects by metformin on beta-cell function are incompletely understood. We speculated that metformin might positively influence insulin secretion through impacting the beta-cell nitric oxide synthase (NOS-NO system, a negative modulator of glucose-stimulated insulin release. In short-time incubations with isolated murine islets either glibenclamide or high glucose augmented insulin release associated with increased NO production from both neural and inducible NOS. Metformin addition suppressed the augmented NO generation coinciding with amplified insulin release. Islet culturing with glibenclamide or high glucose revealed pronounced fluorescence of inducible NOS in the beta-cells being abolished by metformin co-culturing. These findings were reflected in medium nitrite-nitrate levels. A glucose challenge following islet culturing with glibenclamide or high glucose revealed markedly impaired insulin response. Metformin co-culturing restored this response. Culturing murine islets and human islets from controls and type 2 diabetics with high glucose or high glucose + glibenclamide induced a pronounced decrease of cell viability being remarkably restored by metformin co-culturing. We show here, that imposed overactivity of the beta-cell NOS-NO system by glibenclamide or high glucose leads to insulin secretory dysfunction and reduced cell viability and also, importantly, that these effects are relieved by metformin inhibiting beta-cell NO overproduction from both neural and inducible NOS thus ameliorating a concealed negative influence by NO induced by sulfonylurea treatment and/or high glucose levels. This double-edged effect of glibenclamide on the beta-cellsuggests sulfonylurea monotherapy in type 2 diabetes being avoided.

  5. LEGAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF IMPOSING THE DISCIPLINARY SANCTIONS PROVIDED IN LAW NO. 206/2004 ON FAIR PRACTICES IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION, WITH LATER COMPLETIONS AND AMENDMENTS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PROVISIONS IN ART. 316 IN THE LAW OF NATIONAL EDUCATION NO. 1/2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Elena Matic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current paper contains a brief analysis of art. 316 provided in The National Education Law no. 1/2011 in conjunction with the penalties stated in Law no. 206/2004 regarding fair practices in scientific research, technological development and innovation, with additions and amendments, as well as The National Education Law n o. 1/2011. The interesting aspect of this article of the law that completes common law (art. 248 (3 in the Labour Code is that it establishes the possibility of lifting and cancelling the disciplinary sanctions within a year since being imposed by the competent authority.In the academic world, the issue of fair practice in scientific research is one of honour and it provides each member of the scientific community with a dignified and respected career. The infringement of the provisions in Law no. 204/2004 on conduct in scientific research, technological development and innovation, with additions and amendments, leads to imposing sanctions which adversely affect the researcher’s reputation. In our paper we analyse the applicable sanctions, the actual meaning of the phrase „improvement of the activity and conduct” of the sanctioned person in the context of fair practices in scientific research and, in our conclusions, we attempt at finding the requirements that have to be met in order to eliminate the negative ethical consequences, redeem the good name and regain the right to a honorary career.

  6. Proteomic Comparison between Maturation Drying and Prematurely Imposed Drying of Zea mays Seeds Reveals a Potential Role of Maturation Drying in Preparing Proteins for Seed Germination, Seedling Vigor, and Pathogen Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Ye, Jian-Qing; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the role(s) of maturation drying in the acquisition of germinability, seedling vigor and pathogen resistance by comparing the proteome changes in maize embryo and endosperm during mature and prematurely imposed drying. Prematurely imposed dried seeds at 40 days after pollination...... (DAP) germinated almost as well as mature seeds (at 65 DAP), but their seedling growth was slower and they were seriously infected by fungi. A total of 80 and 114 proteins were identified to change at least two-fold (p...

  7. Abandonment (field decommissioning): The legal requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    1994-01-01

    The main areas to be considered in relation to the abandonment of offshore installations are: (1) the legal requirements to be imposed in relation to abandonment, this will include consideration of English, Norwegian and Dutch law as well as international law; (2) how licensees may protect themselves against joint and several liability for performance of their legal obligations in relation to abandonment by the provision of security; and (3) consideration of practical examples of abandonment such as the abandonment of the Piper Alpha platform on the UK continental shelf and the K13-D platform on the Dutch continental shelf. This paper considers only abandonment of offshore installations as very different considerations apply onshore and applies only to Europe, though the international treaties will also apply elsewhere

  8. Technological implications of fusion power: requirements and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.

    1978-01-01

    The major technological requirements for fusion power, as implied by current conceptual designs of fusion power plants, are identified and assessed relative to the goals of existing technology programs. The focus of the discussion is on the tokamak magnetic confinement concept; however, key technological requirements of mirror magnetic confinement systems and of inertial confinement concepts will also be addressed. The required technology is examined on the basis of three general areas of concern: (a) the power balance, that is, the unique power handling requirements associated with the production of electrical power by fusion; (b) reactor design, focusing primarily on the requirements imposed by a tritium-based fuel cycle, thermal hydraulic considerations, and magnet systems; and (c) materials considerations, including radiation damage effects, neutron-induced activation, and resource limitations

  9. COMPARING LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND USER NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gristina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Road transport has always played an important role in a country’s growth and, in order to manage road networks and ensure a high standard of road performance (e.g. durability, efficiency and safety, both public and private road inventories have been implemented using databases and Geographical Information Systems. They enable registering and managing significant amounts of different road information, but to date do not focus on 3D road information, data integration and interoperability. In an increasingly complex 3D urban environment, and in the age of smart cities, however, applications including intelligent transport systems, mobility and traffic management, road maintenance and safety require digital data infrastructures to manage road data: thus new inventories based on integrated 3D road models (queryable, updateable and shareable on line are required. This paper outlines the first step towards the implementation of 3D GIS-based road inventories. Focusing on the case study of the “Road Cadastre” (the Italian road inventory as established by law, it investigates current limitations and required improvements, and also compares the required data structure imposed by cadastral legislation with real road users’ needs. The study aims to: a determine whether 3D GIS would improve road cadastre (for better management of data through the complete life-cycle infrastructure projects; b define a conceptual model for a 3D road cadastre for Italy (whose general principles may be extended also to other countries.

  10. Requirements and designs for Mars Rover RTGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, A.; Sankarankandath, V.; Shirbacheh, M.

    1989-01-01

    A typical Rover mission, its requirements, the environment it imposes on the radionuclide thermoelectric generator (RTG), and a design approach for making the RTG operable in such an environment are described. Specific RTG designs for various thermoelectric element alternatives are presented. The results of studies show that current multifoil-insulated GPHS (general-purpose heat source) RTG and Mod-RTG designs can be modified to operate in an environment with an external atmosphere (e.g., Mars). This can be done while the helium generated by the fuel's alpha decay is vented to the external atmosphere. The use of novel selective vents and high-capacity getters is not required. The Rover RTGs can be built from standard, proven GPHS modules and standard SiGe unicouples or SiGe/GaP multicouples, using demonstrated thermoelectric material performance parameters. Rover's 500-W power requirement can be satisfied with two 250-W or four 125-W RTGs, whose sizes are compatible with currently envisaged Rover designs. An auxiliary cooling loop (e.g., water and antifreeze) will be required to cool the RTG while it is within the Rover's aeroshell during launch and transit to Mars.

  11. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  12. The human rights context for ethical requirements for involving people with intellectual disability in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, T; Carling-Jenkins, R

    2012-11-01

    The history of ethical guidelines addresses protection of human rights in the face of violations. Examples of such violations in research involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) abound. We explore this history in an effort to understand the apparently stringent criteria for the inclusion of people with ID in research, and differences between medical and other research within a single jurisdiction. The history of the Helsinki Declaration and informed consent within medical research, and high-profile examples of ethical misconduct involving people with ID and other groups are reviewed. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is then examined for its research implications. This background is used to examine a current anomaly within an Australian context for the inclusion of people with ID without decisional capacity in medical versus other types of research. Ethical guidelines have often failed to protect the human rights of people with ID and other vulnerable groups. Contrasting requirements within an Australian jurisdiction for medical and other research would seem to have originated in early deference to medical authority for making decisions on behalf of patients. Stringent ethical requirements are likely to continue to challenge researchers in ID. A human rights perspective provides a framework for engaging both researchers and vulnerable participant groups. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Arqueología de la ausencia de Lucila Quieto. Un viaje hacia la imagen imposible = Archaeology of absence of Lucila Quieto: a trip to the impossible image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Alonso Riveiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde los años noventa del pasado siglo proliferan los artistas que trabajan a partir de la recuperación “pequeña memoria”, la más intima, frecuentemente asociada a la revisitación de momentos traumáticos. Sus obras, generadas en un pasado todavía abierto, actúan en el presente del espectador como mecanismos de duelo colectivo pero también como eficaces armas de acción política: así el arte (conmueve y nos mueve. El presente estudio pretende analizar estos movimientos tomando como ejemplo la obra Arqueología de la Ausencia de la argentina Lucila Quieto, creada a partir de las fotografías de los “desaparecidos” durante la dictadura argentina. Para ello se usará la metáfora del viaje: un viaje que comienza en el ámbito privado con el deseo de suplir una ausencia en el álbum familiar, remonta el tiempo para crear la imagen capaz de suplir esa ausencia en un lugar y un espacio imposibles y vuelve al presente en que alcanza al espectador en cuanto objeto de experiencia estética en este presente pero también, en cuanto objeto de acción política en el futuro.From the nineties on many artists work on the recovery of «small memories», the most personal memory, related to the revisitation of traumatic moments. Their works of art, which have been created in a past that continues to lack closure, act in the present of the spectators as a collective mourning mechanism, as well as an effective weapon for political action. Thus, the art moves and makes you move. This study analyses those movements and the starting point is the Archaeology of Absence by the Argentine artist Lucila Quieto, created with family pictures of the «desaparecidos» during the Argentina’s dictatorship. So, I will use the metaphor of the journey: a journey that starts in the private sphere with the desire to recuperate an absence in the family album, continues to create the image able to supply this absence in an impossible place and space and

  14. Developing the Cleanliness Requirements for an Organic-detection Instrument MOMA-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Radford; Canham, John; Lalime, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The cleanliness requirements for an organic-detection instrument, like the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer Mass Spectrometer (MOMA-MS), on a Planetary Protection Class IVb mission can be extremely stringent. These include surface molecular and particulate, outgassing, and bioburden. The prime contractor for the European Space Agencys ExoMars 2018 project, Thales Alenia Space Italy, provided requirements based on a standard, conservative approach of defining limits which yielded levels that are unverifiable by standard cleanliness verification methods. Additionally, the conservative method for determining contamination surface area uses underestimation while conservative bioburden surface area relies on overestimation, which results in inconsistencies for the normalized reporting. This presentation will provide a survey of the challenge to define requirements that can be reasonably verified and still remain appropriate to the core science of the ExoMars mission.

  15. Communication Problems in Requirements Engineering: A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawas, Amer; Easterbrook, Steve

    1996-01-01

    The requirements engineering phase of software development projects is characterized by the intensity and importance of communication activities. During this phase, the various stakeholders must be able to communicate their requirements to the analysts, and the analysts need to be able to communicate the specifications they generate back to the stakeholders for validation. This paper describes a field investigation into the problems of communication between disparate communities involved in the requirements specification activities. The results of this study are discussed in terms of their relation to three major communication barriers: (1) ineffectiveness of the current communication channels; (2) restrictions on expressiveness imposed by notations; and (3) social and organizational barriers. The results confirm that organizational and social issues have great influence on the effectiveness of communication. They also show that in general, end-users find the notations used by software practitioners to model their requirements difficult to understand and validate.

  16. Detector Requirements to Curb Nuclear Smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, S A

    2001-01-01

    The problem of stopping nuclear smuggling of terrorist nuclear devices is a complex one, owing to the variety of pathways by which such a device can be transported. To fashion new detection systems that improve the chances of detecting such a device, it is important to know the various requirements and conditions that would be imposed on them by both the types of devices that might be smuggled and by the requirement that it not overly interfere with the transportation of legitimate goods. Requirements vary greatly from low-volume border crossings to high-volume industrial container ports, and the design of systems for them is likely to be quite different. There is also a further need to detect these devices if they are brought into a country via illicit routes, i.e., those which do not pass through customs posts, but travel overland though open space or to a smaller, unguarded airport or seaport. This paper describes some generic uses of detectors, how they need to be integrated into customs or other law enforcement systems, and what the specifications for such detectors might be

  17. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  18. Software Requirements Specification for Lunar IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser-Garbrick, Michael R.

    Lunar IceCube is a 6U satellite that will orbit the moon to measure water volatiles as a function of position, altitude, and time, and measure in its various phases. Lunar IceCube, is a collaboration between Morehead State University, Vermont Technical University, Busek, and NASA. The Software Requirements Specification will serve as contract between the overall team and the developers of the flight software. It will provide a system's overview of the software that will be developed for Lunar IceCube, in that it will detail all of the interconnects and protocols for each subsystem's that Lunar IceCube will utilize. The flight software will be written in SPARK to the fullest extent, due to SPARK's unique ability to make software free of any errors. The LIC flight software does make use of a general purpose, reusable application framework called CubedOS. This framework imposes some structuring requirements on the architecture and design of the flight software, but it does not impose any high level requirements. It will also detail the tools that we will be using for Lunar IceCube, such as why we will be utilizing VxWorks.

  19. Higher Education Discrimination and the Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWaerdt, Lois

    1981-01-01

    In past cases involving sex or racial discrimination in faculty employment, the courts have imposed less stringent standards on institutions of higher education than on employers in industry or the professions. Recent decisions indicate that stricter judicial requirements are now being extended to colleges and universities. (Author/RW)

  20. A study of tracheal prostheses produced by composite laminate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in-vivo implantation showed fairly satisfactory results in satisfying the stringent mechanical requirements imposed by nature in natural tracheas. Although relatively short survival periodswere observed in the animals used, after eliminating mechanical design as a cause of failure, failure could be said to have occurred ...

  1. Design and Measurement of the NSLS II Sextupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spataro,C.; Jain, A.K.; Rehak, M; Skaritka, J.

    2009-05-04

    The Sextupole magnets for the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) have stringent performance requirements. These magnets have a faceted pole profile that departs from the cubic shape due to constraints imposed by the vacuum chamber. Various geometric features were used to fine tune and minimize the harmonics. Prototypes have been built and measured and have satisfactory field performance.

  2. FACTS Devices for Large Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Growing number of wind turbines is changing electricity generation profile all over the world. However, high wind energy penetration affects power system safety and stability. For this reason transmission system operators (TSO) impose more stringent connection requirements on the wind power plant...

  3. Discovering system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  4. Proteomic comparison between maturation drying and prematurely imposed drying of Zea mays seeds reveals a potential role of maturation drying in preparing proteins for seed germination, seedling vigor, and pathogen resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Ye, Jian-Qing; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wojdyla, Katarzyna I; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2014-02-07

    We have studied the role(s) of maturation drying in the acquisition of germinability, seedling vigor and pathogen resistance by comparing the proteome changes in maize embryo and endosperm during mature and prematurely imposed drying. Prematurely imposed dried seeds at 40 days after pollination (DAP) germinated almost as well as mature seeds (at 65 DAP), but their seedling growth was slower and they were seriously infected by fungi. A total of 80 and 114 proteins were identified to change at least two-fold (p may contribute to the acquisition of seed germinability. However, a relatively large number of proteins changed in the embryo (47 spots) and endosperm (76 spots) specifically during maturation drying. Among these proteins, storage proteins in the embryo and defense proteins in the endosperm may be particularly important for seedling vigor and resistance to fungal infection, respectively.

  5. Technology Requirements For a Square-Meter, Arcsecond-Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William; Freeman, Mark; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey; hide

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first supermassive black holes. We have envisioned a mission based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, in order to achieve the required reduction of mass to collecting area for the mirrors. We are pursuing technology which effects this adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMARTX will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no more stringent requirements than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  6. Design requirements for the SWIFT instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, P; McDade, I; Shepherd, G; Gault, W

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport studies (SWIFT) instrument is a proposed limb-viewing satellite instrument that employs the method of Doppler Michelson interferometry to measure stratospheric wind velocities and ozone densities in the altitude range of 15–45 km. The values of the main instrument parameters including filter system parameters and Michelson interferometer parameters are derived using simulations and analyses. The system design requirements for the instrument and spacecraft are presented and discussed. Some of the retrieval-imposed design requirements are also discussed. Critical design issues are identified. The design optimization process is described. The sensitivity of wind measurements to instrument characteristics is investigated including the impact on critical design issues. Using sensitivity analyses, the instrument parameters were iteratively optimized in order to meet the science objectives. It is shown that wind measurements are sensitive to the thermal sensitivity of the instrument components, especially the narrow filter and the Michelson interferometer. The optimized values of the main system parameters including Michelson interferometer optical path difference, instrument visibility, instrument responsivity and knowledge of spacecraft velocity are reported. This work also shows that the filter thermal drift and the Michelson thermal drift are two main technical risks. (paper)

  7. An experimental investigation of an air cooling scheme for removing environmentally imposed heat loads from the multiplicity and vertex detector's main enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.; Bernardin, J.D.; Simon-Gillo, J.

    1997-11-01

    This report presents a summary of an experimental investigation of a closed loop air cooling system designed to control the temperature and humidity in the main enclosure of the multiplicity and vertex detector (MVD). Measurements of the cooling air flow rate, the humidity levels inside and outside of the MVD, and the cooling air temperatures were used to assess the performance of the system and to characterize the system limitations and potential assembly problems. The results of the study indicate that several design changes are needed in the final design to meet the temperature and humidity operating requirements. A thorough set of design change recommendations that satisfy these operating criteria completes this report

  8. Postmarket Requirements and Commitments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides information to the public on postmarket requirements and commitments. The phrase postmarket requirements and commitments refers to studies and clinical...

  9. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  10. Effective entrenchment of Human Rights in Victoria: a study of the law relating to manner and form requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Roszkowski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Formulating the question This thesis examines constitutional entrenchment of the Victorian Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic) through the use of manner and form requirements. Manner and form requirements usually demand compliance with special procedures for the effective repeal or amendment of a protected law. Imposing such restrictions on Parliament's power to legislate inevitably gives rise to a persisting dilemma: whether human rights can be ef...

  11. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  12. Future Home Network Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbonnier, Benoit; Wessing, Henrik; Lannoo, Bart

    This paper presents the requirements for future Home Area Networks (HAN). Firstly, we discuss the applications and services as well as their requirements. Then, usage scenarios are devised to establish a first specification for the HAN. The main requirements are an increased bandwidth (towards 1...

  13. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  14. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In most IT system development processes, the identification or elicitation of user requirements is recognized as a key building block. In practice, the identification of user needs and wants is a challenge and inadequate or faulty identifications in this step of an IT system development can cause...... involvement and requirements elicitation Usable security requirements for design of privacy...

  15. Groupware requirements evolution patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumareja, D.T.

    2013-01-01

    This study is an empirical investigation of requirements evolution for groupware systems in use by means of case studies. Its goal is to contribute to the development of a theory of requirements evolution. A conceptual framework offering an integrated view of requirements as a collection of domains

  16. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document establishes the Transportation system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are derived from the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document (CRD). The Transportation System Requirements Document (TSRD) was developed in accordance with LP-3.1Q-OCRWM, Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of National Transportation Level-2 Baseline Requirements. As illustrated in Figure 1, the TSRD forms a part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Technical Baseline

  17. Transportation System Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  18. Semantic Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Motoshi

    Requirements engineering (RE) techniques play a crucial role in information systems development processes. There are many excellent techniques of RE to assist requirements analysts and stakeholders in producing requirements specification of higher quality, and some of them are put into practice in industry. However, one of the issues of these RE techniques is that they do not handle semantic aspects of requirements. If we can deal with the meaning of requirements by using automated techniques, we can get more effective RE techniques to produce requirements specifications of higher quality. In this chapter, we consider an ontology as a semantic domain so as to provide the meaning for requirements, and discuss the potentials of the RE techniques using an ontology as a semantic basis. Especially, we illustrate an extension of goal-oriented requirements analysis where this idea is embedded, i.e. we provide the semantics for goal descriptions written in natural language using a mapping from them to an ontology. The inference mechanisms of the ontology allow us to decompose a goal into sub-goals and to find missing goals. Furthermore, in this chapter we discuss the possibilities of the techniques to support the other activities of RE processes using this ontological technique, e.g. measuring quality metrics and controlling versions of requirements from a semantic view. Due to similarity to Semantic Web techniques, we call a family of these engineering techniques Semantic Requirements Engineering in this chapter.

  19. The Free Energy Requirements of Biological Organisms; Implications for Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Wolpert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in nonequilibrium statistical physics have provided unprecedented insight into the thermodynamics of dynamic processes. The author recently used these advances to extend Landauer’s semi-formal reasoning concerning the thermodynamics of bit erasure, to derive the minimal free energy required to implement an arbitrary computation. Here, I extend this analysis, deriving the minimal free energy required by an organism to run a given (stochastic map π from its sensor inputs to its actuator outputs. I use this result to calculate the input-output map π of an organism that optimally trades off the free energy needed to run π with the phenotypic fitness that results from implementing π. I end with a general discussion of the limits imposed on the rate of the terrestrial biosphere’s information processing by the flux of sunlight on the Earth.

  20. Loads imposed on dual purpose casks in German on-site-storage facilities for long term intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, N.; Rabe, O. [TUeV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH und Co. KG, Hanover (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In accordance with recent changes of the atomic energy act and in order to secure reliable removal of spent fuel from the nuclear power plants' fuel storage ponds the German utilities filed license applications for a total of 12 onsite- storage facilities for spent fuel assemblies. By the end of 2003 the last of these storage facilities were licensed and are currently under construction. The first on-site-storage facility of that line became operational in late 2002. There are several design lines of storage facilities with different handling procedures or possible accident conditions. Short term interim storage facilities for a few casks are characterized by individual concrete hoods shielding the casks in horizontal position whereas long term intermediate storage facilities currently erected for large numbers of casks typically feature a condensed pattern of casks stored in upright position and massive structures of reinforced concrete. TUeV Hannover/Sachsen-Anhalt e. V. (now TUeV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co. KG) has been contracted as a body of independent experts for the assessment of all related safety requirements on behalf of the national licensing authority, the federal office for radiation protection (BfS).

  1. Application of a model order reduction method based on the Krylov subspace to finite element transient analysis imposing several kinds of boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, N M; Asai, M; Sonoda, Y

    2010-01-01

    Model order reduction (MOR) via Krylov subspace (KS-MOR) is one of projection-based reduction method for spatially discretized time differential equation. This paper presents a treatment of KS-MOR incorporating with finite element method for structure dynamics. KS-MOR needs basis vectors for the projection into Krylov subspace. In this context, Arnoldi and/or Lanczos method are typical techniques to generate basis vectors, and these techniques requires the information of right hand side (RHS) vector, which is the loading pattern vector in structure dynamics. In this study, we propose a treatment of Dirichlet boundary problem by generating an equivalent blocked system equation including three RHS vectors. In order to solve the multiple RHS vector problem, Block Second Order Arnoldi (BSOAR) is utilized in this paper. After projection, time integration of the projected small system equations was performed by the conventional Newmark-β method. In order to show the performance of KS-MOR, several numerical simulations are conducted. The numerical results show less than 1% of the original degrees of freedoms (DOFs) are necessary to get the accurate results for all of our numerical examples, and the CPU time is less than 2% of the conventional FE calculation.

  2. Carbonate substitution in the mineral component of bone: Discriminating the structural changes, simultaneously imposed by carbonate in A and B sites of apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madupalli, Honey; Pavan, Barbara; Tecklenburg, Mary M. J.

    2017-11-01

    The mineral component of bone and other biological calcifications is primarily a carbonate substituted calcium apatite. Integration of carbonate into two sites, substitution for phosphate (B-type carbonate) and substitution for hydroxide (A-type carbonate), influences the crystal properties which relate to the functional properties of bone. In the present work, a series of AB-type carbonated apatites (AB-CAp) having varying A-type and B-type carbonate weight fractions were prepared and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and carbonate analysis. A detailed characterization of A-site and B-site carbonate assignment in the FTIR ν3 region is proposed. The mass fractions of carbonate in A-site and B-site of AB-CAp correlate differently with crystal axis length and crystallite domain size. In this series of samples reduction in crystal domain size correlates only with A-type carbonate which indicates that carbonate in the A-site is more disruptive to the apatite structure than carbonate in the B-site. High temperature methods were required to produce significant A-type carbonation of apatite, indicating a higher energy barrier for the formation of A-type carbonate than for B-type carbonate. This is consistent with the dominance of B-type carbonate substitution in low temperature synthetic and biological apatites.

  3. Development of NPP Safety Requirements into Kenya's Grid Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndirangu, Nguni James; Koo, Chang Choong

    2015-01-01

    As presently drafted, Kenya's grid codes do not contain any NPP requirements. Through case studies of selected grid codes, this paper will study frequency, voltage and fault ride through requirements for NPP connection and operation, and offer recommendation of how these requirements can be incorporated in the Kenya's grid codes. Voltage and frequency excursions in Kenya's grid are notably frequently outside the generic requirement and the values observed by the German and UK grid codes. Kenya's grid codes require continuous operation for ±10% of nominal voltage and 45.0 to 52Hz on the grid which poses safety issues for an NPP. Considering stringent NPP connection to grid and operational safety requirements, and the importance of the TSO to NPP safety, more elaborate requirements need to be documented in the Kenya's grid codes. UK and Germany have a history of meeting high standards of nuclear safety and it is therefore recommended that format like the one in Table 1 to 3 should be adopted. Kenya's Grid code considering NPP should have: • Strict rules for voltage variation, that is, -5% to +10% of the nominal voltage • Strict rules for frequency variation, that is, 48Hz to 52Hz of the nominal frequencyand

  4. Ecological stoichiometry of the honeybee: Pollen diversity and adequate species composition are needed to mitigate limitations imposed on the growth and development of bees by pollen quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Filipiak

    Full Text Available The least understood aspects of the nutritional needs of bees are the elemental composition of pollen and the bees' need for a stoichiometrically balanced diet containing the required proportions of nutrients. Reduced plant diversity has been proposed as an indirect factor responsible for the pollinator crisis. We suggest stoichiometric mismatch resulting from a nutritionally unbalanced diet as a potential direct factor. The concentrations and stoichiometric ratios of C, N, S, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu were studied in the bodies of honeybees of various castes and sexes and in the nectar and pollen of various plant species. A literature review of the elemental composition of pollen was performed. We identified possible co-limitations of bee growth and development resulting mainly from the scarcity of Na, S, Cu, P and K, and possibly Zn and N, in pollen. Particular castes and sexes face specific limitations. Concentrations of potentially limiting elements in pollen revealed high taxonomic diversity. High floral diversity may be necessary to maintain populations of pollen eaters. Single-species crop plantations, even if these species are rich in nectar and pollen, might limit bee growth and development, not allowing for gathering nutrients in adequate proportions. However, particular plant species may play greater roles than others in balancing honeybee diets. Therefore, we suggest specific plant species that may (1 ensure optimal growth and production of individuals by producing pollen that is exceptionally well balanced stoichiometrically (e.g., clover or (2 prevent growth and development of honeybees by producing pollen that is extremely unbalanced for bees (e.g., sunflower. Since pollen is generally poor in Na, this element must be supplemented using "dirty water". Nectar cannot supplement the diet with limiting elements. Stoichiometric mismatch should be considered in intervention strategies aimed at improving the nutritional base

  5. Ecological stoichiometry of the honeybee: Pollen diversity and adequate species composition are needed to mitigate limitations imposed on the growth and development of bees by pollen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Michał; Kuszewska, Karolina; Asselman, Michel; Denisow, Bożena; Stawiarz, Ernest; Woyciechowski, Michał; Weiner, January

    2017-01-01

    The least understood aspects of the nutritional needs of bees are the elemental composition of pollen and the bees' need for a stoichiometrically balanced diet containing the required proportions of nutrients. Reduced plant diversity has been proposed as an indirect factor responsible for the pollinator crisis. We suggest stoichiometric mismatch resulting from a nutritionally unbalanced diet as a potential direct factor. The concentrations and stoichiometric ratios of C, N, S, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu were studied in the bodies of honeybees of various castes and sexes and in the nectar and pollen of various plant species. A literature review of the elemental composition of pollen was performed. We identified possible co-limitations of bee growth and development resulting mainly from the scarcity of Na, S, Cu, P and K, and possibly Zn and N, in pollen. Particular castes and sexes face specific limitations. Concentrations of potentially limiting elements in pollen revealed high taxonomic diversity. High floral diversity may be necessary to maintain populations of pollen eaters. Single-species crop plantations, even if these species are rich in nectar and pollen, might limit bee growth and development, not allowing for gathering nutrients in adequate proportions. However, particular plant species may play greater roles than others in balancing honeybee diets. Therefore, we suggest specific plant species that may (1) ensure optimal growth and production of individuals by producing pollen that is exceptionally well balanced stoichiometrically (e.g., clover) or (2) prevent growth and development of honeybees by producing pollen that is extremely unbalanced for bees (e.g., sunflower). Since pollen is generally poor in Na, this element must be supplemented using "dirty water". Nectar cannot supplement the diet with limiting elements. Stoichiometric mismatch should be considered in intervention strategies aimed at improving the nutritional base for bees.

  6. Albugo-imposed changes to tryptophan-derived antimicrobial metabolite biosynthesis may contribute to suppression of non-host resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, David C.; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Xu, Deyang

    2017-01-01

    -derived antimicrobial compounds enables P. infestans colonization of Arabidopsis, although to a lesser extent than Albugo-infected tissue. A. laibachii also suppresses a subset of genes regulated by salicylic acid; however, salicylic acid plays only a minor role in non-host resistance to P. infestans. CONCLUSIONS......: Albugo sp. alter tryptophan-derived metabolites and suppress elements of the responses to salicylic acid in Arabidopsis. Albugo sp. imposed alterations in tryptophan-derived metabolites may play a role in Arabidopsis non-host resistance to P. infestans. Understanding the basis of non-host resistance...

  7. Environmental Requirements Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  8. Requirements and Designs for Mars Rover RTGs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred; Shirbacheh, M; Sankarankandath, V

    2012-01-19

    The current-generation RTGs (both GPHS and MOD) are designed for operation in a vacuum environment. The multifoil thermal insulation used in those RTGs only functions well in a good vacuum. Current RTGs are designed to operate with an inert cover gas before launch, and to be vented to space vacuum after launch. Both RTGs are sealed with a large number of metallic C-rings. Those seals are adequate for retaining the inert-gas overpressure during short-term launch operations, but would not be adequate to prevent intrusion of the Martian atmospheric gases during long-term operations there. Therefore, for the Mars Rover application, those RTGs just be modified to prevent the buildup of significant pressures of Mars atmosphere or of helium (from alpha decay of the fuel). In addition, a Mars Rover RTG needs to withstand a long-term dynamic environment that is much more severe than that seen by an RTG on an orbiting spacecraft or on a stationary planetary lander. This paper describes a typical Rover mission, its requirements, the environment it imposes on the RTG, and a design approach for making the RTG operable in such an environment. Specific RTG designs for various thermoelectric element alternatives are presented.; Reference CID #9268 and CID #9276.

  9. Manufacturing requirements of reactor assembly components for PFBR (Paper No. 041)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, C.G.K.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1987-02-01

    This paper enumerates the requirements of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) components and considering the present state of art of Indian industry an analysis is made on the challenges to be faced in manufacture highlighting the areas needing development. The large sizes and weights of the components coupled with the limitations on shop facilities and ODC transport, demand part of the fabrication to be done at shop and balance assembly work as well as certain assembly machining operations to be done at site work shop. The stringent geometrical tolerances coupled with extensive destructive and non-destructive examinations call for balanced and low heat input welding techniques and special inspection equipment like electronic co-ordinate determination system. The present paper deals with the specific manufacturing problems of the main reactor components. (author)

  10. Creativity in Requirement Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Olesen, Henning

    Traditional requirements engineering focuses mainly on analysis and elicitation. However, current trends in new system, device and software are towards involving all stakeholders in the early stages of the engineering process to define the user requirements. Creativity is here seen as a major...

  11. Navigating the Requirements Jungle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Boris; Tautschnig, Michael

    Research on validation and verification of requirements specifications has thus far focused on functional properties. Yet, in embedded systems, functional requirements constitute only a small fraction of the properties that must hold to guarantee proper and safe operation of the system under design.

  12. Writing testable software requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirk, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial identifies common problems in analyzing requirements in the problem and constructing a written specification of what the software is to do. It deals with two main problem areas: identifying and describing problem requirements, and analyzing and describing behavior specifications.

  13. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In most IT system development processes, the identification or elicitation of user requirements is recognized as a key building block. In practice, the identification of user needs and wants is a challenge and inadequate or faulty identifications in this step of an IT system development can cause...... huge problems with the final product. The elicitation of user requirements as such changes according to age groups;, to gender,; to cultural settings,; and into time; and experience in the use of the system/software. User requirements, therefore, cannot be used between projects, IT systems......, and different software. That makes the elicitation of user requirements an inherent part of any software development project and a resourceful activity as well. This book provides insights to the process of identifying user requirements and to different types by describing varying case studies in which...

  14. 23 CFR Appendix G to Subpart A of... - Special Reporting Requirements for “Hometown” or “Imposed” Plan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special Reporting Requirements for âHometownâ or âImposedâ Plan Areas G Appendix G to Subpart A of Part 230 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION... Federal-Aid Construction Contracts (Including Supportive Services) Pt. 230, Subpt. A, App. G Appendix G to...

  15. Crónica de lo imposible: imágenes de un Brasil indígena entre la literatura, el cine y la antropología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Florencia Donadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El pensamiento salvaje parece haber quedado confinado a la “prisión de lujo que es el mundo del arte”, sostiene Eduardo Viveiros de Castro. El artículo se propone entonces, en un doble movimiento, recorrer algunas manifestaciones artísticas en la literatura, el cine y la fotografía para rastrear la presentación de un imposible: un Brasil indígena. Este recorrido podría, claramente, extender su serialización, pero se abordarán aquí algunos puntos paradigmáticos de lo que podría ser un dossier incesante e inquietante: Quarup, de Antonio Callado; Serras da desordem, de Andrea Tonacci y la muestra fotográfica Variações do corpo selvagem, de Eduardo Viveiros de Castro. Esta última tensiona y torsiona, en el sentido de que instituye el segundo movimiento, la propuesta de lo imposible como apertura al acontecimiento que estaría ligado a una posible nueva epistemología estética y política que podría resumirse en el “todos somos indios” e “índios é nós”.

  16. Technical Requirements Analysis and Control Systems (TRACS) Initial Operating Capability (IOC) documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Dana P.

    1991-01-01

    The Technical Requirements Analysis and Control Systems (TRACS) software package is described. TRACS offers supplemental tools for the analysis, control, and interchange of project requirements. This package provides the fundamental capability to analyze and control requirements, serves a focal point for project requirements, and integrates a system that supports efficient and consistent operations. TRACS uses relational data base technology (ORACLE) in a stand alone or in a distributed environment that can be used to coordinate the activities required to support a project through its entire life cycle. TRACS uses a set of keyword and mouse driven screens (HyperCard) which imposes adherence through a controlled user interface. The user interface provides an interactive capability to interrogate the data base and to display or print project requirement information. TRACS has a limited report capability, but can be extended with PostScript conventions.

  17. Requirements in engineering projects

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, João M

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on various topics related to engineering and management of requirements, in particular elicitation, negotiation, prioritisation, and documentation (whether with natural languages or with graphical models). The book provides methods and techniques that help to characterise, in a systematic manner, the requirements of the intended engineering system.  It was written with the goal of being adopted as the main text for courses on requirements engineering, or as a strong reference to the topics of requirements in courses with a broader scope. It can also be used in vocational courses, for professionals interested in the software and information systems domain.   Readers who have finished this book will be able to: - establish and plan a requirements engineering process within the development of complex engineering systems; - define and identify the types of relevant requirements in engineering projects; - choose and apply the most appropriate techniques to elicit the requirements of a giv...

  18. TWRSview system requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  19. Turning Desirements into Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    27 Defense AT&L: September–October 2015 Turning “Desirements” into Requirements Charles Court Court is the Requirements Center Director at the...Defense Systems Management College at the Defense Acquisition University at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. He is a former Wild Weasel Electronic Warfare Officer...a Mustang would do much better. (The author wanted the Aston Martin from the movie “Goldfinger.” You know: The one with the ejection seat, automated

  20. Automatic requirements traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Andžiulytė, Justė

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on automatic requirements traceability and algorithms that automatically find recommendation links for requirements. The main objective of this paper is the evaluation of these algorithms and preparation of the method defining algorithms to be used in different cases. This paper presents and examines probabilistic, vector space and latent semantic indexing models of information retrieval and association rule mining using authors own implementations of these algorithms and o...

  1. CLIC Detector Power Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2013-01-01

    An estimate for the CLIC detector power requirements is outlined starting from the available data on power consumptions of the four LHC experiments and considering the differences between a typical LHC Detector (CMS) and the CLIC baseline detector concept. In particular the impact of the power pulsing scheme for the CLIC Detector electronics on the overall detector consumption is considered. The document will be updated with the requirements of the sub-detector electronics once they are more defined.

  2. BRD usability requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-12

    This document describes the usability requirements for the Biosurveillance resource directory (BRD); that is, who will be using the tool and what tasks they will be using it for. It does not include information on technical implementation (e.g., whether specific information is contained in the database or pulled on demand from other sources). It also avoids specific design ideas (such as widget descriptions) unless they are necessary to illustrate a requirement.

  3. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  4. General Approaches and Requirements on Safety and Security of Radioactive Materials Transport in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, V.N.; Buchel'nikov, A.E.; Komarov, S.V.

    2016-01-01

    Development and implementation of safety and security requirements for transport of radioactive materials in the Russian Federation are addressed. At the outset it is worth noting that the transport safety requirements implemented are in full accordance with the IAEA's ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (2009 Edition)''. However, with respect to security requirements for radioactive material transport in some cases the Russian Federation requirements for nuclear material are more stringent compared to IAEA recommendations. The fundamental principles of safety and security of RM managements, recommended by IAEA documents (publications No. SF-1 and GOV/41/2001) are compared. Its correlation and differences concerning transport matters, the current level and the possibility of harmonization are analysed. In addition a reflection of the general approaches and concrete transport requirements is being evaluated. Problems of compliance assessment, including administrative and state control problems for safety and security provided at internal and international shipments are considered and compared. (author)

  5. Important requirements for RF generators for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.T.; Tallerico, P.J.; Lawrence, G.P.

    1994-01-01

    All Accelerator-Driven Transmutation applications require very large amounts of RF Power. For example, one version of a Plutonium burning system requires an 800-MeV, 80-mA, proton accelerator running at 100% duty factor. This accelerator requires approximately 110-MW of continuous RF power if one assumes only 10% reserve power for control of the accelerator fields. In fact, to minimize beam spill, the RF controls may need as much as 15 to 20% of reserve power. In addition, unlike an electron accelerator in which the beam is relativistic, a failed RF station can disturb the synchronism of the beam, possibly shutting down the entire accelerator. These issues and more lead to a set of requirements for the RF generators which are stringent, and in some cases, conflicting. In this paper, we will describe the issues and requirements, and outline a plan for RF generator development to meet the needs of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies. The key issues which will be discussed include: operating efficiency, operating linearity, effect on the input power grid, bandwidth, gain, reliability, operating voltage, and operating current

  6. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  7. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  8. Empower, not impose!-Preventing academic procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Johannes D; Prokop, Philipp; Rau, Renate

    2018-01-01

    In the frame of the goal setting process between supervisor and student while writing a thesis, it is hypothesized that mutually set goals (participation) and writing down the results of the meeting (recording) can prevent procrastination and increase engagement of the student. With a questionnaire relating to the latest written thesis (n = 97, academic sample), the effects of goal setting characteristics (recording, participation) and task characteristics (ambiguity, control) on engagement and procrastination were examined. Results of a multiple mediation model indicate that recording indirectly influences engagement and procrastination through its effect on ambiguity. Moreover, participation indirectly influences engagement through its effect on control. It is concluded that goal setting characteristics and task characteristics can affect student's procrastination. Thus, the present research provides criteria for how supervisors can prevent students from procrastinating.

  9. Legal constraints imposed on security force personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the penalty for most mistakes made by security is the payment of money by the utility. The security personnel has only to act reasonably and not in a negligent manner. Preventing of sabotage is more important than obtaining a conviction, so it is better to search and not get a conviction than it is not to search

  10. Corporate Social Responsibility; Learnt rather than Imposed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justenlund, Anders; Rebelo, Sofia

    The intention of this paper is to provide an alternative understanding of corporate social responsibility with a particular focus on social issues in relation to human resource development through an understanding of workplace learning for low educated employees. A theoretical understanding of CSR...... is setup and combined with a theoretical discussion of human learning, positive social change, and integrative learning within the hospitality organisation. This research recognisesthe importance of the individual's motives for exercising CSR at the lower levels of the organisation. The intention...... is to provide a perspective on the positive social processes that lower level employees (middle management/employees) undergo when working according to CSR-principles, based on social motives and behaviour, combined with an introduction to the learning intentions of low educated employees at lower...

  11. Legal constraints imposed on security force personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the penalty for most mistakes made by security is the payment of money by the utility. The security personnel has only to act reasonably and not in a negligent manner. Preventing of sabotage is more important than obtaining a conviction, so it is better to search and not get a conviction than it is not to search. (DLC)

  12. The Imposed Silence of Idealized Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Cuellar, G. L. (Gregory Lee)

    2012-01-01

    Este libro es el resultado de un proyecto de investigación apoyado con fondos de Texas A&M University (TAMU) en los Estados Unidos y el Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) de México. En él han participado dos equipos de investigadores, uno de TAMU dirigido por Nancy Joe Dyer y el otro por Blanca López de Mariscal del Tecnológico de Monterrey en México. Ambas instituciones cuentan con bibliotecas que albergan colecciones extraordinarias de libros antiguos y raros: la Biblioteca ...

  13. Requirements for thermal insulation on prestressed concrete reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neylan, A.J.; Wistrom, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    During the past decade, extensive design, construction, and operating experience on concrete pressure vessels for gas-cooled reactor applications has accumulated. Excellent experience has been obtained to date on the structural components (concrete, prestressing systems, liners, penetrations, and closures) and the thermal insulation. Three fundamentally different types of insulation systems have been employed to ensure the satisfactory performance of this component, which is critical to the overall success of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV). Although general design criteria have been published, the requirements for design, materials, and construction are not rigorously addressed in any national or international code. With the more onerous design conditions being imposed by advanced reactor systems, much greater attention has been directed to advance the state of the art of insulation systems for PCRVs. This paper addresses some of the more recent developments in this field being performed by General Atomic Company and others. (author)

  14. La Confédération doit-elle imposer une séparation entre banque commerciale et banque d'investissement en se basant sur les impacts de cette décision et des comparaisons internationales ?

    OpenAIRE

    Figeat, Sophie; Ruiz, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Le but de ce travail est de déterminer si la Confédération doit imposer une séparation entre banque commerciale et banque d’investissement, à l’UBS et au Crédit Suisse. La question est survenue durant la crise financière de 2007, après que les activités de banque d’investissement aient fait perdre des milliards, à l’instar d’UBS qui a subi des pertes de plus de 50 milliards de francs. Ces pertes sont dues à une prise de risque excessive sur le marché des produits structurés, avec l’achat, par...

  15. Going beyond the requirements : a case study in corporate responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawchuck, T.; Morgan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Noise Control Directive D-038 of Alberta's Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) sets out stringent noise levels that cannot be exceeded at the nearest residences to an energy facility. This paper discussed the effort by Trident Exploration Corporation (TEC) to go beyond the minimum requirements set out in ERCB D-038 by committing to a receiver noise level that would not only assure its neighbours of a quiet environment but would also make the overall production site a quieter work place for their employees. TEC was among the first exploration and development companies to focus on coalbed methane (CBM) resource plays in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. As a result TEC has established significant positions in the Horseshoe Canyon and Mannville CBM plays. The company was focused on maintaining its reputation in the area of environmentalism. Knowing that prolonged exposure to noise from their proposed Sandhills site in northeast Alberta had the potential to cause resident discontent and potentially negative health effects to nearby neighbours, TEC commissioned an acoustic analysis and noise suppression consultant to provide a noise impact assessment and strategies on how to reduce noise levels. This paper covered the reasoning and rational used by TEC to set its noise reduction targets and the process that Noise Solutions Inc. followed to successfully achieve benefits that went beyond expectations. Although the Sandhills site proved to be a unique challenge because its size and contents supplied many noise sources and frequencies to be dealt with, TEC and Noise Solutions Inc. were able to bring the site well under regulatory requirements. At its current noise level, the site's overall facility noise production is about 44 dBA Leq at the fence-line and below ambient of 35 dBA at the nearest residence. The post project assessment showed that the noise reduction at Sandhills was so successful that TEC has used it as an example to demonstrate what is achievable

  16. Exploring the Rate and Causes of Deductions Imposed on Social Security and Health Insurance`s Bills Related to Inpatients in Two Hospitals Affiliated with Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rezvanjou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Annually, a large amount of fees that are paid by hospitals, will not be reimbursed as deductions by health insurance which imposes irreparable financial losses on hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of deductions imposed on social security and health insurance`s bills and its causes related to inpatients in two hospitals affiliated with Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Alavi and Madani hospitals affiliated with Tabriz University of Medical Sciences by using 2015 data.  Researcher-designed checklist was used for data collecting. According to population size, census method and random sampling were used in Alavi and Madani hospitals, respectively. Gathered data were analyzed through descriptive statistics assisted by Excel v.13 software. Results: In the studied hospitals, most of the deductions in the Alavi and Madani hospitals were related to charge of surgeon and angioplasty, respectively. Also, in Alavi Hospital among deductions factors, the most repeated one was extra application in contrary to determined tariffs. In both hospitals, the role of the human factor in cases of error cannot be denied. Extra applications, inaccuracy in registration costs and lack of knowledge of the approved insurance tariffs are the main important factors influential on the deduction. Conclusion: Due to high rates of preventable deductions in both hospitals and being given the multiplicity and variety of services offered at the health centers, establishing income monitoring unit in hospitals and use of experienced staff is inevitable.

  17. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  18. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Plata, Charity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  19. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ely, James H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haas, Derek A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harper, Warren W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heimbigner, Tom R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hubbard, Charles W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Humble, Paul H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Madison, Jill C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Panisko, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ripplinger, Mike D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stewart, Timothy L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  20. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  1. Entrepreneurial learning requires action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2014-01-01

    apply in industry. The findings of this study show that SME managers employ a practice-shaped holistic multi- and cross-disciplinary approach to learning. This learning approach is supported by theory dissemination, business challenge applications, and organisational prerequisites. Diversified learning......This paper reveals how managers of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can utilise their participation in research-based training. Empirical research from a longitudinal study of 10 SMEs managers in the wind turbine industry is provided to describe a learning approach that SME managers can...... that is enhanced by essential large-scale industry players and other SME managers are required to create action and value in learning. An open-mindedness to new learning approaches by SME managers and an open-mindedness to multi- and cross-disciplinary collaboration with SME managers by facilitators is required....

  2. Ecodesign requirements for televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea; Dalgaard, Randi; Merciai, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    phase. This is not in line with the scientific understanding of ecodesign, where attention should be put on all life cycle phases and all relevant environmental impact categories. This study focuses on the requirements for televisions (TV). A life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out on two TVs...... to analyse if other environmental hotspots and life cycle phases should be included in the requirements in the IM of the Ecodesign Directive besides energy consumption in the use phase analysis. Methods The consequential approach is used. The data for the LCA have been gathered from two manufacturers of TVs....... In one case, the data were delivered in Excel spreadsheets; in the other case, the authors of this paper together with the manufacturer disassembled a TV and collected the data manually. Results and discussion When applying the consequential approach, the production phase has the highest environmental...

  3. Preanalytical requirements of urinalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanghe, Joris; Speeckaert, Marijn

    2014-01-01

    Urine may be a waste product, but it contains an enormous amount of information. Well-standardized procedures for collection, transport, sample preparation and analysis should become the basis of an effective diagnostic strategy for urinalysis. As reproducibility of urinalysis has been greatly improved due to recent technological progress, preanalytical requirements of urinalysis have gained importance and have become stricter. Since the patients themselves often sample urine specimens, urinalysis is very susceptible to preanalytical issues. Various sampling methods and inappropriate specimen transport can cause important preanalytical errors. The use of preservatives may be helpful for particular analytes. Unfortunately, a universal preservative that allows a complete urinalysis does not (yet) exist. The preanalytical aspects are also of major importance for newer applications (e.g. metabolomics). The present review deals with the current preanalytical problems and requirements for the most common urinary analytes. PMID:24627718

  4. LHCb Online Networking Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, B

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the networking requirements of the LHCb online installation. It lists both quantitative aspects such as the number of required switch ports, as well as some qualitative features of the equipment, such as minimum buffer sizes in switches. The document comprises both the data acquisition network and the controls/general-purpose network. While the numbers represent our best current knowledge and are intended to give (in particular) network equipment manufacturers an overview of our needs, this document should not be confused with a market survey questionnaire or a formal tendering document. However the information contained in this document will be the input of any such document. A preliminary schedule for procurement and installation is also given.

  5. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  6. BER Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  7. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM

  8. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-12-14

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

  9. Outstanding Questions In First Amendment Law Related To Food Labeling Disclosure Requirements For Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    The federal and state governments are increasingly focusing on food labeling as a method to support good health. Many such laws are opposed by the food industry and may be challenged in court, raising the question of what is legally feasible. This article analyzes outstanding questions in First Amendment law related to commercial disclosure requirements and conducts legal analysis and policy evaluation for three current policies. These include the Food and Drug Administration's draft regulation requiring an added sugar disclosure on the Nutrition Facts panel, California's proposed sugar-sweetened beverage safety warning label bill, and Vermont's law requiring labels of genetically engineered food to disclose this information. I recommend several methods for policy makers to enact food labeling laws within First Amendment parameters, including imposing factual commercial disclosure requirements, disclosing the government entity issuing a warning, collecting evidence, and identifying legitimate governmental interests. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Phasing-in Basel III capital and liquidity requirements in post-revolution Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monal Abdel-Baki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Basel Committee has introduced a new set of capital and liquidity requirements to be introduced by the global banking system during 2013 till January 2019. Egypt possesses a well-capitalised banking sector, yet it has been exposed to the devastating shock imposed by its popular revolution. Using the GMM method, the impact of introducing the new capital and liquidity requirements on the macroeconomic performance of the Egyptian economy is examined. The results reveal that Egyptian banks are motivated to enhance capital and liquidity ratios in the case of realizing high profits and favourable conditions at the individual banking level. On the other hand, negative macroeconomic performance and a poor business environment substantially deter the preparedness of Egyptian banks to meet the Basel III requirements. The analysis is timely given the need for compliance with Basel III as one of the requirements to raise the credit rating of the devastated economy.

  11. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  12. BES Science Network Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian; Biocca, A.; Carlson, R.; Chen, J.; Cotter, S.; Dattoria, V.; Davenport, J.; Gaenko, A.; Kent, P.; Lamm, M.; Miller, S.; Mundy, C.; Ndousse, T.; Pederson, M.; Perazzo, A.; Popescu, R.; Rouson, D.; Sekine, Y.; Sumpter, B.; Wang, C.-Z.; Whitelam, S.; Zurawski, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  13. NIRVANA network requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, B.J.

    1990-08-01

    NIRVANA is an effort to standardize electrical computer-aided design workstations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The early effect of this project will be the introduction of at least 60 new engineering workstations at Sandia National Laboratories. Albuquerque, and at Allied Signal, Kansas City Division. These workstations are expected to begin arriving in September 1990. This paper proposes a design and outlines the requirements for a network to support the NIRVANA project. The author proposes a near-term network design, describes the security profile and caveats of this design, and proposes a long-term networking strategy for NIRVANA. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Finding Incorrect and Missing Quality Requirements Definitions Using Requirements Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiya, Haruhiko; Ohnishi, Atsushi

    Defining quality requirements completely and correctly is more difficult than defining functional requirements because stakeholders do not state most of quality requirements explicitly. We thus propose a method to measure a requirements specification for identifying the amount of quality requirements in the specification. We also propose another method to recommend quality requirements to be defined in such a specification. We expect stakeholders can identify missing and unnecessary quality requirements when measured quality requirements are different from recommended ones. We use a semi-formal language called X-JRDL to represent requirements specifications because it is suitable for analyzing quality requirements. We applied our methods to a requirements specification, and found our methods contribute to defining quality requirements more completely and correctly.

  15. Section 4: Requirements Intertwining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucopoulos, Pericles

    Business analysts are being asked to develop increasingly complex and varied business systems that need to cater to the changing and dynamic market conditions of the new economy. This is particularly acute in today’s turbulent business environment where powerful forces such as deregulation, globalisation, mergers, advances in information and telecommunications technologies, and increasing education of people provide opportunities for organising work in ways that have never before been possible. Enterprises attempt to create wealth either by getting better at improving their products and services or by harnessing creativity and human-centred management to create innovative solutions. In these business settings, requirements become critical in bridging system solutions to organisational and societal problems. They intertwine organisational, social, cognitive, and implementation considerations and they can provide unique insights to change in systems and their business context. Such design situations often involve multiple stakeholders from different participating organisations, subcontractors, divisions, etc., who may have a diversity of expertise, come from different organisational cultures and often have competing goals. The success or failure of many projects depends, to a large extent, on understanding the contextual setting of requirements and their interaction amongst a diverse population of stakeholders.

  16. Beauty Requires Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Pelli, Denis G

    2017-05-22

    The experience of beauty is a pleasure, but common sense and philosophy suggest that feeling beauty differs from sensuous pleasures such as eating or sex. Immanuel Kant [1, 2] claimed that experiencing beauty requires thought but that sensuous pleasure can be enjoyed without thought and cannot be beautiful. These venerable hypotheses persist in models of aesthetic processing [3-7] but have never been tested. Here, participants continuously rated the pleasure felt from a nominally beautiful or non-beautiful stimulus and then judged whether they had experienced beauty. The stimuli, which engage various senses, included seeing images, tasting candy, and touching a teddy bear. The observer reported the feelings that the stimulus evoked. The time course of pleasure, across stimuli, is well-fit by a model with one free parameter: pleasure amplitude. Pleasure amplitude increases linearly with the feeling of beauty. To test Kant's claim of a need for thought, we reduce cognitive capacity by adding a "two-back" task to distract the observer's thoughts. The distraction greatly reduces the beauty and pleasure experienced from stimuli that otherwise produce strong pleasure and spares that of less-pleasant stimuli. We also find that strong pleasure is always beautiful, whether produced reliably by beautiful stimuli or just occasionally by sensuous stimuli. In sum, we confirm Kant's claim that only the pleasure associated with feeling beauty requires thought and disprove his claim that sensuous pleasures cannot be beautiful. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Finding Incorrect and Missing Quality Requirements Definitions Using Requirements Frame

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiya, Haruhiko; Ohnishi, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Defining quality requirements completely and correctly is more difficult than defining functional requirements because stakeholders do not state most of quality requirements explicitly. We thus propose a method to measure a requirements specification for identifying the amount of quality requirements in the specification. We also propose another method to recommend quality requirements to be defined in such a specification. We expect stakeholders can identify missing and unnecessary quality r...

  18. Requirements for radiation oncology physics in Australia and New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.; Fitchew, R.; Drew, J.

    2001-01-01

    technologies for radiation oncology also require a stringent approach to maintaining a satisfactory standard of practice in radiation oncology physics. Appropriate on-going education of radiation oncology physicists as well as the educating of registrar physicists is essential. Institutional management and the ACPSEM must both play a key role in providing a means for satisfactory staff tuition on the safe and expert use of existing and new radiotherapy equipment. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  19. 75 FR 5586 - Notice of a Regional Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... project specific circumstances. The Regional Administrator is making this determination based on the... conventional pollutants and an anticipated, stringent Total Phosphorus effluent limit resulting from a Total...

  20. Man as a protective barrier in nuclear power technology: the requirements, viewed by the Federal Minister for Home Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, J.B.

    1981-06-01

    Evaluation of nuclear power plant incidents frequently reveals man as a major element of risk. Yet, in a nuclear power plant man has the function of an important protective barrier, either by maintaining the plant, by detecting and limiting faults or incidents, or by taking proper measures in accidents. This is true despite, or perhaps because of, the high degree of plant automation. For this reason, it is indispensable that a high level of engineered plant safeguards be accompanied by a minimum of faults contributed by human action. This implies that the staff and their working conditions must meet the same stringent safety requirements as the nuclear power plant proper. Reactor manufacturers, nuclear power plant operators and the responsible authorities try to optimize this human contribution. The Federal Ministry of the Interior, through its Special Technical Guidelines and its continuation training measures, occupies an important position in this respect. Further measures and ordinances are being prepared by that Ministry

  1. Display Parameters and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC

  2. SOFG: Standards requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerganov, T.; Grigorov, S.; Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.

    2005-01-01

    It is well-known that Solid Oxide Fuel Cells will have industrial application in the nearest future. In this context, the problem of SOFC materials and SOFC systems standardization is of high level of priority. In the present study the attention is focused on the methods for physical and chemical characterization of the materials for SOFC components fabrication and about requirements on single SOFC cells tests. The status of the CEN, ISO, ASTM (ANSI, ASSN) and JIS class of standards has been verified. Standards regarding the test methods for physical-chemical characterization of vitreous materials (as sealing SOFC component), ceramic materials (as electrodes and electrolyte components, including alternative materials used) and metallic materials (interconnect components) are subject of overview. It is established that electrical, mechanical, surface and interfacial phenomena, chemical durability and thermal corrosion behaviour are the key areas for standardization of the materials for SOFC components

  3. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  4. Staffing requirements for future small and medium reactors based on projections in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonovsky, G.M.; Kodochigov, N.G.; Kurachenkov, A.V.; Novikov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental Design Bureau of Mechanical Engineering (OKBM) specializes in the development of small and medium power reactors having different purposes. They include reactor plants for NPHPP, nuclear district heating power plants and propulsion plants. Small and medium power plants have simpler processes of electricity and heat production, less systems, simpler control algorithms and considerably enhanced inherent safety properties. These plants are mainly equipped with passive safety systems. These properties are especially characteristic for reactor plants of nuclear district heating power plants and HTG reactor plants. The designs of small and medium power plants actually provide a high degree of control automation which considerably reduces workload on the personnel in both normal and abnormal operation conditions. All this allows the reduction in personnel for small and medium power reactors if compared to high capacity reactor plants. But due to objective reasons the specific number of personnel (man/MW) for average and especially small capacity reactors considerably exceeds the value for high capacity reactor plants. At the same time one can propose a set of organization - technical measures allowing the increase in this value in future. Safety requirements imposed for small and average capacity reactors are the same or more strict than those for high capacity reactors. That's why the requirements to the training of personnel for such reactor plants are not allowed to be lowered if compared to the requirements imposed to the personnel of high capacity reactors. (author)

  5. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2009 ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by ASCR. The ASCR facilities anticipate significant increases in wide area bandwidth utilization, driven largely by the increased capabilities of computational resources and the wide scope of collaboration that is a hallmark of modern science. Many scientists move data sets between facilities for analysis, and in some cases (for example the Earth System Grid and the Open Science Grid), data distribution is an essential component of the use of ASCR facilities by scientists. Due to the projected growth in wide area data transfer needs, the ASCR supercomputer centers all expect to deploy and use 100 Gigabit per second networking technology for wide area connectivity as soon as that deployment is financially feasible. In addition to the network connectivity that ESnet provides, the ESnet Collaboration Services (ECS) are critical to several science communities. ESnet identity and trust services, such as the DOEGrids certificate authority, are widely used both by the supercomputer centers and by collaborations such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Earth System Grid (ESG). Ease of use is a key determinant of the scientific utility of network-based services. Therefore, a key enabling aspect for scientists beneficial use of high

  6. Requirements of quality standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture traces the development of nuclear standards, codes, and Federal regulations on quality assurance (QA) for nuclear power plants and associated facilities. The technical evolution of the last twelve years, especially in the area of nuclear technology, led to different activities and regulatory initiatives, and the present result is: several nations have their own homemade standards. The lecture discusses the former and especially current activities in standard development, and gives a description of the requirements of QA-standards used in USA and Europe, especially Western Germany. Furthermore the lecture attempts to give a comparison and an evaluation of the international quality standards from the author's viewpoint. Finally the lecture presents an outlook for the future international implications of QA-standards. There is an urgent need within the nuclear industry for simplification and standardization of QA-standards. The relationship between the various standards, and the applicability of the standards need clarification and a better transparancy. To point out these problems is the purpose of the lecture. (orig.) [de

  7. Internationalization of regulatory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillet, Y

    2003-02-01

    The aim of harmonisation of medicines regulatory requirements is to allow the patient quicker access to new drugs and to avoid animal and human duplications. Harmonisation in the European Union (EU) is now completed, and has led to the submission of one dossier in one language study leading to European marketing authorizations, thanks in particular to efficacy guidelines published at the European level. With the benefit of the European experience since 1989, more than 40 guidelines have been harmonised amongst the EU, Japan and the USA through the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). ICH is a unique process gathering regulators and industry experts from the three regions. Its activity is built on expertise and trust. The Common Technical Document (CTD), an agreed common format for application in the three regions, is a logical follow-up to the ICH first phase harmonising the content of the dossier. The CTD final implementation in July 2003 will have considerable influence on the review process and on the exchange of information in the three regions.

  8. 33 CFR 337.2 - State requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... However, if a state agency attempts to impose conditions or controls which, in the district engineers... “Management Strategy for Disposal of Dredged Material: Contaminant Testing and Controls” or its appropriate updated version as a guide for developing the appropriate tests to be conducted. If the agency insists on...

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, a major change in the technical strategy for managing Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO) while stored within the Canister Storage Building (CSB) occurred. The technical strategy is documented in Baseline Change Request (BCR) No. SNF-98-006, Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing) (FDH 1998). This BCR deleted the hot conditioning process initially adopted for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) as documented in WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (WHC 199.5). In summary, MCOs containing Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from K Basins would be placed in interim storage following processing through the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility. With this change, the needs for the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) and inerting/pressure retaining capabilities of the CSB storage tubes and the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) were eliminated. Mechanical seals will be used on the MCOs prior to transport to the CSB. Covers will be welded on the MCOs for the final seal at the CSB. Approval of BCR No. SNF-98-006, imposed the need to review and update the CSB functions and requirements baseline documented herein including changing the document title to ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements.'' This revision aligns the functions and requirements baseline with the CSB Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing). This document represents the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Subproject technical baseline. It establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the CSB Subproject. The document is organized in eight sections. Sections 1.0 Introduction and 2.0 Overview provide brief introductions to the document and the CSB Subproject. Sections 3.0 Functions, 4.0 Requirements, 5.0 Architecture, and 6.0 Interfaces provide the data described by their titles. Section 7.0 Glossary lists the acronyms and defines the terms used in this document. Section 8.0 References lists the

  10. Evaluation of risk impact of changes to surveillance requirements addressing model and parameter uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Villamizar, M.; Martón, I.; Villanueva, J.F.; Carlos, S.; Sánchez, A.I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a three steps based approach for the evaluation of risk impact of changes to Surveillance Requirements based on the use of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment and addressing identification, treatment and analysis of model and parameter uncertainties in an integrated manner. The paper includes also an example of application that focuses on the evaluation of the risk impact of a Surveillance Frequency change for the Reactor Protection System of a Nuclear Power Plant using a level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment. Surveillance Requirements are part of Technical Specifications that are included into the Licensing Basis for operation of Nuclear Power Plants. Surveillance Requirements aim at limiting risk of undetected downtimes of safety related equipment by imposing equipment operability checks, which consist of testing of equipment operational parameters with established Surveillance Frequency and Test Strategy

  11. Temperature Stability and Control Requirements for Thermal Vacuum/Thermal Balance Testing of the Aquarius Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes the specific temperature stability and control requirements for the thermal vacuum and thermal balance testing of the Aquarius Instrument at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The testing was conducted in the 10' wide x 15' deep Facility 225 Thermal Vacuum chamber. The temperature control stability requirements were less than .14 C RMS thermal variation over a seven-day period. The thermal test specification also called for the ability to impose a high-resolution sinusoidal variation for all heater zones. The special requirements of the Aquarius radiometer test necessitated the construction of a multi-function test fixture and the modification of two existing heater controller racks.

  12. Precision requirements and innovative manufacturing for ultrahigh precision laser interferometry of gravitational-wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei-Tou; Han, Sen; Jin, Tao

    2016-11-01

    With the LIGO announcement of the first direct detection of gravitational waves (GWs), the GW Astronomy was formally ushered into our age. After one-hundred years of theoretical investigation and fifty years of experimental endeavor, this is a historical landmark not just for physics and astronomy, but also for industry and manufacturing. The challenge and opportunity for industry is precision and innovative manufacturing in large size - production of large and homogeneous optical components, optical diagnosis of large components, high reflectance dielectric coating on large mirrors, manufacturing of components for ultrahigh vacuum of large volume, manufacturing of high attenuating vibration isolation system, production of high-power high-stability single-frequency lasers, production of high-resolution positioning systems etc. In this talk, we address the requirements and methods to satisfy these requirements. Optical diagnosis of large optical components requires large phase-shifting interferometer; the 1.06 μm Phase Shifting Interferometer for testing LIGO optics and the recently built 24" phase-shifting Interferometer in Chengdu, China are examples. High quality mirrors are crucial for laser interferometric GW detection, so as for ring laser gyroscope, high precision laser stabilization via optical cavities, quantum optomechanics, cavity quantum electrodynamics and vacuum birefringence measurement. There are stringent requirements on the substrate materials and coating methods. For cryogenic GW interferometer, appropriate coating on sapphire or silicon are required for good thermal and homogeneity properties. Large ultrahigh vacuum components and high attenuating vibration system together with an efficient metrology system are required and will be addressed. For space interferometry, drag-free technology and weak-light manipulation technology are must. Drag-free technology is well-developed. Weak-light phase locking is demonstrated in the laboratories while

  13. Maintenance fluid therapy and fluid creep impose more significant fluid, sodium, and chloride burdens than resuscitation fluids in critically ill patients: a retrospective study in a tertiary mixed ICU population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Regenmortel, Niels; Verbrugghe, Walter; Roelant, Ella; Van den Wyngaert, Tim; Jorens, Philippe G

    2018-03-27

    Research on intravenous fluid therapy and its side effects, volume, sodium, and chloride overload, has focused almost exclusively on the resuscitation setting. We aimed to quantify all fluid sources in the ICU and assess fluid creep, the hidden and unintentional volume administered as a vehicle for medication or electrolytes. We precisely recorded the volume, sodium, and chloride burdens imposed by every fluid source administered to 14,654 patients during the cumulative 103,098 days they resided in our 45-bed tertiary ICU and simulated the impact of important strategic fluid choices on patients' chloride burdens. In septic patients, we assessed the impact of the different fluid sources on cumulative fluid balance, an established marker of morbidity. Maintenance and replacement fluids accounted for 24.7% of the mean daily total fluid volume, thereby far exceeding resuscitation fluids (6.5%) and were the most important sources of sodium and chloride. Fluid creep represented a striking 32.6% of the mean daily total fluid volume [median 645 mL (IQR 308-1039 mL)]. Chloride levels can be more effectively reduced by adopting a hypotonic maintenance strategy [a daily difference in chloride burden of 30.8 mmol (95% CI 30.5-31.1)] than a balanced resuscitation strategy [daily difference 3.0 mmol (95% CI 2.9-3.1)]. In septic patients, non-resuscitation fluids had a larger absolute impact on cumulative fluid balance than did resuscitation fluids. Inadvertent daily volume, sodium, and chloride loading should be avoided when prescribing maintenance fluids in view of the vast amounts of fluid creep. This is especially important when adopting an isotonic maintenance strategy.

  14. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  15. Requirements of Inconel 718 alloy for aeronautical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiban, Brandusa; Elefterie, Cornelia Florina; Guragata, Constantin; Bran, Dragos

    2018-02-01

    The main requirements imposed by aviation components made from super alloys based on Nickel are presented in present paper. A significant portion of fasteners, locking lugs, blade retainers and inserts are manufactured from Inconel 718 alloy. The thesis describes environmental factors (corrosion), conditions of external aggression (salt air, intense heat, heavy industrial pollution, high condensation, high pressure), mechanical characteristics (tensile strength, creep, density, yield strength, fracture toughness, fatigue resistance) and loadings (tensions, compression loads) that must be satisfied simultaneously by Ni-based super alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Titanium alloys, Aluminum alloys). For this alloy the requirements are strength, durability, damage tolerance, fail safety and so on. The corrosion can be an issue, but the fatigue under high-magnitude cyclic tensile loading it what limits the lifetime of the airframe. The excellent malleability and weldability characteristics of the 718 system make the material physical properties tolerant of manufacturing processes. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  16. Analysis Report for Exascale Storage Requirements for Scientific Data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruwart, Thomas M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Over the next 10 years, the Department of Energy will be transitioning from Petascale to Exascale Computing resulting in data storage, networking, and infrastructure requirements to increase by three orders of magnitude. The technologies and best practices used today are the result of a relatively slow evolution of ancestral technologies developed in the 1950s and 1960s. These include magnetic tape, magnetic disk, networking, databases, file systems, and operating systems. These technologies will continue to evolve over the next 10 to 15 years on a reasonably predictable path. Experience with the challenges involved in transitioning these fundamental technologies from Terascale to Petascale computing systems has raised questions about how these will scale another 3 or 4 orders of magnitude to meet the requirements imposed by Exascale computing systems. This report is focused on the most concerning scaling issues with data storage systems as they relate to High Performance Computing- and presents options for a path forward. Given the ability to store exponentially increasing amounts of data, far more advanced concepts and use of metadata will be critical to managing data in Exascale computing systems.

  17. Reassessment of planetary protection requirements for Venus missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, J.; Riemer, R.; Smith, D.; Rummel, J.

    In 2005 the US Space Studies Board SSB was asked by NASA to reexamine the planetary protection requirements for spacecraft missions to Venus In particular the SSB was tasked to 1 Assess the surface and atmospheric environments of Venus with respect to their ability to support the survival and growth of Earth-origin microbial contamination by future spacecraft missions and 2 Provide recommendations related to planetary protection issues associated with the return to Earth of samples from Venus The task group established by the SSB to address these issues assessed the known aspects of the present-day environment of Venus and the ability of Earth organisms to survive in the physical and chemical conditions found on the planet s surface or in the clouds in the planet s atmosphere As a result of its deliberations the task group found compelling evidence against there being significant dangers of forward or reverse biological contamination as a result of contact between a spacecraft and the surface of Venus or the clouds in the atmosphere of Venus regardless of the current unknowns The task group did however conclude that Venus is a body of interest relative to the process of chemical evolution and the origin of life As a result the task group endorses NASA s current policy of subjecting missions to Venus to the requirements imposed by planetary protection Category II rather than the less restrictive Category I recommended by COSPAR

  18. Requirements Reasoning for Distributed Requirements Analysis using Semantic Wiki

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peng; Avgeriou, Paris; Clerc, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    In large-scale collaborative software projects, thousands of requirements with complex interdependencies and different granularity spreading in different levels are elicited, documented, and evolved during the project lifecycle. Non-technical stakeholders involved in requirements engineering

  19. Requirement Assurance: A Verification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Requirement Assurance is an act of requirement verification which assures the stakeholder or customer that a product requirement has produced its "as realized product" and has been verified with conclusive evidence. Product requirement verification answers the question, "did the product meet the stated specification, performance, or design documentation?". In order to ensure the system was built correctly, the practicing system engineer must verify each product requirement using verification methods of inspection, analysis, demonstration, or test. The products of these methods are the "verification artifacts" or "closure artifacts" which are the objective evidence needed to prove the product requirements meet the verification success criteria. Institutional direction is given to the System Engineer in NPR 7123.1A NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements with regards to the requirement verification process. In response, the verification methodology offered in this report meets both the institutional process and requirement verification best practices.

  20. Finance Companies and Small Business Borrowers: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, George; Watts, Myles

    1996-01-01

    Finance companies have been perceived as isolated and insignificant lenders, attracting high risk borrowers and charging these borrowers relatively high prices. Using the 1988 National Survey of Small Business Finance, this study examines the relationship between finance companies and other lenders, describes the characteristics of borrowers attracted to finance companies and assesses whether finance companies charge higher loan prices and impose more stringent collateral requirements on thei...

  1. Analysis and Design of a Planar Radiating Element for Automotive Satellite Broadcasting Reception Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Sánchez, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the electromagnetic modeling, design and practical implementation of a planar antenna for the reception of satellite broadcasting services from user terminals on board automotive platforms. This antenna is intended to address the market of low cost consumer applications. As a consequence, stringent structural and performance-to-price ratio requirements have to be imposed. The antenna has been conceived as a low profile ph...

  2. A cellulose synthase-like protein is required for osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jianhua

    2010-04-16

    Osmotic stress imposed by soil salinity and drought stress significantly affects plant growth and development, but osmotic stress sensing and tolerance mechanisms are not well understood. Forward genetic screens using a root-bending assay have previously identified salt overly sensitive (sos) mutants of Arabidopsis that fall into five loci, SOS1 to SOS5. These loci are required for the regulation of ion homeostasis or cell expansion under salt stress, but do not play a major role in plant tolerance to the osmotic stress component of soil salinity or drought. Here we report an additional sos mutant, sos6-1, which defines a locus essential for osmotic stress tolerance. sos6-1 plants are hypersensitive to salt stress and osmotic stress imposed by mannitol or polyethylene glycol in culture media or by water deficit in the soil. SOS6 encodes a cellulose synthase-like protein, AtCSLD5. Only modest differences in cell wall chemical composition could be detected, but we found that sos6-1 mutant plants accumulate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under osmotic stress and are hypersensitive to the oxidative stress reagent methyl viologen. The results suggest that SOS6/AtCSLD5 is not required for normal plant growth and development but has a critical role in osmotic stress tolerance and this function likely involves its regulation of ROS under stress. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. DNA and Protein Requirements for Substrate Conformational Changes Necessary for Human Flap Endonuclease-1-catalyzed Reaction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algasaier, Sana I.; Exell, Jack C.; Bennet, Ian A.; Thompson, Mark J.; Gotham, Victoria J. B.; Shaw, Steven J.; Craggs, Timothy D.; Finger, L. David; Grasby, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    Human flap endonuclease-1 (hFEN1) catalyzes the essential removal of single-stranded flaps arising at DNA junctions during replication and repair processes. hFEN1 biological function must be precisely controlled, and consequently, the protein relies on a combination of protein and substrate conformational changes as a prerequisite for reaction. These include substrate bending at the duplex-duplex junction and transfer of unpaired reacting duplex end into the active site. When present, 5′-flaps are thought to thread under the helical cap, limiting reaction to flaps with free 5′-termini in vivo. Here we monitored DNA bending by FRET and DNA unpairing using 2-aminopurine exciton pair CD to determine the DNA and protein requirements for these substrate conformational changes. Binding of DNA to hFEN1 in a bent conformation occurred independently of 5′-flap accommodation and did not require active site metal ions or the presence of conserved active site residues. More stringent requirements exist for transfer of the substrate to the active site. Placement of the scissile phosphate diester in the active site required the presence of divalent metal ions, a free 5′-flap (if present), a Watson-Crick base pair at the terminus of the reacting duplex, and the intact secondary structure of the enzyme helical cap. Optimal positioning of the scissile phosphate additionally required active site conserved residues Tyr40, Asp181, and Arg100 and a reacting duplex 5′-phosphate. These studies suggest a FEN1 reaction mechanism where junctions are bound and 5′-flaps are threaded (when present), and finally the substrate is transferred onto active site metals initiating cleavage. PMID:26884332

  4. Imperfect Requirements in Software Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noppen, J.A.R.; van den Broek, P.M.; Aksit, Mehmet; Sawyer, Pete; Paech, Barbara; Heymans, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Requirement Specifications are very difficult to define. Due to lack of information and differences in interpretation, software engineers are faced with the necessity to redesign and iterate. This imperfection in software requirement specifications is commonly addressed by incremental design. In

  5. Analytical Performance Requirements for Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose With Focus on System Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckmann, Guido; Schmid, Christina; Baumstark, Annette; Rutschmann, Malte; Haug, Cornelia; Heinemann, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 15197 standard is applicable for the evaluation of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) before the market approval. In 2013, a revised version of this standard was published. Relevant revisions in the analytical performance requirements are the inclusion of the evaluation of influence quantities, for example, hematocrit, and some changes in the testing procedures for measurement precision and system accuracy evaluation, for example, number of test strip lots. Regarding system accuracy evaluation, the most important change is the inclusion of more stringent accuracy criteria. In 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States published their own guidance document for the premarket evaluation of SMBG systems with even more stringent system accuracy criteria than stipulated by ISO 15197:2013. The establishment of strict accuracy criteria applicable for the premarket evaluation is a possible approach to further improve the measurement quality of SMBG systems. However, the system accuracy testing procedure is quite complex, and some critical aspects, for example, systematic measurement difference between the reference measurement procedure and a higher-order procedure, may potentially limit the apparent accuracy of a given system. Therefore, the implementation of a harmonized reference measurement procedure for which traceability to standards of higher order is verified through an unbroken, documented chain of calibrations is desirable. In addition, the establishment of regular and standardized post-marketing evaluations of distributed test strip lots should be considered as an approach toward an improved measurement quality of available SMBG systems. PMID:25872965

  6. Requirement Development Process and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayt, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Requirements capture the system-level capabilities in a set of complete, necessary, clear, attainable, traceable, and verifiable statements of need. Requirements should not be unduly restrictive, but should set limits that eliminate items outside the boundaries drawn, encourage competition (or alternatives), and capture source and reason of requirement. If it is not needed by the customer, it is not a requirement. They establish the verification methods that will lead to product acceptance. These must be reproducible assessment methods.

  7. Waste Management System Requirement document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This volume defines the top level technical requirements for the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. It is designed to be used in conjunction with Volume 1, General System Requirements. Volume 3 provides a functional description expanding the requirements allocated to the MRS facility in Volume 1 and, when appropriate, elaborates on requirements by providing associated performance criteria. Volumes 1 and 3 together convey a minimum set of requirements that must be satisfied by the final MRS facility design without unduly constraining individual design efforts. The requirements are derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (NWPAA), the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (40 CFR 191), NRC Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear and High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR 72), and other federal statutory and regulatory requirements, and major program policy decisions. This document sets forth specific requirements that will be fulfilled. Each subsequent level of the technical document hierarchy will be significantly more detailed and provide further guidance and definition as to how each of these requirements will be implemented in the design. Requirements appearing in Volume 3 are traceable into the MRS Design Requirements Document. Section 2 of this volume provides a functional breakdown for the MRS facility. 1 tab

  8. Physician Requirements-1990. For Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Octavious; Birchette-Pierce, Cheryl

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in cardiology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. The determination of physician requirements was based on an adjusted needs rather than a demand or utilization model. For each illness, manpower requirements were modified by the…

  9. Abiding by codes of ethics and codes of conduct imposed on members of learned and professional geoscience institutions and - a tiresome formality or a win-win for scientific and professional integrity and protection of the public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    In 2012, the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) formed the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism ("TG-GGP") to bring together the expanding network of organizations around the world whose primary purpose is self-regulation of geoscience practice. An important part of TG-GGP's mission is to foster a shared understanding of aspects of professionalism relevant to individual scientists and applied practitioners working in one or more sectors of the wider geoscience profession (e.g. research, teaching, industry, geoscience communication and government service). These may be summarised as competence, ethical practice, and professional, technical and scientific accountability. Legal regimes for the oversight of registered or licensed professionals differ around the world and in many jurisdictions there is no registration or licensure with the force of law. However, principles of peer-based self-regulation universally apply. This makes professional geoscience organisations ideal settings within which geoscientists can debate and agree what society should expect of us in the range of roles we fulfil. They can provide the structures needed to best determine what expectations, in the public interest, are appropriate for us collectively to impose on each other. They can also provide the structures for the development of associated procedures necessary to identify and discipline those who do not live up to the expected standards of behaviour established by consensus between peers. Codes of Ethics (sometimes referred to as Codes of Conduct), to which all members of all major professional and/or scientific geoscience organizations are bound (whether or not they are registered or hold professional qualifications awarded by those organisations), incorporate such traditional tenets as: safeguarding the health and safety of the public, scientific integrity, and fairness. Codes also increasingly include obligations concerning welfare of the environment and

  10. GANDLER, S. (coord.), Teoría Crítica: imposible resignarse. Pesadillas de represión y aventuras de emancipación. México: Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro y Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 2016.

    OpenAIRE

    Magnet Colomer, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Reseña de Stefan Gandler (coord.), Teoría Crítica: imposible resignarse. Pesadillas de represión y aventuras de emancipación. México: Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro y Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 2016.

  11. GANDLER, S. (coord.), Teoría Crítica: imposible resignarse. Pesadillas de represión y aventuras de emancipación. México: Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro y Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Magnet Colomer, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Review of Stefan Gandler (coord.), Teoría Crítica: imposible resignarse. Pesadillas de represión y aventuras de emancipación. México: Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro y Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 2016.

  12. GANDLER, S. (coord., Teoría Crítica: imposible resignarse. Pesadillas de represión y aventuras de emancipación. México: Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro y Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Magnet Colomer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of Stefan Gandler (coord., Teoría Crítica: imposible resignarse. Pesadillas de represión y aventuras de emancipación. México: Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro y Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 2016.

  13. Technology Requirements for a Square Meter, Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William R.; Freeman, Mark D.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul B.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first super-massive black holes. We have envisioned a mission, the Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X), based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, incorporating mirrors with the required small ratio of mass to collecting area. We are pursuing technology which achieves sub-arcsecond resolution by on-orbit adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMART-X will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no requirements more stringent than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  14. A chemical-genetic strategy reveals distinct temporal requirements for SAD-1 kinase in neuronal polarization and synapse formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokat Kevan M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurons assemble into a functional network through a sequence of developmental processes including neuronal polarization and synapse formation. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the serine/threonine SAD-1 kinase is essential for proper neuronal polarity and synaptic organization. To determine if SAD-1 activity regulates the establishment or maintenance of these neuronal structures, we examined its temporal requirements using a chemical-genetic method that allows for selective and reversible inactivation of its kinase activity in vivo. Results We generated a PP1 analog-sensitive variant of SAD-1. Through temporal inhibition of SAD-1 kinase activity we show that its activity is required for the establishment of both neuronal polarity and synaptic organization. However, while SAD-1 activity is needed strictly when neurons are polarizing, the temporal requirement for SAD-1 is less stringent in synaptic organization, which can also be re-established during maintenance. Conclusion This study reports the first temporal analysis of a neural kinase activity using the chemical-genetic system. It reveals that neuronal polarity and synaptic organization have distinct temporal requirements for SAD-1.

  15. Capital Requirements and Banks' Leniency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...... in the required return, the interest rate premium paid for leniency isincreased in recession at a given level of required capital....

  16. Use of simple transport equations to estimate waste package performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    A method of developing waste package performance requirements for specific nuclides is described. The method is based on: Federal regulations concerning permissible concentrations in solution at the point of discharge to the accessible environment; a simple and conservative transport model; baseline and potential worst-case release scenarios. Use of the transport model enables calculation of maximum permissible release rates within a repository in basalt for each of the scenarios. The maximum permissible release rates correspond to performance requirements for the engineered barrier system. The repository was assumed to be constructed in a basalt layer. For the cases considered, including a well drilled into an aquifer 1750 m from the repository center, little significant advantage is obtained from a 1000-yr as opposed to a 100-yr waste package. A 1000-yr waste package is of importance only for nuclides with half-lives much less than 100 yr which travel to the accessible environment in much less than 1000 yr. Such short travel times are extremely unlikely for a mined repository. Among the actinides, the most stringent maximum permissible release rates are for 236 U and 234 U. A simple solubility calculation suggests, however, that these performance requirements can be readily met by the engineered barrier system. Under the reducing conditions likely to occur in a repository located in basalt, uranium would be sufficiently insoluble that no solution could contain more than about 0.01% of the maximum permissible concentration at saturation. The performance requirements derived from the one-dimensional modeling approach are conservative by at least one to two orders of magnitude. More quantitative three-dimensional modeling at specific sites should enable relaxation of the performance criteria derived in this study. 12 references, 8 figures, 8 tables

  17. National Ignition Facility site requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Site Requirements (SR) provide bases for identification of candidate host sites for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and for the generation of data regarding potential actual locations for the facilities. The SR supplements the NIF Functional Requirements (FR) with information needed for preparation of responses to queries for input to HQ DOE site evaluation. The queries are to include both documents and explicit requirements for the potential host site responses. The Sr includes information extracted from the NIF FR (for convenience), data based on design approaches, and needs for physical and organization infrastructure for a fully operational NIF. The FR and SR describe requirements that may require new construction or may be met by use or modification of existing facilities. The SR do not establish requirements for NIF design or construction project planning. The SR document does not constitute an element of the NIF technical baseline

  18. UTM TCL2 Software Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Irene S.; Rios, Joseph L.; McGuirk, Patrick O.; Mulfinger, Daniel G.; Venkatesan, Priya; Smith, David R.; Baskaran, Vijayakumar; Wang, Leo

    2017-01-01

    The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Technical Capability Level (TCL) 2 software implements the UTM TCL 2 software requirements described herein. These software requirements are linked to the higher level UTM TCL 2 System Requirements. Each successive TCL implements additional UTM functionality, enabling additional use cases. TCL 2 demonstrated how to enable expanded multiple operations by implementing automation for beyond visual line-of-sight, tracking operations, and operations flying over sparsely populated areas.

  19. Information requirements for enterprise systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerville, Ian; Lock, Russell; Storer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss an approach to system requirements engineering, which is based on using models of the responsibilities assigned to agents in a multi-agency system of systems. The responsibility models serve as a basis for identifying the stakeholders that should be considered in establishing the requirements and provide a basis for a structured approach, described here, for information requirements elicitation. We illustrate this approach using a case study drawn from civil emergenc...

  20. Addressing the Resource Requirements Mismatch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braun, William

    2003-01-01

    ... on the other, appear to be developing a requirements-resource mismatch. The goals and objectives of the transformation rhetoric intuitively resonate with the military's increasingly technologic culture...

  1. Requirements for Medical Modeling Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, Arnoud A.F.; Ter Hofstede, Arthur H.M.; Ten Hoopen, A. Johannes

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The development of tailor-made domain-specific modeling languages is sometimes desirable in medical informatics. Naturally, the development of such languages should be guided. The purpose of this article is to introduce a set of requirements for such languages and show their application in analyzing and comparing existing modeling languages. Design: The requirements arise from the practical experience of the authors and others in the development of modeling languages in both general informatics and medical informatics. The requirements initially emerged from the analysis of information modeling techniques. The requirements are designed to be orthogonal, i.e., one requirement can be violated without violation of the others. Results: The proposed requirements for any modeling language are that it be “formal” with regard to syntax and semantics, “conceptual,” “expressive,” “comprehensible,” “suitable,” and “executable.” The requirements are illustrated using both the medical logic modules of the Arden Syntax as a running example and selected examples from other modeling languages. Conclusion: Activity diagrams of the Unified Modeling Language, task structures for work flows, and Petri nets are discussed with regard to the list of requirements, and various tradeoffs are thus made explicit. It is concluded that this set of requirements has the potential to play a vital role in both the evaluation of existing domain-specific languages and the development of new ones. PMID:11230383

  2. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  3. Supressão imposta pelo mesotrione a Brachiaria brizantha em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária Suppression imposed by mesotrione to Brachiaria brizantha in crop-livestock system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A Dan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesotrione é um importante herbicida registrado para uso na cultura do milho, porém pouco tem sido feito para estudar a suscetibilidade de espécies como Brachiaria brizantha a esse herbicida. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a supressão imposta pelo mesotrione em plantas de Brachiaria brizantha, visando à viabilização de um cultivo integrado com a cultura do milho. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo estes constituídos por sete doses de mesotrione (0, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144 e 192 g ha-1, um tratamento com o cultivo de milho solteiro e capinado, além de um tratamento com capim-braquiária cultivado de forma solteira e capinada, totalizando assim nove tratamentos. As espécies milho e B. brizantha (cv. Marandu foram semeadas concomitantemente. Os tratamentos herbicidas foram aplicados aos 20 dias após a emergência das espécies. O mesotrione mostrou maior potencial de fitointoxicação em plantas de B. brizantha ao ser aplicado na dose de 192 g ha-1. Entretanto, a espécie forrageira apresentou tolerância satisfatória ao herbicida, demonstrando potencial de utilização no sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária. A competição interespecífica proporcionou reduções no rendimento do milho, e a melhor relação dose-benefício para esse sistema foi obtida com a utilização de 96 g ha-1 de mesotrione.Mesotrione is an important herbicide applied to corn, but little is known about the susceptibility of species, such as Brachiaria brizantha to this herbicide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suppression imposed by mesotrione in Brachiaria brizantha, intercropped with maize. The trial was conducted in a randomized block design with four replications, corresponding to seven doses of mesotrione (0; 12; 24; 48; 96; 144 and 192 g ha-1, a control (corn without interference and a treatment with beard grass grown as a single. Both crops were sown on the same day

  4. Mandatory Disclosure of Blockholders and Related Party Transactions : Stringent Versus Flexible Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCahery, J.A.; Vermeulen, E.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Investor confidence in financial markets depends in large part on the existence of an accurate disclosure and reporting regime that provides transparency in the beneficial ownership and control structures of publicly listed companies. Today, a common post-financial crisis regulatory reform theme is

  5. Moderate forest disturbance as a stringent test for gap and big-leaf models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, B.; Fisk, J. P.; Holm, J. A.; Bailey, V.; Bohrer, G.; Gough, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Disturbance-induced tree mortality is a key factor regulating the carbon balance of a forest, but tree mortality and its subsequent effects are poorly represented processes in terrestrial ecosystem models. It is thus unclear whether models can robustly simulate moderate (non-catastrophic) disturbances, which tend to increase biological and structural complexity and are increasingly common in aging US forests. We tested whether three forest ecosystem models - Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles), a classic big-leaf model, and the ZELIG and ED (Ecosystem Demography) gap-oriented models - could reproduce the resilience to moderate disturbance observed in an experimentally manipulated forest (the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in northern Michigan, USA, in which 38% of canopy dominants were stem girdled and compared to control plots). Each model was parameterized, spun up, and disturbed following similar protocols and run for 5 years post-disturbance. The models replicated observed declines in aboveground biomass well. Biome-BGC captured the timing and rebound of observed leaf area index (LAI), while ZELIG and ED correctly estimated the magnitude of LAI decline. None of the models fully captured the observed post-disturbance C fluxes, in particular gross primary production or net primary production (NPP). Biome-BGC NPP was correctly resilient but for the wrong reasons, and could not match the absolute observational values. ZELIG and ED, in contrast, exhibited large, unobserved drops in NPP and net ecosystem production. The biological mechanisms proposed to explain the observed rapid resilience of the C cycle are typically not incorporated by these or other models. It is thus an open question whether most ecosystem models will simulate correctly the gradual and less extensive tree mortality characteristic of moderate disturbances.

  6. Stringent factor and proteolysis control of sigma factor RpoS expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Philipp; Tutz, Sarah; Mutsam, Beatrice; Vorkapic, Dina; Heyne, Barbara; Grabner, Claudia; Kleewein, Katharina; Halscheidt, Anja; Schild, Stefan; Reidl, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Vibrio cholerae can colonize the gastrointestinal track of humans and cause the disease cholera. During colonization, the alternative sigma factor, RpoS, controls a process known as "mucosal escape response," defining a specific spatial and temporal response and effecting chemotaxis and motility. In this report, the expression and proteolytic control of RpoS in V. cholerae was characterized. To date, aspects of proteolysis control, the involved components, and proteolysis regulation have not been addressed for RpoS in V. cholerae. Similar to Escherichia coli, we find that the RpoS protein is subjected to regulated intracellular proteolysis, which is mediated by homologues of the proteolysis-targeting factor RssB and the protease complex ClpXP. As demonstrated, RpoS expression transiently peaks after cells are shifted from rich to minimal growth medium. This peak level is dependent on (p)ppGpp-activated rpoS transcription and controlled RpoS proteolysis. The RpoS peak level also correlates with induction of a chemotaxis gene, encoding a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, earlier identified to belong to the mucosal escape response pathway. These results suggest that the RpoS expression peak is linked to (p)ppGpp alarmone increase, leading to enhanced motility and chemotaxis, and possibly contributing to the mucosal escape response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. A stringently controlled expression system for analysing lateral gene transfer between bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenecke, S; de Lorenzo, V; Timmis, K N; Díaz, E

    1996-07-01

    The lateral transfer of genetic information among microorganisms is a major force driving the outstanding adaptability of microbial communities to environmental changes. Until now little information has been obtained on gene transfer in natural ecosystems. We present here a genetic circuit for detecting and quantifying horizontal gene transfer from a defined donor microorganism to recipient organisms in the absence of selection for a recipient-specific phenotype. The system consists of an engineered lacZ (encoding beta-galactosidase) reporter gene whose expression is controlled by a synthetic regulatory element based on a fusion between the Pr promoter-operator from lambda bacteriophage and the 5' non-coding leader region of the inp gene encoding the IS 10 transposase function. Expression of this reporter cassette in the recombinant microorganism is completely shut down by two chromosomally encoded trans-acting repressors working at the level of transcription (the Cl-EK117 protein from the lambda phage), and at the level of translation (the antisense RNA-OUT of the IS 10 element). When the reporter element is transferred to a different host by any mechanism, it escapes repression and becomes expressed. The system was validated with Pseudo-monas putida, and conjugational transfer frequencies of the reporter element as low as 10(-6) were detected. The modular design and broad host range of the genetic circuit, in combination with biomarkers which permit real-time in situ detection, will facilitate the monitor-ing of gene flow in a non-disruptive manner within the environment.

  8. A mini-IRES sequence for stringent selection of high producers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) sequences have been widely used to link the expression of two independent proteins on the same mRNA transcript. Genes encoding fluorescent proteins or drug-resistance enzymes are usually placed downstream of IRES, serving as expression indicators or selection markers.

  9. Stringent upper limit of CH4 on Mars based on SOFIA/EXES observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, S.; Richter, M. J.; DeWitt, C.; Boogert, A.; Encrenaz, T.; Sagawa, H.; Nakagawa, H.; Vandaele, A. C.; Giuranna, M.; Greathouse, T. K.; Fouchet, T.; Geminale, A.; Sindoni, G.; McKelvey, M.; Case, M.; Kasaba, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Discovery of CH4 in the Martian atmosphere has led to much discussion since it could be a signature of biological and/or geological activities on Mars. However, the presence of CH4 and its temporal and spatial variations are still under discussion because of the large uncertainties embedded in the previous observations. We performed sensitive measurements of Martian CH4 by using the Echelon-Cross-Echelle Spectrograph (EXES) onboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) on 16 March 2016, which corresponds to summer (Ls = 123.2∘) in the northern hemisphere on Mars. The high altitude of SOFIA ( 13.7 km) enables us to significantly reduce the effects of terrestrial atmosphere. Thanks to this, SOFIA/EXES improves our chances of detecting Martian CH4 lines because it reduces the impact of telluric CH4 on Martian CH4, and allows us to use CH4 lines in the 7.5 μm band which has less contamination. However, our results show no unambiguous detection of Martian CH4. The Martian disk was spatially resolved into 3 × 3 areas, and the upper limits on the CH4 volume mixing ratio range from 1 to 9 ppb across the Martian atmosphere, which is significantly less than detections in several other studies. These results emphasize that release of CH4 on Mars is sporadic and/or localized if the process is present.

  10. Stringent Expression Control of Pathogenic R-body Production in Legume Symbiont Azorhizobium caulinodans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Matsuoka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available R bodies are insoluble large polymers consisting of small proteins encoded by reb genes and are coiled into cylindrical structures in bacterial cells. They were first discovered in Caedibacter species, which are obligate endosymbionts of paramecia. Caedibacter confers a killer trait on the host paramecia. R-body-producing symbionts are released from their host paramecia and kill symbiont-free paramecia after ingestion. The roles of R bodies have not been explained in bacteria other than Caedibacter. Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571, a microsymbiont of the legume Sesbania rostrata, carries a reb operon containing four reb genes that are regulated by the repressor PraR. Herein, deletion of the praR gene resulted in R-body formation and death of host plant cells. The rebR gene in the reb operon encodes an activator. Three PraR binding sites and a RebR binding site are present in the promoter region of the reb operon. Expression analyses using strains with mutations within the PraR binding site and/or the RebR binding site revealed that PraR and RebR directly control the expression of the reb operon and that PraR dominantly represses reb expression. Furthermore, we found that the reb operon is highly expressed at low temperatures and that 2-oxoglutarate induces the expression of the reb operon by inhibiting PraR binding to the reb promoter. We conclude that R bodies are toxic not only in paramecium symbiosis but also in relationships between other bacteria and eukaryotic cells and that R-body formation is controlled by environmental factors.

  11. Stringent or nonstringent complete remission and prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øvlisen, Andreas K; Oest, Anders; Bendtsen, Mette D

    2018-01-01

    transfusion dependency and were suggested to be of prognostic value. In the present report, we evaluated the prognostic impact of achieving sCR and non-sCR in the Danish National Acute Leukaemia Registry, including 769 patients registered with classical CR (ie, bone marrow...

  12. Instrumental requirements for the measurement of pollutant fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    Numerical models that include dry deposition at the surface as a sink for atmospheric contamination usually parameterize this surface flux by means of a deposition velocity which relates the surface flux to the appropriate concentration of material in air at various heights. Although it can be argued that this type of formulation hides too many critical factors in its simplicity, more realistic methods for formulating F/sub c/ do not appear to be as attractive from the viewpoint of numerical simulation. Thus, there is considerable incentive to improve our knowledge of v/sub d/, preferably through carefully-controlled field experiments, especially in order to determine values appropriate over the long times and large distances which are of interest in regional scale simulations. Experimental evaluations of deposition velocity are becoming more common, particularly in the chemically interesting cases of SO 2 and O 3 . Some of the experimental requirements imposed by the turbulent properties of the atmosphere that are involved in the deposition process are discussed, with emphasis on the accuracy and drifts of sensors suitable for measuring gradients

  13. System requirements for the Los Alamos foil-implosion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, J.; Bowers, R.; Greene, A.; Lindemuth, I.; Nickel, G.; Oliphant, T.; Weiss, D.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of the Los Alamos imploding foil project is the development of an intense source of soft x rays and hot plasma produced from the thermalization of 1 to 10 MJ of plasma kinetic energy. The source will be used for material studies and fusion experiments. Specifically, thin, current-carrying cylindrical metallic plasmas are imploded via their self-magnetic forces. Features of this project are the use of high-explosive-driven flux-compression generators as the prime power source to achieve very high energies and fast opening switches to shorten the electrical pulses. To reach a load kinetic energy of 10 MJ, it is expected that the foil-plasma must carry about 50 MA of current and must implode in less than 1/2 μsec. This imposes the requirements that switch opening times must be less than 1/2 μsec and the transmission line must withstand voltages of about 1 MV. The system being pursued at Los Alamos is described, and model calculations are presented

  14. Requirement for enhancer specificity in immunoglobulin heavy chain locus regulation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, Igor I.; Bagaeva, Ludmila; Young, Faith M.; Bottaro, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The intronic Eμ enhancer has been implicated in immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus transcription, VDJ recombination, class switch recombination (CSR)2 and somatic hypermutation (SHM). How Eμ controls these diverse mechanisms is still largely unclear, but transcriptional enhancer activity is thought to play a central role. Here we compare the phenotype of mice lacking the Eμ element (ΔEμ) with that of mice in which Eμ was replaced with the ubiquitous SV40 transcriptional enhancer (SV40eR mutation), and show that SV40e cannot functionally complement Eμ loss in pro-B cells. Surprisingly, in fact, the SV40eR mutation yields a more profound defect than ΔEμ, with an almost complete block in μ0 germline transcription in pro-B cells. This active transcriptional suppression caused by enhancer replacement appears to be specific to the early stages of B cell development, as mature SV40eR B cells express μ0 transcripts at higher levels than ΔEμ mice, and undergo complete DNA demethylation at the IgH locus. These results indicate an unexpectedly stringent, developmentally-restricted requirement for enhancer specificity in regulating IgH function during the early phases of B cell differentiation, consistent with the view that coordination of multiple independent regulatory mechanisms and elements is essential for locus activation and VDJ recombination. PMID:18490744

  15. Assessing moderated mediation in linear models requires fewer confounding assumptions than assessing mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeys, Tom; Talloen, Wouter; Goubert, Liesbet; Moerkerke, Beatrijs; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2016-11-01

    It is well known from the mediation analysis literature that the identification of direct and indirect effects relies on strong no unmeasured confounding assumptions of no unmeasured confounding. Even in randomized studies the mediator may still be correlated with unobserved prognostic variables that affect the outcome, in which case the mediator's role in the causal process may not be inferred without bias. In the behavioural and social science literature very little attention has been given so far to the causal assumptions required for moderated mediation analysis. In this paper we focus on the index for moderated mediation, which measures by how much the mediated effect is larger or smaller for varying levels of the moderator. We show that in linear models this index can be estimated without bias in the presence of unmeasured common causes of the moderator, mediator and outcome under certain conditions. Importantly, one can thus use the test for moderated mediation to support evidence for mediation under less stringent confounding conditions. We illustrate our findings with data from a randomized experiment assessing the impact of being primed with social deception upon observer responses to others' pain, and from an observational study of individuals who ended a romantic relationship assessing the effect of attachment anxiety during the relationship on mental distress 2 years after the break-up. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Consensus standard requirements and guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents information from the ANS Criticality Alarm System Workshop relating to the consensus standard requirements and guidance. Topics presented include: definition; nomenclature; requirements and recommendations; purpose of criticality alarms; design criteria; signal characteristics; reliability, dependability and durability; tests; and emergency preparedness and planning

  17. Humidity requirements in WSCF Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a position on Relative Humidity (RH) requirements in the WSCF Laboratories. A current survey of equipment vendors for Organic, Inorganic and Radiochemical laboratories indicate that 25% - 80% relative humidity may meet the environmental requirements for safe operation and protection of all the laboratory equipment

  18. Requirements Engineering for Pervasive Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolos, L.; Poulisse, Gert-Jan; van Eck, Pascal; Videira lopes, C.; Schaefer, S.; Clarke, S.; Elrad, T.; Jahnke, J.

    2005-01-01

    Developing pervasive mobile services for a mass market of end customers entails large up-front investments and therefore a good understanding of customer requirements is of paramount importance. This paper presents an approach for developing requirements engineering method that takes distinguishing

  19. Physician Requirements-1990. For Nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbach, Joan K.

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in nephrology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. In estimating service requirements for nephrology, a nephrology Delphi panel reviewed reference and incidence-prevalence and utilization data for 34 conditions that are treated in the…

  20. The NLC Software Requirements Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaee, Hamid

    2002-08-20

    We describe the software requirements and development methodology developed for the NLC control system. Given the longevity of that project, and the likely geographical distribution of the collaborating engineers, the planned requirements management process is somewhat more formal than the norm in high energy physics projects. The short term goals of the requirements process are to accurately estimate costs, to decompose the problem, and to determine likely technologies. The long term goal is to enable a smooth transition from high level functional requirements to specific subsystem and component requirements for individual programmers, and to support distributed development. The methodology covers both ends of that life cycle. It covers both the analytical and documentary tools for software engineering, and project management support. This paper introduces the methodology, which is fully described in [1].

  1. Resource, capital, and labor requirements of the National Energy Policy Plan: 1980 to 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Acierno, J.; Beller, M.; Lamontagne, J.

    1982-08-01

    Recent prominent forecasts of future energy supply include a major role for technologies that will require substantial capital, labor, and material inputs. This report defines the direct resource requirements for the scenarios presented in the National Energy Policy Plan (NEPP), and attempts to identify potential resource constraints. The Energy Supply Planning Model (ESPM) was utilized to derive resource requirements based on energy demand, supply, and price projections under the National Energy Policy Plan. Detailed requirements for capital, person-power, materials, equipment, and land and water resources are identified on an annual basis to the year 2000. Although no obvious resource constraints were identified based directly on requirements for energy facilities, the scope of the study did not allow for consideration of activities in other areas (e.g., defense) which, when coupled with energy facility requirements, might create critical shortages in some areas (e.g., engineering labor). Also, manufacturing capability for certain specialized equipment items (e.g., large pressure vessels) which might impose limits were not explicitly considered in this analysis.

  2. 78 FR 37850 - Quality Assurance Program Requirements (Operations)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... analysis may be found in ADAMS under Accession No. ML13109A459. NRC's PDR: You may examine and purchase... no current intention to impose this regulatory guide on holders of current operating licenses or...

  3. Managing System of Systems Requirements with a Requirements Screening Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald R. Barden

    2012-07-01

    Figuring out an effective and efficient way to manage not only your Requirement’s Baseline, but also the development of all your individual requirements during a Program’s/Project’s Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages can be both daunting and difficult. This is especially so when you are dealing with a complex and large System of Systems (SoS) Program with potentially thousands and thousands of Top Level Requirements as well as an equal number of lower level System, Subsystem and Configuration Item requirements that need to be managed. This task is made even more overwhelming when you have to add in integration with multiple requirements’ development teams (e.g., Integrated Product Development Teams (IPTs)) and/or numerous System/Subsystem Design Teams. One solution for tackling this difficult activity on a recent large System of Systems Program was to develop and make use of a Requirements Screening Group (RSG). This group is essentially a Team made up of co-chairs from the various Stakeholders with an interest in the Program of record that are enabled and accountable for Requirements Development on the Program/Project. The RSG co-chairs, often with the help of individual support team, work together as a Program Board to monitor, make decisions on, and provide guidance on all Requirements Development activities during the Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages of a Program/Project. In addition, the RSG can establish and maintain the Requirements Baseline, monitor and enforce requirements traceability across the entire Program, and work with other elements of the Program/Project to ensure integration and coordination.

  4. Industrial requirements in food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, P M

    1990-01-01

    The principles of establishing industrial requirements in food safety are described, taking risk potentials all along the food chain into their respective account. Regulations will, in the future, lead to increased autocontrol in production. The rapid changes in food technology require constant adaptation to new problems, to keep the global quality of food at a high level. Regulatory authorities will, in the new European market, concentrate on enforcement of 'essential requirements' while industrialists will follow good manufacturing practices. Open dialogue between the latter, the former and the scientific community is highly desirable since mutual knowledge of the problem will help maintain a high level of food safety, for the benefit of everybody.

  5. Development of transportation operations requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, S.T.; Best, R.E.; Danese, F.L.; Peterson, R.W.; Pope, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Transport conditions at various utility sties vary dramatically in terms of characteristics at and near the site, requirements, administrative procedures, and other factors. Continuation of design efforts for the OCRWM transportation operations system requires that the operating requirements for the transportation system -- quantity of fuel per unit time per site -- be identified so that the effect the variations have on the system can be accommodated. The approach outlined in this paper provides for an identification of specific sites, evaluation of shipment capabilities at each site, and integration of the sites into multi-site shipping campaigns to scope the logistics management problem for the transportation operations system. 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Deaf mobile application accessibility requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-08-01

    Requirement for deaf mobile applications need to be analysed to ensure the disabilities need are instilled into the mobile applications developed for them. Universal design is understandable to comply every user needs, however specific disability is argued by the authors to have different need and requirements. These differences are among the reasons for these applications being developed to target for a specific group of people, however they are less usable and later abandoned. This study focuses on deriving requirements that are needed by the deaf in their mobile applications that are meant specifically for them. Studies on previous literature was conducted it can be concluded that graphic, text, multimedia and sign language interpreter are among mostly required features to be included in their mobile application to ensure the applications are usable for this community.

  7. Electrocardiogram Scanner-System Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-01

    An experimental and analytical study has been conducted to establish the feasibility for scanning and digitizing electrocardiogram records. The technical requirements and relative costs for two systems are discussed herein. One is designed to automat...

  8. PFP requirements development planning guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINCLAIR, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The PFP Requirements Development Planning Guide presents the strategy and process used for the identification, allocation, and maintenance of requirements within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) integrated project baseline. Future revisions to this document will be included as attachments (e.g., results of the PFP Requirements Analysis attributable to this approach). This document is intended be a Project-owned management tool. As such, this document will periodically require revisions resulting from improvements of the information, processes, and techniques as now described. Future updates may be made to this document by PFP management and final approval of the content will be accomplished in a Baseline Change Request as it impacts the Multi-Year Work Plan, or baseline information managed in the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Baseline

  9. Guest Comment: Universal Language Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Bruce Arne

    1979-01-01

    Explains that reading English among Scientists is almost universal, however, there are enormous problems with spoken English. Advocates the use of Esperanto as a viable alternative, and as a language requirement for graduate work. (GA)

  10. Data Requirements for Pesticide Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    In evaluating a pesticide registration application, we assess a wide variety of potential human health and environmental effects associated with use of the product. Learn about these data requirements.

  11. Fusion technology status and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of fusion technology and discusses the requirements to be met in order to build a demonstration fusion plant. Strategies and programmatic considerations in pursuing engineering feasibility are also outlined

  12. Grant Closeout Requirements and Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requirements and reports to comply with grant closeout, including Final Federal Financial Report (FFR, SF425); Final Research Performance Progress Report (FRPPR); Interim Research Performance Progress Report (IRPPR); Final Invention Statement (FIS, HHS

  13. Complying with Clean Air Act acid rain provisions: A case history of required air quality analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComb, G.G. Jr.; Naperkoski, G.J.; Rogers, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Clean Air Act Amendments being considered by Congress require SO 2 emissions reductions from numerous large power generation sources nationwide. As currently written, these amendments also require that the affected sources must continue to comply with all provisions of the existing Clean Air Act while achieving the required reductions. United Engineers and Constructors is presently assisting utilities in the evaluation of compliance options for units totaling over 18,000 MW. The methods of achieving compliance with the probable requirements of the Act most often include the retrofit installation of SO 2 scrubbers. A study designed to determine permitting issues and the scope of air quality analyses required to demonstrate the regulatory acceptability of installation of wet scrubbing systems has been completed for units totaling a portion of the above-referenced 18,000 MW. The study results show that, under certain commonly occurring circumstances, there is a risk of creating National Ambient Air Quality Standards contraventions for SO 2 and NO 2 when scrubbers are installed at an existing facility. Any such contraventions subject the plant to state and/or federal enforcement actions. In addition, installation of materials handling equipment for lime stone can trigger Prevention of Significant Deterioration requirements as a major modification. This paper is divided into two major areas. The first deals with the air quality regulatory requirements imposed upon installation of pollution control equipment. The first section is further sub-divided into two sections: one covering requirements emanating from the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments and its implementing regulations and the other the regulatory requirements of the new Clean Air Act Amendments. This section on regulatory requirements provides background information for the understanding of the second major section of the paper which gives the results of the hypothetical case study

  14. Requirement Tracing using Term Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saati, Najla; Abdul-Jaleel, Raghda

    2015-01-01

    Requirements traceability is an essential step in ensuring the quality of software during the early stages of its development life cycle. Requirements tracing usually consists of document parsing, candidate link generation and evaluation and traceability analysis. This paper demonstrates the applicability of Statistical Term Extraction metrics to generate candidate links. It is applied and validated using two data sets and four types of filters two for each data set, 0.2 and 0.25 for MODIS, 0...

  15. Capturing Requirements for Autonomous Spacecraft with Autonomy Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike

    2014-08-01

    The Autonomy Requirements Engineering (ARE) approach has been developed by Lero - the Irish Software Engineering Research Center within the mandate of a joint project with ESA, the European Space Agency. The approach is intended to help engineers develop missions for unmanned exploration, often with limited or no human control. Such robotics space missions rely on the most recent advances in automation and robotic technologies where autonomy and autonomic computing principles drive the design and implementation of unmanned spacecraft [1]. To tackle the integration and promotion of autonomy in software-intensive systems, ARE combines generic autonomy requirements (GAR) with goal-oriented requirements engineering (GORE). Using this approach, software engineers can determine what autonomic features to develop for a particular system (e.g., a space mission) as well as what artifacts that process might generate (e.g., goals models, requirements specification, etc.). The inputs required by this approach are the mission goals and the domain-specific GAR reflecting specifics of the mission class (e.g., interplanetary missions).

  16. New requirements, rules and regulations, and vested rights of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, C.

    2006-01-01

    The article deals with the question whether new requirements can be imposed on existing nuclear power plants. It was promoted by the fact that the German Federal Ministry for the Environment currently is working on a thorough revision of German nuclear regulations. When looking at backfitting requirements, the all-important question is whether new findings show that the provisions taken in the license to guarantee the 'necessary precautions' (as defined in the German Atomic Energy Act) contain errors or omissions; only in this case can the authority demand that remedial measures, including backfitting, be taken. Beyond that, German nuclear law contains no obligation for operators to improve and develop safety still further. This applies regardless of whether new requirements are justified by new technical possibilities or new scientific analyses or whether they are prompted by a mere abstract re-evaluation of the safety level to be achieved. In the former case, if there are good technical or scientific reasons, the operators, as a rule, will perform backfitting voluntarily. Pursuant to these criteria, the article covers three categories of backfitting requirements and illustrates them by examples. These general principles are also valid when a new set of regulations - as planned by the BMU - are put into effect and applied. They may lead to existing plants not having to comply fully with the requirements contained in new regulations. (orig.)

  17. Quality Assurance Requirements and Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram Murthy

    2002-01-01

    The Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) is the principal Quality Assurance (QA) document for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program (Program). It establishes the minimum requirements for the QA program [INTRODUCTION :1p2s (NOT A REQUIREMENT)]. The QARD contains regulatory requirements and program commitments necessary for the development of an effective QA program [INTRODUCTION :1p3s (NOT A REQUIREMENT)]. Implementing documents must be based on, and be consistent with the QARD. The QARD applies to the following: (1) Acceptance of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. (2) Transport of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. (3) Storage of spent nuclear fuel through receipt of storage cask certification or a facility operating license. (4) Monitored Geologic Repository, including the site characterization activities [Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and surface based testing], through receipt of an operating license. (5) High-level waste form development through qualification, production, and acceptance. (6) Characterization of DOE spent nuclear fuel, and conditioning through acceptance of DOE spent nuclear fuel. Section 2.0, Quality Assurance Program, defines in greater detail criteria for determining work subject to the QARD

  18. Requirement Metrics for Risk Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Theodore; Huffman, Lenore; Wilson, William; Rosenberg, Linda; Hyatt, Lawrence

    1996-01-01

    The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) is part of the Office of Mission Assurance of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SATC's mission is to assist National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) projects to improve the quality of software which they acquire or develop. The SATC's efforts are currently focused on the development and use of metric methodologies and tools that identify and assess risks associated with software performance and scheduled delivery. This starts at the requirements phase, where the SATC, in conjunction with software projects at GSFC and other NASA centers is working to identify tools and metric methodologies to assist project managers in identifying and mitigating risks. This paper discusses requirement metrics currently being used at NASA in a collaborative effort between the SATC and the Quality Assurance Office at GSFC to utilize the information available through the application of requirements management tools.

  19. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation

  20. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  1. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In December 2011, ESnet and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), of the DOE Office of Science (SC), organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by FES. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  2. User requirements and criteria for proliferation resistance in INPRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.; Shea, T.E.; Hurt, R.D.; Nishimura, R.

    2004-01-01

    In designing future nuclear energy systems, it is important to consider the potential that such systems could be misused for the purpose of producing nuclear weapons. INPRO set out to provide guidance on incorporating proliferation resistance into innovative nuclear energy systems (INS). Generally two types of proliferation resistance measures are distinguished: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic features consist of technical design features that reduce the attractiveness of nuclear material for nuclear weapon program, or prevent the diversion of nuclear material or production of undeclared nuclear material for nuclear weapons. Extrinsic measures include commitments, obligations and policies of states such as the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and IAEA safeguards agreements. INPRO has produced five basic principles and five user requirements for INS. It emphasizes that INS must continue to be an unattractive means to acquire fissile material for a nuclear weapon program. It also addresses as user requirements: 1) a balanced and optimised combination of intrinsic features and extrinsic measures, 2) the development and implementation of intrinsic features, 3) an early consideration of proliferation resistance in the development of INS and 4) the utilization of intrinsic features to increase the efficiency of extrinsic measures. INPRO has also developed criteria, consisting of indicators and acceptance limits, which would be used by a state to assess how an INS satisfies those user requirements. For the first user requirement, the most important but complex one, INPRO provides a 3-layer hierarchy of indicators to assess how unattractive a specific INS would be as part of a nuclear weapon program. Attributes of nuclear material and facilities are used as indicators to assess intrinsic features. Extrinsic measures imposed on the system are also assessed. Indicators to assess defence in depth for proliferation resistance include the number and

  3. Buddy Tag CONOPS and Requirements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotz, Jay Kristoffer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deland, Sharon M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document defines the concept of operations (CONOPS) and the requirements for the Buddy Tag, which is conceived and designed in collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Princeton University under the Department of State Key VerificationAssets Fund. The CONOPS describe how the tags are used to support verification of treaty limitations and is only defined to the extent necessary to support a tag design. The requirements define the necessary functions and desired non-functional features of the Buddy Tag at a high level

  4. Overview of SSC accelerator requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper will present a general overview of the requirements of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) accelerators. Each accelerator in the injector chain will be discussed separately, followed by a discussion of the collider itself. In conclusion, the top level requirements of the overall accelerator system will be presented. For each accelerator, the primary operating parameters will be presented in tabular form. A brief narrative discussion of the principal technical features of each machine will be given. Finally, the principal technical design challenges for the machine will be noted, together with the currently planned solution to these challenges

  5. Lysine requirements of growing emus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, P F; Kent, P B; Barram, K M; Trappett, P C; Blight, G W; Sales, J

    1999-05-01

    1. The lysine requirement of growing emus between 23 and 65 d of age was determined according to growth response variables. 2. The optimal lysine requirement of emus was found to be 0.83 and 0.90 g/MJ ME for growth rate and gain:food ratio respectively. These findings are in accordance with the recommended value of 0.80 g/MJ ME, but is lower than the recommended value for ostriches (1.02 g/MJ ME) and higher than determined values for broilers (0.75 g/MJ ME) of the same age range.

  6. Potential impact of environmental requirements on petroleum products derived from synthetic crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Fuel quality proposals regarding gasoline and diesel fuels were discussed. Strict regulations on air emissions will mean changes in transportation fuel specifications which will ultimately impact on the refining industry. As fuel quality requirements become more stringent, refiners will need to look more closely at increasing the use of Canadian synthetic crude as a refinery feed. The fuel quality specifications with the potentially highest impact for the continued use of synthetic crude are those relating to sulphur, aromatics (including benzene), and olefins in gasoline and sulphur, aromatics and cetane in diesel fuel. Synthetic crude has an advantage in terms of gasoline sulphur content. The FCC feed is at a low enough sulphur level to result in gasoline components that would allow refiners to meet final gasoline sulphur levels of less than 100 ppm. In either case, synthetic middle distillate must be upgraded. Options that face the synthetic crude and refining industries are: (1) synthetic crude producers may install the process equipment needed to upgrade the middle distillate portion of their synthetic crude stream, (2) refiners may install equipment to upgrade just the diesel fuel portion of the middle distillate pool and jet fuel, and (3) a joint effort may be made by the two industries. The National Centre for Upgrading Technology (NCUT) and the Western Research Centre of Natural Resources Canada will continue to assist with research into improved catalysts for hydrotreating of middle distillates, and new lower cost processes for upgrading middle distillates from synthetic and conventional crude oils to meet future product requirements. 5 refs., 1 tab

  7. An Introduction to Requirements Traceability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    This report surveys the requirements traceability literature and gives some recommendations for further research and for an approach to consultancy concerning traceability in the 2RARE project. The problem of maintaining traceability in a development project is viewed as the problem of maintaining

  8. Requirements for flexible learner monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Glahn, C., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2007). Requirements for flexible learner monitoring. In T. Navarette, J. Blat & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the 3rd TENCompetence Open Workshop 'Current Research on IMS Learning Design and Lifelong Competence Development Infrastructures' (pp. 89-96). June,

  9. Requirements Engineering: Solutions and Trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, C.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Aurum, A.; Wohlin, C.

    2005-01-01

    This last chapter of the book describes solutions and trends in the discipline of RE. Starting from a wrap-up of what was presented throughout this book, it suggests a framework of requirements engineering and indicates what current solutions are available in this framework. Beyond providing a short

  10. Utilizing inheritance in requirements engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindl, Hermann

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the utilization of inheritance for requirements specification, i.e., the tasks of analyzing and modeling the domain, as well as forming and defining requirements. Our approach and the tool supporting it are named RETH (Requirements Engineering Through Hypertext). Actually, RETH uses a combination of various technologies, including object-oriented approaches and artificial intelligence (in particular frames). We do not attempt to exclude or replace formal representations, but try to complement and provide means for gradually developing them. Among others, RETH has been applied in the CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Rechereche Nucleaire) Cortex project. While it would be impossible to explain this project in detail here, it should be sufficient to know that it deals with a generic distributed control system. Since this project is not finished yet, it is difficult to state its size precisely. In order to give an idea, its final goal is to substitute the many existing similar control systems at CERN by this generic approach. Currently, RETH is also tested using real-world requirements for the Pastel Mission Planning System at ESOC in Darmstadt. First, we outline how hypertext is integrated into a frame system in our approach. Moreover, the usefulness of inheritance is demonstrated as performed by the tool RETH. We then summarize our experiences of utilizing inheritance in the Cortex project. Lastly, RETH will be related to existing work.

  11. Requirements for effective modelling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaunt, J.L.; Riley, J.; Stein, A.; Penning de Vries, F.W.T.

    1997-01-01

    As the result of a recent BBSRC-funded workshop between soil scientists, modellers, statisticians and others to discuss issues relating to the derivation of complex environmental models, a set of modelling guidelines is presented and the required associated research areas are discussed.

  12. Time Elements May Require Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Molly J.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that school districts may need to use a different time frame to accommodate the varied time requirements of the more flexible outcome-based education. Discusses three "alternate" scheduling methods currently in use and how they affect the teaching of journalism. (SR)

  13. Conversion of dependability deterministic requirements into probabilistic requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgade, E.; Le, P.

    1993-02-01

    This report concerns the on-going survey conducted jointly by the DAM/CCE and NRE/SR branches on the inclusion of dependability requirements in control and instrumentation projects. Its purpose is to enable a customer (the prime contractor) to convert into probabilistic terms dependability deterministic requirements expressed in the form ''a maximum permissible number of failures, of maximum duration d in a period t''. The customer shall select a confidence level for each previously defined undesirable event, by assigning a maximum probability of occurrence. Using the formulae we propose for two repair policies - constant rate or constant time - these probabilized requirements can then be transformed into equivalent failure rates. It is shown that the same formula can be used for both policies, providing certain realistic assumptions are confirmed, and that for a constant time repair policy, the correct result can always be obtained. The equivalent failure rates thus determined can be included in the specifications supplied to the contractors, who will then be able to proceed to their previsional justification. (author), 8 refs., 3 annexes

  14. Environmental qualification design for NPP refurbishment to comply with revised licensing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacBeth, M. J.; Hemmings, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent Canadian Nuclear Regulatory decisions have imposed Environmental Qualification (EQ) requirements for twenty-four Reactor Building (RB) airlocks at the four-unit Pickering Nuclear Generating Station-B (PNGS-B) facility. This paper describes the EQ modification design work completed by CANATOM-NPM for the problematic aspects for such projects. The airlocks allow RB access while providing a containment boundary and are designed to prevent a potential breach of containment for all analysed station conditions. Each PNGS-B unit has three large equipment airlocks and three smaller personnel airlocks. The airlocks must function under postulated worst-case design basis accident(DBA) conditions for assigned mission durations. The design must ensure that accident conditions cannot spuriously initiate an un-requested door opening. CANATOM-NPM reviewed site data to specify the necessary EQ modifications required to satisfy licensing requirements while providing a correct and complete as-found record of the existing airlock installation. The design team assessed the installed airlocks configuration against environmental qualification requirements to finalize the list of necessary modifications. A comprehensive, cross-discipline review of proposed design changes was completed to identify any further changes required to satisfy the final EQ licensing goal. The design team also conducted a design review of the EQ modification installation strategy to integrate the design deliverables with the installation team requirements while attempting to minimize necessary outage time for EQ modification installations. This project was completed on schedule and within the cost limitations required by the client with comprehensive, high quality final design packages. Overall improvements were realized for OPG system drawings and the electronic documentation of design data. The EQ modifications designed by CANATOM-NPM will ensure the continued operation of the PNGS-B NPP past December 31

  15. Developing a 3D Road Cadastral System: Comparing Legal Requirements and User Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gristina, S.; Ellul, C.; Scianna, A.

    2016-10-01

    Road transport has always played an important role in a country's growth and, in order to manage road networks and ensure a high standard of road performance (e.g. durability, efficiency and safety), both public and private road inventories have been implemented using databases and Geographical Information Systems. They enable registering and managing significant amounts of different road information, but to date do not focus on 3D road information, data integration and interoperability. In an increasingly complex 3D urban environment, and in the age of smart cities, however, applications including intelligent transport systems, mobility and traffic management, road maintenance and safety require digital data infrastructures to manage road data: thus new inventories based on integrated 3D road models (queryable, updateable and shareable on line) are required. This paper outlines the first step towards the implementation of 3D GIS-based road inventories. Focusing on the case study of the "Road Cadastre" (the Italian road inventory as established by law), it investigates current limitations and required improvements, and also compares the required data structure imposed by cadastral legislation with real road users' needs. The study aims to: a) determine whether 3D GIS would improve road cadastre (for better management of data through the complete life-cycle infrastructure projects); b) define a conceptual model for a 3D road cadastre for Italy (whose general principles may be extended also to other countries).

  16. 12 CFR 614.4935 - Escrow requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 614.4935 Section 614.4935... Insurance Requirements § 614.4935 Escrow requirement. If a System institution requires the escrow of taxes... shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under § 614.4930...

  17. Private capital requirements for international biomass energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1995-01-01

    In developing countries, the use of biomass for energy production faces two contradictory pressures. On the one hand, biomass costs very little and it is used inefficiently for fuel or charcoal production, leading to widespread destruction of forested areas and environmental degradation; this problem is being attenuated by the promotion, through aid programmes, of more efficient cook stoves for poor people. On the other hand, the conversion of biomass into high-grade fuel such as ethanol from sugar cane or burning urban refuse or gasifying it to produce electricity is not economically competitive at this time and requires subsidies of approximately 30% to make it as attractive as conventional fuels. Only electricity production using residues from sawmills, crops and other biomass by-products is competitive, and a number of plants are in operation in some countries, particularly the United States. For such plants, the usual rates of return and long-term contract purchases that characterize investments of this kind are applied. Although technologies are available for the widespread efficient use of biomass, the financial hurdle of high initial costs has impeded their market penetration, which in turn precludes any decline in costs that might otherwise have come from production increases. Intervention by governments or by GEF, justified on grounds of environmental protection, is needed to accelerate the introduction of the new technologies. The only private flows that are taking place at the moment are those from enlightened investors wishing to guarantee themselves a strong position in the area for the future or to preempt command and control regulations, such as carbon taxes, imposed by governments. The joint implementation of biomass technologies between industrialized and developing countries might be one method of accelerating this flow. (author)

  18. The European Utility Requirement Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, I.I.

    1999-01-01

    The major European electricity producers work on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992. They aim at requirements acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Such a standardisation promotes an improvement of generation costs and of safety : public and authorities acceptance should be improved as well ; significant savings are expected in development and construction costs. Since the early stages of the project, the EUR group has grown significantly. It now includes utilities from nine European countries. Utilities from two other European countries are joining the group. Specific cooperation agreements are also in progress with a few extra-European partners

  19. Documentation requirements for radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation for appr......Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation...... for approval of radiation sterilized products. The impact of these standards on the radiation sterilization is discussed, with special attention given to a few special issues, mainly traceability and uncertainty of measurement results....

  20. ROS signalling - specificity is required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 might induce a general stress response, but it does not have...... the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g. in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS messengers...... and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. Likewise, unmodified peptides deriving from the breakdown of redundant proteins could help coordinate organellar and nuclear gene expression...

  1. Grading of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present Manual provides guidance and illustrative examples for applying a method by which graded quality assurance requirements may be determined and adapted to the items and services of a nuclear power plant in conformance with the requirements of the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Code and Safety Guides on quality assurance. The Manual replaces the previous publication IAEA-TECDOC-303 on the same subject. Various methods of grading quality assurance are available in a number of Member States. During the development of the present Manual it was not considered practical to attempt to resolve the differences between those methods and it was preferred to identify and benefit from the good practices available in all the methods. The method presented in this Manual deals with the aspects of management, documentation, control, verification and administration which affect quality. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  2. Host City Contract operational requirements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Host City Contract - Operational Requirements (the “HCC Operational Requirements”) are an important part of the Host City Contract, detailing a set of core elements for the project, which provide Olympic quality conditions for the athletes and all participants, while at the same time allowing potential host cities to responsibly match their Games concepts to their own sport, economic, social, and environmental long-term planning needs.

  3. Nutritional requirements after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnic, Gordana

    2014-06-01

    This article presents an overview of postoperative nutritional requirements and goals following bariatric surgery. It summarizes current diet progression and nutrient intake guidelines geared toward optimizing weight loss and maintaining adequate nutritional status, nutrient absorption, as well as hydration. The article further emphasizes the importance of postoperative follow-up with a bariatric multidisciplinary team for appropriate postoperative care, diet management, and nutrient deficiency screenings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulatory requirements for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, E.A.; Cunningham, R.E.; Hard, J.E.; Mattson, R.J.; Smith, R.D.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Regulatory requirements for radiation protection have evolved and matured over several decades. Due to the wide adoption of recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), there exists international agreement on the principles to be followed for radiation protection. This foundation will be increasingly important due to the growing need for international agreements and standards for radiation protection and radioactive materials management. During the infancy of the commercial nuclear industry, primary reliance was placed on the protection of the individual, both in the work force and as a member of the public. With the growth of nuclear power in the 1960's and 1970's, environmental impact assessments and expert reviews of bio-effects data have focused attention on statistical risks to large population groups and the use of the collective dose commitment concept to estimate potential effects. The potential release of long-lived radionuclides from the nuclear fuel cycle requires further consideration of radionuclide accumulation in the biosphere and calls for controls conceived and implemented at the international level. The initial development efforts for addressing these concerns already have been instituted by the ICRP and the IAEA. However, formal international agreements and a unified set of international standards may be required to implement the recommendations of these groups. Further international efforts in the field of radiation protection are also called for in developing waste management practices and radioactive effluent control technology, in site selection for fuel reprocessing plants and waste dispersal facilities, and for ensuring safe transport of high-level wastes in various forms. Since the regulation of very low dose rates and doses will be involved, it will be useful to reexamine dose-effect relationships and societal goals for health protection. Improved criteria and methodologies for ''as low as readily

  5. Testing Requirements for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W,; Montgomery, Eliza M.

    2012-01-01

    Launch Pads 39A and 39B currently use refractory material (Fondu Fyre) in the flame trenches. This material was initially approved for the Saturn program. This material had a lifetime of 10years according to the manufacturer, and it has been used for over 40 years. As a consequence, the Fondu Fyre at Launch Complex 39 requires repair subsequent to almost every launch. A review of the literature indicates that the gunned Fondu Fyre refractory product (WA-1 G) was never tested prior to use. With the recent severe damage to the flame trenches, a new refractory material is sought to replace Fondu Fyre. In order to replace Fondu Fyre, a methodology to test and evaluate refractory products was developed. This paper outlines this methodology and discusses current testing requirements, as well as the laboratory testing that might be required. Furthermore, this report points out the necessity for subscale testing, the locations where this testing can be performed, and the parameters that will be necessary to qualify a product. The goal is to identify a more durable refractory material that has physical, chemical, and thermal properties suitable to withstand the harsh environment of the launch pads at KSC.

  6. Misplaced Cervical Screws Requiring Reoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jeremy C; Arnold, Paul M; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Fehlings, Michael G; Hart, Robert A; Hilibrand, Alan S; Nassr, Ahmad; Rahman, Ra'Kerry K; Tannoury, Chadi A; Tannoury, Tony; Mroz, Thomas E; Currier, Bradford L; De Giacomo, Anthony F; Fogelson, Jeremy L; Jobse, Bruce C; Massicotte, Eric M; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A multicenter, retrospective case series. In the past several years, screw fixation of the cervical spine has become commonplace. For the most part, this is a safe, low-risk procedure. While rare, screw backout or misplaced screws can lead to morbidity and increased costs. We report our experiences with this uncommon complication. A multicenter, retrospective case series was undertaken at 23 institutions in the United States. Patients were included who underwent cervical spine surgery from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011, and had misplacement of screws requiring reoperation. Institutional review board approval was obtained at all participating institutions, and detailed records were sent to a central data center. A total of 12 903 patients met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 11 instances of screw backout requiring reoperation, for an incidence of 0.085%. There were 7 posterior procedures. Importantly, there were no changes in the health-related quality-of-life metrics due to this complication. There were no new neurologic deficits; a patient most often presented with pain, and misplacement was diagnosed on plain X-ray or computed tomography scan. The most common location for screw backout was C6 (36%). This study represents the largest series to tabulate the incidence of misplacement of screws following cervical spine surgery, which led to revision procedures. The data suggest this is a rare event, despite the widespread use of cervical fixation. Patients suffering this complication can require revision, but do not usually suffer neurologic sequelae. These patients have increased cost of care. Meticulous technique and thorough knowledge of the relevant anatomy are the best means of preventing this complication.

  7. Superluminal travel requires negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Olum, Ken D.

    1998-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between faster-than-light travel and weak-energy-condition violation, i.e., negative energy densities. In a general spacetime it is difficult to define faster-than-light travel, and I give an example of a metric which appears to allow superluminal travel, but in fact is just flat space. To avoid such difficulties, I propose a definition of superluminal travel which requires that the path to be traveled reach a destination surface at an earlier time than any neig...

  8. Metabolic requirements for fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milley, J R; Simmons, M A

    1979-09-01

    Table 1 outlines a metabolic balance sheet for the sheep fetus. It is clear that maternal substrate concentrations as well as placental function are important in assuring the provision of adequate substrate to meet fetal metabolic and growth requirements. It is intriguing that the fetus appears to use substrates not usually regarded as important in extrauterine diets (lactate) and to use substrates for catabolic purposes normally thought to be primarily anabolic substrates (amino acids). This information emphasizes the hazards of extrapolating metabolic and nutritional patterns seen in extrauterine life in reaching conclusions concerning the fetus. It likewise emphasizes the importance of ongoing studies in maternal and fetal nutrition and metabolism.

  9. The development of safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorel, M.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the safety approach followed in France for the design of nuclear reactors. This safety approach is based on safety principles from which stem safety requirements that set limiting values for specific parameters. The improvements in computerized simulation, the use of more adequate new materials, a better knowledge of the concerned physical processes, the changes in the reactor operations (higher discharge burnups for instance) have to be taken into account for the definition of safety criteria and the setting of limiting values. The developments of the safety criteria linked to the risks of cladding failure and loss of primary coolant are presented. (A.C.)

  10. Physical requirements in Olympic sailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, J; Larsson, B; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance parameters in Olympic sailing although their relative importance changes between classes. The Olympic format consists of eight yacht types combined into 10 so-called events with total 15 sailors (male and female) in a compl......Abstract Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance parameters in Olympic sailing although their relative importance changes between classes. The Olympic format consists of eight yacht types combined into 10 so-called events with total 15 sailors (male and female....... Another group of studies has investigated boardsailing and provided evidence to show that windsurfing requires very high aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Although data exist on other types of sailors, the information is limited, and moreover the profile of the Olympic events has changed markedly over...... the last few years to involve more agile, fast and spectacular yachts. The change of events in Olympic sailing has likely added to physical requirements; however, data on sailors in the modern-type yachts are scarce. The present paper describes the recent developments in Olympic sailing with respect...

  11. Quality requirements for EHR archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Dipak; Tapuria, Archana; Austin, Tony; De Moor, Georges

    2012-01-01

    The realisation of semantic interoperability, in which any EHR data may be communicated between heterogeneous systems and fully understood by computers as well as people on receipt, is a challenging goal. Despite the use of standardised generic models for the EHR and standard terminology systems, too much optionality and variability exists in how particular clinical entries may be represented. Clinical archetypes provide a means of defining how generic models should be shaped and bound to terminology for specific kinds of clinical data. However, these will only contribute to semantic interoperability if libraries of archetypes can be built up consistently. This requires the establishment of design principles, editorial and governance policies, and further research to develop ways for archetype authors to structure clinical data and to use terminology consistently. Drawing on several years of work within communities of practice developing archetypes and implementing systems from them, this paper presents quality requirements for the development of archetypes. Clinical engagement on a wide scale is also needed to help grow libraries of good quality archetypes that can be certified. Vendor and eHealth programme engagement is needed to validate such archetypes and achieve safe, meaningful exchange of EHR data between systems.

  12. 12 CFR 760.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 760.5 Section 760.5 Banks... HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.5 Escrow requirement. If a credit union requires the escrow of taxes... shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under § 760.3...

  13. 12 CFR 339.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 339.5 Section 339.5 Banks... IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.5 Escrow requirement. If a bank requires the escrow of... bank shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  14. 12 CFR 572.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 572.5 Section 572.5 Banks... FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.5 Escrow requirement. If a savings association requires the escrow of taxes... association shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  15. Work in support of biosphere assessments for solid radioactive waste disposal. 1. performance assessments, requirements and methodology; criteria for radiological environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.J.; Loose, M.; Smith, G.M.; Watkins, B.M.

    2001-10-01

    The first part of this report is intended to assess how the recent Swedish regulatory developments and resulting criteria impose requirements on what should be included in a performance assessment (PA) for the SFR low and medium level waste repository and for a potential deep repository for high level waste. The second part of the report has been prepared by QuantiSci as an input to the development of SSI's PA review methodology. The aim of the third part is to provide research input to the development of radiological protection framework for the environment, for use in Sweden. This is achieved through a review of various approaches used in other fields

  16. Analysis of power and frequency control requirements in view of increased decentralized production and market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roffel, B.; Boer, W.W. de

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach of the analysis of the minimum control requirements that are imposed on power producing units in the Netherlands, especially in the case when decentralized production increases. Also some effects of the liberalization on the control behavior are analyzed. First an overview is given of the amount and type of power production in the Netherlands, followed by a review of the control requirements. Next models are described, including a simplified model for the UCTE power system. The model was tested against frequency and power measurements after failure of a 558 MW production unit in the Netherlands. Agreement between measurements and model predictions proved to be good. The model was subsequently used to analyze the primary and secondary control requirements and the impact of an increase in decentralized power production on the fault restoration capabilities of the power system. Since the latter production units are not actively participating in primary and secondary control, fault restoration takes longer and becomes unacceptable when only 35% of the power producing units participate in secondary control. Finally, the model was used to study the impact of deregulation, especially the effect of 'block scheduling', on additional control actions of the secondary control. (Author)

  17. Study of the ALICE Investigator chip in view of the requirements at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)754303; Dannheim, Dominik; Fiergolski, Adrian; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Hynds, Daniel; Klempt, Wolfgang; Nurnberg, Andreas Matthias; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Snoeys, Walter

    2017-01-01

    CLIC is an option for a future high energy linear $e^{+}e^{−}$ collider at CERN in the post-LHC era. The CLIC machine is designed to reach centre-of-mass energies ranging from a few hundred GeV up to 3 TeV. To achieve high precision measurements, e.g. of the Higgs- width, challenging requirements are imposed on the CLIC detector. A single point tracking resolution of 7 μm and a material budget of 1-2%$X_{0}$ per layer are required for the tracker. Moreover, to suppress background hits from beam-beam interactions, a precise time slicing of hits of 10 ns is needed. To address these requirements, a large area silicon tracker is foreseen for the detector at CLIC. In this context, integrated technologies are promising candidates to achieve large scale production and low material budget. The Investigator chip is a test chip developed for the ALICE Inner Tracking System upgrade, implemented in a 180 nm CMOS process on a high resistivity substrate. It contains various test-matrices with analogue functionality, whi...

  18. Guide to NRC reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Compiled from requirements in Title 10 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations as codified on December 31, 1993; Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.; Shelton, B.

    1994-07-01

    This compilation includes in the first two sections the reporting and recordkeeping requirements applicable to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees and applicants and to members of the public. It includes those requirements codified in Title 10 of the code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, on December 31, 1993. It also includes, in a separate section, any of those requirements that were superseded or discontinued between January 1992 and December 1993. Finally, the appendix lists mailing and delivery addresses for NRC Headquarters and Regional Offices mentioned in the compilation. The Office of Information Resources Management staff compiled this listing of reporting and recordkeeping requirements to briefly describe each in a single document primarily to help licensees readily identify the requirements. The compilation is not a substitute for the regulations, and is not intended to impose any new requirements or technical positions. It is part of NRC's continuing efforts to comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 and the Office of Management and Budget regulations that mandate effective and efficient Federal information resources management programs

  19. Guide to NRC reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Compiled from requirements in Title 10 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations as codified on December 31, 1993; Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M.; Shelton, B.

    1994-07-01

    This compilation includes in the first two sections the reporting and recordkeeping requirements applicable to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees and applicants and to members of the public. It includes those requirements codified in Title 10 of the code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, on December 31, 1993. It also includes, in a separate section, any of those requirements that were superseded or discontinued between January 1992 and December 1993. Finally, the appendix lists mailing and delivery addresses for NRC Headquarters and Regional Offices mentioned in the compilation. The Office of Information Resources Management staff compiled this listing of reporting and recordkeeping requirements to briefly describe each in a single document primarily to help licensees readily identify the requirements. The compilation is not a substitute for the regulations, and is not intended to impose any new requirements or technical positions. It is part of NRC`s continuing efforts to comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 and the Office of Management and Budget regulations that mandate effective and efficient Federal information resources management programs.

  20. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The